Science.gov

Sample records for 1-5 6-10 11-15

  1. Studies on transfer ribonucleic acids and related compounds. XXXII. Synthesis of ribonucleotides corresponding to residues 1-5 and 6-10 of tRNAfMet from E. coli and their base conversion analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, E; Tanaka, T; Ikehara, M

    1979-01-01

    E. Coli tRNAfMet fragments, C-G-C-G-Gp (bases 1-5), U-G-C-G-Gp (base 1 transition, analog) pG-G-C-G-Gp (base 1 transversion analog) and pG-G-s4U-G-Gp (bases 6-10) were synthesized by triester methods using 2'-O-(o-nitrobenzyl) nucleotides including a 3',5'-bisphosphorylated guanosine derivative. The s4U containing pentanucleotide was derived from the pG-G-C-G-Gp by treatment with liquid hydrogen sulfide. Images PMID:390499

  2. 46 CFR 195.11-15 - Plan approval and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Portable Vans and Tanks § 195.11-15 Plan approval and inspection. (a) Accommodation, power and chemical stores vans are subject to normal...

  3. 50 CFR 11.15 - Request for a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... date of the notice of assessment referred to in § 11.14, file a dated, written request for a hearing... PROCEDURES Assessment Procedure § 11.15 Request for a hearing. Except where a right to request a hearing is... assessment. A copy of the request shall be served upon the Director personally or by registered or...

  4. 36 CFR 6.10 - Financial assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Financial assurance. 6.10 Section 6.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.10 Financial assurance. (a) The...

  5. 36 CFR 6.10 - Financial assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial assurance. 6.10 Section 6.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.10 Financial assurance. (a) The...

  6. 36 CFR 6.10 - Financial assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Financial assurance. 6.10 Section 6.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.10 Financial assurance. (a) The...

  7. 36 CFR 6.10 - Financial assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial assurance. 6.10... WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.10 Financial assurance. (a) The Regional... deposit or the market value of such securities must be at least equal to the required sum of the...

  8. 10 CFR 11.15 - Application for special nuclear material access authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for special nuclear material access authorization. 11.15 Section 11.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO OR CONTROL OVER SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear...

  9. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF THE...

  10. Biotransformation of two ent-Pimara-9(11),15-diene derivatives by Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Guillermo, Ricardo; Hernández, Melchor G; Chamy, María C; Garbarino, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    The incubation of 19-hydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-diene (4) with Gibberella fujikuroi gave 8 alpha,19-dihydroxy-9 alpha,11alpha-epoxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-15-ene (6), 7-oxo-11 alpha,19-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-8(9),15-diene (7), 7-oxo-11beta,19-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-8(9),15-diene (9), and 8 alpha,19-dihydroxy-9 alpha,11 alpha:15,16-diepoxy-13-epi-ent-pimarane (11), while the feeding of 13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-diene-19-oic acid (5) with this fungus afforded 1-oxo-2 alpha,9 alpha-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-11,15-dien-19-oic acid (13), 1-oxo-2 beta,9 alpha-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-11,15-dien-19-oic acid (14), 13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-dien-1,19-dioic acid 1,2-lactone (15), and 1-oxo-12 beta-hydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-dien-19-oic acid (16). In both biotransformations, the main reaction was the epoxidation of the 9(11)-double bond, followed by rearrangement to afford allylic alcohols. The formation of lactone 15 represents the first time that a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation has been observed in a microbiological transformation with this fungus.

  11. 43 CFR 11.15 - What damages may a trustee recover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 11.15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE... section 107(f) or 126(d) of CERCLA, or sections 311(f) (4) and (5) of the CWA, a natural resource trustee..., for the same discharge or release and natural resource, as set forth in section 107(f)(1) of...

  12. 43 CFR 11.15 - What damages may a trustee recover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 11.15 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE... section 107(f) or 126(d) of CERCLA, or sections 311(f) (4) and (5) of the CWA, a natural resource trustee..., for the same discharge or release and natural resource, as set forth in section 107(f)(1) of...

  13. 30 CFR 6.10 - Use of independent laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of independent laboratories. 6.10 Section 6..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING AND EVALUATION BY INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES AND NON-MSHA PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 6.10 Use of independent laboratories. (a) MSHA will accept testing...

  14. 30 CFR 6.10 - Use of independent laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of independent laboratories. 6.10 Section 6..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING AND EVALUATION BY INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES AND NON-MSHA PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 6.10 Use of independent laboratories. (a) MSHA will accept testing...

  15. 30 CFR 6.10 - Use of independent laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of independent laboratories. 6.10 Section 6..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING AND EVALUATION BY INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES AND NON-MSHA PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 6.10 Use of independent laboratories. (a) MSHA will accept testing...

  16. 30 CFR 6.10 - Use of independent laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of independent laboratories. 6.10 Section 6..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING AND EVALUATION BY INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES AND NON-MSHA PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 6.10 Use of independent laboratories. (a) MSHA will accept testing...

  17. 30 CFR 6.10 - Use of independent laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of independent laboratories. 6.10 Section 6..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING AND EVALUATION BY INDEPENDENT LABORATORIES AND NON-MSHA PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 6.10 Use of independent laboratories. (a) MSHA will accept testing...

  18. 41 CFR 51-6.10 - Quality of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 51-6.10 Section 51-6.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public...) Services furnished by nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities... specifications and standards exist, the services shall be performed in accordance with commercial practices....

  19. Notes from the Stanford Sun-Weather Workshop, 11-15 August 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    onpari.%on. separates regions with magnetic field with tnea.ureinents of uII interplanetarY magnetic field polarity * f !r early 1976 oh- away from the sun...S A0A󈧍 312 STANFORO UNIV CA INST FOR PLASMA RESEARCH F /6 3/2 NOTES FROM THE STANFORD SUN-WEATHER WORKSHOP. 11-15 AUGUST 190--ETC(U) DEC 80 C R...using the baseball seam analogy. These large scale features are stable on time scales of several years. 3. The seam maps into interplanetary space as a

  20. 41 CFR 51-6.10 - Quality of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quality of merchandise... § 51-6.10 Quality of merchandise. (a) Commodities furnished under Government specification by nonprofit... quality equal to or higher than similar items available on the commercial market. Commodities shall...

  1. Seventeenth nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study: August 11-15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.

    1981-04-01

    The Seventeenth Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted August 11-15, 1980, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nuclear criticality accidents with three different neutron and gamma ray energy spectra were simulated by operating the Health Physics Research Reactor in the pulse mode. Participants from 13 organizations exposed dosimeters set up as area monitors and mounted on phantoms for personnel monitoring. Analysis of experimental results reported by participants showed that less than 60% of the neutron dose measurements using foil activation, thermoluminescent, or sodium activation methods and less than 20% of the gamma dose measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters met nuclear criticality accident dosimetry guidelines which suggest accuracies of +-25% for neutron dose and +-20% for gamma dose. This indicates that continued development and evaluation of criticality accident dosimetry systems for area and personnel monitoring are required to improve measurement accuracy so that existing standards can be met.

  2. Enhanced broadband (11-15 µm) QWIP FPAs for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, Alexandru; Creten, Ybe; Guériaux, Vincent; Berurier, Arnaud; Bria, Toufiq; Brière de l'Isle, Nadia; Van Hoof, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The European Space Agency is currently funding a project led by Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, intended to develop high performance, broadband (11-15μm) Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) and optimised read-out circuits for Earth Observation and Planetary Science missions. In this talk we will present an exhaustive study of the performance achieved on QWIP layers designed for dispersive spectro-imagers (narrowband detectors) as well as Fourier Transform spectro-imagers (broadband detectors). The performance is calculated based on the electro-optical characteristics of the QWIP layers, the technical requirements and the read-out characteristics coming from the predevelopment phase. In the read-out predevelopment phase SPICE simulation transistor model parameters have been extracted valid for an adequate circuit simulation at the required operating temperature range. Different read-out architectures have been studied to attain the final demonstrator's requirements. As a result of this study, two different pixel topologies have been retained which will be implemented as 128x256 sections in the 256x256 pixel demonstrator. The roadmap for the next project steps will also be presented.

  3. Antecedents of Suicide among Youth Aged 11-15: A Multistate Mixed Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Logan, Joseph E; Leemis, Ruth W

    2016-11-14

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life. Data from a random sample of 482 youth (ages 11-15) suicide cases captured in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. The sample had fewer girls than boys (31 vs. 69 %) and comprised primarily White youth (79 %), but also African Americans (13 %), Asians (4 %), and youth of other races (4 %). Narrative data from coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement investigative reports were coded and analyzed to identify common behavioral patterns that preceded suicide. Emergent themes were quantified and examined using content and constant comparative analysis. Themes regarding antecedents across multiple levels of the social ecology emerged. Relationship problems, particularly with parents, were the most common suicide antecedent. Also, a pattern demonstrating a consistent progression toward suicidal behavior emerged from the data. Narratives indicated that youth were commonly exposed to one or more problems, often resulting in feelings of loneliness and burdensomeness, which progressed toward thoughts and sometimes plans for or attempts at suicide. Continued exposure to negative experiences and thoughts/plans about suicide, and/or self-injurious acts resulted in an acquired capacity to self-harm, eventually leading to suicide. These findings provide support for theories of suicidal behavior and highlight the importance of multi-level, comprehensive

  4. Environmental Education in Asia and Beyond: Proceedings of an International Workshop (Republic of Korea, October 11-15, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains the proceedings from an international workshop entitled "Environmental Education in Asia and Beyond" held October 11-15, 1990 in the Republic of Korea. Papers include: (1) "Towards Education for a Sustainable Future in Asia and the Pacific" (Heck, Debbie); (2) "Communication Strategies for…

  5. Type-1.5 superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Moshchalkov, Victor; Menghini, Mariela; Nishio, T; Chen, Q H; Silhanek, A V; Dao, V H; Chibotaru, L F; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J

    2009-03-20

    We demonstrate the existence of a novel superconducting state in high quality two-component MgB2 single crystalline superconductors where a unique combination of both type-1 (lambda{1}/xi{1}<1/sqrt[2]) and type-2 (lambda{2}/xi{2}>1/sqrt[2]) superconductor conditions is realized for the two components of the order parameter. This condition leads to a vortex-vortex interaction attractive at long distances and repulsive at short distances, which stabilizes unconventional stripe- and gossamerlike vortex patterns that we have visualized in this type-1.5 superconductor using Bitter decoration and also reproduced in numerical simulations.

  6. The Funnybone Family Saga. [Level 1, Books 1-5; Level 2, Books 6-10.] XYZ-Rated: For Adults Only. Basic Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John

    A series of 10 high-interest, low-vocabulary reading books for adult basic education students is presented. The series begins with very simple vocabulary and gets progressively more difficult from book to book. Each book contains from four to six stories which focus on the lives and relationships of a variety of humorous characters living in a…

  7. 41 CFR 301-11.15 - What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis? 301-11.15 Section 301-11.15...., stove, refrigerator, chairs, tables, bed, sofa, television, or vacuum cleaner); (b) Cost of...

  8. 75 FR 50942 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-7, -7A, -7B, -9, -9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... JT8D-7, -7A, -7B, -9, - 9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A, -17R, and -17AR Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY..., -1A, -1B, -7, -7A, -7B, -9, -9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A, -17R, and -17AR series turbofan engines. That AD currently requires revisions to the engine manufacturer's time limits section (TLS) to...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 1-5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records. Sec. 1-5 Section 1-5 Aeronautics... Provisions Sec. 1-5 Records. (a) The general books of account and all books, records, and memoranda which... Accounts. Registers, or other appropriate records, shall be maintained of the history and nature of...

  10. 14 CFR 1-5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records. Sec. 1-5 Section Sec. 1-5... Provisions Sec. 1-5 Records. (a) The general books of account and all books, records, and memoranda which... Accounts. Registers, or other appropriate records, shall be maintained of the history and nature of...

  11. Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics 2016: The Antibody Society's annual meeting, December 11-15, 2016, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Larrick, James W; Alfenito, Mark R; Scott, Jamie K; Parren, Paul W H I; Burton, Dennis R; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Lemere, Cynthia A; Messer, Anne; Huston, James S; Carter, Paul J; Veldman, Trudi; Chester, Kerry A; Schuurman, Janine; Adams, Gregory P; Reichert, Janice M

    Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the largest meeting devoted to antibody science and technology and the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in San Diego, CA on December 11-15, 2016. Each of 14 sessions will include six presentations by leading industry and academic experts. In this meeting preview, the session chairs discuss the relevance of their topics to current and future antibody therapeutics development. Session topics include bispecifics and designer polyclonal antibodies; antibodies for neurodegenerative diseases; the interface between passive and active immunotherapy; antibodies for non-cancer indications; novel antibody display, selection and screening technologies; novel checkpoint modulators / immuno-oncology; engineering antibodies for T-cell therapy; novel engineering strategies to enhance antibody functions; and the biological Impact of Fc receptor engagement. The meeting will open with keynote speakers Dennis R. Burton (The Scripps Research Institute), who will review progress toward a neutralizing antibody-based HIV vaccine; Olivera J. Finn, (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine), who will discuss prophylactic cancer vaccines as a source of therapeutic antibodies; and Paul Richardson (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute), who will provide a clinical update on daratumumab for multiple myeloma. In a featured presentation, a representative of the World Health Organization's INN expert group will provide a perspective on antibody naming. "Antibodies to watch in 2017" and progress on The Antibody Society's 2016 initiatives will be presented during the Society's special session. In addition, two pre-conference workshops covering ways to accelerate antibody drugs to the clinic and the applications of next-generation sequencing in antibody discovery and engineering will be held on Sunday December 11, 2016.

  12. PREFACE: EUCAS '05: The 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Vienna University of Technology, Austria, 11 15 September 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, Gordon; Weber, Harald W.; Sauerzopf, Franz M.

    2006-03-01

    This issue of Superconductor Science and Technology contains the plenary and invited papers presented at the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS '05) that was held at the Vienna University of Technology from 11-15 September 2005. All those contributed papers that were submitted to the Conference Proceedings will be published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The scientific aims of EUCAS '05 followed the tradition established at the preceding conferences in Göttingen, Edinburgh, Eindhoven, Sitges (Barcelona), Lyngby (Copenhagen) and finally Sorrento (Napoli). The focus was placed on the interplay between the most recent developments in superconductor research and the positioning of applications of superconductivity in the marketplace. Although initially founded as an exchange forum mainly for European scientists, it has gradually developed into a truly international meeting with significant attendance from the Far East and the United States. The Vienna conference attracted 813 participants in the scientific programme and 90 accompanying persons. 59% of all participants came from Europe, 31% from the Far East, 6% from the United States and Canada as well as 4% from other nations worldwide. 27 companies presented their latest developments in the field. 32 plenary and invited lectures highlighted the state-of-the-art in the areas of materials, large-scale as well as small-scale applications; 625 contributed papers (among them 556 posters) demonstrated the broad range of exciting activities in all research areas of our field. EUCAS '05 spread a lot of optimism and enthusiasm for this fascinating field of research and for its well established technological potential, especially among the numerous young researchers attending this conference. We are grateful to all those who participated in the meeting and contributed to its success.

  13. 45 CFR 1206.1-5 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination. 1206.1-5 Section 1206.1-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1086 - 3,7,11-Trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatriene-1-ol and 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatriene-3-ol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-ol and 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatriene-3-ol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180....1086 3,7,11-Trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatriene-1-ol and 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatriene-3-ol; exemption...-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatriene-1-ol and 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatriene-3-ol is exempted from...

  15. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika; Marvel, Kevin B.; Claussen, Mark J.; Wootten, Alwyn E-mail: bmg5333@truman.edu E-mail: marvel@aas.org E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu

    2012-07-10

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of {approx}45 Degree-Sign . They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions ({approx}220 Degree-Sign ) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of {approx}190 Degree-Sign ) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  16. The effect of maturation on adaptations to strength training and detraining in 11-15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meylan, C M P; Cronin, J B; Oliver, J L; Hopkins, W G; Contreras, B

    2014-06-01

    To investigate how maturity status modifies the effects of strength training and detraining on performance, we subjected 33 young men to 8 weeks of strength training twice per week followed by 8 weeks without training. Changes in performance tests were analyzed in three maturity groups based on years from/to age of predicted peak height velocity (PHV): pre-PHV (-1.7 ± 0.4 years; n = 10), mid-PHV (-0.2 ± 0.4 years; n = 11), and post-PHV (1.0 ± 0.4 years; n = 12). Mean training effects on one repetition maximum strength (3.6-10.0%), maximum explosive power (11-20%), jump length (6.5-7.4%), and sprint times (-2.1% to -4.7%) ranged from small to large, with generally greater changes in mid- and post-PHV groups. Changes in force-velocity relationships reflected generally greater increases in strength at faster velocities. In the detraining period, the pre-PHV group showed greatest loss of strength and power, the post-PHV group showed some loss of sprint performance, but all groups maintained or improved jump length. Strength training was thus generally less effective before the growth spurt. Maintenance programs are needed for most aspects of explosive performance following strength training before the growth spurt and for sprint speed after the growth spurt.

  17. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…

  18. Barbering/Cosmetology, Module 6-10: Bilingual Vocational Language Development Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This vocabulary language development workbook accompanies modules 6-10 in the barbering/cosmetology course of the Bilingual Skills Training Program (CE 028 314-318). For each module the trade-related vocabulary to be learned and practiced is first presented in both English and Spanish. Various types of activities and exercises using both the…

  19. Polish: Individualized Instruction, 102.51. Learning Packets, Units 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Jerzy R.; And Others

    The instructional manual for the second segment of an individualized course in college-level introductory Polish includes outlines for five learning modules (units 6-10 of the course) and a review. Each unit contains: (1) a student-instructor grading checklist; (2) a list of primary performance objectives of the unit; (3) student activity schedule…

  20. 43 CFR 6.10 - Publicity concerning the invention after patent application is filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publicity concerning the invention after... Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.10 Publicity concerning the invention after patent application is filed. In order that the public may obtain the greatest possible benefit from inventions...

  1. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Jun; Park, Cheol-Young

    2013-02-01

    The measure of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration is the gold standard of glycemic control index in diabetes management and is well known as a marker for diabetes complications. However, HbA1c level neither accurately reflect glucose fluctuations, nor does it provide a clear indication of glycemic control in recent days or weeks. HbA1c concentration measurement can be confounded in patients with anemia, hemoglobinopathy, liver disease, or renal impairment. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) structurally resembles glucose. It can be influenced by diet or medication, gender and race, especially severe renal disease and various pathological conditions. Most notably, 1,5-AG level is reflective of short-term glucose status, postprandial hyperglycemia, and glycemic variability which are not captured by HbA1c assay. 1,5-AG may suggest an alternative index of subtypes of diabetes and a warning sign of diabetes complications. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the role of 1,5-AG marker in diabetes. However, further investigations on the associations between this glycemic marker and diabetes complications are needed.

  2. SpaceCube Version 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, Alessandro; Lin, Michael; Flatley, Tom; Petrick, David

    2013-01-01

    SpaceCube 1.5 is a high-performance and low-power system in a compact form factor. It is a hybrid processing system consisting of CPU (central processing unit), FPGA (field-programmable gate array), and DSP (digital signal processor) processing elements. The primary processing engine is the Virtex- 5 FX100T FPGA, which has two embedded processors. The SpaceCube 1.5 System was a bridge to the SpaceCube 2.0 and SpaceCube 2.0 Mini processing systems. The SpaceCube 1.5 system was the primary avionics in the successful SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) Sounding Rocket mission that was launched in the summer of 2011. For SMART and similar missions, an avionics processor is required that is reconfigurable, has high processing capability, has multi-gigabit interfaces, is low power, and comes in a rugged/compact form factor. The original SpaceCube 1.0 met a number of the criteria, but did not possess the multi-gigabit interfaces that were required and is a higher-cost system. The SpaceCube 1.5 was designed with those mission requirements in mind. The SpaceCube 1.5 features one Xilinx Virtex-5 FX100T FPGA and has excellent size, weight, and power characteristics [4×4×3 in. (approx. = 10×10×8 cm), 3 lb (approx. = 1.4 kg), and 5 to 15 W depending on the application]. The estimated computing power of the two PowerPC 440s in the Virtex-5 FPGA is 1100 DMIPS each. The SpaceCube 1.5 includes two Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbps) interfaces as well as two SATA-I/II interfaces (1.5 to 3.0 Gbps) for recording to data drives. The SpaceCube 1.5 also features DDR2 SDRAM (double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory); 4- Gbit Flash for storing application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements; and a Xilinx Platform Flash XL to store FPGA configuration files or application code. The system also incorporates a 12 bit analog to digital converter with the ability to read 32 discrete analog sensor inputs. The SpaceCube 1.5 design also has a built

  3. KIAE-1.5-3 undulator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenko, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid type undulator with 60 periods of {lambda}{sub w} = 1.5 cm and tunable gap in wide range has been designed and manufactured. Additional side magnet arrays provide high magnetic field (near Halbach limit) along with transverse field profiles for e.b. focusing.

  4. 14 CFR Sec. 1-5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-5 Records. (a) The general books of account and all books, records, and memoranda which... accounting records in a limited technical sense, but all other records such as organization tables and...

  5. Coating individual single-walled carbon nanotubes with nylon 6,10 through emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chiang; Wang, Randy K; Ziegler, Kirk J

    2009-08-01

    Solvent microenvironments are formed around individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by mixing SWNT suspensions with water-immiscible organic solvents. These microenvironments are used to encapsulate the SWNTs with the monomer sebacoyl chloride. Hexamethylene diamine is then injected into the aqueous phase so the formation of nylon 6,10 is restricted to the interface between the microenvironment and water. This emulsion polymerization process results in uniform coatings of nylon 6,10 around individual SWNTs. The nylon-coated SWNTs remain dispersed in the aqueous phase and are highly luminescent at pH values ranging from 3 to 12. This emulsion polymerization method provides a general approach to coat nanotubes with various polymers.

  6. Financial services FY 1995 site support program plan WBS 6.10.4

    SciTech Connect

    Vodney, E.P.

    1994-09-01

    This is the signed Financial Service fiscal year 1995 Site Support Program Plan, Work Breakdown Structure 6.10.4, for the Hanford site. This plan is intended to enable the contractor to accomplish the following: ensure financial integrity in all Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operation while supporting the programmatic activities of WHC, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, and other Hanford contractors; provide efficient and effective financial services, and value added audits and review that enable management to enhance future operational results.

  7. TOUGH+ v1.5 Core Code

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.

    2015-08-27

    TOUGH+ v1.5 is a numerical code for the simulation of multi-phase, multi-component flow and transport of mass and heat through porous and fractured media, and represents the third update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. TOUGH+ is a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstations, PC, Macintosh). TOUGH+ v1.5 employs dynamic memory allocation, thus minimizing storage requirements. It has a completely modular structure, follows the tenets of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), and involves the advanced features of FORTRAN 95/2003, i.e., modules, derived data types, the use of pointers, lists and trees, data encapsulation, defined operators and assignments, operator extension and overloading, use of generic procedures, and maximum use of the powerful intrinsic vector and matrix processing operations. TOUGH+ v1.5 is the core code for its family of applications, i.e., the part of the code that is common to all its applications. It provides a description of the underlying physics and thermodynamics of non-isothermal flow, of the mathematical and numerical approaches, as well as a detailed explanation of the general (common to all applications) input requirements, options, capabilities and output specifications. The core code cannot run by itself: it needs to be coupled with the code for the specific TOUGH+ application option that describes a particular type of problem. The additional input requirements specific to a particular TOUGH+ application options and related illustrative examples can be found in the corresponding User’s Manual.

  8. Theory Institute in Automated Reasoning held at Argonne National Laboratory, August 6--10, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.

    1990-08-01

    On August 6--10, 1990, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a Theory Institute in Automated Reasoning. The institute was organized by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division and was supported by special funding from Argonne's Physical Research Program Administration. The focus of the Institute was on the obstacles confronting the effective automation of reasoning. The objective was to lay the groundwork for formulating a theory governing the interrelationship of representation, inference rule, and strategy. Here we summarize the activities that took place during the week-long Institute. We also present an evaluation of the progress achieved-progress that includes the solution of challenge questions, the increasing use of both our database of problems and our automated reasoning program OTTER, and the discovery of new used for OTTER. 7 refs.

  9. Sperm FISH and chromatin integrity in spermatozoa from a t(6;10;11) carrier.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Marta; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Fraczek, Monika; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) are structurally balanced or unbalanced aberrations involving more than two breakpoints on two or more chromosomes. CCRs can be a potential reason for genomic imbalance in gametes, which leads to a drastic reduction in fertility. In this study, the meiotic segregation pattern, aneuploidy of seven chromosomes uninvolved in the CCR and chromatin integrity were analysed in the ejaculated spermatozoa of a 46,XY,t(6;10;11)(q25.1;q24.3;q23.1)mat carrier with asthenozoospermia and a lack of conception. The frequency of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa was 78.8% with a prevalence of 4:2 segregants of 38.2%, while the prevalence of the adjacent 3:3 mode was 35.3%. Analysis of the aneuploidy of chromosomes 13, 15, 18, 21, 22, X and Y revealed an approximately fivefold increased level in comparison with that of the control group, indicating the presence of an interchromosomal effect. Sperm chromatin integrity status was evaluated using chromomycin A3 and aniline blue staining (deprotamination), acridine orange test and TUNEL assay (sperm DNA fragmentation). No differences were found when comparisons were made with a control group. We suggest that the accumulation of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa, significantly increased sperm aneuploidy level and decreased sperm motility (20%, progressive) were not responsible for the observed lack of reproductive success in the analysed infertile t(6;10;11) carrier. Interestingly, in the case described herein, a high level of sperm chromosomal imbalance appears not to be linked to sperm chromatin integrity status.

  10. MESHMAKER (MM) V1.5

    SciTech Connect

    MORIDIS, GEORGE

    2016-05-02

    MeshMaker v1.5 is a code that describes the system geometry and discretizes the domain in problems of flow and transport through porous and fractured media that are simulated using the TOUGH+ [Moridis and Pruess, 2014] or TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] families of codes. It is a significantly modified and drastically enhanced version of an earlier simpler facility that was embedded in the TOUGH2 codes [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012], from which it could not be separated. The code (MeshMaker.f90) is a stand-alone product written in FORTRAN 95/2003, is written according to the tenets of Object-Oriented Programming, has a modular structure and can perform a number of mesh generation and processing operations. It can generate two-dimensional radially symmetric (r,z) meshes, and one-, two-, and three-dimensional rectilinear (Cartesian) grids in (x,y,z). The code generates the file MESH, which includes all the elements and connections that describe the discretized simulation domain and conforming to the requirements of the TOUGH+ and TOUGH2 codes. Multiple-porosity processing for simulation of flow in naturally fractured reservoirs can be invoked by means of a keyword MINC, which stands for Multiple INteracting Continua. The MINC process operates on the data of the primary (porous medium) mesh as provided on disk file MESH, and generates a secondary mesh containing fracture and matrix elements with identical data formats on file MINC.

  11. Reference limits and behaviour of serum transferrin receptor in children 6-10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Danise, P; Maconi, M; Morelli, G; Di Palma, A; Rescigno, G; Esposito, C; Avino, D; Talento, B

    2008-08-01

    Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) originates mostly from erythroblasts and lesser from reticulocytes. The usefulness of sTfR has been implicated in several clinical situations, mainly as a marker of accelerated erythropoiesis or iron deficiency. The assessment of sTfR may be useful in the period of rapid growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence. We evaluated sTfR and the other quantitative and qualitative parameters of the erythropoiesis (Hb, MCV, CHr, Ret-He) and of the iron storage (serum ferritin, sTfR/ferritin index) in a total of 916 children aged 6-10 years. Children were divided into three groups: (A) healthy children, (B) with storage iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 12 microg/l) and (C) Beta trait carriers (HbA2 > 3.3). We determined reference intervals by sex and by age in healthy children. sTfR showed a slight but statistically significant age related increase but did not show significant sex differences. We compared sTfR and the other parameters investigated in the three groups of children. sTfR is not a decisive parameter that can be utilized alone in discriminating the border-line situations between normal and pathologic ones but can help in completing the panel of tests in iron deficiency and in thalassaemia Beta trait carriers.

  12. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO/sub 4/) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs.

  13. HYDRATE v1.5 OPTION OF TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George

    2015-08-27

    HYDRATE v1.5 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic systems, and represents the third update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis and Pruess, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999, 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. HYDRATE v1.5 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, the fully operational TOUGH+HYDRATE code can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH4-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy’s law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.5 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects.

  14. National Prociency Testing Result of CYP2D6*10 Genotyping for Adjuvant Tamoxifen Therapy in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guigao; Zhang, Kuo; Yi, Lang; Han, Yanxi; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been successfully used for treating breast cancer and preventing cancer recurrence. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays a key role in the process of metabolizing tamoxifen to its active moiety, endoxifen. Patients with variants of the CYP2D6 gene may not receive the full benefit of tamoxifen treatment. The CYP2D6*10 variant (the most common variant in Asians) was analyzed to optimize the prescription of tamoxifen in China. To ensure referring clinicians have accurate information for genotype-guided tamoxifen treatment, the Chinese National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL) organized a national proficiency testing (PT) to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing CYP2D6*10 genotyping. Ten genomic DNA samples with CYP2D6 wild-type or CYP2D6*10 variants were validated by PCR-sequencing and sent to 28 participant laboratories. The genotyping results and pharmacogenomic test reports were submitted and evaluated by NCCL experts. Additional information regarding the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and detecting technology was also requested. Thirty-one data sets were received, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.2% (548/558 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.7–99.1%) and an analytic specificity of 96.5% (675/682; 95% confidence interval: 97.9–99.5%). Overall, 25/28 participants correctly identified CYP2D6*10 status in 10 samples; however, two laboratories made serious genotyping errors. Most of the essential information was included in the 20 submitted CYP2D6*10 test reports. The majority of Chinese laboratories are reliable for detecting the CYP2D6*10 variant; however, several issues revealed in this study underline the importance of PT schemes in continued external assessment and provision of guidelines. PMID:27603206

  15. Tuning the mechanical properties of SWNT/nylon 6,10 composites with flexible spacers at the interface.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Chattopadhyay, Jayanta; Billups, W Edward; Winey, Karen I

    2007-05-01

    We have prepared nylon 6,10 nanocomposites using functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes and our interfacial in situ polycondensation method. The specific functional groups -(CH2)nCOCl [n = 4 and 9] on the sidewalls of SWNT were designed to covalently link nanotubes to the nylon matrix via alkyl segments. The composites with functionalized SWNT show significant improvements in tensile modulus, strength, and toughness relative to nylon and nylon modified with non-functionalized SWNT. The alkyl linkages at the SWNT/nylon 6,10 interface contribute significantly to improving the toughness of the composites.

  16. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  17. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  18. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  19. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  20. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  1. 7 CFR 1.5 - Requests for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for records. 1.5 Section 1.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.5 Requests for... in the Office of Communications, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250. (f)...

  2. 7 CFR 1.5 - Requests for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for records. 1.5 Section 1.5 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.5 Requests for... in the Office of Communications, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250. (f)...

  3. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition of a grievance as defined in §...

  4. 43 CFR 3802.1-5 - Plan approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plan approval. 3802.1-5 Section 3802.1-5... and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.1-5 Plan approval. (a) The authorized officer shall promptly aknowledge the receipt of a plan of operations and within 30 days of receipt of the plan act...

  5. 28 CFR 1.5 - Disclosure of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of files. 1.5 Section 1.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY § 1.5 Disclosure of files. Petitions, reports, memoranda, and communications submitted or furnished in connection with the consideration of...

  6. Thermodynamic Database for the NdO(1.5)-YO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Copland, Evan H.; Kaufman, Larry

    2001-01-01

    A database for YO(1.5)-NdO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 for ThermoCalc (ThermoCalc AB, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed. The basis of this work is the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 assessment by Y. Du, Z. Jin, and P. Huang, 'Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-YO(1.5) System'. Experimentally only the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 system has been well-studied. All other systems are only approximately known. The major simplification in this work is the treatment of each single cation unit as a component. The pure liquid oxides are taken as reference states and two term lattice stability descriptions are used for each of the components. The limited experimental phase diagrams are reproduced.

  7. Proceedings of the International Academy for Information Management Annual Conference (15th, Brisbane, Australia, December 6-10, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Academy for Information Management.

    This document presents proceedings from the International Academy for Information Management (IAIM) annual conference, held December 6-10, 2000 in Brisbane, Australia. Papers include: "Metacognitive Miscalibration and Underachievement in a Computer Literacy Course: Some Preliminary Observations" (Deborah K. Smith, William Wittman, C. Bryan…

  8. How To Teach Nutrition to Kids: An Integrated, Creative Approach to Nutrition Education for Children Ages 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Connie Liakos

    This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…

  9. 49 CFR 172.524 - EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. 172.524 Section 172.524... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.524 EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be replaced,...

  10. 49 CFR 172.524 - EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. 172.524 Section 172.524... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.524 EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be replaced,...

  11. 49 CFR 172.524 - EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. 172.524 Section 172.524... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.524 EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be replaced,...

  12. 49 CFR 172.524 - EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. 172.524 Section 172.524... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.524 EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be replaced,...

  13. 49 CFR 172.524 - EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. 172.524 Section 172.524... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.524 EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on EXPLOSIVES 1.5 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be replaced,...

  14. Compatibility of alkaline xylanases from an alkaliphilic Bacillus NCL (87-6-10) with commercial detergents and proteases.

    PubMed

    Kamal Kumar, B; Balakrishnan, H; Rele, M V

    2004-02-01

    Alkaline xylanases from alkaliphilic Bacillus strains NCL (87-6-10) and Sam III were compared with the commercial xylanases Pulpzyme HC and Biopulp for their compatibility with detergents and proteases for laundry applications. Among the four xylanases evaluated, the enzyme from the alkaliphilic Bacillus strain NCL (87-6-10) was the most compatible. The enzyme retained its full activity (40 degrees C for 1 h) in the presence of detergents, whereas Pulpzyme HC and Sam III showed only 30% and 50% of their initial activity, respectively. Biopulp, though stable to detergents, had only marginal activity (5%)at pH 10. However, all four enzymes retained significant activity (80%) for 60 min in the presence of the proteases Alcalase and Conidiobolus protease. Supplementation of the enzyme enhanced the cleaning ability of the detergents.

  15. 36 CFR 1.5 - Closures and public use limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closures and public use limits. 1.5 Section 1.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... activities, the superintendent may: (1) Establish, for all or a portion of a park area, a reasonable...

  16. Effect of cyp2d6*10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of loratadine in chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ophelia Q P; Shi, X J; Tomlinson, B; Chow, Moses S S

    2005-09-01

    Loratadine is known to be a substrate for both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 based on a previous in vitro study. In view of the large interindividual variability in loratadine pharmacokinetics and the greater genetically determined variability of CYP2D6 activity than of CYP3A4 in vivo, we hypothesized that CYP2D6 polymorphisms may contribute to the pharmacokinetic variability of loratadine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 genotype (specifically the CYP2D6*10 allele) on the pharmacokinetics of loratadine in Chinese subjects. Three groups of healthy male Chinese subjects were enrolled: group I, homozygous CYP2D6*1 (*1/*1, n=4); group II, heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (*1/*10 or *2/*10, n=6); and group III, homozygous CYP2D6*10 (*10/*10, n=7) carriers. Each subject received a single oral dose of 20 mg of loratadine under fasting conditions. Multiple blood samples were collected over 48 h, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and its metabolite desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In comparing homozygous CYP2D6*10 (group III) to heterozygous CYP2D6*10 (group II) to homozygous CYP2D6*1 (group I) subjects, loratadine oral clearance values were 7.17+/- 2.54 versus 11.06+/-1.70 versus 14.59+/-2.43 l/h/kg, respectively [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), p<0.01], and the corresponding metabolic ratios [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(desloratadine)/AUC(loratadine)] were 1.55+/-0.73 versus 2.47+/- 0.46 versus 3.32+/- 0.49, respectively (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05), indicating a gene-dose effect. The results demonstrated that CYP2D6 polymorphism prevalent in the Chinese population significantly affected loratadine pharmacokinetics.

  17. Morpheus 1.5A Lander Failure Investigation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Steve; Olansen, John

    2013-01-01

    On August 9th, 2012, the Morpheus 1.5 Vertical Testbed (VTB) crashed during Free Flight 2 (FF2) at KSC SLF, resulting in the loss of 1.5 VTB hardware. JSC/KSC Morpheus team immediately executed the pre-rehearsed Emergency Action Plan to protect personnel and property, so damage was limited to 1.5 VTB hardware. JSC/KSC Morpheus team secured data and mapped & recovered debris. Project had pre-declared loss of VTB to be a test failure, not a mishap.

  18. Claudin-6, -10d and -10e contribute to seawater acclimation in the euryhaline puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis.

    PubMed

    Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2014-05-15

    Expression profiles of claudin-6, -10d and -10e in the euryhaline teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis revealed claudin-6 in brain, eye, gill and skin tissue, while claudin-10d and -10e were found in brain, gill and skin only. In fishes, the gill and skin are important tissue barriers that interface directly with surrounding water, but these organs generally function differently in osmoregulation. Therefore, roles for gill and skin claudin-6, -10d and -10e in the osmoregulatory strategies of T. nigroviridis were investigated. In the gill epithelium, claudin-6, -10d and -10e co-localized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactive (NKA-ir) ionocytes, and differences in sub-cellular localization could be observed in hypoosmotic (freshwater, FW) versus hyperosmotic (seawater, SW) environments. Claudin-10d and -10e abundance increased in the gills of fish acclimated to SW versus FW, while claudin-6 abundance decreased in the gills of fish acclimated to SW. Taken together with our knowledge of claudin-6 and -10 function in other vertebrates, data support the idea that in SW-acclimated T. nigroviridis, these claudins are abundant in gill ionocytes, where they contribute to the formation of a Na(+) shunt and 'leaky' epithelium, both of which are characteristic of salt-secreting SW fish gills. Skin claudin-10d and -10e abundance also increased in fish acclimated to SW versus those in FW, but so did claudin-6. In skin, claudin-6 was found to co-localize with NKA-ir cells, but claudin-10d and -10e did not. This study provides direct evidence that the gill epithelium contains salinity-responsive tight junction proteins that are abundant primarily in ionocytes. These same proteins also appear to play a role in the osmoregulatory physiology of the epidermis.

  19. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ... parts ("Where is your nose?") Movement and Physical Development runs walks up stairs with hand held throws ...

  20. Superstructure and physical properties of skutterudite-related phase CoGe1.5Se1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Fang, B.; Zhu, X. M.; Liang, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    CoGe1.5Se1.5 skutterudite-related phase with a homogeneity range has been synthesized by solid-state reaction. The phase purity, homogeneity range, crystal structure, thermal stability and electrical resistivity were studied. XRD data indicates that CoGe1.5Se1.5 crystallized in a modification of the skutterudite CoAs3 type structure with space group R\\bar{3} (a = b = 11.751(1) Å, c = 14.36(1) Å). HRTEM-SAED shows more information about the superstructure to confirm the rhombohedral symmetry with space group R\\bar{3}. The lattice parameter of this skutterudite-related phase was found to be dependent on the concentration of Ge and Se. CoGe1.5Se1.5 decomposed between 1073 K and 1173 K under argon atmosphere investigated by in-situ XRD, suggesting a good thermal stability. CoGe1.49Se1.42, CoGe1.43Se1.34 and CoGe1.50Se1.15 dense bulk samples were obtained by hot-press technique. The chemical composition detected by FESEM/EDS suggests the homogeneity range and the existence of voids at framework positions. The electrical resistivity of the compounds decreases with increasing temperature, acting as a semiconductor. The chemical composition has a big influence on the value of electrical resistivity and energy gap.

  1. The 1.5 MW wind turbine of tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    De Wolff, T.J.; Sondergaard, H.

    1996-12-31

    The Danish company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2300 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 350 MW. This paper will describe two major wind turbine technology developments that Nordtank has accomplished during the last year: Site Optimization of Nordtank wind turbines: Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/600 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Nordtank`s 1.5 MW wind turbine: In September 1995, Nordtank was the first company to install a commercial 1.5 NM WTG. This paper will document the development process, the design as well as operations of the Nordtank 1.5 MW WTG.

  2. Generation 1.5--a different kind of millennial student.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Emily J

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to so-called "millennial students" in recent years, particularly regarding their relationship to technology, learning, and communication. Less notice has been taken of another kind of millennial student increasingly represented in our classrooms --those who were born in another country, but received a significant amount of their schooling here. Often referred to as Generation 1.5 because they have language characteristics in common with first- and second-generation immigrants, these bilingual students are a valuable resource for the physician assistant (PA) profession. However, just as teaching native-born millennial students may require some adjustment of instructional methods, Generation 1.5 students will require PA educators to pay closer attention to some aspects of teaching and learning. This article will discuss some of the particular challenges that Generation 1.5 students face and will argue that these challenges can be met in ways that are likely to help other nontraditional students as well.

  3. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6-10 Years.

    PubMed

    Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6-10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11) number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  4. Surface and buildup dose characteristics for 6, 10, and 18 MV photons from an Elekta Precise linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eric E; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Li, Zuofeng

    2003-01-01

    Understanding head scatter characteristics of photon beams is vital to properly commission treatment planning (TP) algorithms. Simultaneously, having definitive surface and buildup region dosimetry is important to optimize bolus. The Elekta Precise linacs have unique beam flattening filter configurations for each photon beam (6, 10, and 18 MV) in terms of material and location. We performed a comprehensive set of surface and buildup dose measurements with a thin window parallel-plate (PP) chamber to examine effects of field size (FS), source-to-skin distance (SSD), and attenuating media. Relative ionization data were converted to fractional depth dose (FDD) after correcting for bias effects and using the Gerbi method to account for chamber characteristics. Data were compared with a similar vintage Varian linac. At short SSDs the surface and buildup dose characteristics were similar to published data for Varian and Elekta accelerators. The FDD at surface (FDD(0)) for 6, 10, and 18 MV photons was 0.171, 0.159, and 0.199, respectively, for a 15x15 cm2, 100 cm SSD field. A blocking tray increased FDD(0) to 0.200, 0.200, and 0.256, while the universal wedge decreased FDD(0) to 0.107, 0.124, and 0.176. FDD(0) increased linearly with FS (approximately 1.16%/cm). FDD(0) decreased exponentially for 10 and 18 MV with increasing SSD. However, the 6 MV FDD(0) actually increased slightly with increasing SSD. This is likely due to the unique distal flattening filter for 6 MV. The measured buildup curves have been used to optimize TP calculations and guide bolus decisions. Overall the FDD(0) and buildup doses were very similar to published data. Of interest were the relatively low 10 MV surface doses, and the 6 MV FDD(0)'s dependence on SSD.

  5. 50 CFR 1.5 - Officer in Charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.5 Officer in Charge. Officer in Charge means any person in charge of a national fish hatchery, national wildlife refuge, research center, or other U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  6. Generation 1.5 Students and College Writing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Washington, DC.

    An increasing number of U.S. high school graduates enter college while still in the process of learning English. Referred to as generation 1.5 students because they share characteristics of both first- and second-generation immigrants, they do not fit into any of the traditional categories of nonnative English speakers enrolled in college writing…

  7. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 1/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 1/5 ) introduces the AGATE concept as a future alternative to cars.

  8. 40 CFR 1.5 - Organization and general information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Organization and general information. 1... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.5 Organization and general information. (a) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's basic organization consists of Headquarters and 10 Regional Offices....

  9. 43 CFR 8365.1-5 - Property and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Property and resources. 8365.1-5 Section... Property and resources. (a) On all public lands, unless otherwise authorized, no person shall; (1..., cultural, archaeological or historic resource, natural object or area; (2) Willfully deface, remove...

  10. 43 CFR 8365.1-5 - Property and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Property and resources. 8365.1-5 Section... Property and resources. (a) On all public lands, unless otherwise authorized, no person shall; (1..., cultural, archaeological or historic resource, natural object or area; (2) Willfully deface, remove...

  11. 43 CFR 8365.1-5 - Property and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Property and resources. 8365.1-5 Section... Property and resources. (a) On all public lands, unless otherwise authorized, no person shall; (1..., cultural, archaeological or historic resource, natural object or area; (2) Willfully deface, remove...

  12. Neutron Diffraction Study of Nonstoichiometry in Ba1.5La1.5Cu3Oy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Fujio; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Michiko; Uchida, Yoshishige; Asano, Hajime; Ishigaki, Tōru; Watanabe, Noboru

    1988-05-01

    The structure parameters of annealed and quenched samples of Ba1.5La1.5Cu3Oy were refined by the Rietveld analysis of TOF neutron powder diffraction data. Partial occupation of an oxygen site at (0, 1/2, 0) causes nonstoichiometry in the oxide. The y values calculated from the occupation factors of oxygen at this site are 7.20 (annealed) and 6.76 (quenched), which are in fair agreement with those determined by iodometry: 7.15 (annealed) and 6.74 (quenched).

  13. Reverse transcriptase incorporation of 1,5-anhydrohexitol nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Vastmans, Karen; Froeyen, Matheus; Kerremans, Luc; Pochet, Sylvie; Herdewijn, Piet

    2001-01-01

    Several reverse transcriptases were studied for their ability to accept anhydrohexitol triphosphates, having a conformationally restricted six-membered ring, as substrate for template-directed synthesis of HNA. It was found that AMV, M-MLV, M-MLV (H–), RAV2 and HIV-1 reverse transcriptases were able to recognise the anhydrohexitol triphosphate as substrate and to efficiently catalyse the incorporation of one non-natural anhydrohexitol nucleotide opposite a natural complementary nucleotide. However, only the dimeric enzymes, the RAV2 and HIV-1 reverse transcriptases, seemed to be able to further extend the primer with another anhydrohexitol building block. Subsequently, several HIV-1 mutants (4×AZT, 4×AZT/L100I, L74V, M184V and K65A) were likewise analysed, resulting in selection of K65A and, in particular, M184V as the most succesful mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptases capable of elongating a DNA primer with several 1,5-anhydrohexitol adenines in an efficient way. Results of kinetic experiments in the presence of this enzyme revealed that incorporation of one anhydrohexitol nucleotide of adenine or thymine gave an increased (for 1,5-anhydrohexitol-ATP) and a slightly decreased (for 1,5-anhydrohexitol-TTP) Km value in comparison to that of their natural counterparts. However, no more than four analogues could be inserted under the experimental conditions required for selective incorporation. Investigation of incorporation of the altritol anhydrohexitol nucleotide of adenine in the presence of M184V and Vent (exo–) DNA polymerase proved that an adjacent hydroxyl group on C3 of 1,5-anhydrohexitol-ATP has a detrimental effect on the substrate activity of the six-ring analogue. These results could be rationalised based on the X-ray structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:11470872

  14. A graphics package for meteorological data, version 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorthi, Shrinivas; Suarez, Max; Phillips, Bill; Schemm, Jae-Kyung; Schubert, Siegfried

    1989-01-01

    A plotting package has been developed to simplify the task of plotting meteorological data. The calling sequences and examples of high level yet flexible routines which allow contouring, vectors and shading of cylindrical, polar, orthographic and Mollweide (egg) projections are given. Routines are also included for contouring pressure-latitude and pressure-longitude fields with linear or log scales in pressure (interpolation to fixed grid interval is done automatically). Also included is a fairly general line plotting routine. The present version (1.5) produces plots on WMS laser printers and uses graphics primitives from WOLFPLOT.

  15. Preparation of 1,5-disubstituted pyrrolidin-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, A R; Mehta, S; He, H Y; Cui, X

    2000-07-14

    1,5-Disubstituted pyrrolidin-2-ones 18a-g, 19a-h, and 20a-f were synthesized in good to excellent yields via the nucleophilic substitution of 5-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-1-substituted-pyrrolidin-2-ones 9 with allylsilanes, organozinc reagents, and phosphorus compounds. Compounds 9 and 5-(benzotriazol-2-yl)-1-substituted-pyrrolidin-2-one isomers 10 are readily prepared in total 70-84% yields from 2, 5-dimethoxy-2,5-dihydrofuran (7), primary amines 8, and benzotriazole; 9 and 10 react identically with nucleophiles.

  16. New features in McStas, version 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åstrand, P.-O.; Lefmann, K.; Farhi, E.; Nielsen, K.; Skårup, P.

    The neutron ray-tracing simulation package McStas has attracted numerous users, and the development of the package continues with version 1.5 released at the ICNS 2001 conference. New features include: support for neutron polarisation, labelling of neutrons, realistic source and sample components, and interface to the Riso instrument-control software TASCOM. We give a general introduction to McStas and present the latest developments. In particular, we give an example of how the neutron-label option has been used to locate the origin of a spurious side-peak, observed in an experiment with RITA-1 at Riso.

  17. 1.5 MW RF Load for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Marsden, David; Collins, George; Karimov, Rasul; Mizuhara, Max; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2016-09-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed a 1.5 MW RF load for the ITER fusion research facility currently under construction in France. This program leveraged technology developed in two previous SBIR programs that successfully developed high power RF loads for fusion research applications. This program specifically focused on modifications required by revised technical performance, materials, and assembly specification for ITER. This program implemented an innovative approach to actively distribute the RF power inside the load to avoid excessive heating or arcing associated with constructive interference. The new design implemented materials and assembly changes required to meet specifications. Critical components were built and successfully tested during the program.

  18. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  19. Type-1.5 superconductivity in multicomponent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaev, E.; Carlström, J.; Silaev, M.; Speight, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    In general a superconducting state breaks multiple symmetries and, therefore, is characterized by several different coherence lengths ξi, i = 1 , … , N . Moreover in multiband material even superconducting states that break only a single symmetry are nonetheless described, under certain conditions by multi-component theories with multiple coherence lengths. As a result of that there can appear a state where some coherence lengths are smaller and some are larger than the magnetic field penetration length λ: ξ1 ≤ξ2 … <√{ 2} λ <ξM ≤ …ξN . That state was recently termed "type-1.5" superconductivity. This breakdown of type-1/type-2 dichotomy is rather generic near a phase transition between superconducting states with different symmetries. The examples include the transitions between U(1) and U(1) × U(1) states or between U(1) and U(1) × Z2 states. The later example is realized in systems that feature transition between s-wave and s + is states. The extra fundamental length scales have many physical consequences. In particular in these regimes vortices can attract one another at long range but repel at shorter ranges. Such a system can form vortex clusters in low magnetic fields. The vortex clustering in the type-1.5 regime gives rise to many physical effects, ranging from macroscopic phase separation in domains of different broken symmetries, to unusual transport properties. Prepared for the proceedings of Vortex IX conference, Rhodes 12-17 September 2015.

