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Sample records for 1-4 times larger

  1. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of time. 1.4 Section 1.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.4 Computation of time. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this rule section is to detail the method for computing the amount of...

  2. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  3. Physical dependence on gamma-hydroxybutrate (GHB) prodrug 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD): Time course and severity of withdrawal in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Gibson, K. Michael; Weerts, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24 h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100 mg/kg and increased by 100 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600 mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600 mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600 mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290- 2300 μmol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 -37.9 μmol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. PMID:23538206

  4. Distribution of Seismicity Before the Larger Earthquakes in Italy in the Time Interval 1994-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, S.

    2010-08-01

    The Region-Time-Length (RTL) algorithm has been applied to different instrumental catalogues to detect seismic quiescence before medium-to-large earthquakes in Italy in the last two decades. RTL performances are sensitive to the choice of spatial and temporal parameters. The method for automatic parameters selection developed by Chen and Wu has been applied to twelve Italian earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. The limits of the method in constructing maps of seismic quiescence before the earthquake are demonstrated, and a simple improvement is proposed. Then a new technique, namely RTLsurv, is proposed for routine surveys of the Italian seismicity. RTLsurv has been applied to all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 in the Italian area in the time interval 1994-2004; four different sub-areas have been identified, with different characteristics in the level of recorded seismicity. One subarea—Tyrrhenian Sea—was characterized by a too low level of recorded seismicity for the application of the method. In the other three subareas a seismic quiescence was detected before at least the 66% of the earthquakes with magnitude greater or equal to 4 and all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.

  5. Kinetics of moisture expansion in fired clay ceramics: a (time)(1/4) law.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Moira A; Hoff, William D; Hall, Christopher; McKay, Bernard; Hiley, Anna

    2003-03-28

    We report the results of experiments to estimate the moisture expansion of several modern and ancient clay brick ceramics from the time of manufacture. From these data we propose a new expansion law, in which the expansive strain increases as (age)(1/4) approximately. Such time dependence is consistent with a mechanism in which expansion arises from a diffusion-controlled rehydration reaction on a linear or low-dimension structure. Our results provide new guidance for the engineering design of masonry and suggest a possible new method for archaeological dating of ceramics. PMID:12688883

  6. Hippocampal CA2 activity patterns change over time to a larger extent than between spatial contexts.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Emily A; Diehl, Geoffrey W; Sparks, Fraser T; Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA2 subregion has a different anatomical connectivity pattern within the entorhino-hippocampal circuit than either the CA1 or CA3 subregion. Yet major differences in the neuronal activity patterns of CA2 compared with the other CA subregions have not been reported. We show that standard spatial and temporal firing patterns of individual hippocampal principal neurons in behaving rats, such as place fields, theta modulation, and phase precession, are also present in CA2, but that the CA2 subregion differs substantially from the other CA subregions in its population coding. CA2 ensembles do not show a persistent code for space or for differences in context. Rather, CA2 activity patterns become progressively dissimilar over time periods of hours to days. The weak coding for a particular context is consistent with recent behavioral evidence that CA2 circuits preferentially support social, emotional, and temporal rather than spatial aspects of memory. PMID:25569350

  7. Review of time-dependent fatigue behavior and life prediction for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.; Majumdar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Available data on creep-fatigue life and fracture behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel are reviewed. Whereas creep-fatigue interaction is important for Type 304 stainless steel, oxidation effects appear to dominate the time-dependent fatigue behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. Four of the currently available predictive methods - the Linear Damage Rule, Frequency Separation Equation, Strain Range Partitioning Equation, and Damage Rate Equation - are evaluated for their predictive capability. Variations in the parameters for the various predictive methods with temperature, heat of material, heat treatment, and environment are investigated. Relative trends in the lives predicted by the various methods as functions of test duration, waveshape, etc., are discussed. The predictive methods will need modification in order to account for oxidation and aging effects in the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. Future tests that will emphasize the difference between the various predictive methods are proposed.

  8. Relative influence of upland and lowland headwaters on the isotope hydrology and transit times of larger catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Hrachowitz, M.; Speed, M.

    2011-04-01

    SummaryWeekly variation of δ 18O was measured over 2 years in precipitation and river water in four relatively large catchments in north east Scotland. The River Dee (1712 km 2) is predominantly upland, with impermeable geology and hydrologically responsive soils. The headwaters of the River North Esk (732 km 2) are similar, but the lower third of the catchment is underlain by a major sandstone aquifer and is lowland (i.e. <300 m altitude) in nature. The upper 20% of the River Don catchment (1273 km 2) is upland, but the remainder is lowland with freely draining soils recharging significant groundwater reservoirs in superficial drifts. The River Ythan catchment (662 km 2) is entirely lowland and similar to the lower Don. The hydrological responsiveness of the catchments was directly related to their upland area, with the Dee and the North Esk generating the highest specific discharges during high flow events. Conversely, the Don and Ythan had more subdued hydrological regimes, but higher specific discharge under baseflows. Despite broadly similar δ 18O variation in precipitation inputs, the variability of stream waters was increasingly damped in the order Ythan > Don > North Esk > Dee. Convolution integral models were used to estimate Mean Transit Times (MTTs) for the four catchments from the isotope data. These were reasonably well-constrained at around 2 years for the Dee and 3 years for the North Esk. Estimates for the Don and Ythan were poorly constrained and therefore highly uncertain, but are both likely to exceed 10 years. MTTs in upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands are relatively short (ca. 2 months-4 years) and have been shown to be strongly correlated with soil hydrology, topographic indices and precipitation intensity. However, these relationships change in lowland areas as catchments become less surface water dominated and greater groundwater storage and deeper mixing processes result in much higher MTTs. Nevertheless, a close correlation

  9. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Intact Proteins Larger than 100 kDa

    PubMed Central

    Signor, Luca; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Effectively determining masses of proteins is critical to many biological studies (e.g. for structural biology investigations). Accurate mass determination allows one to evaluate the correctness of protein primary sequences, the presence of mutations and/or post-translational modifications, the possible protein degradation, the sample homogeneity, and the degree of isotope incorporation in case of labelling (e.g. 13C labelling). Electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for mass determination of denatured proteins, but its efficiency is affected by the composition of the sample buffer. In particular, the presence of salts, detergents, and contaminants severely undermines the effectiveness of protein analysis by ESI-MS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS is an attractive alternative, due to its salt tolerance and the simplicity of data acquisition and interpretation. Moreover, the mass determination of large heterogeneous proteins (bigger than 100 kDa) is easier by MALDI-MS due to the absence of overlapping high charge state distributions which are present in ESI spectra. Here we present an accessible approach for analysing proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-time of flight (TOF). We illustrate the advantages of using a mixture of two matrices (i.e. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the utility of the thin layer method as approach for sample deposition. We also discuss the critical role of the matrix and solvent purity, of the standards used for calibration, of the laser energy, and of the acquisition time. Overall, we provide information necessary to a novice for analysing intact proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-MS. PMID:24056304

  10. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  11. Results from a 20 scintillator bar time-of-flight test system located inside the 1.4 T CDF solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukegawa, F.; Heinrich, J. G.; Lockyer, N. S.; Long, O.; Kononenko, W.; Gao, T.; Newcomer, F. M.; Van Berg, R.; Kephart, R.; Mori, S.; Kondo, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on a test time-of-flight (TOF) system that operated in the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) during pp¯ Tevatron collider operation at s=1.8 TeV in the fall 1995 running period. The TOF system consisted of 20 130×4×4 cm3 long Bicron BC408 scintillator bars, with each end of the bars fitted with a small compound parabolic concentrator and a 16-stage R5946 Hamamatsu fine-mesh photomultiplier. The electronics chain consisted of a custom designed preamplifier, constant fraction discriminator, and commercial TDC and ADC FASTBUS modules read out with the CDF data acquisition system. The counters were installed between the Central Tracking Chamber and the 1.4 T superconducting solenoid at a mean radius of 140 cm. We report a procedure for calculating the t0 time from all tracks in an event, the timing resolution, and the particle identification performance of this system.

  12. 1,4-Dioxane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dioxane ; CASRN 123 - 91 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. 1,4-Dithiane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dithiane ; CASRN 505 - 29 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 46 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  15. 1,4-Dibromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dibromobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  16. Growth oscillation in larger foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the potential for applying three-dimensional biometry to studying cell growth in larger benthic foraminifera. The volume of each test chamber was measured from the three-dimensional model obtained by means of computed tomography. Analyses of cell growth based on the sequence of chamber volumes revealed constant and significant oscillations for all investigated specimens, characterized by periods of approximately 15, 30, 90, and 360 days. Possible explanations for these periods are connected to tides, lunar cycles, and seasonality. The potential to record environmental oscillations or fluctuations during the lifetime of larger foraminifera is pivotal for reconstructing short-term paleoenvironmental variations or for gaining insight into the influence of tides or tidal current on the shallow-water benthic fauna in both recent and fossil environments. PMID:26166912

  17. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  18. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  19. 1.4 ps pedestal-free low timing jitter 10 GHz pulse source using commercial cascaded LiNbO3 modulators and fiber-based compressor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Lou, Caiyun; Huo, Li; Lu, Dan

    2011-05-10

    A stable 10 GHz pedestal-free short pulse generation scheme consisting of cascaded commercial LiNbO(3) modulators has been proposed and successfully demonstrated experimentally. Fiber-based pulse compression and reshaping stages have been utilized to obtain a 1.38 ps optical pulse train with very little pedestal and 132 fs timing jitter. Excellent performance of multiplexing from 10 Gbits/s to 160 Gbits/s using this method indicates good potential for application in ultrahigh-speed optical time-division-multiplexing systems. PMID:21556097

  20. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  1. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  2. College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159931.html College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds These athletes will need help adopting healthy lifestyles after their careers end, researcher says To use the sharing features ...

  3. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  4. SAS 3 observations of GX 1 + 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    GX 1 + 4 is one of the brightest celestial sources of high-energy X-rays. It is a pulsar with a period of approximately 2 min (perhaps a multiple of 2 min), decreasing at a variable rate which, since 1971, has averaged approximately 2% per year, but which can be larger than 5% per year. This is the largest rate of decrease observed for any pulsar. The rate of decrease appears to be correlated with the luminosity, in support of the idea that the period decrease is produced by accretion torques acting upon a neutron star. No evidence is seen for a Doppler shift due to motion of the pulsar in a binary orbit; this is consistent with the results of optical observations which suggest that any orbital period is fairly long (months to years). The spectrum of GX 1 + 4 is measured as a function of pulse phase, as well as the phase-averaged total spectrum, and the average spectrum of the pulses alone. The shape of the average pulsed spectrum suggests that the pulsations may be produced by 'hot spots' which are a few hundred meters in extent, with temperatures of approximately 10 to the 8th K (kT being approximately equal to 8 keV).

  5. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  6. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  7. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  8. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes.

    PubMed

    Bunz, Uwe H F

    2015-06-16

    The close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and tetraazaacenes, azapentacenes, azahexacenes, and

  9. Growing Larger Crystals for Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality has been a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. With the advent of advanced X-ray sources and methods the question of size has rapidly dwindled, almost to the point where if one can see the crystal then it was big enough. Quality is another issue, and major national and commercial efforts were established to take advantage of the microgravity environment in an effort to obtain higher quality crystals. Studies of the macromolecule crystallization process were carried out in many labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. While technological improvements are resulting in a diminishing of the minimum crystal size required, neutron diffraction structural studies still require considerably larger crystals, by several orders of magnitude, than X-ray studies. From a crystal growth physics perspective there is no reason why these 'large' crystals cannot be obtained: the question is generally more one of supply than limitations mechanism. This talk will discuss our laboratory s current model for macromolecule crystal growth, with highlights pertaining to the growth of crystals suitable for neutron diffraction studies.

  10. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4... do, and how a member of the public can use it to access government records. The handbook should be... with paragraph (a)(4) of this section in situations where public access in a timely manner is...

  11. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4... do, and how a member of the public can use it to access government records. The handbook should be... with paragraph (a)(4) of this section in situations where public access in a timely manner is...

  12. Implications of matrix diffusion on 1,4-dioxane persistence at contaminated groundwater sites.

    PubMed

    Adamson, David T; de Blanc, Phillip C; Farhat, Shahla K; Newell, Charles J

    2016-08-15

    Management of groundwater sites impacted by 1,4-dioxane can be challenging due to its migration potential and perceived recalcitrance. This study examined the extent to which 1,4-dioxane's persistence was subject to diffusion of mass into and out of lower-permeability zones relative to co-released chlorinated solvents. Two different release scenarios were evaluated within a two-layer aquifer system using an analytical modeling approach. The first scenario simulated a 1,4-dioxane and 1,1,1-TCA source zone where spent solvent was released. The period when 1,4-dioxane was actively loading the low-permeability layer within the source zone was estimated to be <3years due to its high effective solubility. While this was approximately an order-of-magnitude shorter than the loading period for 1,1,1-TCA, the mass of 1,4-dioxane stored within the low-permeability zone at the end of the simulation period (26kg) was larger than that predicted for 1,1,1-TCA (17kg). Even 80years after release, the aqueous 1,4-dioxane concentration was still several orders-of-magnitude higher than potentially-applicable criteria. Within the downgradient plume, diffusion contributed to higher concentrations and enhanced penetration of 1,4-dioxane into the low-permeability zones relative to 1,1,1-TCA. In the second scenario, elevated 1,4-dioxane concentrations were predicted at a site impacted by migration of a weak source from an upgradient site. Plume cutoff was beneficial because it could be implemented in time to prevent further loading of the low-permeability zone at the downgradient site. Overall, this study documented that 1,4-dioxane within transmissive portions of the source zone is quickly depleted due to characteristics that favor both diffusion-based storage and groundwater transport, leaving little mass to treat using conventional means. Furthermore, the results highlight the differences between 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated solvent source zones, suggesting that back diffusion of 1,4

  13. Spontaneous heating more likely with larger bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spontaneous heating in hay is caused generally by too much moisture in the plant at the time of baling. This costs livestock producers in terms of dry matter losses and forage quality. With conventional small rectangular bales (80 to 100 pounds), a positive linear relationship between moisture conte...

  14. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  15. 16 CFR 1.4 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public disclosure. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.4 Public disclosure. Written advice rendered pursuant...

  16. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  17. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  18. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  19. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  20. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  1. 45 CFR 1216.1-4 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions. 1216.1-4 Section 1216.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-4 Exceptions. (a) The requirements of § 1216.1-3 are...

  2. 16 CFR 1.4 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public disclosure. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.4 Public disclosure. Written advice rendered pursuant...

  3. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude to present their grievances...

  4. 45 CFR 1216.1-4 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions. 1216.1-4 Section 1216.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-4 Exceptions. (a) The requirements of § 1216.1-3 are...

  5. 16 CFR 1.4 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public disclosure. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.4 Public disclosure. Written advice rendered pursuant...

  6. 16 CFR 1.4 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.4 Public disclosure. Written advice rendered pursuant...

  7. 16 CFR 1.4 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public disclosure. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.4 Public disclosure. Written advice rendered pursuant...

  8. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Adaptive evolution toward larger size in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joanna; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Venditti, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The notion that large body size confers some intrinsic advantage to biological species has been debated for centuries. Using a phylogenetic statistical approach that allows the rate of body size evolution to vary across a phylogeny, we find a long-term directional bias toward increasing size in the mammals. This pattern holds separately in 10 of 11 orders for which sufficient data are available and arises from a tendency for accelerated rates of evolution to produce increases, but not decreases, in size. On a branch-by-branch basis, increases in body size have been more than twice as likely as decreases, yielding what amounts to millions and millions of years of rapid and repeated increases in size away from the small ancestral mammal. These results are the first evidence, to our knowledge, from extant species that are compatible with Cope’s rule: the pattern of body size increase through time observed in the mammalian fossil record. We show that this pattern is unlikely to be explained by several nonadaptive mechanisms for increasing size and most likely represents repeated responses to new selective circumstances. By demonstrating that it is possible to uncover ancient evolutionary trends from a combination of a phylogeny and appropriate statistical models, we illustrate how data from extant species can complement paleontological accounts of evolutionary history, opening up new avenues of investigation for both. PMID:25848031

  10. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  11. Dielectric properties of multiatomic alcohols: 1,4-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric spectra of 1,4-butanediol in the temperature range of 298-423 K are analyzed using the theoretical approaches of Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman, based on the Dissado-Hill theory. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 1,4-butanediol are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter has a pronounced strong temperature dependence. In the Debye theory, the spectrum of the dielectric relaxation of 1,4-butanediol is presented as the sum of two region of dispersions. Conclusions are reached as to the possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained regions. The relaxation times of 1,4-butanediol calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of the relaxation time are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time and a preliminary analysis is performed using the Dissado-Hill cluster model.

  12. 21 CFR 1.4 - Authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority citations. 1.4 Section 1.4 Food and... REGULATIONS General Provisions § 1.4 Authority citations. (a) For each part of its regulations, the Food and... U.S. Statutes at Large. Citations to the U.S. Statutes at Large will refer to volume and page....

  13. 21 CFR 1.4 - Authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... listed: Sec. 701 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 371). (d) If the organic statute... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority citations. 1.4 Section 1.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL...

  14. 21 CFR 1.4 - Authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statute is the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Public Health Service Act, or the Fair Packaging...: Sec. 701 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 371). (d) If the organic statute is... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority citations. 1.4 Section 1.4 Food...

  15. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  19. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  20. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  1. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  2. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  3. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  4. Procrastination by pigeons: preference for larger, more delayed work requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, J E

    1996-01-01

    In three experiments, pigeons chose between alternatives that required the completion of a small ratio schedule early in the trial or a larger ratio schedule later in the trial. Completion of the ratio requirement did not lead to an immediate reinforcer, but simply allowed the events of the trial to continue. In Experiment 1, the ratio requirements interrupted periods in which food was delivered on a variable-time schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, each ratio requirement was preceded and followed by a delay, and only one reinforcer was delivered, at the end of each trial. Two of the experiments used an adjusting-ratio procedure in which the ratio requirement was increased and decreased over trials so as to estimate an indifference point--a ratio size at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. These experiments found clear evidence for "procrastination"--the choice of a larger but more delayed response requirement. In some cases, subjects chose the more delayed ratio schedule even when it was larger than the more immediate alternative by a factor of four or more. The results suggest that as the delay to the start of a ratio requirement is increased, it has progressively less effect on choice behavior, in much the same way that delaying a positive reinforcer reduces it effect on choice. PMID:8583195

  5. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2 cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2 cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2 cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (23–84)%, 87.1 (79–91)% and 94.4 (90.1–96.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.2–2.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologist’s options treating renal calculi of >2 cm. PMID:26558040

  6. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reconsideration must be filed within 7 days after the opposition is filed. 47 CFR 1.106(h). The rules require that the opposition be served on the person seeking reconsideration. 47 CFR 1.106(g). If the opposition is... this section, those specific provisions of § 76.1502 are controlling. See e.g. 47 CFR 76.1502(e)....

  7. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reconsideration must be filed within 7 days after the opposition is filed. 47 CFR 1.106(h). The rules require that the opposition be served on the person seeking reconsideration. 47 CFR 1.106(g). If the opposition is... specific provisions of § 76.1502 are controlling. See e.g. 47 CFR 76.1502(e). (l) When Commission action...

  8. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reconsideration must be filed within 7 days after the opposition is filed. 47 CFR 1.106(h). The rules require that the opposition be served on the person seeking reconsideration. 47 CFR 1.106(g). If the opposition is... specific provisions of § 76.1502 are controlling. See e.g. 47 CFR 76.1502(e). (l) When Commission action...

  9. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... release date. Example 3: The Chief, Mass Media Bureau, adopts an order on Thursday, April 2, 1987. The... reconsideration must be filed within 7 days after the opposition is filed. 47 CFR 1.106(h). The rules require that the opposition be served on the person seeking reconsideration. 47 CFR 1.106(g). If the opposition...

  10. 49 CFR 1.4 - General responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations, and administering air traffic control of civil and military air operations within U.S. airspace... citations affecting § 1.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... the Federal Government; (4) Encouraging maximum private development of transportation services;...

  11. 49 CFR 1.4 - General responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations, and administering air traffic control of civil and military air operations within U.S. airspace... citations affecting § 1.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... the Federal Government; (4) Encouraging maximum private development of transportation services;...

  12. 7. Photocopy of photographca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph--ca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' negative) DETAIL SHOWING ADAPTATION THAT ALLOWED USE OF UPPER END OF ORIGINAL FLUME AND LOWER END JUST RECONSTRUCTED - Power Flume No. 1, Tacoma, La Plata County, CO

  13. Biochronology and palaeoenvironment of Cenozoic Circum-Caribbean Larger Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    to each other. Up to 40 UA result for the late Paleocene - middle Miocene time interval. However, many of these associations may have an ecologic significance, but nevertheless there is a high biochronologic potential in this dataset, that is now calibrated in more detail by co-occurring planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and strontium isotope data. The late Paleocene is characterized by the association of Ranikothalia spp. (R. bermudezi, catenula, soldadensis, tobleri , antillea) with Discocyclina , Hexagonocyclina, Athecocyclina, Neodiscocyclina , Actinosiphon and Amphistegina spp. The Eocene Larger Foraminifera facies are characterized by many species of Amphistegina, Asterocyclina, Cycloloculina, Dictyoconus, Discocyclina, Euconoloides, Eofabiania, Fabiania, Gypsina, ,Helicolepidina, Heterostegina, Homotrema, Lepidocyclina, Linderina, Neodiscocyclina, Nummulites, Operculina, Operculinoides, Orthophragmina, Polylepidina, Proporocyclina, Sphareogypsina and Yaberinella. The Oligocene is characterized by many species of Archaias, Heterostegina, Miogypsina , Miolepidocyclina, Miosorites, Lepidocyclina, and Nummulites. Lower-middle Miocene carbonates contain associations of Amphistegina, Archaias, Miosorites, Miogypsina, Miolepidocyclina and Operculina.

  14. Local Studies and Larger Issues: The Case of Sara Bagby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explains that students can study local events within a larger context that clarifies larger events or issues. Focuses on the 1861 case of Sara Lucy Bagby (Cleveland, Ohio), an escaped slave, to illuminate aspects of gender, racial relations, politics, and the origins of the U.S. Civil War. (CMK)

  15. Bromine-75-labeled 1,4-benzodiazepines: potential agents for the mapping of benzodiazepine receptors in vivo: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, H.; Kloster, G.; Stoecklin, G.

    1983-05-01

    We have prepared four different 1,4-benzodiazepines, labeled at C-7 with the 1.6-hr positron emitter Br-75 or the 57-hr gamma emitter Br-77, as potential radio-pharmaceuticals for the mapping of cerebral benzodiazepine receptor areas. The triazene method was used and optimized. Yields at the no-carrier-added level were 20%. (7-/sup 75/Br)-5-(2-flophenyl)-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one (Br-75 BFB) was isolated with a minimum specific activity of 20,000 Ci/mmole. Biodistribution in mice shows that BFB is taken up rapidly by the brain and is retained there at useful concentrations for significant periods of time. The maximum uptake is observed at 0.25 min. Brain-to-blood concentration ratios are larger than 2 during the interval (0.25 to 10 min) investigated.

  16. Behavioral effects and pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, A. K.; Brown, P. R.; Jansen, E. E. W.; Jakobs, C.; Gibson, K. M.; Weerts, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are prodrugs for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Like GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD are drugs of abuse, but their behavioral effects may differ from GHB under some conditions. Objectives The first study compared the behavioral effects of GBL (32−240 mg/kg) and 1,4-BD (32−240 mg/kg) with each other and to effects previously reported for GHB (32−420 mg/kg). A second study determined GHB pharmacokinetics following intragastric administration of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Methods Operant responding for food, observed behavioral effects, and a fine-motor task occurred at multiple time intervals after administration of drug or vehicle. In a separate pharmacokinetics study, blood samples were collected across multiple time points after administration of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Results Like GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD impaired performance on the fine-motor task, but the onset of motor impairment differed across drugs. GBL and 1,4-BD dose dependently decreased the number of food pellets earned, but at lower doses than previously observed for GHB. Similar to GHB, both GBL and 1,4-BD produced sedation, muscle relaxation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and tremors/jerks. Administration of GBL and 1,4-BD produced higher maximum concentrations of GHB with shorter times to maximum concentrations of GHB in plasma when compared to GHB administration. Conclusions GBL and 1,4-BD produced behavioral effects similar to those previously reported with GHB and the time course of effects were related to blood levels of GHB. Given their higher potency and faster onset of effects, the abuse liability of GBL and 1,4-BD may be greater than GHB. PMID:19198808

  17. 1,4-Dihydro-1,4-diphosphinine fused with two tetrathiafulvalenes.

    PubMed

    Avarvari, Narcis; Fourmigué, Marc

    2004-12-21

    Electrochemical and theoretical investigations demonstrate through-bond interactions between two TTF moieties fused to a 1,4-dihydro-1,4-diphosphinine, for which the single crystal X-ray structure of the cis isomer is described together with that of a mixed-valent, charge-localized, radical cation salt with Mo6O19(2-), obtained upon electrocrystallization of the same cis isomer. PMID:15599410

  18. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  19. Quantum 1/4 BPS dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Lee, Kimyeong; Yi, Piljin

    2000-02-01

    Classical properties of 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) dyons were previously well understood both in the field theory context and in the string theory context. Its quantum properties, however, have been more difficult to probe, although the elementary information of the supermultiplet structures is known from a perturbative construction. Recently, a low energy effective theory of monopoles was constructed and argued to contain these dyons as quantum bound states. In this paper, we find these dyonic bound states explicitly in the N=4 supersymmetric low energy effective theory. After identifying the correct angular momentum operators, we motivate an anti-self-dual ansatz for all BPS bound states. The wave functions are found explicitly, whose spin contents and degeneracies match exactly the expected results.

  20. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    PubMed

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. PMID:27263761

  1. Do Minorities Experience Larger Lasting Benefits from Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Recent research from randomized experiments on class size points to positive effects of small classes that persist for several years, but the evidence about the social distribution of effects is less clear. Some scholars have contended that the immediate effects of small classes are larger for minorities and for disadvantaged persons (e.g., J. D.…

  2. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  3. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  4. Asteroid collisional evolution - Evidence for a much larger early population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present population of asteroids is a remnant of a vastly larger one that contained perhaps a planetary mass, dominantly distributed in planetesimals approximately 500 kilometers or less in diameter. It constituted a large reservoir of objects that plausibly were responsible for cratering the moon, Mars, and Mercury. Much asteroidal dust may have accumulated on Mars and other planets.

  5. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  6. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  7. Can a secondary isotope effect be larger than a primary?

    PubMed

    Perrin, Charles L; Burke, Kathryn D

    2015-05-21

    Primary and secondary (18)O equilibrium isotope effects on the acidities of a variety of Brønsted and Lewis acids centered on carbon, boron, nitrogen, and phosphorus were computed by density-functional theory. For many of these acids, the secondary isotope effect was found to be larger than the primary isotope effect. This is a counterintuitive result, because the H atom that is lost is closer to the (18)O atom that is responsible for the primary isotope effect. The relative magnitudes of the isotope effects can be associated with the vibrational frequency and zero-point energy of the X═O vibrations, which are greater than those of the X-O vibrations. However, the difference between these contributions is small, and the major responsibility for the larger secondary isotope effect comes from the moment-of-inertia factor, which depends on the position of the (18)O atom relative to the principal axes of rotation. PMID:25879248

  8. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  9. Air pollution episodes in larger area of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, C.; Iorga, G.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the fact that aerosol burdens in Eastern Europe may be heavily impacted by regional anthropogenic sources, this research is focused on analyses of air pollution episodes with the goal to quantify this impact in larger area of Bucharest. City of Bucharest is large size city (population 2.8 million) located in the Romanian Plain, characterised by environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in South-eastern Europe. It experiences intense photochemical processes. City environment includes intense emissions from traffic, thermo-electrical power-generation stations (CETs) that use mainly fossil fuels for power generation and domestic heating, and from industry. The data (PM10, SO2, CO, NOx) were collected at eight sampling sites in and around the urban area of Bucharest (three industrial and two traffic sites, one EPA urban background site, one suburban site and one regional site situated outside of Bucharest). Mass concentrations spanning over one year (2005 year) of continuous sampling were taken from data provided by the Air Quality Monitoring Network of the city. Analyses of temporal and spatial variability of PM10 were correlated with data of SO2, CO, NOx. The criterion for selecting the pollution episodes was the daily average concentration of PM10 to exceed by 35 times per year the limit value of 50 gm-3 (in accordance with Romanian Ministry Order 592/2002 criterion). Exceedances were considered as strong pollution events and were studied related to local pollution and long-range transport of pollutants provided by back-trajectories of air masses. As a general characteristics, the main contribution to the aerosol mass is due to anthropogenic local sources, but natural sources play a role, as well. The comparison between the concentration values at different sites indicates that industrial sources are responsible for a large part of the high concentrations in urban area followed by the traffic sources. The urban impact on nearby

  10. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring.

    PubMed

    Agnvall, B; Ali, A; Olby, S; Jensen, P

    2014-09-01

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected. PMID:24910136

  11. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  12. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  13. Treatment and recovery of larger particles of fine oxidized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.E.

    1980-09-16

    This invention relates to a method and treating agent for increasing the yield of larger particles of fine oxidized coal where the particle size is 28 X 100 mesh and preferably 28 X 70 mesh and where said coal particles are concentrated by froth flotation. The method consists of utilizing as a promoter an alkali metal or ammonium polyacrylate. A preferred promoter is about 0.05-1.5 lbs of sodium polyacrylate latex per ton of dry coal (0.017-0.5 lb of dry sodium polyacrylate per ton of dry coal), having an average molecular weight of about 100,000, to 1, 000,000 and more, with a preferred range of 1,000,000 or more. This preferred promoter or frothing aid for oxidized coal is a water-in-oil latex of sodium polyacrylate used with a water-inoil emulsifier and preferably used with an alcohol-type frother. The latex may be utilized neat and self inverts with the assistance of an oil-in-water surfactant and the water in the system upon application to form an oil-in-water emulsion, or it may be used as a two part system with an activator (Aqueous) to promote inversion. Additionally, the latex emulsion recovers larger particles in the size 100 mesh and greater and preferably in the range 28 X 70 mesh.

  14. Improved GIA correction yields larger Antarctic mass loss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicogna, I.; Sutterley, T. C.; Ivins, E. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    New regional ice deglaciation models have recently been developed to match a variety of geologic, glaciological, and geodetic observations. In Antarctica, these new models exhibit a smaller East Antarctic ice loss since the Last Glacial Maximum, and hence yield a smaller GIA correction to the Antarctic estimates than those predicted by ICE5G. These revised models yield less negative ice mass losses when using GRACE data. Although these new models represent a significant advance in Antarctic GIA modeling, there are still large uncertainties associated with them. One of the large uncertainties is due to the fact that in the East Antarctica interior, the GIA reconstruction is poorly constrained by observations. These new models assume a monotonic decrease in loading in the last 5000 years. We examine the impact of this assumption on the GIA estimates and how a more realistic non-monotonic loading scenario could impact the results and the GRACE ice mass estimates. We use GRACE in combination with output products from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) and recent studies of deglaciation history to derive an improved GIA correction, which include a non-monotonic loading scenario, is consistent with available geological and geodetic constraints and reconstruction of recent climate history. We find a larger correction, which implies larger losses of the Antarctica ice sheet by about 70 Gt/yr.

  15. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of single 1,4-Benzenedithiol molecular junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, S.; Murai, D.; Fujii, Sh.; Kiguchi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we present simultaneous electronic and optical measurements of a single 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT) molecular junctions to investigate the electronic and structural details in the molecular junction and to understand the charge transport property at the single molecular scale. The electronic property was investigated by DC conductance measurement while structural property was characterized using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement. The single BDT junctions sandwiched between Au nanogap-electrodes were prepared by the mechanically controllable break junction method at ambient conditions. The simultaneous conductance and SERS measurements demonstrate that ring deformation mode coupled to C-S stretching mode, ring breathing mode, and C=C stretching mode are detectable for the single BDT molecular junctions with electronic conductance of 0.01G0 (G0 = 2e2/h). The single molecule origin is supported by the characteristic variability of SERS within samples. Time evolution of the conductance and SERS signals indicated that the molecular conductance and the vibrational energy of the ring breathing mode exhibits anti-correlated relationship. This relationship can be mediated by time evolution of structural change in the single molecular junction and corresponding change in strength of metal-molecular coupling. The larger metal-molecular coupling causes higher electronic conductance of the molecular junction while charge transfer effect leads to weakening of molecular bonds and thus a resulting decrease in the vibration energy of the ring breathing mode.

