Science.gov

Sample records for 1-a commercial fusion

  1. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  2. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John

    1994-09-01

    Toroidal magnetic systems offer the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They have, between them, all the features needed; however, no one system yet meets the ideal requirements. The tokamak is the most advanced system, and the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will build upon the existing program to prepare for an advanced tokamak demonstration plant. Complementary toroidal systems such as the spherical torus, stellarator, reversed-field pinch, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak offer, between them, potential advantages in each area and should be studied in a balanced fusion development program.

  3. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  4. A commercial lunar helium 3 fusion power infrasructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sved, J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Miley, G. H.

    1995-01-01

    The potential scenario of a commercial aneutronic fusion power economy based on Helium 3 is reviewed with recent developments in fusion grade plasma containment considered. The Spherical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is a type of fusion reactor with immediate commercial applications as a small non-power reactor. Further development and growth to power reactor fusion reaction rates using Deuterium and Helium 3 offers the potential practical solution to fusion power. Recovery of the lunar Helium 3 inventory for export to power utility customers will require the build-up of a cis-lunar industrial infrastructure. Space transport capacity will be obliged to grow rapidly to support several thousand tons of cargo delivery to the lunar surface per year. A highly reusable, low operations cost cis-lunar transport infrastructure and lunar surface industrial activity will be made more practical by the availability of IEC fusion power units that are intrinsically low mass and compatible with space transport.

  5. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ≥ 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  6. Evaluation of commercial available fusion algorithms for Geoeye data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaiopoulos, Aristides D.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study ten commercial available fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, Gram-Schmidt, High Pass Filter, Local Mean Matching (LMM), Local Mean and Variance Matching (LMVM), Modified IHS (ModIHS), Pansharp, PCA, HCS (Hyperspherical Color Space) and Wavelet were used for the fusion of Geoeye panchromatic and multispectral data. The panchromatic data have a spatial resolution of 0.5m while the multispectral data have a spatial resolution of 2.0m. The optical result, the statistical parameters and different quality indexes such as ERGAS, Q, entropy were examined and the results are presented. The broader area of Pendeli mountain near to the city of Athens Greece and more especially two sub areas with different characteristics were chosen for the comparison. The first sub area is located at the edge of the urban fabric and combines at the same time the characteristics of an urban and a rural area. The second sub area comprises a large open quarry and it is suitable to examine which fused product is more suitable for mine monitoring.

  7. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-01-01

    Fusion is an inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economic commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion energy development program is the generation of central station electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. In addition, fusion R and D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other, are the two primary criteria for setting long range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R and D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national labs and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  8. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-03-01

    Fusion is an essentially inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economically attractive commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion-energy development program is the generation of centralstation electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high-energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. These include breeding of fissile fuels, production of hydrogen and other chemical products, transmutation or “burning” of various nuclear or chemical wastes, radiation processing of materials, production of radioisotopes, food preservation, medical diagnosis and medical treatment, and space power and space propulsion. In addition, fusion R&D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other hand, are the two primary criteria for setting long-range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R&D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national laboratories and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long-range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  9. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  10. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Wayne R.

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  12. Thermographic Measurements of the Commercial Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the high-temperature melt pool region in the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is a primary focus of researchers to further understand the dynamic physics of the heating, melting, adhesion, and cooling which define this commercially popular additive manufacturing process. This paper will detail the design, execution, and results of high speed, high magnification in-situ thermographic measurements conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) focusing on the melt pool region of a commercial L-PBF process. Multiple phenomena are observed including plasma plume and hot particle ejection from the melt region. The thermographic measurement process will be detailed with emphasis on the ‘measurability’ of observed phenomena and the sources of measurement uncertainty. Further discussion will relate these thermographic results to other efforts at NIST towards L-PBF process finite element simulation and development of in-situ sensing and control methodologies. PMID:28058036

  13. Thermographic Measurements of the Commercial Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process at NIST.

    PubMed

    Lane, Brandon; Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the high-temperature melt pool region in the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is a primary focus of researchers to further understand the dynamic physics of the heating, melting, adhesion, and cooling which define this commercially popular additive manufacturing process. This paper will detail the design, execution, and results of high speed, high magnification in-situ thermographic measurements conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) focusing on the melt pool region of a commercial L-PBF process. Multiple phenomena are observed including plasma plume and hot particle ejection from the melt region. The thermographic measurement process will be detailed with emphasis on the 'measurability' of observed phenomena and the sources of measurement uncertainty. Further discussion will relate these thermographic results to other efforts at NIST towards L-PBF process finite element simulation and development of in-situ sensing and control methodologies.

  14. Test design description for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly (Fusion MOTA-2A): Volume 1A, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.E.

    1988-11-01

    This document encompasses the test requirements, hardware design, fabrication, and safety analysis for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly experiment for irradiation in FFTF Cycle 11 (Fusion MOTA-2A). Fusion MOTA is equally shared by the US Fusion Material (DOE), Japanese Fusion Materials (MONBUSHO), and BEATRIX-II (IEA) programs. In the interest of providing optimum use of the irradiation space in the Fusion MOTA-2A and LMR MOTA-1G, eight of the Fusion MOTA canisters will be placed in MOTA-1G and an equal number of LMR canisters placed in Fusion MOTA-2A (Powell/Doran 1988). This eliminates the need to process Fusion MOTA-2A through the IEM cell prior to insertion for FFTF Cycle 11A. The LMR MOTA design and safety analysis (Greenslade 1984) is the basis for much of this design and safety analysis report. This design description and safety analysis for the Fusion MOTA-2A is presented per the outline given in Chapter IV of the FTR User`s Guide (Taylor 1978). 35 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Task toward a Realization of Commercial Tokamak Fusion Plants in 2050 -The Role of ITER and the Succeeding Developments- 3.Fusion Plasma Research toward Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Yutaka; Shimada, Michiya; Miura, Yukitoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    This section discusses fusion plasma research that needs to be carried out to develop fusion power plants. Burning plasma, in which self-heating by energetic alph aparticles plays an essential role, should be recognized as autonomous system. This is quite different from present plasma experiments, suggesting a possibility to yield some qualitative changes in fusion plasma research. Research with ITER is strongly expected to contribute to this burning plasma physics. In addition, plasma performance in steady-state and at high beta is very important in fusion power plants from the engineering and economical viewpoints. Plasma parameters expected for fusion power plants are discussed, and present status of experimental research is reviewed. Research in devices other than ITER with unique features would be instrumental for exploring high performance plasmas. A necessity of research complementary to ITER plasma is discussed.

  16. Transgenic plants expressing ω-ACTX-Hv1a and snowdrop lectin (GNA) fusion protein show enhanced resistance to aphids

    PubMed Central

    Nakasu, Erich Y. T.; Edwards, Martin G.; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant fusion proteins containing arthropod toxins have been developed as a new class of biopesticides. The recombinant fusion protein Hv1a/GNA, containing the spider venom toxin ω-ACTX-Hv1a linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) was shown to reduce survival of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae when delivered in artificial diet, with survival <10% after 8 days exposure to fusion protein at 1 mg/ml. Although the fusion protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in the insect, Hv1a/GNA oral toxicity to M. persicae was significantly greater than GNA alone. A construct encoding the fusion protein, including the GNA leader sequence, under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis; the resulting plants contained intact fusion protein in leaf tissues at an estimated level of 25.6 ± 4.1 ng/mg FW. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hv1a/GNA induced up to 40% mortality of M. persicae after 7 days exposure in detached leaf bioassays, demonstrating that transgenic plants can deliver fusion proteins to aphids. Grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) were more susceptible than M. persicae to the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein in artificial diet bioassays (LC50 = 0.73 mg/ml after 2 days against LC50 = 1.81 mg/ml for M. persicae), as they were not able to hydrolyze the fusion protein as readily as M. persicae. Expression of this fusion protein in suitable host plants for the grain aphid is likely to confer higher levels of resistance than that shown with the M. persicae/Arabidopsis model system. PMID:25506351

  17. A rapid and efficient newly established method to detect COL1A1-PDGFB gene fusion in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Shimizu, Akira; Okada, Etsuko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Motegi, Sei-ichiro

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed new method to rapidly identify COL1A1-PDGFB fusion in DFSP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New PCR method using a single primer pair detected COL1A1-PDGFB fusion in DFSP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first report of DFSP with a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. -- Abstract: The detection of fusion transcripts of the collagen type 1{alpha}1 (COL1A1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGFB) genes by genetic analysis has recognized as a reliable and valuable molecular tool for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). To detect the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, almost previous reports performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using multiplex forward primers from COL1A1. However, it has possible technical difficulties with respect to the handling of multiple primers and reagents in the procedure. The objective of this study is to establish a rapid, easy, and efficient one-step method of PCR using only a single primer pair to detect the fusion transcripts of the COL1A1 and PDGFB in DFSP. To validate new method, we compared the results of RT-PCR in five patients of DFSP between the previous method using multiplex primers and our established one-step RT-PCR using a single primer pair. In all cases of DFSP, the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion was detected by both previous method and newly established one-step PCR. Importantly, we detected a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. The newly developed method is valuable to rapidly identify COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcripts in DFSP.

  18. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  19. IQCJ-SCHIP1, a novel fusion transcript encoding a calmodulin-binding IQ motif protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A. . E-mail: dakc@yorku.ca; Carson, Andrew R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2006-12-01

    The existence of transcripts that span two adjacent, independent genes is considered rare in the human genome. This study characterizes a novel human fusion gene named IQCJ-SCHIP1. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is the longest isoform of a complex transcriptional unit that bridges two separate genes that encode distinct proteins, IQCJ, a novel IQ motif containing protein and SCHIP1, a schwannomin interacting protein that has been previously shown to interact with the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) protein. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is located on the chromosome 3q25 and comprises a 1692-bp transcript encompassing 11 exons spanning 828 kb of the genomic DNA. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP1 mRNA is highly expressed in the brain. Protein encoded by the IQCJ-SCHIP1 gene was localized to cytoplasm and actin-rich regions and in differentiated PC12 cells was also seen in neurite extensions.

  20. Genomic sequencing of colorectal adenocarcinomas identifies a recurrent VTI1A-TCF7L2 fusion.

    PubMed

    Bass, Adam J; Lawrence, Michael S; Brace, Lear E; Ramos, Alex H; Drier, Yotam; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sougnez, Carrie; Voet, Douglas; Saksena, Gordon; Sivachenko, Andrey; Jing, Rui; Parkin, Melissa; Pugh, Trevor; Verhaak, Roel G; Stransky, Nicolas; Boutin, Adam T; Barretina, Jordi; Solit, David B; Vakiani, Evi; Shao, Wenlin; Mishina, Yuji; Warmuth, Markus; Jimenez, Jose; Chiang, Derek Y; Signoretti, Sabina; Kaelin, William G; Spardy, Nicole; Hahn, William C; Hoshida, Yujin; Ogino, Shuji; Depinho, Ronald A; Chin, Lynda; Garraway, Levi A; Fuchs, Charles S; Baselga, Jose; Tabernero, Josep; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew

    2011-09-04

    Prior studies have identified recurrent oncogenic mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma and have surveyed exons of protein-coding genes for mutations in 11 affected individuals. Here we report whole-genome sequencing from nine individuals with colorectal cancer, including primary colorectal tumors and matched adjacent non-tumor tissues, at an average of 30.7× and 31.9× coverage, respectively. We identify an average of 75 somatic rearrangements per tumor, including complex networks of translocations between pairs of chromosomes. Eleven rearrangements encode predicted in-frame fusion proteins, including a fusion of VTI1A and TCF7L2 found in 3 out of 97 colorectal cancers. Although TCF7L2 encodes TCF4, which cooperates with β-catenin in colorectal carcinogenesis, the fusion lacks the TCF4 β-catenin-binding domain. We found a colorectal carcinoma cell line harboring the fusion gene to be dependent on VTI1A-TCF7L2 for anchorage-independent growth using RNA interference-mediated knockdown. This study shows previously unidentified levels of genomic rearrangements in colorectal carcinoma that can lead to essential gene fusions and other oncogenic events.