  20. Platinum(II) 1,5-COD oxo complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, H.; James, A.; Sharp, P.R.

    1998-11-02

    Three new types of platinum(II) oxo complexes--[(1,5-COD)Pt({mu}{sup 3}-O)(AuL)]{sub 2}(BF{sub 4}){sub 2} [1, L = PPh{sub 3}, PPh{sub 2}Et, PPh{sub 2}-i-Pr, P(o-tol){sub 3}, P(p-tol){sub 3}, P(p-MeOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 3}, P(p-CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 3}], [(1,5-COD)Pt{l_brace}{mu}{sup 3}-O(AuL){sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} (2), and [(1,5-COD){sub 4}Pt{sub 4}({mu}{sup 3}-O){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]X{sub 2} (3, X = BF{sub 4}; 3a, X = CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3})--are obtained from oxo/chloro exchange reactions between (1,5-COD)PtCl{sub 2} and [(LAu){sub 3}({mu}{sup 3}-O)]BF{sub 4}. Crystals of 1 (L = PPh{sub 3}) from CDCl{sub 3} are triclinic. Crystals of 3a from CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}/toluene are trigonal. The structure of the cationic portion of 1 shows a planar (COD)-Pt({mu}-O){sub 2}Pt(COD) unit with slightly out-of-plane LAu{sup +} groups linearly coordinated to the oxo ligands. The structure of the cationic portion of 3a is similar and shows a slightly folded (COD)Pt({mu}-O){sub 2}Pt(COD) unit with out-of-plane [(COD)PtCl]{sup +} groups coordinated to the oxo ligands. Solutions of 3 in untreated CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} or CD{sub 2}Cl{sup 2} deposit crystals of [(1,5-COD){sub 4}Pt{sub 4}({mu}{sup 3}-O){sub 2}({mu}{sup 2}-OH)](BF{sub 4}){sub 3} (4) which are monoclinic. The core structure of the cationic portion of 4 shows a tetranuclear platinum cation in which the metal atoms occupy the corners of a distorted tetrahedron and two {mu}{sup 3}-oxo ligands and one {mu}{sup 2}-hydroxo ligand bridge the four platinum atoms. Reaction of 1 (L = PPh{sub 3}) with PPh{sub 3} gives OPPh{sub 3} and [(Ph{sub 3}P){sub 3}PtAuPPh{sub 3}]BF{sub 4} (5) which is also obtained from (Ph{sub 3}P){sub 4}Pt and Ph{sub 3}-PAuBF{sub 4}. Crystals of 5 from THF are monoclinic. The structure of 5 consists of an L{sub 3}Pt-AuL cation where the Au atom is linear 2-coordinate and the Pt atom is distorted square-planar 4-coordinate.

  1. Neutral winds and thermosphere/ionosphere coupling and energetics during the geomagnetic disturbances of March 6-10, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsanto, M.J.; Foster, J.C.; Galasso, A.D.; Sipler, D.P.; Holt, J.M. )

    1990-12-01

    Observations of electron density made using the fully steerable 46-m-diameter antenna at Millstone Hill have been used to derive the peak electron density (NmF2) and the peak height of the F2 region (hmF2) as a function of latitude during the March 6-10, 1989, period. This period was characterized by varying levels of geomagnetic activity, with a magnetic storm commencing near 1,800 UT on March 8. The radar data set presented for this period provides a detailed example of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic disturbances. The derived hmF2 values are combined with measurements of electric field-induced ion drifts and the MSIS-86 model to estimate the meridional neutral winds at thermospheric heights over the geodetic latitude range 30{degree} to 56 N. Strong postmidnight surges in the neutral wind were observed on March 7, 9, and 10 which reached well equatorward of Millstone Hill. The nighttime electron density trough was above Millstone Hill during the disturbances and hmF2 exceeded 500 km in the trough on March 7 and 9. A dusk enhancement in NmF2 followed the magnetic storm commencement on March 8. This is associated with a large increase in westward ion velocity due to the equatorward penetration of magnetospheric electric fields. Large daytime decreases in NmF2, apparently due to a neutral composition disturbance zone, were observed on March 9 and 10, with a sharp gradient on March 9, and a stronger equatorward penetration of the NmF2 decreases on March 10. The Joule heating as a function of latitude is estimated for March 7 and March 9 from calculations of height-integrated Pedersen conductivity and incoherent scatter electric field measurements. In spite of considerably more Joule heating input at high latitudes on March 9, the postmidnight surge is stronger on March 7. This is explained by a combination of Coriolis and ion drag effects.

  2. Relative biological damage in and out of field of 6, 10 and 18 MV clinical photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzati, A. O.

    2016-08-01

    The lower energy of scattered radiation in and out of a megavoltage (MV) photon beam suggests that relative biological damage (RBD) may change from in- to out-of-field regions for unit absorbed dose. Because of high linear energy transfer (LET) and potential of causing severe damage to the DNA, low-energy (10 eV-1 keV) slowing down electrons should be included in radiation biological damage calculations. In this study RBD was calculated in and out of field of 6, 10 and 18 MV clinical photon beams including low-energy slowing down electrons in the track length estimated method. Electron spectra at energies higher than 2 keV were collected in a water phantom at different depths and off-axis points by using the MCNP code. A new extrapolation method was used to estimate the electron spectra at energies lower than 2 keV. The obtained spectra at energies lower than 2 keV merged with spectra at energies higher than 2 keV by using continuity of the spectra. These spectra were used as an input to a validated microdosimetric Monte Carlo (MC) code, MC damage simulation (MCDS), to calculate the RBD of induced DSB in DNA at points in and out of the primary radiation field under fully aerobic (100% O2 and anoxic (0% O2 conditions. There was an observable difference in the energy spectra for electrons for points in the primary radiation field and those points out of field. RBD had maximum variation, 11% in 6 MV photons at field size of 20×20 cm2. This variation was less than 11% for 10 and 18 MV photons and field sizes smaller than 20×20 cm2. Our simulations also showed that under the anoxic condition, RBD increases up to 6% for 6 and 10 MV photons and the 20×20 cm2 field size. This work supports the hypothesis that in megavoltage treatments out-of-field radiation quality can vary enough to have an impact on RBD per unit dose and that this may play a role as the radiation therapy community explores biological optimization as a tool to assist treatment planning.

  3. Constraining the Satellite Quenching Timescale at z < 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Wimberly, M. Katy; Cooper, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable success at modeling the evolution of massive galaxies over cosmic time, modern hydrodynamic and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation generally fail to reproduce the properties of low-mass galaxies. This shortcoming in our theoretical picture is largely driven by an inability to understand the physics of satellite (or "environmental") quenching. Using abundance matching prescriptions to populate large dissipationless N-body simulations, including the Bolshoi Simulation, we study the dependence of satellite properties on cluster-centric distance within massive host halos at z < 1.5, focusing on the potential physical mechanisms that may be at play in suppressing star formation in the satellite population. Our results illustrate the potential power of ongoing cluster surveys, such as the multi-year GOGREEN Survey at Gemini Observatories, to constrain the quenching timescale over more than half of cosmic time.

  4. CO investigation of z = 0.4-1.5 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, A.-L.; Combes, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of an IRAM-30 m search for CO emission lines in three galaxies at intermediate redshifts. The idea was to investigate the molecular content of galaxies that are bright in the infrared at z=0.4-1.5, a redshift desert for molecular line studies because poorly investigated as yet. We integrated 8-10 h per source and did not succeed in detecting any of the sources. From our upper limits, we were able to constrain the molecular gas content in these systems to less than 4 to 8 × 10^9~M_⊙, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor (α=0.8~M_⊙/(K km s-1 pc2)). We stress the current difficulty of selecting sources with a detectable molecular content, a problem that will be faced by the ALMA First Science projects.

  5. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase in Prochloron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhow, M. A.; Mcfadden, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase, enzymes in the reductive pentose-phosphate cycle, were measured in cell-free extracts of Prochloran didemni. The partial purification and characterization of RuBP carboxylase were described. Prochloron RuBP carboxylase, when purified by isopycnic centrifugation in reoriented linear 0.2 to 0.8 M sucrose gradients, sedimented to a position which corresponded to that of the 520,000-dalton spinach enzyme. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the Prochloron enzyme was composed of large and small subunits (MW = 57,500 and 18,800). Though results established that the enzymes RuBP carboxylase and phosphoribulokinase were present in levels comparable to other CO2-fixing microorganisms, it was suggested that other enzymes in the Calvin cycle limit growth or that additional enzymic insufficiencies exist.

  6. Selective bronchodilators from 1-(5'-oxohexyl)xanthines.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K I; Sakai, R; Yamamoto, Y; Konno, K; Sanae, F; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K

    1992-11-01

    A series of twenty one 1-(5'-oxohexyl)xanthines substituted with alkyl chains at the N3 and N7 positions of the xanthine nucleus were prepared and their relaxant activity in guinea-pig isolated tracheal muscle and positive chronotropic activity in isolated right atrium of guinea-pig were compared. The tracheal relaxant activities were markedly increased with alkyl chain length at the N3 position, but decreased by the N7 alkylation. The positive chronotropic activities in the right atrium were increased by introduction of an n-propyl group at the N3 position but decreased by substitution of longer alkyl chains, and the action on the heart was diminished by N7 substitution. The activities of compounds on cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) and binding of [3H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine were measured in the homogenate of tracheal muscle and the membrane preparation of cerebral cortex, respectively. No relationship among tracheal muscle relaxant activity, cAMP-PDE inhibitory activity and adenosine antagonism of these xanthines was observed, and other action mechanisms should be considered for their relaxant activities. This study indicated that N3 alkylation is important for the selectivity for tracheal muscle, while the introduction of long alkyl chains such as n-butyl and n-pentyl groups at the N3 and N7 positions diminished the potency for the right atrium in guinea-pigs. 3-n-Pentyl- and 7-methyl-3-n-pentyl-1-(5'-oxohexyl)xanthines showed much higher bronchoselectivity than oxpentifylline and theophylline.

  7. 1,3,5-Tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene cathode buffer layer thickness dependence in solution-processable organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roméo Banoukepa, Gilles; Fujii, Akihiko; Shimizu, Yo; Ozaki, Masanori

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the insertion effects of a cathode buffer layer on bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2) and 1-(3-methoxy-carbonyl)-propyl-1-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM) by using 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazole)-benzene (TPBi) as a cathode buffer layer material have been carried out. The external quantum efficiency and the short-circuit current markedly increased, resulting in the enhancement of the power conversion efficiency. The solar cell performance has been discussed from the atomic force microscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  8. Prevalence of the CYP2D6*10 (C100T), *4 (G1846A), and *14 (G1758A) alleles among Iranians of different ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Haghshenas, Maryam; Azadfar, Parisa; Akbari, Leila; Sangtarash, Mohammad Hossein; Vejdandoust, Faramarz; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatment. Here, we compared the prevalence of the CYP2D6*10, *4, and 14* alleles in an Iranian population of different ethnicities with those of other populations. Allele and genotype frequency distributions of CYP2D6*10 variants and predicted phenotypes including extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, and poor metabolizers were analysed in blood samples of 300 unrelated healthy individuals in an Iranian population using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism, and direct genomic DNA sequencing. The CYP2D6*4 (G1846A) and *14 (G1758A) allelic frequencies were not detected in different ethnicities, demonstrating the absence of a significant contribution of these alleles in Iranian populations. However, the T/T, C/T, and C/C genotype frequencies of the CYP2D6*10 allele were significantly different (P<0.01) in all Iranian ethnic groups. Additionally, the frequency of the homozygous T/T variant of the CYP2D6*10 allele was significantly high in the Lure (P<0.017) and low in the Kurd (P<0.002) ethnicities. The frequency of the T/T variant of the CYP2D6*10 allele in central Iran was the highest (P<0.001), while the south of Iran had the lowest frequency (P<0.001). The frequency of the C/T variant of the CYP2D6*10 allele was significantly a bit high (P<0.001) in females compare to males, while the frequencies of the T/T variant in females is similar to males, which are 24.4% and 24.3%, respectively. In contrast to absence of the CYP2D6*4 (G1846A) and *14 (G1758A) alleles in Iranian populations of different ethnicities, the prediction of the CYP2D6*10 allele is required in drug research and routine treatment, where the information would be helpful for clinicians to optimize therapy or identify persons at risk of adverse drug reactions before

  9. Allelic and genotype frequencies of catechol-O-methyltransferase (Val158Met) and CYP2D6*10 (Pro34Ser) single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Baclig, Michael O; Predicala, Rey Z; Mapua, Cynthia A; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky P; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Natividad, Filipinas F; Javier, Francis O

    2012-01-01

    A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the allelic and genotype frequencies in the genes encoding for catechol-O-methyltransferase and CYP2D6*10 among healthy volunteers and patients clinically diagnosed with cancer pain. PCR-RFLP was used to identify COMT and CYP2D6*10 genotypes. Allelic frequencies among healthy volunteer Filipinos were 0.83 and 0.17 for the COMT Val and COMT Met alleles, respectively. Calculated frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were 73% for COMT Val/Val, 26% for COMT Val/Met, and 1% for COMT Met/Met genotype. For CYP2D6*10, allelic frequencies in HWE among volunteers were 0.46 for the C allele and 0.54 for the T allele. Twenty percent were identified as homozygous for the wild-type C/C genotype, 56% were identified as heterozygous for the C/T genotype, and 24% were identified as homozygous for the T/T variant genotype. No significant differences in COMT and CYP2D6*10 allele frequencies between cancer patients and healthy volunteers were noted. Our data demonstrated that the allele frequencies of COMT and CYP2D6*10 in the Filipino healthy volunteers were similar with other Asians but markedly different from Caucasian populations. PMID:22724048

  10. Allelic and genotype frequencies of catechol-O-methyltransferase (Val158Met) and CYP2D6*10 (Pro34Ser) single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Baclig, Michael O; Predicala, Rey Z; Mapua, Cynthia A; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky P; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Natividad, Filipinas F; Javier, Francis O

    2012-01-01

    A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the allelic and genotype frequencies in the genes encoding for catechol-O-methyltransferase and CYP2D6*10 among healthy volunteers and patients clinically diagnosed with cancer pain. PCR-RFLP was used to identify COMT and CYP2D6*10 genotypes. Allelic frequencies among healthy volunteer Filipinos were 0.83 and 0.17 for the COMT Val and COMT Met alleles, respectively. Calculated frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were 73% for COMT Val/Val, 26% for COMT Val/Met, and 1% for COMT Met/Met genotype. For CYP2D6*10, allelic frequencies in HWE among volunteers were 0.46 for the C allele and 0.54 for the T allele. Twenty percent were identified as homozygous for the wild-type C/C genotype, 56% were identified as heterozygous for the C/T genotype, and 24% were identified as homozygous for the T/T variant genotype. No significant differences in COMT and CYP2D6*10 allele frequencies between cancer patients and healthy volunteers were noted. Our data demonstrated that the allele frequencies of COMT and CYP2D6*10 in the Filipino healthy volunteers were similar with other Asians but markedly different from Caucasian populations.

  11. Development of 1 to 1.5 MW CW Gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felch, K.; Blank, M.; Borchard, P.; Cahalan, P.; Cauffman, S.; Chu, S.; Jory, H.

    2003-10-01

    High power mm-wave sources provide electron cyclotron heating, current drive, and instability suppression in fusion plasmas. CPI has delivered three 110 GHz, 1 MW gyrotrons for ECH and ECCD experiments on DIII-D, each of which has demonstrated reliable operation at 1 MW for pulse lengths up to 5 seconds. CPI has also delivered a 140 GHz, 1 MW gyrotron to IPP for use on W-7X. This gyrotron has produced a peak output power of 900 kW, and pulse lengths up to 700 seconds at 500 kW. Ten consecutive 500 kW 600 second pulses were demonstrated without fault at 25CPI's test facilities could not support long pulse operation at full power, such operation is planned at IPP. The 140 GHz system employs a diode magnetron injection gun, a TE_28,7 cavity interaction mode, an internal mode converter to produce a Gaussian output beam, a low-loss CVD diamond output window, and a single-stage depressed-voltage beam collector to enhance the overall electrical efficiency of the device. Currently, under a DOE development program, CPI is fabricating a 110 GHz, 1.3-1.5 MW CW depressed-collector gyrotron to deliver improved reliability at power levels above 1 MW.

  12. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  13. $1.5 million female condom order awarded.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The Female Health Co. of Chicago, Illinois, has reported receiving an order for 1.5 million female condoms from South Africa's Department of Health. Shipments are scheduled to begin immediately and are expected to be completed by early 1998. Earlier, South Africa ordered 90,000 female condoms in order to test the device. This order is part of the company's multi-year agreement with the Joint UN Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) which provides a special price based upon global public sector demand. The launch of the female condom in South Africa is just one of a series planned in Africa and other areas of the developing world. The globalization of the female condom, albeit in its early stages, affords the Female Health Co. with the opportunity to explore other options for the future development of its business. The company has engaged Vector Securities International, Inc. to help identify, develop, and evaluate those options. The female condom is currently marketed in the US, the UK, Canada, South Korea, Taiwan, and Holland, and will soon be launched in Brazil. Female Health Co. is also engaged in discussions with potential partners for Europe, the US, India, China, and other countries. The female condom was also recently launched in Zimbabwe as pert of the Joint UNAIDS, and an application had been submitted to Koseisho for marketing approval in Japan.

  14. Influences of CYP2D6*10 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of iloperidone and its metabolites in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a population pharmacokinetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qi; Huang, Lu; Huang, Jie; Gu, Jing-kai; Kuang, Yun; Zuo, Xiao-cong; Ding, Jun-jie; Tan, Hong-yi; Guo, Cheng-xian; Liu, Shi-kun; Yang, Guo-ping

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Iloperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and cytosolic enzymes. Previous studies show that extensive and poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 exhibit different plasma concentrations of iloperidone and its metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a parent-metabolite population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model to quantify the effects of CYP2D6*10 allele on the pharmacokinetics of iloperidone and its metabolites in Chinese schizophrenia patients. Methods: Seventy Chinese schizophrenia patients were enrolled, from whom limited blood samples were collected on d 15 (0 h) and d 28 (0, 4 and 12 h after drug administration). The plasma concentrations of iloperidone and its metabolites M1 (P-88) and M2 (P-95) were simultaneously detected using a validated HPLC-MS assay. CYP2D6*10 (rs1065852) genotyping was performed. A PPK model was developed based on data from the patients using the NONMEM software (version 7.2). A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to describe the pharmacokinetic data related to iloperidone and its metabolites. Results: Patients with the CYP2D6*10 T/T genotype had significantly higher concentrations of iloperidone and M1, and lower concentrations of M2 than the patients with C/C or C/T genotypes. The CYP2D6*10 genotype affected the elimination constants for transformation of iloperidone to the metabolites M1 (K23) and M2 (K24). The K23 value of the patients with T/T genotype was 1.34-fold as great as that of the patients with C/C or C/T genotype. The K24 value of the patients with C/T and T/T genotypes was 0.693- and 0.492-fold, respectively, as low as that of the patients with C/C genotype. Conclusion: CYP2D6*10 mutations affect the pharmacokinetics of iloperidone and its metabolites in Chinese schizophrenia patients, suggesting that the clinical doses of iloperidone for patients with CYP2D6*10 mutations need to be optimized. PMID:27665849

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 6-10, 2016, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, Neil

    2016-10-01

    The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2015, in Washington, D.C.. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  16. The one year effects of three doses of hepatitis B vaccine as a booster in anti-HBs-negative children 11-15 years after primary immunization; China, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Shan, Huan; Chen, Yongdi; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Dai, Xue-wei; Ren, Jing-jing; Xu, Kai-jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-gui; Li, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels one year after hepatitis B booster vaccination in anti-HBs-negative (<10 mIU/mL) children 11-15 y after primary vaccination. Anti-HBs titers were examined in 235 children who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). The children were then divided into 3 groups based on their anti-HBs levels pre-booster: Group I, <0 .1 mIU/mL; Group II, 0.1 to <1 .0 mIU/mL; and Group III, 1.0 to <10 .0 mIU/mL. They were vaccinated with 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (0-1-6 month, 20 ug), and anti-HBs levels were measured. One month after the first dose, the anti-HBs positive rates (≥ 10 mIU/mL) in Groups I-III were 56.14%, 83.61% and 100%. One month after the third dose, the anti-HBs-positive rates in Groups I-III were 96.49%, 98.36% and 100%. One year after the third dose, the anti-HBs-positive rates in Groups I-III were 73.68%, 75.41% and 98.29%, respectively. Protective levels declined more rapidly for those with lower titers. Children with pre-booster anti-HBs titers of 1-9.9 mIU/mL might not need any booster dose, and the children with pre-booster titers of 0.1-0.9 and <0 .1 mIU/mL might need more than one dose booster vaccination.

  17. αB-Crystallin Interacts with Nav1.5 and Regulates Ubiquitination and Internalization of Cell Surface Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yinan; Xiong, Hongbo; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wu, Ling; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Longfei; Hou, Yuxi; Yu, Gang; Huang, Zhengrong; Xu, Chengqi; Chen, Qiuyun; Wang, Qing K

    2016-05-20

    Nav1.5, the pore-forming α subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated Na(+) channel complex, is required for the initiation and propagation of the cardiac action potential. Mutations in Nav1.5 cause cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. The cardiac Na(+) channel functions as a protein complex; however, its complete components remain to be fully elucidated. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified a new candidate Nav1.5-interacting protein, αB-crystallin. GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunostaining analyses validated the interaction between Nav1.5 and αB-crystallin. Whole-cell patch clamping showed that overexpression of αB-crystallin significantly increased peak sodium current (INa) density, and the underlying molecular mechanism is the increased cell surface expression level of Nav1.5 via reduced internalization of cell surface Nav1.5 and ubiquitination of Nav1.5. Knock-out of αB-crystallin expression significantly decreased the cell surface expression level of Nav1.5. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that αB-crystallin interacted with Nedd4-2; however, a catalytically inactive Nedd4-2-C801S mutant impaired the interaction and abolished the up-regulation of INa by αB-crystallin. Nav1.5 mutation V1980A at the interaction site for Nedd4-2 eliminated the effect of αB-crystallin on reduction of Nav1.5 ubiquitination and increases of INa density. Two disease-causing mutations in αB-crystallin, R109H and R151X (nonsense mutation), eliminated the effect of αB-crystallin on INa This study identifies αB-crystallin as a new binding partner for Nav1.5. αB-Crystallin interacts with Nav1.5 and increases INa by modulating the expression level and internalization of cell surface Nav1.5 and ubiquitination of Nav1.5, which requires the protein-protein interactions between αB-crystallin and Nav1.5 and between αB-crystallin and functionally active Nedd4-2.

  18. Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of pnictogen-substituted ASn1.5Te1.5 (A = Co, Rh, Ir) skutterudites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevalkink, Alex; Star, Kurt; Aydemir, Umut; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Bux, Sabah; Vo, Trinh; von Allmen, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Substituting group 14 and 16 elements on the pnictogen site in the skutterudite structure yields a class of valence-precise ternary AX1.5Y1.5 compounds (A = Co, Rh, Ir, X = Sn, Ge, and Y = S, Se, Te), in which X and Y form an ordered sub-structure. Compared with unfilled binary skutterudites, pnictogen-substituted phases exhibit extremely low lattice thermal conductivity due to increased structural complexity. Here, we investigate the role of the transition metal species in determining the electronic structure and transport properties of ASn1.5Te1.5 compounds with A = Co, Rh, Ir. Density functional calculations using fully ordered structures reveal semiconducting behavior in all three compounds, with the band gap varying from 0.2 to 0.45 eV. In CoSn1.5Te1.5, the electronic density of states near the gap is significantly higher than for A = Ir or Rh, leading to higher effective masses and higher Seebeck coefficients. Experimentally, Ir and Rh samples exhibit relatively large p-type carrier concentrations and degenerate semiconducting behavior. In contrast, CoSn1.5Te1.5 shows mixed conduction, with n-type carriers dominating the Seebeck coefficient and light, high mobility holes dominating the Hall coefficient. zT values of up to 0.35 were obtained, and further improvement is expected upon optimization of the carrier concentration or with n-type doping.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10 and the effectiveness of combined tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate treatment in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai-fa; Zhao, Yi-li; Ding, Shang-shu; Wu, Qi-fei; Wang, Xing-yang; Shi, Jia-qi; Sun, Fa; Xing, Jun-ping

    2015-03-01

    Tamoxifen citrate, as the first line of treatment for infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia, was proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and testosterone undecanoate has shown benefits in semen values. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of treatment with tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia, and whether the results would be affected by polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10. A total of 230 infertile men and 147 controls were included in the study. Patients were treated with tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate. Sex hormone, sperm parameters, and incidence of spontaneous pregnancy were detected. There were no significant differences between the control and patient groups with respect to CYP2D6*10 genotype frequencies (P>0.05). The follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels were raised, and sperm concentration and motility were increased at 3 months and became significant at 6 months, and they were higher in the wild-type allele (C/C) than in the heterozygous variant allele (C/T) or homozygous variant allele (T/T) subgroups (P<0.05). In addition, the percentage of normal morphology was raised at 6 months, and represented the highest percentage in the C/C subgroup (P<0.05). The incidence of spontaneous pregnancy in the C/C subgroup was higher than that in the C/T or T/T subgroups (P<0.01). This study showed that the CYP2D6*10 variant genotype demonstrated worse clinical effects in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia.

  20. The influence of polyamide 6,10 synthesis variables on the physicochemical characteristics and drug release kinetics from a monolithic tablet matrix.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, Oluwatoyin A; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of solute-solvent quotients on the physicochemical properties and release kinetics of two amitryptyline-loaded polyamide 6,10 (PA 6,10) monolithic matrices, Formulations A and B (FA and FB). The molecular mass, crystallinity, structural elucidation and thermo-transitions were assessed using mass spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and DSC. Surface morphologies of the matrices and physicomechanical strength were captured using SEM and textural analysis. Drug release, distension and matrix erosion were evaluated using mathematical modeling. FA and FB displayed overall drug release fractions of 0.58 and 0.92 with 55% and 30% of matrix remaining over 24 hours, respectively. The indentation diameters (FA = 1.51 mm; FB = 2.39 mm), deformation energies (FA = 0.02 J; FB = 0.03 J) and Brinell Hardness Numbers (FA = 17.88 N/mm²; FB = 14.45 N/mm²) were divergent. SEM revealed irregular matrix surfaces with varying pore distributions. Minimal shifts in the structural backbone of PA 6,10 and semi-crystallinity was noted. Multiple reversible and irreversible thermal transitions with molar masses of FA = 345.2 g/mol and FB = 307.2 g/mol were obtained. Drug release supported by in vivo studies provided sustained plasma levels of amitryptyline (T(max) = 24 ± 0.5 h and 12 ± 0.5 h; C(max) = 0.024 ± 0.003 μg/mL and 0.036 ± 0.002 μg/mL for FA and FB, respectively) compared to a conventional formulation, Trepiline® (T(max) = 4 ± 0.5 h and C(max) = 0.05 ± 0.002 μg/mL). The physicochemical properties of both formulations were reversibly influenced by differences in the PA 6,10 solute-solvent quotient employed during development.

  1. High-temperature order-disorder transitions in the skutterudites CoGe{sub 1.5}Q{sub 1.5} (Q=S, Te)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltzoglou, Andreas; Powell, Anthony V.; Knight, Kevin S.; Vaqueiro, Paz

    2013-02-15

    The temperature dependence of anion ordering in the skutterudites CoGe{sub 1.5}Q{sub 1.5} (Q=S, Te) has been investigated by powder neutron diffraction. Both materials adopt a rhombohedral structure at room temperature (space group R3{sup Macron} ) in which the anions are ordered trans to each other within Ge{sub 2}Q{sub 2} rings. In CoGe{sub 1.5}S{sub 1.5}, anion ordering is preserved up to the melting point of 950 Degree-Sign C. However, rhombohedral CoGe{sub 1.5}Te{sub 1.5} undergoes a phase transition at 610 Degree-Sign C involving a change to cubic symmetry (space group Im3{sup Macron }). In the high-temperature modification, there is a statistical distribution of anions over the available sites within the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. The structural transition involves a reduction in the degree of distortion of the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings which progressively transform from a rhombus to a rectangular shape. The effect of this transition on the thermoelectric properties has been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Powder neutron diffraction reveals that the skutterudite CoGe{sub 1.5}Te{sub 1.5} undergoes a phase transition at 610 Degree-Sign C, involving the disordering of the anions within the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoGe{sub 1.5}S{sub 1.5} retains an ordered skutterudite structure up to 950 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoGe{sub 1.5}Te{sub 1.5} undergoes an order-disorder phase transition at 610 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Below 610 Degree-Sign C, anions are arranged trans to each other within Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above 610 Degree-Sign C, anions are statistically distributed within the Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 2} rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the phase transition on the thermal conductivity is discussed.

  2. 43 CFR 3440.1-5 - Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. 3440.1-5 Section 3440.1-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Licenses to Mine § 3440.1-5 Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Mining on a...

  3. Carbon-Carbon Bond Cleavage Reaction: Synthesis of Multisubstituted Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Pallabi; Gogoi, Sanjib; Boruah, Romesh C

    2015-07-02

    A new carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction was developed for the efficient synthesis of multisubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines. This base induced reaction of 1,3,5-trisubstituted pentane-1,5-diones and substituted pyrazoles afforded good yields of the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

  4. 11 CFR 1.5 - Disclosure of requested information to individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of requested information to individuals. 1.5 Section 1.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.5 Disclosure of... record, the Commission may make the record available either at the location where the record...

  5. Structure and thermoelectric properties of CoSb3-3XGe1.5X Te1.5X (X = 0 ~ 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xianli; Tang, Xinfeng; Uher, Ctirad; Wuhan University of Technology Team; University of Michigan Team

    2014-03-01

    Changes in the phonon vibration spectra created by substitutions on the rings or by deforming the rings decrease the lattice thermal conductivity. In this research we focused the Ge and Te co-doped and fully compensated CoSb3-3xGe1.5xTe1.5x skutterudite compounds for the first time. A single-phase skutterudite can be obtained with x smaller than 0.50. In comparison with a ternary skutterudite of the form CoGe1.5Te1.5, the order-disorder transition can be observed due to the different configuration of four-member pnicogen rings. Rietveld refinement result shows that the bond distance of Sb-Sb decreases with the increase of the Ge and Te content. With x smaller than 0.5, Ge/Te distribute randomly on the four-member near-square Sb rings. For the CoGe1.5Te1.5 sample, Ge Te distribute in a staggered pattern. Due to the different bonding distance and bonding angle, the near-square ring turns into a parallelogram ring, the essence of the order-disorder transition. The thermal conductivity decreases dramatically with the increasing content of Ge/Te double-doping due to the enhanced alloy scattering.

  6. Bismuth zinc niobate (Bi 1.5ZnNb 1.5O 7) ceramics derived from metallo-organic decomposition precursor solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Elsebrock, Ralf; Schneller, Theodor; Waser, Rainer; Yao, Xi

    2004-11-01

    The preparation, microstructure development and dielectric properties of Bi 1.5ZnNb 1.5O 7 pyrochlore ceramics by metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) route are reported. Homogeneous precalcined ceramic powders of 13-36 nm crystallite size were obtained at temperatures ranging from 500 to 700 °C. The thermal decomposition/oxidation of the gelled precursor solution was chemically analyzed, TG/DTA, XRD, and SEM, led to the formation of a pure cubic pyrochlore phase with a stoichiometry close to Bi 1.5ZnNb 1.5O 7 which begins to form at 500 °C. The metallo-organic precursor synthesis method, where Bi, Zn and Nb ions are chelated to form metal complexes, allows the control of Bi/Zn/Nb stoichiometric ratio on a molecular scale leading to the rapid formation of bismuth zinc niobate (Bi 1.5ZnNb 1.5O 7) ceramic fine powders with pure pyrochlore structure. The powders were pressed into pellets and can be sintered at temperatures as low as 800-1000 °C. Fine crystalline ceramics with the grain size in the range of 200-500 nm have been obtained at the sintering temperature of 800 °C. The dielectric properties in high frequency to microwave range were measured and discussed.

  7. Crystal structures of (±)-(1SR,5SR,6SR,7SR,10SR,11SR,13RS,14SR)-13-hy-droxy-7-meth-oxy-meth-oxy-11,15,18,18-tetra-methyl-3-oxo-2,4-dioxa-tetra-cyclo-[12.3.1.0(1,5).0(6,11)]octa-dec-15-en-10-yl benzoate, its 13-epimer and 13-one derivative.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Takeshi; Fukaya, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugai, Tomoya; Watanabe, Ami; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2015-05-01

    The title compounds, C29H38O8·0.25C5H12, (A), C29H38O8, (B), and C29H36O8, (C), are tetra-cyclic benzoates possessing a taxane skeleton with a fused dioxolane ring as the core structure. In the asymmetric unit of (A), there are two independent benzoate mol-ecules (A and A') and a half mol-ecule of solvent pentane disordered about an inversion center. The mol-ecular conformations of (A), (B) and (C) are similar except for the flexible meth-oxy-meth-oxy group. The cyclo-hexane, cyclo-hexene and central cyclo-octane rings adopt chair, half-chair and chair-chair (extended crown) forms, respectively. The dioxolane rings are essentially planar, while the dioxolane ring of A' is slightly twisted from the mean plane. In the crystal of (A), inter-molecular O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions link the independent benzoates alternately, forming a chain structure. In the crystals of (B) and (C), mol-ecules are linked through O-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively, into similar chains. Further, weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions connect the chains into a three-dimensional network in (A) and a sheet in (B), whereas no other interactions are observed for (C).

  8. Crystal structure of (±)-(1SR,5SR,6SR,7SR,10SR,11SR,13SR)-13-benz-yloxy-7-meth-oxy-meth-oxy-11,15,18,18-tetra-methyl-3-oxo-2,4-dioxa-tetra-cyclo-[12.3.1.0(1,5).0(6,11)]octa-deca-14,16-dien-10-yl benzoate.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Takeshi; Fukaya, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugai, Tomoya; Watanabe, Ami; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, C36H42O8, the dioxolane ring adopts a twist conformation; the two adjacent C atoms deviate alternately from the mean plane of other atoms by -0.287 (5) and 0.174 (5) Å. The cyclo-hexane, cyclo-hexa-diene and central cyclo-octane rings show chair, half-chair and boat-chair forms, respectively. As a result of the strained ring system, the tetra-subsituted olefin in the cyclo-hexa-diene is skewed from an ideal planar structure. In the crystal, C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules into a sheet parallel to (100). The sheets are further linked by other weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  9. Electron loss from 1.4-MeV/u U{sup 4,6,10+} ions colliding with Ne, N{sub 2}, and Ar targets

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, R.D.; Santos, A.C.F.; Stoehlker, Th.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mann, R.; Muthig, A. Orsic; Spillmann, U.; Tachenov, S.; Bart, W.; Dahl, L.; Franzke, B.; Glatz, J.; Groening, L.; Richter, S.; Wilms, D.; Ullmann, K.

    2004-09-01

    Absolute, total, single- and multiple-electron-loss cross sections are measured for 1.4-MeV/u U{sup 4,6,10+} ions colliding with neon and argon atoms and nitrogen molecules. It is found that the cross sections all have the same dependence on the number of electrons lost and that multiplying the cross sections by the initial number of electrons in the 6s, 6p, and 5f shells yields good agreement between the different projectiles. By combining the present data with previous measurements made at the same velocity, it is shown that the scaled cross sections slowly decrease in magnitude for incoming charge states between 1 and 10, whereas the cross sections for higher-charge-state ions fall off much more rapidly.

  10. Inactivation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach with the new affinity label 2-bromo-1,5-dihydroxy-3-pentanone 1,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M.I.; Hartman, F.C.

    1981-11-16

    In an attempt to identify the active-site base believed to initiate catalysis by ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase, we have synthesized 2-bromo-1, 5-dihydroxy-3-pentanone 1,5-bisphosphate, a reactive analogue of a postulated intermediate of carboxylation. Although highly unstable, this compound can be shown to inactivate the carboxylases from both Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach rapidly and irreversibly. Inactivation follows pseudo first-order kinetics, shows rate saturation and is greatly reduced by saturating amounts of the competitive inhibitor, 2-carboxyribitol 1,5-bisphosphate. The incorporation of reagent, quantified by reducing the modified carboxylases with (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/, shows that inactivation results from the modification of approximately one residue per catalytic subunit of the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and less than one residue per protomeric unit of the spinach enzyme.

  11. Emission and absorption spectra of some bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, J. M.; Pathirana, R. N.; Stibbard, J. H. A.

    Absorption spectra in neutral and acidic media are reported for a series of bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines, which are unable to tautomerize. Comparison is made with non-bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines capable of tautomeric rearrangement. Both bridged and non-bridged 1,5-benzodiazepines are essentially non-fluorescent due to the "proximity effect" of interaction between singlet ηπ* and ππ* states of similar energy, a phenomenon previously recognised in six-membered nitrogen heterocycles.

  12. A 1.5k x 1.5k class photon counting HgCdTe linear avalanche photo-diode array for low background space astronomy in the 1-5micron infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald

    Under a current award, NASA NNX 13AC13G "EXTENDING THE ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATION OF PHOTON COUNTING HgCdTe LINEAR AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE ARRAYS TO LOW BACKGROUND SPACE OBSERVATIONS" UH has used Selex SAPHIRA 320 x 256 MOVPE L-APD HgCdTe arrays developed for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront (WF) sensing to investigate the potential of this technology for low background space astronomy applications. After suppressing readout integrated circuit (ROIC) glow, we have placed upper limits on gain normalized dark current of 0.01 e-/sec at up to 8 volts avalanche bias, corresponding to avalanche gain of 5, and have operated with avalanche gains of up to several hundred at higher bias. We have also demonstrated detection of individual photon events. The proposed investigation would scale the format to 1536 x 1536 at 12um (the largest achievable in a standard reticule without requiring stitching) while incorporating reference pixels required at these low dark current levels. The primary objective is to develop, produce and characterize a 1.5k x 1.5k at 12um pitch MOVPE HgCdTe L-APD array, with nearly 30 times the pixel count of the 320 x 256 SAPHIRA, optimized for low background space astronomy. This will involve: 1) Selex design of a 1.5k x 1.5k at 12um pitch ROIC optimized for low background operation, silicon wafer fabrication at the German XFab foundry in 0.35 um 3V3 process and dicing/test at Selex, 2) provision by GL Scientific of a 3-side close-buttable carrier building from the heritage of the HAWAII xRG family, 3) Selex development and fabrication of 1.5k x 1.5k at 12 um pitch MOVPE HgCdTe L-APD detector arrays optimized for low background applications, 4) hybridization, packaging into a sensor chip assembly (SCA) with initial characterization by Selex and, 5) comprehensive characterization of low background performance, both in the laboratory and at ground based telescopes, by UH. The ultimate goal is to produce and eventually market a large format array, the L

  13. Behavior of the irreversibility line in the new superconductor La1.5+xBa1.5+x-yCayCu3Oz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra Vargas, C. A.; Pimentel, J. L.; Pureur, P.; Landínez Téllez, D. A.; Roa-Rojas, J.

    2012-08-01

    The irreversibility properties of high-Tc superconductors are of major importance for technological applications. For example, a high irreversibility magnetic field is a more desirable quality for a superconductor [1]. The irreversibility line in the H-T plane is constituted by experimental points, which divides the irreversible and reversible behavior of the magnetization. The irreversibility lines for series of La1.5+xBa1.5+x-yCayCu3Oz polycrystalline samples with different doping were investigated. The samples were synthesized using the usual solid estate reaction method. Rietveld-type refinement of x-ray diffraction patterns permitted to determine the crystallization of material in a tetragonal structure. Curves of magnetization ZFC-FC for the system La1.5+xBa1.5+x-yCayCu3Oz, were measured in magnetic fields of the 10-20,000 Oe, and allowed to obtain the values for the irreversibility and critical temperatures. The data of irreversibility temperature allowed demarcating the irreversibility line, Tirr(H). Two main lines are used for the interpretation of the irreversibility line: one of those which suppose that the vortexes are activated thermally and the other proposes that associated to Tirr a phase transition occurs. The irreversibility line is described by a power law. The obtained results allow concluding that in the system La1.5+xBa1.5+x-yCayCu3Oz a characteristic bend of the Almeida-Thouless (AT) tendency is dominant for low fields and a bend Gabay-Toulouse (GT) behavior for high magnetic fields. This feature of the irreversibility line has been reported as a characteristic of granular superconductors and it corroborates the topological effects of vortexes mentioned by several authors [1,2].

  14. Synthesis of psoralen derivatives and their blocking effect of hKv1.5 channel.

    PubMed

    Eun, Jae Soon; Kim, Kwang Sik; Kim, Han Na; Park, Seon Ah; Ma, Tian-Ze; Lee, Kyung A; Kim, Dae Keun; Kim, Hyung Kyo; Kim, In Su; Jung, Young Hoon; Zee, Ok Pyo; Yoo, Dong Jin; Kwak, Yong Geun

    2007-02-01

    Previously, we found that a furocoumarin derivative, psoralen (7H-furo[3,2-g][1]benzopyran-7-one), blocked a human Kv1.5 potassium channel (hKv1.5) and has a potential antiarrhythmic effect. In the present study, to develop more potent hKv1.5 blockers or antiarrhythmic drugs, we synthesized ten psoralen derivatives and examined their blocking effects on hKv1.5 stably expressed in Ltk cells. Among the newly synthesized psoralen derivatives, three derivatives (Compounds 5, 9 and 10) showed the open channel-blocking effect. Compound 9 among them was the most potent in blocking hKv1.5. We found that compound 9, one of the psoralen derivatives, inhibited the hKv1.5 current in a concentration-, use- and voltage-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 27.4 +/- 5.1 nM at +60 mV. Compound 9 accelerated the inactivation kinetics of the hKv1.5 channel, slowed the deactivation kinetics of hKv1.5 current resulting in a tail crossover phenomenon. Compound 9 inhibited hKv1.5 current in a use-dependent manner. These results indicate that compound 9, one of psoralen derivatives, acts on hKv1.5 channel as an open channel blocker and is much more potent than psoralen in blocking hKv1.5 channel. If further studies were done, compound 9 might be an ideal antiarrhythmic drug for atrial fibrillation.

  15. 20 CFR 1.5 - When was the former Bureau of Employees' Compensation abolished?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Compensation abolished? 1.5 Section 1.5 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... various workers' compensation programs enumerated in § 1.2, except the Black Lung Benefits Program and the... Employees' Compensation abolished? By Secretary of Labor's Order issued September 23, 1974 (39 FR...

  16. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  17. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  18. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  19. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  20. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights..., the title of the invention, the date of filing the same, and, if known, the group art unit or...

  1. Nav1.5 regulates breast tumor growth and metastatic dissemination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michaela; Yang, Ming; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Brackenbury, William J

    2015-10-20

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) mediate action potential firing and regulate adhesion and migration in excitable cells. VGSCs are also expressed in cancer cells. In metastatic breast cancer (BCa) cells, the Nav1.5 α subunit potentiates migration and invasion. In addition, the VGSC-inhibiting antiepileptic drug phenytoin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional activity of Nav1.5 and its specific contribution to tumor progression in vivo has not been delineated. Here, we found that Nav1.5 is up-regulated at the protein level in BCa compared with matched normal breast tissue. Na+ current, reversibly blocked by tetrodotoxin, was retained in cancer cells in tumor tissue slices, thus directly confirming functional VGSC activity in vivo. Stable down-regulation of Nav1.5 expression significantly reduced tumor growth, local invasion into surrounding tissue, and metastasis to liver, lungs and spleen in an orthotopic BCa model. Nav1.5 down-regulation had no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis within the in tumors, but increased apoptosis. In vitro, Nav1.5 down-regulation altered cell morphology and reduced CD44 expression, suggesting that VGSC activity may regulate cellular invasion via the CD44-src-cortactin signaling axis. We conclude that Nav1.5 is functionally active in cancer cells in breast tumors, enhancing growth and metastatic dissemination. These findings support the notion that compounds targeting Nav1.5 may be useful for reducing metastasis.

  2. 40 CFR 721.6176 - 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6176 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-, (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6176 - 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6176 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-, (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6176 - 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6176 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-, (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6176 - 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6176 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-,. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Piperdinone, 1,5-dimethyl-, (PMN...

  6. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 6101 - Form Nos. 1-5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Form Nos. 1-5 Appendix to Part 6101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES Pt. 6101, App. Appendix to Part 6101—Form Nos. 1-5 Form 1, GSA Form...

  7. Investigating Differences in the Writing Performance of International and Generation 1.5 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners working closely with second language (L2) writers in the US recognize at least two types of L2 students: international (IL2) and Generation 1.5 (G1.5) students. Some argue that specific differences in each group's writing performance are evident (cf. Harklau, 2003; Reid, 2006); however, investigations into observable and measurable…

  8. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  9. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  10. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  11. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  12. 23 CFR 1.5 - Information furnished by State highway departments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information furnished by State highway departments. 1.5... ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.5 Information furnished by State highway departments. At the request of the Administrator the State highway department shall furnish to him such information as the Administrator shall...

  13. "Generation 1.5" and Its Discourses of Partiality: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benesch, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This is a critical discourse analysis of "generation 1.5," a term used to refer to students born outside the United States who received part, or most, of their formal education in the United States. The analysis reveals that surrounding "generation 1.5" are 3 interconnected discourses of partiality: a discourse of demographic partiality, a…

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-5 - Basis for site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for site evaluations. 960.3-1-5 Section 960.3-1-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A... understanding of the potential effects of engineered barriers on the overall performance of the...

  15. A Language-Related Comparison of Generation 1.5 and L1 Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    "Generation 1.5" is a term being used to describe a type of second language (L2) long-term U.S. resident who may demonstrate persistent language-related challenges (Roberge, Siegel, & Harklau, 2009). Among the difficulties commonly noted with Generation 1.5 students are problems in controlling the academic register expected in…

  16. Kv1.5 in the Immune System: the Good, the Bad, or the Ugly?

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, Antonio; Soler, Concepció; Comes, Núria

    2010-01-01

    For the last 20 years, knowledge of the physiological role of voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv) in the immune system has grown exponentially. Leukocytes express a limited repertoire of Kv channels, which contribute to the membrane potential. These proteins are involved in the immune response and are therefore considered good pharmacological targets. Although there is a clear consensus about the physiological relevance of Kv1.3, the expression and the role of Kv1.5 are controversial. However, recent reports indicate that certain heteromeric Kv1.3/Kv1.5 associations may provide insight on Kv1.5. Here, we summarize what is known about this issue and highlight the role of Kv1.5 partnership interactions that could be responsible for this debate. The Kv1.3/Kv1.5 heterotetrameric composition of the channel and their possible differential associations with accessory regulatory proteins warrant further investigation. PMID:21423392

  17. Calculation of Nuclear Particles Production at High-Energy Photon Beams from a Linac Operating at 6, 10 and 15 MV.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Renato; Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2016-08-13

    Production of photonuclear particles in a tissue-equivalent medium has been calculated for linacs at 6, 10 and 15 MV from Varian TrueBeam. Based on the knowledge of bremsstrahlung fluence spectra and linac photon beam parameters, numerical integration was performed on the cross sections for photoparticle production of the constituent elements of tissue ((2)H,(12)C,(13)C,(16)O,(17)O,(18)O,(14)N,(15)N). At 15 MV, at the depth of photon maximum dose, the total absorbed dose due to neutrons, protons, alphas and residual nuclei from photon reactions in tissue (5.5E-05 Gy per Gy of photons) is comparable to that due to neutrons from accelerator head. Results reasonably agree with data reported in the literature using Monte Carlo models simulating linac head components. This work suggests a simple method to estimate the dose contributed by the photon-induced nuclear particles for high-energy photon beams produced by linacs in use, as it might be relevant for late stochastic effects.

  18. Analysis of latent variance reduction methods in phase space Monte Carlo calculations for 6, 10 and 18 MV photons by using MCNP code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzati, A. O.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2013-02-01

    In this study, azimuthal particle redistribution (APR), and azimuthal particle rotational splitting (APRS) methods are implemented in MCNPX2.4 source code. First of all, the efficiency of these methods was compared to two tallying methods. The APRS is more efficient than the APR method in track length estimator tallies. However in the energy deposition tally, both methods have nearly the same efficiency. Latent variance reduction factors were obtained for 6, 10 and 18 MV photons as well. The APRS relative efficiency contours were obtained. These obtained contours reveal that by increasing the photon energies, the contours depth and the surrounding areas were further increased. The relative efficiency contours indicated that the variance reduction factor is position and energy dependent. The out of field voxels relative efficiency contours showed that latent variance reduction methods increased the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation efficiency in the out of field voxels. The APR and APRS average variance reduction factors had differences less than 0.6% for splitting number of 1000.

  19. Tissue maximum ratios (and other parameters) of small circular 4, 6, 10, 15 and 24 MV x-ray beams for radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Serago, C F; Houdek, P V; Hartmann, G H; Saini, D S; Serago, M E; Kaydee, A

    1992-10-01

    Small, circular, x-ray beams are commonly used for radiosurgery applications. Dosimetric characteristics of 4, 6, 10, 15 and 24 MV circular x-ray beams ranging in size from 10 to 40 mm are reported. These characteristics include the measurement of TMR, beam profiles and relative output factors. Measurements of these parameters were performed in a solid water phantom using film, a small diode, small parallel-plate and cylindrical ionization chambers and TLD. Comparison of relative dose measurements of small, circular beams performed using these detectors showed that the small diode, film and TLD results consistently agreed for circular beams as small as 10 mm diameter. Beam profiles were measured using film dosimetry. Comparison of TMR values of a 10 mm diameter beam measured using film and a small parallel-plate ionization chamber showed no significant differences. Tertiary collimators designed with tapered, divergence-matching holes, and straight-drilled holes have been used for radiosurgery applications. Measurement of beam penumbra produced with either of these types of tertiary collimators showed minimal differences between them.

  20. Severe mental retardation in six generations of a large South African family carrying a translocation t(6;10)(q27;q25.2).