  17. Properties of the Interstellar Medium in Star-Forming Galaxies at z ~ 1.4 Revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Akiyama, Masayuki; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Tamura, Naoyuki; Dalton, Gavin

    2016-03-01

    We conducted observations of 12CO(J = 5-4) and dust thermal continuum emission toward 20 star-forming galaxies on the main sequence at z ˜ 1.4 using ALMA to investigate the properties of the interstellar medium. The sample galaxies are chosen to trace the distributions of star-forming galaxies in diagrams of stellar mass versus star formation rate and stellar mass versus metallicity. We detected CO emission lines from 11 galaxies. The molecular gas mass is derived by adopting a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and assuming a CO(5-4)/CO(1-0) luminosity ratio of 0.23. Masses of molecular gas and its fractions (molecular gas mass/(molecular gas mass + stellar mass)) for the detected galaxies are in the ranges of (3.9-12) × 1010 M⊙ and 0.25-0.94, respectively; these values are significantly larger than those in local spiral galaxies. The molecular gas mass fraction decreases with increasing stellar mass; the relation holds for four times lower stellar mass than that covered in previous studies, and the molecular gas mass fraction decreases with increasing metallicity. Stacking analyses also show the same trends. Dust thermal emissions were clearly detected from two galaxies and marginally detected from five galaxies. Dust masses of the detected galaxies are (3.9-38) × 107 M⊙. We derived gas-to-dust ratios and found they are 3-4 times larger than those in local galaxies. The depletion times of molecular gas for the detected galaxies are (1.4-36) × 108 yr while the results of the stacking analysis show ˜3 × 108 yr. The depletion time tends to decrease with increasing stellar mass and metallicity though the trend is not so significant, which contrasts with the trends in local galaxies.

  18. Original antigenic sin with human bocaviruses 1-4.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemeng; Kantola, Kalle; Hedman, Lea; Arku, Benedict; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) 1 is a widespread parvovirus causing acute respiratory disease in young children. In contrast, HBoV2 occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is potentially associated with gastroenteritis, whilst HBoV3 and -4 infections are less frequent and have not yet been linked with human disease. Due to HBoV1 DNA persistence in the nasopharynx, serology has been advocated as a better alternative for diagnosing acute infections. In constitutionally healthy children, we previously noted that pre-existing HBoV2 immunity in a subsequent HBoV1 infection typically resulted in low or non-existent HBoV1-specific antibody responses. A phenomenon describing such immunological events among related viruses has been known since the 1950s as 'original antigenic sin' (OAS). The aim of this study was to characterize this putative OAS phenomenon in a more controlled setting. Follow-up sera of 10 rabbit pairs, inoculated twice with HBoV1-4 virus-like particles (VLPs) or control antigens, in various combinations, were analysed with HBoV1-4 IgG enzyme immunoassays with and without depletion of heterotypic HBoV antibodies. There were no significant IgG boosts after the second inoculation in either the heterologously or the homologously HBoV-inoculated rabbits, but a clear increase in cross-reactivity was seen with time. We could, however, distinguish a distinct OAS pattern from plain cross-reactivity: half of the heterologously inoculated rabbits showed IgG patterns representative of the OAS hypothesis, in line with our prior results with naturally infected children. HBoVs are the first parvoviruses to show the possible existence of OAS. Our findings provide new information on HBoV1-4 immunity and emphasize the complexity of human bocavirus diagnosis. PMID:26224569

  19. Lamin A is not synthesized as a larger precursor polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Lebel, S; Raymond, Y

    1987-12-16

    Isolation of rat liver nuclei in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) led to the recovery in the final nuclear matrix of a higher molecular weight form of lamin A. The 2 kDa larger form was identified as lamin A by isoelectric point determination, recognition by an anti-lamin A and C monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping using V8 protease and N-chlorosuccinimide. The 2 kDa extension was tentatively localized to the carboxy-terminus of lamin A. Pulse-chase labeling and immunoprecipitation studies using baby hamster kidney cells showed that lysis of the cells in the presence of NEM allowed the recovery of a stable higher molecular weight form of lamin A. We conclude from these results that NEM prevented the degradation of the native form of lamin A previously thought to represent a higher molecular weight transient precursor form. PMID:3426582

  20. V/Q Matched Defect Larger than Hiatal Hernia Itself.

    PubMed

    Wachsmann, Jason W; Kim, Chun K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case report of a patient 83 year old female who developed progressive shortness of breath and subsequently underwent scintigraphic evaluation of her symptoms with a ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic exam. A matched perfusion defect was seen involving the basal segments of the left lower lobe. Following this, the patient was examined with a contrast enhanced CT of the chest to further investigate the defect, which revealed compression of the bronchi and vasculature of the left lower lobe basal segments by the hernia larger than the actual hernia. To our knowledge there has not been a case report of a large hiatal hernia as a cause of matched lower lobe defect. PMID:26420992

  1. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  2. Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lim, Aaron G.; Gupta, Sunetra; Belshaw, Robert; Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity. PMID:25033295

  3. Larger benthic foraminifera of the Paleogene Promina Beds (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosovic, V.; Mrinjek, E.; Drobne, K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to add more information about complex origin of Promina Beds (traditionally interpreted as Paleogene molasse of Dinarides), two sections (Lišani Ostrovački and Ostrovica, Central Dalmatia, Croatia) have been studied in detail. Sampled carbonate sequences contain predominantly coralline red algae, larger benthic foraminifera and corals. Based on sedimentary textures, nummulitid (Nummulites s.str and Asterigerina sp.) test shapes and the associated skeletal components, altogether three types of the Middle Eocene (Lutetian to Bartonian) facies were recognized. The Ostrovica section is composed of alternating couples of marly limestones and marls, several decimeters thick with great lateral continuity. Two facies which vertically alternate are recognized as Nummulites - Asterigerina facies, where patchily dispersed large, robust and party reworked larger benthic foraminifera constitute 20% and small bioclasts (fomaniniferal fragments and whole tests less than 3 mm in diameters) 10% of rock volume and, Coral - Red algal facies with coral fragments of solitary and colonial taxa up to 1 cm in size constitute 5 - 40%, red algae 15 - 60% and lager benthic foraminifera up to 5% of rock volume. The textural and compositional differences among the facies suggest rhythmic exchanges of conditions that characterize shallower part of the mesophotic zone with abundant nummulithoclasts with deeper mesophotic, lime mud-dominated settings where nummulitids with the flat tests, coralline red algae and scleractinian corals are common. The scleractinian corals (comprising up to 20% of rock volume) encrusted by foraminifera (Acervulina, Haddonia and nubeculariids) or coralline red algae and foraminiferal assemblage made of orthophragminid and nummulitid tests scattered in matrix, are distributed uniformly throughout the studied Lišani Ostrovački section. In the central part of section, wavy to smooth thin (< 1 mm) crusts (laminas) alternating with encrusted corals occur. The

  4. 43 CFR 3191.1-4 - Public hearing on petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public hearing on petition. 3191.1-4 Section 3191.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... AGREEMENTS AND CONTRACTS FOR OIL AND GAS INSPECTION Delegation of Authority § 3191.1-4 Public hearing...

  5. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  6. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.4 Public access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the...

  7. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.4 Public access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of 1,4-dioxane provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Human health risk concerns for 1,4-dioxane are primarily related to exposure from drinking, ground, ...

  9. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  10. 26 CFR 1.4-1 - Number of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Number of exemptions. 1.4-1 Section 1.4-1... and Surtaxes § 1.4-1 Number of exemptions. (a) For the purpose of determining the optional tax imposed under section 3, the taxpayer shall use the number of exemptions allowable to him as deductions...

  11. 26 CFR 1.4-1 - Number of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Number of exemptions. 1.4-1 Section 1.4-1... and Surtaxes § 1.4-1 Number of exemptions. (a) For the purpose of determining the optional tax imposed under section 3, the taxpayer shall use the number of exemptions allowable to him as deductions...

  12. Combined spectral experiment and theoretical calculation to study the interaction of 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone for metal ions in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Caixia; Zhang, Jingjing; Huo, Fangjun

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (1,4-DHA) and metal ions was studied by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopies in solution. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations confirmed complex structures. The investigation results showed 1,4-DHA can selectively respond some metal ions and can be monitored by UV-Vis, fluorescence spectra and naked-eye. So 1,4-DHA has a potential application in the design of metal ions probe. More, as typical metal ions, Hg2+ and Er3+, their reaction abilities for 1,4-DHA were studied in detailed. Experimental results showed they have better response for 1,4-DHA. And theoretical calculation concluded that Er3+ easily reacts with 1,4-DHA over Hg2+ attributed to the low reaction energy of Er3+-1,4-DHA than Hg2+-1,4-DHA.

  13. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  18. Temperature determining larger wildland fires in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terrén, D. M.; Cardil, A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant relationships were found between high-temperature days and wildland fire occurrence in the 1978-2011 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was analyzed at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state, avoiding problems that affect surface reanalysis and providing regional coverage. A high-temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. The number of these days increased significantly in the study period, increasing the frequency of adverse weather conditions that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. Specifically, these high-temperature days are more frequent in June than they used to be. The effects of those high-temperature days in wildland fire patterns were significant in terms of burned area, number of wildland fires, and average size. Fires larger than 60 ha were the subject of this study. These wildland fires have been increasing in number and size in the last years of the series.

  19. Super-size me: self biases increase to larger stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-04-01

    Prior work has shown that simple perceptual match responses to pairings of shapes and labels are more efficient if the pairing is associated with the participant (e.g., circle-you) than if it is associated with another familiar person (e.g., square-friend). There is a similar advantage for matching associations with high-value rewards (circle-£9) versus low-value rewards (square-£1) (Sui, He, & Humphreys Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117, 2012). Here we evaluated the relations between the self- and reward-bias effects by introducing occasional trials in which the size of a shape was varied unexpectedly (large or small vs. a standard medium). Participants favored stimuli that were larger than the standard when stimuli were associated with the self, and this enhancement of self bias was predicted by the degree of self bias that participants showed to standard (medium) sized stimuli. Although we observed a correlation between the magnitudes of the self and reward biases over participants, reward-bias effects were not increased to large stimuli. The data suggest both overlapping and independent components of the self and reward biases, and that self biases are uniquely enhanced when stimuli increase in size, consistent with previously reported motivational biases favoring large stimuli. PMID:25112393

  20. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  1. More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Ensminger, Jean; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; McElreath, Richard; Tracer, David

    2007-01-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies. PMID:18089534

  2. Inhibition of glycogenolysis in primary rat hepatocytes by 1, 4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, B; Rassov, A; Westergaard, N; Lundgren, K

    1999-01-01

    1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) was identified previously as a potent inhibitor of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of glycogen phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). In the present study, the effects of DAB were investigated in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The transport of DAB into hepatocytes was dependent on time and DAB concentration. The rate of DAB transport was 192 pmol/min per mg of protein per mM DAB(medium-concentration). In hepatocytes, DAB inhibited basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis with IC(50) values of 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The primary inhibitory effect of DAB on glycogenolysis was shown to be due to inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase but, at higher concentrations of DAB, inhibition of the debranching enzyme (4-alpha-glucanotransferase, EC 2.4.1.25) may have an effect. No effects on glycogen synthesis were observed, demonstrating that glycogen recycling does not occur in cultured hepatocytes under the conditions tested. Furthermore, DAB had no effects on phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme responsible for phosphorylation and thereby activation of glycogen phosphorylase, or on protein phosphatase 1, the enzyme responsible for inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase through dephosphorylation. PMID:10477265

  3. Hydrogen consentration meter utilizing a diffusion tube composed of 2 1/4 C r

    DOEpatents

    Roy, Prodyot; Sandusky, David W.; Hartle, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion tube hydrogen meter for improving the sensitivity and response time for the measurement of hydrogen in liquid sodium. The improved hydrogen meter has a composite membrane composed of pure nickel sleeve fitted, for example, over a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel or niobium diffusion tube. Since the hydrogen permeation rate through 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steels is a factor of four higher than pure nickel, and the permeation rate of hydrogen through niobium is two orders of magnitude greater than the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, this results in a decrease in response time and an increase in the sensitivity.

  4. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  5. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M. Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  6. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  7. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  8. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  9. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  10. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.4 Public access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the Department shall make the following...

  12. Validation of velocity map imaging conditions over larger areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Mike; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2013-04-15

    We have established through simulations and experiments the area over which Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) conditions prevail. We designed a VMI setup in which we can vary the ionization position perpendicular to the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer. We show that weak extraction conditions are far superior over standard three-plate setups if the aim is to increase the ionization volume without distorting VMI conditions. This is important for a number of crossed molecular beam experiments that already utilize weak extraction conditions, but to a greater extent for surface studies where fragments are desorbed or scattered off a surface in all directions. Our results on the dissociation of NO{sub 2} at 226 nm show that ionization of the fragments can occur up to {+-}5.5 mm away from the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer without affecting resolution or arrival position.

  13. Cyclodextrins are not the major cyclic alpha-1,4-glucans produced by the initial action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on amylose.

    PubMed

    Terada, Y; Yanase, M; Takata, H; Takaha, T; Okada, S

    1997-06-20

    The initial action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) from an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. A2-5a on amylose was investigated. Synthetic amylose was incubated with purified CGTase then terminated in the very early stage of the enzyme reaction. When the reaction mixture was treated with glucoamylase and the resulting glucoamylase-resistant glucans were analyzed with high performance anion exchange chromatography, cyclic alpha-1,4-glucans, with degree of polymerization ranging from 9 to more than 60, in addition to well known alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin (CD), were detected. The time-course analysis revealed that larger cyclic alpha-1, 4-glucans were preferentially produced in the initial stage of the cyclization reaction and were subsequently converted into smaller cyclic alpha-1,4-glucans and into the final major product, beta-CD. CGTase from Bacillus macerans also produced large cyclic alpha-1, 4-glucans except that the final major product was alpha-CD. Based on these results, a new model for the action of CGTase on amylose was proposed, which may contradict the widely held view of the cyclization reaction of CGTase. PMID:9188466

  14. Copper-promoted synthesis of 1,4-benzodiazepinones via alkene diamination

    PubMed Central

    Karyakarte, Shuklendu D.; Sequeira, Fatima C.; Zibreg, Garrick H.; Huang, Guoqing; Matthew, Josiah P.; Ferreira, Marina M. M.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of 2-aminomethyl functionalized 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-ones is presented. The benzodiazepine core is well-known to interact with biological receptors and many pharmaceutical drugs are derived from this structure. The alkene diamination strategy is employed for the first time for the synthesis of 1,4-benzodiazepinones. In this reaction, copper(2-ethylhexanoate)2 serves as promoter and a range of external amines can be coupled with 2-sulfonamido-N-allyl benzamides to generate the 1,4-benzodiazepinones in good yields. PMID:26034340

  15. Automated Solution-Phase Synthesis of β-1,4-Mannuronate and β-1,4-Mannan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first automated solution-phase synthesis of β-1,4-mannuronate and β-1,4-mannan oligomers has been accomplished by using a β-directing C-5 carboxylate strategy. By utilizing fluorous-tag assisting purification after repeated reaction cycles, β-1,4-mannuronate was synthesized up to a hexasaccharide with limited loading of a glycosyl donor (up to 3.5 equiv) for each glycosylation cycle due to the homogeneous solution-phase reaction condition. After a global reduction of the uronates, the β-1,4-mannan hexasaccharide was obtained, thereby demonstrating a new approach to β-mannan synthesis. PMID:25955886

  16. Automated Solution-Phase Synthesis of β-1,4-Mannuronate and β-1,4-Mannan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Lun; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2015-06-01

    The first automated solution-phase synthesis of β-1,4-mannuronate and β-1,4-mannan oligomers has been accomplished by using a β-directing C-5 carboxylate strategy. By utilizing fluorous-tag assisting purification after repeated reaction cycles, β-1,4-mannuronate was synthesized up to a hexasaccharide with limited loading of a glycosyl donor (up to 3.5 equiv) for each glycosylation cycle due to the homogeneous solution-phase reaction condition. After a global reduction of the uronates, the β-1,4-mannan hexasaccharide was obtained, thereby demonstrating a new approach to β-mannan synthesis. PMID:25955886

  17. Optimization of magnetocaloric properties of arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe11.6Si1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamba, P.; Morley, N. A.; Cespedes, O.; Reaney, I. M.; Rainforth, W. M.

    2016-08-01

    LaFe11.6Si1.4 alloy has been synthesized in polycrystalline form using both arc melting and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The phase formation, hysteresis loss and magnetocaloric properties of the LaFe11.6Si1.4 alloys synthesized using the two different techniques are compared. The annealing time required to obtain the 1:13 phase is significantly reduced from 14 days (using the arc melting technique) to 30 min (using the SPS technique). The magnetic entropy change (Δ S M) for the arc-melted LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0 T (decreasing field), was estimated to be 19.6 J kg-1 K-1. The effective RCP at 5 T of the arc-melted LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound was determined to be 360 J kg-1 which corresponds to about 88 % of that observed in Gd. A significant reduction in the hysteretic losses in the SPS LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound was observed. The Δ S M, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0 T (decreasing field), for the SPS LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound decreases to 7.4 J kg-1 K-1. The T C also shifts from 186 (arc-melted) to 230 K (SPS) and shifts the order of phase transition from first to second order, respectively. The MCE of the SPS LaFe11.6Si1.4 compound spreads over a larger temperature range with the RCP value at 5 T reaching 288 J kg-1 corresponding to about 70 % of that observed in Gd. At low fields, the effective RCP values of the arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds are comparable, thereby clearly demonstrating the potential of SPS LaFe11.6Si1.4 compounds in low-field magnetic refrigeration applications.

  18. Gas-to-dust ratios in massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    We present results of 12CO(J = 2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 μm and Herschel/SPIRE in 250 μm and 350 μm, and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived by the N2 method using the Hα and [N II]λ 6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular-gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) × 1010 M⊙ by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and a CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived from the modified blackbody model (assuming a dust temperature of 35 K and an emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) × 108 M⊙. Resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for H I mass) at z ˜ 1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  19. Effect of tempering on the strength and toughness of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Nanstad, R.K.; King, J.F.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1984-10-01

    Hardness, tensile, and Charpy V-notch impact tests were performed on samples prepared from submerged-arc weldments of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel. The intent was to explore the effect of tempering on the strength and ductility of the alloy in order to assess the potential for developing a high-strength alloy for gasifier pressure vessel service to 300/sup 0/C. Results indicated that good weld metal strength and toughness could be achieved. Limited work on the heat-affected zone of the base metal did not reveal any major problems. We concluded that qualification of a quenched-and-tempered version of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel with ultimate strength in the range 620 to 758 MPa (90 to 110 ksi) will be difficult for welded gasifier pressure vessels because of a narrow time-temperature tempering window. A minimum ultimate strength requirement of 585 MPa (85 ksi), however, would be much easier to achieve because of the larger window.

  20. Gas-to-dust ratios in massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    We present results of 12CO(J = 2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 μm and Herschel/SPIRE in 250 μm and 350 μm, and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived by the N2 method using the Hα and [N II]λ 6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular-gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) × 1010 M⊙ by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and a CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived from the modified blackbody model (assuming a dust temperature of 35 K and an emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) × 108 M⊙. Resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for H I mass) at z ˜ 1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  1. 27 CFR 1.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 1, Basic Permit Requirements Under the Federal... Administrator. 1.4 Section 1.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in...

  2. Radiolabeling of Cramoll 1,4: Evaluation of the Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira de Carvalho Patricio, Beatriz; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Barboza, Thiago; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The cramoll 1,4 is a well-studied lectin. However, few studies about its biodistribution have been done before. In this study, we radiolabeled the cramol 1,4 with Tc-99m and analyzed the biodistribution. The results showed that the cramol has an abnormal uptake by the bowel with reflections on its clearance mechanism. PMID:21760823

  3. A Modular Synthetic Approach to Monocyclic 1,4-Azaborines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuguang; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Li, Bo; Zakharov, Lev N; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2016-07-11

    A simple and general method for the synthesis of a wide range of monocyclic 1,4-azaborines, including the first examples containing B heteroatoms is described. Post-heterocycle-formation olefin isomerization was employed as a key strategy. This new synthetic method provides fundamental insight into the resonance stabilization and photophysical properties of 1,4-azaborines. PMID:27238094

  4. Photochemistry Of 2,5-Diacyl-1, 4-Dimethylbenzenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments described in report revealed potentially useful aspects of photochemistry of 2,5-dibenzoyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DBX) and 2,5-diacetyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DAX). Behavior of these compounds reminiscent of orthoalkylphenyl ketones, studied from similar perspective for more than two decades.

  5. 27 CFR 1.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 1, Basic Permit Requirements Under the Federal... Administrator. 1.4 Section 1.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in...

  6. 27 CFR 1.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 1, Basic Permit Requirements Under the Federal... Administrator. 1.4 Section 1.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in...

  7. 27 CFR 1.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 1, Basic Permit Requirements Under the Federal... Administrator. 1.4 Section 1.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in...

  8. 43 CFR 3864.1-4 - Proof of nonmineral character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proof of nonmineral character. 3864.1-4 Section 3864.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS...

  9. 43 CFR 3864.1-4 - Proof of nonmineral character.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proof of nonmineral character. 3864.1-4 Section 3864.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS...

  10. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  11. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  12. Identification of Biomarker Genes To Predict Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    PubMed Central

    Gedalanga, Phillip B.; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mora, Rebecca; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Baldwin, Brett; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase gene targets in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 were evaluated for their use as biomarkers to identify the potential for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in pure cultures and environmental samples. Our studies using laboratory pure cultures and industrial activated sludge samples suggest that the presence of genes associated with dioxane monooxygenase, propane monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase are promising indicators of 1,4-dioxane biotransformation; however, gene abundance was insufficient to predict actual biodegradation. A time course gene expression analysis of dioxane and propane monooxygenases in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and mixed communities in wastewater samples revealed important associations with the rates of 1,4-dioxane removal. In addition, transcripts of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were upregulated during biodegradation, although only the aldehyde dehydrogenase was significantly correlated with 1,4-dioxane concentrations. Expression of the propane monooxygenase demonstrated a time-dependent relationship with 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in P. dioxanivorans CB1190, with increased expression occurring after over 50% of the 1,4-dioxane had been removed. While the fraction of P. dioxanivorans CB1190-like bacteria among the total bacterial population significantly increased with decrease in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wastewater treatment samples undergoing active biodegradation, the abundance and expression of monooxygenase-based biomarkers were better predictors of 1,4-dioxane degradation than taxonomic 16S rRNA genes. This study illustrates that specific bacterial monooxygenase and dehydrogenase gene targets together can serve as effective biomarkers for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the environment. PMID:24632253

  13. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  14. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  15. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate copolymer. 177.1240 Section 177.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate copolymer. 177.1240 Section 177.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate copolymer. 177.1240 Section 177.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate copolymer. 177.1240 Section 177.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  19. Metabolic Degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. HY

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian; Wu, Xiaoli; Song, Youqun; Ren, Wenhui; Tang, Hao L.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding the adverse health effects of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The metabolic degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene (1,4-DCN) as a model PCN, was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas sp. HY. The metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A series of metabolites including dihydroxy-dichloro-naphthalene, epoxy-dichlorinated naphthalene, dichlorinated naphthol, and dichlorinated salicylic acid were identified. The time-concentration plots of the degradation curves of 1,4-DCN was also obtained from the experiments, which set the initial concentration of 1,4-DCN to 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The results showed that 98% removal could be achieved within 48 h at an initial 1,4-DCN concentration of 10 mg/L. Nevertheless, it took 144 h to reach the same degradation efficiency at an initial concentration of 20 mg/L. The degradation of 1,4-DCN may not remove the chloride ions during the processes and the metabolites may not benefit the bacterial growth. The research suggests a metabolic pathway of 1,4-DCN, which is critical for the treatment of this compound through biological processes. PMID:26308037

  20. Heading for New Shores: Projecting Marine Distribution Ranges of Selected Larger Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Rödder, Dennis; Lötters, Stefan; Langer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of modern symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera is confined to tropical and subtropical shallow water marine habitats and a narrow range of environmental variables (e.g. temperature). Most of today's taxa are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30°N and 30°S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20°C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g., the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far north as 50°N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 47°S in New Zealand. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2050 suggest a further increase by 1 to 3°C. We applied Species Distribution Models to assess potential distribution range changes of three taxa of larger foraminifera under current and future climate. The studied foraminifera include Archaias angulatus, Calcarina spp., and Amphistegina spp., and represent taxa with regional, superregional and global distribution patterns. Under present environmental conditions, Amphistegina spp. shows the largest potential distribution, apparently due to its temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabited regions. Under climate conditions expected for the year 2050, all taxa should display latitudinal range expansions between 1 to 2.5 degrees both north- and southward. The modeled range projections suggest that some larger foraminifera may colonize biogeographic regions that so far seemed unsuitable. Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. also show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for maximum temperatures has yet not been fully exploited and that they benefit from ocean warming. Our findings suggest an increased role of larger foraminifera as

  1. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  2. VIEW OF #1 #4 EXCITER AND GENERATORFIELD RHEOSTATS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF #1 - #4 EXCITER AND GENERATOR-FIELD RHEOSTATS WITH RESISTOR BANKS ON EAST END OF GENERATOR FLOOR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  3. Toxic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jie; Feng, Jia; Lv, Junping; Cai, Jin; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) is a common organic contaminant in water. To determine the effects of this contaminant on photosynthesis in the freshwater alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, algal cells were treated with 1,4-DCB at different concentrations for various times, and their photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence traits were analyzed. The results showed that 1,4-DCB exerted toxic effects on photosynthesis in C. pyrenoidosa, especially at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-DCB were time- and concentration-dependent. After treatment with 1,4-DCB (≥10 mg/L), the contents of photosynthetic pigments decreased significantly, the photosystem II reaction center was irreversibly damaged, and the quantum yield of photosystem II decreased significantly. Also, there were sharp decreases in the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and energy conversion. Photosystem II became overloaded as the amount of excitation energy distributed to it increased. All of these events weakened the photochemical reaction, and ultimately led to serious inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:27542668

  4. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:15293734

  5. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... condensation of dimethyl terephthalate and dimethyl isophthalate with 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, to which may...) The copolymer, when extracted with distilled water at reflux temperature for 2 hours, yields...

  6. Admittance of Au/1,4-benzenedithiol/Au single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Kazumasa; Kurokawa, Shu; Sakai, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Employing the admittance formula for double-barrier junctions [Fu and Dudley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 65 (1993)], we have estimated an ac susceptance (imaginary part of admittance) of Au/1,4-benzenedithiol/Au single-molecule junctions from their current-voltage characteristics. In the MHz regime, we find that the junction susceptance shows a very small (˜0.1 aF) capacitive component that can be entirely masked by a larger electrode capacitance. Direct ac signal transmission measurements up to 1 GHz reveal no molecular signals and confirm the smallness of the molecular capacitance in the MHz regime.

  7. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  8. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten).

  9. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin. PMID:20555436

  10. Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 μl s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 μl of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

  11. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples. PMID:27472601

  12. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of prostates (HoLEP) larger than 80 g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Rainer M.; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

    2001-05-01

    In this prospective study, the efficiency of HoLEP inpatients with prostates larger than 80 grams was to be evaluated. 64 urodynamically obstructed patients with prostate glands of 103 (80-230) grams of weight underwent HoLEP (80 W, 2.0 J, 40 Hz, 550 nm bare laser fibers). The resected weight was 70 (50-200) grams, the resection time was 120.5 (83-170) min., the average resection weight was 0.7 gm/min. The postoperative catheter time was 1.3 (1-3) days. The postoperative hospital stay was 2.5 (1-7) days. HoLEP induced a significant, pronounced and immediate improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and micturition. The symptom score decreased from 22.3 preoperatively to 5.7 one week and 2.8 one year postoperatively. The peak urinary flow rate of 4.3 ml/sec preoperatively increased to 22 ml/sec one week and 32 ml/sec one year postoperatively. The residual urine dropped from 267 ml preoperatively to 11.5 ml one week and 5.0 ml one year postoperatively. There was one incident of postoperative arterial bleeding, one patient developed urethral stricture and two patients needed a second HoLEP. HoLEP appeared to be a highly effective treatment for prostates larger than 80 grams, with excellent functional results, minor blood loss, low complication rate and very short catheter time and hospital stay.

  13. Interconversion study in 1,4-substituted six-membered cyclohexane-type rings. Structure and dynamics of trans-1,4-dibromo-1,4-dicyanocyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Bain, Alex D; Baron, Maximo; Burger, Steven K; Kowalewski, Valdemar J; Rodríguez, Marina Belén

    2011-08-25

    Cyclohexane is an extremely flexible molecule that oscillates, at room temperature, between two clearly distinct and extreme conformations that cannot be distinguished at room temperature; so much so that the NMR spectrum is a single line that includes all 12 protons be they axial or equatorial. This raises the interesting question as to what happens when there are equal substituents at the 1 and 4 carbon atoms of the ring. Therefore substitution in the 1,4-positions in the cyclohexane ring has been the subject of considerable interest because some form of interconversion between extreme conformations could lead to the existence of a rather unusual behavior. To study this problem, the interconversion in (di- or tetra-1,4)-substituted six-membered cyclohexane-type rings, trans-1,4-dibromo-1,4-dicyanocyclohexane, was found to be a particularly suitable candidate. Although X-ray diffraction studies on the crystalline solid found the molecule to be centrosymmetric, it still shows a significant dipole moment μ in solution, as determined with a procedure that leads to the vapor phase values of μ. Furthermore, the low magnetic field proton NMR spectrum at ambient temperature appears as a single line, a situation that changes with increasing field intensity and different solvents. Both these effects are attributed to dynamics, because small distortions can easily disrupt the exact cancellation of the individual dipoles (which are quite strong) associated with each end of the molecule. The molecule can exist in two forms, with both the bromines in an axial geometry or both in an equatorial position. Interconversion between these forms is observed, as in the parent cyclohexane. The single NMR line observed at low magnetic fields is due to fast exchange and requires that the two forms have roughly equal populations. Spectra obtained at low temperature confirm this, and variable-temperature studies allow measurement of the rates, leading to an enthalpy of activation of 62 k

  14. Regioselective oxidation of unprotected 1,4 linked glucans.

    PubMed

    Eisink, Niek N H M; Lohse, Jonas; Witte, Martin D; Minnaard, Adriaan J

    2016-06-01

    Palladium-catalyzed alcohol oxidation allows the chemo- and regioselective modification of unprotected 1,4 linked glucans. This is demonstrated in the two-step bisfunctionalization of 1,4 linked glucans up to the 7-mer. Introduction of an anomeric azide is followed by a highly regioselective mono-oxidation of the terminal C3-OH functionality. The resulting orthogonal bis-functionalized oligosaccharides are a viable alternative to PEG-spacers as demonstrated in the conjugation of a cysteine mutant of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase with biotin. PMID:27159790

  15. Canonical representations of the Lie superalgebra osp(1,4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, J.; Havlíček, M.; Bednář, M.; Lassner, W.

    1981-11-01

    The method for constructing infinite-dimensional representations of Lie superalgebras proposed by the authors recently is applied to the superalgebra osp (1, 4). Explicit formulae for its generators in terms of two or three pairs of operators fulfilling the canonical commutation relations, at most one pair of operators fulfilling the canonical anticommutation relations and at most one real parameter are obtained. The generators of the Lie subalgebra sp (4, ℝ) ⊂ osp (1,4) are represented skew-symmetrically and both the Casimir operators are equal to multiples of the unity operator.

  16. Elicitor and resistance-inducing activities of beta-1,4 cellodextrins in grapevine, comparison with beta-1,3 glucans and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Aziz; Gauthier, Adrien; Bézier, Annie; Poinssot, Benoît; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Pugin, Alain; Heyraud, Alain; Baillieul, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    Cellodextrins (CD), water-soluble derivatives of cellulose composed of beta-1,4 glucoside residues, have been shown to induce a variety of defence responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cells. The larger oligomers of CD rapidly induced transient generation of H2O2 and elevation in free cytosolic calcium, followed by a differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins as well as stimulation of chitinase and beta-1,3 glucanase activities. Most of these defence reactions were also induced by linear beta-1,3 glucans (betaGlu) and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides (OGA) of different degree of polymerization (DP), but the intensity of some reactions induced by CD was different when compared with betaGlu and OGA effects. Moreover, desensitization assays using H2O2 production showed that cells treated with CD remained fully responsive to a second application of OGA, suggesting a different mode of perception of these oligosaccharides by grape cells. None of CD, betaGlu, or OGA induced HSR gene expression nor did they induce cell death. In accordance with elicitor activity in grapevine cells, CD-incubated leaves challenged with Botrytis cinerea also resulted in a significant reduction of the disease. Data suggest that CD could operate via other distinct reaction pathways than betaGlu and OGA. They also highlight the requirement of a specific DP for each oligosaccharide to induce the defence response. PMID:17322548

  17. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature executed by...

  18. 13. Engine room, view of Ames aniflow (engine #1). 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Engine room, view of Ames aniflow (engine #1). 4 cylinder-1953, centrifuge oil separator in foreground, doorway to machine shop on right in background, taken from southeast - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... broker, a pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature...