  1. Chronic sun exposure-related fusion oncogenes EGFR-PPARGC1A in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Sho; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ajino, Manami; Shimozono, Naoki; Okamoto, Sayo; Tasaki, Yukino; Hirano, Ayaka; Ide, Maho; Kajihara, Ikko; Aoi, Jun; Harada, Miho; Igata, Toshikatsu; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2017-10-04

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) differs from SCC of other organs in its strong association with chronic sun exposure. However, the specific driver mutations in cSCC remain unknown. Fusion genes in established cSCC cell lines (A431 and DJM-1) were predicted by transcriptome sequence, and validated by Sanger sequence, fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding. By transcriptome sequencing, we identified fusion gene EGFR-PPARGC1A in A431, which were expressed in 31 of 102 cSCCs. The lesions harboring the fusion gene tended to be located in sun-exposed areas. In vivo cutaneous implantation of EGFR-PPARGC1A-expressing NIH3T3 induced tumors resembling human cSCC, indicating its potent tumorigenicity. NIH3T3 transfected with EGFR-PPARGC1A as well as A431 showed increased cell proliferation activity. With regard to underlying mechanism, EGFR-PPARGC1A protein causes constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation, and induces the phosphorylation of wild-type full-length epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by dimerization. Conversely, the RNAi-mediated attenuation of EGFR or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockdown of the fusion gene in A431 led to a decrease in the cell number, and may have therapeutic value. Our findings advance the knowledge concerning genetic causes of cSCC and the function of EGFR, with potential implications for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  2. LIBRA-SP, a commercial fusion reactor based on near term technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a 1,000 MWe light ion driven fusion power plant is given. Considerable progress has been made in analyzing the target performance and its impact on the cavity design. Recent declassification actions in the U.S. have resulted in more detailed calculations that reveal a somewhat lower gain (=70) compared to those gains previously assumed (80-100). Methods to recover that more conservative gain from other parts of the reactor design include more efficient beam transport and higher conversion efficiencies to electricity. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A molecular toggle after exocytosis sequesters the presynaptic syntaxin1a molecules involved in prior vesicle fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Deirdre M.; Smyth, Annya M.; Martin, Kirsty J.; Dun, Alison; Brown, Euan R.; Gordon, Sarah; Smillie, Karen J.; Chamberlain, Luke H.; Wilson, Rhodri S.; Yang, Lei; Lu, Weiping; Cousin, Michael A.; Rickman, Colin; Duncan, Rory R.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal synapses are among the most scrutinized of cellular systems, serving as a model for all membrane trafficking studies. Despite this, synaptic biology has proven difficult to interrogate directly in situ due to the small size and dynamic nature of central synapses and the molecules within them. Here we determine the spatial and temporal interaction status of presynaptic proteins, imaging large cohorts of single molecules inside active synapses. Measuring rapid interaction dynamics during synaptic depolarization identified the small number of syntaxin1a and munc18-1 protein molecules required to support synaptic vesicle exocytosis. After vesicle fusion and subsequent SNARE complex disassembly, a prompt switch in syntaxin1a and munc18-1-binding mode, regulated by charge alteration on the syntaxin1a N-terminal, sequesters monomeric syntaxin1a from other disassembled fusion complex components, preventing ectopic SNARE complex formation, readying the synapse for subsequent rounds of neurotransmission. PMID:25517944

  4. Fusion of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision for All-Weather Commercial Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence, III

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing revolutionary crew-vehicle interface technologies that strive to proactively overcome aircraft safety barriers that would otherwise constrain the full realization of the next-generation air transportation system. A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the complementary use of Synthetic and Enhanced Vision technologies. Specific focus was placed on new techniques for integration and/or fusion of Enhanced and Synthetic Vision and its impact within a two-crew flight deck during low visibility approach and landing operations. Overall, the experimental data showed that significant improvements in situation awareness, without concomitant increases in workload and display clutter, could be provided by the integration and/or fusion of synthetic and enhanced vision technologies for the pilot-flying and the pilot-not-flying. During non-normal operations, the ability of the crew to handle substantial navigational errors and runway incursions were not adversely impacted by the display concepts although the addition of Enhanced Vision did not, unto itself, provide an improvement in runway incursion detection.

  5. Phase 1-A development kinematic Sterling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat pump research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Agno, J. G.; Houtman, W. H.

    1984-07-01

    Heat pumps driven by electric motors are successfully sold as energy saving systems in the space conditioning marketplace. By utilizing an on-site natural gas fueled Stirling cycle engine to drive a refrigerating compressor, energy consumption of such a heat pump can be reduced in both heating and cooling modes of operation. The achievements reached in Phase 1-A indicate that the goal of developing a technically and economically feasible commercial heat pump, using the V-160 Stirling engine, is practical and can be accomplished within a reasonable period of time. This initial investigation also indicates that the potential heat pump system can be responsive to a large market segment as well as providing a technological base for expanding into other gas market segments.

  6. Effect of minor chemistry elements on GTA weld fusion zone characteristics of a commercial grade titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Marya, S.K.

    1996-06-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is the most common technique employed in the fabrication of rolled thin tubes. One of the major manufacturing problems concerns the stability of weld fusion zone on materials from different casts, notwithstanding stringent monitoring of the process parameters -- current, voltage and travel speed. These parameters determine the theoretical weld heat and are expected to control the instantaneous mass of melt. According to the data compiled by Sahoo et al., oxygen is known to reduce the surface tension of most of the metals. However, investigations on the role of minor changes in concentrations of elements like sulphur, oxygen, selenium, bismuth, aluminium, and titanium in steels have very often attributed the cast to cast variations to different temperature gradients of surface tension over the weldpool. To the author`s knowledge, no reported work so far has revealed changing weld profiles in autogeneous mechanized GTA welds on titanium due to minor composition changes.

  7. HACD1, a regulator of membrane composition and fluidity, promotes myoblast fusion and skeletal muscle growth

    PubMed Central

    Blondelle, Jordan; Ohno, Yusuke; Gache, Vincent; Guyot, Stéphane; Storck, Sébastien; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Barthélémy, Inès; Walmsley, Gemma; Rahier, Anaëlle; Gadin, Stéphanie; Maurer, Marie; Guillaud, Laurent; Prola, Alexandre; Ferry, Arnaud; Aubin-Houzelstein, Geneviève; Demarquoy, Jean; Relaix, Frédéric; Piercy, Richard J.; Blot, Stéphane; Kihara, Akio; Tiret, Laurent; Pilot-Storck, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    The reduced diameter of skeletal myofibres is a hallmark of several congenital myopathies, yet the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the role of HACD1/PTPLA, which is involved in the elongation of the very long chain fatty acids, in muscle fibre formation. In humans and dogs, HACD1 deficiency leads to a congenital myopathy with fibre size disproportion associated with a generalized muscle weakness. Through analysis of HACD1-deficient Labradors, Hacd1-knockout mice, and Hacd1-deficient myoblasts, we provide evidence that HACD1 promotes myoblast fusion during muscle development and regeneration. We further demonstrate that in normal differentiating myoblasts, expression of the catalytically active HACD1 isoform, which is encoded by a muscle-enriched splice variant, yields decreased lysophosphatidylcholine content, a potent inhibitor of myoblast fusion, and increased concentrations of ≥C18 and monounsaturated fatty acids of phospholipids. These lipid modifications correlate with a reduction in plasma membrane rigidity. In conclusion, we propose that fusion impairment constitutes a novel, non-exclusive pathological mechanism operating in congenital myopathies and reveal that HACD1 is a key regulator of a lipid-dependent muscle fibre growth mechanism. PMID:26160855

  8. Z, ZX, and X-1: A Realistic Path to High Fusion Yield

    SciTech Connect

    COOK, DONALD L.

    1999-10-07

    Z-pinches now constitute the most energetic and powerful sources of x-rays available by a large margin. The Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has produced 1.8 MJ of x-ray energy, 280 TW of power, and hohlraum temperatures of 200 eV. These advances are being applied to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on Z. The requirements for high fusion yield are exemplified in the target to be driven by the X-1 accelerator. X-1 will drive two z-pinches, each producing 7 MJ of x-ray energy and about 1000 TW of x-ray power. Together, these radiation sources will heat a hohlraum containing the 4-mm diameter ICF capsule to a temperature exceeding 225 eV for about 10 ns, with the pulse shape required to drive the capsule to high fusion yield, in the range of 200--1000 MJ. Since X-1 consists of two identical accelerators, it is possible to mitigate the technical risk of high yield by constructing one accelerator. This accelerator, ZX, will bridge the gap from Z to X-1 by driving an integrated target experiment with a very efficient energy source, ZX will also provide experimental condition that the full specifications of the X-1 accelerator for high yield are achievable, and that a realistic path to high fission yield exists.

  9. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a/GNA in Pichia pastoris: sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    PubMed

    Pyati, Prashant; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2014-08-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast Pichia pastoris. To prevent proteolysis, the Hv1a/GNA fusion expression construct was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to remove a potential Kex2 cleavage site at the C-terminus of the Hv1a peptide. To obtain a high expressing clone of P. pastoris to produce recombinant Hv1a/GNA, a straightforward method was used to produce multi-copy expression plasmids, which does not require multiple integrations to give clones of P. pastoris containing high copy numbers of the introduced gene. Removal of the Kex2 site resulted in increased levels of intact fusion protein expressed in wild-type P. pastoris strains, improving levels of intact recombinant protein recoverable. Incorporation of a C-terminal (His)6 tag enabled single step purification of the fusion protein. These modifications did not affect the insecticidal activity of the recombinant toxin towards lepidopteran larvae. Introduction of multiple expression cassettes increased the amount of secreted recombinant fusion protein in a laboratory scale fermentation by almost tenfold on a per litre of culture basis. Simple modifications in the expression construct can be advantageous for the generation of high expressing P. pastoris strains for production of a recombinant protein, without altering its functional properties.

  10. Two conceptual designs of helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1A based on ITER technologies and challenging ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagara, A.; Miyazawa, J.; Tamura, H.; Tanaka, T.; Goto, T.; Yanagi, N.; Sakamoto, R.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohtani, H.; The FFHR Design Group

    2017-08-01

    The Fusion Engineering Research Project (FERP) at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is conducting conceptual design activities for the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1A. This paper newly defines two design options, ‘basic’ and ‘challenging.’ Conservative technologies, including those that will be demonstrated in ITER, are chosen in the basic option in which two helical coils are made of continuously wound cable-in-conduit superconductors of Nb3Sn strands, the divertor is composed of water-cooled tungsten monoblocks, and the blanket is composed of water-cooled ceramic breeders. In contrast, new ideas that would possibly be beneficial for making the reactor design more attractive are boldly included in the challenging option in which the helical coils are wound by connecting high-temperature REBCO superconductors using mechanical joints, the divertor is composed of a shower of molten tin jets, and the blanket is composed of molten salt FLiNaBe including Ti powers to increase hydrogen solubility. The main targets of the challenging option are early construction and easy maintenance of a large and three-dimensionally complicated helical structure, high thermal efficiency, and, in particular, realistic feasibility of the helical reactor.

  11. A Data Fusion Approach for the Production of Impervious Surface Area Estimates Using Sentinel-1 A and Landsat-8 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantas, Vasco M.; Marques, Joao Carlos; Pereira, Alcides J. S. C.

    2016-08-01

    Urbanization is a global phenomenon driven by multiple complex variables with a broad impact over the health of ecosystems. The often fast pace at which urban development takes place, calls for dynamic and flexible monitoring tools that can provide accurate and meaningful data in a timely manner to all stakeholders. A regional Impervious Surface Area (ISA) product was generated for a test area consisting of a Portuguese river watershed (Mondego river, covering an area with 6670 km2) using a Regression Tree Model. A data fusion approach was used to combine Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8 OLI) data through Principal Component Analysis.The results clearly show that the introduction of Sentinel-1A data improves the model (Correlation Coefficient of 96.2% and Mean Absolute Error of 2.9%) while reducing the number of rules in the regression tree model (and thus conserving computing power) and the need for ancillary data.

  12. The EFF-1A Cytoplasmic Domain Influences Hypodermal Cell Fusions in C. elegans But Is Not Dependent on 14-3-3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shinn-Thomas, Jessica H.; del Campo, Jacob J.; Wang, Jianjun; Mohler, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of clear recent viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. One of these, EFF-1, is necessary for most cell fusions in Caenorhabditis elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Bioinformatic analysis of the EFF-1A isoform’s predicted cytoplasmic domain (endodomain) previously revealed two motifs that have high probabilities of interacting with 14-3-3 proteins when phosphorylated. Mutation of predicted phosphorylation sites within these motifs caused measurable loss of eff-1 gene function in cell fusion in vivo. Moreover, a human 14-3-3 isoform bound to EFF-1::GFP in vitro. We hypothesized that the two 14-3-3 proteins in C. elegans, PAR-5 and FTT-2, may regulate either localization or fusion-inducing activity of EFF-1. Methodology/Principal Findings Timing of fusion events was slightly but significantly delayed in animals unable to produce full-length EFF-1A. Yet, mutagenesis and live imaging showed that phosphoserines in putative 14-3-3 binding sites are not essential for EFF-1::GFP accumulation at the membrane contact between fusion partner cells. Moreover, although the EFF-1A endodomain was required for normal rates of eff-1-dependent epidermal cell fusions, reduced levels of FTT-2 and PAR-5 did not visibly affect the function of wild-type EFF-1 in the hypodermis. Conclusions/Significance Deletion of the EFF-1A endodomain noticeably affects the timing of hypodermal cell fusions in vivo. However

  13. An analysis of activation and the impact of tritium breeding media and structural materials for a commercial tokamak fusion reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.

    1983-11-01

    Activation analysis has been conducted for several primary fusion blanket materials based on a model of a commercial tokamak fusion reactor design, STARFIRE. The blanket materials studied include two solid tritium breeders, viz., Li/sub 2/O and ..cap alpha..-LiAlO/sub 2/, and four candidate structural materials, viz., PCA stainless steel, V15Cr5Ti, Ti6Al4V, and Al-6063 alloys. The importance of breeder material activation is identified in terms of its impurity contents such as potassium, iron, nickel, molybdenum, and zirconium trace elements. The breeder activation is also discussed with regard to its potential for recycling and its impact on the lithium resource requirements. The structural material activation is analyzed based on two measures, volumetric radioactivity concentration and contact biological dose due to decay gamma emission. Using the radioactivity concentration measure, it is revealed that a substantial advantage exists from a viewpoint of radwaste management, which is inherent in fusion reactor designs based on potential low-activation alloys such as V15Cr5Ti, Ti6Al4V, and Al-6063. On the other hand, from the dose standpoint, the V15Cr5Ti alloy is found to be the only alloy for which one could realize a significant dose reduction (below 2.5 mrem/h) within about100 yr after shutdown, possibly by some extrapolation on alloy purification techniques.

  14. Cytogenetic survey of Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination company to determine prevalence of bulls with centric fusion and chimeric anomalies.