    PubMed Central

    Brusnický, J; van Heerden, K M; de Jong, G; Cronjé, A S; Retief, A E

    1986-01-01

    Partial monosomy 10q25.2----qter, detected in a newborn baby with multiple congenital abnormalities, was found to be derived from a balanced maternal translocation t(6;10)(q27;q25.2). The pedigree of six generations of the family is presented. In an extensive cytogenetic study of this family, the chromosome complements of 57 subjects, potentially capable of carrying some form of this translocation, were analysed. A total of 14 male carriers (four obligatory) and 14 female carriers (three obligatory) of this translocation was found. Partial trisomy 10q25.2----qter, associated with severe mental retardation, occurred in nine cases, eight males and one female. Two of these eight males were detected prenatally and subsequently therapeutically aborted. The phenotypes of the family members with partial trisomy 10q25.2----qter are compared to each other and to those reported in publications. No further cases of partial monosomy 10q25.2----qter were encountered. A review of published reports of partial monosomy and partial trisomy 10qter is given. The apparent absence of infertility, the occurrence of many first trimester miscarriages, and the marked sex ratio are discussed. Images PMID:3783620

  1. Inhibitory effects of cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on the Kv1.5 potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Cheng, Neng; Li, Xian-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Kv1.5 channels carry ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ currents in excitable cells, including neurons and cardiac myocytes. In the current study, the effects of cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on cloned Kv1.5 channels expressed in HEK29 cells were explored using whole-cell recording technique. Exposure to donepezil resulted in a rapid and reversible block of Kv1.5 currents, with an IC50 value of 72.5 μM. The mutant R476V significantly reduced the binding affinity of donepezil to Kv1.5 channels, showing the target site in the outer mouth region. Donepezil produced a significant delay in the duration of activation and deactivation, and mutant R476V potentiated these effects without altering activation curves. In response to slowed deactivation time course, a typical crossover of Kv1.5 tail currents was clearly evident after bath application of donepezil. In addition, both this chemical and mutant R476V accelerated current decay during channel inactivation in a voltage-dependent way, but barely changed the inactivation and recovery curves. The presence of donepezil exhibited the use-dependent block of Kv1.5 currents in response to a series of depolarizing pulses. Our data indicate that donepezil can directly block Kv1.5 channels in its open and closed states. PMID:28198801

  2. Molecular determinants of Kv1.5 channel block by diphenyl phosphine oxide-1.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-mei; Zhang, Xiao-xian; Tu, Dan-na; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Yan-jie; Xiao, Hua; Sanguinetti, Michael C; Zou, Anruo; Liao, Yu-hua

    2010-06-01

    Kv1.5 channels conduct the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current (I(Kur)) that contributes to action potential repolarization of human atrial myocytes. Block of these channels has been proposed as a treatment for atrial arrhythmias. Diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (DPO-1) is a novel and potent inhibitor of Kv1.5 potassium channels. The present study was undertaken to characterize the mechanisms and molecular determinants of channel block by DPO-1. Experiments were carried out on wild-type and mutant Kv1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the standard two microelectrode voltage clamp technique. DPO-1 blocked Kv1.5 current in oocytes with an IC(50) of 0.78+/-0.12 microM at +40 mV. Block was enhanced by higher rates of stimulation, consistent with preferential binding of the drug to the open state of the channel. Ala-scanning mutagenesis of the pore domain of Kv1.5 identified the residues Thr480, Leu499, Leu506, Ile508, Leu510 and Val514 as components of the putative binding site for DPO-1, partially overlapping the site previously defined for the Kv1.5 channel blockers AVE0118 and S0100176. Block of Kv1.5 by DPO-1 was significantly reduced in the presence of Kvbeta1.3.

  3. Cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 and its associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Abriel, H

    2007-09-01

    The main cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channel, Nav1.5, plays a key role in generation of the cardiac action potential (cardiac excitability) and propagation of the electrical impulse in the heart (cardiac conduction). During the past decade, numerous mutations in SCN5A, the gene, encoding Nav1.5, were found in patients with different pathologic cardiac phenotypes such as the congenital long QT syndrome type 3, Brugada syndrome, and progressive cardiac conduction defect (or Lenègre-Lev disease). These mutations define a sub-group of Nav1.5 / SCN5A-related cardiac channelopathies. Recent works have suggested that Nav1.5 is part of several multi-protein complexes located in different membrane compartments of the cardiac cells. In some instances, the genes of these regulatory proteins were also found to be mutated in patients with inherited forms of cardiac arrhythmias. The proteins that associate with Nav1.5, and form these complexes, can be classified as 1) anchoring/adaptor proteins, 2) enzymes interacting with and modifying the channel, and 3) proteins modulating the biophysical properties of Nav1.5 upon binding. The purpose of this short article is to review the proposed roles of these interactions. These recent observations indicate that the expression level, cellular localization, and activity of Nav1.5 are finely regulated by complex molecular mechanisms that we are only starting to elucidate.

  4. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 Spinel Protection Layers on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2005-01-26

    In intermediate solid oxide fuel cells, the use of cost effective chromia forming alloy interconnects such as ferritic stainless steels can lead to severe degradation in cell performance due to chromium migration into the cells at the cathode side. To protect cells from chromium poisoning and improve their performance, a Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel barrier layer has been developed and tested on the ferritic stainless steel Crofer22 APU. Thermal and electrical tests confirmed the effectiveness of the spinel protection layer as a means of stopping chromium migration and decreasing oxidation, while promoting electrical contact and minimizing cathode/interconnect interfacial resistance. The thermally grown spinel protection layer was well-bonded to the Crofer22 APU substrate and demonstrated stable performance under thermal cycling.

  5. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of new 1,5-dialkyl-1,5-benzodiazepines as cholecystokinin-2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Karen; Ursini, Antonella; Barnaby, Robert; Cassarà, Paolo G; Corsi, Mauro; Curotto, Giovanni; Donati, Daniele; Feriani, Aldo; Finizia, Gabriella; Marchioro, Carla; Niccolai, Daniela; Oliosi, Beatrice; Polinelli, Stefano; Ratti, Emiliangelo; Reggiani, Angelo; Tedesco, Giovanna; Tranquillini, Maria E; Trist, David G; van Amsterdam, Franciscus T M

    2011-07-15

    This article deals with the synthesis and the activities of some 1,5-dialkyl-3-arylureido-1,5-benzodiazepin-2,4-diones which were prepared as potential CCK2 antagonists, with the intention to find a possible follow up of our lead compound GV150013, showing an improved pharmacokinetic profile. The phenyl ring at N-5 was replaced with more hydrophilic substituents, like alkyl groups bearing basic functions. In some cases, the resolution of the racemic key intermediates 3-amino-benzodiazepines was also accomplished. Among the compounds synthesized and characterised so far in this class, the 5-morpholinoethyl derivative 54, was selected as potential follow up of GV150013 and submitted for further evaluation.

  6. Membrane cholesterol modulates Kv1.5 potassium channel distribution and function in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Abi-Char, Joëlle; Maguy, Ange; Coulombe, Alain; Balse, Elise; Ratajczak, Philippe; Samuel, Jane-Lise; Nattel, Stanley; Hatem, Stéphane N

    2007-08-01

    Membrane lipid composition is a major determinant of cell excitability. In this study, we assessed the role of membrane cholesterol composition in the distribution and function of Kv1.5-based channels in rat cardiac membranes. In isolated rat atrial myocytes, the application of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD), an agent that depletes membrane cholesterol, caused a delayed increase in the Kv1.5-based sustained component, I(kur), which reached steady state in approximately 7 min. This effect was prevented by preloading the MCD with cholesterol. MCD-increased current was inhibited by low 4-aminopyridine concentration. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transfected with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged Kv1.5 channels showed a large ultrarapid delayed-rectifier current (I(Kur)), which was also stimulated by MCD. In atrial cryosections, Kv1.5 channels were mainly located at the intercalated disc, whereas caveolin-3 predominated at the cell periphery. A small portion of Kv1.5 floated in the low-density fractions of step sucrose-gradient preparations. In live neonatal cardiomyocytes, GFP-tagged Kv1.5 channels were predominantly organized in clusters at the basal plasma membrane. MCD caused reorganization of Kv1.5 subunits into larger clusters that redistributed throughout the plasma membrane. The MCD effect on clusters was sizable 7 min after its application. We conclude that Kv1.5 subunits are concentrated in cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains distinct from caveolae, and that redistribution of Kv1.5 subunits by depletion of membrane cholesterol increases their current-carrying capacity.

  7. Membrane cholesterol modulates Kv1.5 potassium channel distribution and function in rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Char, Joëlle; Maguy, Ange; Coulombe, Alain; Balse, Elise; Ratajczak, Philippe; Samuel, Jane-Lise; Nattel, Stanley; Hatem, Stéphane N

    2007-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition is a major determinant of cell excitability. In this study, we assessed the role of membrane cholesterol composition in the distribution and function of Kv1.5-based channels in rat cardiac membranes. In isolated rat atrial myocytes, the application of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), an agent that depletes membrane cholesterol, caused a delayed increase in the Kv1.5-based sustained component, Ikur, which reached steady state in ∼7 min. This effect was prevented by preloading the MCD with cholesterol. MCD-increased current was inhibited by low 4-aminopyridine concentration. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transfected with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged Kv1.5 channels showed a large ultrarapid delayed-rectifier current (IKur), which was also stimulated by MCD. In atrial cryosections, Kv1.5 channels were mainly located at the intercalated disc, whereas caveolin-3 predominated at the cell periphery. A small portion of Kv1.5 floated in the low-density fractions of step sucrose-gradient preparations. In live neonatal cardiomyocytes, GFP-tagged Kv1.5 channels were predominantly organized in clusters at the basal plasma membrane. MCD caused reorganization of Kv1.5 subunits into larger clusters that redistributed throughout the plasma membrane. The MCD effect on clusters was sizable 7 min after its application. We conclude that Kv1.5 subunits are concentrated in cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains distinct from caveolae, and that redistribution of Kv1.5 subunits by depletion of membrane cholesterol increases their current-carrying capacity. PMID:17525113

  8. Dynamitin affects cell-surface expression of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Chatin, Benoît; Colombier, Pauline; Gamblin, Anne Laure; Allouis, Marie; Le Bouffant, Françoise

    2014-11-01

    The major cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5 associates with proteins that regulate its biosynthesis, localization, activity and degradation. Identification of partner proteins is crucial for a better understanding of the channel regulation. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified dynamitin as a Nav1.5-interacting protein. Dynamitin is part of the microtubule-binding multiprotein complex dynactin. When overexpressed it is a potent inhibitor of dynein/kinesin-mediated transport along the microtubules by disrupting the dynactin complex and dissociating cargoes from microtubules. The use of deletion constructs showed that the C-terminal domain of dynamitin is essential for binding to the first intracellular interdomain of Nav1.5. Co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association between Nav1.5 and dynamitin in mouse heart extracts. Immunostaining experiments showed that dynamitin and Nav1.5 co-localize at intercalated discs of mouse cardiomyocytes. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to test the functional link between Nav1.5 and dynamitin. Dynamitin overexpression in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells expressing Nav1.5 resulted in a decrease in sodium current density in the membrane with no modification of the channel-gating properties. Biotinylation experiments produced similar information with a reduction in Nav1.5 at the cell surface when dynactin-dependent transport was inhibited. The present study strongly suggests that dynamitin is involved in the regulation of Nav1.5 cell-surface density.

  9. Physiological and Pathophysiological Insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 Comparison.

    PubMed

    Loussouarn, Gildas; Sternberg, Damien; Nicole, Sophie; Marionneau, Céline; Le Bouffant, Francoise; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Barc, Julien; Malak, Olfat A; Fressart, Véronique; Péréon, Yann; Baró, Isabelle; Charpentier, Flavien

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A), the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases.

  10. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose; a versatile chiral building block: biochemistry and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Søren M; Lundt, Inge; Marcussen, Jan; Yu, Shukun

    2002-05-13

    There is a steadily increasing need to expand sustainable resources, and carbohydrates are anticipated to play an important role in this respect, both for bulk and fine chemical preparation. The enzyme alpha-(1-->4)-glucan lyase degrades starch to 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose. This compound, which has three different functional properties, a prochiral center together with a permanent pyran ring, renders it a potential chiral building block for the synthesis of valuable and potentially biologically active compounds. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose is found in natural materials as a degradation product of alpha-(1-->4)-glucans. The occurrence of lyases and the metabolism of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose are reviewed in the biological part of this article. In the chemical part, the elucidated structure of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose will be presented together with simple stereoselective conversions into hydroxy/amino 1,5-anhydro hexitols and a nojirimycin analogue. Synthesis of 6-O-acylated derivatives of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose substituted with long fatty acid residues is carried out using commercially available enzymes. Those reactions lead to compounds with potential emulsifying properties. The use of protected derivatives of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose for the synthesis of natural products is likewise reviewed. The potential utilization of this chemical building block is far from being exhausted. Since 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose now is accessible in larger amounts through a simple-enzyme catalyzed degradation of starch by alpha-(1-->4)-glucan lyase, the application of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose may be considered a valuable contribution to the utilization of carbohydrates as the most abundant resource of sustainable raw materials.

  11. Physiological and Pathophysiological Insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Loussouarn, Gildas; Sternberg, Damien; Nicole, Sophie; Marionneau, Céline; Le Bouffant, Francoise; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Barc, Julien; Malak, Olfat A.; Fressart, Véronique; Péréon, Yann; Baró, Isabelle; Charpentier, Flavien

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A), the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases. PMID:26834636

  12. Versatile configuration-encoded strategy for rapid synthesis of 1,5-polyol stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Friestad, Gregory K; Sreenilayam, Gopeekrishnan

    2010-11-05

    The isolated stereogenic centers of 1,5-polyol-containing natural products present challenges to synthesis and structure determination. To address this problem, a configuration-encoded strategy defines each configuration within a simple 4-(arylsulfonyl)butyronitrile building block, a repeat unit that is reliably and efficiently coupled in iterative fashion to afford 1,5-polyols of defined stereochemistry. For example, the C27-C40 subunit of tetrafibricin is prepared in five steps and 42% yield. This strategy is amenable to rapid and unambiguous preparation of all configurational permutations of 1,5-polyols with equal facility.

  13. RH 1.5D: Polarized multi-level radiative transfer with partial frequency distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Uitenbroek, Han

    2015-02-01

    RH 1.5D performs Zeeman multi-level non-local thermodynamical equilibrium calculations with partial frequency redistribution for an arbitrary amount of chemical species. Derived from the RH code and written in C, it calculates spectra from 3D, 2D or 1D atmospheric models on a column-by-column basis (or 1.5D). It includes optimization features to speed up or improve convergence, which are particularly useful in dynamic models of chromospheres. While one should be aware of its limitations, the calculation of spectra using the 1.5D or column-by-column is a good approximation in many cases, and generally allows for faster convergence and more flexible methods of improving convergence. RH 1.5D scales well to at least tens of thousands of CPU cores.

  14. 'GRC1.5': Uptower Gearbox Testing to Investigate Bearing Axial Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jonathan; Vaes, David; McNiff, Brian

    2016-02-16

    This presentation focuses on the investigation of bearing axial cracking using the GRC1.5 uptower gearbox. Topics covered include the testing options considered, the project goal, and current and near-term activities.

  15. Kv1.3/Kv1.5 heteromeric channels compromise pharmacological responses in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Villalonga, Nuria; Escalada, Artur; Vicente, Ruben; Sanchez-Tillo, Ester; Celada, Antonio; Solsona, Carles; Felipe, Antonio . E-mail: afelipe@ub.edu

    2007-01-26

    Voltage-dependent K{sup +} (Kv) channels are involved in the immune response. Kv1.3 is highly expressed in activated macrophages and T-effector memory cells of autoimmune disease patients. Macrophages are actively involved in T-cell activation by cytokine production and antigen presentation. However, unlike T-cells, macrophages express Kv1.5, which is resistant to Kv1.3-drugs. We demonstrate that mononuclear phagocytes express different Kv1.3/Kv1.5 ratios, leading to biophysically and pharmacologically distinct channels. Therefore, Kv1.3-based treatments to alter physiological responses, such as proliferation and activation, are impaired by Kv1.5 expression. The presence of Kv1.5 in the macrophagic lineage should be taken into account when designing Kv1.3-based therapies.

  16. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi; Petersen, Frederic; MacAulay, Nanna; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K+ current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells. By confocal microscopy combined with electrophysiology we demonstrate that PKC activation reduces Kv1.5 current, through a decrease in membrane expressed channels. AMPK activation was found to decrease the membrane expression in MDCK cells, but not in HL-1 cells and was furthermore shown to be dependent on co-expression of Nedd4–2 in Xenopus oocytes. These results indicate that Kv1.5 channels are regulated by both kinases, although through different molecular mechanisms in different cell systems. PMID:26043299

  17. Cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 mutations and cardiac arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Song, Weihua; Shou, Weinian

    2012-08-01

    As a major cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel isoform in the heart, the Nav1.5 channel is essential for cardiac action potential initiation and subsequent propagation throughout the heart. Mutations of Nav1.5 have been linked to a variety of cardiac diseases such as long QT syndrome (LQTs), Brugada syndrome, cardiac conduction defect, atrial fibrillation, and dilated cardiomyopathy. The mutagenesis approach and heterologous expression systems are most frequently used to study the function of this channel. This review focuses primarily on recent findings of Nav1.5 mutations associated with type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3) in particular. Understanding the functional changes of the Nav1.5 mutation may offer critical insight into the mechanism of long QT3 syndrome. In addition, this review provides the updated information on the current progress of using various experimental model systems to study primarily the long QT3 syndrome.

  18. Gold-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 1,5-Allenynes via Dual Activation of an Ene Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon; Morganelli, Philip; Luzung, Michael R.; Houk, K. N.; Toste, F. Dean

    2010-01-01

    A tris-triphenylphosphinegold oxonium tetrafluoroborate, [(Ph3PAu)3O]BF4, catalyzes the rearrangement of 1,5-allenynes to produce cross-conjugated trienes. Experimental and computational evidence shows that the ene reaction proceeds through a unique nucleophilic addition of an allene double bond to a cationic phosphinegold(I) complexed phosphinegold(I) acetylide, followed by a 1,5-hydrogen shift. PMID:18327944

  19. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  20. Measurement of Postmortem 1,5-anhydroglucitol in Vitreous Humor for Forensic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tomoyo; Yamasaki, Yukie; Kitao, Takashi; Miyaishi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    In forensic diagnosis, postmortem blood glucose is known to be susceptible to change after death. However, the 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect the mean blood glucose level for a short period of time. In this study, we compared the postmortem 1,5-AG concentrations in vitreous humor and CSF in 47 subjects to evaluate the utility of this concentration in the vitreous humor for forensic diagnosis. The postmortem 1,5-AG concentrations in vitreous humor (mean±SD: 20.2 ± 8.7 μg/mL) and CSF (16.8 ± 8.7 μg/mL) did not differ significantly and showed a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.87, p < 0.01). These results suggest that the vitreous humor 1,5-AG concentration provides useful information on the antemortem blood glucose level, in addition to the HbA1c value and the CSF 1,5-AG concentration.

  1. Inhibitory effects of neferine on Nav1.5 channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Huan; Xiao, Jun-Hua; Wang, Jia-Ling; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Tang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid in Lotus Plumule, was proved to have a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated the effects of neferine on Nav1.5 channels that are stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. We found that neferine potently and reversibly inhibited Nav1.5 currents in a concentration dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) being 26.15 μmol/L. The inhibitory effects of neferine on Nav1.5 currents were weaker than those of quinidine at the same concentration. The steady-state inactivation curve was significantly shifted towards hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of 30 μmol/L neferine, while the voltage-dependent activation was unaltered. Neferine prolonged the time to peak of activation, increased the inactivation time constants of Nav1.5 currents and markedly slowed the recovery from inactivation. The inhibitory effect of neferine could be potentiated in a frequency-dependent manner. These results suggested that neferine can block Nav1.5 channels under the open state and inactivating state and it is an open channel blocker of Nav1.5 channels.

  2. Putative binding sites for arachidonic acid on the human cardiac Kv1.5 channel

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia‐Yu; Ding, Wei‐Guang; Kojima, Akiko; Seto, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In human heart, the Kv1.5 channel contributes to repolarization of atrial action potentials. This study examined the electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms underlying arachidonic acid (AA)‐induced inhibition of the human Kv1.5 (hKv1.5) channel. Experimental Approach Site‐directed mutagenesis was conducted to mutate amino acids that reside within the pore domain of the hKv1.5 channel. Whole‐cell patch‐clamp method was used to record membrane currents through wild type and mutant hKv1.5 channels heterologously expressed in CHO cells. Computer docking simulation was conducted to predict the putative binding site(s) of AA in an open‐state model of the Kv1.5 channel. Key Results The hKv1.5 current was minimally affected at the onset of depolarization but was progressively reduced during depolarization by the presence of AA, suggesting that AA acts as an open‐channel blocker. AA itself affected the channel at extracellular sites independently of its metabolites and signalling pathways. The blocking effect of AA was attenuated at pH 8.0 but not at pH 6.4. The blocking action of AA developed rather rapidly by co‐expression of Kvβ1.3. The AA‐induced block was significantly attenuated in H463C, T480A, R487V, I502A, I508A, V512A and V516A, but not in T462C, A501V and L510A mutants of the hKv1.5 channel. Docking simulation predicted that H463, T480, R487, I508, V512 and V516 are potentially accessible for interaction with AA. Conclusions and Implications AA itself interacts with multiple amino acids located in the pore domain of the hKv1.5 channel. These findings may provide useful information for future development of selective blockers of hKv1.5 channels. PMID:26292661

  3. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium 1.5D modeling of red giant stars

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Mitchell E.; Short, C. Ian

    2014-05-20

    Spectra for two-dimensional (2D) stars in the 1.5D approximation are created from synthetic spectra of one-dimensional (1D) non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spherical model atmospheres produced by the PHOENIX code. The 1.5D stars have the spatially averaged Rayleigh-Jeans flux of a K3-4 III star while varying the temperature difference between the two 1D component models (ΔT {sub 1.5D}) and the relative surface area covered. Synthetic observable quantities from the 1.5D stars are fitted with quantities from NLTE and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) 1D models to assess the errors in inferred T {sub eff} values from assuming horizontal homogeneity and LTE. Five different quantities are fit to determine the T {sub eff} of the 1.5D stars: UBVRI photometric colors, absolute surface flux spectral energy distributions (SEDs), relative SEDs, continuum normalized spectra, and TiO band profiles. In all cases except the TiO band profiles, the inferred T {sub eff} value increases with increasing ΔT {sub 1.5D}. In all cases, the inferred T {sub eff} value from fitting 1D LTE quantities is higher than from fitting 1D NLTE quantities and is approximately constant as a function of ΔT {sub 1.5D} within each case. The difference between LTE and NLTE for the TiO bands is caused indirectly by the NLTE temperature structure of the upper atmosphere, as the bands are computed in LTE. We conclude that the difference between T {sub eff} values derived from NLTE and LTE modeling is relatively insensitive to the degree of the horizontal inhomogeneity of the star being modeled and largely depends on the observable quantity being fit.

  4. Sigma-1 receptors modulate neonatal Nav1.5 ion channels in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Aydar, Ebru; Stratton, Dan; Fraser, Scott P; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A; Palmer, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate a possible functional connection between sigma-1 receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in human breast cancer cells. The hypothesis was that sigma-1 drugs could alter the metastatic properties of breast cancer cells via the VGSC. Evidence was found for expression of sigma-1 receptor and neonatal Nav1.5 (nNav1.5) expression in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Sigma-1 drugs (SKF10047 and dimethyltryptamine) did not affect cell proliferation or migration but significantly reduced adhesion to the substrate. Silencing sigma-1 receptor expression by siRNA similarly reduced the adhesion. Blocking nNav1.5 activity with a polyclonal antibody (NESOpAb) targeting an extracellular region of nNav1.5 also reduced the adhesion in both cell lines. Importantly, the results of combined treatments with NESOpAb and a sigma-1 drug or sigma-1 siRNA suggested that both treatments targeted the same mechanism. The possibility was tested, therefore, that the sigma-1 receptor and the nNav1.5 channel formed a physical, functional complex. This suggestion was supported by the results of co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, application of sigma-1 drugs to the cells reduced the surface expression of nNav1.5 protein, which could explain how sigma-1 receptor activation could alter the metastatic behaviour of breast cancer cells. Overall, these results are consistent with the idea of a sigma-1 protein behaving like either a "chaperone" or a regulatory subunit associated with nNav1.5.

  5. Effects of dapoxetine on cloned Kv1.5 channels expressed in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Imju; Yoon, Shin Hee; Hahn, Sang June

    2012-07-01

    The effects of dapoxetine were examined on cloned Kv1.5 channels stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Dapoxetine decreased the peak amplitude of Kv1.5 currents and accelerated the decay rate of current inactivation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC ( 50 ) of 11.6 μM. Kinetic analysis of the time-dependent effects of dapoxetine on Kv1.5 current decay yielded the apparent association (k (+1 )) and dissociation (k (-1 )) rate constants of 2.8 μM(-1) s(-1) and 34.2 s(-1), respectively. The theoretical K ( D ) value, derived by k (-1 )/k (+1 ), yielded 12.3 μM, which was reasonably similar to the IC ( 50 ) value obtained from the concentration-response curve. Dapoxetine decreased the tail current amplitude and slowed the deactivation process of Kv1.5, which resulted in a tail crossover phenomenon. The block by dapoxetine is voltage-dependent and steeply increased at potentials between -10 and +10 mV, which correspond to the voltage range of channel activation. At more depolarized potentials, a weaker voltage dependence was observed (δ=0.31). Dapoxetine had no effect on the steady-state activation of Kv1.5 but shifted the steady-state inactivation curves in a hyperpolarizing direction. Dapoxetine produced a use-dependent block of Kv1.5 at frequencies of 1 and 2 Hz and slowed the time course for recovery of inactivation. These effects were reversible after washout of the drug. Our results indicate that dapoxetine blocks Kv1.5 currents by interacting with the channel in both the open and inactivated states of the channel.

  6. Correlation between micro-structural properties and ionic conductivity of Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, Chinnasamy R.; Yada, Chihiro; Rosciano, Fabio; Roling, Bernhard

    2011-08-01

    We report on the structure and lithium ion transport properties of Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 (LAGP). This material is commercially available and is prepared as amorphous powders via a flame spray technique called Flash Creation Method (FCM). We crystallize and sinter the amorphous powders at different temperatures in order to alter grain size and grain boundary properties. The structure is then characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AC impedance spectroscopy is used to study lithium ion transport. A maximum total conductivity of 2 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature is found for a sample sintered at 750 °C for 2 h. In order to distinguish between grain and grain boundary contributions to the impedance spectra, equivalent circuit fits are carried out. The results are analysed in the framework of the classical brick layer model and of a finite-element approach taking into account non-ideal grain contacts. Our experimental results for the grain and grain boundary resistances are in good agreement with the predications of the finite-element approach.

  7. Testing epitaxial Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Ge(001) electrodes in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Neggache, A.; Hauet, T.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Boulet, P.; Andrieu, S.; Bertran, F.; Le Fèvre, P.; Ohresser, P.; Devolder, T.; Mewes, C.

    2014-06-23

    The ability of the full Heusler alloy Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Ge(001) (CFG) to be a Half-Metallic Magnetic (HMM) material is investigated. Epitaxial CFG(001) layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The results obtained using electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism are consistent with the full Heusler structure. The pseudo-gap in the minority spin density of state typical in HMM is examined using spin-resolved photoemission. Interestingly, the spin polarization found to be negative at E{sub F} in equimolar CoFe(001) is observed to shift to positive values when inserting Ge in CoFe. However, no pseudo-gap is found at the Fermi level, even if moderate magnetization and low Gilbert damping are observed as expected in HMM materials. Magneto-transport properties in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions using CFG electrodes are investigated via spin and symmetry resolved photoemission.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of Cu-dispersed bi0.5sb1.5te3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Seo, Won-Seon; Cheong, Dong-Ik

    2012-01-05

    A novel and simple approach was used to disperse Cu nanoparticles uniformly in the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix, and the thermoelectric properties were evaluated for the Cu-dispersed Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3. Polycrystalline Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 powder prepared by encapsulated melting and grinding was dry-mixed with Cu(OAc)2 powder. After Cu(OAc)2 decomposition, the Cu-dispersed Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 was hot-pressed. Cu nanoparticles were well-dispersed in the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix and acted as effective phonon scattering centers. The electrical conductivity increased systematically with increasing level of Cu nanoparticle dispersion. All specimens had a positive Seebeck coefficient, which confirmed that the electrical charge was transported mainly by holes. The thermoelectric figure of merit was enhanced remarkably over a wide temperature range of 323-523 K.PACS: 72.15.Jf: 72.20.Pa.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of Cu-dispersed bi0.5sb1.5te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Seo, Won-Seon; Cheong, Dong-Ik

    2012-01-01

    A novel and simple approach was used to disperse Cu nanoparticles uniformly in the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix, and the thermoelectric properties were evaluated for the Cu-dispersed Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3. Polycrystalline Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 powder prepared by encapsulated melting and grinding was dry-mixed with Cu(OAc)2 powder. After Cu(OAc)2 decomposition, the Cu-dispersed Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 was hot-pressed. Cu nanoparticles were well-dispersed in the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix and acted as effective phonon scattering centers. The electrical conductivity increased systematically with increasing level of Cu nanoparticle dispersion. All specimens had a positive Seebeck coefficient, which confirmed that the electrical charge was transported mainly by holes. The thermoelectric figure of merit was enhanced remarkably over a wide temperature range of 323-523 K. PACS: 72.15.Jf: 72.20.Pa

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, characterization and antifungal activity of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Peng, Ju-Fang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zun-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Under microwave radiation, isomers 2-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-5-yl)phenols (3) and 2-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenols (4) were simultaneously obtained by the condensation of chromones and 3-aminopyrazoles. These two isomers were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS. In addition, a representative product 5-chloro-2-(2-methyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-5-yl)phenol (3e) was further conformed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The antifungal abilities of the obtained products 3 and 4 were evaluated against five phytopathogenic fungi (Cytospora sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani and Fusarium solani). The results revealed that 2-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-5-yl)phenol (3a) and 4-chloro-2-(2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenol (4e) exhibited good antifungal abilities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with the IC50 values of 24.90 and 28.28 μg/mL, respectively.

  11. 1,5-Benzodiazepines, a Novel Class of Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase Nonnucleoside Inhibitors ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nyanguile, Origène; Pauwels, Frederik; Van den Broeck, Walter; Boutton, Carlo W.; Quirynen, Ludo; Ivens, Tania; van der Helm, Liesbet; Vandercruyssen, Geneviève; Mostmans, Wendy; Delouvroy, Frédéric; Dehertogh, Pascale; Cummings, Maxwell D.; Bonfanti, Jean-Francois; Simmen, Kenneth A.; Raboisson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The exogenous control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication can be mediated through the inhibition of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity of NS5B. Small-molecule inhibitors of NS5B include nucleoside and nonnucleoside analogs. Here, we report the discovery of a novel class of HCV polymerase nonnucleoside inhibitors, 1,5-benzodiazepines (1,5-BZDs), identified by high-throughput screening of a library of small molecules. A fluorescence-quenching assay and X-ray crystallography revealed that 1,5-BZD 4a bound stereospecifically to NS5B next to the catalytic site. When introduced into replicons, mutations known to confer resistance against chemotypes that bind at this site were detrimental to inhibition by 1,5-BZD 7a. Using a panel of enzyme isolates that covered genotypes 1 to 6, we showed that compound 4a inhibited genotype 1 only. In mechanistic studies, 4a was found to inhibit the RdRp activity of NS5B noncompetitively with GTP and to inhibit the formation of the first phosphodiester bond during the polymerization cycle. The specificity for the HCV target was evaluated by profiling the 1,5-BZDs against other viral and human polymerases, as well as BZD receptors. PMID:18852280

  12. Project Morpheus: Morpheus 1.5A Lander Failure Investigation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devolites, Jennifer L.; Olansen, Jon B.; Munday, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 9, 2012 the Morpheus 1.5A vehicle crashed shortly after lift off from the Kennedy Space Center. The loss was limited to the vehicle itself which was pre-declared to be a test failure and not a mishap. The Morpheus project is demonstrating advanced technologies for in space and planetary surface vehicles including: autonomous flight control, landing site hazard identification and safe site selection, relative surface and hazard navigation, precision landing, modular reusable flight software, and high performance, non-toxic, cryogenic liquid Oxygen and liquid Methane integrated main engine and attitude control propulsion system. A comprehensive failure investigation isolated the fault to the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data path to the flight computer. Several improvements have been identified and implemented for the 1.5B and 1.5C vehicles.

  13. Power scaling of high-efficiency 1.5 μm cascaded Raman fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Supradeepa, V R; Nicholson, Jeffrey W

    2013-07-15

    High-power fiber lasers operating at the 1.5 μm wavelength region have attractive features, such as eye safety and atmospheric transparency, and cascaded Raman fiber lasers offer a convenient method to obtain high-power sources at these wavelengths. A limitation to power scaling, however, has been the lower conversion efficiency of these lasers. We recently introduced a high-efficiency architecture for high-power cascaded Raman fiber lasers applicable for 1.5 μm fiber lasers. Here we demonstrate further power scaling using this new architecture. Using numerical simulations, we identify the ideal operating conditions for the new architecture. We demonstrate a high-efficiency 1480 nm cascaded Raman fiber laser with an output power of 301 W, comparable to record power levels achieved with rare-earth-doped fiber lasers in the 1.5 μm wavelength region.

  14. Method of directly crystallizing a (Sm + Ti):Fe = 1:5 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieu, F. J.

    1984-04-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide a method of directly crystallizing samples of the Sm-Fe system onto a substrate. A more particular object of the invention is to provide such a method of synthesizing a metastable phase at a composition corresponding to a (Sm + Ti) to Fe atomic ratio of 1:5. Metastable in this context means that the phase formed at a 1:5 atomic ratio is not present in the pure Sm-Fe system. It has now been found that the aforementioned objectives can be attained by synthesizing by selectively thermalizing sputtering onto heated substrates with the addition of Ti as a stabilizing agent. Room temperature intrinsic coercive forces of 6.2 kOe and static energy products of 5.5 MG-Oe have been obtained in this Ti stabilized (Sm + Ti):Fe 1:5 compound.

  15. Integrating a 1.5 T MRI scanner with a 6 MV accelerator: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W; Overweg, J; Kok, J G M; Raaijmakers, A J E; Kerkhof, E M; van der Put, R W; Meijsing, I; Crijns, S P M; Benedosso, F; van Vulpen, M; de Graaff, C H W; Allen, J; Brown, K J

    2009-06-21

    At the UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands, we have constructed a prototype MRI accelerator. The prototype is a modified 6 MV Elekta (Crawley, UK) accelerator next to a modified 1.5 T Philips Achieva (Best, The Netherlands) MRI system. From the initial design onwards, modifications to both systems were aimed to yield simultaneous and unhampered operation of the MRI and the accelerator. Indeed, the simultaneous operation is shown by performing diagnostic quality 1.5 T MRI with the radiation beam on. No degradation of the performance of either system was found. The integrated 1.5 T MRI system and radiotherapy accelerator allow simultaneous irradiation and MR imaging. The full diagnostic imaging capacities of the MRI can be used; dedicated sequences for MRI-guided radiotherapy treatments will be developed. This proof of concept opens the door towards a clinical prototype to start testing MRI-guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) in the clinic.

  16. The preparation of 3-substituted-1,5-dibromopentanes as precursors to heteracyclohexanes

    PubMed Central

    Ringstrand, Bryan; Oltmanns, Martin; Batt, Jeffrey A; Jankowiak, Aleksandra; Denicola, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Summary The methodology to prepare 3-substituted 1,5-dibromopentanes I and their immediate precursors, which include 3-substituted 1,5-pentanediols VII or 4-substituted tetrahydropyrans VIII, is surveyed. Such dibromides I are important intermediates in the preparation of liquid crystalline derivatives containing 6-membered heterocyclic rings. Four dibromides 1a–1d containing simple alkyl and more complex fragments at the 3-position were prepared. 3-Propyl- and 3-pentyl-pentane-1,5-diol (2a,b) were prepared starting from either glutaconate or malonate diesters, while tetrahydropyrans 3c and 3d were obtained from tetrahydro-4H-pyran-4-one. The advantages and disadvantages of each route are discussed. Dibromides 1c and 1d were used to prepare sulfonium zwitterions 11c and 11d. PMID:21512596

  17. Spontaneously active NaV1.5 sodium channels may underlie odor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Vincent E

    2016-08-01

    The olfactory system is remarkably sensitive to airborne odor molecules, but precisely how very low odor concentrations bordering on just a few molecules per olfactory sensory neuron can trigger graded changes in firing is not clear. This report reexamines signaling in olfactory sensory neurons in light of the recent account of NaV1.5 sodium channel-mediated spontaneous firing. Using a model of spontaneous channel activity, the study shows how even submillivolt changes in membrane potential elicited by odor are expected to cause meaningful changes in NaV1.5-dependent firing. The results suggest that the random window currents of NaV1.5 channels may underpin not only spontaneous firing in olfactory sensory neurons but the cellular response to odor as well, thereby ensuring the robustness and sensitivity of signaling that is especially important for low odor concentrations.

  18. Astrocytes within multiple sclerosis lesions upregulate sodium channel Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Black, Joel A; Newcombe, Jia; Waxman, Stephen G

    2010-03-01

    Astrocytes are prominent participants in the response of the central nervous system to injury, including neuroinflammatory insults. Rodent astrocytes in vitro have been shown to express voltage-gated sodium channels in a dynamic manner, with a switch in expression of tetrodotoxin-sensitive to tetrodotoxin-resistant channels in reactive astrocytes. However, the expression of sodium channels in human astrocytes has not been studied, and it is not known whether there are changes in the expression of sodium channels in reactive astrocytes of the human central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate a focal and robust upregulation of sodium channel Nav1.5 in reactive astrocytes at the borders of, and within, active and chronic multiple sclerosis lesions. Nav1.5 was only detectable at very low levels in astrocytes within multiple sclerosis macroscopically normal-appearing white matter or in normal control brain. Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.6 showed little or no expression in astrocytes within normal control tissue and limited upregulation in active multiple sclerosis lesions. Nav1.5 was also expressed at high levels in astrocytes in tissue surrounding new and old cerebrovascular accidents and brain tumours. These results demonstrate the expression of Nav1.5 in human astrocytes and show that Nav1.5 expression is dynamic in these cells. Our observations suggest that the upregulated expression of Nav1.5 in astrocytes may provide a compensatory mechanism, which supports sodium/potassium pump-dependent ionic homoeostasis in areas of central nervous system injury.

  19. Discovery of MK-1832, a Kv1.5 inhibitor with improved selectivity and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wolkenberg, Scott E; Nolt, M Brad; Bilodeau, Mark T; Trotter, B Wesley; Manley, Peter J; Kett, Nathan R; Nanda, Kausik K; Wu, Zhicai; Cato, Matthew J; Kane, Stefanie A; Kiss, Laszlo; Spencer, Robert H; Wang, Jixin; Lynch, Joseph J; Regan, Christopher P; Stump, Gary L; Li, Bing; White, Rebecca; Yeh, Suzie; Dinsmore, Christopher J; Lindsley, Craig W; Hartman, George D

    2017-02-15

    Selective inhibition of Kv1.5, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current, IKur, has been pursued as a treatment for atrial fibrillation. Here we describe the discovery of MK-1832, a Kv1.5 inhibitor with improved selectivity versus the off-target current IKs, whose inhibition has been associated with ventricular proarrhythmia. MK-1832 exhibits improved selectivity for IKur over IKs (>3000-fold versus 70-fold for MK-0448), consistent with an observed larger window between atrial and ventricular effects in vivo (>1800-fold versus 210-fold for MK-0448). MK-1832 also exhibits an improved preclinical pharmacokinetic profile consistent with projected once daily dosing in humans.

  20. EuNi5InH1.5–x (x = 0–1.5): Hydrogen induced structural and magnetic transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Bigun, Inna; Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudryk, Yaroslav; ...

    2017-01-30

    The new quaternary hydride EuNi5InH1.5 has been obtained by hydrogenation of the intermetallic parent EuNi5In under extremely mild conditions, hence, at room temperature and low hydrogen pressure. Hydrogenation at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures allows for the growth of large crystals, which is a rare observation for intermetallic hydrides. EuNi5InH1.5 crystallizes in its own structure type (hP17, P6¯m2, a = 4.9437(6), c = 10.643(1) Å) with a unique arrangement of the intermetallic host. The hydrogen atoms prefer Ni-surrounded positions, occupying {EuNi3} and {Eu2Ni2} tetrahedral voids in the structure. Upon hydrogenation of EuNi5In an anisotropic volume expansion accompanied with a decreasemore » of symmetry is observed. Magnetic measurements reveal antiferromagnetic ordering in the hydride below 4 K and indicate an intermediate +II/+III oxidation state for Eu both in the intermetallic phase and the hydride. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirms the existence of the two different oxidation states of Eu. The hydrogenation does not affect the oxidation state of Eu and the type of magnetic ordering, but exerts a strong influence on the transition temperature, crystal structure, mechanical and electrical properties. Crystallographic analysis suggests that Eu(II) and Eu(III) do not order but rather mix homogeneously on crystallographic sites. Electronic structure calculations reveal the metallic character of the hydride with several different types of chemical bonding interactions being present in the compound ranging from the formally ionic Eu–H to covalent Ni–H and delocalized metal–metal. As a result, geometry optimization confirm the thermodynamic instability of the intermetallic host lattice for the hydride and supports a transformation into the parental structure as observed experimentally.« less

  1. EuNi 5 InH 1.5-x (x = 0–1.5): hydrogen induced structural and magnetic transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Bigun, Inna; Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudryk, Yaroslav; ...

    2017-01-01

    The new quaternary hydride EuNi5InH1.5 has been obtained by hydrogenation of the intermetallic parent EuNi5In under extremely mild conditions, hence, at room temperature and low hydrogen pressure. Hydrogenation at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures allows for the growth of large crystals, which is a rare observation for intermetallic hydrides. EuNi5InH1.5 crystallizes in its own structure type (hP17, P6¯m2, a = 4.9437(6), c = 10.643(1) Å) with a unique arrangement of the intermetallic host. The hydrogen atoms prefer Ni-surrounded positions, occupying {EuNi3} and {Eu2Ni2} tetrahedral voids in the structure. Upon hydrogenation of EuNi5In an anisotropic volume expansion accompanied with a decreasemore » of symmetry is observed. Magnetic measurements reveal antiferromagnetic ordering in the hydride below 4 K and indicate an intermediate +II/+III oxidation state for Eu both in the intermetallic phase and the hydride. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirms the existence of the two different oxidation states of Eu. The hydrogenation does not affect the oxidation state of Eu and the type of magnetic ordering, but exerts a strong influence on the transition temperature, crystal structure, mechanical and electrical properties. Crystallographic analysis suggests that Eu(II) and Eu(III) do not order but rather mix homogeneously on crystallographic sites. Electronic structure calculations reveal the metallic character of the hydride with several different types of chemical bonding interactions being present in the compound ranging from the formally ionic Eu–H to covalent Ni–H and delocalized metal–metal. As a result, geometry optimization confirm the thermodynamic instability of the intermetallic host lattice for the hydride and supports a transformation into the parental structure as observed experimentally.« less

  2. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated timing system SSDR 1.5.3

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedwald, J.; Van Aersau, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-08-26

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Timing System, WBS 1.5.3 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The Integrated Timing System provides all temporally-critical hardware triggers to components and equipment in other NIF systems.

  3. Serving Generation 1.5 Learners in the University Writing Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thonus, Terese

    2003-01-01

    Explains how a key academic support service--the university writing center, can assist Generation 1.5 students (long-term U.S. residents and English language learners fluent in spoken English) as they develop their writing skills. (Author/VWL)

  4. [PAL-1 5G/4G polymorphism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Savov, A; Andonova, S; Tanev, D; Robeva, R; Marincheva, Ts; Tomova, A; Kumanov, Ph; Rashkov, R; Kolarov, Zl

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a connective tissue disease affecting predominantly women that has been widely associated with obstetric complications. Inherited thrombophilias are significant risk factors for pregnancy loss, but their role in patients with SLE, and especially in those without concomitant secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to study PAI-1 5G/4G polymorphism in women with lupus. A total of 103 SLE patients as well as 69 healthy volunteers were genotyped for PAI-1 5G/4G (rs1799889). No significant differences in the PAI-1 5G/4G genotype prevalence between patients and controls were found. After exclusion of the women with secondary APS, the frequency of pregnancies and spontaneous abortions, as well as the number of live births were similar in the studied patients with different PAI-1 genotype (p> 0.05). PAI-1 5G/4G polymorphism was not significantly related to any of the lupus ACR criteria or disease activity (p > 0.05), but it could influence the platelet number in the studied patients (263.52 ± 91.10 [5G/5G genotype] versus 210.12 ± 71.79 [4G/4G genotype], p = 0.023). In conclusion, our results showed that PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism did not worsen the reproductive outcome in SLE women without secondary APS.

  5. The Language Socialization and Identity Negotiations of Generation 1.5 Korean-Canadian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean; Duff, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on a larger longitudinal multiple-case study of Generation 1.5 Korean-Canadians, explores two female students' experiences in high school and then university. Foregrounding aspects of language socialization (Duff & Hornberger, 2008) and identity (Norton, 2000) in language-learning and use, the study examines the contextual…

  6. Suspended between Languages: Stories from the Biliterate Lives of Hmong Generation 1.5 University Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huster, Kimberli A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions are enrolling increasing numbers of long-term immigrant students, who belong to Generation 1.5. Essentially beginning college while still in the process of learning English, these students often struggle in higher education, and they present new challenges to college writing instructors. This study explored the…

  7. Alfvén Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere: 1.5D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-02-01

    Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion-neutral collisions.

  8. Cavity enhanced 1.5μm LED with silicon as a hole injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Xia, Zhenyang; Cho, SangJune; Zhao, Deyin; Zhang, Huilong; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Yin, Xin; Kim, Munho; Seo, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jaeseong; Wang, Xudong; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-03-01

    Here we report the demonstration of a Si/InAlGaAs/InP PIN cavity enhanced LED around 1.5 um by using membrane transfer method. The silicon layer is acting not only as the optical guiding layer but also the hole injection layer. The new hybrid integrated LED could be further developed as laser source for silicon photonics.

  9. Growth of epitaxial orthorhombic YO1.5-substituted HfO2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takao; Katayama, Kiliha; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    YO1.5-substituted HfO2 thin films with various substitution amounts were grown on (100) YSZ substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method directly from the vapor phase. The epitaxial growth of film with different YO1.5 amounts was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction method. Wide-area reciprocal lattice mapping measurements were performed to clarify the crystal symmetry of films. The formed phases changed from low-symmetry monoclinic baddeleyite to high-symmetry tetragonal/cubic fluorite phases through an orthorhombic phase as the YO1.5 amount increased from 0 to 0.15. The additional annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates that the orthorhombic phase has polar structure. This means that the direct growth by vapor is of polar orthorhombic HfO2-based film. Moreover, high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the film with a YO1.5 amount of 0.07 with orthorhombic structure at room temperature only exhibited a structural phase transition to tetragonal phase above 450 °C. This temperature is much higher than the reported maximum temperature of 200 °C to obtain ferroelectricity as well as the expected temperature for real device application. The growth of epitaxial orthorhombic HfO2-based film helps clarify the nature of ferroelectricity in HfO2-based films (186 words/200 words).

  10. 13. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN 1.5 mi. NW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN 1.5 mi. NW of Amory. St. Louis and San Francisco RR bridge. Steam locomotive and coal train cross bridge on 10 August 1921. Credit: Owned by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., photographer. Copied by Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  11. 6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 192. Shows center turn span and part of one fixed span. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  12. 22. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot turn span, submitted by the Wisconsin Bridge & Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin 8 May 1914. Act size: approx. 23x34 in. Credit: Columbus & Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  13. 19. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of Ms. 50 Map of Tombigbee River at Waverly, 'Proposed Crossing.' 12 May 1888. Credt: Columbus & Greenville, RR, Columbus, Ms. DWG S-3-343. Sarcone Photography, ColumbuS, Ms. Sept 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  14. 5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., after bridge collapsed in 1973. Shows broken turn span and overturned center pier. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  15. 30. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Detail: Turn machinery. DWG S-3-325. Contr. #7236. Lower right quarter of sheet: Lateral elevation of turn table. July 1914. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, MS. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  16. 2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ALABAMA, PICKENS, CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SE. David J. Kaminsky, Architecturl Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  17. 3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE RAILROAD BRIDGE AND FERRY 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Copy of photo by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., 1927. West ferry landing ferry barge, andcar in foreground. Alabama, Tennessee & Northern (later Frisco) RR bridge in background. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  18. 29. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5. mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5. mi. S of MS. 50 Detail: Turn machinery. DWG S-3-325. Contr. #7236. Lower right quarter of sheet: Lateral elevation of turn table. July 1914. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  19. 21. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of Ms. 50 Proposed 218-foot turn span, design #2339 of Virginia Bridge and Iron Co., Roanoke, Va. 13 May 1914. Act. size: 16x11 in. Credit: Columbus & Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  20. 31. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Detail: Turn machinery. DWG S-3-325. Contr. #7236. Upper left quarter of sheet: plan and longitudinal elevation of Wedges. July 1914. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978 - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  1. 4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE COLLAPSED RAILROAD BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17. Western half of collapsed Alabama, Tenn. & Northern RR. Bridge Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., photographer, 1973. Copy by Sarcone Photography, Columbs, Ms Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  2. 1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ALABAMA, PICKENS CO., COCHRANE HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.5 miles N. from Cochrane on Ala. route 17 Aerial view of Milner bridge, from SW. David J. Kaminsky, Architectural Photography, Atlanta Ga. Aug 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  3. 1.5 °C and climate research after the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, Mike

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement contains an ambition to limit global warming to no more than 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, changing the context for policy-relevant research and extending a challenge to the IPCC and researchers.

  4. 27. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO. WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. RAILROAD, RR. BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO. WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Stress Sheet of 1888 Bridge: Conroy & Sinks, Consulting Engineers, Chicago. July 21, 1910. DWG #978. Act. size around border: 18x11 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  5. Isolation of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase from Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is a multi-functional enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of CO2 and O2 in photosynthesis and photorespiration, respectively. As the rate-limiting step in photosynthesis, improving the catalytic properties of Rubisco has long been viewed as a...

  6. The Experience of Arranged Marriage by the 1.5 Generation Asian Indian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the experiences of arranged marriage by the 1.5 Generation Asian Indian college students. The researcher identified 10 participants who met the following criteria: (a) were born in India to Asian Indian parents, (b) migrated to the United States under the age of 15, (c) were college students between the…

  7. Using CONTENT 1.5 to analyze an SIR model for childhood infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rui; He, Daihai

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we introduce a standard software CONTENT 1.5 for analysis of dynamical systems. A simple model for childhood infectious diseases is used as an example. The detailed steps to obtain the bifurcation structures of the system are given. These bifurcation structures can be used to explain the observed dynamical transition in measles incidences.

  8. Linguistic Identities and Experiences of Generation 1.5 Teacher Candidates: Race Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faez, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    This article recounts the experiences of six Generation 1.5 teacher candidates (TCs) as they grapple with the significance of their racial identity in asserting their native-English-speaking status. A one-year qualitative case study, it draws on critical race theory and positioning theory to elucidate how native-English-speaking status is linked…

  9. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  10. Crossing Borders: Generation 1.5's Journey from Alien to Master

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Eunjyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies various challenges that a 1.5 generation immigrant faced in a mainstream college composition class and reports on how he constructed his social presence and became a successful multilingual writer. The findings of this study would help higher education institutions more effectively serve the growing population of ESL students…

  11. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  12. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  13. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  14. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  15. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  16. 12 CFR 1.5 - Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safe and sound banking practices; credit... TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.5 Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required. (a) A national bank shall adhere to safe and sound banking practices and the specific requirements of this...

  17. 12 CFR 1.5 - Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe and sound banking practices; credit... TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.5 Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required. (a) A national bank shall adhere to safe and sound banking practices and the specific requirements of this...

  18. 12 CFR 1.5 - Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safe and sound banking practices; credit... TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.5 Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required. (a) A national bank shall adhere to safe and sound banking practices and the specific requirements of this...

  19. ALFVÉN WAVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE: 1.5D MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.

    2016-02-01

    Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion–neutral collisions.

  20. 12 CFR 1.5 - Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safe and sound banking practices; credit... TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.5 Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required. (a) A national bank shall adhere to safe and sound banking practices and the specific requirements of this...