  20. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature executed by...

  1. Sunspot 1520 Releases Strong (X1.4) Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 10-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 131 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength that is...

  2. 43 CFR 3425.1-4 - Emergency leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency leasing. 3425.1-4 Section 3425.1... Emergency leasing. (a) An emergency lease sale may be held in response to an application under this subpart... Governor of the affected State(s) a notice of an emergency lease application when it is filed with...

  3. Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of 1,4-diaryl 1,4-diazabutadiene: radical versus non-radical states.

    PubMed

    Chandra Patra, Sarat; Saha Roy, Amit; Manivannan, Vadivelu; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2014-09-28

    Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of 1,4-di(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-diazabutadiene (LDAB) of types trans-[RuII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (1), trans-[OsII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Br2] (2) and trans-[Rh(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3) are isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, mass and 1H NMR spectra including the single crystal X-ray structure determination of 1·2toluene. The α-diimine fragment of the LDAB ligand in 1·2toluene is deformed, showing a relatively longer -C=N- bond, 1.320 Å, and a shorter =CH–CH= bond, 1.395 Å. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on trans-[Ru(LDAB)(PMe3)2Cl2] (1Me) and trans-[Os(LDAB)(PMe3)2Br2] (2Me) with singlet spin states authenticated that the closed shell singlet state (CSS) solutions of 1 and 2 are stable and no perturbation occurs because of the diradical open shell singlet (OSS) state. The EPR spectra of 3 and the Mulliken spin density distribution obtained from the DFT calculation on trans-[Rh(LDAB)(PMe3)2Cl2] (3Me) imply that the ground electronic state of 3 can be defined by the [RhIII(LDAB˙−)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3RhL˙) ↔ [RhII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3Rh˙L) resonating states. In solid, the contribution of 3RhL˙ is higher and the gav is 2.018 with Δg = 0.10, whereas in frozen glasses the contribution of 3Rh˙L is higher and the gav is 2.026 with Δg (frozen glasses) = 0.13. The g parameters of the electrogenerated [1]+ (g1 = 2.456, g2 = 2.128 and g3 = 1.624, Δg = 0.824), [2]+ (g1 = 2.599, g2 = 2.041 and g3 = 1.965, Δg = 0.634), [1]− (g1 = 2.138, g2 = 2.109, g3 = 1.978 and Δg = 0.160) and [2]− (g1 = 2.168, g2 = 2.097, g3 = 1.987 and Δg = 0.181) ions and the spin density distributions obtained from the DFT calculations on [1Me]+, [2Me]+, [1Me]− and [2Me]− reveal that the reversible anodic peaks of 1 and 2 at 0.11 and 0.34 V, referenced versus Fc+/Fc couple, are due to the M(III)/M(II) redox couple, while the reversible cathodic waves at −1.27 V and −0.82 V of 1 and 2 are caused by the LDAB/LDAB˙− redox couple

  4. Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking across Grades 1-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung H.

    2016-01-01

    Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling…

  5. Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by an actinomycete in pure culture.

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R E; Adamus, J E; White, N; May, H D

    1994-01-01

    An actinomycete capable of sustained aerobic growth on 1,4-dioxane was isolated from a dioxane-contaminated sludge samples. The actinomycete, CB1190, grows on 1,4-dioxane as the sole carbon and energy source with a generation time of approximately 30 h. CB1190 degrades 1,4-dioxane at a rate of 0.33 mg of dioxane min-1 mg of protein-1 and mineralizes 59.5% of the dioxane to CO2. CB1190 also grows with other cyclic and linear ethers as the sole carbon and energy sources, including 1,3-dioxane, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydropyran, diethyl ether, and butyl methyl ether. CB1190 is capable of aerobic autotrophic growth on H2 and CO2. PMID:7811088

  6. Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of 1,4-Dioxane in Rats, Mice, and Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Lisa M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Poet, Torka S.; Corley, Rick; Weber, Thomas J.; Locey, B. J.; Clarkson, Jacquelyn; Sager, S.; Gargas, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) is used primarily as a solvent or as a solvent stabilizer. It can cause lung, liver and kidney damage at sufficiently high exposure levels. Two physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of 1,4-dioxane and its major metabolite, hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), were published in 1990. These models have uncertainties and deficiencies that could be addressed and the model strengthened for use in a contemporary cancer risk assessment for 1,4-dioxane. Studies were performed to fill data gaps and reduce uncertainties pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of 1,4-dioxane and HEAA in rats, mice, and humans. Three types of studies were performed:partition coefficient measurements, blood time course in mice, and in vitro pharmacokinetics using rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes. Updated PBPK models were developed based on these new data and previously available data. The optimized rate of metabolism for the mouse was significantly higher than the value previously estimated. The optimized rat kinetic parameters were similar to those in the 1990 models. Only two human studies were identified. Model predictions were consistent with one study, but did not fit the second as well. In addition, a rat nasal exposure was completed. The results confirmed water directly contacts rat nasal tissues during drinking water under bioassays. Consistent with previous PBPK models, nasal tissues were not specifically included in the model. Use of these models will reduce the uncertainty in future 1,4-dioxane risk assessments.

  7. Solubility of carbon monoxide in 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Veleckis, E.; Hacker, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The solubility of CO in 1,4-dioxane was determined as a function of pressure (7-70 atm) and temperature (80-173/sup 0/C). An expression is given for solubility that relates the mole fraction and partial pressure of CO (in atmospheres) and the temperature in degrees Kelvin. The results, analyzed in terms of the Krichevsky-Ilinskaya equation, showed that the partial molar volume of CO was independent of pressure and that the isobaric Henry's law was obeyed in the ranges studied. Comparisons with other solvents showed that, on the basis of CO dissolution characteristics, 1,4-dioxane can be classified better with polar than with nonpolar solvents.

  8. Ambiphilic boron in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baolin; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Hirao, Hajime; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Boranes have long been known as the archetypal Lewis acids owing to an empty p-orbital on the boron centre. Meanwhile, Lewis basic tricoordinate boranes have been developed in recent years. Here we report the synthesis of an annulated 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine derivative featuring boron atoms that exhibit both Lewis acidic and basic properties. Experimental and computational studies confirmed that two boron atoms in this molecule are spectroscopically equivalent. Nevertheless, this molecule cleaves C–O, B–H, Si–H and P–H bonds heterolytically, and readily undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with non-activated unsaturated bonds such as C=O, C=C, C≡C and C≡N bonds. The result, thus, indicates that the indistinguishable boron atoms in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine act as both nucleophilic and electrophilic centres, demonstrating ambiphilic nature. PMID:27279265

  9. Ambiphilic boron in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baolin; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Hirao, Hajime; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Boranes have long been known as the archetypal Lewis acids owing to an empty p-orbital on the boron centre. Meanwhile, Lewis basic tricoordinate boranes have been developed in recent years. Here we report the synthesis of an annulated 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine derivative featuring boron atoms that exhibit both Lewis acidic and basic properties. Experimental and computational studies confirmed that two boron atoms in this molecule are spectroscopically equivalent. Nevertheless, this molecule cleaves C-O, B-H, Si-H and P-H bonds heterolytically, and readily undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with non-activated unsaturated bonds such as C=O, C=C, C≡C and C≡N bonds. The result, thus, indicates that the indistinguishable boron atoms in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine act as both nucleophilic and electrophilic centres, demonstrating ambiphilic nature. PMID:27279265

  10. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Regioselective 1,4-Hydroboration of Pyridines.

    PubMed

    Kaithal, Akash; Chatterjee, Basujit; Gunanathan, Chidambaram

    2016-07-15

    Simple ruthenium precursor [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2 1 catalyzed regioselective 1,4-dearomatization of pyridine derivatives using pinacolborane is reported. Two catalytic intermediates, [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2Py] 2 and [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2(P(Cy)3)] 3, involved in this process are identified, independently synthesized, characterized, and further used directly as effective catalysts; two more catalytic intermediates [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2(Py)(P(Cy)3)] 4 and [Ru(p-cymene)(H)Cl(Py)(P(Cy)3)] 5 are identified in solution. Complex 5 is the active catalytic intermediate. An intramolecular selective 1,5-hydride transfer in 5 leading to the regioselective 1,4-hydroboration of pyridine compounds is proposed. PMID:27351256

  11. Larger benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Eocene-Oligocene transition at Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, H.; El Beshtawy, M.; Osman, R.; Gadallah, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the Eocene part of the Siwa Oasis, the larger foraminifera are represented by the genera Nummulites, Arxina, Operculina, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella, Gaziryina and Discocyclina in order of abundance. Operculina continues up to the early Oligocene as modern representatives in tropical regions, while the other genera became extinct. Nevertheless, the most common larger foraminiferal genus Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) appears only in the lowermost Oligocene. In spite of the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) transition is thought to have been attended by major continental cooling at northern middle and high latitudes, we discover that at the Siwa Oasis, there is a clear warming trend from the late Eocene (extinction level of Nummulites, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella and Discocyclina) to the early Oligocene is observed due to the high abundance of Operculina and occurrence of kaolinite and gypsiferous shale deposits in both Qatrani and El Qara formations (Oligocene) at this transition. The El Qara Formation is a new rock unit proposed herein for the Oligocene (Rupelian age) in the first time. Several episodes of volcanic activity occurred in Egypt during the Cenozoic. Mid Tertiary volcanicity was widespread and a number of successive volcanic pulses are starting in the late Eocene. The release of mantle CO2 from this very active volcanic episode may have in fact directly caused the warm Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse climate effect.

  12. Antineoplastic agents LXIV: 1,4-Bis(2'-chloroethyl)-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane dihydrogen dimaleate.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G R; Gieschen, D P; Pettit, W E

    1979-12-01

    The 1,4-bis(2'-chloroethyl)-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane dication (II) exhibits remarkable antineoplastic activity. Detailed evaluation of several dianion derivatives showed a curative response level against the murine P-388 lymphocytic leukemia, colon 26, CD8F1 mammary, and the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma (rat) tumor systems. In addition, significant cancer chemotherapeutic activity was found against the murine L-1210 lymphoid leukemia, colon 38, and B16 melanocarcinoma tumor systems. The bicyclo dication (II) first was isolated, evaluated, and stored as the diperchlorate derivative (IIa). Because of the promising anticancer activity of IIa, procedures were developed for obtaining other anion derivatives for comparative biological purposes. Several naturally occurring substances were evaluated, and the dihydrogen dimaleate derivative (IIi) obtained by an ion-exchange technique was the most suitable. PMID:529047

  13. Redox magnetohydrodynamics enhancement of stripping voltammetry of lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) ions using 1,4-benzoquinone as an alternative pumping species.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Nazari, Z; Fritsch, I

    2012-01-21

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) coupled with redox-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to enhance the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) response using a mercury thin film-glassy carbon electrode. The sensitivity increased to at least a factor of two (at 1.2 T) and is facilitated by using 20.0 mmol L(-1) 1,4-benzoquinone as an alternative pumping species to enhance ASV by redox-MHD. The MHD force formed by the cross-product of ion flux with magnetic field induces solution convection during the deposition step, enhancing mass transport of the analytes to the electrode surface and increasing their preconcentrated quantity in the mercury thin film. Therefore, larger ASV peaks and improved sensitivities are obtained, compared with analyses performed without a magnet. The influence of pH, 1,4-benzoquinone concentration, accumulation potential, and time are also investigated. Detection limits of 0.05, 0.09 and 2.2 ng mL(-1) Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) were established with an accumulation time of 65 s. The method is used for the analysis of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) in different water samples, certified reference materials, and saliva samples with satisfactory results. PMID:22116833

  14. Role of Stearic Acid in the Strain-Induced Crystallization of Crosslinked Natural Rubber and Synthetic Cis-1,4-Polyisoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Kohjiya,S.; Tosaka, M.; Furutani, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Toki, S.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-induced crystallization of crosslinked natural rubber (NR) and its synthetic analogue, cis-1,4-polyisoprene (IR), both mixed with various amounts of stearic acid (SA), were investigated by time-resolved X-ray diffraction using a powerful synchrotron radiation source and simultaneous mechanical (tensile) measurement. No acceleration or retardation was observed on NR in spite of the increase of SA amount. Even the SA-free IR crystallized upon stretching, and the overall crystallization behavior of IR shifted to the larger strain ratio with increasing SA content. No difference due to the SA was detected in the deformation of crystal lattice by stress for both NR and IR. These results suggested that the extended network chains are effective for the initiation of crystallization upon stretching, while the role of SA is trivial. These behaviors are much different from their crystallization at low temperature by standing, where SA acts as a nucleating agent.

  15. Formation and metabolism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, J L; Dangelmaier, C A; Smith, J B

    1987-01-01

    1. myo-[3H]Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], when added to lysed platelets, was rapidly converted into [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4], which was in turn converted into [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4)P3]. This result demonstrates that platelets have the same metabolic pathways for interconversion of inositol polyphosphates that are found in other cells. 2. Labelling of platelets with [32P]Pi, followed by h.p.l.c., was used to measure thrombin-induced changes in the three inositol polyphosphates. Interfering compounds were removed by a combination of enzymic and non-enzymic techniques. 3. Ins(1,4,5)P3 was formed rapidly, and reached a maximum at about 4 s. It was also rapidly degraded, and was no longer detectable after 30-60 s. 4. Formation of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was almost as rapid as that of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and it remained detectable for a longer time. 5. Ins(1,3,4)P3 was formed after an initial lag, and this isomer reached its maximum, which was 10-fold higher than that of Ins(1,4,5)P3, at 30 s. 6. Comparison of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration as measured with fura-2 indicates that agents other than Ins(1,4,5)P3 are responsible for the sustained maintenance of a high concentration of intracellular Ca2+. It is proposed that either Ins(1,3,4)P3 or Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 may also be Ca2+-mobilizing agents. PMID:3499898

  16. Open Walls to a Larger World: What Handheld Computing Can Do for School Libraries and Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey Theresa A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Handheld computers give students access to the larger world of information beyond the classroom. Wireless access allows students real time access to all networks resources, including downloading e-books and documents, searching the library media centres catalog and searching databases to which the library has subscribed.

  17. The fragmentation pattern of 1,4-dioxane ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Robert C.; Huang, Fu-Shiuan; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    1993-09-01

    Fragmentation of 1,4-dioxane ions at low internal energies was studied by photodissociation in the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) ion trap. Branching ratios, rate--energy curves and kinetic parameters were assigned for the m/z 58, 57 and 45 fragment ions. M/z 58 is formed through a slightly tight rate-limiting transition state (E0 = 1.46 eV, [Delta]S+1000K = -1.4 e.u.) which probably corresponds to rupture of the dioxane ring. M/z 45 is formed through a tight transition state (E0 = 1.42 eV, [Delta]S++1000K = -10.9 eV) which presumably reflects a cyclic rearrangement pathway. The kinetic data for formation of 57 are almost equally well fitted by assuming competitive (RRKM) fragmentation from the parent ion, or assuming sequential fragmentation through an intermediate 58 ion. If the mechanism is solely competitive, the transition state is extraordinary loose (E0 = 1.87 eV, [Delta]S++1000K = 14.8 e.u.) which would be very surprising for this rearrangement dissociation. Accordingly we lean toward a sequential dissociation mechanism leading to the 57 product, and suggest further experimental testing of this possibility via structural studies of the 57 fragment.

  18. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  19. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  20. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  1. Diagnostics and performance of a 1/4-scale MPD thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, T. M.; Zakrzwski, C.; Soulas, G.

    1990-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance and scaling characteristics of a 1/4-scale magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster operating with and without applied magnetic nozzle fields. The experiment was carried out with separate pulse forming networks for the thruster and the applied field solenoidal coil. A strong correlation of impact pressure signal with thruster current was noted. Also striking was the larger impact signal when the magnetic nozzle field was applied. Measurements of N(e) and T(e) from Langmuir probes have been made. Compatible interpretation of pressure with N(e), T(e), allow local velocity to be mapped, thus enhancing understanding of the acceleration process.

  2. 4.1N binding regions of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Kazumi; Bannai, Hiroko; Inoue, Takafumi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2006-04-01

    Zhang et al. and Maximov et al. [S. Zhang, A. Mizutani, C. Hisatsune, T. Higo, H. Bannai, T. Nakayama, M. Hattori, and K. Mikoshiba, Protein 4.1N is required for translocation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 to the basolateral membrane domain in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4048-4056; A. Maximov, T. S. Tang, and I. Bezprozvanny, Association of the type 1 inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor with 4.1N protein in neurons, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 22 (2003) 271-283.] reported that 4.1N is a binding partner of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP(3)R1), however the binding site of IP(3)R1 differed: the former determined the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail (CTT14aa) as the binding site, while the latter assigned another segment, cytoplasmic tail middle 1 (CTM1). To solve this discrepancy, we performed immunoprecipitation and found that both the segments had binding activity to 4.1N. Both segments also interfered the 4.1N-regulated IP(3)R1 diffusion in neuronal dendrites. However, IP(3)R1 lacking the CTT14aa (IP(3)R1-DeltaCTT14aa) does not bind to 4.1N [S. Zhang, A. Mizutani, C. Hisatsune, T. Higo, H. Bannai, T. Nakayama, M. Hattori, and K. Mikoshiba, Protein 4.1N is required for translocation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 to the basolateral membrane domain in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4048-4056.] and its diffusion constant is larger than that of IP(3)R1 full-length in neuronal dendrites [K. Fukatsu, H. Bannai, S. Zhang, H. Nakamura, T. Inoue, and K. Mikoshiba, Lateral diffusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is regulated by actin filaments and 4.1N in neuronal dendrites, J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 48976-48982.]. We conclude that both the CTT14aa and CTM1 sequences can bind to 4.1N in peptide fragment forms. However, we propose that the responsible binding site for 4.1N binding in full-length tetramer form of IP

  3. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  4. Editorial Commentary: Are Larger Screws the Answer When Anatomic Reconstruction of an Acromioclavicular Separation Fails?

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Although fixation methods have improved, failure after fixation of an acromioclavicular joint separation is not uncommon. This biomechanical study shows that in the setting of graft slippage through previously well-placed clavicular tunnels, a revision anatomic reconstruction is feasible with larger tenodesis screws. Although the risk of clavicular fracture increases with larger tunnels, anatomic revision with larger screws is an option in select cases. PMID:27495861

  5. [Current knowledge on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1 ,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)].

    PubMed

    Dematteis, Maurice; Pennel, Lucie; Mallaret, Michel

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an old anaesthetic drug which was misused in the 80-90's as an anabolic agent (bodybuilding), recreational drug (drunkenness, euphoric, disinhibiting and aphrodisiac effects) and as a date rape drug (disinhibiting, hypnotic and amnesic effects). Its use in the general population is low, and mainly concerns gay population in nightclubs and young people in parties. The intoxications, above all with alcohol combination, can be severe, with coma and breathing depression, or even fatal. Chronic use leads to psychic and physical dependence; withdrawal syndrome can be severe, with agitation and delirium. In 1999, GHB classification as a narcotic resulted in the increased use of GHB prodrugs gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which were easily commercially available as solvent and cleaning products. Like GHB, they have a narrow window of use, and share similar toxicity. Their increased cases of recreational use and of severe drug intoxication, abuse and dependence, led the French Ministry of Health in 2011 to prohibit their sale and transfer to the public. PMID:22730800

  6. Powder metallurgy titanium 6A1-4V plate

    SciTech Connect

    Geisendorfer, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A powder metallurgical approach has been combined with controlled mill processing to produce a highly uniform plate material suitable for structural applications. Prealloyed ELI Titanium 6A1-4V powder produced by the rotating electrode process was consolidated into billet by hot isostatic pressing. The resulting billet of uniform composition and random texture was then hot cross-rolled to 3 cm thick plate. Following rolling, the plate was given a beta annealing heat treatment to maximize damage tolerance. The plate was characterized with respect to metallurgical structure, composition, texture, and room temperature mechanical properties. The results of the study show that a powder metallurgy titanium mill product possessing uniform macro- and microstructure is technically feasible and exhibits tensile and fatigue properties equivalent to those of conventionally produced ingot-source wrought plate.

  7. 1.4 GHz continuum sources in the Cancer cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpeter, E. E.; Dickey, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Results of 1.4-GHz continuum observations are presented for 11 VLA fields, using the D-configuration, which contain the A group of the Cnc cluster (CC). Sixteen Zwicky spiral galaxies in the CC were detected, but no ellipticals, confirming the finding that spiral galaxies with close companions tend to have enhanced radio emission. Over 200 continuum sources beyond the CC are tabulated. The spectral index (relative to 610 MHz) is given for many of the sources, including some of the Zwicky galaxies. There is a suggestion for a nonuniform number surface-density distribution of the sources, not correlated with the CC. Possible predictions of such nonuniformities, from assumptions on 'super-superclusters', are discussed.

  8. 1.4GHz Survey of Fossil Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwick, Victoria; Wilcots, E.; Hess, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil groups, luminous, isolated elliptical galaxies with extended x-ray halos, represent the remnants of galactic cannibalism within galaxy groups. Current research has concentrated primarily on visible and x-ray observations. Here, we report the results of a preliminary survey of 34 fossil groups observed at 1.4Ghz using the VLA. We detect radio sources in many of the groups. Using radio emission as a tracer for nuclear activity, we estimate the frequency of past and current AGN activity in fossil groups and extract information about the age and evolutionary history of the fossil groups. Further observations at multiple radio frequencies may then provide information about the role of minor mergers and AGN as sources of heat in the IGM and as remedies to the cooling flow problem.

  9. 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne as a potential tritium getter

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.H.; Bissell, E.E.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Souers, P.C.

    1980-10-01

    Research on the acetylene compound 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne is an effort to develop an air-operative tritium gas scavenger. T/sub 2/ adds to the acetylene bond of the organic in the presence of a metal catalyst. The catalyst also stimulates the oxidation reaction as well. The butadiyne compound has shown good reaction efficiency at 300 ppM T/sub 2/ in static dry air. At this concentration 75% of the scavenged tritium was in the organic. This work has expanded to the investigation of liquid acetylenes, metal acetylene complexes, organometallics and acetylene based alcohols. The best of these compounds has gettered 100% of 10 to 500 ppM T/sub 2/ for both static and dynamic air flow conditions.

  10. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate induced calcium waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcke, M.

    Traveling waves of high concentration of Ca2+ are observed in many different cells and have attracted great interest in experimental and theoretical biological research in recent years. They are created by the nonlinear dynamics of the release and uptake of Ca2+ by intracellular Ca2+ stores like the endoplasmatic or sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Their characteristics depend on other cellular organelles and components like mitochondria and Ca2+ buffers too. Here, we present some mathematical models and results of recent research on intracellular Ca2+ waves generated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channel including the modeling of Calcium induced Calcium release, buffer dynamics, impact of mitochondria on wave formation and the effect of the spatial discreteness of the channels releasing Ca2+. Modeling of the communication of Ca2+ waves to adjacent cells through gap junctions concludes this report.

  11. Gonyautoxin 1/4 aptamers with high-affinity and high-specificity: From efficient selection to aptasensor application.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shunxiang; Hu, Bo; Zheng, Xin; Cao, Ying; Liu, Dejing; Sun, Mingjuan; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Lianghua

    2016-05-15

    Gonyautoxin 1/4 (GTX1/4) are potent marine neurotoxins with significant public health impact. However, the ethical issues and technical defects associated with the currently applied detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin GTX1/4 are pressing further studies to develop suitable alternatives in a regulatory monitoring system. This work describes the first successful selection, optimization, and characterization of an aptamer that bind with high affinity and specificity to GTX1/4. Compared to the typical MB-SELEX, GO-SELEX, an advanced screening technology, has significant advantages for small molecular aptamer development. Furthermore, we truncated GTX1/4 aptamer and obtained the aptamer core sequence with a higher Kd of 17.7 nM. The aptamer GO18-T-d was then used to construct a label-free and real-time optical BLI aptasensor for the detection of GTX1/4. The aptasensor showed a broad detection range from 0.2 to 200 ng/mL GTX1/4 (linear range from 0.2 to 90 ng/mL), with a low detection limit of 50 pg/mL. Moreover, the aptasensor exhibited a high degree of specificity for GTX1/4 and no cross reactivity to other marine toxins. The aptasensor was then applied to the detection of GTX1/4 in spiked shellfish samples and showed a good reproducibility and stability. We believe that this novel aptasensor offers a promising alternative to traditional analytical methods for the rapid detection of the marine biotoxin GTX1/4. PMID:26802576

  12. β1,4-galactosyltransferase-I in synovial tissue of collagen-induced rat model of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hairong; Xu, Dawei; Tao, Ran; Ni, Xiaohui; Shen, Aiguo; Wang, Youhua

    2011-09-01

    β1,4-galactosyltransferase-I (β1,4-GalT-I), which is one of the best-studied glycosyltransferases, plays a key role in the synthesis of selectin ligands such as sialyl Lewis (sLe(x)) and sulfated sLe(x). Previous studies showed that inflammatory responses of β1,4-GalT-I-deficient mice were impaired because of the defect in selectin-ligand biosynthesis. However, the expression of β1,4-GalT-I and its biological function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain to be elucidated. The mRNA and protein expression of β1,4-GalT-I increased in synovial tissue of the RA group compared with the Normal group at 10d and 15d after collagen-induced. Double staining indicated β1,4-GalT-I overlapped with macrophage-like synoviocytes (MLSs), fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), neutrophils and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, β1,4-GalT-I mRNA in FLSs in vitro was affected in a dose- and time-dependent manner in response to TNF-α stimulation. ELISA revealed that expression of TNF-α was attenuated in FLSs in vitro treated with β1,4-GalT-I-Ab. We therefore suggest that β1,4-GalT-I may play an important role in the inflammation process of RA synovial tissue, which would provide the foundation for further researching into the concrete mechanism of β1,4-GalT-I in RA. PMID:21161318

  13. Ca(2+) signals mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels in rat ureteric myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Boittin, F X; Coussin, F; Morel, J L; Halet, G; Macrez, N; Mironneau, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized Ca(2+)-release signals (puffs) and propagated Ca(2+) waves were characterized in rat ureteric myocytes by confocal microscopy. Ca(2+) puffs were evoked by photorelease of low concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) from a caged precursor and by low concentrations of acetylcholine; they were also observed spontaneously in Ca(2+)-overloaded myocytes. Ca(2+) puffs showed some variability in amplitude, time course and spatial spread, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels exist in clusters containing variable numbers of channels and that within these clusters a variable number of channels can be recruited. Immunodetection of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors revealed the existence of several spots of fluorescence in the confocal cell sections, supporting the existence of clusters of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors. Strong Ins(1,4,5)P(3) photorelease and high concentrations of acetylcholine induced Ca(2+) waves that originated from an initiation site and propagated in the whole cell by spatial recruitment of neighbouring Ca(2+)-release sites. Both Ca(2+) puffs and Ca(2+) waves were blocked selectively by intracellular applications of heparin and an anti-Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-receptor antibody, but were unaffected by ryanodine and intracellular application of an anti-ryanodine receptor antibody. mRNAs encoding for the three subtypes of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor and subtype 3 of ryanodine receptor were detected in these myocytes, and the maximal binding capacity of [(3)H]Ins(1,4,5)P(3) was 10- to 12-fold higher than that of [(3)H]ryanodine. These results suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-gated channels mediate a continuum of Ca(2+) signalling in smooth-muscle cells expressing a high level of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptors and no subtypes 1 and 2 of ryanodine receptors. PMID:10861244

  14. Synthesis of substituted 1,4-diazepines and 1,5-benzodiazepines using an efficient heteropolyacid-catalyzed procedure.

    PubMed

    Kaoua, Rachedine; Bennamane, Norah; Bakhta, Saliha; Benadji, Sihame; Rabia, Cherifa; Nedjar-Kolli, Bellara

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and improved procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-diazepine and 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives via the reaction of ketimine intermediates with aldehydes in the presence of Keggin-type heteropolyacids (HPAs) was developed. High yields and short reaction times were obtained for both electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing substituted 1,4-diazepine  and 1,5-benzodiazepines derivatives. PMID:21189457

  15. Comparative study of equimolar doses of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) on catalepsy after acute and chronic administration.

    PubMed

    Towiwat, Pasarapa; Phattanarudee, Siripan; Maher, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and its precursors 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are known drugs of abuse. The ability of acute and chronic administration of equimolar doses of GHB (200mg/kg), 1,4-BD (174mg/kg) and GBL (166mg/kg) to produce catalepsy in male Swiss Webster mice was examined. GHB, 1,4-BD, GBL produced catalepsy when injected acutely. Drug treatment was then continued for 14days. Tolerance development was determined on days 6, 14, and challenged with a higher dose on day 15 in those chronically pretreated mice, and compared with naïve mice. Chronic GHB produced tolerance to catalepsy, as evidenced from area under the curve (AUC) of catalepsy versus time (min-sec) on days 6 (678±254), 14 (272±247), which were less than those on day 1 (1923±269). However, less tolerance was seen from GBL or 1,4-BD, as AUCs on days 6 and 14 were not significantly lower than that of day 1. In conclusion, although equimolar doses were used, expecting similar levels of GHB in the body, 1,4-BD and GBL shared only some of the in vivo effects of GHB. The rate of metabolic conversion of 1,4-BD and GBL into GHB might be responsible for the differences in the tolerance development to these drugs. PMID:23104245

  16. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  17. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  18. Recent studies of the optical counterpart of GX 1+4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D. P.; Sood, R. K.; Stringfellow, G.; James, S. D.; Hill, K. M.; Manchanda, R. K.

    1993-12-01

    The galactic X-ray source GX 1+4 has been undergoing remarkable changes since early 1991. The X-ray pulsar has shown fast spin down accompanied by an increase in the hard X-ray intensity. We have obtained 1.6A resolution spectra of the optical counterpart extending the known spectrum to 8500A. The Ca II (8498A) line seen for the first time from this source is indicative of a nova burst scenario. Other lines detected for the first time are detailed and the significance of these features is discussed.

  19. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Uccheddu, Stefania; Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2015-11-01

    Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level. Conversely, increasing group size may also lead to a decrease in foraging activity by increasing foraging competition, but this effect has rarely been considered in mating tactic studies. This study examined the importance of two non-exclusive hypotheses in explaining the variations of the female activity budget during the breeding season: the male harassment hypothesis, and the female foraging competition hypothesis. We used focal observations of female activity from known mating groups collected during the breeding season from a long-term (15 years) study on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. We found that females were more disturbed (i.e., spent less time feeding) in the presence of young dominant males, and marginally disturbed in the presence of satellite males, which supports the male harassment hypothesis. We also found that female disturbance level increased with group size, being independent of the adult sex ratio. Consequently, these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6-7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males. PMID:26188521

  20. Stable isotope stratigraphy and larger benthic foraminiferal extinctions in the Melinau Limestone, Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Pearson, Paul N.; Renema, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Important long-ranging groups of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are known to have become extinct during a period of global cooling and climate disruption at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) but the precise timing and mechanisms are uncertain. Recent study showed unexpectedly that the LBF extinction in Tanzania occurs very close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, as recognised by the extinction of the planktonic foraminiferal Family Hantkeninidae, rather than at the later period of maximum global ice growth and sea-level fall, as previously thought. Here we investigate the same phase of extinction in the Melinau Limestone of Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, Malaysia one of the most complete carbonate successions spanning the Eocene to Lower Miocene. Assemblages of LBF from the Melinau Limestone were studied extensively by Geoffrey Adams during the 1960s-80s, confirming a major extinction during the EOT, but the section lacked independent means of correlation. By analysing rock samples originally studied by Adams and now in the Natural History Museum, London, we provide new bulk stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) records. This enables us to identify, albeit tentatively, the level of maximum stable isotope excursion and show that the LBF extinction event in the Melinau Limestone occurs below this isotope excursion, supporting the results from Tanzania and indicating that the extinction of LBF close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary may be a global phenomenon.