    PubMed

    Seguin, B E; Zhang, T Q; Buoen, L C; Weber, A F; Ruth, G R

    2000-01-01

    To determine prevalence of Holstein bulls with chromosomal anomalies, particularly the 1/21 centric fusion (CF), at a commercial artificial insemination (AI) company in the United States. Cross-sectional cytogenetic prevalence study. All 606 Holstein bulls at a commercial AI company were cytogenetically screened to detect CF, chimerism, and other chromosomal abnormalities. Lymphocytes from heparinized blood samples were cultured by standard cytogenetic techniques, and chromosome spreads were prepared for microscopic examination. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected by examining 10 chromosome spreads per bull. Pedigree analysis was performed. None of the bulls had any type of CF. However, 6 bulls were identified as chimeras (i.e., contained lymphocytes with male [XY] and female [XX] chromosomes). One bull was sire or maternal grandsire to 85 of the bulls tested, and 739 of 1,212 (61%) sire and maternal-grandsire possibilities were accounted for by just 18 bulls. Analysis of these results supports previous indications that CF is extremely rare in Holstein bloodlines available commercially via AI in the United States. However, chimeric bulls are more common, and they reportedly have decreased reproductive performance. Therefore, identification of chimeric sires in the AI facility reported here and the possibility of de novo onset of CF at any time indicates that early cytogenetic screening should be encouraged for prospective bulls intended for use in AI programs.

  15. Fusion to Snowdrop Lectin Magnifies the Oral Activity of Insecticidal ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a Peptide by Enabling Its Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Fitches, Elaine C.; Pyati, Prashant; King, Glenn F.; Gatehouse, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The spider-venom peptide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a) targets insect voltage-gated calcium channels, acting directly at sites within the central nervous system. It is potently insecticidal when injected into a wide variety of insect pests, but it has limited oral toxicity. We examined the ability of snowdrop lectin (GNA), which is capable of traversing the insect gut epithelium, to act as a “carrier” in order to enhance the oral activity of Hv1a. Methodology/Principal Findings A synthetic Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was produced by recombinant expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. When injected into Mamestra brassicae larvae, the insecticidal activity of the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was similar to that of recombinant Hv1a. However, when proteins were delivered orally via droplet feeding assays, Hv1a/GNA, but not Hv1a alone, caused a significant reduction in growth and survival of fifth stadium Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth) larvae. Feeding second stadium larvae on leaf discs coated with Hv1a/GNA (0.1–0.2% w/v) caused ≥80% larval mortality within 10 days, whereas leaf discs coated with GNA (0.2% w/v) showed no acute effects. Intact Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was delivered to insect haemolymph following ingestion, as shown by Western blotting. Immunoblotting of nerve chords dissected from larvae following injection of GNA or Hv1a/GNA showed high levels of bound proteins. When insects were injected with, or fed on, fluorescently labelled GNA or HV1a/GNA, fluorescence was detected specifically associated with the central nerve chord. Conclusions/Significance In addition to mediating transport of Hv1a across the gut epithelium in lepidopteran larvae, GNA is also capable of delivering Hv1a to sites of action within the insect central nervous system. We propose that fusion to GNA provides a general mechanism for dramatically enhancing the oral activity of insecticidal peptides and proteins. PMID:22761779

  16. The fusion band in V1: a simple ECG guide to optimal resynchronization? An echocardiographic case report

    PubMed Central

    Gianfranchi, Lorella; Bettiol, Katia; Pacchioni, Federico; Corbucci, Giorgio; Alboni, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Background Patients with left bundle branch block have a preserved right bundle branch conduction and the efficacy of left ventricular pacing could be explained with the fusion between artificial pulse delivered in the left lateral wall and the spontaneous right ventricular activation. Moreover, the efficacy of left ventricular pacing could be enhanced with an optimal timing between the spontaneous right ventricular activation and the left ventricular pulse. Case presentation We evaluated a patient (male, 47 yrs) with surgically corrected mitral regurgitation, sinus rhythm and left bundle branch block, heart failure (NYHA class III) despite medical therapy and low ejection fraction (25%): he was implanted with a biventricular device. We programmed ventricular pacing only through the left ventricular lead. We defined what we called electrocardiographic "fusion band" as follow: programming OFF the stimulator, we recorded the native electrocardiogram and measured, through the device, the intrinsic atrioventricular interval. Then, atrioventricular interval was progressively shortened by steps of 20 ms down to 100 ms. Twelve leads electrocardiogram was recorded at each step. The fusion band is the range of AV intervals at which surface electrocardiogram (mainly in V1 lead) presents an intermediate morphology between the native left bundle branch block (upper limit of the band) and the fully paced right bundle branch block (lower limit). The patient underwent echocardiographic examination at each atrioventricular interval chosen inside the fusion band. The following parameters were evaluated: ejection fraction, diastolic filling time, E wave deceleration time, aortic velocity time integral and myocardial performance index. All the echocardiographic parameters showed an improvement inside the fusion band, with a "plateau" behaviour. As the fusion band in this patient ranged from an atrioventricular delay of 200 ms to an atrioventricular delay of 120 ms, we chose an

  17. Neutronic design studies of a conceptual DCLL fusion reactor for a DEMO and a commercial power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, I.; Veredas, G.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Ibarra, A.

    2016-01-01

    Neutronic analyses or, more widely, nuclear analyses have been performed for the development of a dual-coolant He/LiPb (DCLL) conceptual design reactor. A detailed three-dimensional (3D) model has been examined and optimized. The design is based on the plasma parameters and functional materials of the power plant conceptual studies (PPCS) model C. The initial radial-build for the detailed model has been determined according to the dimensions established in a previous work on an equivalent simplified homogenized reactor model. For optimization purposes, the initial specifications established over the simplified model have been refined on the detailed 3D design, modifying material and dimension of breeding blanket, shield and vacuum vessel in order to fulfil the priority requirements of a fusion reactor in terms of the fundamental neutronic responses. Tritium breeding ratio, energy multiplication factor, radiation limits in the TF coils, helium production and displacements per atom (dpa) have been calculated in order to demonstrate the functionality and viability of the reactor design in guaranteeing tritium self-sufficiency, power efficiency, plasma confinement, and re-weldability and structural integrity of the components. The paper describes the neutronic design improvements of the DCLL reactor, obtaining results for both DEMO and power plant operational scenarios.

  18. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  19. Homology with vesicle fusion mediator syntaxin-1a predicts determinants ofepimorphin/syntaxin-2 function in mammary epithelial morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Connie S.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bennett, Simone; Radisky, Evette S.; Hirai, Yohei; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2009-06-03

    We have shown that branching morphogenesis of mammary ductal structures requires the action of the morphogen epimorphin/syntaxin-2. Epimorphin, originally identified as an extracellular molecule, is identical to syntaxin-2, an intracellular molecule that is a member of the extensively investigated syntaxin family of proteins that mediate vesicle trafficking. We show here that although epimorphin/syntaxin-2 is highly homologous to syntaxin-1a, only epimorphin/syntaxin-2 can stimulate mammary branching morphogenesis. We construct a homology model of epimorphin/syntaxin-2 based on the published structure of syntaxin-1a, and we use this model to identify the structural motif responsible for the morphogenic activity. We identify four residues located within the cleft between helices B and C that differ between syntaxin-1a and epimorphin/syntaxin-2; through site-directed mutagenesis of these four amino acids, we confer the properties of epimorphin for cell adhesion, gene activation, and branching morphogenesis onto the inactive syntaxin-1a template. These results provide a dramatic demonstration of the use of structural information about one molecule to define a functional motif of a second molecule that is related at the sequence level but highly divergent functionally.

  20. High dose of commercial products of kava (Piper methysticum) markedly enhanced hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA expression with liver enlargement in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuko; Hashida, Hiroko; Arita, Anna; Hamaguchi, Keiko; Shimura, Fumio

    2008-12-01

    Commercial products containing the kava plant (Piper methysticum), known to have the anxiolytic activity, are banned in several European countries and Canada because of the suspicion of a potential liver toxicity. In some reports, kava and kavalactones (major constituents of kava) inhibited activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms including CYP1A2. On the other hand, a few studies showed that administration of kava to rats moderately increased CYP1A2 proteins in the liver. CYP1A isoforms are likely responsible for the metabolic activation of potent carcinogenic environmental toxins such as aflatoxins, benzo[a]pyrene, and others. On these bases, we have investigated the effects of administration of commercial kava products on gene expression of hepatic CYP1A isoforms in rats. A high dose (equivalent to approximately 380mg kavalactones/kg/day; 100 times of the suggested dosage for human use) of two different types of kava products for 8 days significantly increased liver weights. CYP1A2 mRNA expression was moderately increased (2.8-7.3 fold). More importantly, the high dose of kava markedly enhanced CYP1A1 mRNA expression (75-220 fold) as well as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities and CYP1A1 immunoreactivities. Thus, no observed adverse effect levels of kavalactones would be lower than 380mg/kg/day. When the safety factor of kavalactones is assumed to be 100, a value most often used upon the risk analysis of chemicals and designed to account for interspecies and intraspecies variations, a number of kava product users likely ingest more kavalactones than acceptable daily intakes. Based on overall evidence, we should pay considerable attention to the possibility that kava products induce hepatic CYP1A1 expression in human especially in sensitive individuals.

  1. Task toward a Realization of Commercial Tokamak Fusion Plants in 2050 -The Role of ITER and the Succeeding Developments- 4.Technology and Material Research in Fusion Power Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, Masato; Matsui, Hideki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Konishi, Satoshi

    Technical issues regarding the fusion power plant that are required to be developed in the period of ITER construction and operation, both with ITER and with other facilities that complement ITER are described in this section. Three major fields are considered to be important in fusion technology. Section 4.1 summarizes blanket study, and ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) development that focuses its effort on the first generation power blanket to be installed in DEMO. ITER will be equipped with 6 TBMs which are developed under each party's fusion program. In Japan, the solid breeder using water as a coolant is the primary candidate, and He-cooled pebble bed is the alternative. Other liquid options such as LiPb, Li or molten salt are developed by other parties' initiatives. The Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) is coordinating these efforts. Japanese universities are investigating advanced concepts and fundamental crosscutting technologies. Section 4.2 introduces material development and particularly, the international irradiation facility, IFMIF. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are identified as promising candidates for the structural material of the first generation fusion blanket, while and vanadium alloy and SiC/SiC composite are pursued as advanced options. The IFMIF is currently planning the next phase of joint activity, EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) that encompasses construction. Material studies together with the ITER TBM will provide essential technical information for development of the fusion power plant. Other technical issues to be addressed regarding the first generation fusion power plant are summarized in section 4.3. Development of components for ITER made remarkable progress for the major essential technology also necessary for future fusion plants, however many still need further improvements toward power plant. Such areas includes; the divertor, plasma heating/current drive, magnets, tritium, and

  2. Pulmonary administration of interferon Beta-1a-fc fusion protein in non-human primates using an immunoglobulin transport pathway.

    PubMed

    Vallee, Sebastien; Rakhe, Swapnil; Reidy, Thomas; Walker, Sandra; Lu, Qi; Sakorafas, Paul; Low, Susan; Bitonti, Alan

    2012-04-01

    Currently, products containing interferon beta (IFNβ) are injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. To avoid the necessity of injection, we developed a novel monomeric Fc fusion protein of IFNβ (IFNβFc) that is absorbed via an immunoglobulin transport system present in the upper and central airways upon administration of the drug as an inhaled aerosol. The systemic absorption of IFNβFc through the lung in non-human primates, at deposited doses of 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg, was compared to the absorption of a single 3 μg/kg dose of IFNβ-1a (Avonex®) subcutaneously administered. IFNβFc was well absorbed through the lung, displaying dose proportional increases in serum concentrations, and was biologically active, as shown by increases in plasma neopterin levels. The circulating half-life of IFNβFc was ∼3 times longer (∼30 h) than that of IFNβ-1a, (8-9 h). At approximately equimolar doses of IFNβFc (10 μg/kg) and IFNβ-1a (3 μg/kg), the stimulation of neopterin over background levels was approximately equivalent, demonstrating that the longer half-life of IFNβFc compensated for the lower relative specific antiviral activity of IFNβFc measured in vitro. In conclusion, IFNβFc was efficiently absorbed after pulmonary delivery in non-human primates, retained its biological activity, and may offer a convenient alternative to injectable IFNβ.

  3. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  4. Advanced fusion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, K. G.

    1993-07-01

    Key among various issues of ignited plasmas is understanding the physics of energy transfer between thermal plasma particles and magnetically confined, highly energetic charged ions in a tokamak device. The superthermal particles are products of fusion reactions. The efficiency of energy transfer by collisions, from charged fusion products (e.g., (alpha)-particles) to plasma ions, grossly determines whether or not plasma conditions are self-sustaining without recourse to auxiliary heating. Furthermore, should energy transfer efficiency be poor, and substantial auxiliary heating power is required to maintain reacting conditions within the plasma, economics may preclude commercial viability of fusion reactors. The required charged fusion product information is contained in the energy distribution function of these particles. Knowledge of temporal variations of the superthermal particle energy distribution function could be used by a fusion reactor control system to balance plasma conditions between thermal runaway and a modicum of fusion product energy transfer. Therefore, diagnostics providing data on the dynamical transfer of alpha-particle and other charged fusion product energy to the plasma ions are essential elements for a fusion reactor control system to insure that proper plasma conditions are maintained. The objective of this work is to assess if spectral analysis of RF radiation emitted by charged fusion products confined in a magnetized plasma, called ion cyclotron emission (ICE), can reveal the vital data of the distribution function of the superthermal particles.

  5. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  6. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  7. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985.

  8. The path to fusion power.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power.

  9. The quest for fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  10. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  11. The Path to Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, Stewart

    2011-05-04

    When the possibility of fusion as an energy source for electricity generation was realized in the 1950s, understanding of the plasma state was primitive. The fusion goal has been paced by, and has stimulated, the development of plasma physics. Our understanding of complex, nonlinear processes in plasmas is now mature. We can routinely produce and manipulate 100 million degree plasmas with remarkable finesse, and we can identify a path to commercial fusion power. The international experiment, ITER, will create a burning (self-sustained) plasma and produce 500 MW of thermal fusion power. This talk will summarize the progress in fusion research to date, and the remaining steps to fusion power.