  1. 12 CFR 1.5 - Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safe and sound banking practices; credit... TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.5 Safe and sound banking practices; credit information required. (a) A national bank shall adhere to safe and sound banking practices and the specific requirements of this...

  2. Multiple conformations are a conserved and regulatory feature of the RB1 5′ UTR

    PubMed Central

    Kutchko, Katrina M.; Sanders, Wes; Ziehr, Ben; Phillips, Gabriela; Solem, Amanda; Halvorsen, Matthew; Weeks, Kevin M.; Moorman, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Folding to a well-defined conformation is essential for the function of structured ribonucleic acids (RNAs) like the ribosome and tRNA. Structured elements in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are known to control expression. The importance of unstructured regions adopting multiple conformations, however, is still poorly understood. High-resolution SHAPE-directed Boltzmann suboptimal sampling of the Homo sapiens Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) 5′ UTR yields three distinct conformations compatible with the experimental data. Private single nucleotide variants (SNVs) identified in two patients with retinoblastoma each collapse the structural ensemble to a single but distinct well-defined conformation. The RB1 5′ UTRs from Bos taurus (cow) and Trichechus manatus latirostris (manatee) are divergent in sequence from H. sapiens (human) yet maintain structural compatibility with high-probability base pairs. SHAPE chemical probing of the cow and manatee RB1 5′ UTRs reveals that they also adopt multiple conformations. Luciferase reporter assays reveal that 5′ UTR mutations alter RB1 expression. In a traditional model of disease, causative SNVs disrupt a key structural element in the RNA. For the subset of patients with heritable retinoblastoma-associated SNVs in the RB1 5′ UTR, the absence of multiple structures is likely causative of the cancer. Our data therefore suggest that selective pressure will favor multiple conformations in eukaryotic UTRs to regulate expression. PMID:25999316

  3. Regulation of the NaV1.5 cytoplasmic domain by calmodulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabelli, Sandra B.; Boto, Agedi; Kuhns, Victoria Halperin; Bianchet, Mario A.; Farinelli, Federica; Aripirala, Srinivas; Yoder, Jesse; Jakoncic, Jean; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Amzel, L. Mario

    2014-11-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) underlie the rapid upstroke of action potentials in excitable tissues. Binding of channel-interactive proteins is essential for controlling fast and long-term inactivation. In the structure of the complex of the carboxy-terminal portion of Nav1.5 (CTNav1.5) with calmodulin (CaM)-Mg2+ reported here, both CaM lobes interact with the CTNav1.5. On the basis of the differences between this structure and that of an inactivated complex, we propose that the structure reported here represents a non-inactivated state of the CTNav, that is, the state that is poised for activation. Electrophysiological characterization of mutants further supports the importance of the interactions identified in the structure. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that CaM binds to CTNav1.5 with high affinity. The results of this study provide unique insights into the physiological activation and the pathophysiology of Nav channels.

  4. NaV1.5 and interacting proteins in human arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Ludovic; Shy, Diana; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-07-01

    Evaluation of: Noorman M, Hakim S, Kessler E et al. Remodeling of the cardiac sodium channel, connexin43, and plakoglobin at the intercalated disk in patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Heart Rhythm 10(3), 412-419 (2013). Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is a heart muscle disease characterized by a progressive replacement of the ventricular myocardium with adipose and fibrous tissue. This disease is often associated with mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins in the majority of patients. Based on results obtained from recent experimental models, a disturbed distribution of gap junction proteins and cardiac sodium channels may also be observed in AC phenotypes, secondary to desmosomal dysfunction. The study from Noorman et al. examined heart sections from patients diagnosed with AC and performed immunohistochemical analyses of N-cadherin, PKP2, PKG, Cx43 and the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5. Altered expression/distribution of Cx43, PKG and NaV1.5 was found in most cases of patients with AC. The altered expression and/or distribution of NaV1.5 channels in AC hearts may play a mechanistic role in the arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death in AC patients. Thus, NaV1.5 should be considered as a supplemental element in the evaluation of risk stratification and management strategies. However, additional experiments are required to clearly understand the mechanisms leading to AC phenotypes.

  5. Regulation of the NaV1.5 cytoplasmic domain by calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Gabelli, Sandra B; Boto, Agedi; Kuhns, Victoria Halperin; Bianchet, Mario A; Farinelli, Federica; Aripirala, Srinivas; Yoder, Jesse; Jakoncic, Jean; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Amzel, L Mario

    2014-11-05

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)) underlie the rapid upstroke of action potentials in excitable tissues. Binding of channel-interactive proteins is essential for controlling fast and long-term inactivation. In the structure of the complex of the carboxy-terminal portion of Na(v)1.5 (CTNa(v)1.5) with calmodulin (CaM)-Mg(2+) reported here, both CaM lobes interact with the CTNa(v)1.5. On the basis of the differences between this structure and that of an inactivated complex, we propose that the structure reported here represents a non-inactivated state of the CTNa(v), that is, the state that is poised for activation. Electrophysiological characterization of mutants further supports the importance of the interactions identified in the structure. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that CaM binds to CTNa(v)1.5 with high affinity. The results of this study provide unique insights into the physiological activation and the pathophysiology of Na(v) channels.

  6. 43 CFR 3425.1-5 - Leasing outside coal production regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leasing outside coal production regions... Leasing on Application § 3425.1-5 Leasing outside coal production regions. A lease sale may be held in response to an application under this subpart if the application covers coal deposits which are...

  7. 43 CFR 3425.1-5 - Leasing outside coal production regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leasing outside coal production regions... Leasing on Application § 3425.1-5 Leasing outside coal production regions. A lease sale may be held in response to an application under this subpart if the application covers coal deposits which are...

  8. 43 CFR 3425.1-5 - Leasing outside coal production regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leasing outside coal production regions... Leasing on Application § 3425.1-5 Leasing outside coal production regions. A lease sale may be held in response to an application under this subpart if the application covers coal deposits which are...

  9. 43 CFR 3425.1-5 - Leasing outside coal production regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leasing outside coal production regions... Leasing on Application § 3425.1-5 Leasing outside coal production regions. A lease sale may be held in response to an application under this subpart if the application covers coal deposits which are...

  10. Reporting sodium channel activity using calcium flux: pharmacological promiscuity of cardiac Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Li, Min

    2015-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are essential for membrane excitability and represent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. Recent reports suggest that these channels, e.g., Nav1.3 and Nav1.5, are inhibited by multiple structurally distinctive small molecule drugs. These studies give reason to wonder whether these drugs collectively target a single site or multiple sites in manifesting such pharmacological promiscuity. We thus investigate the pharmacological profile of Nav1.5 through systemic analysis of its sensitivity to diverse compound collections. Here, we report a dual-color fluorescent method that exploits a customized Nav1.5 [calcium permeable Nav channel, subtype 5 (SoCal5)] with engineered-enhanced calcium permeability. SoCal5 retains wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 pharmacological profiles. WT SoCal5 and SoCal5 with the local anesthetics binding site mutated (F1760A) could be expressed in separate cells, each with a different-colored genetically encoded calcium sensor, which allows a simultaneous report of compound activity and site dependence. The pharmacological profile of SoCal5 reveals a hit rate (>50% inhibition) of around 13% at 10 μM, comparable to that of hERG. The channel activity is susceptible to blockage by known drugs and structurally diverse compounds. The broad inhibition profile is highly dependent on the F1760 residue in the inner cavity, which is a residue conserved among all nine subtypes of Nav channels. Both promiscuity and dependence on F1760 seen in Nav1.5 were replicated in Nav1.4. Our evidence of a broad inhibition profile of Nav channels suggests a need to consider off-target effects on Nav channels. The site-dependent promiscuity forms a foundation to better understand Nav channels and compound interactions.

  11. [Indicators of glycemic control --hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG)].

    PubMed

    Sato, Asako

    2014-01-01

    The clinical goal of diabetes management is a good quality of life that is not different from that of a healthy subjects. To fulfill the goal, prevention of complications is needed under good glycemic control. Although blood glucose measurement is essential for glycemic control, there are diurnal variations in blood glucose levels. An indicator of long-term glycemic control is necessary. HbA1c is the gold standard measurement for the assessment of glycemic control, and worldwide large scale clinical studies of diabetes complications have greatly valued HbA1c as an indicator of glycemic control. In addition, recently, HbA1c was recommended for use in the diagnosis of diabetes in Japan and in the United States. Although HbA1c is used widely and internationally, international standardization of the HbA1c value has not been achieved. In Japan, from April 2014, it has been decided to adopt the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) value, which is used by many countries globally, as the first step toward internationalization. Recently, cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients has been increasing in Japan. Relationships between postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease have been noted. Therefore, the correction of postprandial hyperglycemia is one of the important goals of glycemic control to prevent cardiovascular disease. HbA1c or glycated albumin (GA) results from the glycation of hemoglobin or serum albumin and represents 2-month or 2-week glycemia, respectively. In addition, the glycation speed of GA is ten times faster than HbA1c, so GA is likely to reflect the variation in blood glucose and postprandial hyperglycemia in combination with HbA1c and its value. 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) is a marker of glycemia-induced glycosuria, since reabsorption of filtered 1,5-AG in the proximal tubule is competitively inhibited by glucose. It is an indicator to identify rapid changes in hyperglycemia. Understanding the characteristics of the

  12. EuNi 5 InH 1.5-x (x = 0–1.5): hydrogen induced structural and magnetic transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bigun, Inna; Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Hlova, Ihor; Dzevenko, Mariya; Havela, Ladislav; Kalychak, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2017-01-01

    The new quaternary hydride EuNi5InH1.5 has been obtained by hydrogenation of the intermetallic parent EuNi5In under extremely mild conditions, hence, at room temperature and low hydrogen pressure. Hydrogenation at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures allows for the growth of large crystals, which is a rare observation for intermetallic hydrides. EuNi5InH1.5 crystallizes in its own structure type (hP17, P6¯m2, a = 4.9437(6), c = 10.643(1) Å) with a unique arrangement of the intermetallic host. The hydrogen atoms prefer Ni-surrounded positions, occupying {EuNi3} and {Eu2Ni2} tetrahedral voids in the structure. Upon hydrogenation of EuNi5In an anisotropic volume expansion accompanied with a decrease of symmetry is observed. Magnetic measurements reveal antiferromagnetic ordering in the hydride below 4 K and indicate an intermediate +II/+III oxidation state for Eu both in the intermetallic phase and the hydride. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirms the existence of the two different oxidation states of Eu. The hydrogenation does not affect the oxidation state of Eu and the type of magnetic ordering, but exerts a strong influence on the transition temperature, crystal structure, mechanical and electrical properties. Crystallographic analysis suggests that Eu(II) and Eu(III) do not order but rather mix homogeneously on crystallographic sites. Electronic structure calculations reveal the metallic character of the hydride with several different types of chemical bonding interactions being present in the compound ranging from the formally ionic Eu–H to covalent Ni–H and delocalized metal–metal. As a result, geometry optimization confirm the thermodynamic instability of the intermetallic host lattice for the hydride and supports a transformation into the parental structure as observed experimentally.

  13. The excellent performance of nest-like oxygen-deficient Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 applied in activated carbon air-cathode microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Tian, Pei; Li, Kexun; Ge, Baochao; Liu, Di; Liu, Yi; Yang, Tingting; Ren, Rong

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the performance of nano spinel nest-like oxygen-deficient Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 doping activated carbon (AC) as air cathode in microbial fuel cell (MFC). The Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized via hydrothermal method and subsequent annealed. The maximum power density (MPD) of MFC with oxygen-deficient Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 modified cathode was 1928±18mWm(-2), which was 1.53 times higher than the bare cathode. The electrochemical studies showed that Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 doping AC exhibited higher kinetic activity and lower resistance. The mechanism of oxygen reduction for the catalyst was a four electron pathway. The oxygen deficient of Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 played an important role in catalytic activity. So Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 would be an excellent promising catalyst for ORR in MFC.

  14. Gigabit-class optical wireless communication system at indoor distances (1.5 ÷ 4 m).

    PubMed

    Cossu, Giulio; Ali, Wajahat; Corsini, Raffaele; Ciaramella, Ernesto

    2015-06-15

    In this paper we experimentally realized bidirectional optical wireless communication (OWC) link using four channel visible LED board exploiting wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for the downlink and infrared LED for uplink. We achieved greater than 5 Gbit/s data rate at common indoor distance (1.5 to 4 m) for downlink and 1.5 Gbit/s for uplink using commercially available LEDs. We achieved these results after a careful choice of the LED emission wavelengths and the optical filter spectra. Moreover, we investigate the optimal LED working current and the optimal modulation depth. The bit error ratios of all the channels were maintained lower than the FEC limit (3.8·10(-3)).

  15. 1,5-Benzodiazepin-2-ones: Investigation of a Family of Photoluminescent Materials.

    PubMed

    Mtiraoui, Hasan; Gharbi, Rafik; Msaddek, Moncef; Bretonnière, Yann; Andraud, Chantal; Sabot, Cyrille; Renard, Pierre-Yves

    2016-06-03

    Photoluminescent materials, that are now ubiquitous in our everyday life, have particularly attracted the attention of the scientific community these past few years due to potential important applications such as in bioimaging, sensing, or optoelectronics. In this context, relatively few different families of molecules have been reported to exhibit fluorescence in the aggregated or solid-state through the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) photochemical process. The preparation and subsequent determination of photochemical properties of an underexplored family of 1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one derivatives are reported. From these data and X-ray diffraction analysis study, it emerged that photoluminescence (in the range 520-655 nm) was mostly attributed to ESIPT. The photoluminescent potential of 1,5-benzodiazepin-2-ones, their facile access, and functionalization were demonstrated through the preparation of two fluorogenic probes for the selective detection of biothiols.

  16. Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense variant surface glycoprotein LiTat 1.5.

    PubMed

    Van Nieuwenhove, L; Rogé, S; Lejon, V; Guisez, Y; Büscher, P

    2012-05-09

    At present, all available diagnostic antibody detection tests for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis are based on predominant variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), such as VSG LiTat 1.5. During investigations aiming at replacement of the native VSGs by recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, the sequence of VSG LiTat 1.5 was derived from cDNA and direct N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Characterization of the VSG based on cysteine distribution in the amino acid sequence revealed an unusual cysteine pattern identical to that of VSG Kinu 1 of T. b. brucei. Even though both VSGs lack the third of four conserved cysteines typical for type A N-terminal domains, they can be classified as type A.

  17. Diseases caused by mutations in Nav1.5 interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Kyle, John W; Makielski, Jonathan C

    2014-12-01

    Sodium current in the heart flows principally through the pore protein NaV1.5, which is part of a complex of interacting proteins that serve both to target and localize the complex in the membrane, and to modulate function by such post-translational modifications as phosphorylation and nitrosylation. Multiple mutations in seven different NaV1.5 interacting proteins have been associated with dysfunctional sodium current and inherited cardiac diseases, including long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, atrial fibrillation, and cardiomyopathy, as well as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Mutations in as yet unidentified interacting proteins may account for cardiac disease for which a genetic basis has not yet been established. Characterizing the mechanisms by which these mutations cause disease may give insight into etiologies and treatments of more common acquired cardiac disease, such as ischemia and heart failure.

  18. Acoustic properties of bovine cancellous bone from 0.5 to 1.5 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Roh, Heui-Seol; Yoon, S. W.

    2002-05-01

    Most previous studies using ultrasound for the diagnosis of osteoporosis have employed ultrasound in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1 MHz. Acoustic properties of 14 defatted bovine cancellous bone specimens were investigated in vitro. Speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) were measured using two matched pairs of transducers with the center frequencies of 1 and 2.25 MHz, respectively, in order to cover a broad frequency range from 0.5 to 1.5 MHz. In this frequency range, SOS and BUA show significant linear positive correlations with apparent bone density. These results suggest that the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.5 MHz may also be useful in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. [Work supported by BK21 Program, KRF (KRF-2000-015-DP0718), and KOSEF (KOSEF-2000-0238-100) in Korea.] a)For (Biomedical Ultrasound/Bioresponse to Vibration) Best Student Paper Award.

  19. 24. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Southern R'wy; Co., in Ms. Present and proposed draw bridge over Tombigbee River.' Elevations and Plan, with falsework. Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisc., DWG #S. 3-303. Last Revision, Jan. 11 1915. Act. size: 23x34 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville Rr, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  20. Attenuation of Cardiovascular Response with Lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg and Labetalol 10 mg

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    5 ug/ml). Low dose 7 IV Lidocaine has been demonstrated to decrease opioid requirements for post operative pain , and also has been shown to reduce...means of alleviating acute and chronic pain . As adjuncts to general anesthesia, infusions of lidocaine have been used to supplement thiopental and...REPORIV DOC~UMENTAT;O(.)N PAGE - - Ir . . . .. .. . . . . . . - 1990 THESISiEGGEREMM Attenuation of Cardiovascular Response with Lidocaine N 1.5 mg

  1. Topical levofloxacin 1.5% overcomes in vitro resistance in rabbit keratitis models

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Regis P.; Romanowski, Eric G.; Mah, Francis S.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Gordon, Y. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether topical levofloxacin 1.5% will successfully treat both levofloxacin-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in rabbit keratitis models. Methods For levofloxacin-resistant and susceptible SA, respectively, 32 New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were intrastromally injected with 1000 colony-forming units (CFU). After 4 hr, the corneas of eight rabbits were homogenized to determine onset CFU/ml. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into three treatments: levofloxacin, vancomycin (cefazolin for levofloxacin-susceptible SA) and saline. Twenty-one drops were administered over 5 hr. One hour post-treatment, the corneas were homogenized for CFU/ml. For levofloxacin-resistant and susceptible PA, respectively, 32 NZW rabbits were intrastromally injected with 1000 CFU. After 16 hr, the corneas of eight rabbits were homogenized for CFU/ml. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into three treatments: levofloxacin, tobramycin (ciprofloxacin for levofloxacin-susceptible PA) and saline. Nineteen drops were administered over 8 hr. One hour post-treatment, the corneas were homogenized for CFU/ml. The CFU/ml data were analysed for sterilization and non-parametrically for reduction. Results Levofloxacin 1.5% significantly reduced more (p < 0.05) levofloxacin-resistant SA than vancomycin; was equivalent to cefazolin (p > 0.05) for levofloxacin-susceptible SA; was equivalent to tobramycin for levofloxacin-resistant PA; was equivalent to ciprofloxacin for levofloxacin-susceptible PA; and significantly reduced more SA and PA than saline and onset. Levofloxacin 1.5% sterilized the corneas in the levofloxacin-resistant and susceptible PA groups (32/32) and levofloxacin-susceptible SA group (16/16), but not the levofloxacin-resistant SA group (0/16). Conclusion Levofloxacin 1.5% was effective for reducing SA and PA in the rabbit keratitis models regardless of in vitro resistance. PMID:20456251

  2. The 1.5-Mb region spanning the myotonic dystrophy locus shows uniform recombination frequency.

    PubMed

    Shutler, G G; MacKenzie, A E; Korneluk, R G

    1994-01-01

    The myotonic dystrophy (DM) mutation has been identified as a heritable unstable CTG trinucleotide repeat sequence. The intergenerational amplification of this sequence is an example of a new class of dynamic mutations responsible for human genetic diseases. To ascertain whether recombination activity influences, or is affected by, the presence of this unique sequence, a comprehensive study of the physical and genetic mapping data for the 1.5-Mb region of human chromosome 19q13.3, which contains the DM locus, was conducted. The recombination rate for this region was examined by correlating genetic distance to physical distance for six selected marker loci. The following markers span the DM region: 19qCEN-p alpha 1.4 (D19S37)-APOC2-CKM-pE0.8 (D19S115)-pGB2.6 (DM)-p134c (D19S51)-19qTER. Initial linear regression analysis of these two parameters failed to reveal a significant linear correlation (coefficient of determination, r2 = .19), suggesting nonuniform rates of recombination. However, the presence of a recombination hot spot was believed to be unlikely, as the marker-to-marker pairs that showed the greatest deviation in recombination frequency were not restricted to a specific region of the 1.5 Mb studied and had relatively broad confidence intervals, as reflected by low LOD values. A second linear regression analysis using only marker intervals with high LOD scores (Zmax > 22) showed linear correlation (r2 = .68) for the entire 1.5-Mb region. This analysis indicated a relatively uniform recombination frequency in the 1.5-Mb region spanning the DM locus. Furthermore, the recombinations observed were neither under- nor overrepresented on DM chromosomes. Consequently, recombination activity is unlikely to influence, or be affected by, the presence of the DM mutation.

  3. 23. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Southern R'wy Co. in Ms. Repairs to Tombigbee River Bridge' gears and turn machinery. DWG # S. 30303. Scale: 1-1/2' = l'. July 21, 1913. Credit: Columbus & Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  4. 26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot deck, plate-girder turn span, submitted by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisc. May 15 1914. Act size: approx. 23x34 in. Credit: columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  5. 25. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot turn span, submitted by the American Bridge Co., Pittsburg, Pa., 15 May 1914. Inquiry # P-19242. Act. size: approx: 23x24 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, columbus, MS. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  6. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution 1.5%

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Mark T; Williams, Jon I; Gomes, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the pooled per-protocol ocular end points from two conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) clinical trials of the dual-action antihistamine bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution (BBOS) 1.5%. Methods Two Phase III, placebo-controlled, double-masked, randomized clinical trials were conducted at a total of six separate centers using the CAC model of allergic conjunctivitis. The same study design was employed for both clinical trials, with subjects randomly assigned to either BBOS 1.5% (n=78) or placebo (n=79) treatment. Each subject received one eye drop of the test agent bilaterally at different study visits 15 minutes, 8 hours, or 16 hours prior to a CAC. Primary ocular end points included changes in ocular itching reported at 3, 5, and 7 minutes and conjunctival hyperemia assessed at 7, 15, and 20 minutes following each CAC. Secondary ocular end points included chemosis as well as episcleral and ciliary hyperemia judged by investigators, and tearing (scored as either absent or present) and eyelid swelling judged by subjects. Results A statistically significant reduction in ocular itching was observed for BBOS 1.5% treatment compared to placebo at all time points (P<0.0001), while measures for onset and 8-hour persistence of action also reached clinical significance (ie, ≥1.0 unit difference) at a majority of time points. In addition, a significant reduction in conjunctival hyperemia was achieved at a majority of time points during the onset of action CAC test. Secondary end points were also significantly improved compared to placebo, most prominently for reduced tearing at all study visits and reduced eyelid swelling at the onset of action and 8-hour study visits. Adverse events were generally mild and transient. Conclusion BBOS 1.5% rapidly reduced CAC-induced ocular itching with duration of effectiveness of at least 8 hours after dosing. Certain secondary signs of inflammation were also significantly reduced. PMID:25152611

  7. 1.5-μm resolution optical low-coherence reflectometry in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clivaz, Xavier; Marquis-Weible, Fabienne D.; Salathe, Rene-Paul

    1994-02-01

    An Optical Low Coherence Reflectometer with a spatial resolution of 1.5 micrometers (FWHM) in biological tissue has been developed. This high resolution is obtained using the fluorescence generated by an Ar-laser pumped Ti-Sapphire crystal. Measurements have been performed on freshly excised pig eyes and bovine mesenteric arterial walls, as examples of transparent and diffusive biological tissues, respectively. The improved spatial resolution is used to determine more precisely optical distances and to resolve details of the intima structure.

  8. Crystallization and structure of a recombinant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Gunter; Lindqvist, Ylva; Brändén, Carl-Ivar; Lorimer, George

    1988-07-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is the key enzyme in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and photorespiration. The dimeric carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme has been crystallized in a number of different crystal forms. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme has been determined by X-ray crystallographic methods to 2.9Åresolution.

  9. Track 1.5/2 Security Dialogues with China: Nuclear Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    that American missile defense activities in the region undercut China’s ability to have an assured second strike capability, especially when coupled ...Looking to the Future,” 34. 25 Zarate (Foreign Policy Institute). Senior advisors to the Working Group were Linton Brooks, Bonnie Glaser , Jeffrey...42 Brooks and Glaser also have been active participants in the Beijing and Hawaii Track 1.5/2 talks described

  10. Aromatic derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, V.D.; Desenko, S.M.; Kiroga, Kh.

    1987-09-01

    The formation of 2,2,4-trisubstituted 2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepines in the reactions of acetylarenes with 4-ethoxy- and 3,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine was studied. The effect of the substituents on the individual stages of the reactions is discussed. A quantum-chemical calculation of the relative nucleophilicity of 1,2-phenylenediamine, 2,3-diaminopyridine, and 3,4-diaminofurazan was undertaken.

  11. Dynamics and modulation studies of human voltage gated Kv1.5 channel.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Rajabrata; Seal, Alpana

    2017-02-01

    The voltage gated Kv1.5 channels conduct the ultrarapid delayed rectifier current (IKur) and play critical role in repolarization of action potential duration. It is the most rapidly activated channel and has very little or no inactivated states. In human cardiac cells, these channels are expressed more extensively in atrial myocytes than ventricle. From the evidences of its localization and functions, Kv1.5 has been declared a selective drug target for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this present study, we have tried to identify the rapidly activating property of Kv1.5 and studied its mode of inhibition using molecular modeling, docking, and simulation techniques. Channel in open conformation is found to be stabilized quickly within the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membrane, whereas most of the secondary structure elements were lost in closed state conformation. The obvious reason behind its ultra-rapid property is possibly due to the amino acid alteration in S4-S5 linker; the replacement of Lysine by Glutamine and vice versa. The popular published drugs as well as newly identified lead molecules were able to inhibit the Kv1.5 in a very similar pattern, mainly through the nonpolar interactions, and formed sable complexes. V512 is found as the main contributor for the interaction along with the other important residues such as V505, I508, A509, V512, P513, and V516. Furthermore, two screened novel compounds show surprisingly better inhibitory potency and can be considered for the future perspective of antiarrhythmic survey.

  12. Imaging islets labeled with magnetic nanoparticles at 1.5 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Tai, Joo Ho; Foster, Paula; Rosales, Alma; Feng, Biao; Hasilo, Craig; Martinez, Violetta; Ramadan, Soha; Snir, Jonatan; Melling, C W James; Dhanvantari, Savita; Rutt, Brian; White, David J G

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for imaging Feridex (superparamagnetic iron oxide [SPIO])-labeled islets of Langerhans using a standard clinical 1.5-Tesla (T) scanner and employing steady-state acquisition imaging sequence (3DFIESTA). Both porcine and rat islets were labeled with SPIO by a transfection technique using a combination of poly-l-lysine and electroporation. Electron microscopy demonstrated presence of SPIO particles within the individual islet cells, including beta-cells and particles trapped between cell membranes. Our labeling method produced a transfection rate of 860 pg to 3.4 ng iron per islet, dependent on the size of the islet. The labeling procedure did not disrupt either the function or viability of the islets. In vitro 3DFIESTA magnetic resonance images of single-labeled islets corresponded with their optical images. In vivo T2*-weighted scan using 1.5 T detected as few as 200 SPIO-labeled islets transplanted under rat kidney capsule, which correlated with immunohistochemistry of the transplant for insulin and iron. Ex vivo 3DFIESTA images of kidneys containing 200, 800 or 2,000 SPIO-labeled islet isografts showed good correlation between signal loss and increasing numbers of islets. These data provide evidence that islets can be labeled with SPIO and imaged using clinically available 1.5- T MRI.

  13. BMP-Smad 1/5/8 signalling in the development of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Shane V; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Sullivan, Aideen M

    2013-10-01

    The transcription factors, Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8, are the pivotal intracellular effectors of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of proteins. BMPs and their receptors are expressed in the nervous system (NS) throughout its development. This review focuses on the actions of Smad 1/5/8 in the developing NS. The mechanisms by which these Smad proteins regulate the induction of the neuroectoderm, the central nervous system (CNS) primordium, and finally the neural crest, which gives rise to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), are reviewed herein. We describe how, following neural tube closure, the most dorsal aspect of the tube becomes a signalling centre for BMPs, which directs the pattern of the development of the dorsal spinal cord (SC), through the action of Smad1, Smad5 and Smad8. The direct effects of Smad 1/5/8 signalling on the development of neuronal and non-neuronal cells from various neural progenitor cell populations are then described. Finally, this review discusses the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with the knockdown of Smad 1/5/8.

  14. A new edition of the Mars 1:5,000,000 map series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, R. M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Wu, Sherman S. C.

    1991-06-01

    A new edition of the Mars 1:5,000,000 scale map series is in preparation. Two sheets will be made for each quadrangle. Sheet one will show shaded relief, contours, and nomenclature. Sheet 2 will be a full-color photomosaic prepared on the Mars digital image model (MDIM) base co-registered with the Mars low-resolution color database. The latter will have an abbreviated graticule (latitude/longitude ticks only) and no other line overprint. The four major databases used to assemble this series are now virtually complete. These are: (1) Viking-revised shaded relief maps at 1:5,000,000 scale; (2) contour maps at 1:2,000,000 scale; (3) the Mars digital image model; and (4) a color image mosaic of Mars. Together, these databases form the most complete planetwide cartographic definition of Mars that can be compiled with existing data. The new edition will supersede the published Mars 1:5,000,000 scale maps, including the original shaded relief and topographic maps made primarily with Mariner 9 data and the Viking-revised shaded relief and controlled photomosaic series. Publication of the new series will begin in late 1991 or early 1992, and it should be completed in two years.

  15. A new edition of the Mars 1:5,000,000 map series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Mcewen, Alfred S.; Wu, Sherman S. C.

    1991-01-01

    A new edition of the Mars 1:5,000,000 scale map series is in preparation. Two sheets will be made for each quadrangle. Sheet one will show shaded relief, contours, and nomenclature. Sheet 2 will be a full-color photomosaic prepared on the Mars digital image model (MDIM) base co-registered with the Mars low-resolution color database. The latter will have an abbreviated graticule (latitude/longitude ticks only) and no other line overprint. The four major databases used to assemble this series are now virtually complete. These are: (1) Viking-revised shaded relief maps at 1:5,000,000 scale; (2) contour maps at 1:2,000,000 scale; (3) the Mars digital image model; and (4) a color image mosaic of Mars. Together, these databases form the most complete planetwide cartographic definition of Mars that can be compiled with existing data. The new edition will supersede the published Mars 1:5,000,000 scale maps, including the original shaded relief and topographic maps made primarily with Mariner 9 data and the Viking-revised shaded relief and controlled photomosaic series. Publication of the new series will begin in late 1991 or early 1992, and it should be completed in two years.

  16. Treatment of corneal squamous cell carcinoma using topical 1% 5-fluorouracil as monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dorbandt, Daniel M; Driskell, Elizabeth A; Hamor, Ralph E

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the use of topical 1% 5-fluorouracil as a sole therapy for canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A 12-year-old castrated male pug was evaluated for a well-demarcated, central, 3 mm in diameter, pale pink, raised, right corneal mass. An incisional biopsy was obtained using a #64 beaver blade after topical anesthesia and without sedation. A definitive diagnosis of corneal SCC was obtained after histopathologic evaluation of the biopsy. Topical 1% 5-fluorouracil ointment was applied to the right eye four times daily for 2 weeks followed by no treatment for 2 weeks, then treatment again twice daily for 2 weeks. The cornea remained free of recurrence 10 months after cessation of treatment. In dogs affected with corneal SCC, topical 1% 5-fluorouracil monotherapy may be a viable and cost-effective treatment option with minimal side effects. This chemotherapy agent may also have an effect on corneal pigmentation. Chronic cyclosporine therapy did not contribute to the pathogenesis of corneal SCC in the case described.

  17. Focused tight dressing does not prevent cochlear implant magnet migration under 1.5 Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Cuda, D; Murri, A; Succo, G

    2013-04-01

    We report a retrospective case of inner magnet migration, which occurred after 1.5 Tesla MRI scanning in an adult recipient of a bilateral cochlear implant (CI) despite a focused head dressing. The patient, bilaterally implanted with Nucleus 5 CIs (Cochlear LTD, Sydney, Australia), underwent a 1.5 Tesla cholangio-MRI scan for biliary duct pathology. In subsequent days, a focal skin alteration appeared over the left inner coil. Plain skull radiographs showed partial magnet migration on the left side. Surgical exploration confirmed magnet twisting; the magnet was effectively repositioned. Left CI performance was restored to pre-migration level. The wound healed without complications. Thus, focused dressing does not prevent magnet migration in CI recipients undergoing 1.5 Tesla MRI. All patients should be counselled on this potential complication. A minor surgical procedure is required to reposition the magnet. Nevertheless, timely diagnosis is necessary to prevent skin breakdown and subsequent device contamination. Plain skull radiograph is very effective in identifying magnet twisting; it should be performed systematically after MRI or minimally on all suspected cases.

  18. A sensitive 1.5 GHz radio survey around the north ecliptic pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollgaard, Ronald I.; Brinkmann, Wolfgang; Chester, Margaret Mcmath; Feigelson, Eric D.; Hertz, Paul; Reich, Patricia; Wielebinski, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A 29.3 sq deg region surrounding the north ecliptic pole (NEP; alpha = 18h00m, delta = +66 deg 30 min) was mapped with the Very Large Array at 1.5 GHz to support the deepest portion of the ROSAT all-sky soft X-ray survey. The resulting VLA-NEP survey catalog contains 2435 radio sources with flux densities in the range of 0.3-1000 mJy, including over 200 fainter than 1 mJy. The 28 fields of the inner 1.5 deg have noise levels sigma approximately equals 60 mu-Jy, and the 85 fields centered between 1.5 and 3.0 deg from the NEP have sigma approximately equals 120 mu-Jy. The typical spatial resolution is 20 sec HPBW, and most positions are accurate to less than 2 sec. Approximately 6% of the sources are found to be extended with size greater than 30 sec. We have compared the VLA-NEP catalog with four other radio catalogs made at lower resolution, as well as with the NASA Extragalactic Database and find counterparts for approximately 18% of the VLA-NEP objects. The normalized, differential radio source count is in agreement with previous studies. Between 1 and 150 mJy the slope of the log N-log S relation is 0.68 +/- 0.03. The catalog and related tables are available electronically.

  19. Characterization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carrying ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate at its regulatory sites and the mechanism of interaction of this form of the enzyme with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase activase.

    PubMed

    Yokota, A; Tsujimoto, N

    1992-03-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase [Rbu(1,5)P2CO] from plant sources shows a biphasic reaction course when assayed with more than 2 mM ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate [Rbu(1,5)P2]. In the burst, Rbu(1,5)P2CO has its substrate-binding sites occupied with Rbu(1,5)P2 for the initial few minutes, then both substrate-binding and regulatory sites are occupied by Rbu(1,5)P2 in the subsequent linear phase, at physiological concentrations of Rbu(1,5)P2 [A. Yokota (1991) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 110, 246-252]. This study attempts the characterization of spinach Rbu(1,5)P2CO carrying Rbu(1,5)P2 at the regulatory sites and the interaction of Rbu(1,5)P2CO activase with Rbu(1,5)P2CO purified with poly(ethylene glycol) 4000 without denaturation. Binding of Rbu(1,5)P2 to the regulatory sites strongly influences the temperature dependence of the carboxylase activity of Rbu(1,5)P2CO. The activation energy of Rbu(1,5)P2CO with Rbu(1,5)P2 at the regulatory sites was 40% larger than that without Rbu(1,5)P2 over 30 degrees C, although the binding did not affect the activation energy below this temperature. This caused the almost linear reaction course of the carboxylase reaction at 50 degrees C. The optimum pH for the activity of Rbu(1,5)P2CO carrying Rbu(1,5)P2 at the sites was 8.0-8.2, and increased by about pH 0.2 from that of Rbu(1,5)P2CO without Rbu(1,5)P2. The ratio of the activity of the former form to that of the latter increased with increasing pH with an inflection point at pH 8.1. The increase in the ratio was accompanied by a decrease in the hysteric conformational change of Rbu(1,5)P2CO. The ATP-hydrolyzing activity inherent to Rbu(1,5)P2CO activase was stimulated about twofold by 3-5 mM Rbu(1,5)P2. Rbu(1,5)P2CO in the inactive complex with Rbu(1,5)P2 experienced hysteresis and bound Rbu(1,5)P2 at the regulatory sites during activation in the presence of Rbu(1,5)P2CO activase. Evidence was obtained that Rbu(1,5)P2CO activase promoted the activation of Rbu(1,5)P2CO through

  20. Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in Star-forming Galaxies at z1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Masao; Ly, Chun; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Malkan, Matthew A.; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Goto, Ryosuke; Naito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    We present results from Subaru/FMOS near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 118 star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5 in the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies are selected as [O II] lambda 3727 emitters at z approximately equal to 1.47 and 1.62 from narrow-band imaging. We detect H alpha emission line in 115 galaxies, [O III] lambda 5007 emission line in 45 galaxies, and H Beta, [N II] lambda 6584, and [S II]lambda lambda 6716, 6731 in 13, 16, and 6 galaxies, respectively. Including the [O II] emission line, we use the six strong nebular emission lines in the individual and composite rest-frame optical spectra to investigate physical conditions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. We find a tight correlation between H alpha and [O II], which suggests that [O II] can be a good star formation rate (SFR) indicator for galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. The line ratios of H alpha / [O II] are consistent with those of local galaxies. We also find that [O II] emitters have strong [O III] emission lines. The [O III]/[O II] ratios are larger than normal star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, suggesting a higher ionization parameter. Less massive galaxies have larger [O III]/[O II] ratios. With evidence that the electron density is consistent with local galaxies, the high ionization of galaxies at high redshifts may be attributed to a harder radiation field by a young stellar population and/or an increase in the number of ionizing photons from each massive star.

  1. Two spatially separated phases in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Meng; Tian, Wei; Valdivia, P.; ...

    2014-09-26

    We report neutron scattering and transport measurements on semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2, a compound isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-studied A0.8FeySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K) superconducting systems. Both resistivity and DC susceptibility measurements reveal a magnetic phase transition at T = 275 K. Neutron diffraction studies show that the 275 K transition originates from a phase with rhombic iron vacancy order which exhibits an in-plane stripe antiferromagnetic ordering below 275 K. In addition, the stripe antiferromagnetic phase interdigitates mesoscopically with an ubiquitous phase with √5 x√5 iron vacancy order. This phase has a magnetic transition at TN = 425 K andmore » an iron vacancy order-disorder transition at TS = 600 K. These two different structural phases are closely similar to those observed in the isomorphous Se materials. Based on the close similarities of the in-plane antiferromagnetic structures, moments sizes, and ordering temperatures in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2 and K0.81Fe1.58Se2, we argue that the in-plane antiferromagnetic order arises from strong coupling between local moments. Superconductivity, previously observed in the A0.8FeySe2₋ zSz system, is absent in A0.8Fe1.5S2, which has a semiconducting ground state. We discuss the implied relationship between stripe and block antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in these materials as well as a strategy for further investigation.« less

  2. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Pseudomonas oxalacticus.

    PubMed Central

    Lawlis, V B; Gordon, G L; McFadden, B A

    1979-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was purified by a rapid, facile procedure from formate-grown Pseudomonas oxalaticus. The electrophoretically homogeneous enzyme had specific activities of 1.9 mumol of CO2 fixed per min per mg of protein and 0.15 mumol of O2 consumed per min per mg of protein. The amino acid composition was similar to that of other bacterial sources of the enzyme. The molecular weights determined by sedimentation equilibrium and by gel filtration were 421,000 and 450,000, respectively. Upon sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis of enzyme purified under conditions which would limit proteolysis, two types of large (L) subunits and two types of small (S) subunits were observed with apparent molecular weights of 57,000, 55,000, 17,000 and 15,000. By densitometric scans at two different protein concentrations the stoichiometry of the total large to total small subunits was 1:1, implying an L6S6 structure. Electron micrographs of the enzyme revealed an unusual structure that was inconsistent with a cubical structure. The enzyme had an unusually high Km for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (220 microM) and was strongly inhibited by 6-phosphogluconate in the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase assay (Ki = 270 microM). One, 5, and 12 days after purification the enzyme was half-maximally activated at 0.13 microM, 0.23 mM, and 0.70 mM CO2, respectively, at saturating Mg2+. At saturating CO2, enzyme 1 day afer purification responded sigmoidally to Mg2+ and was half-maximally activated by 0.85 mM Mg2+ in the absence of 6-phosphogluconate (Hill coefficient, h = 2.0) and by 0.19 mM Mg2+ in the presence of mM 6-phosphogluconate (h = 1.7). Images PMID:457602

  3. Inhibition of the cardiac Na⁺ channel Nav1.5 by carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Elies, Jacobo; Dallas, Mark L; Boyle, John P; Scragg, Jason L; Duke, Adrian; Steele, Derek S; Peers, Chris

    2014-06-06

    Sublethal carbon monoxide (CO) exposure is frequently associated with myocardial arrhythmias, and our recent studies have demonstrated that these may be attributable to modulation of cardiac Na(+) channels, causing an increase in the late current and an inhibition of the peak current. Using a recombinant expression system, we demonstrate that CO inhibits peak human Nav1.5 current amplitude without activation of the late Na(+) current observed in native tissue. Inhibition was associated with a hyperpolarizing shift in the steady-state inactivation properties of the channels and was unaffected by modification of channel gating induced by anemone toxin (rATX-II). Systematic pharmacological assessment indicated that no recognized CO-sensitive intracellular signaling pathways appeared to mediate CO inhibition of Nav1.5. Inhibition was, however, markedly suppressed by inhibition of NO formation, but NO donors did not mimic or occlude channel inhibition by CO, indicating that NO alone did not account for the actions of CO. Exposure of cells to DTT immediately before CO exposure also dramatically reduced the magnitude of current inhibition. Similarly, l-cysteine and N-ethylmaleimide significantly attenuated the inhibition caused by CO. In the presence of DTT and the NO inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, the ability of CO to inhibit Nav1.5 was almost fully prevented. Our data indicate that inhibition of peak Na(+) current (which can lead to Brugada syndrome-like arrhythmias) occurs via a mechanism distinct from induction of the late current, requires NO formation, and is dependent on channel redox state.

  4. Isolation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from leaves.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Barta, Csengele; Salvucci, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of CO2 and O2 in photosynthesis and photorespiration, respectively. As the rate-limiting step in photosynthesis, improving the catalytic properties of Rubisco has long been viewed as a viable strategy for increasing plant productivity. Advances in biotechnology have made this goal more attainable by making it possible to modify Rubisco in planta. To properly evaluate the properties of Rubisco, it is necessary to isolate the enzyme in pure form. This chapter describes procedures for rapid and efficient purification of Rubisco from leaves of several species.

  5. Magnetic field measurements of a clinical MR imager at 1.5 tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhech, A.; Tellez, I.; Esteva, M.; Marrufo, O.; Jimenez, L.; Vazquez, F.; Taboada, J.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2012-10-01

    In the clinical environment is mandatory to run periodically measurements of uniformity of the magnetic field produced by the magnet to assure good image quality. The phase difference method was used to measure the magnetic field uniformity of the 1.5 T scanner of the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia MVS. The uniformity field values showed that the imager performance is reasonably good for clinical imaging. Some concern was raised since results may not be good enough for magnetic resonance spectroscopy runs.

  6. Strain-induced selective growth in 1.5% temper-rolled Fe;1%Si.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tricia A; Kalu, Peter N; Rollett, Anthony D

    2011-06-01

    Strain-induced selective growth was investigated in a 1.5% temper-rolled Fe∼1%Si alloy using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The EBSD technique was used to quantify the presence of orientation spreads within grains and to show that this particular case of selective growth can be directly related to differences in stored energy as reflected in the geometrically necessary dislocation content. The differences in stored energy were sufficient to give rise to selective growth as evidenced by bi-modal grain sizes.

  7. Three Advantages of the KANATA 1.5-m Telescope as a Powerful Partner for GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, M.; Yamashita, T.; Kawabata, K.; Ohsugi, T.; Arai, A.; Nagae, O.; Chiyonobu, S.; Ueda, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Mizuno, T.; Katagiri, H.; Takahashi, H.; Hayashi, T.; Okita, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yanagisawa, K.; Sato, S.; Kino, M.; Kitagawa, M.; Sadakane, K.

    2007-07-12

    KANATA is a 1.5-m optical--near infrared telescope of Hiroshima University, which has been developed for observations of astronomical transients and variables, such as {gamma}-ray bursts, blazars. X-ray transients, and cataclysmic variables. Here, we introduce three characteristics of KANATA with examples of observations, that is, i) high ability for prompt observations, ii) simultaneous optical and infrared observations, and iii) polarimetric observations. Collaborating with GLAST, we are planning to perform follow-up optical--infrared observations of {gamma}-ray sources with KANATA.

  8. OWL: an eyesafe 1.5-μm laser radar system for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibert, Max; Scherbarth, Stefan

    1998-10-01

    The paper reports on current advances in the development of the Dornier Obstacle Warning System (OWS) for helicopters, with particular emphasis on the Obstacle Warning Ladar (OWL). Here both segments, development and application of the 1.5 micrometer imaging laser radar (LADAR) will be represented. It will be shown how advances in the eyesafe LADAR technology resulted in Obstacle Warning Ladar optimized for wire detection leading to a system family platform covering the range from the commercial needs up to the military requirements.

  9. The $1. 5 billion question: Can the US Global Change Research Program deliver on its promises

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-09-04

    President Clinton has continued the funding for scientific investigations of global climatic change, increasing funds to a total of $1.5 billion spread amoung 11 different agencies. However, a growing number of critics warn that the program appears heading toward failure. The main issue is relevancy. Almost every agrees that the research effort will support important scientific work over the next decade, but it will not necessarily provide the information policymakers need to address the threat of climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and similiar issues. This article summarizes the concerns and comments of critics, and the gap between the climate scientists and governmental policymakers.

  10. RCRA and operational monitoring 1994 fiscal year work plan, WBS 1.5.3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    RCRA & Operational Monitoring (ROM) Program Office manages the direct funded Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) and Operational Monitoring under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.5.3. The ROM Program Office is a Branch of liquid Waste Disposal, a part of Restoration and Remediation of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) takes it direction from the Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP). The FYWP provides the near term, enhanced details for the Program Office to use as baseline Cost, Scope and Schedule. Changs Control administered during the fiscal year is against the baseline provided by the FYWP.

  11. Continuous-flow DNP polarizer for MRI applications at 1.5 T

    PubMed Central

    Denysenkov, V.; Terekhov, M.; Maeder, R.; Fischer, S.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, T.; Prisner, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe a new hyperpolarization approach for magnetic resonance imaging applications at 1.5 T. Proton signal enhancements of more than 20 were achieved with a newly designed multimode microwave resonator situated inside the bore of the imager and used for Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization of the water proton signal. Different from other approaches in our setup the hyperpolarization is achieved continuously by liquid water flowing through the polarizer under continuous microwave excitation. With an available flow rate of up to 1.5 ml/min, which should be high enough for DNP MR angiography applications in small animals like mice and rats. The hyperpolarized liquid cooled to physiological temperature can be routed by a mechanical switch to a quartz capillary for injection into the blood vessels of the target object. This new approach allows hyperpolarization of protons without the need of an additional magnet and avoids the losses arising from the transfer of the hyperpolarized solution between magnets. The signal-to-noise improvement of this method is demonstrated on two- and three-dimensional phantoms of blood vessels. PMID:28290535

  12. Smad1/5/8 are myogenic regulators of murine and human mesoangioblasts

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Quattrocelli, Mattia; van Tienen, Florence; Umans, Lieve; de Coo, Irineus F. M.; Zwijsen, An; Huylebroeck, Danny; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2016-01-01

    Mesoangioblasts (MABs) are vessel-associated stem cells that express pericyte marker genes and participate in skeletal muscle regeneration. Molecular circuits that regulate the myogenic commitment of MABs are still poorly characterized. The critical role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling during proliferation and differentiation of adult myogenic precursors, such as satellite cells, has recently been established. We evaluated whether BMP signalling impacts on the myogenic potential of embryonic and adult MABs both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of BMP inhibited MAB myogenic differentiation, whereas interference with the interactions between BMPs and receptor complexes induced differentiation. Similarly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad8 in Smad1/5-null MABs or inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with Dorsomorphin (DM) also improved myogenic differentiation, demonstrating a novel role of SMAD8. Moreover, using a transgenic mouse model of Smad8 deletion, we demonstrated that the absence of SMAD8 protein improved MAB myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, once injected into α-Sarcoglycan (Sgca)-null muscles, DM-treated MABs were more efficacious to restore α-sarcoglycan (αSG) protein levels and re-establish functional muscle properties. Similarly, in acute muscle damage, DM-treated MABs displayed a better myogenic potential compared with BMP-treated and untreated cells. Finally, SMADs also control the myogenic commitment of human MABs (hMABs). BMP signalling antagonists are therefore novel candidates to improve the therapeutic effects of hMABs. PMID:26450990

  13. Characterization of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Euglena gracilis Z.

    PubMed

    Yokota, A; Harada, A; Kitaoka, S

    1989-03-01

    An improved method was devised to purify ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) with high specific activity (2.1 mumol of CO2 fixed/mg protein/min) from Euglena gracilis Z. The purified enzyme stored at -80 degrees C required treatment with dithiothreitol for full activity. The dithiothreitol-treated RuBisCO was activated by 12 mM NaHCO3 and 20 mM MgCl2, and the activated state was stable at least for 60 min in the presence of 4 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate. The form of inorganic carbon fixed by the Euglena enzyme was CO2, as for the plant enzymes. The carboxylase reaction proceeded linearly with time for at least 8 min. The optimum pH for this reaction was 7.8 to 8.0. The carboxylase activity increased with increasing temperature up to 50 degrees C. The activation energy for the carboxylation reaction was 10.0 kcal/mol. The Michaelis constants of Euglena RuBisCO were 30.9 microM for CO2, 560 microM for O2, and 10.5 microM for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. Mathematical comparison between the photosynthesis rate predicted from these enzymatic properties and the observed rate suggested that there is no CO2-concentrating mechanism in E. gracilis.

  14. CSHELL: a high spectral resolution 1-5 um cryogenic echelle spectrograph for the IRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Toomey, Douglas W.; Carr, Jonathan B.

    1993-10-01

    A 1 - 5.4 micrometers Cryogenic Echelle Spectrograph (CSHELL) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility is described. It achieves a resolving power of 5,000 to 40,000 using slits ranging from 4.0' to 0.5' in width and 30' long. It operates in a single-order long-slit mode, and a circular variable filter is used as an order sorter. Two infrared arrays are employed to achieve spectral coverage from 1 - 5.4 micrometers : a 256 X 256 HgCdTe NICMOS-3 array for 1 - 2.5 micrometers and a SBRC 58 X 62 InSb array for 2.8 - 5.4 micrometers . A closed- cycle cooler is employed to keep the optics and supporting structure at 73 K and to maintain the detectors at their proper operating temperatures. The entire spectrograph fits within an envelope of 64 cm X 35 cm X 27 cm. The instrument is controlled by a microcomputer mounted on the telescope, but the observer commands the instrument from a UNIX X Windows workstation on the Internet. This use of the Internet for communication between instrument control and user interface computers facilitates remote observing. A limiting magnitude of 12.3 mag is achieved for S/N equals 10 in 1 hour integration time, at resolving power of 20,000 at 2.2 micrometers wavelength.