  1. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN. PMID:25624068

  2. Analysis of the community structure of abyssal kinetoplastids revealed similar communities at larger spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Faezeh Shah; Arndt, Hartmut; Hausmann, Klaus; Nitsche, Frank; Scheckenbach, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial scales of diversity is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms driving biodiversity and biogeography in the vast but poorly understood deep sea. The community structure of kinetoplastids, an important group of microbial eukaryotes belonging to the Euglenozoa, from all abyssal plains of the South Atlantic and two areas of the eastern Mediterranean was studied using partial small subunit ribosomal DNA gene clone libraries. A total of 1364 clones from 10 different regions were retrieved. The analysis revealed statistically not distinguishable communities from both the South-East Atlantic (Angola and Guinea Basin) and the South-West Atlantic (Angola and Brazil Basin) at spatial scales of 1000–3000 km, whereas all other communities were significantly differentiated from one another. It seems likely that multiple processes operate at the same time to shape communities of deep-sea kinetoplastids. Nevertheless, constant and homogenous environmental conditions over large spatial scales at abyssal depths, together with high dispersal capabilities of microbial eukaryotes, maintain best the results of statistically indistinguishable communities at larger spatial scales. PMID:22071346

  3. Atmospheric photochemical degradation of 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.

    1999-12-01

    To better understand fates of aromatics hydrocarbon species in the atmosphere, the authors have investigated the transformation chemistry of butenedial (CHOCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), 4-oxo-2-pentenal (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), and 3-hexene-2, 5-dione (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCOCH{sub 3}). These 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls are known to be products of aromatic photochemical oxidation. Both hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O{sub 3}) initiated smog chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions were conducted in the University of North Carolina outdoor smog chamber. Carbonyl intermediates and products were measured using the O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization method followed by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. Carbonyl products detected and identified by comparison with standards in the OH-initiated photooxidation of butenedial include formaldehyde, acrolein, glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and malonaldehyde (CHOCH{sub 2}CHO). For 4-oxo-2-pentenal, the carbonyl products were formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and malonaldehyde. for 3-hexene-2,5-dione the products were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, hydroxyacetone, and methylglyoxal. Carbonyl products detected in the P{sub 3}-initiated experiments with cyclohexane as the OH scavenger were formaldehyde and glyoxal in butenedial; formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, and malonaldehyde in 4-oxo-2-pentenal; and formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in 3-hexene-2,5-dione.

  4. Solar wind halo electrons from 1-4 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D. J.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Phillips, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Observations from the Ulysses solar wind electron spectrometer are used to make a first examination of the evolution of the solar wind suprathermal or halo electron population as a function of heliocentric distance beyond 1 AU. As the core population cools with increasing heliocentric distance, no gap is formed between the core and halo populations. Rather, the halo electrons extend to increasingly lower energies. As predicted previously on theoretical grounds, the ratio of the core electron temperature to the low energy cutoff of the halo population appears to be roughly constant with a value of about 7.5. The total integrated heat flux drops rapidly with increasing heliocentric distance; a best fit power law of R exp -2.36 is found. In addition, it is found that the ratio of the halo to core densities is roughly constant over heliocentric distance with the halo representing 4 percent of the total electron distribution. These results suggest that the halo population may not consist of truly noninteractive test particles over the heliocentric range of 1-4 AU.

  5. Intracellular calcium channels: inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Olena A.; Popugaeva, Elena; Enomoto, Masahiro; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are the major intracellular Ca2+-release channels in cells. Activity of InsP3Rs is essential for elementary and global Ca2+ events in the cell. There are three InsP3Rs isoforms that are present in mammalian cells. In this review review we will focus primarily on InsP3R type 1. The InsP3R1 is a predominant isoform in neurons and it is most extensively studied isoform. Combination of biophysical and structural methods revealed key mechanisms of InsP3R function and modulation. Cell biological and biochemical studies lead to identification of a large number of InsP3R-binding proteins. InsP3Rs are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological processes, including learning and memory, proliferation, differentiation, development and cell death. Malfunction of InsP3R1 play a role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and other disease states. InsP3Rs represent a potentially valuable drug target for treatment of these disorders and for modulating activity of neurons and other cells. Future studies will provide better understanding of physiological functions of InsP3Rs in health and disease. PMID:24300389

  6. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate. PMID:23819285

  7. Active flow control on a 1:4 car model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Till; Springer, Matthias; Lienhart, Hermann; Kniesburges, Stefan; Othmer, Carsten; Becker, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Lift and drag of a passenger car are strongly influenced by the flow field around its rear end. The bluff body geometry produces a detached, transient flow which induces fluctuating forces on the body, affecting the rear axle, which may distress dynamic stability and comfort significantly. The investigations presented here deal with a 1:4 scale model of a simplified test car geometry that produces fluctuating lift and drag due to its strongly rounded rear geometry. To examine the influence of active flow control on this behavior, steady air jets were realized to exhaust from thin slots across the rear in three different configurations. Investigations were performed at and included the capturing of effective integral lift and drag, velocity measurements in the surrounding flow field with Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization on the rear. The flow field was found to be dominated by two longitudinal vortices, developing from the detachment of the flow at the upper C-pillar positions, and a recirculating, transverse vortex above the rear window. With an air jet emerging from a slot across the surface right below the rear window section, tangentially directed upstream toward the roof section, total lift could be reduced by more than 7 %, with rear axle lift reduction of about 5 % and negligible drag affection (1 %).

  8. RNA Interference in Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomula: Selectivity, Sensitivity and Operation for Larger-Scale Screening

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Martin; Braschi, Simon; Sojka, Daniel; Ruelas, Debbie S.; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, Kee-Chong; Hopkins, Stephanie D.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The possible emergence of resistance to the only available drug for schistosomiasis spurs drug discovery that has been recently incentivized by the availability of improved transcriptome and genome sequence information. Transient RNAi has emerged as a straightforward and important technique to interrogate that information through decreased or loss of gene function and identify potential drug targets. To date, RNAi studies in schistosome stages infecting humans have focused on single (or up to 3) genes of interest. Therefore, in the context of standardizing larger RNAi screens, data are limited on the extent of possible off-targeting effects, gene-to-gene variability in RNAi efficiency and the operational capabilities and limits of RNAi. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated in vitro the sensitivity and selectivity of RNAi using double-stranded (ds)RNA (approximately 500 bp) designed to target 11 Schistosoma mansoni genes that are expressed in different tissues; the gut, tegument and otherwise. Among the genes investigated were 5 that had been previously predicted to be essential for parasite survival. We employed mechanically transformed schistosomula that are relevant to parasitism in humans, amenable to screen automation and easier to obtain in greater numbers than adult parasites. The operational parameters investigated included defined culture media for optimal parasite maintenance, transfection strategy, time- and dose- dependency of RNAi, and dosing limits. Of 7 defined culture media tested, Basch Medium 169 was optimal for parasite maintenance. RNAi was best achieved by co-incubating parasites and dsRNA (standardized to 30 µg/ml for 6 days); electroporation provided no added benefit. RNAi, including interference of more than one transcript, was selective to the gene target(s) within the pools of transcripts representative of each tissue. Concentrations of dsRNA above 90 µg/ml were directly toxic. RNAi efficiency was transcript

  9. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  10. Conformational stability and intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 1,2-ethanediol and 1,4-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Das, Prasanta; Das, Puspendu K; Arunan, E

    2015-04-23

    The gas-phase infrared spectra of 1,2-ED and 1,4-BD have been recorded at three different temperatures using a multipass gas cell of 6 m optical path length. DFT calculation has also been carried out using 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets to look for the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in them from the red shift and infrared absorption intensity enhancement of the bonded O-H band compared to that of the free O-H band. Equilibrium population analysis with 10 conformers of 1,2-ED and 1,4-BD at experimental temperatures were carried out for the reconstruction of the observed vibrational spectra at that temperature using standard statistical relationships. The most abundant conformer at experimental temperatures was identified. In 1,2-ED a red shift of 45 cm(-1) in the intramolecularly interacting O-H stretching vibrational band position and no significant intensity enhancement compared to that of the free O-H have been observed. On the contrary, in one of the hydrogen-bonded conformers of 1,4-BD, a 124 cm(-1) red shift in the O-H stretching frequency and a 8.5 times intensity enhancement for the "bonded" O-H compared to that of the "free" O-H is seen. On the basis of this comparative study, we have concluded that strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding exists in 1,4-BD. But there appears to be weak intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 1,2-ED at temperatures of 303, 313, and 323 K in the gas phase. We have found that most stable hydrogen-bonded conformers of 1,4-BD are less populated than some of the non-hydrogen-bonded conformers. Even for the 1,4-BD, the relative population of the g'GG'Gt conformer, which has a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond, is less than what is predicted. Perhaps the intramolecular hydrogen bond plays a less significant role in the relative stability of the various conformers than what has been predicted from calculations and prevails in the literature. PMID:25839224

  11. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  12. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  13. Polymorphism in chloro derivatives of 1,4-naphthoquinone: Experiment and density functional theoretic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Dinkar; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Lande, Dipali N.; Chakravarty, Debamitra; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2016-09-01

    Molecular interactions underlying polymorphs of chlorine containing 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives have been investigated by employing single crystal X-ray, 1H NMR, FTIR and electronic spectra experiments combined with density functional theory. Two polymorphs of 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone possessing (i) triclinic space group P-1(A1 and A3), and (ii) orthorhombic with Pb21a (A2) space group were obtained. The polymorph A3 has two molecules in its asymmetric unit which facilitate Csbnd H⋯O interactions engendeing polymeric planar sheets. The two polymorphs of 2-amino-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone reveal monoclinic forms with Pc (B1) and C2/C (B2) space groups. A tetramer of B2 molecule possess Nsbnd H⋯O interactions. The polymorphs of 2-chloro-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone crystallizes in monoclinic space groups Pc (C1) and Pn (C2). Polymeric chain of C2 molecules results via Osbnd H⋯O interactions and the chains further are connected through Csbnd H⋯Cl and π-π stacking interactions those arise from benzenoid and quinonoid centroid. Moreover A3 facilitates the dimer via the halogen bonding interactions. Furthermore hydrogen bonding renders stability to the dimer C2. On the other hand compound B2 does not favor dimer formation. These inferences based on experimental observations are rationalized through the use of the dispersion corrected M06-2x functional based density functional theory. Further time dependent density functional theory has been used to assign the electronic transitions in UV-visible spectra of A3, B2 and C2.

  14. The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera MARCELLE K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL AND G. DAVID PRICE Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK One of the notable features of the Oligocene oceans was the appearance in Tethys of American lineages of larger benthic foraminifera, including the miogypsinids. They were reef-forming, and became very widespread and diverse, and so they play an important role in defining the Late Paleogene and Early Neogene biostratigraphy of the carbonates of the Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific Tethyan sub-provinces. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop an effective global view of the evolution of the miogypsinids, as the descriptions of specimens from Africa were rudimentary, and the stratigraphic ranges of genera of Tethyan forms appear to be highly dependent on palaeography. Our recent work, however, now enables a first systematic and biostratigraphic comparison of the miogypsinids from the Tethyan sub-provinces of the Mediterranean-West Africa and the Indo-Pacific, and can show for the first time that South Africa forms a new distinct bio-province. We infer that sea level, tectonic and climatic changes determined and constrained in turn the palaeogeographic distribution, evolution and eventual extinctions of the miogypsinid. The global sea level regressions in the Early Oligocene facilitated the trans-Atlantic migration of Neorotalia and miogypsinids from the Americas. This eastward migration followed two, distinct, unidirectional dispersals. One dispersal route was to the south towards South Africa, where a distinct phylogenetic lineage, similar to their American ancestors, was found in the Burdigalian. They became extinct together with their American ancestors, at the end of the Burdigalian; a time that coincided with a major global transgressions, circulation changes on closure of Panama and the major eruption of the

  15. Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wöger, Julia; Briguglio, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    The cosmopolite foraminifer Heterostegina depressa has been a target of studies, describing its internal and external morphology, ecology and biology. During the last decades many researcher concentrated on test morphology and described its maturoevolute shape. Furthermore, a continuously increasing trend of test flattening along water depth has been described multiple times. However, the most common measurements, such as the thickness/diameter ratio, are too dependent on individual size to pose as an accurate tool. /newline Therefore a growth invariant character has been used to describe the change of thickness through the ontogeny of H. depressa. To compute this, the thickness at the half-radius, the so-called mediolateral thickness, of five whorls has been measured in 127 axial section of H. depressa. Based on this the ontogenetic change in thickness has been computed for specimens from different depth intervals of the slope of Sesoko-Jima, NW-Okinawa. In addition, this has been compared with the actual thickness and the corresponding radii at the same measuring points. The latter describes how thickness would change according to the thickness/diameter ratio./newline Hence, our analysis clearly quantifies a continuous transition of individuals with thicker central parts to individuals with flatter central parts along the water depth gradient. This is most likely controlled by light intensity, since photosymbionts (diatoms) of H. depressa are most active at low irradiation levels. Thus, shallower specimens grow thicker tests to reduce light penetration, while deeper specimens increase their surface to reach a better light exposure. Due to its broad water depth distribution H. depressa is a perfect model species to calibrate test flattening as bathymetric signal for fossil assemblages. Since similar ecological constraints are assumed for fossil nummulitid taxa, useful palaeobathymetric information might be gathered from studying test flattening in extinct species

  16. Evidence of 1,4-dioxane attenuation at groundwater sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Adamson, David T; Anderson, R Hunter; Mahendra, Shaily; Newell, Charles J

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to develop appropriate management strategies for 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) due to its widespread occurrence and perceived recalcitrance at groundwater sites where chlorinated solvents are present. A comprehensive evaluation of California state (GeoTracker) and Air Force monitoring records was used to provide significant evidence of dioxane attenuation at field sites. Temporal changes in the site-wide maximum concentrations were used to estimate source attenuation rates at the GeoTracker sites (median length of monitoring period = 6.8 years). While attenuation could not be established at all sites, statistically significant positive attenuation rates were confirmed at 22 sites. At sites where dioxane and chlorinated solvents were present, the median value of all statistically significant dioxane source attenuation rates (equivalent half-life = 31 months; n = 34) was lower than 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) but similar to 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Dioxane attenuation rates were positively correlated with rates for 1,1-DCE and TCE but not TCA. At this set of sites, there was little evidence that chlorinated solvent remedial efforts (e.g., chemical oxidation, enhanced bioremediation) impacted dioxane attenuation. Attenuation rates based on well-specific records from the Air Force data set confirmed significant dioxane attenuation (131 out of 441 wells) at a similar frequency and extent (median equivalent half-life = 48 months) as observed at the California sites. Linear discriminant analysis established a positive correlation between dioxane attenuation and increasing concentrations of dissolved oxygen, while the same analysis found a negative correlation with metals and CVOC concentrations. The magnitude and prevalence of dioxane attenuation documented here suggest that natural attenuation may be used to manage some but not necessarily all dioxane-impacted sites. PMID:25970261

  17. LIP: The Livermore Interpolation Package, Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F N

    2011-07-06

    or invert the interpolant at an arbitrary number of points. The first section of this report describes the overall design of the package, including both forward and inverse interpolation. Sections 2-6 describe each interpolation method in detail. The software that implements this design is summarized function-by-function in Section 7. For a complete example of package usage, refer to Section 8. The report concludes with a few brief notes on possible software enhancements. For guidance on adding other functional forms to LIP, refer to Appendix B. The reader who is primarily interested in using LIP to solve a problem should skim Section 1, then skip to Sections 7.1-4. Finally, jump ahead to Section 8 and study the example. The remaining sections can be referred to in case more details are desired. Changes since version 1.1 of this document include the new Section 3.2.1 that discusses derivative estimation and new Section 6 that discusses the birational interpolation method. Section numbers following the latter have been modified accordingly.

  18. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  19. Can We Prevent a Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma by Using Larger Diameter Suction Drains?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Chang, Byung Kwon; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidural hematoma is a rare but serious complication. According to previous studies, it is not prevented by suction drains. This study evaluated the following alternative hypothesis: the larger the diameter of a suction drain, the less the remaining epidural hematoma after spinal surgery. Methods This was a randomized prospective study. Patients who underwent posterior lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion were divided into two groups: the large drain (LD, 2.8-mm-diameter tube) and small drain (SD, 1.6-mm-diameter tube) groups according to the diameter of the suction drains. All patients were consecutive and allocated alternately according to the date of operations. Suction drains were removed on day 3 and magnetic resonance imaging was performed on day 7 postoperatively. The size of remaining hematomas was measured by the degree of thecal sac compression in cross section using the following 4-point numeric scale: G1, less than one quarter; G2, between one quarter and half; G3, more than half; and G4, more than subtotal obstruction. Results There were 39 patients with LDs and 38 with SDs. They did not differ significantly in terms of sex, number of fusion segments, revision or not, antiplatelet medication, intraoperative injection of tranexamic acid. However, patient age differed significantly between the two groups (LD, 63.3 years and < SD, 68.6 years; p = 0.007). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet number, blood loss, or operation duration. However, platelet function analysis exhibited a significant difference (LD, 164.7 seconds and < SD, 222.3 seconds; p = 0.002). The two blinded readers showed high consistency (Kappa value = 0.740; p = 0.000). The results of reader 1 were as follows: LD and SD had 21 and 21 cases of G1, 9 and 11 cases of G2, 6 and 6 cases of G3, and 3 and 0 cases of G4, respectively. The results of reader 2 were as follows: LD and SD had 22

  20. [Density functional theory study of surface-enhanced raman spectra and excited state of 1,4-benzenedithiol].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang-Fan; Li, Chong-Yang; Feng, Yuan-Ming; Lin, Wang

    2014-02-01

    Raman scattering spectra and optimized geometries of the 1,4-benzenedithiol molecule and complexes have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional at the level of 6-311G+(d) basis set for C, H, S atoms and LanL2DZ for Ag, Au atoms, respectively. The optimized 1,4-benzenedithiol molecule was non-planar structure and the angle between benzene ring plane and S-H is 20.20. By means of the simulation of molecule adsorbed on gold and silver cluster, we concluded that gold clusters are nearly parallel to the benzenedithiol molecule and silver clusters are almost perpendicular to the molecular surface. The authors studied the interaction between Raman intensity and molecular properties, such as static polarizablity and charge distribution. The Raman intensity of 1,4-BDT-Au2, 1,4-BDT-Ag2 and Ag2-1,4-BDT-Au2 were in good agreement with static polarizability. The excited states of Ag2-1,4-BDT-Au2 complex were calculated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). And the simulated absorption spectra and several allowed singlet excited states were analyzed to investigate the surface-enhanced Raman chemical enhancement mechanism. PMID:24822413

  1. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    PubMed

    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-10-21

    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p < 0.05). Descriptive analyses revealed that 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole may contribute to the hay, dried herbs, and blackcurrant aromas reported in Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines. PMID:26434979

  2. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  3. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d1 and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1- d1 and of trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2 have been synthesized, and high-resolution (≤0.0018 cm-1) infrared spectra of these substances have been recorded in the gas phase. Analysis of the rotational structure, mostly in C-type bands, has yielded ground state rotational constants. For the two 1-d1 species more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d2 species only one band was available for analysis. However, good agreement between the experimental centrifugal distortion constants and those predicted with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model give strong support to the analysis of the very dense spectrum. The ground state rotational constants are a contribution to finding semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the two nonpolar isomers of 1,4- difluorobutadiene.

  4. Basin Waves on a Seafloor Recording of the 1990 Upland, California, Earthquake: Implications for Ground Motions from a Larger Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity and displacement time series from a recording on the seafloor at 74 km from the 1990 Upland earthquake (M = 5.6) are dominated by late-arriving waves with periods of 6 to 7 sec. These waves are probably surface waves traveling across the Los Angeles basin. Response spectra for the recording are in agreement with predictions from empirical regression equations and theoretical models for periods less than about 1 sec but are significantly larger than those predictions for longer periods. The longer-period spectral amplitudes are controlled by the late-arriving waves, which are not included in the theoretical models and are underrepresented in the data used in the empirical analyses. When the motions are scaled to larger magnitude, the results are in general agreement with simulations of wave propagation in the Los Angeles basin by Graves (1998).

  5. Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  6. Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  7. Low Temperature and Polyploidy Result in Larger Cell and Body Size in an Ectothermic Vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that low temperatures result in increases in both cell size and body size in ectotherms that may explain patterns of geographic variation of their body size across latitudinal ranges. Also, polyploidy showed the same effect on body size in invertebrates. In vertebrates, despite their having larger cells, no clear effect of polyploidy on body size has been found. This article presents the relationship between temperature, cell size, growth rate, and body size in diploid and polyploid hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus reared as tadpoles at 19° and 24°C. The size of cells was larger in both diploid and triploid tadpoles at 19°C, and triploids had larger cells at both temperatures. In diploid and triploid froglets, the temperature in which they developed as tadpoles did not affect the size of their cells, but triploids still had larger cells. Triploid tadpoles grew faster than diploids at 19°C and had larger body mass; there was no clear difference between ploidies in growth rate at 24°C. This indicates better adaptation of triploid tadpoles to cold environment. This is the first report on the increase of body mass of a polyploid vertebrate caused by low temperature, and we showed relationship between increase in cell size and increased body mass. The large body mass of triploids may provide a selective advantage, especially in colder environments, and this may explain the prevalence of triploids in the northern parts of the geographic range of P. esculentus. PMID:27082722

  8. Membrane photoreactor treatment of 1,4-dioxane-containing textile wastewater effluent: Performance, modeling, and fouling control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Chang; Beak, Ha-Ju; Choo, Kwang-Ho

    2015-12-01

    A membrane photoreactor (MPR) system was investigated for the purification of textile wastewater effluent containing 1,4-dioxane for potential reuse. The effects of TiO2 dosage, alkalinity, particulate matter, and sunlight radiation on the removal of 1,4-dioxane from the effluent were evaluated. The photocatalytic 1,4-dioxane degradation followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. A considerably large dose of TiO2 catalyst (5 g/L) was required for maximal 1,4-dioxane degradation by MPR. The high alkalinity (∼ 550 mg/L) of the textile wastewater effluent negatively affected the 1,4-dioxane degradation rate, whereas 1,4-dioxane degradation was not impacted by the presence of particulate matter. Solar photocatalysis of 1,4-dioxane was as effective as that achieved with UV lamps in the MPR, which could lead to energy savings. Continuous flow MPR was effective for continuous degradation of 1,4-dioxane; the unsteady- and steady-state performances were well-predicted at various hydraulic residence times (HRTs). The quality of the MPR product obtained at an HRT of 8.57 h satisfied the drinking water guidelines. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) buildup, which is indicative of fouling, was dependent on the TiO2 dose and permeate flux. The TMP buildup was marginal at low flux, but increased dramatically beyond a flux level of >60 L/m(2)-h. However, the fouling layer could be sufficiently removed by periodic backwashing, even at an extremely high flux of 100 L/m(2)-h. The membrane permeability was sustained without any sign of irreversible fouling during MPR treatment of textile wastewater effluents. PMID:25997749

  9. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Racey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important contributors to modern and ancient tropical, shallow-marine sediments. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of literature has built up on the ecology of modern LBF, especially in terms of their environmentally sensitive depth distribution, reproductive strategy and morphology, and the symbiotic relationship between many larger foraminifera and photosynthetic algae. Over the same period, the extinct genus Nummulites, which is abundant in Eocene sediments of southern Europe, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has increasingly been studied, principally because significant volumes of hydrocarbons have been discovered reservoired within nummulitic limestones offshore Tunisia and Libya. The modern ecological studies of LBF provide a powerful tool with which to develop palaeoecological models for fossil Nummulites (and other symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera in the rock record).

  10. Manufacturing physics: using large(r) data sets and physical insight to develop great products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Early stage research does a fantastic job providing knowledge and proof-of-feasibility for new product concepts. However, the handful of data points required to validate a concept is typically insufficient to provide insight on the whole range of effects relevant to manufacturing the product. Moving to manufacturing brings larger data sets and variability; opportunistic analysis of these larger sets can yield better product design rules. In the early 2000s Corning developed an optical transmission fiber optimized to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Analyzing the larger data set provided by the manufacturing environment using the same theoretical framework developed by the original researchers refined our understanding of how to improve SBS in optical fibers beyond what was known from our early efforts. This greater understanding allowed us to design better performing products.

  11. Production, biodistribution, and dosimetry of 47Sc-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Fatemeh; Moghaddam-Banaem, Leila; Shamsaei, Mojtaba; Samani, Ali; Maragheh, Mohammad G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP) was used as the polyaminophosphonic acid carrier ligand and the therapeutic potential of the bone seeking radiopharmaceutical 47Sc-DOTMP was assessed by measuring its dosage–dependent skeletal uptake and then the absorbed radiation dose of human organs was estimated. Because of limited availability of 47Sc we performed some preliminary studies using 46Sc. 46Sc was produced with a specific activity of 116.58 MBq/mg (3.15 mCi/mg) and radionuclide purity of 98%. 46Sc-DOTMP was prepared and an activity of 1.258 MBq (34 μCi) at a chelant-to-metal ratio of 60:1 was administered to five groups of mice with each group containing 3 mice that were euthanized at 4, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h post administration. The heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, skin, muscle, and a femur were excised, weighed, and counted. The data were analyzed to determine skeletal uptake and source organ residence times and cumulated activities for 47Sc-DOTMP. 46Sc-DOTMP complex was prepared in radiochemical purity about 93%. In vitro stability of complex was evaluated at room temperature for 48 h. Biodistribution studies of complex in mice were studied for 7 days. The data were analyzed to estimate skeletal uptake and absorbed radiation dose of human organs using biodistribution data from mice. By considering the results, 47Sc-DOTMP is a possible therapeutic agent for using in palliation of bone pain due to metastatic skeletal lesions from several types of primary cancers in prostate, breast, etc. PMID:26500402

  12. Electrophysiological effects of newly synthesized 1,4-pyridothiazepines on various guinea pig heart muscle preparations.

    PubMed

    Schade, B

    1999-01-01

    Slow channel blockers play a major role in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The intention of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological properties of MM 4 (1-[N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)ethyl]-N-methylaminoacetyl]-1,2,3,4 -tetrahydropyrido[2,3-b][1,4]thiazepine fumarate) and MM 6 (1-[N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)ethyl]-N-methylaminopropionyl]-1,2, 3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-b][1,4]thiazepine fumarate), two newly synthesized compounds structurally related to KT-362 (5-[3-[[2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)ethyl]-amino]-1-oxopropyl]-2,3,4,5-tetra -hydro-1,5-benzothiazepine fumarate), by means of the conventional intracellular microelectrode technique. In various guinea pig heart muscle preparations, MM 4 and MM 6 exerted very similar effects though the action of MM 6 was more pronounced. In a concentration range from 3 to 100 micromol/l the compounds did not produce any significant change in transmembrane action potential parameters of papillary muscle and left atria, whereas the action potential duration at 20% and 50% time to repolarization in spontaneously beating Purkinje fibers was significantly shortened. In sinoatrial nodes action potential amplitude, Vmax, rate of activity and slope of slow diastolic depolarization were decreased, whereas the time to 50% and 90% repolarization was significantly prolonged. A decrease in the slow calcium inward current may account for the observed effects. In contrast to KT-362, MM 4 and MM 6 do not seem to affect the fast sodium inward current. It was concluded that replacement of the 1,5-benzothiazepine nucleus by a 1,4-pyridothiazepine structure and/or methylation of the side chain may weaken or even eliminate sodium channel blocking ability while calcium antagonistic characteristics are preserved. Shortening of the side chain might result in a general loss of activity. PMID:9989658

  13. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, G. T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  14. Surface chemistry and structures of 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide on gold films from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuflaha, Rasha; Olson, Dustin; Bennett, Dennis W.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2016-07-01

    The adsorption of 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI) is studied on gold films as a function of PDI exposure from benzene solution by a combination of attenuated total internal reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. The infrared spectrum found for low PDI doses exhibits a single isocyanide vibrational peak consistent with the formation of -(Au-PDI)- oligomer chains that have been identified previously on a Au(111) surface dosed in ultrahigh vacuum. Larger solution doses cause the isocyanide peaks to split into two, with the lower-frequency vibrations corresponding to a free isocyanide mode, indicating the formation of a perpendicular, vertically bonded PDI molecule. This observation also rationalizes the apparent disparity between studies of the chemistry of PDI on gold in ultrahigh vacuum and with solution dosing. Since it has been shown previously that the -(Au-PDI)- oligomer chains are capable of providing conductive linkages between gold nanoparticles on an insulating mica substrate, it was proposed that higher PDI doses from solution should cause a decrease in conductivity due to chain disruption. This effect was found experimentally, thereby providing corroborative evidence for the above conclusions.

  15. Oscillatory growth in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: problems, interpretations and possible solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to investigate cell growth and its oscillations through time in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) by means of Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) is a recent and well known methodology. However, the search for factors of oscillations around undisturbed growth - the latter can be modelled by theoretical growth functions (e.g. Gompertz and generalized logistic growth function) - is hampered by a number of factors which have been recently discovered and not yet published. Cycles are obtained based on a mean chamber building rate gained from specimens cultured in the laboratory because punctual data available in the literature are too incomplete to gain a more realistic growth model. The mean chamber building rate can be also modeled (e.g. Power-, Michaelis-Menten- and Bertallanffy function). The periodicity of the cycles observed in LBF is mostly concentrated around a prominent 29 to 30 days cycle. Other cycles, proportions and multiples of this dominant cycle are common, but probably should be considered as calculation effects in case of their inconsistency. The 30 days cycles are present in almost all specimens investigated, which may be a hint to a correlation between cell growth and the light intensity variation of lunar cycles, which can affect the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbionts in LBF tests. However, this correlation is challenged by a number of issues, which need to be further investigated. One of these problems is represented by the recent discovery of similar cycles in LBF tests, which have been laboratory-cultured and should therefore not show any environmental effects. A focused analysis of growth cycles observed in these laboratory tests showed that even if the periods are constant and significant at 30 days, their phases show a much broader variance compared to naturally grown specimens. Epigenetic signals and their influence on the oscillatory growth of cultivated organisms can be considered to play a major role in the

  16. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately

  17. Theoretical reconstruction of realistic dynamics of highly coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimov, I. Y.; Guenza, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    The theory to reconstruct the atomistic-level chain diffusion from the accelerated dynamics that is measured in mesoscale simulations of the coarse-grained system, is applied here to the dynamics of cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts where each chain is described as a soft interacting colloidal particle. The rescaling formalism accounts for the corrections in the dynamics due to the change in entropy and the change in friction that are a consequence of the coarse-graining procedure. By including these two corrections the dynamics is rescaled to reproduce the realistic dynamics of the system described at the atomistic level. The rescaled diffusion coefficient obtained from mesoscale simulations of coarse-grained cis-1,4-polybutadiene melts shows good agreement with data from united atom simulations performed by Tsolou et al. [Macromolecules 38, 1478 (2005)], 10.1021/ma0491210. The derived monomer friction coefficient is used as an input to the theory for cooperative dynamics that describes the internal dynamics of a polymer moving in a transient regions of slow cooperative motion in a liquid of macromolecules. Theoretically predicted time correlation functions show good agreement with simulations in the whole range of length and time scales in which data are available.

  18. 76 FR 38059 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Products and Services Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...), 75 FR. 48458 (Aug. 10, 2010). \\35\\ Id. The CFPB seeks public comment on the following: What consumer... registration process to use in its larger participant determinations? C. Measurement Dates and Supervision... participant rule. See Act at Sec. 1024(a)(1)(A), (D), and (E). \\23\\ IBIS World Industry Report. Auto...

  19. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Register of October 31, 2012 (77 FR 65775) amending 12 CFR part 1090 by adding a new section to define... for substantive disagreement. Accordingly, in FR Doc. 2012-26467 published on October 31, 2012 (77 FR... Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market;...

  20. Optimal Inventory Planning under Permissible Delay in Payments When a Larger Order Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuang-Hua; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    In the previous related studies, the inventory replenishment problems under permissible delay in payments are independent of the order quantity. In this study, the restrictive assumption of the trade credit independent of the order quantity is relaxed. This study discusses the inventory policies under permissible delay in payments when a larger order quantity.

  1. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...\\ The first two rules defined larger participants of markets for consumer reporting, 77 FR 42874 (July 20, 2012) (Consumer Reporting Rule), and for consumer debt collection, 77 FR 65775 (Oct. 31, 2012... participants of the student loan servicing market would become Sec. 1090.106 in subpart B. \\13\\ 77 FR...

  2. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  3. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin. PMID:22854118

  4. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  5. [Migration and problems related to population concentration in larger Bulgarian cities].

    PubMed

    Kiradzhiev, S

    1989-01-01

    The author examines the growing concentration of population in the larger cities of Bulgaria. Various methods for achieving a more balanced population distribution are suggested, including placing limits on migration to cities, relocating some industry, reducing labor-intensive production through automation, and improving local transportation systems to permit development of satellite towns and villages. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12316673

  6. 77 FR 9592 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Product and Service Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... FR 38059. \\9\\ In July 2011, the Bureau held four roundtable discussions on the larger participant... closed-end credit at 120 days delinquency. See 65 FR 36903, June 12, 2000. Debt buying is another... data aggregators, law firms, data and record suppliers, account maintenance services, call...

  7. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  8. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  9. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  10. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  11. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  12. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  13. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  14. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  15. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  16. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  17. 11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse on upper level, with stairway from street level at right of photo and passage to trains at left. Skyway can be seen through large window facing Buffalo River. Matching window is directly opposite. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. On the operation of silicon photomultipliers at temperatures of 1-4 kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, P.; Biroth, M.; Downie, E.; Thomas, A.

    2016-07-01

    SiPM operation at cryogenic temperatures fails for many common devices. A particular type from Zecotek with deep channels in the silicon substrate instead of quenching resistors was tested at liquid helium temperature. Two similar types were thoroughly characterized from room temperature down to liquid nitrogen temperature by illuminating them with low light levels. At cryogenic temperatures the SiPMs show an unchanged rise-time and a fast recovery time, practically no after-pulses, and exhibit no increased cross-talk probability. Charge collection spectra were measured to extract the pixel gain and its variation, both comparable to room temperature at the same over-voltage. The quenching resistance was decreased at cryogenic temperature. It was found possible to use the characterized devices at temperatures of 1-4 K for the read-out of a target at the Mainz Microtron in Germany.