  12. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  13. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  14. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  15. Particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

  16. Radioscapholunate Fusions

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Duncan Thomas; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarpal fusions are performed for a variety of indications, most commonly for debilitating painful arthritis. The goal of a wrist fusion is to fuse the painful, diseased joints and to preserve motion through the healthy joints. Depending on the extent of the disease process, radiocarpal fusions may take the form of radiolunate, radioscapholunate, or total wrist fusions. Surgical techniques and instrumentation have advanced over the last few decades, and consequently the functional outcomes have improved and complications decreased. Techniques for partial carpal fusions have improved and now include distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision, which improves range of motion and fusion rates. In this article we discuss the various surgical techniques and fixation methods available and review the corresponding evidence in the literature. The authors' preferred surgical technique of radioscapholunate fusion with distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision is outlined. New implants and new concepts are also discussed. PMID:24179717

  17. A new extensile anterolateral retroperitoneal approach for lumbar interbody fusion from L1 to S1: a prospective series with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Sean; Butler, Joseph S; Benton, Adam; Malhotra, Karan; Selvadurai, Susanne; Agu, Obiekezie

    2016-06-01

    A variety of surgical approaches have been used for cage insertion in lumbar interbody fusion surgery. The direct anterior approach requires mobilization of the great vessels to access the intervertebral disc spaces cranial to L5/S1. With the lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach, it is difficult to access the L4/L5 intervertebral disc space due to the lumbar plexus and iliac crest, and L5/S1 is inaccessible. We describe a new anterolateral retroperitoneal approach, which is safe and reproducible to access the disc spaces from L1 to S1 inclusive, obviating the need for a separate direct anterior approach to access L5/S1. This paper had the following objectives: first, to report a reproducible novel single-incision, muscle-splitting, anterolateral pre-psoas surgical approach to the lumbar spine from L1 to S1; second, to highlight the technical challenges of this approach and highlight approach-related complications; and third, to evaluate clinical outcomes using this surgical technique in a prospective series of L1 to S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusions (ALIFs) performed as part of a 360-degree fusion for adult spinal deformity correction. This report used a prospective cohort study. A prospective series of patients (n=64) having ALIF using porous tantalum cages as part of a two-stage complex spinal reconstruction from L1 to S1 were studied. Data collected included blood loss, operative time, incision size, technical challenges, perioperative complications, and secondary procedures. Clinical outcome measures used included visual analogue scale (VAS) Back Pain, VAS Leg Pain, EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), EQ-5D VAS, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22). Pre- and postoperative radiographic parameters and clinical outcome measures were assessed. Mean follow-up time was 1.8 years. Mean blood loss was 68±9.6 mL. The mean VAS Back Pain score improved from 7.5±1.25 preoperatively to 2.5±1.7 at 3 months (p=.02), 1.2±0.5 at 6

  18. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  19. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  20. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  1. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  2. Are plastic heat exchangers feasible for solar water heaters? Part 1: A review of the technology, codes and standards, and commercial products

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.; Oberreit, D.; Liu, W.; Mantell, S.

    1999-07-01

    As a first step toward assessing the possibility of using plastic heat exchangers in solar water heating systems, the authors present product design specifications for water-to-water and antifreeze-to-water heat exchangers, review the plumbing codes and standards as they apply to use of heat exchangers and polymer components, and discuss the suitability of commercially available plastic heat exchangers. Analysis of overall heat transfer shows that a counterflow, tube-in-shell heat exchanger made of thin wall plastic tubes is capable of meeting the thermal requirements of a solar water heating system with less than a 50% increase in heat transfer surface area compared to a commercial copper heat exchanger. The plumbing codes allow use of approved polymer heat exchangers or piping in domestic solar water heating systems. Single wall heat exchangers can be used with a non-toxic heat transfer fluid, such as propylene glycol. Unfortunately, commercially available plastic heat exchangers are either prohibitively expensive, too small, or incapable of withstanding the pressure and temperature requirements of this application. A review of polymer materials for this application is given in part 2 of this paper.

  3. "Polarized" Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    Increasing energy demand in view of limited supply, as well as environmental and nuclear-safety concerns leading to increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy are expected to focus public and scientific interest increasingly also on fusion energy. With the decision to build ITER (low-density magnetic confinement) and also continuing research on (high-density) inertial-confinement fusion (cf. the inauguration of the laser fusion facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) prospects of fusion energy have probably entered a new era.

  4. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  5. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  6. The discovery of 1,2,3,9b-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ones as a new class of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion inhibitors. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Bond, Silas; Draffan, Alistair G; Fenner, Jennifer E; Lambert, John; Lim, Chin Yu; Lin, Bo; Luttick, Angela; Mitchell, Jeffrey P; Morton, Craig J; Nearn, Roland H; Sanford, Vanessa; Stanislawski, Pauline C; Tucker, Simon P

    2015-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, young children and adults. Compound 1a (9b-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1,2,3,9b-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one) was identified as an inhibitor of A and B strains of RSV targeting the fusion glycoprotein. SAR was developed by systematic exploration of the phenyl (R(1)) and benzoyl (R(2)) groups. Furthermore, introduction of a nitrogen at the 8-position of the tricyclic core resulted in active analogues with improved properties (aqueous solubility, protein binding and logD) and excellent rat pharmacokinetics (e.g., rat oral bioavailability of 89% for compound 17).

  7. Is there hope for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-04-12

    From the outset in the 1950's, fusion research has been motivated by environmental concerns as well as long-term fuel supply issues. Compared to fossil fuels both fusion and fission would produce essentially zero emissions to the atmosphere. Compared to fission, fusion reactors should offer high demonstrability of public protection from accidents and a substantial amelioration of the radioactive waste problem. Fusion still requires lengthy development, the earliest commercial deployment being likely to occur around 2025--2050. However, steady scientific progress is being made and there is a wide consensus that it is time to plan large-scale engineering development. A major international effort, called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is being carried out under IAEA auspices to design the world's first fusion engineering test reactor, which could be constructed in the 1990's. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Plasma fusion and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hideo, Kozima

    1996-12-31

    Fundamental problems of plasma fusion (controlled thermonuclear fusion) due to the contradicting demands of the magnetic confinement of plasma and suppression of instabilities occurring on and in plasma are surveyed in contrast with problems of cold fusion. Problems in cold fusion due to the complicated constituents and types of force are explained. Typical cold fusion events are explained by a model based on the presence of trapped neutrons in cold fusion materials. The events include Pons-Fleishmann effect, tritium anomaly, helium 4 production, and nuclear transmutation. Fundamental hypothesis of the model is an effectiveness of a new concept--neutron affinity of elements. The neutron affinity is defined and some bases supporting it are explained. Possible justification of the concept by statistical approach is given.

  9. Fusion - An energy source for synthetic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  10. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  11. Object-oriented fusion of RADARSAT-2 polarimetric synthetic aperture radar and HJ-1A multispectral data for land-cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yan; Jiang, Qigang; Wang, Bin; Li, Yuanhua; Liu, Shu; Cui, Can

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of the integration of optical and polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data to accurate land-cover classification was investigated. For this purpose, an object-oriented classification methodology that consisted of polarimetric decomposition, hybrid feature selection, and a support vector machine (SVM) was proposed. A RADARSAT-2 Fine Quad-Pol image and an HJ-1A CCD2 multispectral image were used as data sources. First, polarimetric decomposition was implemented for the RADARSAT-2 image. Sixty-one polarimetric parameters were extracted using different polarimetric decomposition methods and then merged with the main diagonal elements (T11, T22, T33) of the coherency matrix to form a multichannel image with 64 layers. Second, the HJ-1A and the multichannel images were divided into numerous image objects by implementing multiresolution segmentation. Third, 1104 features were extracted from the HJ-1A and the multichannel images for each image object. Fourth, the hybrid feature selection method that combined the ReliefF filter approach and the genetic algorithm (GA) wrapper approach (ReliefF-GA) was used. Finally, land-cover classification was performed by an SVM classifier on the basis of the selected features. Five other classification methodologies were conducted for comparison to verify the contribution of optical and PolSAR data integration and to test the superiority of the proposed object-oriented classification methodology. Comparison results show that HJ-1A data, RADARSAT-2 data, polarimetric decomposition, ReliefF-GA, and SVM have a significant contribution by improving land-cover classification accuracy.

  12. NS3 genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as alternative to a commercially available assay to reliably determine hepatitis C virus subtypes 1a and 1b.

    PubMed

    Neukam, Karin; Martínez, Alfredo P; Culasso, Andrés C A; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; García, Gabriel; Di Lello, Federico A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the use of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 sequencing as alternative to the comercially available Versant HCV 2.0 reverse hybridization line-probe assay (LiPA 2.0) to determine HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) subtypes. A cohort of 104 patients infected by HCV-1 according to LiPA 2.0 was analyzed in a cross-sectional study conducted in patients seen from January 2012 to June 2016 at an outpatient clinic in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The samples were included within well supported subtype clades: 64 with HCV-1b and 39 with HCV-1a infection. Twenty of the HCV-1a infected patientes were included in a supported sub-clade "1" and 19 individuals were among the basal sub-clade "2". LiPA 2.0 failed to subtype HCV-1 in 20 (19.2%) individuals. Subtype classification determined by NS3 direct sequencing showed that 2/18 (11.1%) of the HCV-1a-infected patients as determined by LiPA 2.0 were in fact infected by HCV-1b. Of the HCV-1b-infected according to LiPA 2.0, 10/66 (15.2%) patients showed HCV-1a infection according to NS3 sequencing. Overall misclassification was 14.3% (κ-index for the concordance with NS3 sequencing = 0.635). One (1%) patient was erroneously genotyped as HCV-1 and was revealed as HCV genotype 4 infection. Genomic sequencing of the HCV NS3 region represents an adequate alternative since it provides reliable genetic information. It even distinguishes between HCV-1a clades related to resistance-associated substitutions to HCV protease inhibitors, it provides reliable genetic information for genotyping/subgenotyping and simultaneously allows to determine the presence of resistance-associated substitutions to currently recommended DAAs.

  13. NS3 genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as alternative to a commercially available assay to reliably determine hepatitis C virus subtypes 1a and 1b

    PubMed Central

    Neukam, Karin; Martínez, Alfredo P.; Culasso, Andrés C. A.; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; García, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 sequencing as alternative to the comercially available Versant HCV 2.0 reverse hybridization line-probe assay (LiPA 2.0) to determine HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) subtypes. Patients and methods A cohort of 104 patients infected by HCV-1 according to LiPA 2.0 was analyzed in a cross-sectional study conducted in patients seen from January 2012 to June 2016 at an outpatient clinic in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results The samples were included within well supported subtype clades: 64 with HCV-1b and 39 with HCV-1a infection. Twenty of the HCV-1a infected patientes were included in a supported sub-clade “1” and 19 individuals were among the basal sub-clade “2”. LiPA 2.0 failed to subtype HCV-1 in 20 (19.2%) individuals. Subtype classification determined by NS3 direct sequencing showed that 2/18 (11.1%) of the HCV-1a-infected patients as determined by LiPA 2.0 were in fact infected by HCV-1b. Of the HCV-1b-infected according to LiPA 2.0, 10/66 (15.2%) patients showed HCV-1a infection according to NS3 sequencing. Overall misclassification was 14.3% (κ-index for the concordance with NS3 sequencing = 0.635). One (1%) patient was erroneously genotyped as HCV-1 and was revealed as HCV genotype 4 infection. Conclusions Genomic sequencing of the HCV NS3 region represents an adequate alternative since it provides reliable genetic information. It even distinguishes between HCV-1a clades related to resistance-associated substitutions to HCV protease inhibitors, it provides reliable genetic information for genotyping/subgenotyping and simultaneously allows to determine the presence of resistance-associated substitutions to currently recommended DAAs. PMID:28753662

  14. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  15. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  16. Commercial lumber

    Treesearch

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana dynamin-related protein 1A GTPase-GED fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Xu, Xuanhao; Sun, Yuna; Zhou, Jingwen; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yan, Liming; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Plant-specific dynamin-related proteins play crucial roles in cell-plate formation, endocytosis or exocytosis, protein sorting to the vacuole and plasma membrane and the division of mitochondria and chloroplasts. In order to determine the crystal structure and thus to obtain a better understanding of the biological functions and mechanisms of dynamin-related proteins in plant cells, the GTPase domain of Arabidopsis thaliana dynamin-related protein 1A (AtDRP1A) fused to its GTPase effector domain (GED) was crystallized in a nucleotide-associated form using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant. The hexagonal crystals (space group P61) had unit-cell parameters a = b = 146.2, c = 204.3 Å, and diffraction data were collected to 3.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Four molecules, comprising two functional dimers, are assumed per asymmetric unit, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 3.9 Å3 Da−1 according to the molecular weight of 39 kDa. PMID:22232176

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana dynamin-related protein 1A GTPase-GED fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Xu, Xuanhao; Sun, Yuna; Zhou, Jingwen; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yan, Liming; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Plant-specific dynamin-related proteins play crucial roles in cell-plate formation, endocytosis or exocytosis, protein sorting to the vacuole and plasma membrane and the division of mitochondria and chloroplasts. In order to determine the crystal structure and thus to obtain a better understanding of the biological functions and mechanisms of dynamin-related proteins in plant cells, the GTPase domain of Arabidopsis thaliana dynamin-related protein 1A (AtDRP1A) fused to its GTPase effector domain (GED) was crystallized in a nucleotide-associated form using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant. The hexagonal crystals (space group P6(1)) had unit-cell parameters a = b = 146.2, c = 204.3 Å, and diffraction data were collected to 3.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Four molecules, comprising two functional dimers, are assumed per asymmetric unit, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient of 3.9 Å(3) Da(-1) according to the molecular weight of 39 kDa. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

  19. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  20. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  1. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  2. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-15

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  3. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  4. Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Office of Exploration sponsored the NASA Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power Workshop. The meeting was held to understand the potential of using He-3 from the moon for terrestrial fusion power production. It provided an overview, two parallel working sessions, a review of sessions, and discussions. The lunar mining session concluded that mining, beneficiation, separation, and return of He-3 from the moon would be possible but that a large scale operation and improved technology is required. The fusion power session concluded that: (1) that He-3 offers significant, possibly compelling, advantages over fusion of tritium, principally increased reactor life, reduced radioactive wastes, and high efficiency conversion, (2) that detailed assessment of the potential of the D/He-3 fuel cycle requires more information, and (3) D/He-3 fusion may be best for commercial purposes, although D/T fusion is more near term.