  15. Continuous-flow DNP polarizer for MRI applications at 1.5 T.

    PubMed

    Denysenkov, V; Terekhov, M; Maeder, R; Fischer, S; Zangos, S; Vogl, T; Prisner, T F

    2017-03-14

    Here we describe a new hyperpolarization approach for magnetic resonance imaging applications at 1.5 T. Proton signal enhancements of more than 20 were achieved with a newly designed multimode microwave resonator situated inside the bore of the imager and used for Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization of the water proton signal. Different from other approaches in our setup the hyperpolarization is achieved continuously by liquid water flowing through the polarizer under continuous microwave excitation. With an available flow rate of up to 1.5 ml/min, which should be high enough for DNP MR angiography applications in small animals like mice and rats. The hyperpolarized liquid cooled to physiological temperature can be routed by a mechanical switch to a quartz capillary for injection into the blood vessels of the target object. This new approach allows hyperpolarization of protons without the need of an additional magnet and avoids the losses arising from the transfer of the hyperpolarized solution between magnets. The signal-to-noise improvement of this method is demonstrated on two- and three-dimensional phantoms of blood vessels.

  16. Continuous-flow DNP polarizer for MRI applications at 1.5 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denysenkov, V.; Terekhov, M.; Maeder, R.; Fischer, S.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, T.; Prisner, T. F.

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe a new hyperpolarization approach for magnetic resonance imaging applications at 1.5 T. Proton signal enhancements of more than 20 were achieved with a newly designed multimode microwave resonator situated inside the bore of the imager and used for Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization of the water proton signal. Different from other approaches in our setup the hyperpolarization is achieved continuously by liquid water flowing through the polarizer under continuous microwave excitation. With an available flow rate of up to 1.5 ml/min, which should be high enough for DNP MR angiography applications in small animals like mice and rats. The hyperpolarized liquid cooled to physiological temperature can be routed by a mechanical switch to a quartz capillary for injection into the blood vessels of the target object. This new approach allows hyperpolarization of protons without the need of an additional magnet and avoids the losses arising from the transfer of the hyperpolarized solution between magnets. The signal-to-noise improvement of this method is demonstrated on two- and three-dimensional phantoms of blood vessels.

  17. Synthesis, quorum sensing inhibition and docking studies of 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Goh, Wai-Kean; Gardner, Christopher R; Chandra Sekhar, Kondapalli V G; Biswas, Nripendra N; Nizalapur, Shashidhar; Rice, Scott A; Willcox, Mark; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli use N-acylated l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers (AIs) for quorum sensing (QS), a chief regulatory and cell-to-cell communication system. QS is responsible for social adaptation, virulence factor production, biofilm production and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Fimbrolides, a class of halogenated furanones isolated from the red marine alga Delisea pulchra, have been shown to exhibit promising QS inhibitory activity against various Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains. In this work, various lactam analogues of fimbrolides viz., 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones, were designed and synthesized via an efficient lactamization protocol. All the synthesized analogues were tested for QS inhibition against the E. coli AHL-monitor strain JB357 gfp (ASV). Compound 17a emerged as the most potent compound, followed by 9c, with AIC40 values (the ratio of synthetic inhibitor to natural AHL signaling molecule that is required to lower GFP expression to 40%) of 1.95 and 19.00, respectively. Finally, the potential binding interactions between the synthesized molecules and the LasR QS receptor were studied by molecular docking. Our results indicate that 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones have the ability to serve as potential leads for the further development of novel QS inhibitors as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  18. Earliest Porotic Hyperostosis on a 1.5-Million-Year-Old Hominin, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Diez-Martín, Fernando; Mabulla, Audax; Musiba, Charles; Trancho, Gonzalo; Baquedano, Enrique; Bunn, Henry T.; Barboni, Doris; Santonja, Manuel; Uribelarrea, David; Ashley, Gail M.; Martínez-Ávila, María del Sol; Barba, Rebeca; Gidna, Agness; Yravedra, José; Arriaza, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Meat-eating was an important factor affecting early hominin brain expansion, social organization and geographic movement. Stone tool butchery marks on ungulate fossils in several African archaeological assemblages demonstrate a significant level of carnivory by Pleistocene hominins, but the discovery at Olduvai Gorge of a child's pathological cranial fragments indicates that some hominins probably experienced scarcity of animal foods during various stages of their life histories. The child's parietal fragments, excavated from 1.5-million-year-old sediments, show porotic hyperostosis, a pathology associated with anemia. Nutritional deficiencies, including anemia, are most common at weaning, when children lose passive immunity received through their mothers' milk. Our results suggest, alternatively, that (1) the developmentally disruptive potential of weaning reached far beyond sedentary Holocene food-producing societies and into the early Pleistocene, or that (2) a hominin mother's meat-deficient diet negatively altered the nutritional content of her breast milk to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment. Either way, this discovery highlights that by at least 1.5 million years ago early human physiology was already adapted to a diet that included the regular consumption of meat. PMID:23056303

  19. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  20. Translational regulation of light-induced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene expression in amaranth.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J O; Nikolau, B J; Carr, J P; Klessig, D F

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of the genes encoding the large and small subunits of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase was examined in amaranth cotyledons in response to changes in illumination. When dark-grown cotyledons were transferred into light, synthesis of the large- and small-subunit polypeptides was initiated very rapidly, before any increase in the levels of their corresponding mRNAs. Similarly, when light-grown cotyledons were transferred to total darkness, synthesis of the large- and small-subunit proteins was rapidly depressed without changes in mRNA levels for either subunit. In vitro translation or in vivo pulse-chase experiments indicated that these apparent changes in protein synthesis were not due to alterations in the functionality of the mRNAs or to protein turnover, respectively. These results, in combination with our previous studies, suggest that the expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase genes can be adjusted rapidly at the translational level and over a longer period through changes in mRNA accumulation. Images PMID:3785198

  1. Light-mediated control of translational initiation of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase in amaranth cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J O; Breiding, D E; Klessig, D F

    1990-01-01

    In cotyledons of 6-day-old amaranth seedlings, the large subunit (LSU) and the small subunit (SSU) polypeptides of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase are not synthesized in the absence of light. When dark-grown seedlings were transferred into light, synthesis of both polypeptides was induced within the first 3 to 5 hr of illumination without any significant changes in levels of their mRNAs. In cotyledons of light-grown seedlings and of dark-grown seedlings transferred into light for 5 hr (where ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase synthesis was readily detected in vivo), the LSU and SSU mRNAs were associated with polysomes. In cotyledons of dark-grown seedlings, these two mRNAs were not found on polysomes. In contrast to the SSU message, mRNAs encoding the nonlight-regulated, nuclear-encoded proteins actin and ubiquitin were associated with polysomes regardless of the light conditions. Similarly, mRNA from at least one chloroplast-encoded gene (rpl2) was found on polysomes in the dark as well as in the light. These results indicate an absence of translational initiation in cotyledons of dark-grown seedlings which is specific to a subset of nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded genes including the SSU and LSU, respectively. Upon illumination, synthesis of both polypeptides, and possibly other proteins involved in light-mediated chloroplast development, was induced at the level of translational initiation. PMID:2152128

  2. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  3. Completing comprehensive survey of star formation and metallicity at z~1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    We propose to complete our ongoing FMOS program (S12A-026) to comprehensively study star formation and metallicity at z~1.5, since two thirds of the time allocated in April 2012 was lost because of poor conditions. Star formation activity and metal enrichment can provide us with important clues to understand processes of galaxy evolution. However, current measurements of such properties for galaxies at z~1.5 have large uncertainties and are biased toward massive galaxies due to the lack of spectroscopic samples with major nebular emission lines in rest-frame optical wavelengths. We thus plan to conduct deep NIR spectroscopy of [OII] emitters at z=1.47 and 1.62 in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF), aiming to detect all of H beta, [OIII], H alpha, and [NII] lines for star-forming galaxies in the epoch when galaxies and AGNs are the most active over the cosmic history. The SDF is an ideal field because the deep multi-band data are perfectly matched to what FMOS requires for maximum efficiency. With the full set of major nebular lines, we will reveal (1) star formation activity reliably corrected for dust extinction, (2) gas metallicity, and (3) a contribution of AGNs, and investigate a correlation between them. We finally aim to understand critical processes which play an important role in galaxy evolution.

  4. The growth of continents and some consequences since 1.5 Ga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, David G.

    1988-01-01

    The budget of Earth's oceanic sediment masses was discussed in terms of crustal growth and recycling. Based on estimates of the volume of oceanic sediments and the average age of oceanic crust, a continental denudation rate of 1.65 cu km/yr was computed. This crudely balances estimated crustal production rates of about 1 cu km/yr, but the efficiency of sediment loss via subduction, for example, must be considered. It was argued, on the basis of earthquake focal solutions, imagery of subduction zones, and plate kinematic reconstructions that little, if any, sediment was lost in this way. This yields a present day crustal growth rate of about 1 cu km/yr. The volume of continents to 1.5 Ga ago was discussed, assuming constant continental thickness and freeboard, and a constant hydrosphere volume. It was concluded that ocean ridge length was a factor of about 1.75 greater 1.5 Ga ago, but a major uncertainty is the average spreading rate in the past.

  5. The effects of A-803467 on cardiac Nav1.5 channels.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhonglin; Jiang, Yu; Xiao, Feng; Cao, Kejiang; Wang, Dao W

    2015-05-05

    A-803467 is a selective Nav1.8 blocker, but its mechanism of action at cardiac sodium channels is uncertain. Thus, we investigated the mechanistic effects of A-803467 on cardiac sodium channels in isolated mouse ventricular myocytes and in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cell lines that transiently expressed Nav1.5/SCN5A, the predominant cardiac sodium channel. At 0.3μM and greater, A-803467 blocked cardiac sodium currents in a dose-dependent manner in both ventricular myocytes and in SCN5A-expressing HEK293 cell lines. In both models, the drug caused significant depolarizing shifts at the conductance voltage relationship midpoint, hyperpolarizing shifts in voltage-dependent channel inactivation, and slower recovery from inactivation. Also, the drug reduced sodium current amplitude in a frequency-dependent manner, and blocked late sodium currents, accelerated inactivation, and enhanced the intermediate inactivation state. Our results provide strong evidence that A-803467 affects multiple biophysical characteristics of the canonical cardiac Nav1.5 channel and our data can be used to study potential applications of A-803467 as an antiarrhythmic drug.

  6. Negative-dominance phenomenon with genetic variants of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Sottas, Valentin; Abriel, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    During the past two decades, many pathological genetic variants in SCN5A, the gene encoding the pore-forming subunit of the cardiac (monomeric) sodium channel Na(v)1.5, have been described. Negative dominance is a classical genetic concept involving a "poison" mutant peptide that negatively interferes with the co-expressed wild-type protein, thus reducing its cellular function. This phenomenon has been described for genetic variants of multimeric K(+) channels, which mechanisms are well understood. Unexpectedly, several pathologic SCN5A variants that are linked to Brugada syndrome also demonstrate such a dominant-negative (DN) effect. The molecular determinants of these observations, however, are not yet elucidated. This review article summarizes recent findings that describe the mechanisms underlying the DN phenomenon of genetic variants of K(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and Na(+) channels, and in particular Brugada syndrome variants of Na(v)1.5. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  7. Grain growth behavior of Ba1.5Sr1.5Co2Fe24O41 flakes in molten salt synthesis and the magnetic properties of flake/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Kang, Young-Min; Han, InTaek; Lee, Sang-Eui

    2016-11-01

    Single-phase Ba1.5Sr1.5Co2Fe24O41 (Ba1.5Sr1.5Z) hexaferrite flakes were synthesized using a two-step grain growth process, involving a calcination process and molten salt synthesis. Geometric parameters such as aspect ratio and the degree of agglomeration can be controlled by tuning this calcination-molten salt method. The morphological evolution of the flakes was explained using the concept of mixed-control grain growth, i.e., a combination of diffusion for growth and interface reactions, which is a growth mechanism for a faceted interface. The single-phase Ba1.5Sr1.5Z flake particle with high aspect ratio turned out to be a good candidate of soft magnetic inclusion, through an investigation of the correlation between material composition, magnetic behavior, and particle morphology.

  8. Arabidopsis NRT1.5 Mediates the Suppression of Nitrate Starvation-Induced Leaf Senescence by Modulating Foliar Potassium Level.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shuan; Peng, Jia-Shi; He, Ya-Ni; Zhang, Guo-Bin; Yi, Hong-Ying; Fu, Yan-Lei; Gong, Ji-Ming

    2016-03-07

    Nitrogen deficiency induces leaf senescence. However, whether or how nitrate might affect this process remains to be investigated. Here, we report an interesting finding that nitrate-instead of nitrogen-starvation induced early leaf senescence in nrt1.5 mutant, and present genetic and physiological data demonstrating that nitrate starvation-induced leaf senescence is suppressed by NRT1.5. NRT1.5 suppresses the senescence process dependent on its function from roots, but not the nitrate transport function. Further analyses using nrt1.5 single and nia1 nia2 nrt1.5-4 triple mutant showed a negative correlation between nitrate concentration and senescence rate in leaves. Moreover, when exposed to nitrate starvation, foliar potassium level decreased in nrt1.5, but adding potassium could essentially restore the early leaf senescence phenotype of nrt1.5 plants. Nitrate starvation also downregulated the expression of HAK5, RAP2.11, and ANN1 in nrt1.5 roots, and appeared to alter potassium level in xylem sap from nrt1.5. These data suggest that NRT1.5 likely perceives nitrate starvation-derived signals to prevent leaf senescence by facilitating foliar potassium accumulation.

  9. Sol-Gel-Derived Lithium Superionic Conductor Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 Electrolyte for Solid-State Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-12

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0055 SOL-GEL-DERIVED LITHIUM SUPERIONIC CONDUCTOR LI1.5AL0.5GE1.5(PO4)3 ELECTROLYTE FOR SOLID -STATE LITHIUM -OXYGEN...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SOL-GEL-DERIVED LITHIUM SUPERIONIC CONDUCTOR LI1.5AL0.5GE1.5(PO4)3 ELECTROLYTE FOR SOLID -STATE LITHIUM -OXYGEN BATTERIES...attracting a great deal of attention as a solid electrolyte for lithium -oxygen (Li- O2) batteries due to its high ionic conductivity. In this study, LAGP

  10. Theoretical study on the tautomerization of 1,5-diaminotetrazole (DAT).

    PubMed

    He, Piao; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Feng, Li-Na; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Tong-Lai; Zhang, Shao-Wen

    2014-10-01

    The tautomerization pathways and kinetics of 1,5-diaminotetrazole (DAT) have been investigated by means of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled-cluster theory, with single and double excitations including perturbative corrections for triple excitations (CCSD(T)). Five possible tautomers, namely 4-hydro-1-amino-5-imino-tetrazole (a), 2,5-diamino-tetrazole (b), 1,5-diamino-tetrazole (c), 2-hydro-1-imino-5-amino-tetrazole (d), and 2,4-dihydro-1,5-diimino-tetrazole (e) were identified. The structures of the reactants, transition states, and products along with the tautomerism pathways were optimized by the MP2 method using the 6-311G** basis set, and the energies were refined using CCSD(T)/6-311G**. The minimum-energy path (MEP) information for DAT was obtained at the CCSD(T)/6-311G**//MP2/6-311G** level of theory. Therein, reaction 2 (c → b) is an amino-shift reaction, while reaction 1 (c → a), reaction 3 (c → d), reaction 4 (a → e), and reaction 5 (d → e) are reactions of hydrogen-shift tautomerization. The calculated results show that 2,5-diaminotetrazole (b) with the minimum energy (taking c as a standard) among five tautomers, is the energetically preferred tautomer of DAT in the gas phase. In addition, the energy barrier of reaction 2 is 71.65 kcal · mol(-1) in the gas phase, while reaction 1 takes place more easily with an activation barrier of 61.53 kcal · mol(-1) also as compared to 63.71 kcal · mol(-1) in reaction 3. Moreover, the tautomerization of reaction 4 requires the largest energy barrier of 83.29 kcal · mol(-1), which is obviously bigger than reaction 5 with a value of 73.78 kcal · mol(-1). Thus, the hydrogen-shift of c to a is the easiest transformation, while the tautomerization of a to e is the hardest one. Again, the rate constants of tautomerization have been obtained by TST, TST/Eckart, CVT, CVT/SCT, and CVT/ZCT methods in the range 200-2500 K, and analysis indicated that

  11. Pediatric cardiovascular interventional devices: effect on CMR images at 1.5 and 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To predict the type and extent of CMR artifacts caused by commonly used pediatric trans-catheter devices at 1.5 T and 3 T as an aid to clinical planning and patient screening. Methods Eleven commonly used interventional, catheter-based devices including stents, septal occluders, vascular plugs and embolization coils made from either stainless steel or nitinol were evaluated ex-vivo at both 1.5T and 3T. Pulse sequences and protocols commonly used for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were evaluated, including 3D high-resolution MR angiography (MRA), time-resolved MRA, 2D balanced-SSFP cine and 2D phase-contrast gradient echo imaging (GRE). We defined the signal void amplification factor (F) as the ratio of signal void dimension to true device dimension. F1 and F2 were measured in the long axis and short axes respectively of the device. We defined F3 as the maximum extent of the off-resonance dark band artifact on SSFP measured in the B0direction. The effects of field strength, sequence type, orientation, flip angle and phase encode direction were tested. Clinical CMR images in 3 patients with various indwelling devices were reviewed for correlation with the in-vitro findings. Results F1 and F2 were higher (p<0.05) at 3T than at 1.5T for all sequences except 3D-MRA. Stainless steel devices produced greater off-resonance artifact on SSFP compared to nitinol devices (p<0.05). Artifacts were most severe with the stainless steel Flipper detachable embolization coil (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN), with F1 and F2 10 times greater than with stainless steel stents. The orientation of stents changed the size of off-resonance artifacts by up to two fold. Sequence type did influence the size of signal void or off-resonance artifact (p<0.05). Varying the flip angle and phase encode direction did not affect image artifact. Conclusion Stainless steel embolization coils render large zones of anatomy uninterpretable, consistent with predictions based on ex

  12. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roadman, Jason; Huskey, Arlinda

    2015-07-01

    A series of tests were conducted to characterize the baseline properties and performance of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1.5-megawatt wind turbine (DOE 1.5) to enable research model development and quantify the effects of future turbine research modifications. The DOE 1.5 is built on the platform of GE's 1.5-MW SLE commercial wind turbine model. It was installed in a nonstandard configuration at the NWTC with the objective of supporting DOE Wind Program research initiatives such as A2e. Therefore, the test results may not represent the performance capabilities of other GE 1.5-MW SLE turbines. The acoustic noise test documented in this report is one of a series of tests carried out to establish a performance baseline for the DOE 1.5 in the NWTC inflow environment.

  13. Magnetic Correlations and Pairing in the 1/5-Depleted Square Lattice Hubbard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khatemi, Ehsan; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pickett, Warren E.; Scalettar, Richardq T.

    2014-09-04

    We study the single-orbital Hubbard model on the 1/5-depleted square-lattice geometry, which arises in such diverse systems as the spin-gap magnetic insulator CaV4O9 and ordered-vacancy iron selenides, presenting new issues regarding the origin of both magnetic ordering and superconductivity in these materials. We find a rich phase diagram that includes a plaquette singlet phase, a dimer singlet phase, a Néel and a block-spin antiferromagnetic phase, and stripe phases. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations show that the dominant pairing correlations at half filling change character from d wave in the plaquette phase to extended s wave upon transition to the Néel phase. These findings have intriguing connections to iron-based superconductors, and suggest that some physics of multiorbital systems can be captured by a single-orbital model at different dopings.

  14. Reliability of MRSI brain temperature mapping at 1.5 and 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Thrippleton, Michael J; Parikh, Jehill; Harris, Bridget A; Hammer, Steven J; Semple, Scott I K; Andrews, Peter J D; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Marshall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    MRSI permits the non-invasive mapping of brain temperature in vivo, but information regarding its reliability is lacking. We obtained MRSI data from 31 healthy male volunteers [age range, 22–40 years; mean ± standard deviation (SD), 30.5 ± 5.0 years]. Eleven subjects (age range, 23–40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 5.2 years) were invited to receive four point-resolved spectroscopy MRSI scans on each of 3 days in both 1.5-T (TR/TE = 1000/144 ms) and 3-T (TR/TE = 1700/144 ms) clinical scanners; a further 20 subjects (age range, 22–40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 4.9 years) were scanned on a single occasion at 3 T. Data were fitted in the time domain to determine the water–N-acetylaspartate chemical shift difference, from which the temperature was estimated. Temperature data were analysed using a linear mixed effects model to determine variance components and systematic temperature changes during the scanning sessions. To characterise the effects of instrumental drift on apparent MRSI brain temperature, a temperature-controlled phantom was constructed and scanned on multiple occasions. Components of apparent in vivo temperature variability at 1.5 T/3 T caused by inter-subject (0.18/0.17 °C), inter-session (0.18/0.15 °C) and within-session (0.36/0.14 °C) effects, as well as voxel-to-voxel variation (0.59/0.54 °C), were determined. There was a brain cooling effect during in vivo MRSI of 0.10 °C [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.110, –0.094 °C; p < 0.001] and 0.051 °C (95% CI: –0.054, –0.048 °C; p < 0.001) per scan at 1.5 T and 3 T, respectively, whereas phantom measurements revealed minimal drift in apparent MRSI temperature relative to fibre-optic temperature measurements. The mean brain temperature at 3 T was weakly associated with aural (R = 0.55, p = 0.002) and oral (R = 0.62, p < 0.001) measurements of head temperature. In conclusion, the variability associated with MRSI brain temperature

  15. Species Variation in the Predawn Inhibition of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Servaites, Jerome C.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Gutteridge, Steven; Keys, Alfred J.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was measured in extracts of leaves collected before dawn (predawn activity, pa) and at midday (midday activity, ma). Twenty-three of the 37 species examined showed a pa/ma ratio (≤0.75, while only Capsicum frutescens, Cucumis sativa, Glycine max, Nicotiana tabacum, Vigna unguiculata, and 3 Solanum species showed a pa/ma ratio ≤0.5. Phaseolus vulgaris consistently showed a pa/ma ratio of ≤0.1. Activities and pa/ma ratios of the same species grown in the United States and the United Kingdom were very similar. Gel filtration of extracts before assay had no effect on the observed activities and the pa/ma ratios. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that in a number of species the enzyme is partially inhibited following the night period by the presence of a tight-binding inhibitor. PMID:16665155

  16. Purification and characterization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from triticale.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Dixit, A; Upadhyaya, K C

    1994-04-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase has been isolated from a synthetic cereal triticale and purified using a newly developed rapid procedure involving precipitation with ammonium sulphate (35-55% saturation), DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) chromatography and filtration through Sepharose CL-68. Molecular weights of the enzyme subunits are 15.5 and 52 kDa which corresponds to 540 kDa for the hexadecameric holoenzyme. Isoelectric focussing showed that the enzyme has a pI of 4.2. Various kinetic constants determined under aerobic conditions are: Km (CO2), 118 microM; Km (RuBP), 220 microM (at 20 mM NaHCO3) and Vmax, 690 nmole CO2 fixed/mg enzyme/min.

  17. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus.

    PubMed

    Gubernator, Beata; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Kroliczewski, Jaroslaw; Wildner, Guenter; Szczepaniak, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) can be divided into two branches: the "red-like type" of marine algae and the "green-like type" of cyanobacteria, green algae, and higher plants. We found that the "green-like type" rubisco from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus has an almost 2-fold higher specificity factor compared with rubiscos of mesophilic cyanobacteria, reaching the values of higher plants, and simultaneously revealing an improvement in enzyme thermostability. The difference in the activation energies at the transition stages between the oxygenase and carboxylase reactions for Thermosynechococcus elongatus rubisco is very close to that of Galdieria partita and significantly higher than that of spinach. This is the first characterization of a "green-like type" rubisco from thermophilic organism.

  18. Deevelopment of a 1.5 MW, 140 GHz coaxial gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Piosczyk, B.; Dammertz, G.; Iatrou, C.T.; Moebius, A.; Zhang, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    A 1.5 MW, 140 GHz, TE{sub 28,16}-coaxial gyrotron with an inverse MIG is under development. Preliminary rf-tests using an axial rf output and a simple cavity with a constant diameter and non-corrugated inner rod gave an rf output power of 1 MW with an efficiency of 23% at 140 GHz (TE{sub 28,16}) and 1.3 MW with an efficiency of 29% at 133 GHz (TE{sup 27,15}). No indications of beam instabilities in the beam tunnel between the IMIG gun and the cavity have been observed. Experiments with an improved cavity and the design of the tube with a radial dual Gaussian beam output and a depressed collector are underway.

  19. Development of a high specific 1.5 to 5 kW thermal arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riehle, M.; Glocker, B.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Kurtz, H.

    1993-01-01

    A research and development project on the experimental study of a 1.5-5 kW thermal arcjet thruster was started in 1992 at the IRS. Two radiation cooled thrusters were designed, constructed, and adapted to the test facilities, one at each end of the intended power range. These thrusters are currently subjected to an intensive test program with main emphasis on the exploration of thruster performance and thruster behavior at high specific enthalpy and thus high specific impulse. Propelled by simulated hydrazine and ammonia, the thruster's electrode configuration such as constrictor diameter and cathode gap was varied in order to investigate their influence and to optimize these parameters. In addition, test runs with pure hydrogen were performed for both thrusters.

  20. Glass Transitions in Monodisperse Cluster-Forming Ensembles: Vortex Matter in Type-1.5 Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Méndez, Rogelio; Mezzacapo, Fabio; Lechner, Wolfgang; Cinti, Fabio; Babaev, Egor; Pupillo, Guido

    2017-02-10

    At low enough temperatures and high densities, the equilibrium configuration of an ensemble of ultrasoft particles is a self-assembled, ordered, cluster crystal. In the present Letter, we explore the out-of-equilibrium dynamics for a two-dimensional realization, which is relevant to superconducting materials with multiscale intervortex forces. We find that, for small temperatures following a quench, the suppression of the thermally activated particle hopping hinders the ordering. This results in a glass transition for a monodispersed ensemble, for which we derive a microscopic explanation in terms of an "effective polydispersity" induced by multiscale interactions. This demonstrates that a vortex glass can form in clean systems of thin films of "type-1.5" superconductors. An additional setup to study this physics can be layered superconducting systems, where the shape of the effective vortex-vortex interactions can be engineered.

  1. Dual-Polarization, Sideband-Separating, Balanced Receiver for 1.5 THz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutman; Ward, John; Manohara, Harish; Siegel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A proposed heterodyne receiver would be capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation in both of two orthogonal linear polarizations, separating sidebands, and providing balanced outputs in a frequency band centered at 1.5 THz with a fractional bandwidth greater than 40 percent. Dual polarization, sideband-separating, and balanced-output receivers are well-known and have been used extensively at frequencies up to about 100 GHz; and there was an earlier proposal for such a receiver for frequencies up to 900 GHz. However, the present proposal represents the first realistic design concept for such a receiver capable of operating above 1 THz. The proposed receiver is intended to be a prototype of mass-producible receiver units, operating at frequencies up to 6 THz, that would be incorporated into highly sensitive heterodyne array instruments to be used in astronomical spectroscopic and imaging studies.

  2. Postimport methylation of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Grimm, R; Grimm, M; Eckerskorn, C; Pohlmeyer, K; Röhl, T; Soll, J

    1997-05-26

    Electron impact mass spectronomy analysis of the amino-terminal amino acid of the small subunit (SSU) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) showed that the amino-terminal methionine residue is post-translationally modified to N-methyl-methionine. Modification of the amino-terminal methionine residue was found in mature SSU proteins from the dicotyledonous plants pea and spinach as well as the monocotyledonous plants barley and corn. SSU methyltransferase is a soluble protein in the chloroplast stroma and accepts heterologously expressed non-methylated SSU as a substrate using S-adenosylmethionine as methyl-group donor. We show that this modification occurs after post-translational uptake of the precursor form of SSU into chloroplasts and processing to its mature size. This reaction represents a new step in the import and assembly pathway of Rubisco holoenzyme.

  3. Magnetic force Optical Coherence Elastography at 1.5 million a-lines per second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Singh, Manmohan; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Raghunathan, Raksha; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) has been widely used to characterize tissue elasticity. In this paper we introduce a new excitation method using magnetic force to induce shear waves in phantoms and tissues. The shear waves were imaged using an Optical Coherence Tomography system with an A-scan rate of ~1.5 million a-lines per second and the speed of the waves were used to quantify elasticity of different concentrations of agar sampled and porcine liver. The OCE results acquired from this magnetic force excitation were compared with the mechanical compressional tests for validation. The results showed that magnetic force OCE and mechanical testing results were in good agreement, demonstrating the ability of magnetic force OCE to accurately quantify the Young's modulus of tissue.

  4. Kinetics of 1,5-hydrogen migration in alkyl radical reaction class.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Artur; Bankiewicz, Barbara

    2012-01-12

    Kinetics of the 1,5-intramolecular hydrogen migration in the alkyl radicals reaction class has been studied using the reaction class transition state theory combined with the linear energy relationship (LER) and the barrier height grouping (BHG) approach. The high pressure limits of the rate constants for the reference reaction of 1-pentyl → 1-pentyl, calculated by the Canonical Variational Transition State Theory (CVT) with the Small Curvature Tunneling (SCT), are taken from the literature. Direct comparison with available experimental data indicates that the RC-TST/LER, where only reaction energy is needed, can predict rate constants for any reaction in this reaction class with excellent accuracy. Specifically for this reaction class, the RC-TST/LER method has less than 65% systematic errors in the predicted rate constants when compared to explicit rate calculations.

  5. The Engineering Design of the 1.5 m Diameter Solenoid for the MICERFCC Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Green, M.A.; Xu, F.Y.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Gou, C.S.; Liu, C.S.; Han, G.; Jia, L.X.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.O.; Virostek, S.P.

    2007-08-27

    The RF coupling coil (RFCC) module of MICE is where muonsthat have been cooled within the MICE absorber focus (AFC) modules arere-accelerated to their original longitudinal momentum. The RFCC moduleconsists of four 201.25 MHz RF cavities in a 1.4 meter diameter vacuumvessel. The muons are kept within the RF cavities by the magnetic fieldgenerated by a superconducting coupling solenoid that goes around the RFcavities. The coupling solenoid will be cooled using a pair of 4 K pulsetube cooler that will generate 1.5 W of cooling at 4.2 K. The magnet willbe powered using a 300 A two-quadrant power supply. This report describesthe ICST engineering design of the coupling solenoid forMICE.

  6. Resourceful synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Buriol, Lilian; München, Taiana S; Frizzo, Clarissa P; Marzari, Mara R B; Zanatta, Nilo; Bonacorso, Helio G; Martins, Marcos A P

    2013-09-01

    Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines were synthesized via the ultrasonic sonochemical method using the cyclocondensation reaction of 4-alkoxy-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-alken-2-ones [CF3C(O)CH=C(R)(OMe) - where R=Me, Bu, i-Bu, Ph, 4-Me-C6H4, 4-F-C6H4, 4-Cl-C6H4, 4-Br-C6H4, naphth-2-yl and biphen-4-yl] - with 3-amino-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole in the presence of EtOH for 5 min. This methodology has several advantages, for example, it is a simple procedure, it has an easy work-up, mild conditions, short reaction times (5 min) and produces satisfactory yields (61-98%).

  7. Flood of July 1-5, 1978 on the Kickapoo River, southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, Peter E.; Hannuksela, J.S.; Danchuk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Kickapoo River valley in southwestern Wisconsin had a devastating flood ($10 million estimated damages) during July 1-5, 1978. The flash flooding was caused by intense storms on June 30 through July 2. Total rainfall accumulation ranged from 5.8 inches near Ontario to 9.5 inches at La Farge. The resulting flood equaled or exceeded the largest ones recorded since the 1850 's and equaled or exceeded the 100-year flood frequency at the U.S. Geological Survey 's streamflow gages at La Farge and Steuben. Elevation and delineation of the flood are shown on photo mosaics developed from black and white aerial photographs. The 100-mile reach from Wauzeka to Wilton is shown. A summary of the storm conditions causing the flood and an analysis of the rainfall totals, as prepared by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, are also included. (USGS)

  8. High-speed directly modulated 1.5μm quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyoudeh, Saddam; Abdollahinia, Alireza; Eyal, Ori; Schnabel, Florian; Sichkovskyi, Vitalii; Eisenstein, Gadi; Reithmaier, Johann P.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the discrete density of states distribution and spatial localization of carriers in quantum dot (QD) material, the dynamics should be strongly enhanced in comparison to quantum well material. Based on improved 1.5 μm InAs/InGaAlAs/InP QD gain material short cavity ridge waveguide lasers were fabricated. Devices with cavity, lengths of 230 to 338 μm with high reflection coatings on the backside exhibit record value for any QD laser in small and large signal modulation performance with up to 15 GHz and 36 GBit/s, respectively, obtained at 14 °C. Due to the high temperature stability of threshold current and external differential efficiency, the lasers exhibit also nearly constant modulation bandwidth between 14-60 °C.

  9. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  10. 20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Guo, Yujian; Oubei, Hassan M; Ng, Tien Khee; Liu, Guangyu; Park, Ki-Hong; Ho, Kang-Ting; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-10-31

    The video streaming, data transmission, and remote control in underwater call for high speed (Gbps) communication link with a long channel length (~10 meters). We present a compact and low power consumption underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system utilizing a 450-nm laser diode (LD) and a Si avalanche photodetector. With the LD operating at a driving current of 80 mA with an optical power of 51.3 mW, we demonstrated a high-speed UWOC link offering a data rate up to 2 Gbps over a 12-meter-long, and 1.5 Gbps over a record 20-meter-long underwater channel. The measured bit-error rate (BER) are 2.8 × 10-5, and 3.0 × 10-3, respectively, which pass well the forward error correction (FEC) criterion.

  11. 1.5 nm fabrication of test patterns for characterization of metrological systems

    DOE PAGES

    Babin, Sergey; Calafiore, Giuseppe; Peroz, Christophe; ...

    2015-11-06

    Any metrology tool is only as good as it is calibrated. The characterization of metrology systems requires test patterns at a scale about ten times smaller than the measured features. The fabrication of patterns with linewidths down to 1.5 nm is described. The test sample was designed in such a way that the distribution of linewidths appears to be random at any location. This pseudorandom test pattern is used to characterize dimensional metrology equipment over its entire dynamic range by extracting the modulation transfer function of the system. The test pattern contains alternating lines of silicon and tungsten silicide, eachmore » according to its designed width. As a result, the fabricated test samples were imaged using a transmission electron microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and an atomic force microscope. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.« less

  12. Magnetic Correlations and Pairing in the 1/5-Depleted Square Lattice Hubbard Model

    DOE PAGES

    Khatemi, Ehsan; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Pickett, Warren E.; ...

    2014-09-04

    We study the single-orbital Hubbard model on the 1/5-depleted square-lattice geometry, which arises in such diverse systems as the spin-gap magnetic insulator CaV4O9 and ordered-vacancy iron selenides, presenting new issues regarding the origin of both magnetic ordering and superconductivity in these materials. We find a rich phase diagram that includes a plaquette singlet phase, a dimer singlet phase, a Néel and a block-spin antiferromagnetic phase, and stripe phases. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations show that the dominant pairing correlations at half filling change character from d wave in the plaquette phase to extended s wave upon transition to the Néel phase.more » These findings have intriguing connections to iron-based superconductors, and suggest that some physics of multiorbital systems can be captured by a single-orbital model at different dopings.« less

  13. Structural progression in clusters of ionized water, (H2O)n=1-5(+).

    PubMed

    Herr, Jonathan D; Talbot, Justin; Steele, Ryan P

    2015-01-29

    Ionized water clusters serve as a model of water-splitting chemistry for energetic purposes, as well as postradiolytic events in condensed-phase systems. Structures, properties, and relative energies are presented for oxidized water clusters, (H2O)n=1-5(+), using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory approaches. In small clusters, an ion-radical contact pair OH···H3O+ is known to form upon ionization. The transition from n = 4 to n = 5 molecules in the cluster, however, is found to demarcate a size regime in which a propensity for the ion and radical to separate exists. This trend is consistent with recent experimental vibrational analyses. Decomposition of the cluster energetics reveals that preferential solvation of the hydronium cation by water serves as the dominant driving force for this pair separation, which should persist in larger clusters and bulk water ionization.

  14. Reliability of MRSI brain temperature mapping at 1.5 and 3 T.

    PubMed

    Thrippleton, Michael J; Parikh, Jehill; Harris, Bridget A; Hammer, Steven J; Semple, Scott I K; Andrews, Peter J D; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Marshall, Ian

    2014-02-01

    MRSI permits the non-invasive mapping of brain temperature in vivo, but information regarding its reliability is lacking. We obtained MRSI data from 31 healthy male volunteers [age range, 22-40 years; mean ± standard deviation (SD), 30.5 ± 5.0 years]. Eleven subjects (age range, 23-40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 5.2 years) were invited to receive four point-resolved spectroscopy MRSI scans on each of 3 days in both 1.5-T (TR/TE = 1000/144 ms) and 3-T (TR/TE = 1700/144 ms) clinical scanners; a further 20 subjects (age range, 22-40 years; mean ± SD, 30.5 ± 4.9 years) were scanned on a single occasion at 3 T. Data were fitted in the time domain to determine the water-N-acetylaspartate chemical shift difference, from which the temperature was estimated. Temperature data were analysed using a linear mixed effects model to determine variance components and systematic temperature changes during the scanning sessions. To characterise the effects of instrumental drift on apparent MRSI brain temperature, a temperature-controlled phantom was constructed and scanned on multiple occasions. Components of apparent in vivo temperature variability at 1.5 T/3 T caused by inter-subject (0.18/0.17 °C), inter-session (0.18/0.15 °C) and within-session (0.36/0.14 °C) effects, as well as voxel-to-voxel variation (0.59/0.54 °C), were determined. There was a brain cooling effect during in vivo MRSI of 0.10 °C [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.110, -0.094 °C; p < 0.001] and 0.051 °C (95% CI: -0.054, -0.048 °C; p < 0.001) per scan at 1.5 T and 3 T, respectively, whereas phantom measurements revealed minimal drift in apparent MRSI temperature relative to fibre-optic temperature measurements. The mean brain temperature at 3 T was weakly associated with aural (R = 0.55, p = 0.002) and oral (R = 0.62, p < 0.001) measurements of head temperature. In conclusion, the variability associated with MRSI brain temperature mapping was

  15. Optics of a 1.5 TeV injector for the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, John A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    A concept is being developed to install a second, low energy ring (LER) above the LHC to accelerate protons from 450 GeV to 1.5 TeV prior to injection into the LHC. The arc and dispersion suppresser optics of the LHC would be replicated in the LER using combined function ''transmission line'' magnets originally proposed for the VLHC. To avoid costly civil construction, in the straight sections housing detectors at least, the LER and LHC must share beampipes and some magnets through the detector portion of the straights. Creating the appropriate optics for these LER-LHC transition regions is very challenging: In addition to matching to the nominal LHC lattice functions at these locations the changes in altitude of 1.35 m separating the LER and LHC must be performed achromatically to avoid emittance blowup arising from vertical dispersion when the beams are transferred to the LHC.

  16. Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwal, B. K.; González-Cataldo, F.; Verma, A. K.; Stixrude, Lars; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations carried out for tetragonal and orthorhombic distortions of iron closely follow the results of static-lattice electronic-structure calculations in revealing that the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase of Fe is mechanically unstable at pressures of 0.3-1.5 TPa and temperatures up to 7000 K. Crystal-structural instabilities originate in the static lattice for the bcc configuration, and are consistent with recent results from both static and dynamic high-pressure experiments. Both theory and experiment thus show that the close-packed (hexagonal, hcp and face-centered cubic, fcc) crystal structures of iron are those relevant to the cores of Earth-like planets.

  17. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.

    PubMed

    Tabarean, Iustin V

    2014-01-01

    The electrogenic machinery of an excitable cell can adapt in response to changes in input, genetic deficit or in pathological conditions, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. In cases of genetic deletion it is commonly observed that a channel subunit from the same family replaces the missing one. We have previously reported that Kv4.2-/- preoptic GABAergic neurons display identical firing characteristics to those of wild-type neurons despite having reduced A-type currents, and that, surprisingly, they present a robust upregulation of a delayed rectifier current, the nature of which is unknown. Here, using pharmacology, qPCR and Western blots we report that, although the wild-type neurons express several Kv subunits, the upregulated current is conducted by the Kv1.5 subunit exclusively. Thus, this study reveals the molecular nature of a novel mechanism of electrical remodeling in central neurons.

  18. MALDI-MS analysis and imaging of small molecule metabolites with 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN)

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, Andrew R; Lee, Young Jin

    2014-07-08

    1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) has previously been reported as an effective matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry of phospholipids. In the current work, we investigate the use of DAN as a matrix for small metabolite analysis in negative ion mode. DAN was found to provide superior ionization to the compared matrices for MW < ~400 Da; however, 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) was found to be superior for a uridine diphosphate standard (MW 566 Da). DAN was also found to provide a more representative profile of a natural phospholipid mixture than 9-AA. Finally, DAN and 9-AA were applied for imaging of metabolites directly from corn leaf sections. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. The Instrument Test Dewar (ITD): Testing satellite instruments at 1.5 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Laura J.

    1988-01-01

    The Instrument Test Dewar (ITD) is a cryogenic facility designed and built to test Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite instruments at 1.5 K. The facility provides a high vacuum and thermal environment with payload thermal, electrical and optical interfaces. There are two concentric vacuum spaces which are not hermitically sealed. The instrument vacuum space is 81.28 cm by 243.84 cm and is cooled by an LHe shroud. The guard vacuum space surrounds an LN2 shroud. There are two separate cryosorption pumping systems and a mechanical LHe pumping system. The data acquisition systems provide payload and housekeeping data. There have been various problems with the facility, and changes and improvements have been made to assure optimum test conditions. COBE instrument testing has been completed on structural, thermal model hardware and the protoflight units.

  20. 1.5 nm fabrication of test patterns for characterization of metrological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babin, Sergey; Calafiore, Giuseppe; Peroz, Christophe; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Cabrini, Stefano; Chan, Elaine; Lacey, Ian; McKinney, Wayne R.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Vladar, Andras E.

    2015-11-06

    Any metrology tool is only as good as it is calibrated. The characterization of metrology systems requires test patterns at a scale about ten times smaller than the measured features. The fabrication of patterns with linewidths down to 1.5 nm is described. The test sample was designed in such a way that the distribution of linewidths appears to be random at any location. This pseudorandom test pattern is used to characterize dimensional metrology equipment over its entire dynamic range by extracting the modulation transfer function of the system. The test pattern contains alternating lines of silicon and tungsten silicide, each according to its designed width. As a result, the fabricated test samples were imaged using a transmission electron microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and an atomic force microscope. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.

  1. Glass Transitions in Monodisperse Cluster-Forming Ensembles: Vortex Matter in Type-1.5 Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Méndez, Rogelio; Mezzacapo, Fabio; Lechner, Wolfgang; Cinti, Fabio; Babaev, Egor; Pupillo, Guido

    2017-02-01

    At low enough temperatures and high densities, the equilibrium configuration of an ensemble of ultrasoft particles is a self-assembled, ordered, cluster crystal. In the present Letter, we explore the out-of-equilibrium dynamics for a two-dimensional realization, which is relevant to superconducting materials with multiscale intervortex forces. We find that, for small temperatures following a quench, the suppression of the thermally activated particle hopping hinders the ordering. This results in a glass transition for a monodispersed ensemble, for which we derive a microscopic explanation in terms of an "effective polydispersity" induced by multiscale interactions. This demonstrates that a vortex glass can form in clean systems of thin films of "type-1.5" superconductors. An additional setup to study this physics can be layered superconducting systems, where the shape of the effective vortex-vortex interactions can be engineered.

  2. Design of Electron Gun for 1.5 MW, 140 GHz Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Purohit, L. P.; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the design of the triode type electron gun for a 140 GHz, 1.5 MW gyrotron with the transverse to the axial velocity ratio of the beam 1.4 and the transverse velocity spread 1.28%. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE24,8 and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The analytic trade-off equations for the electron gun design have been used to estimate the initial gun parameters. The electron trajectory tracing program has been used to optimize the electron gun design. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage, beam voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality has also been studied.

  3. 1,5-Disubstituted benzimidazoles that direct cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Okolotowicz, Karl J.; Bushway, Paul; Lanier, Marion; Gilley, Cynthia; Cynthia, Mark; Cashman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite progress in medical treatments, heart transplantation is one of the only current options for those with infarcted heart muscle. Stem cell differentiation technology may afford cell-based therapeutics that may lead to the generation of new, healthy heart muscle cells from undifferentiated stem cells. Our approach is to use small molecules to stimulate stem cell differentiation. Herein, we describe a novel class of 1,5-disubstituted benzimidazoles that induce differentiation of stem cells into cardiac cells. We report on the evaluation in vitro for cardiomyocyte differentiation and describe structure–activity relationship results that led to molecules with drug-like properties. The results of this study show the promise of small molecules to direct stem cell lineage commitment, to probe signaling pathways and to develop compounds for the stimulation of stem cells to repair damaged heart tissue. PMID:26278027

  4. Dust production 0.7-1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michałowski, Michał J.

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic dust is an important component of the Universe, and its origin, especially at high redshifts, is still unknown. I present a simple but powerful method of assessing whether dust observed in a given galaxy could in principle have been formed by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars or supernovae (SNe). Using this method I show that for most of the galaxies with detected dust emission between z=4 and z=7.5 (1.5-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang) AGB stars are not numerous and efficient enough to be responsible for the measured dust masses. Supernovae could account for most of the dust, but only if all of them had efficiencies close to the maximal theoretically allowed value. This suggests that a different mechanism is responsible for dust production at high redshifts, and the most likely possibility is the grain growth in the interstellar medium.

  5. Improved Functional Expression of Human Cardiac Kv1.5 Channels and Trafficking-Defective Mutants by Low Temperature Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Futoshi; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We herein investigated the effect of low temperature exposure on the expression, degradation, localization and activity of human Kv1.5 (hKv1.5). In hKv1.5-expressing CHO cells, the currents were significantly increased when cultured at a reduced temperature (28°C) compared to those observed at 37°C. Western blot analysis indicated that the protein levels (both immature and mature proteins) of hKv1.5 were significantly elevated under the hypothermic condition. Treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, significantly increased the immature, but not the mature, hKv1.5 protein at 37°C, however, there were no changes in either the immature or mature hKv1.5 proteins at low temperature following MG132 exposure. These observations suggest that the enhancement of the mature hKv1.5 protein at reduced temperature may not result from the inhibition of proteolysis. Moreover, the hKv1.5 fluorescence signal in the cells increased significantly on the cell surface at 28°C versus those cultured at 37°C. Importantly, the low temperature treatment markedly shifted the subcellular distribution of the mature hKv1.5, which showed considerable overlap with the trans-Golgi component. Experiments using tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation, indicated that the N-glycosylation of hKv1.5 is more effective at 28°C than at 37°C. Finally, the hypothermic treatment also rescued the protein expression and currents of trafficking-defective hKv1.5 mutants. These results indicate that low temperature exposure stabilizes the protein in the cellular organelles or on the plasma membrane, and modulates its maturation and trafficking, thus enhancing the currents of hKv1.5 and its trafficking defect mutants. PMID:24663680

  6. Simultaneous Kinetic Analysis of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Activities 1

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Samuel S.; Young, Joseph D.

    1980-01-01

    An assay was developed for simultaneous kinetic analysis of the activities of the bifunctional plant enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase [EC 4.1.1.39]. [1-14C,5-3H]Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) was used as the labeled substrate. Tritium enrichment of the doubly labeled 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) product, common to both enzyme activities, may be used to calculate Vc/Vo ratios from the expression A/(B-A) where A and B represent the 3H/14C isotope ratios of doubly labeled RuBP and 3-PGA, and Vc and Vo represent the activities of carboxylase and oxygenase, respectively. Doubly labeled substrate was synthesized from [2-14C]glucose and [6-3H]glucose using the enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway coupled with phosphoribulokinase. The kinetic properties of a commercial preparation of fully activated spinach carboxylase were studied under approximated physiological conditions of 20% O2 (252 micromolar), 295 μl/l CO2 (10 micromolar), 25 C, and pH 8.19. The Vc/Vo ratio was, within experimental error, constant at 30 seconds and 1 minute. This double label assay method may be used to calculate Vc/Vo ratios for the Laing-Ogren-Hageman equation, Vc/Vo = (VcKo/VoKc) ([CO2]/[O2]) where Vc and Vo represent Vmax, and Kc and Ko represent Michaelis constants for the carboxylase and oxygenase activities, respectively. PMID:16661214

  7. Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Galka, Marek M.; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Buhrow, Leann M.; Nelson, Ken M.; Switala, Jacek; Cutler, Adrian J.; Palmer, David R. J.; Loewen, Peter C.; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid ((+)-ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. A chemical proteomics approach using an ABA mimetic probe was combined with in vitro assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), x-ray crystallography and in silico modelling to identify putative (+)-ABA binding-proteins in crude extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was identified as a putative ABA-binding protein. Radiolabelled-binding assays yielded a Kd of 47 nM for (+)-ABA binding to spinach Rubisco, which was validated by ITC, and found to be similar to reported and experimentally derived values for the native ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) substrate. Functionally, (+)-ABA caused only weak inhibition of Rubisco catalytic activity (Ki of 2.1 mM), but more potent inhibition of Rubisco activation (Ki of ~ 130 μM). Comparative structural analysis of Rubisco in the presence of (+)-ABA with RuBP in the active site revealed only a putative low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site on the surface of the large subunit at a location distal from the active site. However, subtle distortions in electron density in the binding pocket and in silico docking support the possibility of a higher affinity (+)-ABA binding site in the RuBP binding pocket. Overall we conclude that (+)-ABA interacts with Rubisco. While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation. PMID:26197050

  8. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.

  9. Crash Impact Demonstration. (pt 6/10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This clip: Cockpit interior. Showing the pilot during impact, view forward. With narration. Background: On December 1st, 1984, a remote controlled 4 engined transport jet took off from Edwards AFB, CA and crashed into a barren patch of nearby desert. This Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint R&D program by the FAA and NASA. The FAA designed the C.I.D. to underscore results of exhaustive research in two areas of aircraft safety: improved crash protection and reduced post-crash fire hazards.Despite the fact the crash did not go exactly as designed C.I.D.did achieve its primary objectives.The analysis of C.I.D. data continues. The CID's crash wothiness tests were as important to the FAA as the fire safety tests. The crash protection objectives were: 1st: To obtain data on impact forces and their transmission thru the structure to the seats and occupants. 2nd: To evaluate the performance of existing and advanced energy absorbing seats. 3rd :To compare tests used to predict structural behaviour with an actual crash. AMK (anti-misting kerosene) fuel was employed in the test. The FAA has examined AMK's potential for protecting commercial transports from ignition of misted fuels. All research indicated that AMK would be effective in preventing this problem. The C.I.D. was an opportunity to use AMK in a realistic, impact-survivable crash.