  19. Crystal structures, UV spectra of solid iodide anionic water clusters I(-)(H2O)(1-4), and electrochemical reaction of I(-)(H2O)(1-4) → I· + e(-)(H2O)(1-4).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yanxuan; Yang, Meng; Chen, Wenbin; Su, Yuzhi; Ouyang, Zhenjie; Yan, Hua; Gao, Feixian; Dong, Wen

    2013-05-16

    Four iodide anionic water clusters of I(-)(H2O)1-4 in two supramolecular complexes of [Fe(phen)3][I2(H2O)3] (1) and [Zn(phen)3][I2(H2O)4.5] (2) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The diffuse reflectance spectra for the solid iodide anionic water clusters of I(-)(H2O)1-4 were investigated, and their absorption bands were demonstrated by denisty functional theory calculation. The electrochemical reaction of I(-)(H2O)1-4 → I· + e(-)(H2O)1-4 with the oxidation potential of Ep = 0.61 eV was first found and reported in two aqueous solutions (1 mmol·dm(-3)) of 1 and 2. PMID:23614806

  20. Properties of Galaxies and Groups at z < 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, R. S.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we analyze a sample of galaxy groups constructed from the fourth data release of the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). This sample was obtained by Gerke et al. (2012) using the Voronoi-Delaunay Method. We selected 105 galaxy groups with at least 8 members in a radius of 4 Mpc. For each group we estimated its properties such as velocity dispersion (σ), physical radius (R_{200}) and mass (M_{200}). We also classify the groups as Gaussian and non-Gaussian (dynamic evolved or not) based on their galaxy velocity distributions. This classification is based on the following statistical tests: Anderson-Darling, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, Jarque-Bera, Cramer-von Mises, D'Agostino and Dip test. When the Dip test confirms the hypothesis of the unimodality and all other tests prove the normality of the system, the group is classified as Gaussian. The behavior of gaussianity was checked varying the distance to the center of the group in 2-4 times its physical radius. Our results show that the number of systems classified as non-Gaussian groups grows with the increase of the physical radius.

  1. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  2. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  3. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the residues of the plant growth regulator, 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (1,4-DMN), when applied postharvest to all sprouting...

  4. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes differentially recognize regioisomers of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, M; Takeuchi, H; Riley, A M; Mills, S J; Watanabe, Y; Potter, B V

    1997-01-01

    The Ins(1,4,5)P3 regioisomers, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3, which can mimic the 1,4,5-arrangement on the inositol ring of Ins(1,4,5)P3, were examined for Ca2+ release by using four types of saponin-permeabilized cell possessing various abundances of receptor subtypes, with special reference to the relation of potency to receptor subtype. Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 were weak agonists in rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL cells), which possess predominantly subtype II receptors, with respective potencies of 1/200 and less than 1/500 that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [the EC50 values were 0.2, 45 and more than 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively]. Similar rank order potencies were also evaluated for the displacement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 bound to RBL cell membranes by these regioisomers. However, they caused Ca2+ release from GH3 rat pituitary cells possessing predominantly subtype I receptors more potently; Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 evoked release at respective concentrations of only one-third and one-twentieth that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 1.2 and 8 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In COS-1 African green-monkey kidney cells, with the relative abundances of 37% of the subtype II and of 62% of the subtype III receptor, potencies of 1/40 and approx. 1/200 for Ins(1, 4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively were exhibited relative to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 15 and approx. 80 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In HL-60 human leukaemic cells, in spite of the dominant presence of subtype I receptors (71%), similar respective potencies to those seen with COS-1 cells were exhibited (the EC50 values were 0.3, 15 and approx. 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). These results indicate that these regioisomers are the first ligands that distinguish between receptor subtypes; the present observations are of

  5. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  6. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  7. 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-Octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane: improved synthesis and crystal structure with NaSCN

    SciTech Connect

    Loustau-Chartez, Ms. Fanny; Robeson, Rachel M; Custelcean, Radu; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, OM16C5) is described, which affords over an order of magnitude improvement in yield over the previously reported method. The first X-ray crystal structure of 1, as a complex with NaSCN, is also reported. There is much interest in sodium-selective ionophores [1,2] for use in electrodes [1,3] and optodes [4]. One such ionophore is 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, octamethyl-16-crown-5 or OM16C5), which was first prepared in 1996 by Suzuki and coworkers [1]. The synthetic procedure as reported and shown in Scheme 1 involved three steps starting from pinacol. The first two steps proceeded in excellent (95%) and good (ca. 81%) yields, respectively. However, the cyclization step, involving the addition of diethylene glycol dimesylate to 2,3,3,9,9,10-hexamethyl-4,8-dioxa-2,10-undecanediol (2) using NaH in THF, proceeded poorly with a low (3.7%) isolated yield, making the overall yield for the three steps starting from pinacol approximately 2.8%. We were interested in this crown ether for alkali-metal extraction studies, and sought to improve the yield so that larger (potentially gram) quantities of material could be readily prepared. We report here a modification of the synthetic procedure that boosts the conversion of 1 from 2 over 15-fold, by using three good- to high-yielding steps that allows 1 to be obtained from 2 in a combined yield of 59%. We also report for the first time a crystal structure of 1, as the NaSCN complex

  8. Numerical study of an oscillating smaller cylinder in the wake of an upstream larger cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Wang, Xikun; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-06-01

    A numerical study of flow around two tandem cylinders with unequal diameters was carried out. The upstream larger cylinder was fixed and the downstream smaller cylinder was allowed to oscillate in the transverse direction only. Comparisons of the experimental and numerical results were made to investigate the effects of the gap ratio on the maximum vibration amplitude and vortex shedding frequency. The results showed that the vibration response of the smaller cylinder was significantly affected by the presence of the upstream larger cylinder, and resulted in greatly reduced vibration amplitudes. With an increasing gap ratio, the vibration amplitude increased. However, the magnitude was lower than that corresponding to a single cylinder (with the same diameter as that of the downstream smaller cylinder) under the same flow conditions.

  9. Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields.

    PubMed

    Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field. PMID:19962395

  10. Balance control impairment in obese individuals is caused by larger balance motor commands variability.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that various factors impaired balance control. Among them, heavy body weight is associated with poor balance control because the location of the center of mass is further away from the ankle joint. Thus, a larger active ankle torque is required to counter the greater gravitational torque. Because balance motor commands have signal-dependent noise whose standard deviation increases with the absolute value of the neural control signal, it was hypothesized that faster center of pressure speed observed in obese individuals would be related to larger balance motor commands variability. A feedback-control model and parametric system identification technique was used to estimate the variability in the balance motor commands and neural controller parameters based on previously published experimental data. Results of the neuromechanical model confirmed that the balance motor commands of obese individuals are more variable than that of lean individuals. PMID:25455209

  11. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called ‘Peto’s paradox’ can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  12. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  13. Do larger femoral heads improve the functional outcome in total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Allen, Charlotte L; Hooper, Gary J; Frampton, Christopher M A

    2014-02-01

    Use of larger diameter femoral heads has been popularised in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Recent studies have implicated larger femoral heads in early failure. We evaluated what effect the size of the femoral head had on the early functional outcome in order to determine the optimal head size for the maximal functional outcome. There were 726 patients who underwent elective THA and were divided into 3 groups according to head size then compared with respect to functional outcome scores and dislocation rates. This study failed to show that increasing the size of the femoral head significantly improved the functional outcome at 1 year after total hip arthroplasty but that the use of a 36 mm or greater femoral head did reduce the dislocation rate. PMID:23891058

  14. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called 'Peto's paradox' can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  15. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: Nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-07-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  1. 43 CFR 3135.1-4 - Effect of transfer of a tract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of transfer of a tract. 3135.1-4 Section 3135.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-4 Effect of transfer of...

  2. 43 CFR 3135.1-4 - Effect of transfer of a tract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of transfer of a tract. 3135.1-4 Section 3135.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-4 Effect of transfer of...

  3. 43 CFR 3135.1-4 - Effect of transfer of a tract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of transfer of a tract. 3135.1-4 Section 3135.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-4 Effect of transfer of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  14. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS § 1.4 Where are other rules concerning...

  15. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS § 1.4 Where are other rules concerning...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site identification as potentially acceptable. The...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site identification as potentially acceptable. The...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site identification as potentially acceptable. The...

  5. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  6. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  7. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild.

    PubMed

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L

    2011-09-20

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the "pool of competence" hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations. PMID:21930936

  8. The Orbital Period of the Accreting Pulsar GX 1+4.

    PubMed

    Pereira; Braga; Jablonski

    1999-12-01

    We report strong evidence for a approximately 304 day periodicity in the spin history of the accretion-powered pulsar GX 1+4 that is most probably associated with the orbital period of the system. We have used data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to show a clear periodic modulation of the pulsar frequency from 1991 to date, in excellent agreement with the ephemeris proposed by Cutler, Dennis, & Dolan in 1986. Our results indicate that the orbital period of GX 1+4 is 303.8+/-1.1 days, making it the widest known low-mass X-ray binary system by more than 1 order of magnitude and putting this long-standing question to rest. A likely scenario for this system is an elliptical orbit in which the neutron star decreases its spin-down rate (or even exhibits a momentary spin-up behavior) at periastron passages due to the higher torque exerted by the accretion disk onto the magnetosphere of the neutron star. These results are not inconsistent with either the X-ray pulsed flux light curve measured by BATSE during the same epoch or the X-ray flux history from the All-Sky Monitor on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. PMID:10550289

  9. Satellite tobacco mosaic virus refined to 1.4 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Steven B.; Day, John S.; McPherson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is among the smallest viruses, having 60 identical subunits arranged with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry. Its crystal structure was solved at 290 K and was refined using, in part, crystals grown in microgravity. Electron-density maps revealed nearly 57% of the genomic ssRNA. Using six flash-cooled crystals, diffraction data were recorded to 1.4 Å resolution and independent refinements of the STMV model were carried out versus the previous 1.8 Å resolution data representing merged data from 21 crystals (271 689 unique reflections), data consisting of corresponding reflections to 1.8 Å resolution from the cooled crystals and 1.4 Å resolution data from the cooled crystals comprised of 570 721 unique reflections. Models were independently refined with full NCS constraints using the program CNS and in restrained mode using the programs CNS, REFMAC5 and SHELX-97, with the latter two procedures including anisotropic temperature factors. Significant additional structural detail emerged from the analyses, including a unique cation and anion arrangement on fivefold axes and a precise assessment of icosahedral symmetry exactness in the crystal lattice. STMV represents the highest resolution native virus structure currently known by a substantial margin, and it permits the evaluation of a precise atomic model of a spherical virus at near-atomic resolution for the first time. PMID:25195746

  10. 2,5-Di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone mobilizes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive and -insensitive Ca2+ stores.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, K A; Taylor, C W

    1990-11-12

    In permeabilized rat hepatocytes a maximal concentration (25 microM) of 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquineone (tBuBHQ) mobilized 70% of sequestere Ca2+ and a half-maximal effect was produced by 1.7 microM tBuBHQ. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) stimulated release of about 40% of the intracellular Ca2+ stores. Combined applications of a range of tBuBHQ concentrations with a maximal concentration of Ins(1,4,5)P3 demonstrated that tBuBHQ has slight selectivity for the Ca2+ transport process of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores. We conclude that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores are a subset of those sensitive to tBuBHQ and that the latter is therefore unlikely to prove useful as a tool to discriminate Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive and -insensitive Ca2+ stores though it may provide opportunities to design more selective agents. PMID:2253774

  11. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  12. Why have microsaccades become larger? Investigating eye deformations and detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Hansen, Dan Witzner; Andersson, Richard; Hooge, Ignace

    2016-01-01

    The reported size of microsaccades is considerably larger today compared to the initial era of microsaccade studies during the 1950s and 1960s. We investigate whether this increase in size is related to the fact that the eye-trackers of today measure different ocular structures than the older techniques, and that the movements of these structures may differ during a microsaccade. In addition, we explore the impact such differences have on subsequent analyzes of the eye-tracker signals. In Experiment I, the movement of the pupil as well as the first and fourth Purkinje reflections were extracted from series of eye images recorded during a fixation task. Results show that the different ocular structures produce different microsaccade signatures. In Experiment II, we found that microsaccade amplitudes computed with a common detection algorithm were larger compared to those reported by two human experts. The main reason was that the overshoots were not systematically detected by the algorithm and therefore not accurately accounted for. We conclude that one reason to why the reported size of microsaccades has increased is due to the larger overshoots produced by the modern pupil-based eye-trackers compared to the systems used in the classical studies, in combination with the lack of a systematic algorithmic treatment of the overshoot. We hope that awareness of these discrepancies in microsaccade dynamics across eye structures will lead to more generally accepted definitions of microsaccades. PMID:25481631

  13. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities. PMID:24652527

  14. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Garbusow, Maria; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Methods 63 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 63 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Regional gray matter volumes were analyzed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala in first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Furthermore, relatives showed significantly larger gray matter volume in anatomical structures found relevant to MDD in previous literature, specifically in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala as well as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Bilateral DLPFC volume correlated positively with the experience of negative affect. Conclusions Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD. PMID:25003028

  15. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  16. Self-administration of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Kaminski, Barbara J.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drugs and drugs of abuse. Objective Given the reports of abuse, and the ease at which GBL and 1,4-BD may be obtained, we investigated the reinforcing of GBL (n=5) and 1,4-BD (n=4) in baboons using IV self-administration procedures. Methods Sessions ran 24 h/day. Each injection was contingent upon completion of a fixed number (120 or 160) of lever responses. A 3-h timeout period followed each injection, limiting the total number of injections to 8/day. Self-administration was first established with cocaine (0.32 mg/kg/injection). GBL (10–130.0 mg/kg/injection), 1,4-BD (10–100 mg/kg/injection) or vehicle were substituted for cocaine at least 15 days. Food pellets were available ad libitum 24 h/day and were contingent upon completion of 10 lever responses. Results GBL (32–100 mg/kg/injection) maintained significantly greater numbers of injections when compared to vehicle in 4 of 5 baboons and mean rates of injection were high (>6 per day) in 3 baboons and moderate in the fourth baboon (4–6 per day). 1,4-BD (78–130 mg/kg/injection) maintained significantly greater numbers of injections when compared to vehicle in only 2 out of 4 baboons and rates were moderate to high in both baboons. Self-injection of these doses of GBL and 1,4-BD generally inhibited food-maintained responding. Conclusions GBL and 1,4-BD have abuse liability. Given that GBL and 1,4-BD are self-administered, are easier to obtain than GHB, and are detected in seized samples, additional legal control measures of these GHB pro-drugs may be needed. PMID:22945514

  17. Source Parameters of the Bhuj Mainshock and Larger Aftershocks from Modeling of Broadband Teleseismic and Regional Waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.; Davuluri, S.

    2001-12-01

    The January 26, 2001 mb 6.9 Bhuj mainshock was well recorded at both teleseismic and regional distances. Many of the larger aftershocks were also well recorded at regional distances by digital broadband seismographs operated by the National Geophysical Research Institute of India, the University of Cambridge and the Indian Meteorological Office. We have modeled the teleseismic P- and SH-waveforms to retrieve the mechanism and focal depth of the mainshock and find a thrust faulting mechanism with a fault strike 281 degrees, dip 42 degrees, rake 107 degrees, a seismic moment of 2.31*E20 Nm and a centroid focal depth of 20 km. The long-period source time function shows a relatively simple source of about 15 seconds duration. We use the source parameters for the mainshock derived from the teleseismic inversion and the records for the mainshock at the regional stations mentioned above to calibrate the 1-D propagation characteristics for these regional paths. Using the calibrated regional propagation paths, we invert the complete regional broadband waveforms (P-wave through the surface wave-train) for the source parameters of the larger aftershocks (M0 1015 to 1017 Nm) which are too small to derive from teleseismic recordings. We model the broadband waveforms using the time-domain, linear moment-tensor inversion code of Randall et al, 1995.

  18. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  19. Methoxylation of Singly Bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn Dimer: Preferential Formation of 1,4-C60 Adduct with Sterically Less Demanding Addends and Stability Difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60.

    PubMed

    He, Fa-Gui; Li, Zong-Jun; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Methoxylation of the singly bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn dimer afforded 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60, a 1,4-C60 adduct with sterically less demanding addends, as the major adduct. The situation was different from that of direct functionalization of C60, where 1,2-OMe(Bn)C60 was obtained as the major product. The reaction was studied with in situ vis-NIR spectroscopy and computational calculations to obtain a better understanding of this unusual regioselectivity. The stability difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60 was studied. PMID:27387300

  20. A new synthetic route to substituted tetracenes and pentacenes via stereoselective [4+2] cycloadditions of 1,4-dihydro-1,4-epoxynaphthalene and isobenzofuran.

    PubMed

    Eda, Shohei; Eguchi, Fumiaki; Haneda, Hiroshi; Hamura, Toshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    Stereoselective [4+2] cycloadditions of 1,4-dihydro-1,4-epoxynaphthalene and isobenzofuran were described. Among several possibilities, syn-exo and/or anti-endo isomers were selectively produced depending on the substitution pattern of the reactants. Importantly, the syn-exo isomer underwent acid promoted aromatization, affording the corresponding tetracene. These findings enabled us to prepare a substituted pentacene with electron withdrawing groups. PMID:25735234

  1. H-1 Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Supercritical Ethylene at 1.4 T

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, Robert A. ); Shi, Bai; Hu, Jian Zhi ); Solum, Mark S.; Ellis, Paul D. ); Grant, David M.; Pugmire, Ronald J.; Taylor, Craig M.; Yonker, Clement R. )

    2000-03-01

    H1 dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has been measured in supercritical ethylene in the pressure range 60-300 bar and in an external field of 1.4 T. A single-cell sapphire tube was used as a high pressure cell and powdered 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenyl allyl(BDPA) free radicals were added and distributed at the wall of the cell. At all pressures the dominant DNP effect was a positive Overhauser enhancement, caused by proton-electron contact interactions at the fluid/solid radical interface. The observed enhancements varied from 12 at 67 bar to 17 at 300 bar. Besides the Overhauser enhancement, also a small solid state and thermal mixing enhancement were observed, indicating that part of the ethylene is absorbed at the radical surface for a prolonged time. These data indicate that DNP-enhanced NMR has the potential of extending the impact of NMR in research areas involving supercritical fluids.

  2. Hydrogen attack mechanisms in a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo welded steel

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, H.

    1983-01-01

    By means of a highly sensitive dilatometer the HA kinetics of a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel plate and its weld metal were studied in the temperature and pressure regimes of 500-580/sup 0/C and 2000-3000 PSI, respectively. The kinetic data generated from these experiments were explained using a model for bubble growth controlled by grain boundary self diffusion and the kinetic expressions corresponding to the BM and WM were used to construct Nelson diagrams. Moreover, a thorough microstructural analysis was carried out by employing scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural evaluation consisted of qualitative and quantitative determination of methane bubbles from electropolished specimens and two-stage replicas. Finally, based on microstructural observations the role of initial microporosity in the as received material on the subsequent development of methane bubbles and the effect of HA exposure times on further nucleation was investigated.

  3. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  4. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  5. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  6. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  7. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to paratope mapping for larger antigen-Fab complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Kato, K; Yamato, S; Igarashi, T; Matsunaga, C; Ohtsuka, H; Higuchi, A; Nomura, N; Noguchi, H; Arata, Y

    1994-06-13

    For the purpose of engineering the antibody combining site, mapping residues that are involved in antigen binding provide us with valuable information. By use of 13C NMR spectroscopy with selectively 13C-labeled Fv fragments, we have established a general strategy to identify the residues that are perturbed upon binding of small antigen (hapten) molecules [(1990) Biochemistry 30, 6604-6610]. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this strategy can be extended to molecular structural analyses of the complexes of an Fab fragment and a larger antigen molecule such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. PMID:8013642

  8. Accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules : gaussian-2 theory with bond separation energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-04-22

    Gaussian-2 (G2) theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.

  9. 2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make their way through arctic ice during the first transit of the northwest passage by a U.S. vessel. The lead 180 has a weight suspended over its starboard side. By swinging this weight back and forth across the centerline, the vessel can rock to free herself from ice. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles. PMID:26104859

  11. Advanced Electrochemical Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane via Dark Catalysis by Novel Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Pellets.

    PubMed

    Jasmann, Jeramy R; Borch, Thomas; Sale, Tom C; Blotevogel, Jens

    2016-08-16

    1,4-dioxane is an emerging groundwater contaminant with significant regulatory implications. Because it is resistant to traditional groundwater treatments, remediation of 1,4-dioxane is often limited to costly ex situ UV-based advanced oxidation. By varying applied voltage, electrical conductivity, seepage velocity, and influent contaminant concentration in flow-through reactors, we show that electrochemical oxidation is a viable technology for in situ and ex situ treatment of 1,4-dioxane under a wide range of environmental conditions. Using novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) pellets, we demonstrate for the first time that this prominent catalyst can be activated in the dark even when electrically insulated from the electrodes. TiO2-catalyzed reactors achieved efficiencies of greater than 97% degradation of 1,4-dioxane, up to 4.6 times higher than noncatalyzed electrolytic reactors. However, the greatest catalytic enhancement (70% degradation versus no degradation without catalysis) was observed in low-ionic-strength water, where conventional electrochemical approaches notoriously fail. The TiO2 pellet's dark-catalytic oxidation activity was confirmed on the pharmaceutical lamotrigine and the industrial solvent chlorobenzene, signifying that electrocatalytic treatment has tremendous potential as a transformative remediation technology for persistent organic pollutants in groundwater and other aqueous environments. PMID:27420906

  12. Sequential synthesis of amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended triazoles and triazole-chromene hybrids and their antimycobacterial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devi Bala, Balasubramanian; Muthusaravanan, Sivasubramanian; Choon, Tan Soo; Ashraf Ali, Mohamed; Perumal, Subbu

    2014-10-01

    A general method for the synthesis of a library of hitherto unreported amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended triazoles was accomplished via a sequential three-component reaction of substituted N-propargylaminonaphthoquinones with variously substituted alkyl bromides/2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione and sodium azide in the presence of Et3N/CuI in water. Aminonaphthoquinone-appended iminochromene-triazole hybrid heterocycles were also synthesized from the amino-1,4-naphthoquinone-appended-1,2,3-triazolylacetonitriles. All the triazole hybrids were screened for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB). Among the triazoles, 2-(((1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (7d) emerged as the most active one with IC50 = 1.87 μM, being more potent than the anti-TB drugs, cycloserine (6 times), pyrimethamine (20 times) and equipotent as the drug ethambutol (IC50 < 1.56 μM). PMID:25129868

  13. [Detection of 1,4-dioxane in water by membrane extraction-gas chromiatgraphy/differential mobility spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xixi; Chen, Chuang; Wang, Weiguo; Li, Haiyang

    2014-08-01

    The method of detecting trace 1,4-dioxane in water using membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometry (GC/DMS) was developed. The parameters including radio frequency voltage, sampling flow rate, permeation time and trapping time were optimized to 1000 V, 50 mL/min, 30 min and 150 s, respectively. The linear range for dioxane was obtained from 2.0 μg/L to 20.0 μg/L. The LOD was found to be 0. 67 μg/L. The specificity towards 1,4-dioxane in the presence of five chlorinated hydrocarbons was improved by using two-dimensional GC separation with optimized DMS compensation voltage. This method paves a way for developing field-deployable sensors for real-time monitoring contaminants in groundwater. PMID:25434119

  14. Biomimetic Approach to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the Synthetic Polyester Poly(1,4-butylene adipate): Fusing Binding Modules to Esterases.

    PubMed

    Perz, Veronika; Zumstein, Michael Thomas; Sander, Michael; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2015-12-14

    Mimicking a concept of nature for the hydrolysis of biopolymers, the Thermobifida cellulosilytica cutinase 1 (Thc_Cut1) was fused to a polymer binding module (PBM) to enhance the hydrolysis of the polyester poly(1,4-butylene adipate) (PBA). Namely, the binding module of a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from Alcaligenes faecalis (Thc_Cut1_PBM) was attached to the cutinase via two different linker sequences varying in length. In order to investigate the adsorption behavior, catalytically inactive mutants both of Thc_Cut1 and Thc_Cut1_PBM were successfully constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of serine 131 to alanine. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) analysis revealed that the initial mass increase during enzyme adsorption was larger for the inactive enzymes linked with the PBM as compared to the enzyme without the PBM. The hydrolysis rates of PBA were significantly enhanced when incubated with the active, engineered Thc_Cut1_PBM as compared to the native Thc_Cut1. Thc_Cut1_PBM completely hydrolyzed PBA thin films on QCM-D sensors within approximately 40 min, whereas twice as much time was required for the complete hydrolysis by the native Thc_Cut1. PMID:26566664

  15. Photosensitized Oxidation of Hypoxanthine and Xanthine by Aluminum Phthalocyanine Tetrasulfonate. Role of the Alkylating Quinone 2,5-Dichloro-diaziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Antonio E.; Inostroza, Yaritza; Kumar, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Photoirradiation of nitrogen-saturated aqueous solutions containing aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4) at 675 nm in the presence of 2,5-dichloro-diaziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone (AZDClQ) and hypoxanthine (HX) produces the oxidized HX derivatives, xanthine (X) and uric acid (UA). Concentrations of the AZDClQ semiquinone, X and UA increase at the expense of HX with an increase in irradiation time. Almost negligible decomposition of HX, as well as very low amounts of X, are detected if photolysis occurs under identical conditions but in the absence of AZDClQ. Addition of calf-thymus DNA produces quinone-DNA covalent adducts after photolysis of anaerobic samples containing quinone, DNA and AlPcS4, in the presence or absence of HX and at pH 5.5. However, larger amounts of quinone-DNA adducts are detected if HX is present. The results presented here could have applications in the photodynamic treatment of hypoxic tissues such as solid tumors, under conditions of high HX concentration, where Type-I pathways could be more important than singlet oxygen generation. PMID:18627517

  16. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Larger than 100 ml: Simple Open Enucleation Versus Transurethral Laser Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2016-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common causes of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men. Over the age of 60, more than a half of men have BPH and/or bothersome LUTS. Contemporary guidelines advocate surgery as the standard of care for symptomatic BPH after failure of medical therapy, where the choice of the appropriate surgical procedure depends on the prostate size. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and simple open prostatectomy (OP) have been considered for decades the reference-standard techniques for men with prostate smaller and larger than 80 ml, respectively. However, both procedures are potentially associated with considerable perioperative morbidity which prompted the introduction of a variety of minimally invasive surgical techniques with comparable long-term outcomes compared to TURP and OP. Nevertheless, the management of prostates larger than 100 ml remains a clinical challenge. Transurethral anatomical enucleation of the prostate utilizing different laser energy represents an excellent alternative concept in transurethral BPH surgery. These procedures gained popularity and demonstrated similar outcomes to OP with the advantages of favorable morbidity profiles and shorter catheter time and hospital stay. Despite the fact that OP remains a viable treatment option for patients with bothersome LUTS secondary to very large prostates, this procedure has been to a large extent replaced by these emerging enucleation techniques. Given the advent of surgical alternatives, the current review presents an evidence-based comparison of the efficacy and safety profile of the currently available transurethral laser techniques with the standard OP for the management of BPH due to adenomas larger than 100 ml. PMID:27048160

  17. "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect": Correction to Arend and Henik (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect" by Isabel Arend and Avishai Henik (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015[Nov], Vol 41[6], 1821-1830). In the article the wrong version of Figure 1 was published. The correct version is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-23893-001.) The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by findings showing that the SiCE may be influenced by attention. The attentional contribution to the SiCE suggests that the effect is produced by an attention capture effect to the larger stimulus. Even though plausible, the attentional account overlooks 2 important factors in the study of magnitudes, namely, task (numerical vs. physical) and polarity of instructions (choose the larger vs. the smaller). We studied the influence of these factors using a size congruity task. Experiment 1 showed that the SiCE was modulated by task and instructions. In Experiment 2, we used a new set of numbers to examine a possible influence of the so-called end effect (i.e., responses to the smallest and to the largest numbers may not require number comparison). Experiment 2 successfully replicated the pattern of Experiment 1. We suggest that both feature saliency and long-term semantic processes modulate the SiCE. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359227

  18. Design and performance of tapered cubic anvil used for achieving higher pressure and larger sample cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Zhu, Pin-Wen; Ban, Qing-Chu; Yan, Ni; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In order to increase the maximum cell pressure of the cubic high pressure apparatus, we have developed a new structure of tungsten carbide cubic anvil (tapered cubic anvil), based on the principle of massive support and lateral support. Our results indicated that the tapered cubic anvil has some advantages. First, tapered cubic anvil can push the transfer rate of pressure well into the range above 36.37% compare to the conventional anvil. Second, the rate of failure crack decreases about 11.20% after the modification of the conventional anvil. Third, the limit of static high-pressure in the sample cell can be extended to 13 GPa, which can increase the maximum cell pressure about 73.3% than that of the conventional anvil. Fourth, the volume of sample cell compressed by tapered cubic anvils can be achieved to 14.13 mm(3) (3 mm diameter × 2 mm long), which is three and six orders of magnitude larger than that of double-stage apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. This work represents a relatively simple method for achieving higher pressures and larger sample cell. PMID:23902079

  19. Description of the Weatherization Assistance Program in larger multifamily buildings for Program Year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (the Program) in larger multifamily buildings were examined for Program Year 1989. The results show that about 20,000 dwellings in these multifamily buildings were served under the Program that year. This is 9% of the total number of units served nationally, while costs were 7% of total national costs. High levels of activity in larger multifamily buildings were reported for some States, with New York accounting for half of all the residences treated. Owner investment is an important strategy in New York for improving their efforts. A wide range of measures was installed, but the materials costs for the measures are dominated by the cost of windows (80% of the total for that year). Where the whole building was treated, $561 was invested per unit, while for partial-building work the total invested was $417. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program were not estimated, because energy use and cost data adequate for developing such estimates could not be obtained.

  20. Pharmacogenomic variants have larger effect sizes than genetic variants associated with other dichotomous complex traits.

    PubMed

    Maranville, J C; Cox, N J

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that pharmacogenomic phenotypes are influenced by genetic variants with larger effect sizes than other phenotypes, such as complex disease risk. This is presumed to reflect the fact that relevant environmental factors (drug exposure) are appropriately measured and taken into account. To test this hypothesis, we performed a systematic comparison of effect sizes between pharmacogenomic and non-pharmacogenomic phenotypes across all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported in the NHGRI GWAS catalog. We found significantly larger effect sizes for studies focused on pharmacogenomic phenotypes, as compared with complex disease risk, morphological phenotypes and endophenotypes. We found no significant differences in effect sizes between pharmacogenomic studies focused on adverse events versus those focused on drug efficacy. Furthermore, we found that this pattern persists among sample size-matched studies, suggesting that this pattern does not reflect overestimation of effect sizes due to smaller sample sizes in pharmacogenomic studies.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 7 July 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.47. PMID:26149738

  1. Functional convergence of tundra vegetation simplifies the interpretation of flux observations at larger spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoy, P. C.; Williams, M.; Evans, J. G.; Lloyd, C. R.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Disney, M.; Street, L. E.; Shaver, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    A central challenge in terrestrial carbon cycle research is upscaling measurements of vegetation function to larger spatial and temporal scales. A solution is required to, for example, make chamber-based measurements relevant at larger spatial scales and to make eddy covariance measurements applicable to leaf or chamber- based studies. Here we demonstrate that a simple model for photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration parameterized using pan-arctic chamber flux measurements closely matches eddy covariance flux observations in a tundra ecosystem near Abisko, Sweden. The agreement holds when using a generic parameter set that does not account for vegetation type or measurement location. Inverting the model to predict leaf area using eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange closely approximates tower-based LAI estimates across seasons and during periods of drought stress. Thus, recent findings documenting functional convergence of arctic vegetation holds at multiple spatial as well as temporal scales using both chamber and tower measurements. After validating the model using the eddy covariance measurements, we integrate the model with meteorological and LAI observations using a simple data assimilation scheme. The reduction of error achieved via data assimilation is compared to standard techniques of estimating eddy covariance error. Our analysis demonstrates that accurate estimates of C flux at multiple spatial scales across the tundra biome are possible given accurate estimates of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, and leaf area index given the observed functional convergence of tundra vegetation.