  5. Options for commercial tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1986-07-01

    Systems studies have been performed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) to assess commercial tokamak options. One study investigates the economics of high-beta operation and determines an optimum operating range of 10 to 20% beta, with a corresponding neutron wall loading of 6 to 8 MW/m/sup 2/. A second study determines conditions under which small, low-power tokamaks can be economically combined into a 1200-MW(electric) multiplex power plant. The results of these studies have directed future efforts at the FEDC toward a high-beta, tokamak design using a modular maintenance configuration.

  6. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  7. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  8. Selection of the best target site for ribozyme-mediated cleavage within a fusion gene for adenovirus E1A-associated 300 kDa protein (p300) and luciferase.

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, H; Ohkawa, J; Tanishige, N; Yoshinari, K; Murata, T; Yokoyama, K K; Taira, K

    1996-01-01

    The cellular 300 kDa protein known as p300 is a target for the adenoviral E1A oncoprotein and it is thought to participate in prevention of the G0/G1 transition during the cell cycle, in activation of certain enhancers and in the stimulation of differentiation pathways. In order to determine the exact function of p300, as a first step we constructed a simple assay system for the selection of a potential target site of a hammerhead ribozyme in vivo. For the detection of ribozyme-mediated cleavage, we used a fusion gene (p300-luc) that consisted of the sequence encoding the N-terminal region of p300 and the gene for luciferase, as the reporter gene. We were also interested in the correlation of the GUX rule, for the triplet adjacent to the cleavage site, with ribozyme activity in vivo. Therefore, we selected five target sites that all included GUX The rank order of activities in vitro indeed followed the GUX rule; with respect to the kcat, a C residue as the third base (X) was the best, next came an A residue and a U residue was the worst (GUC > GUA > GUU). However, in vivo the tRNA(Val) promoter-driven ribozyme, targeted to a GUA located upstream of the initiation codon, had the highest inhibitory effect (96%) in HeLa S3 cells when the molar ratio of the DNA template for the target p300 RNA to that for the ribozyme was 1:4. Since the rank order of activities in vivo did not conform to the GUX rule, it is unlikely that the rate limiting step for cleavage of the p300-luc mRNA was the chemical step. This kind of ribozyme expression system should be extremely useful for elucidation of the function of p300 in vivo. PMID:8760887

  9. Inertial fusion: strategy and economic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Inertial fusion must demonstrate that the high target gains required for practical fusion energy can be achieved with driver energies not larger than a few megajoules. Before a multi-megajoule scale driver is constructed, inertial fusion must provide convincing experimental evidence that the required high target gains are feasible. This will be the principal objective of the NOVA laser experiments. Implosions will be conducted with scaled targets which are nearly hydrodynamically equivalent to the high gain target implosions. Experiments which demonstrate high target gains will be conducted in the early nineties when multi-megajoule drivers become available. Efficient drivers will also be demonstrated by this time period. Magnetic fusion may demonstrate high Q at about the same time as inertial fusion demonstrates high gain. Beyond demonstration of high performance fusion, economic considerations will predominate. Fusion energy will achieve full commercial success when it becomes cheaper than fission and coal. Analysis of the ultimate economic potential of inertial fusion suggests its costs may be reduced to half those of fission and coal. Relative cost escalation would increase this advantage. Fusions potential economic advantage derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy (which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity).

  10. Commercial Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  11. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  12. The Fusion Energy Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2004-06-01

    Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

  13. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  14. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  15. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  16. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  17. Thermonuclear Fusion: An Energy Source for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, William E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research in thermonuclear fusion with particular emphasis on the problem of confining hot plasma. Recent experiments indicate that magnetic bottles called tokamaks may achieve the necessary confinement times, and this break-through has given renewed optimism to the feasibility of commercial fusion power by the turn of the…

  18. Thermonuclear Fusion: An Energy Source for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, William E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research in thermonuclear fusion with particular emphasis on the problem of confining hot plasma. Recent experiments indicate that magnetic bottles called tokamaks may achieve the necessary confinement times, and this break-through has given renewed optimism to the feasibility of commercial fusion power by the turn of the…

  19. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  20. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  1. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs.

  2. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of

  3. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the

  4. Dirty Secrets in Multisensor Data Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Hall, S. A. Hall, and Tate15 (e.g., deliberate synesthesia , time compression/expansion, negative reasoning enhancement, focus/de-focus, pattern morphing...the data fusion problem. This is an area in which the commercial market (e.g., for electronic commerce and business) will provide an impetus for

  5. Extended micro hot fusion model for burst activity in deuterated solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehne, R.W.; Sioda, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    An extended micro hot fusion scenario attempts to explain the burst processes of cold fusion reports and unsuccessful experiments. A heuristic model requires only 10 m{sup 3} of palladium deuteride to release a power of 1 GW for a long time. This might facilitate future commercial use of cold fusion. 40 refs.

  6. Fusion power for space propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

    1972-01-01

    Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

  7. Fusion power for space propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

    1972-01-01

    Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

  8. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  9. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  10. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  11. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  12. Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, K. J.; Latkowski, J. F.; Abbott, R. P.; Anklam, T. P.; Dunne, A. M.; El-Dasher, B. S.; Flowers, D. L.; Fluss, M. J.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G. A.; Morris, K. R.; Moses, E.; Reyes, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Betti, R.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Miller, R. L.; Laberge, M.; Delage, M.

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  14. Cold fusion coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtler, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, fusion of metals was accomplished through the use of heat. Cold fusion has become a reality with metal to metal fusion occurring at room temperature. The basics of this new technology which can be done in tank, brush or solid form is covered in this paper.

  15. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  16. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; ...

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). Furthermore, the status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  17. Cluster-impact fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Echenique, P.M.; Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H. )

    1990-03-19

    We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

  18. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  19. Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion condition is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion. .

  20. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  1. Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact

  2. Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact

  3. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-12-31

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989`s feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun.

  4. Accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerter, R. O.; Faltens, A.; Seidl, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Since the 1970s, high energy heavy ion accelerators have been one of the leading options for imploding and igniting targets for inertial fusion energy production. Following the energy crisis of the early 1970s, a number of people in the international accelerator community enthusiastically began working on accelerators for this application. In the last decade, there has also been significant interest in using accelerators to study high energy density physics (HEDP). Nevertheless, research on heavy ion accelerators for fusion has proceeded slowly pending demonstration of target ignition using the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a laser-based facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A recent report of the National Research Council recommends expansion of accelerator research in the US if and when the NIF achieves ignition. Fusion target physics and the economics of commercial energy production place constraints on the design of accelerators for fusion applications. From a scientific standpoint, phase space and space charge considerations lead to the most stringent constraints. Meeting these constraints almost certainly requires the use of multiple beams of heavy ions with kinetic energies > 1 GeV. These constraints also favor the use of singly charged ions. This article discusses the constraints for both fusion and HEDP, and explains how they lead to the requirements on beam parameters. RF and induction linacs are currently the leading contenders for fusion applications. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both options. We also discuss the principal issues that must yet be resolved.

  5. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  6. Commercial users panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.

    1987-01-01

    The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

  7. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  8. Hybrid Fusion: The Only Viable Development Path for Tokamaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2009-03-01

    The world needs a great deal of carbon free energy, and soon, for civilization to continue. Fusion's goal is to develop such a carbon free energy source. For the last 4 decades, tokamaks have been the best magnetic fusion has to offer. But what if its development stops short of commercial fusion? This paper introduces `conservative design principles' for tokamaks. These are very simple, are reasonably based in theory, and have always constrained tokamak operation. Assuming they continue to do so, it is unlikely that tokamaks will ever make it as commercial reactors. This is independent of their confinement properties. However because of the large additional gain in hybrid fusion, tokamaks reactors look like they can make it as hybrid fuel producers, and provide large scale power by mid century or shortly thereafter.

  9. Fusion: The controversy continues

    SciTech Connect

    1989-07-01

    Nuclear fusion-the power of the stars that promises mankind an inexhaustible supply of energy-seems concurrently much closer and still distant this month. The recent flurry of announcements concerning the achievement of a cold fusion reaction has-if nothing else-underscored the historic importance of the basic fusion reaction which uses hydrogen ions to fuel an energy-producing reaction.

  10. Still wishful on fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, John

    2009-08-01

    In Cris W Barnes' review of Charles Seife's book Sun in a Bottle: The Strange History of Fusion and the Art of Wishful Thinking (May pp42-43), Barnes, as a member of the fusion community, admits to "wishful thinking" on the basis that "a strong and exciting vision always helps focus and drive effort". This may be true, but wishful thinking has also distorted and ignored several aspects of the fusion dream.

  11. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  12. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  13. Fusion silicide coatings for tantalum alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the performance of fusion silicide coatings under simulated atmospheric reentry conditions to a maximum temperature of 1810 K (2800 F). Both recently developed and commercially available coatings are included. Data are presented on oxidation rate with and without intentional defecting, the influence of the coatings on the ductile-brittle bend transition temperature, and the mechanical properties. Coatings appear capable of affording protection for at least 100 simulated cycles to 2600 F and 63 cycles to 2800 F.

  14. Kinetic Modeling of Laser-Induced Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Thermal neutrons are of considerable interest to the Department of Defense and for commercial applications. Unlike high- energy photons, neutrons easily...develop a compact generator for thermal neutrons with large enough flux. The limited availability of radio-isotopes, combined with the relatively...Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fusion, which generates Alpha particles and fast neutrons . In these sources, Deuterium ions are accelerated to about 130 keV and hit

  15. Inertial fusion: an energy-production option for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J.; Pitts, J.H.; Monsler, M.J.; Grow, G.R.

    1982-05-01

    The authors discuss the inertial-confinement approach to fusion energy. After explaining the fundamentals of fusion, they describe the state of the art of fusion experiments, emphasizing the results achieved through the use of neodymium-doped glass lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at other laboratories. They highlight recent experimental results confirming theoretical predictions that short-wavelength lasers have excellent energy absorption on fuel pellets. Compressions of deuterium-tritium fuel of over 100 times liquid density have been measured, only a factor of 10 away from the compression required for a commercial reactor. Finally, it is shown how to exploit the unique characteristics of inertial fusion to design reactor chambers that have a very high power density and a long life, features that the authors believe will eventually lead to fusion power at a competitive cost.

  16. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fusion proteins as alternate crystallization paths to difficult structure problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Rueker, Florian; Ho, Joseph X.; Lim, Kap; Keeling, Kim; Gilliland, Gary; Ji, Xinhua

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a peptide fusion product with glutathione transferase from Schistosoma japonicum (SjGST) has been solved by crystallographic methods to 2.5 A resolution. Peptides or proteins can be fused to SjGST and expressed in a plasmid for rapid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Fusion proteins created by this commercial method can be purified rapidly by chromatography on immobilized glutathione. The potential utility of using SjGST fusion proteins as alternate paths to the crystallization and structure determination of proteins is demonstrated.

  18. Simulating weld-fusion boundary microstructures in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios D.; Lippold, John C.

    2004-02-01

    A fundamental study of weld-fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys was conducted in an effort to understand equiaxed grain zone formation and fusion boundary nucleation and growth phenomena. In addition to commercial aluminum alloys, experimental Mg-bearing alloys with Zr and Sc additions were studied along with the widely used Cu- and Licontaining alloy 2195-T8. This article describes work conducted to clarify the interrelation among composition, base metal substrate, and temperature as they relate to nucleation and growth phenomena at the fusion boundary.

  19. Environmental and safety issues of the fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental and safety concerns inherent in the development of fusion energy, and the current Department of Energy programs seeking to: (1) develop safe and reliable techniques for tritium control; (2) reduce the quantity of activation products produced; and (3) provide designs to limit the potential for accidents that could result in release of radioactive materials. Because of the inherent safety features of fusion and the early start that has been made in safety problem recognition and solution, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial power.

  20. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  2. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  3. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  4. Fusion of Polarized Deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, H. M.; Fick, D.

    1984-06-01

    The nuclear physics aspects of the d-d reactions initiated by low-energy polarized deuterons are discussed. It is shown that the use of polarized deuterons does not suppress the fusion of deuterons with deuterons and hence does not suppress neutron production. Therefore a recently proposed "neutron-free" d-3He fusion reactor is unlikely to work.

  5. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  6. Antiproton catalyzed fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.L. Jr.; Perkins, L.J.; Haney, S.W.