  10. A new validated HPTLC method for quantitative determination of 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Inula crithmoides roots.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Ela, Maha Ahmed; El-Lakany, Abdalla Mohamed; Shams Eldin, Safa Mohamed; Hammoda, Hala Mostafa

    2012-10-01

    1, 5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (1, 5-DCQA), a potent HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, is currently undergoing an evaluation as a promising novel HIV therapeutic agent. This work aims at developing an accurate, rapid, repeatable and robust HPTLC method for the determination of 1, 5-DCQA in its natural sources. 1, 5-DCQA is the major component of the n-butanol fraction, the most biologically active hepatoprotective fraction, of Inula crithmoides roots extract. Thus, it will be of interest to evaluate the plant roots as a potential source of 1, 5-DCQA using a fully validated HPTLC method. The percentage of 1, 5-DCQA in the studied plant (0.035% w/w) was found to be approximately similar to those previously determined in other antioxidant herbal drugs, in which 1, 5- DCQA is the main phenolic constituent. The results obtained showed that the described HPTLC method is suitable for routine use in quality control of herbal raw material, extracts and pharmaceutical preparations containing 1, 5-DCQA. No HPTLC method has been reported in literature for the determination of 1, 5-DCQA in medicinal plants.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 on metallic interconnect and interaction with glass-ceramic sealant for solid oxide fuel cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeacetto, Federico; De Miranda, Auristela; Cabanas Polo, Sandra; Molin, Sebastian; Boccaccini, Dino; Salvo, Milena; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-04-01

    Cr-containing stainless steels are widely used as metallic interconnects for SOFCs. Volatile Cr-containing species, which originate from the oxide formed on steel, can poison the cathode material and subsequently cause degradation in the SOFC stack. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coating materials due to its high electrical conductivity, good CTE match with the stainless steel substrate and an excellent chromium retention capability. In this work Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel coatings are deposited on Crofer22APU substrates by cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by sintering at 800-1150 °C in different atmospheres. Dense, continuous and crack free Mn1.5Co1.5O4 coatings (with thickness ranging from 10 to 40 μm) are obtained on Crofer22APU substrates. Moreover, electrical properties of the coated Crofer22APU alloy are tested up to 2500 h and an excellent compatibility is found between Mn1.5Co1.5O4 coated Crofer22APU and a new glass-ceramic sealant, after 500 h of thermal tests in air, thus suggesting that the spinel protection layer can effectively act as a barrier to outward diffusion of Cr.

  12. The sodium channel Nav1.5a is the predominant isoform expressed in adult mouse dorsal root ganglia and exhibits distinct inactivation properties from the full-length Nav1.5 channel.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Niall C H; Gao, Zhan; Holmes, Fiona E; Hobson, Sally-Ann; Hancox, Jules C; Wynick, David; James, Andrew F

    2007-06-01

    Nav1.5 is the principal voltage-gated sodium channel expressed in heart, and is also expressed at lower abundance in embryonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with little or no expression reported postnatally. We report here the expression of Nav1.5 mRNA isoforms in adult mouse and rat DRG. The major isoform of mouse DRG is Nav1.5a, which encodes a protein with an IDII/III cytoplasmic loop reduced by 53 amino acids. Western blot analysis of adult mouse DRG membrane proteins confirmed the expression of Nav1.5 protein. The Na+ current produced by the Nav1.5a isoform has a voltage-dependent inactivation significantly shifted to more negative potentials (by approximately 5 mV) compared to the full-length Nav1.5 when expressed in the DRG neuroblastoma cell line ND7/23. These results imply that the alternatively spliced exon 18 of Nav1.5 plays a role in channel inactivation and that Nav1.5a is likely to make a significant contribution to adult DRG neuronal function.

  13. Real-Time MRI-Guided Cryoablation of Small Renal Tumors at 1.5 T

    PubMed Central

    Ahrar, Kamran; Ahrar, Judy U.; Javadi, Sanaz; Pan, Li; Milton, Denái R.; Wood, Christopher G.; Matin, Surena F.; Stafford, R. Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cryoablation has been investigated in open MRI systems with low magnetic fields (0.2–0.5 T). More advanced imaging techniques and faster imaging rates are possible at higher magnetic fields which often require a closed-bore magnet design. However, there is very little experience with real-time interventions in closed-bore 1.5 T MRI units. Herein, we report our initial experience with real-time MRI-guided cryoablation of small renal tumors using a prototype balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging sequence in a closed-bore 1.5-T MRI system. Materials and Methods From August 2008 to April 2012, 18 patients underwent MRI-guided cryoablation of small renal tumors. A 1.5-T cylindrical MRI scanner with a 125 cm × 70 cm bore and a prototype bSSFP sequence (BEAT IRTTT) were used to guide the placement of 17-gauge cryoprobes in real time. Ice ball formation was monitored every 3 minutes in one or more imaging planes. Each ablation consisted of 2 freeze-thaw cycles. Contrast-enhanced MRI was performed after the second active thaw period. Follow-up consisted of clinical evaluation and renal protocol computed tomography (CT) or MRI performed at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and annually thereafter. Results During the study period, we successfully ablated 18 tumors in 18 patients in 18 sessions. The mean tumor size was 2.2 cm (median, 2 cm; range: 1.2–4.4 cm). The number of cryoprobes used per patient was determined based on tumor size. The mean number of cryoprobes used per patient was 3 (median, 3 cryoprobes; range, 2–4 cryoprobes). Fifty-six cryoprobes, 9 biopsy needles, and 2 hydrodissection needles were successfully placed under real time MRI guidance using BEAT IRTTT sequence. Hydrodissection under MRI guidance was successfully performed in 4 patients. In each patient, contrast-enhanced MRI performed after the second active thaw period revealed a sharply defined avascular zone surrounding the

  14. DEFB1 5'UTR polymorphisms modulate the risk of HIV-1 infection in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Aguirre, J A; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Prado Montes de Oca, E; Ochoa-Ramirez, L A; Ramirez, M; Magallon-Zazueta, L G; Gonzalez-Beltran, M S; Cazarez-Salazar, S G; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Velarde-Felix, J S

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic and genetic factors are involved in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. Defensins are key molecules in innate immunity that participate in the control and/or development of infection and disease. Using PCR-RFLPs, we determined the association between HIV-1/AIDS and human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) 5'UTR -52 G/A (rs1799946), -44 C/G (rs1800972), and -20 G/A (rs11362) polymorphisms in three groups of women from the state of Sinaloa, located in the Northwest region of Mexico: i) healthy blood donors; ii) sex-workers; and iii) HIV-1 patients. The -52GG genotype was more frequent in blood donors than in patients (p= 0.023; Odds Ratio, OR= 0.49; 95% CI= 0.25-0.95), whereas the - 52GA genotype was significantly higher in patients (p= 0.013; OR= 2.03; 95% CI= 1.11-3.79, statistical power SP= 98.8%), as well as the frequencies of -20A allele (p= 0.017; OR= 1.60; 95% CI= 1.06-2.40), -20AA genotype (p= 0.047; OR = 2.02; 95% CI= 0.93-4.33) and the ACA haplotype with respect to healthy blood donors (p= 0.000012; OR= 5.82; 95% CI= 2.33-16.43, SP= 99.89%) and sex-workers (p= 0.019; OR= 2.18; 95% CI= 1.07-4.46). Conversely, the ACG haplotype was higher in healthy blood donors than in patients (p= 0.009; OR= 0.55; 95% CI= 0.34-0.89). In addition, the -44CC genotype was associated with a low plasma viral load (p= 0.015), whereas AGA, AGG and GGA haplotypes were more prevalent in individuals with high CD4 counts (p= 0.004, 0.046, and 0.029, respectively). These findings associate DEFB1 5'UTR polymorphisms with HIV-1/AIDS in Mexican women for the first time.

  15. Quantitative diffusion imaging of adipose tissue in the human lower leg at 1.5 T.

    PubMed

    Steidle, G; Eibofner, F; Schick, F

    2011-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging was developed and applied for assessment of diffusion coefficients of adipose tissue in human lower leg on a 1.5-T whole-body MR scanner. Because of the higher molecular weight of triglycerides, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of adipose tissue are approximately two orders of magnitude smaller compared with water, leading to the necessity of using high b-values up to 50,000 sec/mm(2) and an echo time of 240 msec for sufficient diffusion-related signal attenuation. ADC maps of adipose tissue in the human lower leg were derived for diffusion encoding along orthogonal spatial directions in six healthy volunteers. Mean diffusion coefficients in the tibial bone marrow amounted to (1.81 ± 0.10) × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec (left-right), (1.96 ± 0.10) × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec (anterior-posterior), and (1.96 ± 0.20) × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec (head-feet), respectively. Pixel-wise calculated ADC values of subcutaneous adipose tissue showed a distinctly higher variation with the smallest ADC values similar to those measured for tibial bone marrow. Some subcutaneous adipose tissue regions showed increased signal attenuation at higher b-values resulting in ADC coefficients up to 4.2 × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec. It must be noted that diffusion measurements with extremely high b-values in vivo are extremely sensitive to incoherent motion effects in tissue. Nonetheless, it could be shown that in vivo diffusion imaging of adipose tissue in human lower leg is possible at 1.5 T in acceptable measurement time of a few minutes. Potential future applications of fat diffusion imaging are seen in temperature measurements in adipose tissue, detection of free fatty acids in white or brown adipose tissue in case of high lipolysis, differentiation of macro- and microvesicular steatosis, or assessment of the mobility of intramyocellular lipids.

  16. The voltage-dependent K(+) channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Comes, Núria; Bielanska, Joanna; Vallejo-Gracia, Albert; Serrano-Albarrás, Antonio; Marruecos, Laura; Gómez, Diana; Soler, Concepció; Condom, Enric; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ferreres, Joan C; Felipe, Antonio

    2013-10-10

    Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv) are involved in a number of physiological processes, including immunomodulation, cell volume regulation, apoptosis as well as differentiation. Some Kv channels participate in the proliferation and migration of normal and tumor cells, contributing to metastasis. Altered expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels has been found in several types of tumors and cancer cells. In general, while the expression of Kv1.3 apparently exhibits no clear pattern, Kv1.5 is induced in many of the analyzed metastatic tissues. Interestingly, evidence indicates that Kv1.5 channel shows inversed correlation with malignancy in some gliomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. However, Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 are similarly remodeled in some cancers. For instance, expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 correlates with a certain grade of tumorigenicity in muscle sarcomas. Differential remodeling of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 expression in human cancers may indicate their role in tumor growth and their importance as potential tumor markers. However, despite of this increasing body of information, which considers Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 as emerging tumoral markers, further research must be performed to reach any conclusion. In this review, we summarize what it has been lately documented about Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels in human cancer.

  17. The voltage-dependent K+ channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Comes, Núria; Bielanska, Joanna; Vallejo-Gracia, Albert; Serrano-Albarrás, Antonio; Marruecos, Laura; Gómez, Diana; Soler, Concepció; Condom, Enric; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ferreres, Joan C.; Felipe, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv) are involved in a number of physiological processes, including immunomodulation, cell volume regulation, apoptosis as well as differentiation. Some Kv channels participate in the proliferation and migration of normal and tumor cells, contributing to metastasis. Altered expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels has been found in several types of tumors and cancer cells. In general, while the expression of Kv1.3 apparently exhibits no clear pattern, Kv1.5 is induced in many of the analyzed metastatic tissues. Interestingly, evidence indicates that Kv1.5 channel shows inversed correlation with malignancy in some gliomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. However, Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 are similarly remodeled in some cancers. For instance, expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 correlates with a certain grade of tumorigenicity in muscle sarcomas. Differential remodeling of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 expression in human cancers may indicate their role in tumor growth and their importance as potential tumor markers. However, despite of this increasing body of information, which considers Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 as emerging tumoral markers, further research must be performed to reach any conclusion. In this review, we summarize what it has been lately documented about Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels in human cancer. PMID:24133455

  18. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721.10108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic)....

  19. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721.10108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic)....

  20. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721.10108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic)....

  1. An Exploration into the Writing Ability of Generation 1.5 and International Second Language Writers: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gennaro, Kristen K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the writing ability of international second language learners (IL2) and US-resident second language learners, also referred to as Generation 1.5 (G1.5), differs, despite a dearth of substantial empirical evidence supporting such claims. The present study provides much-needed empirical evidence concerning…

  2. Comparing Language Use in the Writing of Developmental Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 Tertiary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental composition courses serve a sizable and growing number of Generation 1.5 students, or long-term U.S. resident language learners, and it is believed that language challenges may be part of Generation 1.5 writers' difficulty in controlling the academic register. The current study investigates possible similarities and differences…

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae Serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) Strain CRJJGF_00165 (Phylum Gammaproteobacteria)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sushim K.; McMillan, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Charlene R.; Desai, Prerak T.; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Hiott, Lari M.; Humayoun, Shaheen B.; Barrett, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a 4.78-Mb draft genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) strain CRJJGF_00165 [also called S. enterica subsp. IIIb serovar 61:k:1,5,(7) strain CRJJGF_00165], isolated from ground beef in 2007. PMID:27881547

  4. 17 CFR 240.15Ba1-5 - Amendments to Form MA and Form MA-I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amendments to Form MA and Form MA-I. 240.15Ba1-5 Section 240.15Ba1-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and chemical vapor deposition of silver using (hfac)silver(I)(1,5-cod)

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, A.; Corbitt, T.S.; Hampdensmith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T.

    1993-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that the thermally induced disproportionation of copper(I) compounds is a viable method for the deposition of copper films. In this study we prepared a lower Group 11 analogue, (hfac)silver(I)(1,5-cod), where hfac - 1,1,1,5,5,5,-hexafluoroacetylacetonato, 1,5-cod = 1,5 cyclooctadiene for comparison. However, this species was significantly less volatile than the corresponding copper(I) compound. This observation was attributed to the dimeric nature of [(hface)silver(I)(1,5-cod)]{sub 2} as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, this species exhibited the unusual {mu}{sup 4{minus}}, {eta}{sup 2{minus}} {beta}-diketonate coordination modes in the solid state. The synthesis, characterization and solid state structure of the title compound and results of chemical vapor deposition of silver will be discussed.

  6. Beam tests on the 4-kA, 1. 5-MeV injector for FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.; Ravenscroft, D.; Scarpetti, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The new flash x-ray machine (FXR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is scheduled for completion in late 1981. This is a 54 module, linear induction accelertor, designed to deliver 500 Roentgen at 1 m as bremsstrahlung from a 20 MeV, 4 kA, 60 ns pulsed electron beam. The 9 cm diameter, cold-cathode electron source generates a 15 kA emitted beam at 1.5 MeV, and collimation is being used to reduce the transmitted current to 3.5 kA, with an emittance of 70 mr-cm. The collimated beam diameter is 4 cm. Six ferrite-loaded cavities are used in tandem to energize the injector. The high voltage performance of the injector cavities and other pulsed-power conditioning elements was tested earlier in a series of 10/sup 5/ shots at 400 kV per cavity. An overview of the injector design and of the beam test results is given.

  7. Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 1.5-8 Mbar range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A. L.; Schmitt, A. J.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We report the absolute Hugoniot measurements for dry CH foams at 10% of solid polystyrene density. The 400 μm thick, 500 μm wide planar foam slabs covered with a 10 μm solid plastic ablator were driven with 4 ns long Nike KrF laser pulses whose intensity was varied between 10 and 50 TW/cm2. The trajectories of the shock front and the ablative piston, as well as the rarefaction fan emerging after the shock breakout from the rear surface of the target were clearly observed using the side-on monochromatic x-ray imaging radiography. From these measurements the shock density compression ratio and the shock pressure are evaluated directly. The observed compression ratios varied between 4 and 8, and the corresponding shock pressures - between 1.5 and 8 Mbar. The data was simulated with the FASTRAD3D hydrocode, using standard models of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption, flux-limited thermal conduction, and multi-group radiation diffusion. The demonstrated diagnostics technique applied in a cryo experiment would make it possible to make the first absolute Hugoniot measurements for liquid deuterium or DT-wetted CH foams, which is relevant for designing the wetted-foam indirect-drive ignition targets for NIF. This work was supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  8. Magnetic order driven by orbital ordering in the semiconducting KFe1.5Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qing; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2016-04-01

    The two-orbital Hubbard model is studied numerically by using the Hartree-Fock approximation in both real space and momentum space, and the ground-state properties of the alkali metal iron selenide semiconducting KFe1.5Se2 are investigated. A rhombus-type Fe vacancy order with stripetype antiferromagnetic (AFM) order is found, as was observed in neutron scattering experiments [J. Zhao, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 267003 (2012)]. Hopping parameters are obtained by fitting the experimentally observed stripe AFM phase in real space. These hopping parameters are then used to study the ground-state properties of the semiconductor in momentum space. It is found to be a strongly correlated system with a large on-site Coulomb repulsion U, similar to the AFM Mott insulator — the parent compound of copper oxide superconductors. We also find that the electronic occupation numbers and magnetizations in the d xz and d yz orbitals become different simultaneously when U > U c (˜3.4 eV), indicating orbital ordering. These results imply that the rotational symmetry between the two orbitals is broken by orbital ordering and thus drives the strong anisotropy of the magnetic coupling that has been observed by experiments and that the stripe-type AFM order in this compound may be caused by orbital ordering together with the observed large anisotropy.

  9. A stabilized laser continuously tunable over a range of 1.5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, B. L.; Xiong, W.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a method to stabilize laser frequency which can be continuously tuned over a range of 1.5 GHz. It is based on saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) generated by an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) which is modulated by an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EO-AM). The spectra consist of not only the original peaks corresponding to resonant and crossover lines of 133Cs D2 line, but also signals introduced by sidebands from an EO-AM. Thus, the laser frequency can be locked to any point within the range of the spectra. Furthermore, the tuning range of the laser can be doubled compared to the coverage of common SAS by fixing the frequency of the pumping laser. The best stability of the locked laser induced by the EO-AM is 1.27 × 10-11 over an integrating time of 125 s. This method may be applied for more precise and flexible manipulation of atoms and molecules.

  10. I-IMAS: A 1.5D sensor for high-resolution scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P.; Turchetta, R.; Avset, B.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cavouras, D.; Evangelou, I.; French, M. J.; Galbiati, A.; Georgiou, H.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Longo, R.; Manthos, N.; Metaxas, M. G.; Noy, M.; Ostby, J. M.; Psomadellis, F.; Royle, G. J.; Schulerud, H.; Speller, R. D.; van der Stelt, P. F.; Theodoridis, S.; Triantis, F.; Venanzi, C.

    2007-04-01

    We have developed a 1.5 D CMOS active pixel sensor to be used in conjunction with a scintillator for X-ray imaging. Within the Intelligent Imaging Sensors (I-ImaS) project, multiple sensors will be aligned to form a line-scanning system and its performance evaluated with respect to existing sensors in other digital radiography systems. Each sensor contains a 512×32 array of pixels and the electronics to convert the collected amount of charge to a digital output value. These include programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs). The gain of the PGA can be switched between one or two, to increase the sensitivity for smaller collected charge; the ADC is a 14-bit successive approximation with a sampling rate of 1.25 MHz. The ASIC includes a programmable column fixed pattern noise mitigation circuit and a digitally controllable pixel reset mode block. Here we will describe the sensor design and the expected performance.

  11. 2011 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial, August 1-5, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, James W.

    2013-10-11

    In fiscal year 2011, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) tutorial was taught at NCAR from 1-5 August 2011. This project hosted 79 full participants (1 accepted participant from China couldn't get a visa) selected from 180 applications. The tutorial was advertised through emails to CESM mailing lists. NCAR staff and long-term visitors (who were not eligible to attend) were also invited to 'audit' the climate and practical lectures and to work on the practical sessions on their own. 15 NCAR staff and long-term visitors took advantage of this opportunity. The majority of the students were graduate students, but several post-docs, faculty, and other research scientists also attended. Additionally, many people are using the on-line lessons and practical sessions. As of August 18, 2011, 407 people had registered to access and use the tutorial from 33 countries all over the world, but a majority from US universities. In fiscal year 2011, the Climate and Global Dynamics Division Information Systems Group (CGD/ISG) built and operated a temporary computer laboratory in a meeting room. This project was made possible through funding from the National Science Foundation Directorate of Geosciences, and the Department of Energy Office of Science.

  12. O2 adsorption on AunRh n = 1-5 neutral and charged clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendía, Fernando; Beltrán, Marcela R.

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical evidence is presented for the molecular and dissociative adsorption of O2 on free AunRh neutral, anionic and cationic clusters with 1 to 5 gold atoms, indicating that the stabilization of the activated di-oxygen species is a key factor for the unusual catalytic activities of Au-based catalysts. The structure, stability, for both molecular and dissociative O2 adsorption on AunRh n = 1-5 clusters has been investigated using density-functional theory. To find the transition states, the minimum energy paths have been explored for a few clusters. In general, lower values for the activation energy have been found when compared with the barriers that occur on pure Aun based clusters. The higher binding energies in the AuRh mix favor oxygen dissociation among any other possible reaction paths. The anionic clusters being the most reactive of all. The molecular bonding mechanism to these complexes involves charge transfer to the oxygen molecule with a concomitant activation of the O-O bond to a superoxo-like state. The characteristic planar structures of both pure gold and AuRh clusters prevail for most of the cases here studied. The odd-even characteristic catalytic activation of pure gold clusters is not observed once even a single rhodium atom has been added to the cluster.

  13. MACCS version 1.5.11.1: A maintenance release of the code

    SciTech Connect

    Chanin, D.; Foster, J.; Rollstin, J.; Miller, L.

    1993-10-01

    A new version of the MACCS code (version 1.5.11.1) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. MACCS was developed to support evaluations of the off-site consequences from hypothetical severe accidents at commercial power plants. MACCS is the only current public domain code in the US that embodies all of the following modeling capabilities: (1) weather sampling using a year of recorded weather data; (2) mitigative actions such as evacuation, sheltering, relocation, decontamination, and interdiction; (3) economic costs of mitigative actions; (4) cloudshine, groundshine, and inhalation pathways as well as food and water ingestion; (5) calculation of both individual and societal doses to various organs; and (6) calculation of both acute (nonstochastic) and latent (stochastic) health effects and risks of health effects. All of the consequence measures may be fun generated in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF). The current version implements a revised cancer model consistent with recent reports such as BEIR V and ICRP 60. In addition, a number of error corrections and portability enhancements have been implemented. This report describes only the changes made in creating the new version. Users of the code will need to obtain the code`s original documentation, NUREG/CR-4691.

  14. Optical detector selection for 1.5-um KTP OPO atmospheric lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamidipudi, Priyavadan; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1999-05-01

    A 1.5 micron wavelength KTP OPO Lidar system has been developed and used to study the sensitivity and the system signal-to-noise ratio for hard target and atmospheric aerosol lidar returns. Optimization of the receiver system was studied that included the use of different sizes, types of detectors, and the effect of laser beam quality factor, M2, on the telescope overlap function. Detectors that were studied included several different sizes of InGaAs APDs, direct photodetectors, a transferred-electron intensified photodiode (TE-IPD), and a PMT. The influence of the diffraction or beam quality factor (M2) of the OPO laser was studied and found to have a significant influence on the overlap of the transmit and receiver field of view. This overlap function is also influenced by the size of the lidar detector since a large M2 value can overfill the detector/telescope field of view so that small (high speed) detectors may be subject to a large reduction in the lidar signal. The size of the photodiodes and APDs used in the initial OPO lidar experiments were of the order of 0.1 mm to 2 mm, while the TE-IPD and the PMT are larger in acceptance area. Some initial experimental measurements with the photodetectors and APD, and projected theoretical comparisons with the TE-IPD and PMT detectors have been made.

  15. Active galactic nuclei at z ˜ 1.5 - III. Accretion discs and black hole spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Netzer, H.; Lira, P.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Mejía-Restrepo, J.

    2016-07-01

    This is the third paper in a series describing the spectroscopic properties of a sample of 39 AGN at z ˜ 1.5, selected to cover a large range in black hole mass (MBH) and Eddington ratio (L/LEdd). In this paper, we continue the analysis of the VLT/X-shooter observations of our sample with the addition of nine new sources. We use an improved Bayesian procedure, which takes into account intrinsic reddening, and improved MBH estimates, to fit thin accretion disc (AD) models to the observed spectra and constrain the spin parameter (a*) of the central black holes. We can fit 37 out of 39 AGN with the thin AD model, and for those with satisfactory fits, we obtain constraints on the spin parameter of the BHs, with the constraints becoming generally less well defined with decreasing BH mass. Our spin parameter estimates range from ˜-0.6 to maximum spin for our sample, and our results are consistent with the `spin-up' scenario of BH spin evolution. We also discuss how the results of our analysis vary with the inclusion of non-simultaneous GALEX photometry in our thin AD fitting. Simultaneous spectra covering the rest-frame optical through far-UV are necessary to definitively test the thin AD theory and obtain the best constraints on the spin parameter.

  16. Hydrogen sorption behavior of CaAl1.5Li0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereznitsky, Matvey; Mogilyanski, Dmitry; Jacob, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogen sorption properties of an alloy with nominal composition CaAl1.5Li0.5 have been investigated in a pursuit for hydrogen-absorbing Li-containing intermetallics. X-ray analysis of the original alloy indicated a coexistence of three closely related Laves phases. The maximum hydrogen capacity, recorded at about 6 MPa and 300 °C, was approximately 2.5 H atoms per formula unit (f.u.). Pressure-composition (p-c) isotherm measurements were taken in the temperature range between 350 and 450 °C up to pressures of 133 kPa. Thermodynamic parameters are derived for two plateau regions in the p-c isotherms. Analysis of these parameters and supporting evidence from X-ray patterns of hydrogenated and dehydrogenated samples suggest: (a) an initial irreversible disproportionation of the original alloy and (b) subsequent reversible hydrogenations, featuring reversible disproportionations of CaAl2 and LiAl intermetallic compounds. Attempts to form additional Li-containing intermetallics, namely CaAlLi, TiMn2- x Li x (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6) and TiAl2- x Li x (x = 0.3, 0.5), and to hydrogenate them, are reported in brief.

  17. Experimental Research on a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, M. A.; Hidaka, Y.; Choi, E. M.; Mastovsky, I.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Tax, D. S.; Temkin, R. J.; Neilson, J.

    2008-11-01

    We report experimental research on the after cavity interaction (ACI) in a 1.5-MW, 110-GHz gyrotron with an internal mode converter operating in 3 microsecond pulses. Recent experiments with a single-stage depressed collector revealed the effects of the ACI, a second interaction that occurs after the electron beam passes through the intended primary interaction region. The ACI causes re-absorption of the microwave power and broadening of the spent electron beam energy distribution, thus leading to a significant reduction in gyrotron efficiency. The broadening of the spent electron beam energy spectrum, which results in degraded performance of the depressed collector, has been experimentally verified. Ways to minimize the ACI are currently being investigated. Also, a new internal mode converter, consisting of a helically-cut launcher and four smooth curved mirrors, has been designed and fabricated. The cold test shows a good agreement with the theoretical Gaussian beam pattern. This new converter will be hot tested shortly in the gyrotron.

  18. Matching of Bragg condition of holographic phase gratings in 1.3-1.5um region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Hamalainen, Rauno M.

    1991-10-01

    The spectral diffraction efficiency of phase holograms depends on refractive index modulation, grating spacing, and the thickness of a holographic grating, e.g., the refractive index modulation of the dichromatic gelatin grating (DCG) can be increased so that the diffraction efficiency of 90% measured in Bragg angle without refractive index matching can be achieved in the recording wavelength. The use of the same holographic grating in longer wavelength regions in accordance with the Bragg condition demands the refractive index matching. In our applications, holographic phase gratings in hololens form (HOL) are used as a wavelength selective elements in conventional optical multi-/demultiplexing (mux/demux) applications, where various wavelengths are multiplexed to the detectors needed. On the other hand, the novel applications of the HOL element used as a monochromator in the external cavity construction of a semiconductor laser according to the refractive index matching the Bragg condition are theoretically investigated in the wavelength region from 1.3 micrometers to 1.5 micrometers .

  19. Design and test of 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-wei; Zhou, Hong-bin; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Hai-gang

    2016-06-01

    Tidal current energy is prominent and renewable. Great progress has been made in the exploitation technology of tidal current energy all over the world in recent years, and the large scale device has become the trend of tidal current turbine (TCT) for its economies. Instead of the similarity to the wind turbine, the tidal turbine has the characteristics of high hydrodynamic efficiency, big thrust, reliable sealing system, tight power transmission structure, etc. In this paper, a 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine has been designed, manufactured and tested before the full scale device design. Firstly, the three-blade horizontal axis rotor was designed based on traditional blade element momentum theory and its hydrodynamic performance was predicted in numerical model. Then the power train system and stand-alone electrical control unit of tidal current turbine, whose performances were accessed through the bench test carried out in workshop, were designed and presented. Finally, offshore tests were carried out and the power performance of the rotor was obtained and compared with the published literatures, and the results showed that the power coefficient was satisfactory, which agrees with the theoretical predictions.

  20. Direct Evidence for AGN-Driven Winds in a z = 1.5 Radio Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, Eric

    2010-05-01

    Feedback from AGN is a key component in most current models of galaxy formation and evolution. For the most massive galaxies, heating and removal of gas by the AGN could precipitate an abrupt quenching of star formation during a dramatic blow-out phase. The “smoking gun” for such a scenario would be direct evidence of powerful outflows associated with the jet. I present some preliminary results of a program to look for these in high-z radio galaxies (HzRGs). Recent observations of the z = 1.5 radio galaxy 3C 230 obtained with the NIFS integral-field spectrograph and Altair laser adaptive optics facility on Gemini North are shown. These reveal with unprecedented resolution the complex kinematics of this system in redshifted Hα and [N ii] emission. The bi-polar velocity field is aligned with the jet axis, with a kinematic center associated with the radio core itself, and turbulent edges approaching the galaxy's escape velocity. This suggests a gas mass of roughly 1011 M⊙ has been propagating outwards for 107 to 108 years, corresponding to a mass loss of roughly 102-3 M⊙ yr-1, based on its velocity and spatial extent. This is in good agreement with the energetics and typical ages of radio jets, and likely heralds the onset of the “red and dead” stage for this HzRG.

  1. Conformational analysis of trimeric maleimide substituted 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane HIV fusion scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Remmert, Sarah; Hollis, Heather; Parish, Carol A

    2009-02-01

    An analysis of the conformational preferences of three trimeric maleimide substituted 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane derivatives, proposed as cross linking reagents for HIV-1 fusion inhibitors, is presented. Exhaustive sampling was performed using the mixed Low Mode Monte Carlo conformational searching technique on the corresponding OPLS2005/GBSA(water) potential energy surface. Geometric structure, molecular length, and hydrogen bonding patterns of the compounds are analyzed. Global minimum energy structures were verified as minima using B3LYP/6-31G * geometry optimization. All structures adopt a crown-like 12-membered ring conformation; however, the system with the shortest maleimide arms (1a) can also adopt alternative ring orientations. Overall, derivatives with longer maleimide arms were more flexible and resulted in ensembles with a larger number of low energy structures. Comparison with biological inhibition data indicates that there is very little relationship between molecular size and the ability of the scaffold to orient CD4M9 miniproteins for optimal inhibition; however hydrophobicity may play a role.

  2. Study of BNKLBT-1.5 lead-free ceramic/epoxy 1-3 composites

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, S. H.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. K.; Lam, K. H.; Chan, H. L. W.

    2007-12-01

    Bismuth sodium titanate based lead-free ceramic fiber with the chemical formula of 0.885(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.05(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-0.015(Bi{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.5}= )TiO{sub 3}-0.05BaTiO{sub 3}, BNKLBT-1.5, has been fabricated by a powder-based extrusion method. The ceramic fibers with 400 {mu}m diameter were well crystallized after being calcined at 800 deg. C and sintered at 1170 deg. C. The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the single fiber were found to be 155 pC/N and {approx}34.5 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively, which is comparable with that in bulk sample. 1-3 ceramic/polymer composites were fabricated by two routes, including dice and filled method and fiber pick-and-place method. Theoretical models were used to calculate the piezoelectric properties of the composites and compared with experimental results.

  3. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin2 deep survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tamura, Y.; Tadaki, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Ikarashi, S.; Caputi, K. I.; Rujopakarn, W.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Motohara, K.; Umehata, H.; Yabe, K.; Wang, W. H.; Kodama, T.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Hughes, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Ohta, K.; Akiyama, M.; Kawabe, R.; Iono, D.; Nakanishi, K.; Lee, M.; Makiya, R.

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105'' × 50'' or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with L IR ~6×1011 L ⊙ (if T dust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4 they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S 1.1mm = 0.84 +/- 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.

  4. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin2 deep survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Umehata, Hideki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Lee, Minju; Motohara, Kentaro; Makiya, Ryu; Izumi, Takuma; Ivison, Rob; Ikarashi, Soh; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hayashi, Masao; Iono, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina; Dunlop, James

    2015-08-01

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105″ × 50″ or 1.5 arcmin2 window (achieved by 19 point mosaic) in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6 × 1011 L⊙ (if Tdust = 40 K) or SFR ~100 M⊙ yr-1 up to z~10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detect 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5 > S/N > 4; they may contain spurious detections, though) in the field. We find that these discrete sources are responsible for a faint filamentary emission seen in low-resolution (~30″) heavily confused AzTEC 1.1mm and SPIRE 0.5mm images. One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources is very dark in deep WFC3 and HAWK-I NIR images as well as VLA 1.4 GHz images, demonstrating that deep ALMA imaging can unveil new obscured star-forming galaxy population.

  5. Test results from Fermilab 1.5 m model SSC collider dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Koska, W.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Ozelis, J.P.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.

    1991-09-01

    We will present results from tests of 1.5 m model SSC collider dipole magnets. These R&D magnets are identical to the 15 m full length dipoles currently being assembled at Fermilab in all important aspects except length. Because of their small size they can be built faster and tested more extensively than the long magnets. The model magnets are used to optimize design parameters for, and to indicate the performance which can be expected from, the 15 m magnets. The are instrumented with voltage taps over the first two current blocks for quench localization and with several arrays of strain gauge transducers for the study of mechanical behavior. The stress at the poles of the inner and outer coils is monitored during construction and, along with end force and shell strain, during excitation. Magnetic measurements are made several times during each magnet`s lifetime, including at operating temperature and field. We will report on studies of the quench performance, mechanical behavior and magnetic field of these magnets.

  6. The Safety of MR Conditional Cochlear Implant at 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Ogura, Akio; Hayashi, Norio; Seino, Shinya; Kawai, Ryosuke; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Tsukasa; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the patients with the cochlear implant, only limited data have a mention for safety information in the instruction manual supplied by the manufacturers. Therefore, imaging operators require more detailed safety information for implant device. We conducted detailed examination about displacement force, torque, and demagnetizing of the cochlear implant magnet based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard using the PULSAR and CONCERTO (MED-EL) with 1.5 tesla MRI system. As a result, the displacement force and the torque of the implant magnet were less than the numerical values descried in the manual. Therefore, these have almost no effect on the body under the condition described in a manual. In addition, the demagnetizing factor of the cochlear implant magnet occurred by a change magnetic field. The demagnetization depended on the direction of a line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field and the implant magnet. In conclusion, the operator must warn the position of the patients on inducing in the magnet room.

  7. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  8. Comprehensive survey of star formation and metallicity at z~1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2012-06-01

    Star formation activity and metal enrichment can provide us with important clues to understand processes of galaxy evolution. However, current measurements of such properties for galaxies at z~1.5 have large uncertainties and are biased toward massive galaxies due to the lack of spectroscopic samples with major nebular emission lines in rest-frame optical wavelengths. Thus, we propose deep near-infrared spectroscopy of [OII] emitters at z=1.47 and 1.62 in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) with FMOS. We aim to detect all of H beta, [OIII], H alpha, [NII], and [SII] lines for star-forming galaxies in the epoch when galaxies and AGNs are the most active over the cosmic history. Because the redshifts of targets are already known and nebular emissions can be surely estimated from their [OII] fluxes, the emission line galaxies are ideal targets to address the issue. Also, the SDF is an ideal field because the deep multi-band data are perfectly matched to what FMOS requires for maximum efficiency. With the full set of major nebular lines, we will reveal (1) star formation activity reliably corrected for dust extinction, (2) gas metallicity, and (3) a contribution of AGNs, and investigate a correlation between them. We aim to understand critical processes which play an important role in galaxy evolution.

  9. A 15 GSa/s, 1.5 GHz bandwidth waveform digitizing ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberla, Eric; Genat, Jean-Francois; Grabas, Hervé; Frisch, Henry; Nishimura, Kurtis; Varner, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The PSEC4 custom integrated circuit was designed for the recording of fast waveforms for use in large-area time-of-flight detector systems. The ASIC has been fabricated using the IBM-8RF 0.13 μm CMOS process. On each of the six analog channels, PSEC4 employs a switched capacitor array (SCA) of 256 samples deep, a ramp-compare ADC with 10.5 bits of DC dynamic range, and a serial data readout with the capability of region-of-interest windowing to reduce dead time. The sampling rate can be adjusted between 4 and 15 Gigasamples/second (GSa/s) on all channels and is servo-controlled on-chip with a low-jitter delay-locked loop (DLL). The input signals are passively coupled on-chip with a -3 dB analog bandwidth of 1.5 GHz. The power consumption in quiescent sampling mode is less than 50 mW/chip; at a sustained trigger and a readout rate of 50 kHz the chip draws 100 mW. After fixed-pattern pedestal subtraction, the uncorrected integral non-linearity is 0.15% over a 750 mV dynamic range. With a linearity correction, a full 1 V signal voltage range is available. The sampling timebase has a fixed-pattern non-linearity with an RMS of 13%, which can be corrected for precision waveform feature extraction and timing.

  10. The effects of CA1 5HT4 receptors in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Tabatabaie, Maryam; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-02-05

    In this study, the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the CA1 on MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion were examined. One-trial step-down method was used to assess memory retention and then, the hole-board method to assess exploratory behaviors. The results showed that post-training intra-CA1 administration of RS67333 (62.5 and 625 ng/mouse) and RS23597 (1 and 10 ng/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but it did not alter head-dip counts, head-dip latency and locomotor activity. Similarly, MK801 (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but had no effect on head-dip counts and head-dip latency. Interestingly, it increased locomotor activity. The results also showed that post-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of RS67333 (6.25 ng/mouse) or RS23597 (0.1 ng/mouse) could heighten MK801 induced amnesia and decrease locomotor activity, but it did not alter head-dip counts and head-dip latency. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the CA1 5-HT4 receptors are involved in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

  11. Variations in Kinetic Properties of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylases among Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Studies of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase from taxonomically diverse plants show that the enzyme from C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism pathway species exhibits lower Km(CO2) values (12-25 micromolar) than does that from C4 species (28-34 micromolar). RuBP carboxylase from aquatic angiosperms, an aquatic bryophyte, fresh water and marine algae has yielded consistently high Km(CO2) values (30-70 micromolar), similar in range to that of the enzyme from C4 terrestrial plants. This variation in Km(CO2) is discussed in relation to the correlation between the existence of CO2-concentrating mechanisms for photosynthesis and the affinity of the enzyme for CO2. The Km(RuBP) of the enzyme from various sources ranges from 10 to 136 micromolar; mean ± sd = 36 ± 20 micromolar. This variation in Km(RuBP) does not correlate with different photosynthetic pathways, but shows taxonomic patterns. Among the dicotyledons, the enzyme from crassinucellate species exhibits lower Km(RuBP) (18 ± 4 micromolar) than does that from tenuinucellate species (25 ± 7 micromolar). Among the Poaceae, RuBP carboxylase from Triticeae, chloridoids, andropogonoids, Microlaena, and Tetrarrhena has yielded lower Km(RuBP) values (29 ± 11 micromolar) than has that from other members of the grass family (46 ± 10 micromolar). PMID:16661826

  12. Electromagnetic perspective on the operation of RF coils at 1.5-11.7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Tamer S; Mitchell, Chad; Schmalbrock, Petra; Lee, Robert; Chakeres, Donald W

    2005-09-01

    In this work experimental and numerical studies of the MR signal were performed at frequencies ranging from 64 MHz to 485 MHz, utilizing three different MRI coils: a single-strut transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-based coil, a TEM resonator, and a high-pass birdcage coil. The experimental analyses were conducted using 1.5 and 8 Tesla whole-body systems and volume RF head coils. The simulation data were obtained utilizing an in-house-developed finite difference time domain (FDTD) model. Pertinent data from the numerical and experimental setups were compared, and a remarkable agreement between the two methods was found that clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the FDTD method when it is applied rigorously. The numerical and experimental studies demonstrate the complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) fields and their role in the MR signal. These studies also reveal unique similarities and differences between the transmit and receive field distributions at various field strengths. Finally, for ultra high-field operations, it was demonstrated mathematically, numerically, and experimentally that highly asymmetric inhomogeneous images can be acquired even for linear excitation, symmetrical load geometries, and symmetrical load positioning within the coil.

  13. High Power, Eye Safe, Tunable 1.5 μm OPO Lidar Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltynowicz, R.; Wojcik, M.

    2010-12-01

    Lidar remote sensing is gaining wider acceptance in environmental monitoring community. Therefore, eye-safety is an increasingly important requirement for lidar systems. High power laser pulses (> 200 mJ/pulse) are often required to achieve adequate signal-to-noise at meaningful ranges (>15 km) with a single laser shot. Nd:YAG based systems are a convenient and reliable way to achieve high power pulses, but there are substantial challenges to address when using a Nd:YAG to generate eye-safe (1.4-2.1 μm) pulses. Here we demonstrate an optoparametric oscillator (OPO) with >20% conversion efficiency designed to be used as transmitter in a lidar remote sensor. The OPO is a regenerative circulating design using two KTA (Θ=90°, Φ=0°) as the non-linear media. The OPO is pumped by 45 W (1.5 J/pulse, 30 Hz) of 1064 nm light generated by an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser. Significant performance enhancement was seen when the OPO was externally seeded using an external 1.5344 μm DFB telecom laser.

  14. Study of BNKLBT-1.5 lead-free ceramic/epoxy 1-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, S. H.; Li, W. K.; Li, H. K.; Lam, K. H.; Chan, H. L. W.

    2007-12-01

    Bismuth sodium titanate based lead-free ceramic fiber with the chemical formula of 0.885(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.05(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-0.015(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3, BNKLBT-1.5, has been fabricated by a powder-based extrusion method. The ceramic fibers with 400μm diameter were well crystallized after being calcined at 800°C and sintered at 1170°C. The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of the single fiber were found to be 155pC/N and ˜34.5μC/cm2, respectively, which is comparable with that in bulk sample. 1-3 ceramic/polymer composites were fabricated by two routes, including dice and filled method and fiber pick-and-place method. Theoretical models were used to calculate the piezoelectric properties of the composites and compared with experimental results.

  15. Effect of 1. 5 tesla nuclear magnetic resonance imaging scanner on implanted permanent pacemakers

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.L.; Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Gray, J.E.

    1987-10-01

    Patients with a permanent pacemaker are currently restricted from diagnostic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging because of potential adverse effects on the pacemaker by the magnet. Previous work has shown that NMR imaging will result in asynchronous pacing of the pulse generator within a given distance of the magnet. The radiofrequency signal generated by the system may also result in rapid cardiac pacing, which may have deleterious effects. This study utilized a 1.5 tesla unit in an in vivo laboratory animal to evaluate the unit's effects on eight different pulse generators from two manufacturers. All pacemakers functioned in an asynchronous mode when placed within a certain distance of the magnet. In addition, transient reed switch inhibition was observed. Seven of the eight pulse generators paced rapidly when exposed to the radiofrequency signal and there was a dramatic decrease in arterial blood pressure. Whether effective rapid cardiac pacing would occur could not be predicted before exposure to the magnetic resonance unit. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields in patients with a pacemaker should continue to be avoided until the mechanism of the rapid cardiac pacing can be further delineated and either predicted or prevented.

  16. The Fan Region at 1.5 GHz with GMIMS: Polarized synchrotron emission tracing Galactic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alex S.; Landecker, Tom; Carretti, Ettore; Douglas, Kevin A.; Sun, Xiaohui; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Mao, Sui Ann; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi; Reich, Wolfgang; Wolleben, Maik; Miller Dickey, John; Gray, Andrew; Haverkorn, Marijke; Leahy, John Patrick; Schnitzeler, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse polarized radio continuum emission provides information about the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. With the Global Magneto-Ionic Medium Survey (GMIMS), we are mapping this emission from the entire sky from 300 to 1800 MHz. We will present a brief overview of the GMIMS survey.We will focus on 1270-1750 MHz observations from the Northern hemisphere GMIMS data to determine the geometry of the magnetic field in the Fan Region. The Fan Region is one of the dominant features of the sky in polarized radio continuum, long thought to be a local (d < 500 pc) synchrotron emission feature. We find that the 1.5 GHz polarized radio emission is anti-correlated with Halpha emission from the Perseus Arm, 2 kpc away. This indicates that ionized gas in the Perseus Arm depolarizes about 30% of the Fan Region emission, indicating that some of the Fan Region emission originates in or beyond the Perseus Arm. The synchrotron emission must therefore be produced along a large path length, suggesting the presence of a coherent magnetic field in the plane in the outer Galaxy. We argue that the polarized emission from the Fan Region is a consequence of the structure of the Galactic magnetic field and ISM. We model beam depolarization due to the ISM, finding that in the presence of depolarization the rotation measure measured from polarized emission is much lower than that measured towards background point sources, explaining an observed discrepancy between the GMIMS rotation measures and background rotation measures.

  17. Binding characteristics and interactive region of 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline with DNA.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonghai; Zhong, Dandan; Luo, Jinhui; Tan, Hongliang; Chen, Shouhui; Li, Ping; Wang, Li; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline (PQ) and DNA under physiological conditions was investigated using multi-spectroscopic techniques, atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated and were discussed in detail. The results of fluorescence-quenching experiments indicated that the main interactive force between PQ and DNA was a hydrophobic interaction and that it was a static quenching process. Potassium iodide and single-strand (ss)DNA quenching studies, together with circular dichroism spectra implied groove binding of PQ with DNA. Atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis experiments suggested that there were no major conformational changes in DNA upon interaction with PQ. In addition, UV/vis absorption titration of DNA bases confirmed that PQ bound with DNA mainly through a minor groove interaction and preferentially interacted with adenine and thymine. We anticipate that this work will provide useful information for the application of quinazoline derivatives in the fields of medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry.

  18. Regulation of Voltage-Gated K+ Channel Kv1.5 by the Janus Kinase JAK3.

    PubMed

    Warsi, Jamshed; Elvira, Bernat; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Lang, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) participates in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The kinase further influences ion channels and transport proteins. The present study explored whether JAK3 contributes to the regulation of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1.5, which participates in the regulation of diverse functions including atrial cardiac action potential and tumor cell proliferation. To this end, cRNA encoding Kv1.5 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type JAK3, constitutively active (A568V)JAK3, or inactive (K851A)JAK3. Voltage-gated K(+) channel activity was measured utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp, and Kv1.5 channel protein abundance in the cell membrane was quantified utilizing chemiluminescence of Kv1.5 containing an extracellular hemagglutinin epitope (Kv1.5-HA). As a result, Kv1.5 activity and Kv1.5-HA protein abundance were significantly decreased by wild-type JAK3 and (A568V)JAK3, but not by (K851A)JAK3. Inhibition of Kv1.5 protein insertion into the cell membrane by brefeldin A (5 μM) resulted in a decline of the voltage-gated current, which was similar in the absence and presence of (A568V)JAK3, suggesting that (A568V)JAK3 did not accelerate Kv1.5 protein retrieval from the cell membrane. A 24 h treatment with ouabain (100 µM) significantly decreased the voltage-gated current in oocytes expressing Kv1.5 without or with (A568V)JAK3 and dissipated the difference between oocytes expressing Kv1.5 alone and oocytes expressing Kv1.5 with (A568V)JAK3. In conclusion, JAK3 contributes to the regulation of membrane Kv1.5 protein abundance and activity, an effect sensitive to ouabain and thus possibly involving Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity.

  19. Regulation of p53 expression and apoptosis by vault RNA2-1-5p in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Hao, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Ping; Zou, Binbin; Zhang, Yu-xiang

    2015-01-01

    nc886 or VRNA2-1 has recently been identified as a noncoding RNA instead of a vault RNA or a pre-microRNA. Several studies have reported that pre-miR-886 plays a tumor-suppressive role in a wide range of cancer cells through its activity as a cellular protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) ligand and repressor. However, by sequencing stem-PCR products, we found that a microRNA originating from this precursor, vault RNA2-1-5p (VTRNA2-1-5p), occurs in cervical cancer cells. The expression levels of the predicted targets of VTRNA2-1-5p are negatively correlated with VTRNA2-1-5p levels by quantitative reversion transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Previous results have shown that VTRNA2-1-5p is overexpressed in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCCs) compared with adjacent healthy tissues. Inhibition of VTRNA2-1-5p increases Bax protein expression and apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells. Our findings suggest that VTRNA2-1-5p has oncogenic activity related to the progression of cervical cancer. Here, we report that VTRNA2-1-5p directly targeted p53 expression and functioned as an oncomir in cervical cancer. VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition decreased cervical cancer cell invasion, proliferation, and tumorigenicity while increasing apoptosis and p53 expression. Interestingly, VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition also increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells. In human clinical cervical cancer specimens, low p53 expression and high VTRNA2-1-5p expression were positively associated. In addition, VTRNA2-1-5p was found to directly target the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of p53. We propose that VTRNA2-1-5p is a direct regulator of p53 and suggest that it plays an essential role in the apoptosis and proliferation of cervical cancer cells. PMID:26318295

  20. Geologic Map of the Aino Planitia (V46) Quadrangle, Venus 1:5,000,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Guest, John E.

    2003-01-01

    The Aino Planitia quadrangle (V-46) extends from 25?-50? S. latitude, 60?-90? E. longitude. The quadrangle was mapped at 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program. Aino Planitia is a lowland region in the southern hemisphere of Venus and is southwest of Thetis Regio in western Aphrodite Terra. It is dominated by low-lying plains units that are characterized by northeast-trending wrinkle ridges and numerous small volcanic edifices, including shields, domes, and cones. The quadrangle contains a major volcano, Kunapipi Mons, and portions of Juno Chasma. A northern extension of the Lada Terra highland is in the southwestern portion of the map. Eight coronae are mapped in the quadrangle, the largest of which is the 500-km-diameter Copia Corona. The region is dominated by plains that are interpreted to be of volcanic origin. Most of the plains units are composites of flow units of differing ages. The overall topography of V-46 consists of low-lying plains slightly below Mean Planetary Radius (MPR, 6051.84 km). The summit of Kunapipi Mons is the highest point in the quadrangle, at about 2.2 km above MPR; the lowest points in rifts and troughs are at about 1.7 km below MPR. The regions that are the roughest at Magellan radar wavelengths in the quadrangle occur along the rim of Copia Corona, with most regions being relatively smooth (roughness comparable to the average Venus surface. Emissivity values in the quadrangle vary from 0.82-0.90.

  1. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  2. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  3. Portable 1,5 MeV X-Band Linac For Non-destructive Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saversky, A. J.; Rodionov, A. E.; Shaltyrev, A. P.; Shchedrin, I. S.