  2. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E.; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan–antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort. PMID:27091615

  3. The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, F; Altenhoff, W; Weiss, A; Menten, K M; Thum, C

    2006-02-01

    The most distant known object in the Solar System, 2003 UB313 (97 au from the Sun), was recently discovered near its aphelion. Its high eccentricity and inclination to the ecliptic plane, along with its perihelion near the orbit of Neptune, identify it as a member of the 'scattered disk'. This disk of bodies probably originates in the Kuiper belt objects, which orbit near the ecliptic plane in circular orbits between 30 and 50 au, and may include Pluto as a member. The optical brightness of 2003 UB313, if adjusted to Pluto's distance, is greater than that of Pluto, which suggested that it might be larger than Pluto. The actual size, however, could not be determined from the optical measurements because the surface reflectivity (albedo) was unknown. Here we report observations of the thermal emission of 2003 UB313 at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, which in combination with the measured optical brightness leads to a diameter of 3,000 +/- 300 +/- 100 km. Here the first error reflects measurement uncertainties, while the second derives from the unknown object orientation. This makes 2003 UB313 the largest known trans-neptunian object, even larger than Pluto (2,300 km). The albedo is 0.60 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.05, which is strikingly similar to that of Pluto, suggesting that the methane seen in the optical spectrum causes a highly reflective icy surface. PMID:16452973

  4. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  5. Electronic excitations of 1,4-disilyl-substituted 1,4-disilabicycloalkanes: a MS-CASPT2 study of the influence of cage size.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Niclas; Piqueras, Mari Carmen; Ottosson, Henrik; Crespo, Raül

    2007-04-12

    We present a multistate complete active space second-order perturbation theory computational study aimed to predict the low-lying electronic excitations of four compounds that can be viewed as two disilane units connected through alkane bridges in a bicyclic cage. The analysis has focused on 1,4-disilyl-1,4-disilabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (1a), 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-disilabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (1b), 1,4-disilyl-1,4-disilabicyclo[2.1.1]hexane (2a), and 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-disilabicyclo[2.1.1]hexane (2b). The aim has been to find out the nature of the lowest excitations with significant oscillator strengths and to investigate how the cage size affects the excitation energies and the strengths of the transitions. Two different substituents on the terminal silicon atoms (H and CH3) were used in order to investigate the end group effects. The calculations show that the lowest allowed excitations are of the same character as that found in disilanes but now red-shifted. As the cage size is reduced from a 1,4-disilabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane to a 1,4-disilabicyclo[2.1.1]hexane, the Si...Si through-space distance decreases from approximately 2.70 to 2.50 A and the lowest allowed transitions are red-shifted by up to 0.9 eV, indicating increased interaction between the two Si-Si bonds. The first ionization potential, which corresponds to ionization from the Si-Si sigma orbitals, is lower in 1b and 2b than in Si2Me6 by approximately 0.9 and 1.2 eV, respectively. Moreover, 1b and 2b, which have methyl substituents at the terminal Si atoms, have slightly lower excitation energies than the analogous species 1a and 2a. PMID:17388376

  6. Timing During Interruptions in Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Claudette; Bedard, Marie-Claude; Champagne, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Duration and location of breaks in time interval production were manipulated in various conditions of stimulus presentation (Experiments 1-4). Produced intervals shortened and then stabilized as break duration lengthened, suggesting that participants used the break as a preparatory period to restart timing as quickly as possible at the end of the…

  7. Silencing MRP1-4 genes by RNA interference enhances sensitivity of human hepatoma cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zheng; Liu, Gaojie; Fang, Tingfeng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Huayao; Yang, Shanglin; Wei, Jinxing; Lv, Zejian; Tan, Langping; Liu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Besides surgical treatment, systematic chemotherapy plays a crucial role in HCC treatment, especially for patients with advanced HCC. However, none of the single-drug-treatment strategies have shown significant survival benefit due to a high incidence rate of chemoresistance. This study was designed to observe the effect of small interfering of RNA (SiRNA) targeting multidrug resistance-related protein 1-4 (MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4) in modulating drug resistance of HepG2/ADM and SMMC7721/ADM cells. Methods: HepG2/Adriamycin (ADM) and SMMC7721/ADM cell lines were developed by exposing parental cells to stepwise increasing concentrations of ADM. MTT assay was used to determine drug sensitivity and half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of drugs was calculated. Flow cytometry was employed to analyze cell cycle distribution. MRP1-4 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Expression of proteins was analyzed by Western blot. The growth curve was draw and the cell apoptosis was also observed. Animal experiment was used to compare the cell growth. Results: MTT assay showed that the values of IC50 and RI of HepG2/ADM and SMMC7721/ADM decreased after siRNA treatment in HepG2/ADM cells and SMMC7721/ADM cells. QRT-PCR analysis demonstrated the MRP1-4 mRNA expression decreased significantly in HepG2/ADM cells and SMMC7721/ADM cells after siRNA transfection. In addition, compared with parental cells, MRP1-4 protein expressions apparently decreased in SMMC7721/ADM and HepG2/ADM cells. Flow cytometry showed significantly elevated apoptosis rate following MRP1-4 siRNA transfection. Animal experiment suggested that silencing MRP1-4 gene in vivo inhibited tumor growth. Conclusion: Inhibition of MRP1-4 by small interfering RNA enhanced and selectively restored sensitivity of hepatoma cells to drugs. MRP1-4 siRNA might represent a new therapeutic option for HCC. PMID:27398162

  8. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  9. The thermodynamic stability of clathrate hydrate. II. Simultaneous occupation of larger and smaller cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideki; Kiyohara, Kenji

    1993-05-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a clathrate hydrate encaging methane or xenon has been investigated by examining the free energy of formation. The total free energy is divided into several contributions: the interaction between water and guest molecules, the entropic contribution arising from the combinations of cage occupancy, and also the free energy arising from the guest molecular motions inside cages. Our method is based on the generalized van der Waals and Platteeuw theory used for the study of the hydrate encaging propane and is free from some of the fundamental assumptions in the original theory. This enables us to evaluate separately the factors which contribute significantly to the thermodynamic stability of the hydrate, and to address a question as to what extent the original theory is applicable to the prediction of the phase diagrams. While the potential energy curve of the guest molecule with surrounding water molecules in a smaller cage has a single minimum and the molecular motion can be accurately approximated to a collection of harmonic oscillators strongly coupled with the host molecules, the guest molecular motion in a larger cage does not couple with the host. To show evidence that the fixed lattice approximation is sufficient to describe molecular motions inside the larger cage, two kinds of molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out. In one simulation, both host water and guest molecules move according to the classical equations of motion. In another simulation only guest molecules are allowed to move, interacting with fixed host molecules. We perform two kinds of analyses on those motions. In the first analysis, the velocity autocorrelation functions are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations at several temperatures and the power spectra are obtained by the Fourier transform of the correlation functions. In the second, a so-called normal mode analysis is performed and the densities of state for intermolecular vibrations are

  10. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwen; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Qiu, Yijing; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-07-15

    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic time sweep analysis confirmed that the storage modulus (G') of corn starch stored at 4 °C decreased with increasing GBE treatment time. PNMR analysis demonstrated that the transverse relaxation times (T2) of corn starches treated with GBE were higher than that of control during the storage at 4 °C. DSC results demonstrated that the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr) of corn starch was reduced by 22.3% after GBE treatment for 10h. Avrami equation analysis showed that GBE treatment reduced the rate of starch retrogradation. FTIR analysis revealed that GBE treatment led to a decrease in hydrogen bonds within the starch. Overall, these results demonstrate that both short- and long-term retrogradation of corn starch were retarded by GBE treatment. PMID:26948619

  11. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  12. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  13. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    PubMed Central

    Röse, Philipp; Emge, Steffen; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cobalt(I)-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers. PMID:25815067

  14. 25 CFR 1.4 - State and local regulation of the use of Indian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State and local regulation of the use of Indian property. 1.4 Section 1.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPLICABILITY OF RULES OF THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS § 1.4 State and local regulation of the use of Indian property. (a) Except as provided...

  15. 36 CFR 1.4 - What terms do I need to know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What terms do I need to know? 1.4 Section 1.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.4 What terms do I need to know? (a) The following definitions shall apply to this chapter, unless modified by...

  16. Practical aspects of NMR signal assignment in larger and challenging proteins

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, Dominique P.

    2014-01-01

    NMR has matured into a technique routinely employed for studying proteins in near physiological conditions. However, applications to larger proteins are impeded by the complexity of the various correlation maps necessary to assign NMR signals. This article reviews the data analysis techniques traditionally employed for resonance assignment and describes alternative protocols necessary for overcoming challenges in large protein spectra. In particular, simultaneous analysis of multiple spectra may help overcome ambiguities or may reveal correlations in an indirect manner. Similarly, visualization of orthogonal planes in a multidimensional spectrum can provide alternative assignment procedures. We describe examples of such strategies for assignment of backbone, methyl, and nOe resonances. We describe experimental aspects of data acquisition for the related experiments and provide guidelines for preliminary studies. Focus is placed on large folded monomeric proteins and examples are provided for 37, 48, 53, and 81 kDa proteins. PMID:24534088

  17. NMR Structure Determination for Larger Proteins Using Backbone-Only Data

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Srivatsan; Lange, Oliver F.; Rossi, Paolo; Tyka, Michael; Wang, Xu; Aramini, James; Liu, Gaohua; Ramelot, Theresa; Eletsky, Alexander; Szyperski, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael; Prestegard, James; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2010-01-01

    Conventional protein structure determination from nuclear magnetic resonance data relies heavily on side-chain proton-proton distances. The necessary side-chain resonance assignment, however, is labor intensive and prone to error. Here we show that structures can be accurately determined without NMR information on the sidechains for proteins up to 25 kDa by incorporating backbone chemical shifts, residual dipolar couplings, and amide proton distances into the Rosetta protein structure modelling methodology. These data, which are too sparse for conventional methods, serve only to guide conformational search towards the lowest energy conformations in the folding landscape; the details of the computed models are determined by the physical chemistry implicit in the Rosetta all atom energy function. The new method is not hindered by the deuteration required to suppress nuclear relaxation processes for proteins greater than 15 kDa, and should enable routine NMR structure determination for larger proteins. PMID:20133520

  18. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Copestake, P T; Robinson, L

    2000-10-26

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not, for a series of test queries, assure superior retrieval of relevant papers. The specialist database, in which document selection and indexing is undertaken by the same expert toxicologists who use the database in their day-to-day work, achieved markedly better retrieval, using simpler search strategies, than the other databases. Specialist databases may offer a valuable alternative to the existing major bibliographic databases. The concept of relevance, as used to determine the effectiveness of bibliographic databases, is discussed. PMID:11074298

  19. Introgression of a rare haplotype from Southeastern Africa to breed California blackeyes with larger seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Mitchell R.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed size distinguishes most crops from their wild relatives and is an important quality trait for the grain legume cowpea. In order to breed cowpea varieties with larger seeds we introgressed a rare haplotype associated with large seeds at the Css-1 locus from an African buff seed type cultivar, IT82E-18 (18.5 g/100 seeds), into a blackeye seed type cultivar, CB27 (22 g/100 seed). Four recombinant inbred lines derived from these two parents were chosen for marker-assisted breeding based on SNP genotyping with a goal of stacking large seed haplotypes into a CB27 background. Foreground and background selection were performed during two cycles of backcrossing based on genome-wide SNP markers. The average seed size of introgression lines homozygous for haplotypes associated with large seeds was 28.7g/100 seed and 24.8 g/100 seed for cycles 1 and 2, respectively. One cycle 1 introgression line with desirable seed quality was selfed for two generations to make families with very large seeds (28–35 g/100 seeds). Field-based performance trials helped identify breeding lines that not only have large seeds but are also desirable in terms of yield, maturity, and plant architecture when compared to industry standards. A principal component analysis was used to explore the relationships between the parents relative to a core set of landraces and improved varieties based on high-density SNP data. The geographic distribution of haplotypes at the Css-1 locus suggest the haplotype associated with large seeds is unique to accessions collected from Southeastern Africa. Therefore this quantitative trait locus has a strong potential to develop larger seeded varieties for other growing regions which is demonstrated in this work using a California pedigree. PMID:25852699

  20. Compensatory larger cortical thickness in healthy elderly individuals with electroencephalographic risk for cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, Susana A; Barrios, Fernando A; Pasaye, Erick H; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Fernández, Thalía

    2016-06-15

    Excess theta electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been described as an accurate predictor for cognitive decline at least 7 years before symptom presentation. To test whether this predictor for cognitive decline correlates with structural changes in the brains of healthy elderly individuals, we compared the magnetic resonance structural images of healthy individuals with excess of theta activity [group with a risk for cognitive decline, risk group (RG); n=14] with healthy controls with normal EEG activity (control group; n=14). Neuropsychological and epidemiological analyses showed significant differences in only two features: more years of education and better performance in the visuospatial process task in the control group. Voxel-based morphometry results were not conclusive, but showed tendencies toward larger volumes in the prefrontal and parietal lobes, and smaller volumes in the right temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and left cerebellum for the RG; these tendencies are in agreement with those proposed by the posterior-anterior shift in an aging model. Cortical-thickness analyses yielded a significant correlation between cortical thickness and years of education in the prefrontal and inferior-temporal regions, and larger cortical thickness in the RG, independent of age and years of education, in the right superior temporal region. These results suggest changes in the cortical thickness of structures related to memory and visuospatial functions in healthy, cognitively normal individuals before the appearance of cognitive decline. Thus, the performance of healthy elderly individuals with EEG risk may only be slightly different from normal because of compensation mechanisms allowing them to fulfill daily-life tasks, masking structural changes during preclinical neurocognitive disorders. PMID:27171033

  1. Fatigue acceptance test limit criterion for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1997-05-01

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process. This criterion is derived from a stress dependent, room temperature air fatigue database for test studs having a 0.625 inch diameter threads of Alloys X-750 HTH and direct aged 625. Anticipated fatigue lives of larger threads are based on thread root elastic stress concentration factors which increase with increasing thread diameters. Over the thread size range of interest, a 30% increase in notch stress is equivalent to a factor of five (5X) reduction in fatigue life. The resulting diameter dependent fatigue acceptance criterion is normalized to the aerospace rolled thread acceptance standards for a 1.0 inch diameter, 0.125 inch pitch, Unified National thread with a controlled Root radius (UNR). Testing was conducted at a stress of 50% of the minimum specified material ultimate strength, 80 Ksi, and at a stress ratio (R) of 0.10. Limited test data for fastener diameters of 1.00 to 2.25 inches are compared to the acceptance criterion. Sensitivity of fatigue life of threads to test nut geometry variables was also shown to be dependent on notch stress conditions. Bearing surface concavity of the compression nuts and thread flank contact mismatch conditions can significantly affect the fastener fatigue life. Without improved controls these conditions could potentially provide misleading acceptance data. Alternate test nut geometry features are described and implemented in the rolled thread stud specification, MIL-DTL-24789(SH), to mitigate the potential effects on fatigue acceptance data.

  2. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  3. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-01-01

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates. PMID:16928643

  4. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Irradiation embrittlement of 2 {1}/{4}Cr-1Mo steel at 400°C and its electrochemical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Y.; Fukaya, K.; Suzuki, M.; Eto, M.

    1998-10-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties of normalized and tempered 2 {1}/{4}Cr-1Mo steel was evaluated by conducting postirradiation tensile and Charpy impact tests. The specimens were irradiated at 400°C to a fluence as high as 3 × 10 24 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV). Only slight hardening was observed because of the high temperature of irradiation. However, irradiation at 400°C to a fluence larger than 1 × 10 24 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV) caused high Charpy shifts accompanied by intergranular fracture. Results of electrochemical tests indicated that a possible element responsible for intergranular fracture was phosphorus.

  6. Tearing down to build up: Metalloenzymes in the biosynthesis lincomycin, hormaomycin and the pyrrolo [1,4]benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Colabroy, Keri L

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic pathways for the production of lincomycin, hormaomycin and the antitumor pyrrolo [1,4] benzodiazepines share a vinyl substituted pyrroline carboxylic acid (3-vinyl-2,3-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, VPCA) as a common intermediate. Biosynthesis of this vinyl substituted pyrroline carboxylic acid intermediate requires a short, three-enzyme pathway containing two metalloenzymes: a heme-dependent l-tyrosine hydroxylase and a non-heme Fe(2+) dependent l-DOPA dioxygenase. The l-tyrosine hydroxylase is an unprecedented type of peroxidase that specifically monohydroxylates tyrosine, while the l-DOPA extradiol cleaving enzyme is a single-domain vicinal-oxygen-chelate (VOC) dioxygenase. The dioxygenase product subsequently undergoes an, as yet uncharacterized, C-C bond cleavage reaction. This mini-pathway demonstrates the use of metal-dependent chemistry typically associated with natural product degradation in order to build a compact, functionalized building block for larger, bioactive molecules. PMID:26963649

  7. Determination of D-glucaric acid and/or D-glucaro-1,4-lacton in different apple varieties through hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Baogang; Liu, Yalan; Zou, Huiqin; Son, Yong; Wang, Huiyun; Wang, Haipeng; Shao, Jianghua

    2016-07-15

    d-Glucaric acid (GA) derivatives exhibit anti-cancerogenic properties in vivo in apples, but quantitative information about these derivatives is limited. Hydrophilic interaction-based HPLC with ultraviolet detection or mass spectrometry was developed to quantify GA and/or D-glucaro-1,4-lacton (1,4-GL) in apples. Although the formation of 1,4-GL from GA could be the prerequisite to exert biological effects in vivo, only a small portion of GA (<5%) was identified and converted to 1,4-GL in the rat stomach. The 1,4-GL content in apples ranged from 0.3 mg/g to 0.9 mg/g, and this amount can substantiate health claims associated with apples. The amount of 1,4-GL was 1.5 times higher in Gala and the ratio of 1,4-GL to GA was lower in Green Delicious apples than those in the other varieties. Our findings suggested that the variety and maturity of apples at harvest are factors that determine 1,4-GL content. PMID:26948581

  8. Spectral variability in the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the galactic center region, hard X-ray source GX 1+4 by the GSFC X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 confirm that GX 1+4 is a slow X-ray pulsar. The amount of absorption by cold matter in the spectrum of GX 1+4 varies significantly within a 24 hour period, behavior typical of many X-ray binary systems. The light curve for the pulsations from GX 1+4 appears to be energy dependent.

  9. Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane: effects of enzyme inducers and trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Hand, Steven; Wang, Baixin; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-07-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a groundwater contaminant and probable human carcinogen. In this study, two well-studied degradative bacteria Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 were examined for their 1,4-dioxane degradation ability in the presence and absence of its co-contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), under different oxygenase-expression conditions. These two strains were precultured with R2A broth (complex nutrient medium) before supplementation with propane or 1-butanol to induce the expression of different oxygenases. Both propane- and 1-butanol-induced JOB5 and RHA1 were able to degrade 1,4-dioxane, TCE, and mixtures of 1,4-dioxane/TCE. Complete degradation of 1,4-dioxane/TCE mixture was observed only in propane-induced strain JOB5. Inhibition was observed between 1,4-dioxane and TCE for all cells. Furthermore, product toxicity caused incomplete degradation of 1,4-dioxane by 1-butanol-induced JOB5. In general, the more TCE degraded, the greater extent of product toxicity cells experienced; however, susceptibility to product toxicity was found to be both strain- and inducer-dependent. The findings of this study provide fundamental basis for developing an effective in-situ remediation method for 1,4-dioxane-contaminated ground water and the first known study of 1,4-dioxane degradation by wild-type strain RHA1. PMID:25813968

  10. On some 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Yong; Qin, Li

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We use the bulk D3-brane solutions with both electric and magnetic charges on its world-volume to describe some of 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops. The D3-brane supersymmetric solutions are derived form requiring κ-symmetry. We find the two consistent constraints for Killing spinors and calculate the conserved charges of straight 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops and expectation values of circular 1/4 BPS Wilson-'t Hooft loops separately.

  11. Chemical Composition of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Abdominal Glands and the Influence of 1,4-benzoquinones on its Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, M J; Sant'Ana, J; de Oliveira, M W M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Caumo, M; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify and quantify the compounds present in the abdominal glands of Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and to evaluate the influence of these compounds on its behavior. The extraction of volatiles present in the abdominal glands was made by dissection (10 individuals per sex) and by air entrainment (200 insects per sex), and they were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and gas chromatograph-electroantennography detector (GC-EAD). The influence of these volatiles on the behavior of conspecifics was evaluated in a four-arm olfactometer. Twenty-three compounds were identified from male and female abdominal gland extracts, of which six were quinones: the 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and the 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone were the major components, and 1,4 benzoquinone and three hydroquinones were registered for the first time for this species. The GC-EAD analysis using the crude extracts from abdominal glands showed that male and female antennae responded to the three major benzoquinones. For the olfactometer bioassays, both genders were repelled either by the abdominal gland extracts or by synthetic solutions containing the three benzoquinones. The results suggest that the 1,4-benzoquinones play a role as a repellent to A. diaperinus. PMID:26470358

  12. Wind tunnel test on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Wing tunnel test data on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor mode are reported for all potential flight conditions through hover and a wide envelope of transitions. A mathematical model was used to describe the rotor system in real time simulation by means of regression analyses. Details of the model, test program and data system are provided together with four data files for hover and transition.

  13. Acute toxicity and withdrawal syndromes related to γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD).

    PubMed

    Wood, David M; Brailsford, Alan D; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been used as a recreational drug since the 1990s and over the last few years there has been increasing use of its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and to a lesser extent 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD). This review will summarize the literature on the pharmacology of these compounds; the patterns and management of acute toxicity associated with their use; and the clinical patterns of presentation and management of chronic dependency associated with GHB and its analogues. PMID:21548140

  14. Comparative Analyses of Two Thermophilic Enzymes Exhibiting both β-1,4 Mannosidic and β-1,4 Glucosidic Cleavage Activities from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Hespen, Charles W.; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Schroeder, Charles M.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolysis of polysaccharides containing mannan requires endo-1,4-β-mannanase and 1,4-β-mannosidase activities. In the current report, the biochemical properties of two endo-β-1,4-mannanases (Man5A and Man5B) from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus were studied. Man5A is composed of an N-terminal signal peptide (SP), a catalytic domain, two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), and three surface layer homology (SLH) repeats, whereas Man5B lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats. To gain insights into how the two glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) enzymes may aid the bacterium in energy acquisition and also the potential application of the two enzymes in the biofuel industry, two derivatives of Man5A (Man5A-TM1 [TM1 stands for truncational mutant 1], which lacks the SP and SLH repeats, and Man5A-TM2, which lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats) and the wild-type Man5B were biochemically analyzed. The Man5A derivatives displayed endo-1,4-β-mannanase and endo-1,4-β-glucanase activities and hydrolyzed oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 or higher. Man5B exhibited endo-1,4-β-mannanase activity and little endo-1,4-β-glucanase activity; however, this enzyme also exhibited 1,4-β-mannosidase and cellodextrinase activities. Man5A-TM1, compared to either Man5A-TM2 or Man5B, had higher catalytic activity with soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, indicating that the CBMs enhance catalysis of Man5A. Furthermore, Man5A-TM1 acted synergistically with Man5B in the hydrolysis of β-mannan and carboxymethyl cellulose. The versatility of the two enzymes, therefore, makes them a resource for depolymerization of mannan-containing polysaccharides in the biofuel industry. Furthermore, on the basis of the biochemical and genomic data, a molecular mechanism for utilization of mannan-containing nutrients by C. polysaccharolyticus is proposed. PMID:20562312

  15. Occurrence and core-envelope structure of 1-4× Earth-size planets around Sun-like stars.

    PubMed

    Marcy, Geoffrey W; Weiss, Lauren M; Petigura, Erik A; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W; Buchhave, Lars A

    2014-09-01

    Small planets, 1-4× the size of Earth, are extremely common around Sun-like stars, and surprisingly so, as they are missing in our solar system. Recent detections have yielded enough information about this class of exoplanets to begin characterizing their occurrence rates, orbits, masses, densities, and internal structures. The Kepler mission finds the smallest planets to be most common, as 26% of Sun-like stars have small, 1-2 R⊕ planets with orbital periods under 100 d, and 11% have 1-2 R⊕ planets that receive 1-4× the incident stellar flux that warms our Earth. These Earth-size planets are sprinkled uniformly with orbital distance (logarithmically) out to 0.4 the Earth-Sun distance, and probably beyond. Mass measurements for 33 transiting planets of 1-4 R⊕ show that the smallest of them, R < 1.5 R⊕, have the density expected for rocky planets. Their densities increase with increasing radius, likely caused by gravitational compression. Including solar system planets yields a relation: ρ = 2:32 + 3:19 R=R ⊕ [g cm(-3)]. Larger planets, in the radius range 1.5-4.0 R⊕, have densities that decline with increasing radius, revealing increasing amounts of low-density material (H and He or ices) in an envelope surrounding a rocky core, befitting the appellation ''mini-Neptunes.'' The gas giant planets occur preferentially around stars that are rich in heavy elements, while rocky planets occur around stars having a range of heavy element abundances. Defining habitable zones remains difficult, without benefit of either detections of life elsewhere or an understanding of life's biochemical origins. PMID:24912169

  16. Alternative splicing at C terminus of Ca(V)1.4 calcium channel modulates calcium-dependent inactivation, activation potential, and current density.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gregory Ming Yeong; Yu, Dejie; Wang, Juejin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The Ca(V)1.4 voltage-gated calcium channel is predominantly expressed in the retina, and mutations to this channel have been associated with human congenital stationary night blindness type-2. The L-type Ca(V)1.4 channel displays distinct properties such as absence of calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and slow voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI) due to the presence of an autoinhibitory domain (inhibitor of CDI) in the distal C terminus. We hypothesized that native Ca(V)1.4 is subjected to extensive alternative splicing, much like the other voltage-gated calcium channels, and employed the transcript scanning method to identify alternatively spliced exons within the Ca(V)1.4 transcripts isolated from the human retina. In total, we identified 19 alternative splice variations, of which 16 variations have not been previously reported. Characterization of the C terminus alternatively spliced exons using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology revealed a splice variant that exhibits robust CDI. This splice variant arose from the splicing of a novel alternate exon (43*) that can be found in 13.6% of the full-length transcripts screened. Inclusion of exon 43* inserts a stop codon that truncates half the C terminus. The Ca(V)1.4 43* channel exhibited robust CDI, a larger current density, a hyperpolarized shift in activation potential by ∼10 mV, and a slower VDI. Through deletional experiments, we showed that the inhibitor of CDI was responsible for modulating channel activation and VDI, in addition to CDI. Calcium currents in the photoreceptors were observed to exhibit CDI and are more negatively activated as compared with currents elicited from heterologously expressed full-length Ca(V)1.4. Naturally occurring alternative splice variants may in part contribute to the properties of the native Ca(V)1.4 channels. PMID:22069316

  17. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  18. 26 CFR 1.4-3 - Husband and wife filing separate returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Husband and wife filing separate returns. 1.4-3... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-3 Husband and wife filing separate returns. (a) In general. If the separate adjusted gross income of a husband is less than $5,000 and the separate adjusted gross income...

  19. Laboratory Investigations Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even a well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical propert...

  20. Bioactive 1 4-Dihydroxy-5-phenyl-2-pyridinone alkaloids from Septoria pistaciarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new 1,4-dihydroxy-5-phenyl-2-pyridinone alkaloids (1-4) were isolated from an EtOAc extract of a culture medium of Septoria pistaciarum. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configuration of the major compound 1 by X-ray crystallographic a...

  1. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  2. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR 1,4 - DIOXANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4 -Dioxane is a cyclic ether that is primarily utilized for industrial applications. These applications include 1,4 -dioxane as a solvent, reaction medium, wetting, degreasing, and dispersing agent, and for stabilization of chlorinated solvents (e.g. 1,1,1 -trichloroethane). ...

  3. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  4. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  5. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  6. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  7. IN-SITU OXIDATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE (LABORATORY RESULTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in the solvent stabilizer, 1,4-dioxane, is increasing because analytical detection limits have decreased indicating its presence at chlorinated volatile organic compound contaminated sites. The most common method for removing 1,4-dioxane from contaminated water is advanc...

  8. Laboratory Investigation Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even at well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical proper...

  9. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of correspondence and signature requirements. 1.4 Section 1.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence §...

  10. 43 CFR 3135.1-4 - Effect of transfer of a tract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of transfer of a tract. 3135.1-4... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING: NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Transfers, Extensions, Consolidations, and Suspensions § 3135.1-4 Effect of transfer of...

  11. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nature of correspondence and signature requirements. 1.4 Section 1.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence §...

  12. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... functions found? (a) The rules of the OWCP governing its functions under the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act and its extensions are set forth in subchapter A of chapter VI of this title. (b) The rules...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  17. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  18. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  19. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet-host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  20. Molecular Evidence for Lessepsian Invasion of Soritids (Larger Symbiont Bearing Benthic Foraminifera)

    PubMed Central

    Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Pawlowski, Jan; Abdu, Uri; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Bakhrat, Anna; Abramovich, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is considered as one of the hotspots of marine bioinvasions, largely due to the influx of tropical species migrating through the Suez Canal, so-called Lessepsian migrants. Several cases of Lessepsian migration have been documented recently, however, little is known about the ecological characteristics of the migrating species and their aptitude to colonize the new areas. This study focused on Red Sea soritids, larger symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera (LBF) that are indicative of tropical and subtropical environments and were recently found in the Israeli coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. We combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of soritids and their algal symbionts as well as network analysis of Sorites orbiculus Forskål to compare populations from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea) and from a known hotspot in Shikmona (northern Israel) that consists of a single population of S. orbiculus. Our phylogenetic analyses show that all specimens found in Shikmona are genetically identical to a population of S. orbiculus living on a similar shallow water pebbles habitat in the Gulf of Elat. Our analyses also show that the symbionts found in Shikmona and Elat soritids belong to the Symbiodinium clade F5, which is common in the Red Sea and also present in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Our study therefore provides the first genetic and ecological evidences that indicate that modern population of soritids found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian, and is less likely the descendant of a native ancient Mediterranean species. PMID:24204936

  1. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  2. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  3. Cortical Thinning in Healthy Aging Correlates with Larger Motor-Evoked EEG Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, David; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to investigate neural activity in patients and controls, exactly how local anatomy impacts the measured signal remains unclear. Better characterizing this relationship is important to improve the understanding of how inter-subject differences in the EEG signal are related to neural activity. We hypothesized that cortical structure might affect event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG. Since aging is a well-documented cause of cortical thinning, we investigated the effects of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical depth (CD – the skull-to-cortex distance) on ERD using anatomical MRI and motor-evoked EEG in 17 healthy young adults and 20 healthy older persons. Results showed a significant negative correlation between ERD and CT, but no consistent relationship between ERD and CD. A thinner cortex was associated with a larger ERD in the α/β band and correcting for CT removed most of the inter-group difference in ERD. This indicates that differences in neural activity might not be the primary cause for the observed aging-related differences in ERD, at least in the motor cortex. Further, it emphasizes the importance of considering conditions affecting the EEG signal, such as cortical anatomical changes due to aging, when interpreting differences between healthy controls and/or patients. PMID:27064767

  4. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  5. A loophole-free Bell test and the route to larger quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiserer, Andreas; Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Kalb, Norbert; Blok, Machiel; Taminiau, Tim; Hanson, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond gives access to few-qubit nuclear-spin registers with exceptional coherence properties. Entanglement between remote registers can be established via a joint measurement of single photons that are each entangled with the electron spin of one NV center. The entanglement protocol is thus probabilistic but heralded, which has allowed us to perform the first loophole-free test of Bell's inequality using two NV centers at a distance of 1.3km. Extending the size of the network requires control over additional qubits at each node. To this end, we use nuclear spins that are controlled via the hyperfine interaction with the electronic spin. I will present our recent experimental results, where we keep a qubit locally in a single nuclear spin or in a decoherence-protected two-spin state while applying a sequence of optical pulses on the electronic spin that generates remote entanglement. Our results open perspectives toward the purification of remote entanglement and toward larger quantum networks.

  6. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  7. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  8. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-11-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6-11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm-2. Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference.

  9. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. PMID:26282322

  10. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  11. Aspirations and common tensions: larger lessons from the third US national climate assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Susanne C.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Moss, Richard H.; Buizer, James L.

    2015-10-21

    The Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) was produced by experts in response to the US Global Change Research Act of 1990. Based on lessons learned from previous domestic and international assessments, the NCA3 was designed to speak to a broad public and inform the concerns of policy- and decision-makers at different scales. The NCA3 was also intended to be the first step in an ongoing assessment process that would build the nation’s capacity to respond to climate change. This concluding paper draws larger lessons from the insights gained throughout the assessment process that are of significance to future US and international assessment designers. We bring attention to process and products delivered, communication and engagement efforts, and how they contributed to the sustained assessment. Based on areas where expectations were exceeded or not fully met, we address four common tensions that all assessment designers must confront and manage: between (1) core assessment ingredients (knowledge base, institutional set-up, principled process, and the people involved), (2) national scope and subnational adaptive management information needs, (3) scope, complexity, and manageability, and (4) deliberate evaluation and ongoing learning approaches. Managing these tensions, amidst the social and political contexts in which assessments are conducted, is critical to ensure that assessments are feasible and productive, while its outcomes are perceived as credible, salient, and legitimate.