    1995-05-15

    Because of the potential application to power production, it is important to investigate a wide range of possible means to achieve nuclear fusion, even those that may appear initially to be infeasible. In antiproton catalyzed fusion, the negative antiproton shields the repulsion between the positively charged nuclei of hydrogen isotopes, thus allowing a much higher level of penetration through the repulsive Coulomb barrier, and thereby greatly enhancing the fusion cross section. Because of their more compact wave function, the more massive antiprotons offer considerably more shielding than do negative muons. The effects of the shielding on fusion cross sections are most predominate, at low energies. If the antiproton could exist in the ground state with a nucleus for a sufficient time without annihilating, the fusion cross sections are so enhanced that at room temperature energies, values up to about 1,000 barns (that for d+t) would be possible. Unfortunately, the cross section for antiproton annihilation with the incoming nucleus is even higher. A model that provides an upper bound for the fusion to annihilation cross section for all relevant energies indicates that each antiproton will catalyze no more than about one fusion. Because the energy required to make one antiproton greatly exceeds the fusion energy that is released, this level of catalysis is far from adequate for power production.

  7. Fusion Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

    2002-02-06

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

  8. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains chapters on each of the following topics: (1) radioactivity, (2) heat transport and energy conversion, (3) tritium systems, (4) electrical storage and power supplies, (5) support structure, (6) cryogenics, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) maintenance and operation, (9) balance of plant design, (10) safety and environmental analysis, (11) economic analysis, and (12) plant construction.

  9. Commercial power from inertial confinement fusion: issues and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.

    1985-05-01

    Future criteria for desirable power plants are difficult to determine, but they include economic competitiveness, availability of consumables, reliability, maintainability, safety, disposal of wastes, and environment impact. In the near future, the desirability of ICF power plants will probably be evaluated on terms similar to those used for fission reactors, which currently emphasize small, inherently safe reactors constructed from factory-built, standardized modules that can lower the direct capital costs and the construction time. Several of these issues are discussed.

  10. Electropionics and fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, J.P. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on the electropionic mass formula which does not differentiate between nuclei and elementary particles, but gives the deuteron a unique bifurcated space-time description. This hints at fusion products produced by anomalous intermediate mass states of 3026, 3194, and 3515 MeV/c{sup 2} that then decay to produce energy. Another unique possibility in electropionics is that no fusion of deuterons occurs, but the deuteron is changed by electron capture into a D-meson that then decays to produce observed cold fusion energies. All these cold fusion electropionic reactions violate baryon conservation but do produce energy yields consistent with reported cold fusion decay products and energy levels.

  11. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  12. Use of the design-of-experiments approach for the development of a refolding technology for progenipoietin-1, a recombinant human cytokine fusion protein from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Denis M; Buckley, John J; Johnson, Gary V; Rathore, Anurag; Gustafson, Mark E

    2009-07-14

    Optimization of refolding conditions for progenipoietin was performed. The molecule has five disulfide bonds and, hence, is a challenge to refold. Variables studied included pH, DTT (dithiothreitol) concentration, cystine concentration, urea concentration, protein concentration, dissolution hold time and oxygen availability. In view of the complexity of the reaction with respect to the number of parameters that can impact the refold efficiency, some variables were examined via single-parameter studies, whereas others were looked at via a DOE (design of experiments) approach. The DOE approach allowed us to look at the effect of these variables over wide ranges, as well as their interactions, in a very efficient manner. We were able to obtain a maximal refolding efficiency of 57%, defined as a percentage of correctly folded, bioactive dimer protein from inclusion-body slurries produced from Escherichia coli. The final method involved dissolution of IBs for 30 min at 2 mg/ml protein, 6 M urea, 2 mM DTT and 50 mM Tris (pH 10.2) for approx. 30 min, followed by the addition of 4 mM cystine just prior to a 10-fold dilution with 50 mM Tris (pH 10.2) buffer and reaction for 72 h at 2-10 degrees C. The use of the DOE approach allowed us to understand the interactions between the various parameters, in particular those between cystine and urea concentrations. The results were used to create a process model that demonstrated satisfactory accuracy and that could be used during commercialization of the product.

  13. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  14. Fusion safety program Annual report, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Carmack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY-95. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A final activity described is work to develop DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Fusion Test Facilities.

  15. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Dolan, T.J.; Herring, J.S.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Motloch, C.G.; Petti, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1994. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions, including the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in this report include tritium safety, beryllium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, safety aspects of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base development, and thermalhydraulics code development and their application to fusion safety issues. Much of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed by the Fusion Safety Program for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and of the technical support for commercial fusion facility conceptual design studies. A major activity this year has been work to develop a DOE Technical Standard for the safety of fusion test facilities.

  16. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  17. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  18. On cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Spinrad, B.I. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper argues that a high negative voltage on a metal into which deuterium is soaked might enhance fusion reactions. The author discusses how this may have been the way Fleischmann and Pons achieved their results.

  19. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  20. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    Infection by viruses having lipid-bilayer envelopes proceeds through fusion of the viral membrane with a membrane of the target cell. Viral ‘fusion proteins’ facilitate this process. They vary greatly in structure, but all seem to have a common mechanism of action, in which a ligand-triggered, large-scale conformational change in the fusion protein is coupled to apposition and merger of the two bilayers. We describe three examples—the influenza virus hemagglutinin, the flavivirus E protein and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein—in some detail, to illustrate the ways in which different structures have evolved to implement this common mechanism. Fusion inhibitors can be effective antiviral agents. PMID:18596815

  2. Fusion-breeder program

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-11-19

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

  3. Virus—Cell—Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, S.; Aranda-Espinoza, H.

    1998-08-01

    The first step of the viral-fusion mechanism is studied in terms of energetically favorable configurations of the target membrane and the haemagglutinin (HA) protein, which is presumed to be involved in the influenza viral fusion. It is found that this first step of viral-fusion depends strongly on the elastic moduli of the target membrane. Two viral-fusion mechanisms are studied: i).—When the HA protein is tilted, and therefore induces a distortion of the target membrane. In this case, the acceptance of the configuration depends on the stiffness of the target membrane. ii).—The HA protein has a conformational change and a subunit of HA penetrates the target membrane. In this case, the acceptance of the configuration depends on the spontaneous curvature of the target membrane.

  4. HYFIRE II: a fusion/synfuel producer

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    HYFIRE II is a point design study of a commercial fusion Tokamak reactor coupled to a high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) system for the production of hydrogen and oxygen. The purpose of the study is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the application of fusion energy for the production of these basic fuels. The HYFIRE II fusion reactor design is based on the STARFIRE commercial power reactor, the primary differences are in the type of blankets between the two reactors, the power cycle design and in the increased thermal power rating (to 6000 MW(th)). Otherwise, the major features of STARFIRE which are maintained include: steady-state operation; rf drive; mechanical limiters; number of TF coils; etc. Based on HYFIRE conceptual design studies to date, the following observations are made: a) blanket designs have been identified to simultaneously meet global tritium breeding requirements and required energy splits between process steam and helium; b) attractive tritium breeders such as LiAlO/sub 2/ and liquid lead with dissolved lithium have been identified; c) gross power cycle efficiencies in the 40 to 45% range appear achievable; and d) high H/sub 2/ production efficiencies in the 50 to 55% range appear achievable.

  5. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  6. Glossary of fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitson, M. O.

    1985-02-01

    The Glossary of Fusion Energy is an attempt to present a concise, yet comprehensive collection of terms that may be beneficial to scientists and laymen who are directly or tangentially concerned with this burgeoning energy enterprise. Included are definitions of terms in theoretical plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, and some related physics concepts. Also, short descriptions of some of the major thermonuclear experiments currently under way in the world today are included.

  7. Fusion ignition research experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  8. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2016-07-12

    ITER (in Latin “the way”) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project – China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States – represent more than half the world’s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  9. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  10. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  11. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  12. Fusion research at General Atomics annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    In FY94, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the controlled fusion power program. The work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy, Advanced Physics and Technology Division and ITER and Technology Division, of the US Department of Energy. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies, Plasma Interactive Materials, RF Technology, and Diagnostics. Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to the next-generation fusion reactor experiments, Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and ITER, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, we carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power reactors, and we conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. We continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  13. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  14. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  15. Fusion-power demonstration. [Next step beyond MFTF-B

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-03-29

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  16. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  17. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  18. A. Sakharov and Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    In the landmark paper by Tamm and Sakharov [1], a controlled nuclear fusion reactor based on an axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration whose principles remain valid to this day, was proposed. In the light of present understanding of plasma physics the virtues (e.g. that of considering the D-D reaction) and the shortcomings of this paper are pointed out. In fact, relatively recent results of theoretical plasma physics (e.g. discovery of the so called second stability region) and advances in high field magnet technology have made it possible to identify the parameters of meaningful experiments capable of exploring D-D and D-^3He burn conditions. At the same time an experimental program (IGNIR) has been undertaken through a (funded) collaboration between Italy and Russia to investigate D-T plasmas close to ignition conditions based on an advanced high field toroidal confinement configuration. A. Sakharov envisioned a bolder approach to fusion research than that advocated by some of his contemporaries. The time taken to design and decide to fabricate the first experiment capable of reaching ignition conditions is due in part to the problem of gaining an adequate understanding the expected physics of fusion burning plasmas. However, most of the relevant financial effort has gone in the pursuit of slow and indirect enterprises complying with the ``playing it safe'' tendencies of large organizations or motivated by the purpose to develop technologies or maintain a high level of expertise in plasma physics to the expected benefit of other kinds of endeavors. The creativity demonstrated by A. Sakharov in dealing with civil rights and disarmament issues is needed, while maintaining our concerns for energy and the environment on a global scale, to orient the funding for fusion research toward a direct and well based scientific effort on concepts for which a variety of developments can be envisioned. These can span from uncovering new physics relevant, for instance

  19. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  20. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  1. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  2. Proliferation Risks of Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production, and Breakout

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Goldston, A. Glaser, A.F. Ross

    2009-08-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from fusion associated with access to weapon-usable material can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risk from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if commercial fusion systems are designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  3. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  4. Commercialization of Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Commercialization of Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and as such, will have an...years), medium term (10 years) and long term (> 15 years) prospects. In addition, the challenges currently being faced to commercialize nanotechnology...will be discussed in detail. A summary outlining efforts across the world in terms of commercialization , startup activities, participation of major

  5. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  6. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  7. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  8. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  9. Fusion research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  10. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  11. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  12. Quantum Controlled Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruebele, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Laser-assisted nuclear fusion is a potential means for providing short, well-controlled particle bursts in the lab, such as neutron or alpha particle pulses. I will discuss computational results of how coherent control by shaped, amplified 800 nm laser pulses can be used to enhance the nuclear fusion cross section of diatomic molecules such as BH or DT. Quantum dynamics simulations show that a strong laser pulse can simultaneously field-bind the diatomic molecule after electron ejection, and increase the amplitude of the vibrational wave function at small internuclear distances. When VUV shaped laser pulses become available, coherent laser control may also be extended to muonic molecules such as D-mu-T, held together by muons instead of electrons. Muonic fusion has been extensively investigated for many decades, but without coherent laser control it falls slightly short of the break-evne point.

  13. Fusion technology development. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In FY95, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies (Section 2), DiMES (Section 3), SiC Composite Studies (Section 4), Magnetic Probe (Section 5) and RF Technology (Section 6). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. They continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  14. Fusion technology development annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    In FY96, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Design Studies (Section 2), Plasma Interactive Materials (Section 3), SiC/SiC Composite Material Development (Section 4), Magnetic Diagnostic Probes (Section 5) and RF Technology (Section 6). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, the authors carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. They continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  15. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  16. Advances in commercial ICF technology since 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    1989-03-01

    Progress in the march toward commercial ICF fusion reactors has been uneven in the past few years. Considerable advances have been made in the area of light ion beam fusion through the development of rep ratable drivers (i.e., HERMES-III technology) and diodes (i.e., applied B configuration with renewable Li surfaces). Significant progress in the development of lasers to compress targets has also been made through the KrF Aurura program. The possibility of lowering the cost of glass in the advanced solid state lasers has been given serious consideration. The development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique to improve the uniformity of the laser beam has allowed physicists and engineers to once again contemplate the use of symmetric illumination. This would reduce the driver energy required to achieve high gains but it also introduces difficulty in the reactor design. Relatively little progress in commercial heavy ion beam drivers has been made over the past few years aside from an indepth study (HIFSA) of the desirable operating regimes to be pursued. Other areas where little progress has been made are conceptual reactor studies, target declassification and specific experimental programs to address commercial ICF reactor technology needs.

  17. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  18. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  19. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  20. Quantum controlled fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-controlled motion of nuclei, starting from the nanometer-size ground state of a molecule, can potentially overcome some of the difficulties of thermonuclear fusion by compression of a fuel pellet or in a bulk plasma. Coherent laser control can manipulate nuclear motion precisely, achieving large phase space densities for the colliding nuclei. We combine quantum wavepacket propagation of D and T nuclei in a field-bound molecule with coherent control by a shaped laser pulse to demonstrate enhancement of nuclear collision rates. Atom-smashers powered by coherent control may become laboratory sources of particle bursts, and even assist muonic fusion.

  1. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  2. Workmanship standards for fusion welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. D.

    1967-01-01

    Workmanship standards manual defines practices, that adhere to rigid codes and specifications, for fusion welding of component piping, assemblies, and systems. With written and pictorial presentations, it is part of the operating procedure for fusion welding.

  3. 1,2,3,9b-Tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ones as a new class of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion inhibitors. Part 2: identification of BTA9881 as a preclinical candidate.