    1997-05-01

    Portable linear electron accelerator Y-34 developed in Small Accelerator Laboratory of MEPhI for non-destructive industrial radiography. This Linac is a fully self-contained device with the exception of external electric power 220Vx50Gz, 1 phase, 5 kVA. Full mass of Linac Y-34 - less than 300 kg. The Radiographic parameters: Nominal Energy - 1,5 MeV; Energy Range - 0,7...1,8 MeV; Maximum pulse current - 100 mA; Maximum Intensity - 15 R/min@m; Focal spot size - less than 2 mm. The Linac is comprised of 4 subassemblies. The X-ray head with weight less than 100 kg, dimensions: 0,7x0,7x1,0 m contains the traveling-wave accelerating structure with lens 0,4 m, electron gun, vacuum pump, tungsten target and RF-system with 500-kW magnetron. The permanent magnets focusing system provides focal spot less than 2 mm. The high voltage power unit consist of a line-type magnetron/electron gun modulator 2 kW power supply, the weight is equal 70 kg. The self-contained cooling water supply provides temperature controlled water for accelerator structure and magnetron. The control console allows convenient monitoring of critical system and Linac parameters by manual or remote computer. Portable X-band Linac Y-34 is the effective X - ray and/or electron beam source for such applications as non-destructive examination of nuclear reactor systems, solid rocket motors, technology research.

  4. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  5. Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea.

    PubMed

    Watson, G M; Yu, J P; Tabita, F R

    1999-03-01

    The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.

  6. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the halophilic cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Asami, S; Takabe, T; Akazawa, T; Codd, G A

    1983-09-01

    Various structural and functional properties of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) isolated from the halophilic cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanothece halophytica were reexamined. The ready dissociation of this algal RuBisCO during sedimentation in a linear sucrose density gradient was observed. Low NaCl concentrations promote the dissociation of small subunit (B) from the original native enzyme molecule as evidenced by the sucrose density gradient centrifugation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is thus possible that the intracellular osmoticum of A. halophytica might influence the structural integrity and activity of RuBisCO. The low residual carboxylase activity ascribed to the catalytic core, an oligomer form of the large subunit (A) apparently deficient in small subunit (B), was found to be markedly stimulated by a protein component which appears identical to subunit B. The purification and structural characterization of the catalytic core and subunit B were attempted by step-wise column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Utrogel AcA 34, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxylapatite, and at the final stage each component was purified to near homogeneity, although the catalytic core is still associated with a small quantity of subunit B. The addition of subunit B to the catalytic core does not alter the Km (HCO-3, RuBP) values, but Vmax values are markedly enhanced. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation gave a value of 16 S for the catalytic core. The molecular weights of the monomeric forms of the catalytic core (subunit A) and subunit B were 5.0 X 10(4) and 1.4 X 10(4), respectively.

  7. The new 1.5 GeV storage ring for synchrotron radiation: MAX II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Å.; Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.-J.; Röjsel, P.; Werin, S.

    1995-02-01

    The MAX laboratory at Lund University, Sweden, today operates an accelerator system consisting of a 100 MeV racetrack microtron and a 550 MeV storage ring (MAX I). At the moment (July 1994) a new storage ring MAX II is near completion and will start first injections within 2 months. This work gives an overview of the MAX II project including the first beamlines and a description of the accelerator system. MAX II is a 1.5 GeV third generation light source optimized for the VUV and soft-x-ray region. It consists of a ten cell double bend achromat lattice forming the 90 m circumference ring. Injection is done at 500 MeV from the existing storage ring MAX I, and ramping up to full energy will take place in MAX II. The straight sections have a length of 3.2 m and eight sections are free to house insertion devices. At start up the ring will be equipped with one 7.5 T superconducting wiggler and one 1.8 T multipole wiggler. Two more undulators are ordered and under construction. To be able to achieve the project a few shortcuts have been made in the design of the storage ring: (1) Nonzero dispersion is allowed in the straight sections, (2) chromaticity correction is built into the quadrupole magnets, and (3) the length of the straight sections is limited to 3.2 m. The project is progressing on time. Extraction of an electron beam from the MAX I storage ring has been achieved and has successfully been transported into the MAX II building. The MAX II ring is under assembly with most of the sections already mounted. First injection is planned to take place in August 1994.

  8. The 1.5 GeV harmonic double-sided microtron at Mainz University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.-H.; Aulenbacher, K.; Chubarov, O.; Dehn, M.; Euteneuer, H.; Hagenbuck, F.; Herr, R.; Jankowiak, A.; Jennewein, P.; Kreidel, H.-J.; Ludwig-Mertin, U.; Negrazus, M.; Ratschow, S.; Schumann, St.; Seidl, M.; Stephan, G.; Thomas, A.

    2008-08-01

    At the Institut für Kernphysik of Mainz University a harmonic double-sided microtron (HDSM) has been built to extend the experimental capabilities for nuclear and particle physics experiments to higher excitation energies. This novel microtron variant accelerates the 0.855 GeV continuous wave (cw) electron beam of the established three-staged race track microtron (RTM) cascade MAMI B up to 1.5 GeV. It consists of two normal conducting linear accelerators (linacs) through which the electrons are guided up to 43 times by a pair of 90°-bending magnets at each end. For beam dynamical reasons the linacs operate at the harmonic frequencies of 4.90 and 2.45 GHz. The extended facility is called MAMI C. The relatively strong vertical defocussing due to the 45°-pole face rotations (Fig. 1) at both the entrance and exit of the segment-shaped bending magnets is compensated for all recirculations by a suitable field decay in the magnets towards higher orbits. As a consequence, the energy gain of the electrons has to decrease with increasing turn number to maintain coherent acceleration. This occurs by an appropriate phase slip of the electron bunches downwards the rf-waves during the acceleration process. In this paper the functional principle and the beam dynamical concept of the double-sided microtron (DSM) as well as the design and development of its main components are described. Finally, the results of first beam measurements taken after starting up in December 2006 are discussed.

  9. Synthesis of catalytically active form III ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in archaea.

    PubMed

    Finn, Michael W; Tabita, F Robert

    2003-05-01

    Ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) catalyzes the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas to organic carbon; it is the key enzyme responsible for the bulk of organic matter found on earth. Until recently it was believed that there are only two forms of RubisCO, form I and form II. However, the recent completion of several genome-sequencing projects uncovered open reading frames resembling RubisCO in the third domain of life, the archaea. Previous work and homology comparisons suggest that these enzymes represent a third form of RubisCO, form III. While earlier work indicated that two structurally distinct recombinant archaeal RubisCO proteins catalyzed bona fide RubisCO reactions, it was not established that the rbcL genes of anaerobic archaea can be transcribed and translated to an active enzyme in the native organisms. In this report, it is shown not only that Methanococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanosarcina acetivorans, and Methanosarcina barkeri possess open reading frames with the residues required for catalysis but also that the RubisCO protein from these archaea accumulates in an active form under normal growth conditions. In addition, the form III RubisCO gene (rbcL) from M. acetivorans was shown to complement RubisCO deletion strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter sphaeroides under both photoheterotrophic and photoautotrophic growth conditions. These studies thus indicate for the first time that archaeal form III RubisCO functions in a physiologically significant fashion to fix CO(2). Furthermore, recombinant M. jannaschii, M. acetivorans, and A. fulgidus RubisCO possess unique properties with respect to quaternary structure, temperature optima, and activity in the presence of molecular oxygen compared to the previously described Thermococcus kodakaraensis and halophile proteins.

  10. Structure and Formation of Massive Galaxies with Old Stellar Populations at z=1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Stockton, A.

    2006-12-01

    Observational evidence has been mounting over the past decade that at least some luminous ( 2 L*) galaxies at high redshift have formed nearly all of their stars within the first billion years after the big bang. These are examples of the first major episodes of star formation in the universe and provide insights into the formation of the earliest massive galaxies. We have examined in detail the morphologies and stellar populations of seven z=1.5 passively evolving galaxies using high resolution HST NICMOS and ACS imaging data as well as medium resolution Keck spectroscopy. Almost all of these galaxies appear to be relaxed systems, with smooth morphologies at both rest-frame UV and visible wavelengths. Furthermore, spectral synthesis modeling favors a single burst of star formation more than 2 Gyr before the observed epoch. We note, however, that the prevalence of old stellar populations does not necessarily correlate with early-type morphologies, as the light profiles for several of these galaxies appear to be dominated by massive exponential disks. This evidence for massive old disks, along with the uniformity of stellar age across the disk, suggests formation by a mechanism better described as a form of monolithic collapse than as a hierarchical merger. There is at least one case, however, that appears to be undergoing a "dry merger", which may be an example of the process that converts these unusual galaxies into the familiar spheroids that dominate galaxies comprising old stellar populations at the present epoch. We acknowledge our collaborators in the HST observations, Gabriela Canalizo, Masanori Iye, and Toshinori Maihara. This research was supported by NSF grant AST03-07335 and HST grant GO-10418.01-A.

  11. Velocity segregation effects in galaxy clusters at 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, S.; Girardi, M.; Biviano, A.; Borgani, S.; Annunziatella, M.; Nonino, M.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: Our study is meant to extend our knowledge of the galaxy color and luminosity segregation in velocity space (VCS and VLS, respectively), to clusters at intermediate and high redshift. Methods: Our sample is a collection of 41 clusters in the 0.4 ≲ z ≲ 1.5 redshift range for a total of 4172 galaxies, 1674 of which are member galaxies of the clusters within 2R200 with photometric or spectroscopic information, as taken from the literature. We perform homogeneous procedures to select cluster members, compute global cluster properties, in particular the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion σV, and separate blue from red galaxies. Results: We find evidence of VCS in clusters out to z ≃ 0.8 (at the 97-99.99% confidence level, depending on the test), in the sense that the blue galaxy population has a 10-20% larger σV than the red galaxy population. Poor or no VCS is found in the high-z sample at z ≥ 0.8. For the first time, we detect VLS in non-local clusters and confirm that VLS only affects the very luminous galaxies; brighter galaxies have lower velocities. The threshold magnitude of VLS is m3 + 0.5, where m3 is the magnitude of the third brightest cluster galaxy. Current data suggest that the threshold value moves to fainter magnitudes at higher redshift. We also detect (marginal) evidence of VLS for blue galaxies. Conclusions: We conclude that segregation effects can be important tracers of the galaxy evolution and cluster assembly when they are studied up to distant clusters. We also discuss the evidence of VCS at high redshift, which is poor or absent.

  12. Er-doped sesquioxides for 1.5-micron lasers - spectroscopic comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Larry D.; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay

    2013-05-01

    Due to the favorable thermal properties of sesquioxides as hosts for rare earth laser ions, we have recently studied the spectroscopy of Er:Lu2O3 in the 1400-1700 nm wavelength range, and here report its comparison with our earlier results on Er:Y2O3 and Er:Sc2O3. These studies include absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and inference of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections, all as a function of temperature. At room temperature, optical absorption limits practical laser operation to wavelengths longer than about 1620 nm. In that spectral range, the strongest stimulated emission peak is that at 1665 nm in Er:Sc2O3, with an effective cross section considerably larger than those of Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3. At 77K, the absorption is weak enough for efficient laser operation at considerably shorter wavelengths, where there are peaks with much larger stimulated emission cross sections. The three hosts all have peaks near 1575-1580 nm with comparably strong cross sections. As we have reported earlier, it is possible to lase even shorter wavelengths efficiently at this temperature, in particular the line at 1558 nm in Er:Sc2O3. Our new spectroscopic studies of Er:Lu2O3 indicate that its corresponding peak, like that of Er:Sc2O3, has a less favorable ratio of stimulated emission to absorption cross sections. Reasons for the differences will be discussed. We conclude that for most operating scenarios, Er:Sc2O3 is the most promising of the Er-doped sesquioxides studied for laser operation around 1.5-1.6 microns.

  13. A User's Manual for MASH V1.5 - A Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System

    SciTech Connect

    C. O. Slater; J. M. Barnes; J. O. Johnson; J.D. Drischler

    1998-10-01

    The Monte Carlo ~djoint ~ielding Code System, MASH, calculates neutron and gamma- ray environments and radiation protection factors for armored military vehicles, structures, trenches, and other shielding configurations by coupling a forward discrete ordinates air- over-ground transport calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo treatment of the shielding geometry. Efficiency and optimum use of computer time are emphasized. The code system includes the GRTUNCL and DORT codes for air-over-ground transport calculations, the MORSE code with the GIFT5 combinatorial geometry package for adjoint shielding calculations, and several peripheral codes that perform the required data preparations, transformations, and coupling functions. The current version, MASH v 1.5, is the successor to the original MASH v 1.0 code system initially developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The discrete ordinates calculation determines the fluence on a coupling surface surrounding the shielding geometry due to an external neutron/gamma-ray source. The Monte Carlo calculation determines the effectiveness of the fluence at that surface in causing a response in a detector within the shielding geometry, i.e., the "dose importance" of the coupling surface fluence. A coupling code folds the fluence together with the dose importance, giving the desired dose response. The coupling code can determine the dose response as a function of the shielding geometry orientation relative to the source, distance from the source, and energy response of the detector. This user's manual includes a short description of each code, the input required to execute the code along with some helpful input data notes, and a representative sample problem.

  14. EU Directive 2004/40: field measurements of a 1.5 T clinical MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Riches, S F; Collins, D J; Scuffham, J W; Leach, M O

    2007-06-01

    The European Union (EU) Physical Agents (EMF) Directive [1] must be incorporated into UK law in 2008. The directive, which applies to employees working in MRI, sets legal exposure limits for two of the three types of EMF exposure employed in MRI; time-varying gradient fields and radiofrequency (RF) fields. Limits on the static field are currently not included but may be added at a later date. Conservative action values have been set for all three types of exposure including the static field. The absolute exposure limits will exclude staff from the scanner bore and adjacent areas during scanning, impacting on many clinical activities such as anaesthetic monitoring during sedated scans, paediatric scanning and interventional MRI. When the legislation comes into force, NHS Trusts, scanner companies and academic institutions will be required to show compliance with the law. We present results of initial measurements performed on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. For the static field, the proposed action value is exceeded at 40 cm from the scanner bore and would be exceeded when positioning a patient for scanning. For the RF field, the action values were only exceeded within the bore at distances of 40 cm from the scanner ends during a very RF intensive sequence; MRI employees are unlikely to be in the bore during an acquisition. For the time-varying gradient fields the action values were exceeded 52 cm out from the mouth of the bore during two clinical sequences, and estimated current densities show the exposure limit to be exceeded at 40 cm for frequencies above 333 Hz. Limiting employees to distances greater than these from the scanner during acquisition will have a severe impact on the future use and development of MRI.

  15. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  16. Radiation from mid-atomic-number X-pinches at 1.5-1.7 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, A.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Keim, S. F.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the first X-pinch experiments were performed at enhanced current on the Zebra generator using the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). Previously, X-pinches were found to achieve the highest K-shell electron temperatures at 1 MA on Zebra and these new experiments were performed to determine how the increased current will affect the radiative properties of the X-pinches. A comparison of the linear radiation yields suggests an increase of around 50% for the LCM experiments (˜10 kJ/cm at 1 MA, ˜16 kJ/cm with LCM). These experiments used Cu or Ti alloy (6% Al, 4% V) wires for a first look at X-pinches at 1.5-1.7 MA at the University of Nevada, Reno. For Cu X-pinches, intense L-shell Cu radiation with electron temperatures >300 eV was recorded by both time gated and time integrated spectrometers. The time gated spectra show an evolution of line intensities from the high Rydberg states. For Ti alloy X-pinches, many interesting results from time gated spectra recorded during the Ti experiments were found such as: (i) the appearance of characteristic emission of Ti (wire material) and Fe (hardware material) in different orders of reflection beginning shortly before the first x-ray burst that was recorded for the next 15 ns, (ii) prominent K-shell Al radiation from the Ti alloy experiments despite the low percentage of Al in the alloy, and (iii) K-shell Al radiation that corresponds to 400-550 eV plasmas starting near the first x-ray burst. Time integrated spectra recorded intense K-shell Al radiation and K-shell Ti radiation from higher order reflections.

  17. Design of interpenetrated network MWCNT/poly(1,5-DAN) on interdigital electrode: toward NO2 gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dzung Tuan; Nguyen, My Thanh; Ho, Giang Truong; Nguyen, Toan Ngoc; Reisberg, S; Piro, B; Pham, M C

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, poly(1,5-diaminonaphthalene) was interpenetrated into the network made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on platinum interdigital electrode (IDE) by electro-polymerization of 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN). The electro-polymerization process of 1,5-DAN on MWCNT was controlled by scanning the cyclic voltage at 50 mV s(-1) scan rate between -0.1 V and +0.95 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The results of voltammetric responses and Raman spectroscopy represented that the films MWCNT/poly(1,5-DAN) were successfully created by this polymerization process. The films MWCNT/poly(1,5-DAN) were investigated for gas-sensing to NO2 at low concentration level. The gas-sensing results showed that the response-recovery times were long and strongly affected by thickness of the film MWCNT/poly(1,5-DAN). Nevertheless, these films represented auspicious results for gas sensors operating at room temperature.

  18. Mass spectrometry-based identification of native cardiac Nav1.5 channel α subunit phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, Céline; Lichti, Cheryl F; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Charpentier, Flavien; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Townsend, R Reid; Mérot, Jean

    2012-12-07

    Cardiac voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels are key determinants of action potential waveforms, refractoriness and propagation, and Nav1.5 is the main Nav pore-forming (α) subunit in the mammalian heart. Although direct phosphorylation of the Nav1.5 protein has been suggested to modulate various aspects of Nav channel physiology and pathophysiology, native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites have not been identified. In the experiments here, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach was developed to identify native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites directly. Using an anti-NavPAN antibody, Nav channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. The MS analyses revealed that this antibody immunoprecipitates several Nav α subunits in addition to Nav1.5, as well as several previously identified Nav channel associated/regulatory proteins. Label-free comparative and data-driven phosphoproteomic analyses of purified cardiac Nav1.5 protein identified 11 phosphorylation sites, 8 of which are novel. All the phosphorylation sites identified except one in the N-terminus are in the first intracellular linker loop, suggesting critical roles for this region in phosphorylation-dependent cardiac Nav channel regulation. Interestingly, commonly used prediction algorithms did not reliably predict these newly identified in situ phosphorylation sites. Taken together, the results presented provide the first in situ map of basal phosphorylation sites on the mouse cardiac Nav1.5 α subunit.

  19. Dynamics of sodium channel Nav1.5 expression in astrocytes in mouse models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Laura W; Liu, Shujun; Black, Joel A; Waxman, Stephen G

    2014-10-22

    Astrocytes actively participate in the response of the central nervous system to injury, including in multiple sclerosis. Astrocytes can play both beneficial and detrimental roles in response to neuroinflammation; however, in extreme cases, astrogliosis can result in the formation of a glial scar, which can impede the regeneration of injured neurons. Although astrocytes do not express the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5 in the nonpathological human brain, they exhibit robust upregulation of Nav1.5 within acute and chronic multiple sclerosis lesions. Recent work has indicated that Nav1.5 contributes to the pathways that regulate glial scar formation in vitro through modulation of intracellular Ca levels. However, the temporal dynamics of astrocytic Nav1.5 channel expression in response to neuroinflammatory pathologies has not been investigated. We examined astrocytes from mice with monophasic and chronic-relapsing (CR) experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by immunohistochemical analysis to determine whether Nav1.5 is expressed in these cells, and whether the expression correlates with the severity of disease and/or phases of relapse and remission. Our results demonstrate that Nav1.5 is upregulated in astrocytes in situ in a temporal manner that correlates with disease severity in both monophasic and CR EAE. Further, in CR EAE, Nav1.5 expression is upregulated during relapses and subsequently attenuated during periods of remission. These observations are consistent with the suggestion that Nav1.5 can play a role in the response of astrocytes to inflammatory pathologies in the central nervous system and suggest Nav1.5 may be a potential therapeutic target to modulate reactive astrogliosis in vivo.

  20. Low dose of the gamma acute radiation syndrome (1.5 Gy) does not significantly alter either cognitive behavior or dopaminergic and serotoninergic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Martin, S; Viret, R; Denis, J; Mirguet, F; Diserbo, M; Multon, E; Lamproglou, I

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the early-delayed effects of a low dose of the gamma acute radiation syndrome (1.5 Gy) on memory and on dopaminergic and serotoninergic metabolism in Swiss albino CD1 mice, of various ages (6, 10 and 20 weeks). At different times after irradiation (from 24 hr to three months), the mice were trained in a single-trial passive avoidance task and tested for retention either 24 hr or 5 days later. Their performance was compared to that of mice that were sham-irradiated. At the end of the behavioral test (days 3, 9, 30 and 93), the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) and their metabolites were determined in hippocampus, anterior cortex and striatum of mice irradiated at the age of six weeks. No significant behavioral effect was observed whichever the age of the animals or the delay of observation. On the contrary at the moderate dose of 4.5 Gy we observed a significant memory deficit 9 days after the exposure. Considering the neurochemical study, in the striatum or in the frontal cortex, no significant modification was observed whichever the delay or the molecule. In the hippocampus slight modifications were noted: an increase (+144%, p = 0.002) in DA level on day 3 after exposure, and a decrease (-27%, p = 0.028) of 5HT level on day 30 post-irradiation. These modifications were only transient and not associated to modifications of the catabolites. This study demonstrates that total-body exposure to gamma radiation at low dose seems to induce only slight effects on the central nervous system.

  1. Stellar Populations of Luminous Evolved Galaxies at z ~ 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Stockton, Alan; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2007-11-01

    Observational evidence has been mounting over the past decade that at least some luminous (~2L*) galaxies have formed nearly all of their stars within a short period of time, only (1-2)×109 yr after the big bang. These are examples of the first major episodes of star formation in the universe and provide insights into the formation of the earliest massive galaxies. We have examined in detail the stellar populations of six z~1.5 galaxies that appear to be passively evolving, using both ground- and space-based photometry covering rest-frame UV to visible wavelengths. In addition, we have obtained medium-resolution spectroscopy for five of the six galaxies, covering the rest-frame UV portion of the spectrum. Spectral synthesis modeling for four of these galaxies favors a single burst of star formation more than 1 Gyr before the observed epoch. The other two exhibit slightly younger ages with a higher dust content and evidence for a small contribution from either recent star formation or active nuclei. The implied formation redshifts for the oldest of these sources are consistent with previous studies of passive galaxies at high redshift, and improved stellar modeling has shown these results to be quite robust. It now seems clear that any valid galaxy formation scenario must be able to account for these massive (~2×1011 Msolar) galaxies at very early times in the universe. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Results are also based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science

  2. Ab Initio Kinetics and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Mononitrobiuret and 1,5- Dinitrobiuret

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hongyan; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam G.

    2015-05-26

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH2 group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C2v symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which reveal the

  3. Thermal Models and 1--5mu M Photometry: Spring 1997 Loki Brightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Howell, R. R.; Dumas, C.

    1997-07-01

    Observations from 1.7 -- 4.8 microns obtained between March 12 and May 31 1997 from the IRTF in Hawaii and from the 72'' Perkins Telescope in Flagstaff, AZ, reveal that Io's volcano Loki was then active. Measurements from the Galileo NIMS instrument at the E6 encounter on February 20, 1997, show that the 3.5mu m flux from Loki was extremely low (R. Lopes-Gautier, personal communication). Our photometry at 3.5mu m shows that 20 days later the flux from Loki had increased dramatically to 72+/- 4GWmu m(-1) str(-1) (completely dominating the emission from Io at 3.5mu m) and that it monotonically brightened over the March -- April period, with the flux on April 29 being 94+/- 4GWmu m(-1) str(-1) . In contrast, disk-integrated 2.3:3.5mu m color temperatures, from the March 19 -- April 29 period decline monotonically, from 681+/- 20K to 607+/- 5K, suggesting that we were seeing spreading and cooling lava flows. This color temperature, =~ 650K, is remarkable only in that it is not elevated relative to the color temperature we find for Io when there are no bright hotspots (Spencer \\frenchspacing et al., 1997; Stansberry \\frenchspacing et al., 1997). Because most of the 3.5mu m flux from Io during this period was originating from Loki, the implication is that nearly all of the newly erupted material there had a temperature <= 650K. On April 29 we measured a disk-integrated 1.7:2.3mu m color temperature of 984+/- 24K. This color temperature also is not greater than values we obtain for a quiescent Io, suggesting a lack of high-temperature material at Loki. Models of 1--5mu m emission from lava flows (Howell, 1997; Stansberry \\frenchspacing et al., 1997) will be compared with these data and any additional observations obtained in June and July in order to explore in detail the temperature of the Loki lavas, the extent of the flows, limits on the area at Loki that might be occupied by lavas with T =~ 1000K, and the eruption rates associated with this brightening. Howell, R

  4. Ab initio kinetics and thermal decomposition mechanism of mononitrobiuret and 1,5-dinitrobiuret.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyan; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L

    2015-05-28

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH2 group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C2v symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which reveal the formation

  5. Ab initio kinetics and thermal decomposition mechanism of mononitrobiuret and 1,5-dinitrobiuret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongyan; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.

    2015-05-01

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH2 group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C2v symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which reveal the formation

  6. Aerodynamic and engineering design of a 1.5 s high quality microgravity drop tower facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belser, Valentin; Breuninger, Jakob; Reilly, Matthew; Laufer, René; Dropmann, Michael; Herdrich, Georg; Hyde, Truell; Röser, Hans-Peter; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2016-12-01

    Microgravity experiments are essential for research in space science, biology, fluid mechanics, combustion, and material sciences. One way to conduct microgravity experiments on Earth is by using drop tower facilities. These facilities combine a high quality of microgravity, adequate payload masses and have the advantage of virtually unlimited repeatability under same experimental conditions, at a low cost. In a collaboration between the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart and Baylor University (BU) in Waco, Texas, a new drop tower is currently under development at the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER). The design parameters of the drop tower ask for at least 1.5 s in free fall duration while providing a quality of at least 10-5 g. Previously, this quality has only been achieved in vacuum drop tower facilities where the capsule experiences virtually zero aerodynamic drag during its free fall. Since this design comes at high costs, a different drop tower design concept, which does not require an evacuated drop shaft, was chosen. It features a dual-capsule system in which the experiment capsule is shielded from aerodynamic forces by surrounding it with a drag shield during the drop. As no other dual-capsule drop tower has been able to achieve a quality as good as or better than 10-5 g previous work optimized the design with an aerodynamic perspective by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to determine the ideal shape and size of the outer capsule and to specify the aerodynamically crucial dimensions for the overall system. Experiments later demonstrated that the required quality of microgravity can be met with the proposed design. The main focus of this paper is the mechanical realization of the capsule as well as the development and layout of the surrounding components, such as the release mechanism, the deceleration device and the drop shaft. Because the drop tower facility is a

  7. Ba2F2Fe(1.5)Se3: An Intergrowth Compound Containing Iron Selenide Layers.

    PubMed

    Driss, Dalel; Janod, Etienne; Corraze, Benoit; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Cario, Laurent

    2016-03-21

    The iron selenide compound Ba2F2Fe(1.5)Se3 was synthesized by a high-temperature ceramic method. The single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed a layered-like structure built on [Ba2F2](2+) layers of the fluorite type and iron selenide layers [Fe(1.5)Se3](2-). These [Fe1.5Se3](2-) layers contain iron in two valence states, namely, Fe(II+) and Fe(III+) located in octahedral and tetrahedral sites, respectively. Magnetic measurements are consistent with a high-spin state for Fe(II+) and an intermediate-spin state for Fe(III+). Moreover, susceptibility and resistivity measurements demonstrate that Ba2F2Fe(1.5)Se3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator.

  8. Construction of 1,5-Enynes by Stereospecific Pd-Catalyzed Allyl-Propargyl Cross-Couplings

    PubMed Central

    Ardolino, Michael J.; Morken, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of chiral propargyl acetates and allyl boronates delivers chiral 1,5-enynes with excellent levels of chirality transfer and applied across a broad range of substrates. PMID:22594398

  9. Suppression of PPARβ, and DHA treatment, inhibit NaV1.5 and NHE-1 pro-invasive activities.

    PubMed

    Wannous, Ramez; Bon, Emeline; Gillet, Ludovic; Chamouton, Julie; Weber, Günther; Brisson, Lucie; Goré, Jacques; Bougnoux, Philippe; Besson, Pierre; Roger, Sébastien; Chevalier, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPARβ) and NaV1.5 voltage-gated sodium channels have independently been shown to regulate human breast cancer cell invasiveness. The n-3 polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), a natural ligand of PPAR, is effective in increasing survival and chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patient with metastasis. DHA reduces breast cancer cell invasiveness and it also inhibits PPARβ expression. We have shown previously that NaV1.5 promotes MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells invasiveness by potentiating the activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (NHE-1), the major regulator of H(+) efflux in these cells. We report here that DHA inhibited NaV1.5 current and NHE-1 activity in human breast cancer cells, and in turn reduced NaV1.5-dependent cancer cell invasiveness. For the first time, we show that antagonizing PPARβ, or inhibiting its expression, reduced NaV1.5 mRNA and protein expression and NaV1.5 current, as well as NHE-1 activity and cell invasiveness. Consistent with these results, the DHA-induced reduction of both NaV1.5 expression and NHE-1 activity was abolished in cancer cells knocked-down for the expression of PPARβ (shPPARβ). This demonstrates a direct link between the inhibition of PPARβ expression and the inhibition of Nav1.5/NHE-1 activities and breast cancer cell invasiveness. This study provides new mechanistic data advocating for the use of natural fatty acids such as DHA to block the development of breast cancer metastases.

  10. Regulation of the cardiac Na+ channel NaV1.5 by post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, Céline; Abriel, Hugues

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated Na(+) channel, Na(V)1.5, is responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and for efficient propagation of the electrical impulse in the myocardium. Even subtle alterations of Na(V)1.5 function, as caused by mutations in its gene SCN5A, may lead to many different arrhythmic phenotypes in carrier patients. In addition, acquired malfunctions of Na(V)1.5 that are secondary to cardiac disorders such as heart failure and cardiomyopathies, may also play significant roles in arrhythmogenesis. While it is clear that the regulation of Na(V)1.5 protein expression and function tightly depends on genetic mechanisms, recent studies have demonstrated that Na(V)1.5 is the target of various post-translational modifications that are pivotal not only in physiological conditions, but also in disease. In this review, we examine the recent literature demonstrating glycosylation, phosphorylation by Protein Kinases A and C, Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein Kinase II, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinases, Fyn and Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, methylation, acetylation, redox modifications, and ubiquitylation of Na(V)1.5. Modern and sensitive mass spectrometry approaches, applied directly to channel proteins that were purified from native cardiac tissues, have enabled the determination of the precise location of post-translational modification sites, thus providing essential information for understanding the mechanistic details of these regulations. The current challenge is first, to understand the roles of these modifications on the expression and the function of Na(V)1.5, and second, to further identify other chemical modifications. It is postulated that the diversity of phenotypes observed with Na(V)1.5-dependent disorders may partially arise from the complex post-translational modifications of channel protein components.

  11. NaV1.5 sodium channel window currents contribute to spontaneous firing in olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Christopher T; Hansen, Anne; Dupuis, Nicholas D; Shultz, Nicole; Levinson, Simon R; Finger, Thomas E; Dionne, Vincent E

    2014-09-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) fire spontaneously as well as in response to odor; both forms of firing are physiologically important. We studied voltage-gated Na(+) channels in OSNs to assess their role in spontaneous activity. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings from OSNs demonstrated both tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-resistant components of Na(+) current. RT-PCR showed mRNAs for five of the nine different Na(+) channel α-subunits in olfactory tissue; only one was tetrodotoxin resistant, the so-called cardiac subtype NaV1.5. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that NaV1.5 is present in the apical knob of OSN dendrites but not in the axon. The NaV1.5 channels in OSNs exhibited two important features: 1) a half-inactivation potential near -100 mV, well below the resting potential, and 2) a window current centered near the resting potential. The negative half-inactivation potential renders most NaV1.5 channels in OSNs inactivated at the resting potential, while the window current indicates that the minor fraction of noninactivated NaV1.5 channels have a small probability of opening spontaneously at the resting potential. When the tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channels were blocked by nanomolar tetrodotoxin at the resting potential, spontaneous firing was suppressed as expected. Furthermore, selectively blocking NaV1.5 channels with Zn(2+) in the absence of tetrodotoxin also suppressed spontaneous firing, indicating that NaV1.5 channels are required for spontaneous activity despite resting inactivation. We propose that window currents produced by noninactivated NaV1.5 channels are one source of the generator potentials that trigger spontaneous firing, while the upstroke and propagation of action potentials in OSNs are borne by the tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel subtypes.

  12. Heat capacities and thermal conductivities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Akinori; Ichise, Kenichi; Arai, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    The thermal diffusivity of AmO 2 was measured from 473 to 773 K and that of AmO 1.5 between 473 and 1373 K using a laser flash method. The enthalpy increment of AmO 2 was measured from 335 to 1081 K and that of AmO 1.5 between 335 and 1086 K using drop calorimetry. The heat capacities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5 were derived from the enthalpy increment measurements. The thermal conductivity was determined from the measured thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and bulk density. The heat capacities of AmO 2 was found larger than that of AmO 1.5. The thermal conductivities of AmO 2 and AmO 1.5 were found to decrease with increasing temperature in the investigated temperature range. The thermal conductivity of AmO 1.5 with A -type hexagonal structure was smaller than that of AmO 2 with C-type fluorite structure but larger than that of sub-stoichiometric AmO 1.73.

  13. Ab initio kinetics and thermal decomposition mechanism of mononitrobiuret and 1,5-dinitrobiuret

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hongyan E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L. E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil

    2015-05-28

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH{sub 2} group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C{sub 2v} symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which

  14. Bis(dimethyl-ammonium) 3,3'-dicarb-oxy-5,5'-(5,7,12,14-tetra-oxo-6,13-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[6.6.2.0(4,16).0(11,15)]hexa-deca-1,3,8,10,15-penta-ene-6,13-di-yl)dibenzoate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan-Ping; Qin, Lan; Han, Lei

    2012-07-01

    The title compound, 2C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(30)H(12)N(2)O(12) (2-)·2H(2)O, comprises dimethyl-ammonium cations, 3,3'-dicarb-oxy-5,5'-(5,7,12,14-tetra-oxo-6,13-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[6.6.2.0(4,16).0(11,15)]hexa-deca-1,3,8,10,15-penta-ene-6,13-di-yl)dibenzoate dianions and water mol-ecules. The dianion is situated on a crystallographic inversion centre. Two very strong symmetry-restricted O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present which are situated about the crystallographic inversion centres. In one of these hydrogen bonds, the H atom is situated at its centre, while in the other one the H atom is disordered about its centre. Both H atoms are involved in the chain-like C(2) (2)(16) motif, and not in a more common motif R(2) (2)(8) that is composed of a pair of hydrogen carboxyl-ates with the H atoms situated about the centre between the pair of O atoms. In the crystal, inter-action of these hydrogen bonds results in formation of anionic layers of dianions parallel to (-111). The water mol-ecules donate their H atoms to one of two of the carboxyl-ate O atoms, forming strong hydrogen bonds. The dimethyl-ammonium donates a bifurcated hydrogen bond to an oxo group of the dianion, forming weak hydrogen bonds. All the hydrogen bonds form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  15. The Effect of (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-Cembratetraen-17,2-Olide (LS-1) from Lobophyyum sp. on the Apoptosis Induction of SNU-C5 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ji; Kang, Jung Il; Tung, Nguyen-Huu; Kim, Young-Ho; Hyun, Jin Won; Koh, Young Sang; Chang, Weon-Young; Yoo, Eun Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-cembratetraen-17,2-olide (LS-1), a marine cembrenolide diterpene, has anticancer activity against colon cancer cells such as HT-29, SNU-C5/5-FU (fluorouracil-resistant SNU-C5) and SNU-C5. However, the action mechanism of LS-1 on SNU-C5 human colon cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the anticancer effect of LS-1 could result from apoptosis via the modulation of Wnt/β-catenin and the TGF-β pathways. When treated with the LS-1, we could observe the apoptotic characteristics such as apoptotic bodies and the increase of sub-G1 hypodiploid cell population, increase of Bax level, decrease of Bcl-2 expression, cleavage of procaspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in SNU-C5 cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis induction of SNU-C5 cells upon LS-1 treatment was also accompanied by the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via the decrease of GSK-3β phosphorylation followed by the decrease of β-catenin level. In addition, the LS-1 induced the activation of TGF-β signaling pathway with the decrease of carcinoembryonic antigen which leads to decrease of c-Myc, an oncoprotein. These data suggest that the LS-1 could induce the apoptosis via the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the activation of TGF-β pathway in SNU-C5 human colon cancer cells. The results support that the LS-1 might have potential for the treatment of human colon cancer. PMID:27469141

  16. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by hydrogen peroxide transcriptionally inhibits NaV1.5 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Huo, Rong; Cai, Benzhi; Lu, Yan; Ye, Bo; Li, Xiang; Li, Faqian; Xu, Haodong

    2016-07-01

    Oxidants and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling have been shown to decrease cardiac Na(+) channel activity by suppressing NaV1.5 expression. Our aims are to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one oxidant of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes β-catenin nuclear activity, leading to suppression of NaV1.5 expression and if this suppression requires the interaction of β-catenin with its nuclear partner, TCF4 (also called TCF7L2) to decrease SCN5a promoter activity. The results demonstrated that H2O2 increased β-catenin, but not TCF4 nuclear localization determined by immunofluorescence without affecting total β-catenin protein level. Furthermore, H2O2 exerted a dose- and time-dependent suppressive effect on NaV1.5 expression. RT-PCR and/or Western blot analyses revealed that overexpressing active form of β-catenin or stabilizing β-catenin by GSK-3β inhibitors, LiCl and Bio, suppressed NaV1.5 expression in HL-1 cells. In contrast, destabilization of β-catenin by a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (S9A) upregulated NaV1.5 expression. Whole-cell recording showed that LiCl significantly inhibited Na(+) channel activity in these cells. Using immunoprecipitation (IP), we showed that β-catenin interacted with TCF4 indicating that β-catenin as a co-transfactor, regulates NaV1.5 expression through TCF4. Analyses of the SCN5a promoter sequences among different species by using VISTA tools indicated that SCN5a promoter harbors TCF4 binding sites. Chromatin IP assays demonstrated that both β-catenin and TCF4 were recruited in the SCN5a promoter, and regulated its activity. Luciferase promoter assays exhibited that β-catenin inhibited the SCN5a promoter activity at a dose-dependent manner and this inhibition required TCF4. Small interfering (Si) RNA targeting β-catenin significantly increased SCN5a promoter activity, leading to enhanced NaV1.5 expression. As expected, β-catenin SiRNA prevents H2O2 suppressive effects

  17. A de novo 8.8-Mb Deletion of 21q21.1-q21.3 in an Autistic Male with a Complex Rearrangement Involving Chromosomes 6, 10, and 21

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman-Englert, Chad R.; Chapman, Kimberly A.; Kruger, Hillary; Geiger, Elizabeth A.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Rappaport, Eric; Zackai, Elaine H.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Shaikh, Tamim H.

    2009-01-01

    We report here on a normal-appearing male with pervasive developmental disorder who was found to have a de novo, apparently balanced complex rearrangement involving chromosomes 6, 10, and 21: 46,XY,ins(21;10)(q11.2;p11.2p13)t(6;21)(p23;q11.2). Further analysis by high-density oligonucleotide microarray was performed, showing an 8.8-Mb heterozygous deletion at 21q21.1-q21.3. Interestingly, the deletion is distal to the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 21. The deletion involves 19 genes, including NCAM2 and GRIK1, both of which are associated with normal brain development and function, and have been considered as possible candidate genes in autism and other neurobehavioral disorders. This case underscores the utility of genomewide microarray analysis for the detection of copy number alterations in patients with apparently balanced complex rearrangements and abnormal phenotypes. PMID:20034085

  18. Transgenic expression of tilapia hepcidin 1-5 and shrimp chelonianin in zebrafish and their resistance to bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Peng, Kuan-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2011-08-01

    Recently, tilapia hepcidin (TH)1-5 was characterized, and its antimicrobial functions against several pathogens were reported. The antimicrobial functions of another shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chelonianin, were also characterized using a recombinant chelonianin protein (rcf) that was expressed by a stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line against pathogen infections in fish. The function of the overexpression of both AMPs in zebrafish muscles was not examined in previous studies. Herein, we investigated the antimicrobial functions of TH1-5 and chelonianin against Vibrio vulnificus (204) and Streptococcus agalactiae (SA48) in transgenic TH1-5 zebrafish and transgenic chelonianin zebrafish. The presence of TH1-5 and chelonianin enhanced the inhibitory ability in transgenic AMP zebrafish against the two different bacterial infections. The bacterial number of either V. vulnificus (204) or S. agalactiae (SA48) had decreased at 96 h after injection into transgenic AMP zebrafish muscle compared to non-transgenic zebrafish muscle. Additionally, immune-related gene expressions analyzed by real-time PCR studies showed the modulation of several genes including interleukin (IL)-10, IL-22, IL-26, MyD88, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1, TLR-3, TLR-4, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and lysozyme, and significant differences were found between transgenic AMP zebrafish and wild-type zebrafish injected with PBS at 1-24 h. These results suggest that several immune-related gene expressions were induced in transgenic TH1-5 and chelonianin zebrafish which effectively inhibited bacterial growth. The survival rate dropped to 86.6% in transgenic chelonianin zebrafish after 28 days of infection compared of the 50% survival rate in transgenic TH1-5 zebrafish after 28 days of infection. Overall, these results indicate that TH1-5 and chelonianin possess the potential to be novel candidate genes for aquaculture applications to treat fish diseases.

  19. The radioresistance to killing of A1-5 cells derives from activation of the Chk1 pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, B.; Zhou, X. Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, Z. C.; Iliakis, G.; Wang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Checkpoints respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for facilitating repair. In mammalian cells, the G(2) checkpoint prevents the Cdc25C phosphatase from removing inhibitory phosphate groups from the mitosis-promoting kinase Cdc2. Both Chk1 and Chk2, the checkpoint kinases, can phosphorylate Cdc25C and inactivate its in vitro phosphatase activity. Therefore, both Chk1 and Chk2 are thought to regulate the activation of the G(2) checkpoint. Here we report that A1-5, a transformed rat embryo fibroblast cell line, shows much more radioresistance associated with a much stronger G(2) arrest response when compared with its counterpart, B4, although A1-5 and B4 cells have a similar capacity for nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair. These phenotypes of A1-5 cells are accompanied by a higher Chk1 expression and a higher phosphorylation of Cdc2. On the other hand, Chk2 expression increases slightly following radiation; however, it has no difference between A1-5 and B4 cells. Caffeine or UCN-01 abolishes the extreme radioresistance with the strong G(2) arrest and at the same time reduces the phosphorylation of Cdc2 in A1-5 cells. In addition, Chk1 but not Chk2 antisense oligonucleotide sensitizes A1-5 cells to radiation-induced killing and reduces the G(2) arrest of the cells. Taken together these results suggest that the Chk1/Cdc25C/Cdc2 pathway is the major player for the radioresistance with G(2) arrest in A1-5 cells.

  20. Fluoxetine Blocks Nav1.5 Channels via a Mechanism Similar to That of Class 1 Antiarrhythmics

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Hugo; Bruhova, Iva; Timour, Quadiri; Theriault, Olivier; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Frassati, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-gated Nav1.5 channel is essential for the propagation of action potentials in the heart. Malfunctions of this channel are known to cause hereditary diseases. It is a prime target for class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs and a number of antidepressants. Our study investigated the Nav1.5 blocking properties of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Nav1.5 channels were expressed in HEK-293 cells, and Na+ currents were recorded using the patch-clamp technique. Dose-response curves of racemic fluoxetine (IC50 = 39 μM) and its optical isomers had a similar IC50 [40 and 47 μM for the (+) and (−) isomers, respectively]. Norfluoxetine, a fluoxetine metabolite, had a higher affinity than fluoxetine, with an IC50 of 29 μM. Fluoxetine inhibited currents in a frequency-dependent manner, shifted steady-state inactivation to more hyperpolarized potentials, and slowed the recovery of Nav1.5 from inactivation. Mutating a phenylalanine (F1760) and a tyrosine (Y1767) in the S6 segment of domain (D) IV (DIVS6) significantly reduced the affinity of fluoxetine and its frequency-dependent inhibition. We used a noninactivating Nav1.5 mutant to show that fluoxetine displays open-channel block behavior. The molecular model of fluoxetine in Nav1.5 was in agreement with mutational experiments in which F1760 and Y1767 were found to be the key residues in binding fluoxetine. We concluded that fluoxetine blocks Nav1.5 by binding to the class 1 antiarrhythmic site. The blocking of cardiac Na+ channels should be taken into consideration when prescribing fluoxetine alone or in association with other drugs that may be cardiotoxic or for patients with conduction disorders. PMID:25028482

  1. Fluoxetine blocks Nav1.5 channels via a mechanism similar to that of class 1 antiarrhythmics.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Hugo; Bruhova, Iva; Timour, Quadiri; Theriault, Olivier; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Frassati, Dominique; Chahine, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    The voltage-gated Nav1.5 channel is essential for the propagation of action potentials in the heart. Malfunctions of this channel are known to cause hereditary diseases. It is a prime target for class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs and a number of antidepressants. Our study investigated the Nav1.5 blocking properties of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Nav1.5 channels were expressed in HEK-293 cells, and Na(+) currents were recorded using the patch-clamp technique. Dose-response curves of racemic fluoxetine (IC50 = 39 μM) and its optical isomers had a similar IC50 [40 and 47 μM for the (+) and (-) isomers, respectively]. Norfluoxetine, a fluoxetine metabolite, had a higher affinity than fluoxetine, with an IC50 of 29 μM. Fluoxetine inhibited currents in a frequency-dependent manner, shifted steady-state inactivation to more hyperpolarized potentials, and slowed the recovery of Nav1.5 from inactivation. Mutating a phenylalanine (F1760) and a tyrosine (Y1767) in the S6 segment of domain (D) IV (DIVS6) significantly reduced the affinity of fluoxetine and its frequency-dependent inhibition. We used a noninactivating Nav1.5 mutant to show that fluoxetine displays open-channel block behavior. The molecular model of fluoxetine in Nav1.5 was in agreement with mutational experiments in which F1760 and Y1767 were found to be the key residues in binding fluoxetine. We concluded that fluoxetine blocks Nav1.5 by binding to the class 1 antiarrhythmic site. The blocking of cardiac Na(+) channels should be taken into consideration when prescribing fluoxetine alone or in association with other drugs that may be cardiotoxic or for patients with conduction disorders.

  2. The sigma-1 receptor binds to the Nav1.5 voltage-gated Na+ channel with 4-fold symmetry.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; Stewart, Andrew P; Crottès, David; Borgese, Franck; Soriani, Olivier; Edwardson, J Michael

    2012-10-26

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is up-regulated in many human tumors and plays a role in the control of cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. At the molecular level, the Sig1R modulates the activity of various ion channels, apparently through a direct interaction. We have previously shown using atomic force microscopy imaging that the Sig1R binds to the trimeric acid-sensing ion channel 1A with 3-fold symmetry. Here, we investigated the interaction between the Sig1R and the Nav1.5 voltage-gated Na(+) channel, which has also been implicated in promoting the invasiveness of cancer cells. We show that the Sig1R and Nav1.5 can be co-isolated from co-transfected cells, consistent with an intimate association between the two proteins. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the co-isolated proteins revealed complexes in which Nav1.5 was decorated by Sig1Rs. Frequency distributions of angles between pairs of bound Sig1Rs had two peaks, at ∼90° and ∼180°, and the 90° peak was about twice the size of the 180° peak. These results demonstrate that the Sig1R binds to Nav1.5 with 4-fold symmetry. Hence, each set of six transmembrane regions in Nav1.5 likely constitutes a Sig1R binding site, suggesting that the Sig1R interacts with the transmembrane regions of its partners. Interestingly, two known Sig1R ligands, haloperidol and (+)-pentazocine, disrupted the Nav1.5/Sig1R interaction both in vitro and in living cells. Finally, we show that endogenously expressed Sig1R and Nav1.5 also functionally interact.

  3. Tenth value layers for 60Co gamma rays and for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays in concrete for beams of cone angles between 0 degrees and 14 degrees calculated by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Adnan K; Biggs, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    The calculation of shielding barrier thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities according to the NCRP formalism is based on the use of broad beams (that is, the maximum possible field sizes). However, in practice, treatment fields used in radiation therapy are, on average, less than half the maximum size. Indeed, many contemporary treatment techniques call for reduced field sizes to reduce co-morbidity and the risk of second cancers. Therefore, published tenth value layers (TVLs) for shielding materials do not apply to these very small fields. There is, hence, a need to determine the TVLs for various beam modalities as a function of field size. The attenuation of (60)Co gamma rays and photons of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV bremsstrahlung x ray beams by concrete has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP version 4C2) for beams of half-opening angles of 0 degrees , 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees , 12 degrees , and 14 degrees . The distance between the x-ray source and the distal surface of the shielding wall was fixed at 600 cm, a distance that is typical for modern radiation therapy rooms. The maximum concrete thickness varied between 76.5 cm and 151.5 cm for (60)Co and 18 MV x rays, respectively. Detectors were placed at 630 cm, 700 cm, and 800 cm from the source. TVLs have been determined down to the third TVL. Energy spectra for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays for 10 x 10 cm(2) and 40 x 40 cm(2) field sizes were used to generate depth dose curves in water that were compared with experimentally measured values.