  12. Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Drummond, H

    1999-01-01

    When the costs of rearing males and females differ progeny sex ratios are expected to be biased toward the less expensive sex. Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) females are larger and roughly 32% heavier than males, thus presumably more costly to rear. We recorded hatching and fledging sex ratios in 1989, and fledging sex ratios during the next 5 years. In 1989, the sample of 751 chicks showed male bias at hatching (56%) and at fledging (57% at 90 days). Fledging sex ratios during the five subsequent reproductive seasons were at unity (1 year) or male-biased, varying from 56% to 70%. Male bias was greater during years when mean sea surface temperature was warmer and food was presumably in short supply. During two warm-water years (only) fledging sex ratio varied with hatching date. Proportions of male fledglings increased with date from 0.48 to 0.73 in 1994, and from 0.33 to 0.79 in 1995. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated using only broods with no nestling mortality, suggesting that the overall increase in the proportion of males over the season was the result of sex ratio adjustments at hatching. The male-biased sex ratio, and the increased male bias during poor breeding conditions supports the idea that daughters may be more costly than sons, and that their relative cost increases in poor conditions. PMID:20135156

  13. Larger receptive fields revealed using Battenberg stimuli to assess contrast summation with moving patterns.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Thomas J; Dickinson, J Edwin; Badcock, David R

    2016-09-01

    This study reevaluated the summation extent for moving stimuli using the Battenberg summation paradigm (Meese, 2010), which aims to circumvent internal noise changes with increasing stimulus size by holding display size constant. In the checkerboard stimulus, the size of the checks (luminance-modulated drifting gratings) was varied to measure dependence on signal area. Experiment 1 was a contrast detection task that used either signal checks alternating with uniform, mean luminance, checks (single-motion) or alternate checks containing gratings moving in opposite directions (opposing-motion). The latter was designed to test whether summation extent changes when segregating regions based on motion direction. Results showed summation over a square summation area with a side length of 3.33°, much larger than previous estimates of less than 1° for similar stimuli (Anderson & Burr, 1991). This was found for both motion combinations, providing no evidence that summation extent differs when segregating patterns based on direction, at contrast detection threshold. These results are in close agreement with those obtained for static patterns (Meese, 2010) and support the same underlying summation model. Experiment 2 was a contrast increment detection task conducted to determine whether differences in summation extent arise under suprathreshold contrast conditions. There was no dependence on check size for either condition across the range of sizes tested. This supports the suggestion that segmentation mechanisms dominate perception under high-contrast conditions, a potential adaptive strategy employed by the visual system. PMID:27604069

  14. Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane and Cyclic Ethers by an Isolated Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Nakamiya, Kunichika; Hashimoto, Syunji; Ito, Hiroyasu; Edmonds, John S.; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    By using 1,4-dioxane as the sole source of carbon, a 1,4-dioxane-degrading microorganism was isolated from soil. The fungus, termed strain A, was able to utilize 1,4-dioxane and many kinds of cyclic ethers as the sole source of carbon and was identified as Cordyceps sinensis from its 18S rRNA gene sequence. Ethylene glycol was identified as a degradation product of 1,4-dioxane by the use of deuterated 1,4-dioxane-d8 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A degradation pathway involving ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid was proposed, followed by incorporation of the glycolic acid and/or oxalic acid via glyoxylic acid into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:15746326

  15. Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel protective coating on ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyi; Xin, Xianshuang; Luo, Ting; Liu, Leimin; Zhou, Yuchun; Yuan, Chun; Lin, Chucheng; Zhan, Zhongliang; Wang, Shaorong

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to reduce the oxidation and Cr evaporation rates of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coating is developed on the Crofer22 APU ferritic stainless steel substrate by a powder reduction technique. Doping of Cu into Mn-Co spinels improves electrical conductivity as well as thermal expansion match with the Crofer22 APU interconnect. Good adhesion between the coating and the alloy substrate is achieved by the reactive sintering process using the reduced powders. Long-term isothermal oxidation experiment and area specific resistance (ASR) measurement are investigated. The ASR is less than 4 mΩ cm2 even though the coated alloy undergoes oxidation at 800 °C for 530 h and four thermal cycles from 800 °C to room temperature. The Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coatings demonstrate excellent anti-oxidation performance and long-term stability. It exhibits a promising prospect for the practical application of SOFC alloy interconnect.

  16. Tectonic setting of the Sandia pluton: An orogenic 1.4 Ga granite in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Eric; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Andronicos, Chris L.; Dallmeyer, R. David

    1995-02-01

    Structural studies of the circa 1.42 Ga Sandia pluton and its aureole document significant deformation synchronous with pluton emplacement and call into question the "anorogenic" label associated with this and other 1.4 Ga granites in the southwestern United States. The SE margin of the pluton is a 1- to 2-km-wide NW dipping ductile shear zone. Field and microstructural observations (melt-filled shear bands, high-temperature dynamic recrystallization of K-feldspar megacrysts, and crosscutting pegmatite dikes) indicate that top-to-the-NW (normal) movement in the shear zone took place in the presence of melt. Subparallel magmatic fabrics north of and structurally above the shear zone contain kinematic indicators consistent with top-to-the-NW shear sense, suggesting that over large regions of the pluton, magmatic flow mimicked solid-state strain. In the northern aureole, contact metamorphic aluminosilicate porphyroblasts grew during the formation of a NE striking crenulation cleavage (S3) and related folds of late-stage pegmatite dikes. These features document the synchroneity of magma emplacement, shortening, and metamorphism and indicate that the Sandia pluton is syntectonic, not anorogenic. We interpret the kinematic consistency of structural elements from the base of the pluton, the interior of the pluton, and the northern aureole to reflect a regional (larger than the pluton) strain field and suggest that the "orogeny" recorded in and around the Sandia pluton involved a three dimensional strain field with subhorizontal extension (N-S) and contraction (E-W) directions. N-S extension is documented by the orientation of mineral lineations and movement directions in the basal shear zone and in high-strain zones in the northern aureole and by the orientations of tabular pegmatite and aplite dikes in the pluton and aureole. East to SE shortening is documented in the northern aureole by orientations of folded pegmatite dikes and associated S3 crenulation cleavage, and

  17. Specific receptor for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in permeabilized rabbit neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.G.; Spat, A.; Rubin, R.P.

    1986-03-05

    Neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation are resultant, in part, from the mobilization of intracellular calcium by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP/sub 3/), one of the products of chemoattractant-stimulated phospholipase C activity. High specific activity (ca. 40 Ci/mmol) (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ was prepared from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts and was used in binding assays with saponin-permeabilized rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. At 4/sup 0/C and in the presence of inhibitors of the IP/sub 3/ 5-phosphomonoesterase, (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ rapidly associated with a specific binding component which saturated within 60s. Nonspecific binding, taken as the residual binding in the presence of 10 ..mu..M (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/, was 15% of the total. No specific binding was detected using intact cells. The specific binding to permeable cells was reversible (t/sup 1/2/ approx. 60s) and could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ (EC/sub 50/ = 30 nM) and by other calcium mobilizing inositol phosphates ((2,4,5)IP/sub 3/) but not by inactive analogs ((1,4)IP/sub 2/, (4,5)IP/sub 2/, (1)IP). The dose-responses of (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ and (2,4,5)IP/sub 3/ in inhibiting (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ specific binding correlated well with their abilities to release Ca/sup 2 +/ from nonmitochondrial vesicular stores in the same preparation of cells, suggesting that the authors have identified the physiological receptor for (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/.

  18. The role of subsurface flows in solar surface convection: modeling the spectrum of supergranular and larger scale flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. W.; Rast, M. P.; Cameron, R. H.; Rempel, M.; Roudier, T.

    2014-09-20

    We model the solar horizontal velocity power spectrum at scales larger than granulation using a two-component approximation to the mass continuity equation. The model takes four times the density scale height as the integral (driving) scale of the vertical motions at each depth. Scales larger than this decay with height from the deeper layers. Those smaller are assumed to follow a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade, with the total power in the vertical convective motions matching that required to transport the solar luminosity in a mixing length formulation. These model components are validated using large-scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We reach two primary conclusions. (1) The model predicts significantly more power at low wavenumbers than is observed in the solar photospheric horizontal velocity spectrum. (2) Ionization plays a minor role in shaping the observed solar velocity spectrum by reducing convective amplitudes in the regions of partial helium ionization. The excess low wavenumber power is also seen in the fully nonlinear three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations employing a realistic equation of state. This adds to other recent evidence suggesting that the amplitudes of large-scale convective motions in the Sun are significantly lower than expected. Employing the same feature tracking algorithm used with observational data on the simulation output, we show that the observed low wavenumber power can be reproduced in hydrodynamic models if the amplitudes of large-scale modes in the deep layers are artificially reduced. Since the large-scale modes have reduced amplitudes, modes on the scale of supergranulation and smaller remain important to convective heat flux even in the deep layers, suggesting that small-scale convective correlations are maintained through the bulk of the solar convection zone.

  19. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  20. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  1. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2015-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification

  2. Weapons Make the Man (Larger): Formidability Is Represented as Size and Strength in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans – and likely many other social vertebrates – navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curely, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  4. Recruitment-dance signals draw larger audiences when honey bee colonies have multiple patrilines

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, H. R.; Seeley, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) who mate with multiple males produce colonies that are filled with numerous genetically distinct patrilines of workers. A genetically diverse colony benefits from an enhanced foraging effort, fuelled in part by an increase in the number of recruitment signals that are produced by foragers. However, the influence of patriline diversity on the attention paid to these signals by audiences of potentially receptive workers remains unexplored. To determine whether recruitment dances performed by foragers in multiple-patriline colonies attract a greater number of dance followers than dances in colonies that lack patriline diversity, we trained workers from multiple- and single-patriline colonies to forage in a greenhouse and monitored their dance-following activity back in the hives. On average, more workers followed a dance if it was performed in a multiple-patriline colony rather than a single-patriline colony (33% increase), and for a greater number of dance circuits per follower. Furthermore, dance-following workers in multiple-patriline colonies were more likely to exit their hive after following a dance, although this did not translate to a difference in colony-level exit rates between treatment types. Recruiting nest mates to profitable food sources through dance communication is critical to a colony’s foraging success and long-term fitness; polyandrous queens produce colonies that benefit not only from increased recruitment signalling, but also from the generation of larger and more attentive audiences of signal receivers. This study highlights the importance of integrating responses of both signal senders and receivers to understand more fully the success of animal-communication systems. PMID:21350596

  5. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  6. Microwaves create larger ablations than radiofrequency when controlled for power in ex vivo tissue

    PubMed Central

    Andreano, A.; Huang, Yu; Meloni, M. Franca; Lee, Fred T.; Brace, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ablation zones created with equal amounts of 2.45 GHz microwave and 480 kHz radiofrequency (RF) energy in ex vivo liver and lung. Methods: A total of 38 ablations were performed in ex vivo liver and lung for 10 min each. Nineteen RF ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were performed with a 480 kHz system (200 W max, impedance-based pulsing) and cooled electrode while measuring the average RF power applied. Nineteen microwave ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were then created using a cooled triaxial antenna to deliver 2.45 GHz at the same power level as in RF experiments. Ablation zones were then sectioned and measured for minimum, maximum and mean diameters, and circularity. Measurements were compared using t-tests, with P<0.05 indicating statistical significance. Results: Mean diameters of microwave ablations were greater than RF ablations in both liver and lung (4.4±0.3 vs 3.3±0.2 cm in liver; 2.45±0.3 vs 1.6±0.5 cm in lungs; P<0.0005 all comparisons). There was no significant difference in the mean power applied during microwave or RF ablations in either organ (54.44±1.71 W vs 56.4±6.7 W in liver, P>0.05; 40±0.95 W vs 44.9±7.1 W in lung, P>0.05). Conclusions: Using a single cooled applicator, microwave energy at 2.45 GHz produces larger ablations than an equivalent amount of 480 kHz RF energy in normal liver and lung. This was more apparent in lung, likely due to the high baseline impedance which limits RF, but not microwave power delivery. PMID:20632609

  7. Low Concentrations of Methamphetamine Can Protect Dopaminergic Cells against a Larger Oxidative Stress Injury: Mechanistic Study

    PubMed Central

    El Ayadi, Amina; Zigmond, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mild stress can protect against a larger insult, a phenomenon termed preconditioning or tolerance. To determine if a low intensity stressor could also protect cells against intense oxidative stress in a model of dopamine deficiency associated with Parkinson disease, we used methamphetamine to provide a mild, preconditioning stress, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) as a source of potentially toxic oxidative stress, and MN9D cells as a model of dopamine neurons. We observed that prior exposure to subtoxic concentrations of methamphetamine protected these cells against 6-OHDA toxicity, whereas higher concentrations of methamphetamine exacerbated it. The protection by methamphetamine was accompanied by decreased uptake of both [3H] dopamine and 6-OHDA into the cells, which may have accounted for some of the apparent protection. However, a number of other effects of methamphetamine exposure suggest that the drug also affected basic cellular survival mechanisms. First, although methamphetamine preconditioning decreased basal pERK1/2 and pAkt levels, it enhanced the 6-OHDA-induced increase in these phosphokinases. Second, the apparent increase in pERK1/2 activity was accompanied by increased pMEK1/2 levels and decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2. Third, methamphetamine upregulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-2. Our results suggest that exposure to low concentrations of methamphetamine cause a number of changes in dopamine cells, some of which result in a decrease in their vulnerability to subsequent oxidative stress. These observations may provide insights into the development of new therapies for prevention or treatment of PD. PMID:22022363

  8. Weapons make the man (larger): formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  9. Acid-promoted transformations of 1-(diphenylphosphoryl)allenes: synthesis of novel 1,4-dihydrophosphinoline 1-oxides.

    PubMed

    Bogachenkov, Alexander S; Dogadina, Albina V; Boyarskiy, Vadim P; Vasilyev, Aleksander V

    2015-02-01

    1-(Diphenylphosphoryl)alka-1,2-dienes (phosphonoallenes) in Brønsted (super)acids (TfOH, FSO3H, and H2SO4) at -70 to 120 °C for 30 min to 4 h gave, at first, (3-hydroxyalk-1-en-1-yl)diphenylphosphine oxides, as kinetically favorable reaction products, that are further converted into 1-phenyl-1,4-dihydrophosphinoline 1-oxides as thermodynamically stable compounds. The latter compounds are formed from phosphonoallenes under the action of a strong Lewis acid AlCl3 at room temperature for 10-120 min. This is a novel, simple and efficient (short reaction time, high yields) method for synthesis of such 1,4-dihydrophosphinoline 1-oxides. PMID:25526497

  10. Nitro radical anion formation from nitrofuryl substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives in mixed and non-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Argüello, J; Núñez-Vergara, L J; Bollo, S; Squella, J A

    2006-09-01

    Three new nitrofuryl substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives were electrochemically tested in the scope of newly found compounds useful as chemotherapeutic alternative to the Chagas' disease. All the compounds were capable to produce nitro radical anions sufficiently stabilized in the time window of the cyclic voltammetric experiment. In order to quantify the stability of the nitro radical anion we have calculated the decay constant, k2. Furthermore, from the voltammetric results, some parameters of biological significance as E7(1) (indicative of in vivo nitro radical anion formation) and KO2 (thermodynamic indicator of oxygen redox cycling) have been calculated. From the comparison of E7(1), KO2 and k2 values between the studied nitrofuryl 1,4-DHP derivatives and well-known current drugs an auspicious activity for one of the studied compounds i.e. FDHP2, can be expected. PMID:16473565

  11. Distribution of 1,4-dioxane in relation to possible sources in the water environment.

    PubMed

    Abe, A

    1999-02-16

    The distribution of 1,4-dioxane was investigated in surface and groundwater in relation to possible sources. Water samples from river, coastal sea, and groundwater were collected and examined in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from 1995 to 1998. Almost all samples were contaminated by 1,4-dioxane. On annual changes, the concentrations did not vary significantly in river water. However, some samples were still heavily polluted in groundwater. The highest correlation was between the concentration of 1,4-dioxane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the polluted groundwater samples. Soil and groundwater that was polluted by 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the past is still a possible source of 1,4-dioxane. In regard to a survey of other sources, effluents from the combined collection treatment from apartment houses, river basin sewage systems, and chemical plants were examined. The load unit of 1,4-dioxane from the treated effluent of domestic wastewater was assumed to be approximately 0.25 mg/person/day. This was derived from commonly used household chemicals, which contained 1,4-dioxane as a by-product. In river basin sewage systems, the concentrations in effluents varied significantly. High concentration inflows were probably not degraded and released. Although 50-60% of removal was recognized in acclimatized activated sludge from a chemical plant, 1,4-dioxane was easily desorbed with water from sludge. PMID:10209880

  12. Regulation of Human Kv1.4 Channel Activity by the Antidepressant Metergoline.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hye Duck; Lee, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Metergoline is an ergot-derived psychoactive drug that is a ligand for various serotonin and dopamine receptors. Little is known about the effect of metergoline on different types of receptors and ion channels. Potassium channels are the most diverse group of ion channels. Kv1.4, a shaker family K channel alpha subunit, is one of a family of voltage gated K channels that mediates transient and rapid inactivating A-type currents and N-type inactivation. We demonstrated previously that metergoline inhibited the activity of neuronal voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes (Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 35, 2014, Lee et al.). In this study, we sought to elucidate the regulatory effects underlying metergoline-induced human Kv1.4 channel inhibition. We used the two electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) technique to investigate the effect of metergoline on human Kv1.4 channel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human Kv1.4 alpha subunits. Interestingly, metergoline treatment also induced inhibition of peak currents in human Kv1.4 channels in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 of peak currents of hKv1.4 currents was 3.6±0.6 µM. These results indicate that metergoline might regulate the human Kv1.4 channel activity that is expressed in X. laevis oocytes. Further, this regulation of potassium currents by metergoline might be one of the pharmacological actions of metergoline-mediated psychoactivity. PMID:27251511

  13. Lymphocyte responses to DR1/4 restricted peptides in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, M A; Watson, L; Geursen, A; Tan, P L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether analog and unrelated DR1/4 binding peptides alter DR1/4 restricted responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--PBL from 25 patients with RA and 12 healthy controls were cultured with DR1/4 restricted peptides of the influenza haemagglutinin, amino acids 307-319 (HA) and matrix proteins, amino acids 17-29 (IM). Responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake proliferation assays and limiting dilution analysis. Competitor peptides were analogs HA-R312 and HA-K313 differing from HA by one amino acid at the 312 or 313 position respectively or unrelated peptides which bind to DR1/4. RESULTS--The responses of eight patients with RA to the two stimulatory influenza peptides did not differ significantly from controls and this was confirmed by the frequency estimate of T cells in PBL which responded to HA (mean frequency: 1 in 9.0 x 10(4), n = 5, in DR1/4+ RA patients, 1 in 7.6 x 10(4), n = 5, in DR1/4+ healthy controls). DR1/4 binding analogs of the HA peptide inhibited HA specific peptide responses of PBL from patients with RA and controls. Inhibition was also detected with unrelated peptides which bind to DR1/4 but to which the individual did not respond. CONCLUSION--Similar responses to two DR1/4 restricted peptides were observed in patients with RA and controls. Both antigen analog- and unrelated peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) can result in the inhibition of antigen specific responses in multi-clonal human lymphocyte populations. However, an analog peptide may be stimulatory in some individuals. These results provide some initial data for the development of a rational approach to MHC-specific immunomodulation in rheumatoid arthritis. Images PMID:8154934

  14. Biodegradation Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane in Chlorinated Solvent Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Gedalanga, Phillip B; Mahendra, Shaily

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the impacts of individual chlorinated solvents and their mixtures on aerobic 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The established association of these co-occurring compounds suggests important considerations for their respective biodegradation processes. Our kinetics and mechanistic studies demonstrated that individual solvents inhibited biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in the following order: 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) > cis-1,2-diochloroethene (cDCE) > trichloroethene (TCE) > 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). The presence of 5 mg L(-1) 1,1-DCE completely inhibited 1,4-dioxane biodegradation. Subsequently, we determined that 1,1-DCE was the strongest inhibitor of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by bacterial pure cultures exposed to chlorinated solvent mixtures as well as in environmental samples collected from a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane. Inhibition of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation rates by chlorinated solvents was attributed to delayed ATP production and down-regulation of both 1,4-dioxane monooxygenase (dxmB) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH) genes. Moreover, increasing concentrations of 1,1-DCE and cis-1,2-DCE to 50 mg L(-1) respectively increased 5.0-fold and 3.5-fold the expression of the uspA gene encoding a universal stress protein. In situ natural attenuation or enhanced biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane is being considered for contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater, so these results will have implications for selecting 1,4-dioxane bioremediation strategies at sites where chlorinated solvents are present as co-contaminants. PMID:27486928

  15. Photostabilization studies of antihypertensive 1,4-dihydropyridines using polymeric containers.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Michele; Ioele, Giuseppina; Spatari, Claudia; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-05-30

    1,4-dihydropyridine antihypertensives (DHPs) are almost all dispensed in solid pharmaceutical formulations for their easy lability when exposed to light. This paper reports a study on the photoprotective effect of containers in different glassy or polymeric matrices with regard to four known DHPs when in solutions. The samples were subjected to forced degradation by means of a Xenon lamp, in accordance with the international rules on drug stability evaluation. The simultaneous determination of the drugs and their photoproducts was carried out by applying the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methodology to the spectral data recorded along the irradiation test. This technique was able to determine the kinetic parameters and resolve the spectra of the photoproducts. The time required to reduce by 10% the concentration of the drug (t0.1) was adopted as a criterion to compare the protective ability of the containers. A significant photoprotection for all drugs tested was obtained by the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers. The best result was achieved for the felodipine solution in blue PET transparent bottle of 0.6mm thickness, reaching an almost complete stabilization up to six hours under stressing irradiation. In contrast, the glass containers, whether or not coloured, did not provide a satisfactory photoprotection of the drugs, showing in any case t0.1 values under 24min. These results can be a good opportunity to design new photoprotective pharmaceutical packaging for DHPs in liquid dosage form. PMID:27085645

  16. Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Few sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy temperatures occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are temperature dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.

  17. Spatially Resolved Dust Maps from Balmer Decrements in Galaxies at z ~ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Erica June; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2016-01-01

    We derive average radial gradients in the dust attenuation toward H ii regions in 609 galaxies at z ˜ 1.4, using measurements of the Balmer decrement out to r ˜ 3 kpc. The Balmer decrements are derived from spatially resolved maps of Hα and Hβ emission from the 3D-HST survey. We find that with increasing stellar mass M both the normalization and strength of the gradient in dust attenuation increases. Galaxies with a mean mass of < {log} M> =9.2M⊙ have little dust attenuation at all radii, whereas galaxies with < {log} M> =10.2M⊙ have AHα ≈ 2 mag in their central regions. We parameterize this as {A}{{H}α }=b+c{log} r, with b=0.9+{log}1.0{M}10, c = -1.9-2.2 log M10, r in kpc, and M10 the stellar mass in units of 1010 M⊙. This expression can be used to correct spatially resolved measurements of Hα to radial distributions of star formation. When applied to our data, we find that the star formation rates (SFRs) in the central r < 1 kpc of galaxies in the highest mass bin are ˜6 M⊙ yr-1, six times higher than before correction and approximately half of the total SFR of these galaxies. If this high central SFR is maintained for several Gyr, a large fraction of the stars in present-day bulges likely formed in situ.

  18. Photochemistry of the 1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadienes in Ethanol. Trapping Conical Intersections.

    PubMed

    Saltiel, Jack; Redwood, Christopher E

    2016-05-12

    We report photoisomerization and photoaddition quantum yields in ethanol starting from each 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene, DPB, isomer. Despite the fact that the trans,trans isomer, tt-DPB, has a significant fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime, whereas no fluorescence is observed from the cis isomers, ether formation occurs with similar efficiency from tt-DPB and ct-DPB and less efficiently from cc-DPB. Photoaddition is about 72 times slower than photoisomerization to the ct- and tt-DPB isomers starting from tt- and ct-DPB, respectively. The results are consistent with addition of alcohol to the common zwitterionic trans-phenallyl cation/benzyl anion intermediate that leads to photoisomerization through a conical intersection. Ether formation from cc-DPB tracks inefficient formation of tt-DPB indicating that the small bicycle pedal cc-DPB → tt-DPB component proceeds stepwise through the same zwitterionic trans-phenallyl cation/benzyl anion intermediate. Previous results concerning the addition of methanol to the stilbenes are similarly interpreted. In contrast to trans-stilbene, the fluorescence and photoisomerization quantum yields of tt-DPB are inconsistent with the assumption of strict complementarity between radiative and torsional relaxation channels of tt-DPB in alcohols. PMID:27081783

  19. 1,4-Naphthalenediyl-Bridged Molecular Gyrotops: Rotation of the Rotor and Fluorescence in Solution.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yohei; Inagaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Setaka, Wataru

    2015-10-16

    Macrocage molecules with a bridged π-electron system have been reported as molecular gyrotops in which the π-electron system can rotate within the cage. We recently reported the dynamics of the rotor in solution using 1,4-naphthalenediyl-bridged molecular gyrotops, which consist of cages formed of three C14, C16, or C18 chains. In this work, we synthesized novel gyrotops with C15 and C17 chains and systematically investigated the activation energies for the rotation of the rotor in solution. The activation energies for rotation in solution were found to decrease with increasing size of the cage. Therefore, a rotational barrier can be designed by adjusting the length of the side chains in these molecular gyrotops. Additionally, these gyrotops were fluorescent in solution; the quantum yields and lifetimes of the fluorescence were investigated. However, these properties were not influenced by the chain length owing to a large difference in time scale between fluorescence (10(-8)-10(-9) s) and the rotational dynamics inside the cage (10°-10(-5) s). PMID:26374975

  20. [Cytogenetic effects of 1,4-dihydropyridine in various test systems].

    PubMed

    Kuzhir, T D; Goncharova, R I; Zolotareva, G N

    1984-01-01

    Cytogenetic effect of 1,4-dihydropyridine was studied in different test-systems. The preparation is shown to decrease the level of complete sex-chromosome losses in Drosophila and chromosome aberration frequency in Allium fistulosum seedlings. The preparation does not affect spontaneous mutability of bone marrow cells in mice, high doses of the preparation have no mutagenic potential. Thus, 1,4-dihydropyridine shows antimutagenic activity reducing the chromosome mutation level in sex and somatic cells of eucaryotic organisms. Absence of the effect on mice chromosomes may testify to the specificity of 1,4-dihydropyridine action. PMID:6506216

  1. Beta 1,4-oligoglucosides inhibit the binding of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kan, V L; Bennett, J E

    1991-05-01

    The binding of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to human monocytes is mediated by a barley beta-glucan-inhibitable receptor. The simplest linkages in this glucan are present in the disaccharides laminaribiose (beta 1,3) and cellobiose (beta 1,4). Although laminaribiose gave strong inhibition of conidial binding to monocytes, cellobiose and oligosaccharides with beta 1,4-linked glucose residues were more potent as specific inhibitors of this binding over similar concentrations. Increasing the number of beta 1,4-linked glucose residues led to greater inhibition of conidial binding by human monocytes. PMID:2019764

  2. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of 6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans

    SciTech Connect

    Daukshas, V.K.; Brukshtus, A.B.; Gaidyalis, P.G.; Pyatrauskas, O.Yu.; Udrenaite, E.B.

    1986-07-01

    6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans were synthesized by the Friedel-Crafts reaction by the acylation of benzo-1,4-dioxane or corresponding dihydrobenzopyran with an acid chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/; the ketone was obtained by the hydrogenation of the chalcone using Raney nickel. The antiinflammatory activity was studied on experimental models of carragheen and bentonite edema of the foot of white rats. Results indicate that derivatives of benzo-1,4-dioxane and dihydrobenzopyran of the type studied show promise as antiinflammatory agents.

  3. Why do oceanic negative cloud-to-ground lightning exhibit larger peak current values?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronis, T.; Koshak, W.; McCaul, E.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the temporal (monthly) and spatial climatology (2004-2010) of the first return stroke of the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash peak current (Ip) across various land/water boundaries over the contiguous United States. Four regions are examined: the Gulf of Mexico (region 1), the Florida peninsula (region 2), Lake Michigan (region 3), and part of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic (region 4). The crosss across the coastlines of regions 1, 2, and 4 show a gradual oceanward increase in the mean negative polarity CG peak current values (-Ip). This transition along the respective land/ocean boundaries is not sharp but gradual. In direct contrast with ocean, there is no consistent behavior in -Ip values as we move from land out across the fresh water of Lake Michigan (region 3). Meanwhile, the positive CG flash peak current (+Ip) values do not exhibit a consistent variation across any coastal boundary. For region 1, the -Ip values increase as we move toward the coast (southwards) especially during the wet season (June-October). This finding is in direct contrast with studies that documented winter as the season of maximum -Ip values. The zonal and seasonal variations of -Ip values across region 4 are not quite as pronounced, but the oceanic -Ip values are still larger than over the adjoining landmass. We explore in turn which up to date hypotheses pertinent to the oceanic -Ip enhancement are supported or refuted by our findings. It is concluded that the oceanic -Ip enhancement is not an artifact related to CG detection or Ip retrieval methods, nor is it likely related to the cloud top heights or CG activity. The study cannot refute the role of electrical conductivity and its contribution to CG leader attachment processes. However, given the observed "blurred transition" of the Ip values across the coastlines this paper suggests that likely the main physical mechanism is acting on the thundercloud potential. The recently suggested role of sodium chloride (Na

  4. How-to-Do-It: Why Don't Cells Grow Larger? A Lab Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanek, Joseph A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a laboratory investigation designed to analyze surface area to volume ratio related to cell division. Uses agar-gel "cells" with pH indicator added which are then "fed" acid for a measured time. Discusses procedures and materials used, providing a sample data table and important guiding questions. (JM)

  5. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  6. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  7. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D. M.; Amalanathan, M.; Hubert Joe, I.; Bena Jothy, V.; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  8. Resistance of medical gloves to permeation by methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA).