    PubMed

    Bond, Silas; Draffan, Alistair G; Fenner, Jennifer E; Lambert, John; Lim, Chin Yu; Lin, Bo; Luttick, Angela; Mitchell, Jeffrey P; Morton, Craig J; Nearn, Roland H; Sanford, Vanessa; Anderson, Kelly H; Mayes, Penelope A; Tucker, Simon P

    2015-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, young children and adults. 1,2,3,9b-Tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ones with general structure 1 were previously identified as promising inhibitors of RSV targeting the fusion glycoprotein. In particular, the introduction of a nitrogen at the 8-position of the tricyclic core yielded lead compounds 2 and 3. Extensive exploration of the R(2) group established that certain heterocyclic amides conferred potent RSV A&B activity and a good balance of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The antiviral activity was found to reside in a single enantiomer and compound 33a, (9bS)-9b-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(pyridin-3-ylcarbonyl)-1,2,3,9b-tetrahydro-5H-imidazo[1',2':1,2]pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridin-5-one (known as BTA9881), was identified as a candidate for preclinical development.

  4. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.; Knutson, B.; Dunne, A. M.; Kasper, J.; Sheehan, T.; Lang, D.; Roberts, V.; Mau, D.

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  5. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  6. Plasma effects on resonant fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, R. F.

    2012-11-01

    I investigate the effects of plasma interactions on resonance-enhanced fusion rates in stars. Starting from basic principles we derive an expression for the fusion rate that can serve as a basis for discussion of approximation schemes The present state-of-the-art correction algorithms, based on the classical correlation function for the fusing particles and the classical energy shift for the resonant state, do not follow from this result, even as an approximation. The results of expanding in a perturbation solution for the case of a weakly coupled plasma are somewhat enlightening. But at this point we are at a loss as to how to do meaningful calculations in systems with even moderate plasma coupling strength. Examples where this can matter are the effect of a possible low-energy 12C+12C resonance on x-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars or on supernova 1A simulations, and the calculation of the triple α rate in some of the more strongly coupled regions in which the process enters, such as accretion onto a neutron star.

  7. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  8. Fusion engineering device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  9. Path to Market for Compact Modular Fusion Power Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Simon; Baerny, Jennifer K.; Mattor, Nathan; Stoulil, Don; Miller, Ronald; Marston, Theodore

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of an energy source whose reactants are plentiful and whose products are benign is hard to measure, but at no time in history has this energy source been more needed. Nuclear fusion continues to promise to be this energy source. However, the path to market for fusion systems is still regularly a matter for long-term (20 + year) plans. This white paper is intended to stimulate discussion of faster commercialization paths, distilling guidance from investors, utilities, and the wider energy research community (including from ARPA-E). There is great interest in a small modular fusion system that can be developed quickly and inexpensively. A simple model shows how compact modular fusion can produce a low cost development path by optimizing traditional systems that burn deuterium and tritium, operating not only at high magnetic field strength, but also by omitting some components that allow for the core to become more compact and easier to maintain. The dominant hurdles to the development of low cost, practical fusion systems are discussed, primarily in terms of the constraints placed on the cost of development stages in the private sector. The main finding presented here is that the bridge from DOE Office of Science to the energy market can come at the Proof of Principle development stage, providing the concept is sufficiently compact and inexpensive that its development allows for a normal technology commercialization path.

  10. A fusion of minds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Mystery still surrounds the visit of the astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell to the Soviet Union in 1963. But his collaboration - and that of other British scientists - eased geopolitical tensions at the height of the Cold War and paved the way for today's global ITER fusion project, as Richard Corfield explains.

  11. Synergetic Multisensor Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    technology have led to increased interest in using DEMs for navigation and other applications. In particular, DEMs are attractive for use in aircraft...Multisensor Fusion for Computer Vision [67]. 30 6. POSI!IONAL zSTIM&TION TECEnIQUzs FOR AN OUTDOOR MOBLE ROBOT The autonomous navigation of mobile robots is

  12. Auditory Fusion in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sylvia M.; McCroskey, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on auditory fusion (defined in terms of a listerner's ability to distinguish paired acoustic events from single acoustic events) in 3- to 12-year-old children. The subjects listened to 270 pairs of tones controlled for frequency, intensity, and duration. (CM)

  13. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  14. Separating Fusion from Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Dechent, Peter; Forster, Clemens; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Strasburger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Visual fusion is the process in which differing but compatible binocular information is transformed into a unified percept. Even though this is at the basis of binocular vision, the underlying neural processes are, as yet, poorly understood. In our study we therefore aimed to investigate neural correlates of visual fusion. To this end, we presented binocularly compatible, fusible (BF), and incompatible, rivaling (BR) stimuli, as well as an intermediate stimulus type containing both binocularly fusible and monocular, incompatible elements (BFR). Comparing BFR stimuli with BF and BR stimuli, respectively, we were able to disentangle brain responses associated with either visual fusion or rivalry. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain responses to these stimulus classes in the visual cortex, and investigated them in detail at various retinal eccentricities. Compared with BF stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli was elevated in visual cortical areas V1 and V2, but not in V3 and V4 – implying that the response to monocular stimulus features decreased from V1 to V4. Compared to BR stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli decreased with increasing eccentricity, specifically within V3 and V4. Taken together, it seems that although the processing of exclusively monocular information decreases from V1 to V4, the processing of binocularly fused information increases from earlier to later visual areas. Our findings suggest the presence of an inhibitory neural mechanism which, depending on the presence of fusion, acts differently on the processing of monocular information. PMID:25054904

  15. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  16. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  17. Fusion gamma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Cecil, F. E.; Cole, D.; Conway, M. A.; Wilkinson, F. J., III

    1985-05-01

    Nuclear reactions of interest in fusion research often possess a branch yielding prompt emission of gamma radiation in excess of 15 MeV which can be exploited to provide a new fusion reaction diagnostic having applications similar to conventional neutron emission measurements. Conceptual aspects of fusion gamma diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on application to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during deuterium neutral beam heating of D-T and D-3He plasmas. Recent measurements of the D (T, γ)5He, D(3He, γ)5Li, and D(D, γ)4He branching ratios at low center-of-mass energy (30-100 keV) and of the response of a large volume Ne226 detector for gamma detection in high neutron backgrounds are presented. Using a well-shielded Ne226 detector during 20 MW-120 kV deuterium beam heating of a tritium plasma in TFTR, the D(T, γ)5He gamma signal level is estimated to be 3.5×105 cps.

  18. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

  19. Nattoh model for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    A hypothetical model, the Nattoh model, is proposed to answer the questions that result from cold fusion experiments. This model proposes the formation of a small cluster of deuterons and examines the feasibility of many-body fusion reactions. The gamma-ray spectrum, heat production, neutron emissions, and fusion products are discussed.

  20. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source. (JDH)

  1. Muon-catalysed fusion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. E.

    1986-05-01

    Muons introduced into relatively cold, dense deuterium-tritium mixtures can replace the atomic electrons and form muonic molecules which participate readily in nuclear fusion reactions. Catalysis yields of about 150 fusions per muon have been achieved, renewing interest in muon-catalyzed fusion as a possible source of energy.

  2. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  3. Method for selecting hollow microspheres for use in laser fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay; Havenhill, Jerry W.; Smith, Maurice Lee; Stoltz, Daniel L.

    1976-01-01

    Hollow microspheres having thin and very uniform wall thickness are useful as containers for the deuterium and tritium gas mixture used as a fuel in laser fusion targets. Hollow microspheres are commercially available; however, in commercial lots only a very small number meet the rigid requirements for use in laser fusion targets. Those meeting these requirements may be separated from the unsuitable ones by subjecting the commercial lot to size and density separations and then by subjecting those hollow microspheres thus separated to an external pressurization at which those which are aspherical or which have nonuniform walls are broken and separating the sound hollow microspheres from the broken ones.

  4. A novel fusion of TPR and ALK in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-La; Lira, Maruja E; Hong, Mineui; Kim, Ryong Nam; Choi, So-Jung; Song, Ji-Young; Pandy, Kinnari; Mann, Derrick L; Stahl, Joshua A; Peckham, Heather E; Zheng, Zongli; Han, Joungho; Mao, Mao; Kim, Jhingook

    2014-04-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion is the most common mechanism for overexpression and activation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Several fusion partners of ALK have been reported, including echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4, TRK-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), protein tyrosine phosphatase and nonreceptor type 3, and huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1). A 60-year-old Korean man had a lung mass which was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with ALK overexpression. By using an Anchored Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay and sequencing, we found that tumor had a novel translocated promoter region (TPR)-ALK fusion. The fusion transcript was generated from an intact, in-frame fusion of TPR exon 15 and ALK exon 20 (t(1;2)(q31.1;p23)). The TPR-ALK fusion encodes a predicted protein of 1192 amino acids with a coiled-coil domain encoded by the 5'-2 of the TPR and juxtamembrane and kinase domains encoded by the 3'-end of the ALK. The novel fusion gene and its protein TRP-ALK, harboring coiled-coil and kinase domains, could possess transforming potential and responses to treatment with ALK inhibitors. This case is the first report of TPR-ALK fusion transcript in clinical tumor samples and could provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidate target for patients with cancer, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

  5. Evaluation of polarized fuels in a commercial deuterium/tritium tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Mattas, R.F.; Baker, C.C.

    1985-12-01

    The use of polarized fuels in commercial deuterium-tritium tokamak fusion reactors has been assessed. Some of the advantages cited for this fueling modification have been evaluated. Although the advantages are real, their magnitude is such that polarized fuels do not appear to be a significant reactor in increasing the attractiveness of commercial reactor designs. 17 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Overview of the Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Lockheed Martin Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) Program endeavors to quickly develop a compact fusion power plant with favorable commercial economics and military utility. An overview of the concept and its diamagnetic, high beta magnetically encapsulated linear ring cusp confinement scheme will be given. The analytical model of the major loss mechanisms and predicted performance will be discussed, along with the major physics challenges. Key features of an operational CFR reactor will be highlighted. The proposed developmental path following the current experimental efforts will be presented. ©2015 Lockheed Martin Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Fusion Reactions and Matter-Antimatter Annihilation for Space Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    Wittenberg, J.F. Santarius and G . Kulcinski , Lunar Source of He-3 for commercial fusion power, Fusion Technology 10, 167 (1986). [5] E. Stuhlinger...Nature, 258, 512 (1975). [13] J. Nuckolls, A. Thiessen, L . Wood and G . Zimmermann, Laser compression of matter to super high densities, Nature, 239...of rocket system to carry out each of these missions can be calculated from the rocket equation R = mv + m p m v = e∆V / vex = e ∆V / g Isp ^ , [1

  8. Spheroplast fusion and heterokaryon formation in Mucor racemosus.

    PubMed Central

    Genthner, F J; Borgia, P T

    1978-01-01

    Heterokaryons of Mucor racemosus were produced by fusion of spheroplasts from two auxotrophic strains of the fungus. Germinated sporangiospores were converted to spheroplasts by using commercial chitinase and Myxobacter AL-1 chitosanase. Spheroplasts from the auxotrophic strains were mixed in a buffered Ca(NO3)2 solution and fusion occurred. After cell wall regeneration, prototrophs were isolated. The frequency of heterokaryon formation was 1.45 X 10(-4). Prototrophic isolates segregated parental nuclei at a high frequency, indicating that heterokaryons had formed. Images PMID:649570

  9. Surgical fusion in childhood spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Stanton, R P; Meehan, P; Lovell, W W

    1985-01-01

    Twenty cases of surgical fusion for spondylolisthesis were reviewed at the Scottish Rite Hospital (Atlanta, GA, U.S.A.) to determine whether a procedure other than a simple posterolateral fusion is necessary for most patients. The patients were treated postoperatively with pantaloon spica cast immobilization. The fusion rate was high (90%), and patient satisfaction was high. One patient developed neurologic loss postoperatively. Two patients' slips progressed greater than 10% before solid fusion occurred. Thus, bilateral posterolateral fusion, followed by pantaloon spica cast immobilization, is effective for patients with symptomatic spondylolisthesis or asymptomatic children with grade 3 or greater slips. Reduction was not performed in this series.

  10. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  11. Regulating Commercial Telephone Solicitations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    also proposed that telephone subscribers be given the right to indicate if they do not want to receive commercial advertising calls , whether from...federal government should prohibit all commercial advertising calls. Advertisers have rights to free speech , and some consumers, I am told , don ’t...of the same arguments against giving subscribers the right to refuse commercial advertising calls that they made in 1965. They have stated that placing

  12. Commercialization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for U.S. government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The commercialization of space categories is defined, and the key issues in each are highlighted. A description of key NASA actions is included for each category. It is concluded that NASA and other government agency involvement is a common thread across the spectrum of space commercialization activities.

  13. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  14. Alphavirus Entry and Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kielian, Margaret; Chanel-Vos, Chantal; Liao, Maofu

    2010-01-01

    The study of enveloped animal viruses has greatly advanced our understanding of the general properties of membrane fusion and of the specific pathways that viruses use to infect the host cell. The membrane fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses have many similarities in structure and function. As reviewed here, alphaviruses use receptor-mediated endocytic uptake and low pH-triggered membrane fusion to deliver their RNA genomes into the cytoplasm. Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry and structure of the alphavirus membrane fusion protein provide a clearer picture of this fusion reaction, including the protein’s conformational changes during fusion and the identification of key domains. These insights into the alphavirus fusion mechanism suggest new areas for experimental investigation and potential inhibitor strategies for anti-viral therapy. PMID:21546978

  15. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  16. An accelerated fusion power development plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.; Baker, Charles C.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Kinkead, Susan D.