  4. Stellar mass buildup in galaxies in the first 1.5 Gyr of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Valentino

    In this thesis we have made extensive use of the deepest optical and infrared images currently available from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to study the properties of the stellar populations and the stellar mass buildup in galaxies in the first 1.5 Gyr after the Big Bang. The star formation Rates (SFRs) estimated for LBGs at z ≳ 4 are generally in the range 1 -- 100 M⊙ yr--1. The stellar mass estimates are most robust for sources with good Spitzer/IRAC detections, corresponding to galaxies with stellar masses ≳ 108.5 M⊙ at z ˜ 4 ( ≳ 109.5 M⊙ at z ˜ 7). For sources with lower rest-frame optical luminosities, that, as a result, are individually undetected in IRAC, their average stellar masses have been studied in a stacking analysis of a large number of sources. This enables us to reach stellar masses ˜ 10 7.8 M⊙ at z ˜ 4. The stellar masses show a fairly tight correlation with UV luminosity or SFR, and the zeropoint of the relation does not seem to evolve strongly with redshift. We have taken advantage of the UV luminosity vs. stellar mass relation observed in LBGs at z ≳ 4 -- 7 to derive the stellar mass function (SMF) of galaxies at these redshifts. The method uses a combination of the UV LF and the mean UV vs. stellar mass relation (including the scatter, estimated to be ˜ 0.5 dex at bright luminosities at z ˜ 4). This method allows an analytic estimate of the low mass slope of the SMF. This slope (the power-law exponent of the SMF at low masses), is estimated to be in the --1.44 -- --1.55, range which is flatter than the UV LF faint end slope at these redshifts ( ≲ --1.74). This means that low mass systems contribute less to the total stellar mass density (SMD) of the Universe than would have been estimated assuming a constant mass-to-UV-light ratio. We show that this is also much flatter than the theoretical predictions from simulations, which generally over-predict the number density of low mass

  5. High-temperature X-ray analysis of phase evolution in lithium ion conductor Li{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kun Wang, Yanhang; Zu, Chengkui Liu, Yonghua; Zhao, Huifeng; Chen, Jiang; Han, Bin; Ma, Juanrong

    2013-06-15

    Series of Li{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} glass ceramic samples were prepared in this work through the change of heat treatment temperature from 650 to 1050 °C. The structures of glass ceramic samples were characterized by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. And the lithium ionic conductivity was analyzed through AC impedance spectroscopy. Through heat treatment at 850 °C for 4 h for the base glass sample, we obtained a maximum conductivity of 5.8 × 10{sup −4} S/cm at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: High temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) and Rietveld refinement of Li{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (LAGP) glass-ceramics were recorded to investigate the phase transformation, cell parameters and the mass fraction of each crystal phase, which occur in the glass to glass-ceramics process during different crystallization temperatures. The relationship between the average grain size and conductivity that originate from and relate to the crystallization temperature was analyzed by SEM micrograph and AC impedance spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Li{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} glass-ceramics were prepared from as-prepared glass. • The phases decomposition and mass fraction of each phase were analyzed by HT-XRD. • Conductivity is relate to grain size that influenced by crystallization temperature.

  6. The crystal structure of Hf{sub 1.5+{delta}}Nb{sub 1.5-{delta}}As and structure-composition relations in the section Hf{sub 3}As-Nb{sub 3}As

    SciTech Connect

    Warczok, Piotr; Chumak, Igor

    2009-04-15

    The title compound Hf{sub 1.5+{delta}}Nb{sub 1.5-{delta}}As was characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. It represents a new structure type of intermetallic compounds (space group Pnma; lattice parameters a=7.142(2) A, b=3.583(2) A, c=11.640(2) A) and shows a small homogeneity range corresponding to (0.11.5+{delta}}Nb{sub 1.5-{delta}}As shows significant preferred site occupation of Hf and Nb at the three independent metal positions (differential fractional site occupancy). Structure-composition relations in the section Hf{sub 3}As-Nb{sub 3}As which also contains the new phase Hf{sub 2+{delta}}Nb{sub 1-{delta}}As with Ti{sub 3}P-type structure (space group P4{sub 2}/n) are discussed. Ground state energies of various ordered compounds with Hf{sub 1.5+{delta}}Nb{sub 1.5-{delta}}As-, Ti{sub 3}P- and Ta{sub 3}As-type structures were calculated from ab initio density functional theory. These energies were used for thermodynamic calculations employing the compound energy formalism (CEF) with the aim to model the experimentally observed site fraction data for both ternary compounds as well as Gibbs energies at the temperature of equilibration (1400 deg. C). - Graphical abstract: Hf{sub 1.5+{delta}}Nb{sub 1.5-{delta}}As with a new structure type (space group Pnma; lattice parameters a=7.142(2) A, b=3.583(2) A, c=11.640(2)A) was synthesized. Phase relations, energies and partial ordering in the section Hf{sub 3}As-Nb{sub 3}As were studied by first principle DFT calculations and thermodynamic modelling.

  7. New route to synthesis of unexpected 1,5-bis(1-benzofuran-2-yl) pentane-1,5-dione derivatives: Their structure determination with spectroscopic and X-ray methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskun, Demet

    2017-02-01

    The new 1,5-bis(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-1,5-dione derivatives were obtained by the reaction of 2-acetyl benzofuran derivatives (1a-b) and suitable aromatic aldehyde derivatives (2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, 2-fluoro and 3-fluorobenzaldehyde) in the presence of sodium hydroxide as the base. Importantly, a new process was explored for the synthesis of new bis benzofuran dione derivatives. The structures of the compounds was identified with infrared (IR), 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC and HMBC spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. A representative X-ray crystallographic analysis of 3c was given, and its X-ray data were discussed in detail.

  8. mGluR1/5 activation in the lateral hypothalamus increases food intake via the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fuentes, Asai; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Becerril-Meléndez, Alline L; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-Garcia, Oscar

    2016-09-19

    Mounting evidence has shown that glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems in the hypothalamus regulate mammalian food intake. Stimulation of hypothalamic mGluR1/5 and CB1 receptors induces hyperphagia suggesting a possible interaction between these systems to control food intake. In addition, synthesis of endocannabinoids has been reported after mGluR1/5 stimulation in the brain. The aim of this study was to examine the potential cannabinergic activity in the food intake induction by lateral hypothalamic stimulation of mGluR1/5. Wistar albino male rats received bilateral infusions in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of: (i) vehicle; (ii) (RS)-2-Chloro-5-hidroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; mGluR1/5 agonist); (iii) 2-AG (CB1 endogenous agonist); (iv) AM251 (CB1 antagonist); (v) tetrahydrolipstatin (THL, 1.2μg; diacyl-glycerol lipase inhibitor); and (vi) combinations of CHPG + with the other aforementioned drugs. Food intake was evaluated the first two hours after drug administration. CHPG significantly increased food intake; whereas CHPG in combination with a dose of 2-AG (with no effects on food intake) greatly increased food ingestion compared to CHPG alone. The increase induced by CHPG in food intake was prevented with AM251 or THL. These results suggest that activation of mGluR1/5 in the lateral hypothalamus induces an orexigenic effect via activation of the endocannabinoid system.

  9. A study of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Kuppan; Jarry, Angelique; Kostecki, Robert; Chen, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the kinetic implication of solid-solution vs. biphasic reaction pathways is critical for the development of advanced intercalation electrode materials. Yet this has been a long-standing challenge in materials science due to the elusive metastable nature of solid solution phases. The present study reports the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions. In situ XRD studies performed on pristine and chemically-delithiated, micron-sized single crystals reveal the thermal behavior of LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) cathode material consisting of three cubic phases: LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase I), Li0.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase II) and Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase III). A phase diagram capturing the structural changes as functions of both temperature and Li content was established. The work not only demonstrates the possibility of synthesizing alternative electrode materials that are metastable in nature, but also enables in-depth evaluation on the physical, electrochemical and kinetic properties of transient intermediate phases and their role in battery electrode performance. PMID:25619504

  10. Manipulation of the delayed rectifier Kv1.5 potassium channel in glial cells by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Roy, M L; Saal, D; Perney, T; Sontheimer, H; Waxman, S G; Kaczmarek, L K

    1996-11-01

    Glial cells have been shown to express several biophysically and pharmacology distinct potassium channel types. However, the molecular identity of most glial K+ channels is unknown. We have developed an antibody specific for the Shaker type potassium channel Kv1.5 protein, and demonstrate by immunohistochemistry the presence of this channel in glial cells of adult rat hippocampal and cerebellar slices, as well as in cultured spinal cord astrocytes. Immunoreactivity was particularly intense in the endfoot processes of astrocytes surrounding the microvasculature of the hippocampus. The specific contribution of this channel protein to the delayed rectifying K+ current of spinal cord astrocytes was determined by incubating these cells with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to the mRNA coding for Kv1.5 protein. Such treatment reduced delayed rectifier current density and shifted the potassium current steadystate inactivation, without altering current activation, cell capacitance, or cell resting potential. The tetraethylammonium acetate (TEA) sensitivity of astrocytic delayed rectifier current was enhanced following antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment, suggesting that Kv1.5 channel protein may provide a significant component of the TEA-insensitive current in this preparation. Our results suggest that Kv1.5 is widely expressed in glial cells of brain and spinal cord and that delayed rectifying K+ currents in astrocytes are largely mediated by Kv1.5 channel protein.

  11. A study of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, Kuppan; Jarry, Angelique; Kostecki, Robert; Chen, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the kinetic implication of solid-solution vs. biphasic reaction pathways is critical for the development of advanced intercalation electrode materials. Yet this has been a long-standing challenge in materials science due to the elusive metastable nature of solid solution phases. The present study reports the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions. In situ XRD studies performed on pristine and chemically-delithiated, micron-sized single crystals reveal the thermal behavior of LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (0 <= x <= 1) cathode material consisting of three cubic phases: LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase I), Li0.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase II) and Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase III). A phase diagram capturing the structural changes as functions of both temperature and Li content was established. The work not only demonstrates the possibility of synthesizing alternative electrode materials that are metastable in nature, but also enables in-depth evaluation on the physical, electrochemical and kinetic properties of transient intermediate phases and their role in battery electrode performance.

  12. A study of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Saravanan, Kuppan; Jarry, Angelique; Kostecki, Robert; ...

    2015-01-26

    Understanding the kinetic implication of solid-solution vs. biphasic reaction pathways is critical for the development of advanced intercalation electrode materials. Yet this has been a long-standing challenge in materials science due to the elusive metastable nature of solid solution phases. The present study reports the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of room-temperature LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 solid solutions. In situ XRD studies performed on pristine and chemically-delithiated, micron-sized single crystals reveal the thermal behavior of LixMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) cathode material consisting of three cubic phases: LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase I), Li0.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase II) and Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (Phase III). A phase diagram capturing the structuralmore » changes as functions of both temperature and Li content was established. In conclusion, the work not only demonstrates the possibility of synthesizing alternative electrode materials that are metastable in nature, but also enables in-depth evaluation on the physical, electrochemical and kinetic properties of transient intermediate phases and their role in battery electrode performance.« less

  13. Kinetic model of Nav1.5 channel provides a subtle insight into slow inactivation associated excitability in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhao, Zhiwen; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Wei; Wu, Ying; Ding, Jiuping

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5 has been linked to the cardiac cell excitability and a variety of arrhythmic syndromes including long QT, Brugada, and conduction abnormalities. Nav1.5 exhibits a slow inactivation, corresponding to a duration-dependent bi-exponential recovery, which is often associated with various arrhythmia syndromes. However, the gating mechanism of Nav1.5 and the physiological role of slow inactivation in cardiac cells remain elusive. Here a 12-state two-step inactivation Markov model was successfully developed to depict the gating kinetics of Nav1.5. This model can simulate the Nav1.5 channel in not only steady state processes, but also various transient processes. Compared with the simpler 8-state model, this 12-state model is well-behaved in simulating and explaining the processes of slow inactivation and slow recovery. This model provides a good framework for further studying the gating mechanism and physiological role of sodium channel in excitable cells.

  14. Jingzhaotoxin-35, a novel gating-modifier toxin targeting both Nav1.5 and Kv2.1 channels.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Xu, Changxi; Wu, Qiaoqi; Huang, Lang; Liang, Songping; Yuan, Chunhua

    2014-12-15

    Jingzhaotoxin-35 (JZTX-35), a 36-residue polypeptide, was purified from the venom of the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao. JZTX-35 inhibited Nav1.5 and Kv2.1 currents with the IC50 value of 1.07 μM and 3.62 μM, respectively, but showed no significant effect on either Na(+) currents or Ca(2+) currents evoked in hippocampal neurons. It shifted the activation of the Nav1.5 and Kv2.1 channels to more depolarized voltages, and markedly shifted the steady-state inactivation of Nav1.5 currents toward more hyperpolarized potentials. Moreover, JZTX-35 can bind to a close state of Nav1.5 and Kv2.1 channels. These results indicate that JZTX-35 is a new gating modifier toxin. JZTX-35 shares high sequence similarity with Jingzhaotoxins (JZTXs) targeting Nav1.5 or Kv2.1 channels, but they showed different ion channel selectivity. Structure-function analysis in this study would provide important clues for the exploration of ion channel selectivity of JZTXs.

  15. NOTE: Integrating a 1.5 T MRI scanner with a 6 MV accelerator: proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raaymakers, B. W.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Overweg, J.; Kok, J. G. M.; Raaijmakers, A. J. E.; Kerkhof, E. M.; van der Put, R. W.; Meijsing, I.; Crijns, S. P. M.; Benedosso, F.; van Vulpen, M.; de Graaff, C. H. W.; Allen, J.; Brown, K. J.

    2009-06-01

    At the UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands, we have constructed a prototype MRI accelerator. The prototype is a modified 6 MV Elekta (Crawley, UK) accelerator next to a modified 1.5 T Philips Achieva (Best, The Netherlands) MRI system. From the initial design onwards, modifications to both systems were aimed to yield simultaneous and unhampered operation of the MRI and the accelerator. Indeed, the simultaneous operation is shown by performing diagnostic quality 1.5 T MRI with the radiation beam on. No degradation of the performance of either system was found. The integrated 1.5 T MRI system and radiotherapy accelerator allow simultaneous irradiation and MR imaging. The full diagnostic imaging capacities of the MRI can be used; dedicated sequences for MRI-guided radiotherapy treatments will be developed. This proof of concept opens the door towards a clinical prototype to start testing MRI-guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) in the clinic.

  16. A Study of the CryoTel® DS 1.5 Cryocooler for Higher Cooling Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongsu; Wade, Jimmy; Wilson, Kyle

    2015-12-01

    The CryoTel® DS 1.5 is a split type Stirling cryocooler which was developed by Sunpower for systems requiring compact size, high efficiency, and high reliability. The DS 1.5 has a nominal lift of 1.5 watts at 77 K with 30 watts of input power. The cooler design includes gas bearings on the pistons and displacer for non-contact operation, and achieves low vibration by using dual-opposed pistons inside the wave generator, and a passive balancer on the cold head to offset the displacer motion. The efficiency of the DS 1.5 is ranked highly compared to other cryocoolers at 14.2% Carnot efficiency, but there are many customers who want more lift with the same size and reliability. Therefore, Sunpower performed a study on the feasibility of maximizing the lift of the DS 1.5 without increasing its size. This paper describes the analysis and test results of increasing the cooler power density by using a higher operating frequency and charge pressure. Prototype testing showed good agreement with the model. Testing performed at various frequencies and charge pressures with a few internal component changes resulted in a maximum lift of 2.1 watts with an input power of 43 watts, achieving 13.9% of Carnot. The prototype high-capacity DS 1.5 achieved 0.6 watts more lift with only a slight decrease in efficiency, and with less than 0.2% cooler mass increase. The impact on the cooldown time on a thermal mass system was tested and the cool-down time was 37% faster while consuming less input energy during that time. Sunpower plans to build more units to gain a broader range of performance data and will then decide whether to proceed with a commercial product.

  17. Cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 distribution in myocytes via interacting proteins: the multiple pool model.

    PubMed

    Shy, Diana; Gillet, Ludovic; Abriel, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    The cardiac sodium current (INa) is responsible for the rapid depolarization of cardiac cells, thus allowing for their contraction. It is also involved in regulating the duration of the cardiac action potential (AP) and propagation of the impulse throughout the myocardium. Cardiac INa is generated by the voltage-gated Na(+) channel, NaV1.5, a 2016-residue protein which forms the pore of the channel. Over the past years, hundreds of mutations in SCN5A, the human gene coding for NaV1.5, have been linked to many cardiac electrical disorders, including the congenital and acquired long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, conduction slowing, sick sinus syndrome, atrial fibrillation, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Similar to many membrane proteins, NaV1.5 has been found to be regulated by several interacting proteins. In some cases, these different proteins, which reside in distinct membrane compartments (i.e. lateral membrane vs. intercalated disks), have been shown to interact with the same regulatory domain of NaV1.5, thus suggesting that several pools of NaV1.5 channels may co-exist in cardiac cells. The aim of this review article is to summarize the recent works that demonstrate its interaction with regulatory proteins and illustrate the model that the sodium channel NaV1.5 resides in distinct and different pools in cardiac cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction.

  18. Inhibition of the cardiac Na⁺ channel α-subunit Nav1.5 by propofol and dexmedetomidine.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Carsten; Reuter, Svenja; Doll, Thorben; Foadi, Nilufar; Wegner, Florian; Leffler, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Propofol and dexmedetomidine are very commonly used sedative agents. However, several case reports demonstrated cardiovascular adverse effects of these two sedatives. Both substances were previously demonstrated to quite potently inhibit neuronal voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Thus, a possible molecular mechanism for some of their cardiac side effects is an inhibition of cardiac voltage gated Na(+) channels. In this study, we therefore explored the effects of propofol and dexmedetomidine on the cardiac predominant Na(+) channel α-subunit Nav1.5. Effects of propofol and dexmedetomidine were investigated on constructs of the human α-subunit Nav1.5 stably expressed in HEK-293 cells by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Both agents induced a concentration-dependent tonic inhibition of Nav1.5. The calculated IC50 value for propofol was 228 ± 10 μM, and for dexmedetomidine 170 ± 20 μM. Tonic block only marginally increased on inactivated channels, and a weak use-dependent block at 10 Hz was observed for dexmedetomidine (16 ± 2 % by 100 μM). The voltage dependencies of fast and slow inactivation as well as the time course of recovery from inactivation were shifted by both propofol and dexmedetomidine. Propofol (IC50 126 ± 47 μM) and dexmedetomidine (IC50 182 ± 27 μM) blocked the persistent sodium current induced by veratradine. Finally, the local-anesthetic (LA)-insensitive mutant Nav1.5-F1760A exhibited reduced tonic and use-dependent block by both substances. Dexmedetomidine was generally more potent as compared to propofol. Propofol and dexmedetomidine seem to interact with the LA-binding site to inhibit the cardiac Na(+) channel Nav1.5 in a state-dependent manner. These data suggest that Nav1.5 is a hitherto unrecognized molecular component of some cardiovascular side effects of these sedative agents.

  19. Characterization of a novel Nav1.5 channel mutation, A551T, associated with Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chi; Lai, Ling-Ping; Shieh, Ru-Chi

    2009-08-25

    Brugada syndrome is a life-threatening, inherited arrhythmia disorder associated with autosomal dominant mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the human cardiac Na+ channel alpha subunit (Nav1.5). Here, we characterized the biophysical properties of a novel Brugada syndrome-associated Nav1.5 mutation, A551T, identified in a proband who was successfully resuscitated from an episode of ventricular fibrillation with sudden collapse. Whole-cell currents through wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 and mutant (A551T) channels were recorded and compared in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T transfected with SCN5A cDNA and SCN1B cDNA, using the patch-clamp technique. Current density was decreased in the A551T mutant compared to the WT. In addition, the A551T mutation reduced Nav1.5 activity by promoting entry of the channel into fast inactivation from the closed state, thereby shifting the steady-state inactivation curve by -5 mV. Furthermore, when evaluated at -90 mV, the resting membrane potential, but not at the conventionally used -120 mV, both the percentage, and rate, of channel recovery from inactivation were reduced in the mutant. These results suggest that the DI-DII linker may be involved in the stability of inactivation gating process. This study supports the notion that a reduction in Nav1.5 channel function is involved in the pathogenesis of Brugada syndrome. The structural-functional study of the Nav1.5 channel advances our understanding of its pathophysiolgocial function.

  20. Role of iron in Na 1.5Fe 0.5Ti 1.5(PO 4) 3/C as electrode material for Na-ion batteries studied by operando Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difi, Siham; Saadoune, Ismael; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Hakkou, Rachid; Edstrom, Kristina; Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    The role of iron in Na 1.5Fe 0.5Ti 1.5(PO 4)3/C electrode material for Na batteries has been studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy in operando mode. The potential profile obtained in the galvanostatic regime shows three plateaus at different voltages due to different reaction mechanisms. Two of them, at 2.2 and 0.3 V vs Na +/Na 0, have been associated to redox processes involving iron and titanium in Na 1.5Fe 0.5Ti 1.5(PO 4)3. The role of titanium was previously elucidated for NaTi 2(PO 4)3 and the effect of the substitution of Fe for Ti was investigated with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We show that iron is an electrochemically active center at 2.2 V with the reversible Fe 3+/Fe 2+ transformation and then remains at the oxidation state Fe 2+ along the sodiation until the end of discharge at 0 V.

  1. Spatial structure determination of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees}CO on Cu(111) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-04-01

    The authors report a study of the spatial structure of ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} (low coverage) and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} (intermediate coverage) CO adsorbed on Cu(111), using the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) technique at beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The CO molecule adsorbs on an atop site for both adsorption phases. Full multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations were used to extract the C-Cu. bond length and the first Cu-Cu layer spacing for each adsorption phase. The authors find that the C-Cu bond length remains unchanged with increasing coverage, but the 1st Cu-Cu layer spacing contracts at the intermediate coverage. They calculate the bending mode force constant in the (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} phase to be K{sub {delta}} = 2.2 (1) x 10{sup {minus}12} dyne-cm/rad from their experimentally determined bond lengths combined with previously published infra-red absorption frequencies.

  2. Determination of transition metal ion distribution in cubic spinel Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} using anomalous x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. N.; Sinha, A. K. Ghosh, Haranath

    2015-08-15

    We report anomalous x-ray diffraction studies on Co ferrite with composition Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} to obtain the distribution of transition metal ions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. We synthesize spinel oxide (Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}) through co-precipitation and subsequent annealing route. The imaginary part (absorption) of the energy dependent anomalous form factor is measured and the real part is calculated theoretically through Kramers–Krönig transformation to analyze anomalous x-ray diffraction peak intensities. Fe and Co K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra are used to estimate charge states of transition metals. Our analysis, within experimental errors, suggests 44% of the tetrahedral sites contain Co in +2 oxidation state and the rest 56% sites contain Fe in +2 and +3 oxidation states. Similarly, 47% of the octahedral sites contain Fe in +3 oxidation states, whereas, the rest of the sites contain Co in +2 and +3 oxidation states. While a distinct pre-edge feature in the Fe K-edge XANES is observed, Co pre-edge remains featureless. Implications of these results to magnetism are briefly discussed.

  3. Immobilization of D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase: a step toward carbon dioxide fixation bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Subhra; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2003-03-20

    Immobilization of D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from spinach leaves is described. This enzyme enables the fixation of carbon dioxide on a five-carbon sugar D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP). Two different immobilization methods were employed: dicyclohexylcarbodiimide coupling on nylon membrane matrix and dimethylpimelimidate immobilization on protein A agarose. The reusability of immobilized enzymes, coupling efficiency, and temperature-activity relationship of soluble and immobilized Rubisco are presented. The immobilization imparted greater thermal and storage stability. The thermal deactivation rates of the immobilized enzymes were considerably lower than those of the soluble enzyme.

  4. 1.5D Quasilinear Model for Alpha Particle-TAE Interaction in ARIES ACT-I

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ghantous, N.N. Gorelenkov, C. Kessel, F. Poli

    2013-01-30

    We study the TAE interaction with alpha particle fusion products in ARIES ACT-I using the 1.5D quasilinear model. 1.5D uses linear analytic expressions for growth and damping rates of TAE modes evaluated using TRANSP pro les to calculates the relaxation of pressure pro les. NOVA- K simulations are conducted to validate the analytic dependancies of the rates, and to normalize their absolute value. The low dimensionality of the model permits calculating loss diagrams in large parameter spaces.

  5. A Critical Review of the Canadian Empirical Literature: Documenting Generation 1.5's K-16 Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical research has ever systematically documented the academic trajectories of Generation 1.5 in Canadian schools. Indeed, this label has not even been used to define the population of interest in the studies reviewed here. Nonetheless, some earlier work, along with more current studies made possible by recent availability of data, has…

  6. Immigrant Stories: Generation 1.5 Mexican American Students and English Language Learning in an Illinois Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of recent immigrants to the United States has increased dramatically in the last few years, and more of these immigrants are members of a group often designated as "Generation 1.5" students. These immigrant students were born in another country, came to the United States at the age of 13 or older, and graduated from high school in this…

  7. Magnetization and scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies of Mn1.5Ga films on GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jaesuk; Zhang, Xin; Hatch, John; Kumari, Archana; Xing, Hui; Taherirostami, Payam; Zeng, Hao; Cogswell, Jeffrey; Gardella, Joseph A.; Luo, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Hard magnetic materials have applications in permanent magnets and data storage media. Free of rare earth elements, L10 structured Mn1.5Ga with high magnetic anisotropy is a potential candidate for such applications. Epitaxial films of Mn1.5Ga with different thicknesses (35 nm - 200 nm) were grown on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. Films with thicknesses of 35 nm and 50 nm present uniform surface morphology which consists of overlapping rectangular features with widths and lengths on the order of a few tens to a few hundred nanometers. Measurements of X-ray diffraction reveal the presence of an interfacial layer of Mn2As between the substrate and L10 Mn1.5Ga. The 200 nm thick film presents a mixture of two different surface structures: domains which consist of faceted tent-like structures and domains with flat terraces (with lateral dimensions of about 500 nm). The magnetic properties of all samples are studied by vibrating sample magnetometer and their correlation with their surface morphology and stoichiometry will be presented. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of the 200 nm thick Mn1.5Ga film reveal electrical inhomogeneity correlated to the two morphologies. This work was supported by NSF DMR1006286.

  8. 1.5-Tesla Multiparametric-Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    POPITA, CRISTIAN; POPITA, ANCA RALUCA; SITAR-TAUT, ADELA; PETRUT, BOGDAN; FETICA, BOGDAN; COMAN, IOAN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) is the main imaging modality used for prostate cancer detection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mp-MRI at 1.5-Tesla (1.5-T) for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Methods In this ethical board approved prospective study, 39 patients with suspected prostate cancer were included. Patients with a history of positive prostate biopsy and patients treated for prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were examined at 1.5-T MRI, before standard transrectal ultrasonography–guided biopsy. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for mp-MRI were 100%, 73.68%, 80% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Our results showed that 1.5 T mp-MRI has a high sensitivity for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer and high negative predictive value in order to rule out significant disease. PMID:28246496

  9. Teaching Out-of-School Multiliteracy Opportunities: Tools for Fostering Literacy among Newcomer and Generation 1.5 Urban Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harushimana, Immaculee

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that new literacies constitute an indispensable foundation for developing school discourse among 1.5 and newcomer urban adolescents. A mother and literacy educator presents insights learned from indirectly participating in co-constructing Standard English discourse with her newcomer adolescent son through video…

  10. Synthesis of 1,5-benzothiazepine dipeptide mimetics via two CuI-catalyzed cross coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jiangang; Ma, Dawei

    2009-07-02

    CuI-catalyzed coupling of 4-methylphenyl bromide with amino acids gives N-aryl amino acids, which are converted into linear dipeptides via iodination and condensation with L-cysteine derived acyl chloride. Cyclization is achieved via a CuI/N,N-dimethylglycine catalyzed intramolecular coupling of aryl iodides with the liberated thiol to afford 1,5-benzothiazepine dipeptide mimetics.

  11. 1,5-Diazacyclooctanes, as Exclusive Oxidative Polyamine Metabolites, Inhibit Amyloid-β(1-40) Fibrillization.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Ayumi; Zako, Tamotsu; Bu, Tong; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Maeda, Mizuo; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2016-10-01

    Biologically relevant 1,5-diazacyclooctanes derived from polyamines and acrolein, inhibit Aβ40 peptide fibrillization and significantly suppress cell cytotoxicity. Formal [4+4] cycloaddition reaction of imines is thus involved in modulating oxidative stress processes associated with neural diseases.

  12. Radiation in 1.5 GeV and 12 GeV Laser Wakefield Acceleration Stages from PIC Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, J. L.; Martins, S. F.; Silva, L. O.

    2010-11-04

    A massivelly parallel post-processing radiation diagnostic for PIC codes is presented, which is then used to study the main features of the radiation from single LWFA stages (1.5 GeV and 12 GeV). This diagnostic also allows to examine radiation signatures associated with the physics of self-injection.

  13. Structure and function of splice variants of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.5.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Annett; Walzik, Stefan; Blechschmidt, Steve; Haufe, Volker; Benndorf, Klaus; Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels mediate the rapid upstroke of the action potential in excitable tissues. The tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistant isoform Na(v)1.5, encoded by the SCN5A gene, is the predominant isoform in the heart. This channel plays a key role for excitability of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and for rapid impulse propagation through the specific conduction system. During recent years, strong evidence has been accumulated in support of the expression of several Na(v)1.5 splice variants in the heart, and in various other tissues and cell lines including brain, dorsal root ganglia, breast cancer cells and neuronal stem cell lines. This review summarizes our knowledge on the structure and putative function of nine Na(v)1.5 splice variants detected so far. Attention will be paid to the distinct biophysical properties of the four functional splice variants, to the pronounced tissue- and species-specific expression, and to the developmental regulation of Na(v)1.5 splicing. The implications of alternative splicing for SCN5A channelopathies, and for a better understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, are discussed.

  14. Contributing Factors to Generation 1.5 Students' Successes on the Exit State Assessment for High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderhoef, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological narrative study investigated the successes of eight Generation 1.5 high school seniors on the Exit state assessment in English language arts in Texas. These eight participants represented three difficult ethnic cultures, Hispanic, Pakistani and Turkish; within the Hispanic cultures the countries of Mexico and El Salvador were…

  15. An Intensive Academic English Course for Generation 1.5 ELLs Bound for Postsecondary Studies: Curriculum Design, Development, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Katie; Pinchbeck, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants and the children of immigrants who have completed their schooling in Canadian school settings, commonly referred to as Generation 1.5, are increasingly identified in the research literature as academically at risk due to inadequately developed academic language proficiency and learning strategies. This article describes the design,…

  16. Radical cation cyclization of 1,5-hexadiene to cyclohexene via the cyclohexane-2,5-diyl radical cation intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Q.X.; Qin, X.Z.; Wang, J.T.; Williams, F.

    1988-03-16

    The classical example of a neutral carbon-centered radical cyclization reaction is the regioselective 1,5-ring closure (exocyclization) of the 5-hexenyl radical to the cyclopentylcarbinyl radical. Here the authors report the title reaction, a comparable addition process whereby an ..cap alpha.., omega-diene radical cation reacts by endocyclization and hydrogen shift(s) to produce a cycloolefin radical cation.

  17. A novel synthesis of highly substituted imidazo[1,5-a]pyrazine derivatives by 3-CR/2-CR sequence.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Ahmad; Maleki, Ali; Mofakham, Hamid

    2009-02-01

    By combining a three-component reaction of 2, 3-diaminomaleonitrile, ketones and isocyanides with a subsequent reaction of 1,6-dihydropyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitrile derivatives obtained from isocyanide-based three-component reaction with various alkyl and aryl isocyanates or isothiocyanates can be assembled a new class of highly substituted imidazo[1,5-a]pyrazine derivatives.

  18. Nav 1.5 mutations linked to dilated cardiomyopathy phenotypes: Is the gating pore current the missing link?

    PubMed

    Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Moreau, Adrien; Chahine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Nav 1.5 dysfunctions are commonly linked to rhythms disturbances that include type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3), Brugada syndrome (BrS), sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and conduction defects. Recently, this channel protein has been also linked to structural heart diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

  19. Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have suggested that "second-language writers" are made up of two distinct groups: Generation 1.5 (long-term U.S.-resident language learners) and more traditional L2 students (e.g., international or recently arrived immigrants). To investigate that claim, this study compares the first-year composition writing of…

  20. Selective Small Molecule Compounds Increase BMP-2 Responsiveness by Inhibiting Smurf1-mediated Smad1/5 Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xueli; Xing, Guichun; Lu, Kefeng; Gu, Yongqing; He, Fuchu; Zhang, Lingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor-1 (Smurf1) negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway by ubiquitinating certain signal components for degradation. Thus, it can be an eligible pharmacological target for increasing BMP signal responsiveness. We established a strategy to discover small molecule compounds that block the WW1 domain of Smurf1 from interacting with Smad1/5 by structure based virtual screening, molecular experimental examination and cytological efficacy evaluation. Our selected hits could reserve the protein level of Smad1/5 from degradation by interrupting Smurf1-Smad1/5 interaction and inhibiting Smurf1 mediated ubiquitination of Smad1/5. Further, these compounds increased BMP-2 signal responsiveness and the expression of certain downstream genes, enhanced the osteoblastic activity of myoblasts and osteoblasts. Our work indicates targeting Smurf1 for inhibition could be an accessible strategy to discover BMP-sensitizers that might be applied in future clinical treatments of bone disorders such as osteopenia. PMID:24828823

  1. A 1.5 THz hot-electron bolometer mixer operated by a planar diode based local oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. Y. E.; Meledin, D.; Blundell, R.; Erickson, N.; Mehdi, I.; Goltsman, G.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a 1.5 THz superconducting NbN Hot-Electron Bolometer mixer. It is oprated by an all-solid-state Local Oscillator comprising of a cascade of 4 planar doublers following an MMIC based W-band power amplifier.

  2. Estimation of aircraft wake vortex parameters from data measured with a 1.5-μm coherent Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Smalikho, I N; Banakh, V A

    2015-07-15

    A strategy of measurement by a 1.5-μm pulsed coherent Doppler lidar "Stream Line" has been developed, and a method for estimation of aircraft wake vortices from the lidar data has been proposed. The principal possibility of obtaining the information about the vortex situation over an airport airfield with the Stream-Line lidar has been demonstrated.

  3. Performance of a cylindrical diode array for use in a 1.5 T MR-linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houweling, A. C.; de Vries, J. H. W.; Wolthaus, J.; Woodings, S.; Kok, J. G. M.; van Asselen, B.; Smit, K.; Bel, A.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2016-02-01

    At the UMC Utrecht, a linear accelerator with integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed, the MR-linac. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of treatment plans for MRI-based image guided radiotherapy requires QA equipment compatible with this 1.5 T magnetic field. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance characteristics of the ArcCHECK-MR in a transverse 1.5 T magnetic field. To this end, the short-term reproducibility, dose linearity, dose rate dependence, field size dependence, dose per pulse dependence and inter-diode dose response variation of the ArcCHECK-MR diode array were evaluated on a conventional linac and on the MR-linac. The ArcCHECK-MR diode array performed well for all tests on both linacs, no significant differences in performance characteristics were observed. Differences in the maximum dose deviations between both linacs were less than 1.5%. Therefore, we conclude that the ArcCHECK-MR can be used in a transverse 1.5 T magnetic field.

  4. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  5. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  6. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  7. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  8. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  9. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic determinants that regulate internal initiation of translation mediated by the FMR1 5' leader

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Tara; Kube, Erika; Timmerman, Stephanie; Krushel, Les A

    2008-01-01

    Background Regulating synthesis of the Fragile X gene (FMR1) product, FMRP alters neural plasticity potentially through its role in the microRNA pathway. Cap-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA, a process requiring ribosomal scanning through the 5' leader, is likely impeded by the extensive secondary structure generated by the high guanosine/cytosine nucleotide content including the CGG triplet nucleotide repeats in the 5' leader. An alternative mechanism to initiate translation – internal initiation often utilizes secondary structure to recruit the translational machinery. Consequently, studies were undertaken to confirm and extend a previous observation that the FMR1 5' leader contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Results Cellular transfection of a dicistronic DNA construct containing the FMR1 5' leader inserted into the intercistronic region yielded significant translation of the second cistron, but the FMR1 5' leader was also found to contain a cryptic promoter possibly confounding interpretation of these results. However, transfection of dicistronic and monocistronic RNA ex vivo or in vitro confirmed that the FMR1 5' leader contains an IRES. Moreover, inhibiting cap-dependent translation ex vivo did not affect the expression level of endogenous FMRP indicating a role for IRES-dependent translation of FMR1 mRNA. Analysis of the FMR1 5' leader revealed that the CGG repeats and the 5' end of the leader were vital for internal initiation. Functionally, exposure to potassium chloride or intracellular acidification and addition of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid as mimics of neural activity and double stranded RNA, respectively, differentially affected FMR1 IRES activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that multiple stimuli influence IRES-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA and suggest a functional role for the CGG nucleotide repeats. PMID:18922172

  10. A Novel NaV1.5 Voltage Sensor Mutation Associated with Severe Atrial and Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Gang; Zhu, Wandi; Kanter, Ronald J.; Silva, Jonathan R.; Honeywell, Christina; Gow, Robert M.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inherited autosomal dominant mutations in cardiac sodium channels (NaV1.5) cause various arrhythmias, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Although dozens of mutations throughout the protein have been reported, there are few reported mutations within a voltage sensor S4 transmembrane segment and few that are homozygous. Here we report analysis of a novel lidocaine-sensitive recessive mutation, p.R1309H, in the NaV1.5 DIII/S4 voltage sensor in a patient with a complex arrhythmia syndrome. Methods and Results We expressed the wild type or mutant NaV1.5 heterologously for analysis with the patch-clamp and voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF) techniques. p.R1309H depolarized the voltage-dependence of activation, hyperpolarized the voltage-dependence of inactivation, and slowed recovery from inactivation, thereby reducing the channel availability at physiologic membrane potentials. Additionally, p.R1309H increased the “late” Na+ current. The location of the mutation in DIIIS4 prompted testing for a gating pore current. We observed an inward current at hyperpolarizing voltages that likely exacerbates the loss-of-function defects at resting membrane potentials. Lidocaine reduced the gating pore current. Conclusions The p.R1309H homozygous NaV1.5 mutation conferred both gain-of-function and loss-of-function effects on NaV1.5 channel activity. Reduction of a mutation-induced gating pore current by lidocaine suggested a therapeutic mechanism. PMID:26801742

  11. Image quality and signal distribution in 1.5-T and 3-T MRI in mild traumatic brain injury patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maija E.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Ylinen, Aarne; Öhman, Juha; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Clear standards are lacking in the imaging modalities of the deficit in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality by signal distribution between 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla MRI in turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE) images in normal hospital settings and to find preferences for which field to use in MTBI patients. We studied 40 MTBI patients with TSE and GRE; 20 patients were imaged at 1.5 T and 20 at 3 T. The imaging parameters were optimized separately for the two scanners. Histograms of the signal distribution in 22 ROIs were fitted to a 1-peak Gaussian model and the resulting peak positions were scaled in respect to the peak positions of genu of the corpus callosum and the caudate nuclei. Correlation of the contrast of the ROIs in reference to genu of the corpus callosum between both the two scanners and the two imaging sequences was good. Image contrast was similar at both in the TSE images; in the GRE images contrast improved from 1.5 T to 3 T. However, based on peak positions and widths, a slight drawback in the separability between the ROIs was observed when 1.5 T MRI was replaced by 3 T. No clear improvement in tissue contrast or separability of 3 T was found compared to 1.5 T. Imaging of MTBI with 3 T should therefore be based on other advantages of high-field imaging, such as improved SNR and spatial resolution.

  12. Functional expression of “cardiac-type” Nav1.5 sodium channel in canine intracardiac ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Scornik, Fabiana S.; Desai, Mayurika; Brugada, Ramón; Guerchicoff, Alejandra; Pollevick, Guido D.; Antzelevitch, Charles; Pérez, Guillermo J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND The autonomic nervous system has been implicated in several arrhythmogenic diseases, including long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) and Brugada syndrome. Scarce information on the cellular components of the intrinsic cardiac ganglia from higher mammals has limited our understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system in such diseases. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize the electrophysiologic properties of canine intracardiac neurons. METHODS Action potentials (APs) and ionic currents were studied in enzymatically dissociated canine intracardiac neurons under current and voltage clamp conditions. Immunohistochemical and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed using freshly isolated intracardiac ganglia. RESULTS APs recorded from intracardiac neurons displayed a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) component. TTX-R APs were abolished in the absence of sodium but persisted in the absence of external calcium. Immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of TTX-R sodium channels in these ganglia. Sodium currents were characterized by two components with different affinities for TTX: a tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) component and a TTX-R component. TTX-S current inactivation was characteristic of neuronal sodium currents, whereas TTX-R current inactivation time constants were similar to those previously reported for Nav1.5 channels. TTX sensitivity (IC50 = 1.17 μM) of the TTX-R component was in the range reported for Nav1.5 channels. Expression of Nav1.5 channels in intracardiac ganglia was confirmed by PCR analysis and sequencing. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that canine intracardiac neurons functionally express Nav1.5 channels. These findings open an exciting new door to our understanding of autonomically modulated arrhythmogenic diseases linked to mutations in Nav1.5 channels, including Brugada syndrome and LQT3. PMID:16818219

  13. Testosterone Induces Increase in Aquaporin (AQP)-1, 5, and 7 Expressions in the Uteri of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Naguib; Mokhtar, Helmy Mohd; Kassim, Normadiah M; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone has been reported to cause a decrease in uterine fluid volume in which this could involve the aquaporins (AQPs). This study aimed to investigate effect of testosterone on uterine AQP-1, 5, and 7 expressions in order to explain the reported reduction in uterine fluid volume under testosterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, testosterone (1 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.2 µg/kg/day), or combined estrogen plus testosterone for three consecutive days. Other groups received 3 days estrogen followed by 2 days either peanut oil or testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. A day after last injection, uteri were harvested, and the levels of AQP-1, 5, and 7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in uterine tissue homogenates were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR). Distributions of AQP-1, 5, and 7 proteins in uterus were observed by immunofluorescence. Levels of AQP-1 mRNA were elevated in rats receiving either estrogen or testosterone-only treatment; however, levels of AQP-5 and 7 mRNAs were elevated in rats receiving testosterone-only treatment. In rats pre-treated with estrogen, testosterone treatment resulted in higher AQP-1, 5, and 7 mRNA levels compared to vehicle treatment. Testosterone effects were antagonized by flutamide but not finasteride. Immunofluorescence study showed that AQP-1 was highly distributed in uterine lumenal epithelium following estrogen or testosterone-only treatment. However, AQP-5 and 7 distributions were high in uterine lumenal epithelium following testosterone-only treatment. Testosterone-induced up-regulation of AQP-1, 5, and 7 expressions in uterus could explain the observed reduction in uterine fluid volume as reported under this condition.

  14. Silencing of desmoplakin decreases connexin43/Nav1.5 expression and sodium current in HL‑1 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianhuan; Deng, Chunyu; Rao, Fang; Modi, Rohan M; Zhu, Jiening; Liu, Xiaoying; Mai, Liping; Tan, Honghong; Yu, Xiyong; Lin, Qiuxiong; Xiao, Dingzhang; Kuang, Sujuan; Wu, Shulin

    2013-09-01

    Desmosomes and gap junctions are situated in the intercalated disks of cardiac muscle and maintain the integrity of mechanical coupling and electrical impulse conduction between cells. The desmosomal plakin protein, desmoplakin (DSP), also plays a crucial role in the stability of these interconnected components as well as gap junction connexin proteins. In addition to cell‑to‑cell junctions, other molecules, including voltage‑gated sodium channels (Nav1.5) are present in the intercalated disk and support the contraction of cardiac muscle. Mutations in genes encoding desmosome proteins may result in fatal arrhythmias, including arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of DSP is necessary for the normal function and localization of gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and Nav1.5. To examine this hypothesis, RNA interference was utilized to knock down the expression of DSP in HL‑1 cells and the content, distribution and function of Cx43 and Nav1.5 was assessed. Western blotting and flow cytometry experiments revealed that Cx43 and Nav1.5 expression decreased following DSP silencing. In addition, immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that a loss of DSP expression led to an abnormal distribution of Cx43 and Nav1.5, while scrape‑loading dye/transfer revealed a decrease in dye transfer in DSP siRNA‑treated cells. The sodium current was also recorded by the whole‑cell patch clamp technique. The results indicated that DSP suppression decreased sodium current and slowed conduction velocity in cultured cells. The present study indicates that impaired mechanical coupling largely affects electrical synchrony, further uncovering the pathogenesis of ARVC.

  15. Differential cross section for the H+D{sub 2}{yields}HD(v{sup '}=1,j{sup '}=2,6,10)+D reaction as a function of collision energy

    SciTech Connect

    Koszinowski, Konrad; Goldberg, Noah T.; Zhang Jianyang; Zare, Richard N.; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2007-09-28

    We have measured differential cross sections (DCSs) for the HD (v{sup '}=1,j{sup '}=2,6,10) products of the H+D{sub 2} exchange reaction at five different collision energies in the range 1.48{<=}E{sub coll}{<=}1.94 eV. The contribution from the less energetic H atoms formed upon spin-orbit excitation of Br in the photolysis of the HBr precursor is taken into account for two collision energies, E{sub coll}=1.84 and 1.94 eV, allowing us to disentangle the two different channels. The measured DCSs agree well with new time-dependent quantum-mechanical calculations. As the product rotational excitation increases, the DCSs shift from backward to sideward scattering, as expected. We also find that the shapes of the DCSs show only a small overall dependence on the collision energy, with a notable exception occurring for HD (v{sup '}=1,j{sup '}=2), which appears bimodal at high collision energies. We suggest that this feature results from both direct recoil and indirect scattering from the conical intersection.

  16. 8.5  W mode-locked Yb:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 laser with master oscillator power amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuyong; Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang; Yuan, Peng; Qian, Liejia; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun

    2015-02-10

    We report on a diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb:Lu(1.5)Y(1.5)Al(5)O(12) (Yb:LuYAG) laser for the first time to our knowledge. With the mixed crystal of Yb:LuYAG as gain medium, the mode-locked laser generated 2.2 W of average output power with a repetition rate of 83.9 MHz and pulse duration of 2.4 ps at the wavelength of 1030 nm. In order to obtain higher output power, the output from the mode-locked oscillator was further amplified to 8.5 W by two-stage single-pass amplifiers. The high-power picosecond laser is very useful for applications such as pumping of midinfrared optical parametric oscillators, material microprocessing, and UV light generation.

  17. Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Pramod; Banerjee, Seemita; Anwar, Sharmistha; Mukadam, Mayuresh D; Meena, Sher Singh; Yusuf, Seikh M

    2014-10-22

    Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O has been synthesized using a core of Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O, surrounded by a shell of Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O compound. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study confirms the core-shell nature of the nanoparticles with an average size of ∼25 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles are investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern reveals that the core-shell compound has a face-centered cubic crystal structure with space group Fm3m. The observation of characteristic absorption bands in the range of 2000-2300 cm(-1) in IR spectra corresponds to the CN stretching frequency of Mn(II)/Ni(II)-N≡C-Cr(III) sequence, confirming the formation of Prussian blue analogues. Hydrogen absorption isotherm measurements have been used to investigate the kinetics of molecular hydrogen adsorption into core-shell compounds of the Prussian blue analogue at low temperature conditions. Interestingly, the core-shell compound shows an enhancement in the hydrogen capacity (2.0 wt % at 123 K) as compared to bare-core and bare-shell compounds. The hydrogen adsorption capacity has been correlated with the specific surface area and TGA analysis of the core-shell compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the hydrogen storage properties of core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet that could be useful for hydrogen storage applications.

  18. Lithium ion conductive Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 based inorganic-organic composite separator with enhanced thermal stability and excellent electrochemical performances in 5 V lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Han, Shaojie; Fang, Lifeng; Pan, Meizi; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Since 5 V lithium ion batteries have attracted more and more attentions and are deemed to be an important tendency in the future, the matched design of the separators has also become a necessary and significant work. In this work, the lithium ionic conducting glass ceramic Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-polypropylene (PP) based inorganic-organic composite separator (LAGP-PP) is prepared. Compared with the pristine PP separator, the LAGP-PP separator owns enhanced thermal stability and wettability. Meanwhile, the LAGP-PP separator shows higher ion conductivity than the traditional Al2O3 coated PP separator due to the more facile lithium ion diffusion channels in the coating layer. The superior C-rate capacity and cyclability in the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 based 5 V lithium ion batteries indicate that the LAGP-PP separator is a good alternative for the traditional inert inorganic ceramic coated polyolefin separators and is a kind of promising candidate separator for the high voltage lithium ion batteries.

  19. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. Evolution of the non-linear galaxy bias up to z = 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinoni, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Meneux, B.; Iovino, A.; Pollo, A.; Ilbert, O.; Zamorani, G.; Guzzo, L.; Mazure, A.; Scaramella, R.; Cappi, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Blaizot, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Marano, B.; Mathez, G.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Colombi, S.; Cucciati, O.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-11-01

    We present the first measurements of the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of galaxy fluctuations in the four-passes, first-epoch VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) cone, covering 0.4×0.4 deg between 0.41.5 . We show that the PDF of density contrasts of the VVDS galaxies is an unbiased tracer of the underlying parent distribution up to redshift z=1.5, on scales R=8 and 10 h-1Mpc. The second moment of the PDF, i.e. the rms fluctuations of the galaxy density field, is to a good approximation constant over the full redshift baseline investigated: we find that, in redshift space, σ8 for galaxies brighter than M_Bc=-20+5log h has a mean value of 0.94 ± 0.07 in the redshift interval 0.7 < z < 1.5. The third moment, i.e. the skewness, increases with cosmic time: we find that the probability of having underdense regions is greater at z ˜ 0.7 than it was at z ˜ 1.5. By comparing the PDF of galaxy density contrasts with the theoretically predicted PDF of mass fluctuations we infer the redshift-, density- and scale-dependence of the biasing function b(z, δ, R) between galaxy and matter overdensities up to redshift z=1.5. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) the galaxy bias is an increasing function of redshift: evolution is marginal up to z ˜ 0.8 and more pronounced for z ≳ 0.8; ii) the formation of bright galaxies is inhibited below a characteristic mass-overdensity threshold whose amplitude increases with redshift and luminosity; iii) the biasing function is non linear in all the redshift bins investigated with non-linear effects of the order of a few to ~10 % on scales >5 h-1Mpc. By subdividing the sample according to galaxy luminosity and colors, we also show that: iv) brighter galaxies are more strongly biased than less luminous ones at every redshift and the dependence of biasing on luminosity at z ˜ 0.8 is in good agreement with what is observed in the local Universe; v) red objects are systematically more biased than blue objects at all cosmic

  20. Application of Quantitative MRI for Brain Tissue Segmentation at 1.5 T and 3.0 T Field Strengths

    PubMed Central

    West, Janne; Blystad, Ida; Engström, Maria; Warntjes, Jan B. M.; Lundberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain tissue segmentation of white matter (WM), grey matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are important in neuroradiological applications. Quantitative Mri (qMRI) allows segmentation based on physical tissue properties, and the dependencies on MR scanner settings are removed. Brain tissue groups into clusters in the three dimensional space formed by the qMRI parameters R1, R2 and PD, and partial volume voxels are intermediate in this space. The qMRI parameters, however, depend on the main magnetic field strength. Therefore, longitudinal studies can be seriously limited by system upgrades. The aim of this work was to apply one recently described brain tissue segmentation method, based on qMRI, at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T field strengths, and to investigate similarities and differences. Methods In vivo qMRI measurements were performed on 10 healthy subjects using both 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR scanners. The brain tissue segmentation method was applied for both 1.5 T and 3.0 T and volumes of WM, GM, CSF and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) were calculated on both field strengths. Repeatability was calculated for each scanner and a General Linear Model was used to examine the effect of field strength. Voxel-wise t-tests were also performed to evaluate regional differences. Results Statistically significant differences were found between 1.5 T and 3.0 T for WM, GM, CSF and BPF (p<0.001). Analyses of main effects showed that WM was underestimated, while GM and CSF were overestimated on 1.5 T compared to 3.0 T. The mean differences between 1.5 T and 3.0 T were -66 mL WM, 40 mL GM, 29 mL CSF and -1.99% BPF. Voxel-wise t-tests revealed regional differences of WM and GM in deep brain structures, cerebellum and brain stem. Conclusions Most of the brain was identically classified at the two field strengths, although some regional differences were observed. PMID:24066153