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Eystein Ruyter, I

    2003-01-01

    Gloves afford hand protection by minimizing skin contact. The effectiveness of medical gloves to protect against permeation of the monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA), was assessed focusing on permeation rates and degradation of glove materials caused by monomer contact. Fifteen different brands of gloves were tested using a European Standard procedure. Surface images of glove materials before and after exposure to the monomer mixture were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. The standard is not applicable as the only method for estimating the safety of gloves, but it is useful as guideline together with the cumulative permeation of acrylic monomers. Monomer contact on the outside resulted in substantial swelling of most glove materials, and structure changes of the inside surface. PMID:14577946

  9. Biostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous carbonate platforms based on larger foraminifera: the Late Cretaceous shallow benthic zones (LKSBZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caus, Esmeralda; Parente, Mariano; Albrich, Sergi; Boix, Carme; Consorti, Lorenzo; Di Lucia, Matteo; Frijia, Gianluca; Robles, Raquel; Villalonga, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    The larger foraminifera are single-celled organisms extremely abundant and diverse in tropical-to-subtropical shallow-water oligotrophic-to- mesotrophic environments, especially in carbonate platforms. They cover all the environments within the platform, from the littoral areas to the lower limit of the photic zone. In the geological past, starting from the Late Carboniferous, the same ecological niches where inhabited by different assemblages that evolved in subsequent global community maturation cycles (GCMCs). These cycles are bounded by global palaeoenvironmental crises marked by increased extinction rates or even mass extinctions. This work focuses on the Late Cretaceous Global Community Maturation cycle (LKGCMC), which is bracketed between two mass extinction events: the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event at the base and the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary event at the top. Ten shallow benthic zones (SBZs) are proposed for the time span going from the base of the Turonian up to the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. A SBZ is a composite zone of parallel phylogenetic lineages that covers at least the most common facies realms of shallow-water deposits. Each zone corresponds to the "total range zone" of some larger foraminifera taxa, and is defined using integrated evidence on multiple first appearances and last occurrences of taxa from all available neritic palaeoenvironments. The new biozonaton is based on an extensive regional data set derived from well exposed shallow-water carbonate successions on both sides of the Pyrenees (Northern Spain and Southern France). The LKSBZ 1 corresponds to the earliest phase of the LKGCM cycle. This biozone is characterized by the presence of few Cenomanian survivors. The LKSBZs 2-4 are characterized by the great development of the structurally complex porcellaneous groups and the first diversification of rotaliids. The LKSBZ 5-10 are dominated by lamellar-perforate foraminifera, with three main groups: Orbitoidids

  10. P1 Trisaccharide (Galα1,4Galβ1,4GlcNAc) Synthesis by Enzyme Glycosylation Reactions Using Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziye; Lu, Yuquan; Zhang, Jianbo; Pardee, Keith; Wang, Peng George

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of Escherichia coli infection has lead to concerns over pathogenic bacteria in our food supply and a demand for therapeutics. Glycolipids on gut cells serve as receptors for the Shiga-like toxin produced by E. coli. Oligosaccharide moiety analogues of these glycolipids can compete with receptors for the toxin, thus acting as antibacterials. An enzymatic synthesis of the P1 trisaccharide (Galα1,4Galβ1,4GlcNAc), one of the oligosaccharide analogues, was assessed in this study. In the proposed synthetic pathway, UDP-glucose was generated from sucrose with an Anabaena sp. sucrose synthase and then converted with an E. coli UDP-glucose 4-epimerase to UDP-galactose. Two molecules of galactose were linked to N-acetylglucosamine subsequently with a Helicobacter pylori β-l,4-galactosyltransferase and a Neisseria meningitidis α-1,4-galactosyltransferase to produce one molecule of P1 trisaccharide. The four enzymes were coexpressed in a single genetically engineered E. coli strain that was then permeabilized and used to catalyze the enzymatic reaction. P1 trisaccharide was accumulated up to 50 mM (5.4 g in a 200-ml reaction volume), with a 67% yield based on the consumption of N-acetylglucosamine. This study provides an efficient approach for the preparative-scale synthesis of P1 trisaccharide with recombinant bacteria. PMID:12676690

  11. Identification and characterization of 1,4-dioxane-degrading microbe separated from surface seawater by the seawater-charcoal perfusion apparatus.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Ryotaro; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Sakakibara, Futa; Abe, Tomoko; Shiiba, Kiwamu

    2016-06-01

    To determine the concentration of soluble 1,4-dioxane during biodegradation, a new method using of high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was developed. The developed method enabled easy and rapid determination of 1,4-dioxane, even in saline medium. Microbes capable of degrading 1,4-dioxane were selected from the seawater samples by the seawater-charcoal perfusion apparatus. Among 32 candidate 1,4-dioxane degraders,, strain RM-31 exhibited the strongest 1,4-dioxane degradation ability. 16S rDNA sequencing and the similarity analysis of strain RM-31 suggested that this organism was most closely related to Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans. This species is similar to Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans, which has previously been reported as a 1,4-dioxane degrader. Strain RM-31 could degrade 300 mg/L within 2 days. As culture incubation times increasing, the residual 1,4-dioxane concentration was decreasing and the total protein contents extracted from growth cells were increasing. The optimum initial pH of the broth medium and incubation temperature for 1,4-dioxane degradation were pH 6-8 and 25 °C. The biodegradation rate of 1,4-dioxane by strain RM-31 at 25 °C in broth medium with 3 % NaCl was almost 20 % faster than that without NaCl. It was probably a first bacteria from the seawater that can exert a strong degrading ability. PMID:27094948

  12. Highly cooperative Ca2+ elevations in response to Ins(1,4,5)P3 microperfusion through a patch-clamp pipette.

    PubMed Central

    Schrenzel, J; Demaurex, N; Foti, M; Van Delden, C; Jacquet, J; Mayr, G; Lew, D P; Krause, K H

    1995-01-01

    To study the initial kinetics of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced [Ca2+]i elevations with a high time resolution and to avoid the problem of cell-to-cell heterogeneity, we have used the combined patch-clamp/microfluorimetry technique. The mathematical description of the microperfusion of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and the subsequent Ca2+ release consists of a monoexponential decay (cytosolic Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration) and a Hill equation (Ins(1,4,5)P3 dose-response curve). Two additional Hill equations and an integration were necessary to include a putative dependence of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release on [Ca2+]i. Best-fitting analysis assuming [Ca2+]i-independent Ca2+ release yielded Hill coefficients between 4 and 12. The high cooperativity was also observed with the poorly metabolizable analog Ins(2,4,5)P3 and was independent of extracellular [Ca2+]. Best-fitting analysis including a positive [Ca2+]i feedback suggested a cooperativity on the level of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced channel opening (n = 2) and an enhancement of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release by [Ca2+]i. In summary, the onset kinetics of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced [Ca2+]i elevations in single HL-60 granulocytes showed a very high cooperativity, presumably because of a cooperativity on the level of channel opening and a positive Ca2+ feedback, but not because of Ca2+ influx or Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism. This high cooperativity, acting in concert with negative feedback mechanisms, might play an important role in the fine-tuning of the cellular Ca2+ signal. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8599644

  13. Regulation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Function During Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Takuya; Vanderheyden, Veerle; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cheon, Banyoon; Zhang, Nan; Parys, Jan B.; Fissore, Rafael A.

    2011-01-01

    At the time of fertilization, an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) underlies egg activation and initiation of development in all species studied to date. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1), which is mostly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates the majority of this Ca2+ release. The sensitivity of IP3R1, i.e. its Ca2+ releasing capability, is increased during oocyte maturation so that the optimum [Ca2+]i response concurs with fertilization, which in mammals occurs at metaphase of second meiosis. Multiple IP3R1 modifications affect its sensitivity, including phosphorylation, sub-cellular localization and ER Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]ER). Here we evaluated using mouse oocytes how each of these factors affected IP3R1 sensitivity. The capacity for IP3-induced Ca2+ release markedly increased at the germinal vesicle breakdown stage, although oocytes only acquire the ability to initiate fertilization-like oscillations at later stages of maturation. The increase in IP3R1 sensitivity was underpinned by an increase in [Ca2+]ER and receptor phosphorylation(s) but not by changes in IP3R1 cellular distribution, as inhibition of the former factors reduced Ca2+ release, whereas inhibition of the latter had no impact. Therefore, the results suggest that the regulation of [Ca2+]ER and IP3R1 phosphorylation during maturation enhance IP3R1 sensitivity rendering oocytes competent to initiate oscillations at the expected time of fertilization. The temporal discrepancy between the initiation of changes in IP3R1 sensitivity and acquisition of mature oscillatory capacity suggest that other mechanisms that regulate Ca2+ homeostasis also shape the pattern of oscillations in mammalian eggs. PMID:21465476

  14. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  15. Multiple Views of X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the July 12, 2012 X1.4 class solar flare in a variety of wavelength; 131- Teal colored, 335 - blue colored, 171 - yellow colored and finally a combined wavelength view. All video w...

  16. Process for the production of 1:4 butanediol from maleic anhydride via ester hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, R.G.; Harris, N.; McKee, D.

    1986-01-01

    A process has been developed for the production of 1:4 butanediol (1:4 BDO from maleic anhydride (MA). The three process steps are:- a) Esterifiction of MA to produce a dialkyl maleate ester based on a modification of commercially proven esterification technology; b) Hydrogenation of the ester, at moderate temperatures and pressures, to 1:4 BD using novel low pressure ester hydrogenation technology. Gamma-Butyrolactone (gamma-BL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) are produced as co-products. The 1:4 BD/Gamma-BL product ratio can be adjusted to respond to market requirements by recycle of the less desirable product, and THF productivity controlled over wide limits by variation of process parameters; c) Product separation by distillation.

  17. The slippery slope: how small ethical transgressions pave the way for larger future transgressions.

    PubMed

    Welsh, David T; Ordóñez, Lisa D; Snyder, Deirdre G; Christian, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Many recent corporate scandals have been described as resulting from a slippery slope in which a series of small infractions gradually increased over time (e.g., McLean & Elkind, 2003). However, behavioral ethics research has rarely considered how unethical behavior unfolds over time. In this study, we draw on theories of self-regulation to examine whether individuals engage in a slippery slope of increasingly unethical behavior. First, we extend Bandura's (1991, 1999) social-cognitive theory by demonstrating how the mechanism of moral disengagement can reduce ethicality over a series of gradually increasing indiscretions. Second, we draw from recent research connecting regulatory focus theory and behavioral ethics (Gino & Margolis, 2011) to demonstrate that inducing a prevention focus moderates this mediated relationship by reducing one's propensity to slide down the slippery slope. We find support for the developed model across 4 multiround studies. PMID:24865577

  18. Choosing the Larger versus Choosing the Smaller: Asymmetries in the Size Congruity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Isabel; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by…

  19. Expanding Coherent Array Processing to Larger Apertures Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ringdal, F; Harris, D B; Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J

    2009-07-23

    necessary to divide event populations from a single mine into identifiable subpopulations. For this purpose, we perform cluster analysis using matched field statistics calculated on pairs of individual events as a distance metric. In our initial work, calibrations were derived from ensembles of events ranging in number to more than 100. We are considering the performance now of matched field calibrations derived with many fewer events (even, as mentioned, individual events). Since these are high-variance estimates, we are testing the use of cross-channel, multitaper, spectral estimation methods to reduce the variance of calibrations and detection statistics derived from single-event observations. To test the applicability of the technique in a different tectonic region, we have obtained four years of continuous data from 4 Kazakh arrays and are extracting large numbers of event segments. Our initial results using 132 mining explosions recorded by the Makanchi array are similar to those obtained in the European Arctic. Matched field processing clearly separates the explosions from three closely-spaced mines located approximately 400 kilometers from the array, again using waveforms in a band (6-10 Hz) normally considered incoherent for this array. Having reproduced ARCES-type performance with another small aperture array, we have two additional objectives for matched field processing. We will attempt to extend matched field processing to larger apertures: a 200 km aperture (the KNET) and, if data permit, to an aperture comprised of several Kazakh arrays. We also will investigate the potential of developing matched field processing to roughly locate and classify natural seismicity, which is more diffuse than the concentrated sources of mining explosions that we have investigated to date.

  20. Thermal rearrangements in 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The work described was carried out to study the thermal rearrangements of two unsaturated diene polymers - 1,2-poly(cis-1,4-hexadiene) (CHD) and 1,2-poly(trans-1.4-hexadiene) (THD). It is shown that both CHD and THD have a predominatly 1,8 diene structure and seem to cyclize mainly by the (2 + 2) thermal cycloaddition of double bonds, and to a small extent also by sigmatropic rearrangement with hydrogen shift.

  1. Estimating health risk from exposure to 1,4-dioxane in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makino, Ryoji; Kawasaki, Hajime; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Gamo, Masashi; Nakanishi, Junko

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to 1,4-dioxane from the atmosphere around high-emission plants and from consumer products used in daily life that contain the substance may have adverse health effects; however, its emission into the atmosphere is not regulated. In this study, the health risk posed by 1,4-dioxane is assessed to investigate whether measures should be undertaken to reduce exposure to 1,4-dioxane. The notion of the margin of exposure (MOE), given by the ratio of no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) to actual or projected exposure level, is used to assess risk. In exposure assessment, two types of exposure channel are considered: (a) the use of consumer products that contain 1,4-dioxane and (b) the inhalation of air around high-emission plants. To estimate exposure via channel (a), we measured the concentration of 1,4-dioxane in consumer products and estimated the interindividual variability of exposure by Monte Carlo simulation that reflects the measured data. To estimate exposure via channel (b), we employed a local-level atmospheric dispersion model to estimate the concentration of 1,4-dioxane immediately around high-emission plants. For hazard assessment, we derived the inhalatory and oral NOAELs for liver adenomas and carcinomas and the uncertainty factor. The results suggest that measures are not needed to reduce exposure to 1,4-dioxane from consumer products. As for inhalation exposure around high-emission plants, some residents may be exposed to health risks if certain conservative analytical conditions are assumed. Even in this case, we conclude that it is not necessary for Plant A to stop the use of 1,4-dioxane immediately and that medium- to long-term emission reduction measures should be sufficient. PMID:16685251

  2. Effective mass of the four-flux composite fermion at {nu}=1/4

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 ; Stormer, H. L.; Department of Physics and Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 ; Tsui, D. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.

    2000-02-15

    We have measured the effective mass (m{sup *}) of the four flux composite fermion at Landau-level filling factor {nu}=1/4 ({sup 4}CF), using the activation energy gaps at the fractional quantum Hall effect states {nu}=2/7, 3/11, and 4/15 and the temperature dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations around {nu}=1/4. We find that the energy gaps show a linear dependence on the effective magnetic field B{sub eff} ({identical_to}B-B{sub {nu}}{sub =1/4}), and from this linear dependence we obtain m{sup *}=1.0m{sub e} and a disorder broadening {gamma}{approx}1 K for a sample of density n=0.87x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. The m{sup *} deduced from the temperature dependence of the SdH effect shows large differences for {nu}>1/4 and {nu}<1/4. For {nu}>1/4, m{sup *}{approx}1.0m{sub e}. It scales as {radical}(B{sub {nu}}) with the mass derived from the data around {nu}=1/2 and shows an increase in m{sup *} as {nu}{yields}1/4, resembling the findings around {nu}=1/2. For {nu}<1/4, m{sup *} increases rapidly with increasing B{sub eff} and can be described by m{sup *}/m{sub e}=-3.3+5.7B{sub eff}. This anomalous dependence on B{sub eff} is precursory to the formation of the insulating phase at still lower filling. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  3. Bioactive 1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives prevent oxidative damage of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Borovic, Suzana; Tirzitis, Gunars; Tirzite, Dace; Cipak, Ana; Khoschsorur, Gholam A; Waeg, Georg; Tatzber, Franz; Scukanec-Spoljar, Mira; Zarkovic, Neven

    2006-05-10

    1,4-Dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives (1,4-DHINA) are compounds closely related to derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridine, a well-known calcium channel antagonists. 1,4-DHINA we used were derived from a well-known antioxidant Diludin. Although some compounds have neuromodulatory or antimutagenic properties, their activity mechanisms are not well known. This study was performed to obtain data on antioxidant and bioprotective activities of: 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid (Ia); sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)glutamate (Ib) and sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)ethane-sulphate (Ic). 1,4-DHINA's activities were studied in comparison to Trolox by: N,N-Diphenyl-N'-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), deoxyribose degradation, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging and antioxidative capacity assays; copper-induced lipid peroxidation of cultured rat liver cells (malondialdehyde determination by high performance liquid chromatography and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates by dot-blot); (3)H-thymidine incorporation and trypan blue assay for liver cells growth and viability. In all assays used Ia was the most potent antioxidant. Ia was also a potent antioxidant at non-toxic concentrations for liver cell cultures. It completely abolished, while Ic only slightly decreased copper-induced lipid peroxidation of liver cells. Thus, antioxidant capacities are important activity principle of Ia, which was even superior to Trolox in the cell cultures used, while activity principles of Ic and Ib remain yet to be determined. PMID:16600211

  4. Physiological and Pathophysiological Insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Loussouarn, Gildas; Sternberg, Damien; Nicole, Sophie; Marionneau, Céline; Le Bouffant, Francoise; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Barc, Julien; Malak, Olfat A.; Fressart, Véronique; Péréon, Yann; Baró, Isabelle; Charpentier, Flavien

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A), the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases. PMID:26834636

  5. Transformation of acetaminophen by chlorination produces the toxicants 1,4-benzoquinone and N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine.

    PubMed

    Bedner, Mary; MacCrehan, William A

    2006-01-15

    The reaction of the common pain reliever acetaminophen (paracetamol, 4-acetamidophenol) with hypochlorite was investigated over time under conditions that simulate wastewater disinfection. Initially, the reaction was studied in pure water at neutral pH (7.0), a range of reaction times (2-90 min), and a molar excess of hypochlorite (2-57 times) relative to the acetaminophen concentration. The reaction was monitored using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet absorbance, electrochemical, and mass spectrometric detection. At 1 micromol/L (150 ppb) and 10 micromol/L (1.5 ppm) levels, acetaminophen readily reacted to form at least 11 discernible products, all of which exhibited greater LC retention than the parent. Two of the products were unequivocally identified as the toxic compounds 1,4-benzoquinone and N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is the toxicant associated with lethality in acetaminophen overdoses. With a hypochlorite dose of 57 micromol/L (4 ppm as Cl2), 88% of the acetaminophen (10 micromol/L initial) was transformed in 1 h. The two quinoidal oxidation products 1,4-benzoquinone and NAPQI accounted for 25% and 1.5% of the initial acetaminophen concentration, respectively, at a 1 h reaction time. Other products that were identified included two ring chlorination products, chloro-4-acetamidophenol and dichloro-4-acetamidophenol, which combined were approximately 7% of the initial acetaminophen concentration at 1 h. The reaction was also studied in wastewater, where similar reactivity was noted. These results demonstrate that acetaminophen is likely to be transformed significantly during wastewater chlorination. The reactivity of the chlorine-transformation products was also studied with sulfite to simulate dechlorination, and 1,4-benzoquinone and NAPQI were completely reduced. PMID:16468397

  6. Microbially driven Fenton reaction for degradation of the widespread environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ramanan; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    The carcinogenic cyclic ether compound 1,4-dioxane is employed as a stabilizer of chlorinated industrial solvents and is a widespread environmental contaminant in surface water and groundwater. In the present study, a microbially driven Fenton reaction was designed to autocatalytically generate hydroxyl (HO•) radicals that degrade 1,4-dioxane. In comparison to conventional (purely abiotic) Fenton reactions, the microbially driven Fenton reaction operated at circumneutral pH and did not the require addition of exogenous H2O2 or UV irradiation to regenerate Fe(II) as Fenton reagents. The 1,4-dioxane degradation process was driven by pure cultures of the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis manipulated under controlled laboratory conditions. S. oneidensis batch cultures were provided with lactate, Fe(III), and 1,4-dioxane and were exposed to alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The microbially driven Fenton reaction completely degraded 1,4-dioxane (10 mM initial concentration) in 53 h with an optimal aerobic-anaerobic cycling period of 3 h. Acetate and oxalate were detected as transient intermediates during the microbially driven Fenton degradation of 1,4-dioxane, an indication that conventional and microbially driven Fenton degradation processes follow similar reaction pathways. The microbially driven Fenton reaction provides the foundation for development of alternative in situ remediation technologies to degrade environmental contaminants susceptible to attack by HO• radicals generated by the Fenton reaction. PMID:25313646

  7. Agar-agar entrapment increases the stability of endo-β-1,4-xylanase for repeated biodegradation of xylan.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Zainab; Shahid, Faiza; Ul Qader, Shah Ali; Aman, Afsheen

    2015-04-01

    Microbial xylanases, specially endo-β-1,4-xylanase catalyzes the hydrolysis of xylan, is considered one of the most significant hydrolases. It has numerous applications but most extensively is utilized in paper and pulp industry as a bio-bleaching agent. Immobilization technique is comprehensively studied with the expectation of modifying and improving enzyme stability and characteristics for commercial purposes. Currently, matrix entrapment technique is applied to immobilize endo-β-1,4-xylanase within agar-agar gel beads produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29. Maximal enzyme immobilization yield was achieved at 2.5% of agar-agar concentration. Optimized conditions demonstrated an increase in the optimal reaction time from 05 min to 30 min and incubation temperature from 50 °C to 60 °C with reference to free enzyme whereas; no effect was observed for optimum pH. Entrapment technique uniquely changed the kinetic parameters of immobilized endo-β-1,4-xylanase (Km: 0.5074 mg min(-1) to 0.5230 mg min(-1) and Vmax: 4773 U min(-1) to 968 U min(-1)) as compared to free enzyme. However, immobilized enzyme displayed broad thermal stability and retained 79.0% of its initial activity at 80 °C up to 30 min whereas; free enzyme completely lost its activity at this temperature. With respect to economic feasibility, the immobilized enzyme showed impressive recycling efficiency up to six reaction cycles. PMID:25603143

  8. Radiometric measurements over bare and vegetated fields at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequencies. [Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Engman, E. T.; Jackson, T. J.; Schmugge, T. J.; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Microwave emission from bare and vegetated fields was measured with dual polarized radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequencies. The measured brightness temperatures over bare fields are shown to compare favorably with those calculated from radiative transfer theory with two constant parameters characterizing surface roughness effect. The presence of vegetation cover is found to reduce the sensitivity to soil moisture variation. This sensitivity reduction is generally pronounced the denser, the vegetation cover and the higher the frequency of observation. The effect of vegetation cover is also examined with respect to the measured polarization factor at both frequencies. With the exception of dry corn fields, the measured polarization factor over vegetated fields is found appreciably reduced compared to that over bare fields. A much larger reduction in this factor is found at 5GHz than at 1.4GHz frequency.

  9. Kinetics and energy efficiency for the degradation of 1,4-dioxane by electro-peroxone process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijiao; Bakheet, Belal; Yuan, Shi; Li, Xiang; Yu, Gang; Murayama, Seiichi; Wang, Yujue

    2015-08-30

    Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by ozonation, electrolysis, and their combined electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) process was investigated. The E-peroxone process used a carbon-polytetrafluorethylene cathode to electrocatalytically convert O2 in the sparged ozone generator effluent (O2 and O3 gas mixture) to H2O2. The electro-generated H2O2 then react with sparged O3 to yield aqueous OH, which can in turn oxidize pollutants rapidly in the bulk solution. Using p-chlorobenzoic acid as OH probe, the pseudo-steady concentration of OH was determined to be ∼0.744×10(-9)mM in the E-peroxone process, which is approximately 10 and 186 times of that in ozonation and electrolysis using a Pt anode. Thanks to its higher OH concentration, the E-peroxone process eliminated 96.6% total organic carbon (TOC) from a 1,4-dioxane solution after 2h treatment with a specific energy consumption (SEC) of 0.376kWhg(-1) TOCremoved. In comparison, ozonation and electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond anode removed only ∼6.1% and 26.9% TOC with SEC of 2.43 and 0.558kWhg(-1) TOCremoved, respectively. The results indicate that the E-peroxone process can significantly improve the kinetics and energy efficiency for 1,4-dioxane mineralization as compared to the two individual processes. The E-peroxone process may thus offer a highly effective and energy-efficient alternative to treat 1,4-dioxane wastewater. PMID:25863024

  10. Do aircraft-based atmospheric observations indicate that anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are larger than reported?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Hirsch, A.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Michalak, A. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Methane emissions over the United States are dominated by anthropogenic sources related to three major categories: fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas mining and distribution), landfills, and ruminants. Atmospheric signatures of these sources are evident in aircraft profiles, regularly showing enhancements of 50-100 ppb in the planetary boundary layer. Through a lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), we directly link atmospheric methane measurements from NOAA’s aircraft program in 2004 with prior source fields, focusing on EDGAR32FT2000 and EDGARv4.0 for anthropogenic emissions. The LPDM employed is the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT), driven by meteorological output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Forward model runs indicate EDGAR32FT2000 is more consistent (despite larger point to point noise) with atmospheric data, particularly when assessing the shapes of vertical profiles, than EDGARv4.0. Simple scalar optimizations and inverse analyses suggest that emissions in the new EDGARv4.0 inventory, an inventory consistent with reported US EPA values, are too small.

  11. Why is the bulk modulus of jammed solids and granular packings much larger than the shear modulus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Weaire, Denis

    2013-03-01

    In granular packings and metallic glasses, the rigidity to compression is much more pronounced than with respect to shear, resulting in the bulk modulus being much larger than the shear modulus. This state of affairs becomes dramatic in marginal jammed solids which are solid-like to compression but not to shear (Ellenbroek, Zeravcic, van Saarloos, van Hecke, EPL 87, 34004 (2009)). For metallic glasses, it was argued by Weaire et al. some time ago (Acta Metall. 19, 779 (1971)) that this effect might be due to the nonaffinity of the particle displacements. These arise because the force acting on a particle upon strain as a result of the strain-induced motion of its neighbors is not balanced in the absence of local order. Hence the particles undergo nonaffine displacements to relax these forces to the expense of the elastic storage energy, leading to lower values of the elastic moduli. Using the nonaffine theory of Zaccone and Scossa-Romano (PRB, 83, 184205 (2011)) we found a conclusive solution to this long standing problem. We show that in packings and related materials the excluded volume between neighbors induces geometric correlations which significantly reduce the nonaffinity under compression but leave the nonaffinity in shear substantially unaltered.

  12. Automatic classification of Google Earth images for a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Bush encroachment of savannas and grasslands is a common form of land degradation in the rangelands of South Africa. To assess the carrying capacity of the land and to understand underlaying processes of bush encroachment, continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is needed. The aim of this study is to provide training sites for satellite-based monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa on a medium spatial resolution satellite sensor (e.g. MODIS or Landsat) scale. Since field surveys are time consuming and of limited spatial extent, the satellite based creation of training sites using Google Earth images is intended. Training pixels for woody vegetation and non-woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 sample Google Earth images. A Random Forests model was trained to delineate woody from non-woody pixels. The results indicate a high performance of the model (AUC = 0.97). The model was applied to a further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250 m × 250 m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa.

  13. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  14. Operating a Telescope Larger than the Earth: How the VSOP Space VLBI Mission is Scheduled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David L.; Fomalont, Edward B.

    The Japanese VLBI space observatory programme (VSOP) mission is one of the most complex scientific endeavors ever attempted. It involves coordinating a spacecraft with detailed pointing constraints that vary on time scales ranging from years to hours, tracking stations in four different countries, ground radio telescopes in nearly 20 different countries with different capabilities at the VSOP observing frequencies, and correlation and tape copying facilities with four different recording formats. Scientific constraints on the quality of (u,v)-coverage obtainable force the scheduling to be done far in advance of the observation - over about 1.5 years time - so that the sources are observed when the orbital orientation is most favorable. In order that all these facilities work as a single astronomical instrument, the constraints on them also must be taken into account in the scheduling to the satisfaction of all parties involved, including the principal investigators as well as mission and observatory personnel. In this paper we outline the entire VSOP mission scheduling process. Special emphasis is placed on software required to decide when to observe the proposed sources and how to ensure the highest quality science while preserving the health of the spacecraft. We also discuss application of the process to the future space VLBI missions VSOP2, RadioAstron, and ARISE

  15. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape. PMID:24045342

  16. Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele; boyd, danah; Korchmaros, Josephine; Oppenheim, Jay (Koby)

    2012-01-01

    Methods Two split-form surveys were conducted online among 6–17 year olds (n=1,200 each) to inform recommendations for cyberbullying measurement. Results Measures that use the word ‘bully’ result in prevalence rates similar to each other whether or not a definition is included, whereas measures not using the word ‘bully’ are similar to each other whether or not a definition is included. A behavioral list of bullying experiences without either a definition or the word ‘bully’ results in higher prevalence rates and likely measures experiences that are beyond the definition of ‘bullying’. Follow-up questions querying differential power, repetition, and bullying over time were used to examine misclassification. The measure using a definition but not the word ‘bully’ appeared to have the highest rate of false positives and, therefore, the highest rate of misclassification. Across two studies, an average of 25% reported being bullied at least monthly in person compared with an average of 10% bullied online, 7% via telephone (cell or landline), and 8% via text messaging. Conclusions Measures of bullying among English-speaking samples in the US should include the word ‘bully’ when possible. The definition may be a useful tool for researchers, but results suggest that it does not necessarily yield a more rigorous measure of bullying victimization. Directly measuring aspects of bullying (i.e., differential power, repetition, over time) reduces misclassification. To prevent double counting across categories, we conceptualize cyberbullying as bullying communicated through the online mode; type (e.g., verbal, relational), and environment (e.g., school, home) are additional domains of bullying. PMID:22727077

  17. HCG induces β1,4-GalT I expression and promotes embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Xie, Yunpeng; Fan, Jianhui; Sui, Linlin; Xu, Yuefei; Zhang, Ningning; Ma, Yanni; Li, Yinghua; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation is regarded as a critical physiological process for the success of pregnancy. There are so many reports on the research of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in artificial insemination, but the impact of HCG on endometrial receptivity has not been elucidated. Beta1, 4-Galactosyltransferase-I (β1,4-GalT-I) is ubiquitously expresses in human tissues with the exception of the brain. It not only transfers galactose from UDP-galactoside to GlcNAc to form Galβl,4-GlcNAc, but plays crucial role as cell adhesion molecule by recognizing and adhering other extracellular matrix and galactose of cell surface glycoprotein and glycolipid in cancer cells invasion and migration. The process of the embryos implantation is very similar to tumor invasion, so many biological factors participate in the tumor invasion also play a role in embryo implantation. We hypothesize that β1,4-GalT-I may take part in embryo implantation. In this study, we demonstrated that the over expression of β1,4-GalT-I was induced by HCG in RL95-2 cells. Moreover, the expression of some molecules, such as TIMP-1, LN and MMPs could be regulated by engineered expression of β1,4-GalT-I and therefore lead to the significantly alteration of adhesion capability of RL95-2 cells, even result in reduced adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that HCG can obviously increase the EGFR signaling pathways-dependent molecular expression through β1,4-GalT-I, HCG also improved the adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells (P<0.01). Taken together, our data suggested that HCG provides a mechanism to bridge embryo to endometrium through β1,4-GalT. PMID:26191157

  18. HCG induces β1,4-GalT I expression and promotes embryo implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Xie, Yunpeng; Fan, Jianhui; Sui, Linlin; Xu, Yuefei; Zhang, Ningning; Ma, Yanni; Li, Yinghua; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation is regarded as a critical physiological process for the success of pregnancy. There are so many reports on the research of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in artificial insemination, but the impact of HCG on endometrial receptivity has not been elucidated. Beta1, 4-Galactosyltransferase-I (β1,4-GalT-I) is ubiquitously expresses in human tissues with the exception of the brain. It not only transfers galactose from UDP-galactoside to GlcNAc to form Galβl,4-GlcNAc, but plays crucial role as cell adhesion molecule by recognizing and adhering other extracellular matrix and galactose of cell surface glycoprotein and glycolipid in cancer cells invasion and migration. The process of the embryos implantation is very similar to tumor invasion, so many biological factors participate in the tumor invasion also play a role in embryo implantation. We hypothesize that β1,4-GalT-I may take part in embryo implantation. In this study, we demonstrated that the over expression of β1,4-GalT-I was induced by HCG in RL95-2 cells. Moreover, the expression of some molecules, such as TIMP-1, LN and MMPs could be regulated by engineered expression of β1,4-GalT-I and therefore lead to the significantly alteration of adhesion capability of RL95-2 cells, even result in reduced adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that HCG can obviously increase the EGFR signaling pathways-dependent molecular expression through β1,4-GalT-I, HCG also improved the adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells (P < 0.01). Taken together, our data suggested that HCG provides a mechanism to bridge embryo to endometrium through β1,4-GalT. PMID:26191157

  19. Hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-mannans in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is mediated by the concerted action of (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase and β-D-mannosidase

    PubMed Central

    Hrmova, Maria; Burton, Rachel A.; Biely, Peter; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    A family GH5 (family 5 glycoside hydrolase) (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase or β-D-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78), designated HvMAN1, has been purified 300-fold from extracts of 10-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, followed by ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified HvMAN1 is a relatively unstable enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa, a pI of 7.8 and a pH optimum of 4.75. The HvMAN1 releases Man (mannose or D-mannopyranose)-containing oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 2–6 from mannans, galactomannans and glucomannans. With locust-bean galactomannan and mannopentaitol as substrates, the enzyme has Km constants of 0.16 mg·ml−1 and 5.3 mM and kcat constants of 12.9 and 3.9 s−1 respectively. Product analyses indicate that transglycosylation reactions occur during hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides. The complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues of the mature enzyme has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a near full-length cDNA, and has allowed a three-dimensional model of the HvMAN1 to be constructed. The barley HvMAN1 gene is a member of a small (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase family of at least six genes, and is transcribed at low levels in a number of organs, including the developing endosperm, but also in the basal region of young roots and in leaf tips. A second barley enzyme that participates in mannan depolymerization through its ability to hydrolyse (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides to Man is a family GH1 β-D-mannosidase, now designated HvβMANNOS1, but previously identified as a β-D-glucosidase [Hrmova, MacGregor, Biely, Stewart and Fincher (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11134–11143], which hydrolyses 4NP (4-nitrophenyl) β-D-mannoside three times faster than 4NP β-D-glucoside, and has an action pattern typical of a (1,4)-β-D-mannan exohydrolase. PMID:16771710

  20. Discovery of Benzotriazolo[4,3-d][1,4]diazepines as Orally Active Inhibitors of BET Bromodomains.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alexander M; Vaswani, Rishi G; Gehling, Victor S; Hewitt, Michael C; Leblanc, Yves; Audia, James E; Bellon, Steve; Cummings, Richard T; Côté, Alexandre; Harmange, Jean-Christophe; Jayaram, Hari; Joshi, Shivangi; Lora, Jose M; Mertz, Jennifer A; Neiss, Adrianne; Pardo, Eneida; Nasveschuk, Christopher G; Poy, Florence; Sandy, Peter; Setser, Jeremy W; Sims, Robert J; Tang, Yong; Albrecht, Brian K

    2016-02-11

    Inhibition of the bromodomains of the BET family, of which BRD4 is a member, has been shown to decrease myc and interleukin (IL) 6 in vivo, markers that are of therapeutic relevance to cancer and inflammatory disease, respectively. Herein we report substituted benzo[b]isoxazolo[4,5-d]azepines and benzotriazolo[4,3-d][1,4]diazepines as fragment-derived novel inhibitors of the bromodomain of BRD4. Compounds from these series were potent and selective in cells, and subsequent optimization of microsomal stability yielded representatives that demonstrated dose- and time-dependent reduction of plasma IL-6 in mice. PMID:26985289