    1991-06-01

    Energy for electricity and transportation is a national issue with worldwide environmental and political implications. The world must have energy options for the next century that are not vulnerable to possible disruption for technical, environmental, public confidence, or other reasons. Growing concerns about the greenhouse effect and the safety of transporting oil may lead to reduced burning of coal and other fossil fuels, and the incidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, as well as nuclear waste storage problems, have eroded public acceptance of nuclear fission. Meeting future world energy needs will require improvements in energy efficiency and conservation. However, the world will soon need new central station power plants and increasing amounts of fuel for the transportation sector. The use of fossil fuels, and possibly even fission power, will very likely be restricted because of environmental, safety, and, eventually, supply considerations. Time is running out for policymakers. New energy technologies cannot be brought to the marketplace overnight. Decades are required to bring a new energy production technology from conception to full market penetration. With the added urgency to mitigate deleterious environmental effects of energy use, policymakers must act decisively now to establish and support vigorous energy technology development programs. The U.S. has invested 8 billion over the past 40 years in fusion research and development. If the U.S. fusion program proceeds according to its present strategy, an additional 40 years, and more money, will be expended before fusion will provide commercial electricity. Such an extended schedule is neither cost-effective nor technically necessary. It is time to launch a national venture to construct and operate a fusion power pilot plant. Such a plant could be operational within 15 years of a national commitment to proceed.

  17. Fusion Data Grid Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  18. Unconventional approaches to fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brunelli, B.; Leotta, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to unconventional approaches to fusionthose thermonuclear reactors that, in comparison with Tokamak and other main lines, have received little attention in the worldwide scientific community. Many of the approaches considered are still in the embryonic stages. The authors-an international group of active nuclear scientists and engineers-focus on the parameters achieved in the use of these reactors and on the meaning of the most recent physical studies and their implications for the future. They also compare these approaches with conventional ones, the Tokamak in particular, stressing the non-plasma-physics requirements of fusion reactors. Unconventional compact toroids, linear systems, and multipoles are considered, as are the ''almost conventional'' fusion machines: stellarators, mirrors, reversed-field pinches, and EBT.

  19. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  20. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  2. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  3. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  4. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Alan

    2002-04-01

    Indication and technique of TLIF procedure are described. TLIF provides for anterior column support and posterior tension band. It is a unilateral approach to the spine, and there is no need to expose or manipulate the dura. It provides the benefits of a 360 degrees fusion without performing an anterior approach. It restores the normal anatomy of the motion segment and maintains normal lumbar lordosis. Patients are mobilized quickly and resume activities early.

  5. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  6. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  7. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  8. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation outlines a competition that has as its goal to explores the viability of using public-private partnerships to open space frontier for commercial uses. The teams have the objective of designing a business plan to open the space frontier to commercial interests.

  9. Commercial Crew Launch America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation is intended to discuss NASA's long term human exploration goals of our solar system. The emphasis will be on how our CCP (Commercial Crew Program) supports our space bound human exploration goals by encouraging commercial entities to perform missions to LEO (Low Earth Orbit), thus allowing NASA to focus on beyond LEO human exploration missions.

  10. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  11. Cold fusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembree, D. M.; Burchfield, L. A.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Perey, F. G.; Mamantov, G.

    1990-06-01

    A series of experiments designed to detect the by-products expected from deuterium fusion occurring in the palladium and titanium cathodes of heavy water, D2O, electrolysis cells is reported. The primary purpose of this account is to outline the integrated experimental design developed to test the cold fusion hypothesis and to report preliminary results that support continuing the investigation. Apparent positive indicators of deuterium fusion were observed, but could not be repeated or proved to originate from the electrochemical cells. In one instance, two large increases in the neutron count rate, the largest of which exceeded the background by 27 standard deviations, were observed. In a separate experiment, one of the calorimetry cells appeared to be producing approximately 18 percent more power that the input value, but thermistor failure prevented an accurate recording of the event as a function of time. In general, the tritium levels in most cells followed the slow enrichment expected from the electrolysis of D2O containing a small amount of tritium. However, after 576 hours of electrolysis, one cell developed a tritium concentration approximately seven times greater than expected level.

  12. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  13. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  14. Fusion technology development. Annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    In FY97, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the magnetic fusion program. The work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, International and Technology Division, of the US Department of Energy. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies (Section 2), Plasma Interactive Materials (Section 3), Magnetic Diagnostic Probes (Section 4) and RF Technology (Section 5). Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to ITER and other next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, we carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and we conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. We continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  15. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  16. MINIMARS: an attractive small tandem mirror fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.; Logan, B.G.; Doggett, J.N.; Devoto, R.S.; Nelson, W.D.; Lousteau, D.C.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.; Gordon, J.D.; Campbell, R.B.

    1985-11-13

    Through the innovative design of a novel end plug scheme employing octopole MHD stabilization, we present the conceptual design of ''MIMIMARS'', a small commercial fusion reactor based on the tandem mirror principle. The current baseline for MINIMARS has a net electric output of 600 MWe and we have configured the design for short construction times, factory-built modules, inherently safe blanket systems, and multiplexing in station sizes of approx. 600 to 2400 MWe. We demonstrate that the compact octopole end cell provides a number of advantages over the more conventional quadrupole (yin-yang) end cell encountered in the MARS tandem mirror reactor study, and enables ignition to be achieved with much shorter central cell lengths. Accordingly, being economic in small sizes, MINIMARS provides an attractive alternative to the more conventional larger conceptual fusion reactors encountered to date, and would contribute significantly to the lowering of utility financial risk in a developing fusion economy.

  17. Laser-induced semicold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Steinert, C. )

    1990-01-01

    The large high-energy lasers required for inertial fusion are at present beyond state-of-the-art, and there are other problems (instability of the fuel target, suprathermal electrons, etc.) as well. Therefore, it is hoped that the energy requirement for inertial fusion can be reduced with the help of cold fusion, which takes place within the electrode material confining the fuel (avoiding instability problems). With the semicold fusion cell, laser energy is transferred into the hot part of the fuel, which is confined within the cathode in a cavity, and credit is taken from fast projectiles (tritium) stemming from the (t,p) branch of cold fusion in the cold metal lattice. The latter is the key to the model of a dynamic process for potential growth between the cold electrode and the hot confined fuel in the semicold fusion cell.

  18. [Image fusion in medical radiology].

    PubMed

    Burger, C

    1996-07-20

    Image fusion supports the correlation between images of two or more studies of the same organ. First, the effect of differing geometries during image acquisitions, such as a head tilt, is compensated for. As a consequence, congruent images can easily be obtained. Instead of merely putting them side by side in a static manner and burdening the radiologist with the whole correlation task, image fusion supports him with interactive visualization techniques. This is especially worthwhile for small lesions as they can be more precisely located. Image fusion is feasible today. Easy and robust techniques are readily available, and furthermore DICOM, a rapidly evolving data exchange standard, diminishes the once severe compatibility problems for image data originating from systems of different manufacturers. However, the current solutions for image fusion are not yet established enough for a high throughput of fusion studies. Thus, for the time being image fusion is most appropriately confined to clinical research studies.

  19. Commercial considerations for immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The underlying drivers of scientific processes have been rapidly evolving, but the ever-present need for research funding is typically foremost amongst these. Successful laboratories are embracing this reality by making certain that their projects have commercial value right from the beginning of the project conception. Which factors to be considered for commercial success need to be well thought out and incorporated into a project plan with similar levels of detail as would be the technical elements. Specific examples of commercial outcomes in the field of Immunoproteomics are exemplified in this discussion.

  20. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  1. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  2. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  3. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  4. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  5. Fusion by Diffusion Model Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilczyński, J.

    A complete set of 27 excitation functions for synthesis of superheavy nuclei produced in cold fusion reactions was analyzed in terms of the "Fusion by Diffusion Model" of Światecki et al., modified to account for the angular momentum dependence of the fusion hindrance factor. The data on cold fusion reactions originate from experiments carried out at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo and LBNL Berkeley in which 208Pb and 209Bi targets were bombarded with the variety of projectiles ranging from 48,50Ti to 70Zn.

  6. The path to fusion power.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

    2010-03-13

    The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16 MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the 'Fast Track to Fusion'. This programme is described in some detail.

  7. Stockpile tritium production from fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, W.A.; Fowler, T.K.

    1986-03-21

    A fusion breeder holds the promise of a new capability - ''dialable'' reserve capacity at little additional cost - that offers stockpile planners a new way to deal with today's uncertainties in forecasting long range needs. Though still in the research stage, fusion can be developed in time to meet future military requirements. Much of the necessary technology will be developed by the ongoing magnetic fusion energy program. However, a specific program to develop the nuclear technology required for materials production is needed if fusion is to become a viable option for a new production complex around the turn of the century.

  8. Radiologic assessment of spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Selby, Michael Derrick; Clark, Simon Richard; Hall, David John; Freeman, Brian J C

    2012-11-01

    Since surgical fusion of the spine was first described in 1911, multiple methods have been used to assess it. Although open surgical exploration remains the standard of care for determination of fusion, it is impractical in most clinical situations. Static radiographs have long been used as a practical method of fusion assessment, but they tend to significantly overestimate the presence of a solid fusion. Dynamic radiographs improve accuracy but limitations include measurement reliability, disagreement on allowable motion, and the two-dimensional nature of radiographs. Ultimately, lack of movement at a fused segment does not confirm fusion. Radiostereometric analysis further improves accuracy; however, methodological demands make it largely impractical for routine use. CT is now widely accepted as the standard for noninvasive assessment of spinal fusion. Fine-cut imaging, multiplanar reconstruction, and metal artifact reduction have increased the ability to assess fusion on CT. However, significant concerns remain regarding the effects of high radiation exposure. Although MRI is appealing, its utility in assessing fusion remains unproven. Understanding the limitations of each technique allows judicious use of radiology in the assessment of spinal fusion.

  9. Network-centric data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David; Lloyd, C. M.; Collins, Peter R. C.

    2002-08-01

    The performance of three distributed sensor fusion network architectures is investigated: a fully-connected and a partially-connected measurement fusion system and a partially-connected track fusion system. The investigation employs an advanced military scenario generator, FLAMES, which was customised for exercising a range of distributed data fusion experiments. Specifically, it includes a representative model of the delays in a communication system (such as JTIDS or Link 16). Here the delays were used to modify communication bandwidth and to evaluate how this affected the performance of the fusion architectures/algorithms. Under certain specific scenario conditions, it was found that decentralised measurement fusion system was severely affected by reduced bandwidth. This is because each node loads its communication buffer with every measurement and consequently some measurements are never transmitted. The decentralised track fusion system exhibits improved performance because it lumps measurements into tracks and thereby it makes much more effective use of the bandwidth. Moreover, it was found that the performance of the partially connected decentralised track fusion system was very close to the optimal performance achieved by the fully-connected decentralised measurement fusion system.

  10. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  11. Coresident sensor fusion and compression using the wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.

    1996-03-11

    Imagery from coresident sensor platforms, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, can be combined using, multiresolution decomposition of the sensor images by means of the two-dimensional wavelet transform. The wavelet approach uses the combination of spatial/spectral information at multiple scales to create a fused image. This can be done in both an ad hoc or model-based approach. We compare results from commercial ``fusion`` software and the ad hoc, wavelet approach. Results show the wavelet approach outperforms the commercial algorithms and also supports efficient compression of the fused image.

  12. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  13. [MRI/TRUS fusion-guided prostate biopsy : Value in the context of focal therapy].

    PubMed

    Franz, T; von Hardenberg, J; Blana, A; Cash, H; Baumunk, D; Salomon, G; Hadaschik, B; Henkel, T; Herrmann, J; Kahmann, F; Köhrmann, K-U; Köllermann, J; Kruck, S; Liehr, U-B; Machtens, S; Peters, I; Radtke, J P; Roosen, A; Schlemmer, H-P; Sentker, L; Wendler, J J; Witzsch, U; Stolzenburg, J-U; Schostak, M; Ganzer, R

    2017-02-01

    Several systems for MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy of the prostate are commercially available. Many studies have shown superiority of fusion systems for tumor detection and diagnostic quality compared to random biopsy. The benefit of fusion systems in focal therapy of prostate cancer (PC) is less clear. Critical considerations of fusion systems for planning and monitoring of focal therapy of PC were investigated. A systematic literature review of available fusion systems for the period 2013-5/2016 was performed. A checklist of technical details, suitability for special anatomic situations and suitability for focal therapy was established by the German working group for focal therapy (Arbeitskreis fokale und Mikrotherapie). Eight fusion systems were considered (Artemis™, BioJet, BiopSee®, iSR´obot™ Mona Lisa, Hitachi HI-RVS, UroNav and Urostation®). Differences were found for biopsy mode (transrectal, perineal, both), fusion mode (elastic or rigid), navigation (image-based, electromagnetic sensor-based or mechanical sensor-based) and space requirements. Several consensus groups recommend fusion systems for focal therapy. Useful features are "needle tracking" and compatibility between fusion system and treatment device (available for Artemis™, BiopSee® and Urostation® with Focal One®; BiopSee®, Hitachi HI-RVS with NanoKnife®; BioJet, BiopSee® with cryoablation, brachytherapy). There are a few studies for treatment planning. However, studies on treatment monitoring after focal therapy are missing.

  14. Challenges of Fusion Power Plant Licensing: Differences and Commonalities with Existing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    L. El-Guebaly; L. Cadwallader; W. Sowder

    2011-08-01

    At present, there are no regulatory guidelines to follow for US fusion power plant construction and operation. Thus far, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been regulating existing fusion experiments, following the 1996-1999 DOE Fusion Standards and using the spirit of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) code. Considering this reality, a few options emerged for licensing ARIES-type power plants and the like. Developing new fusion-specific regulations stands out as the most logical option, but requires well-coordinated effort between DOE, regulatory agencies, and the fusion community with considerable funding and long lead-time. Nevertheless, a few recent developments seem promising: (1) The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plans to assert regulatory jurisdiction over commercial fusion devices, and (2) the ongoing effort within ASME will develop rules for the construction of fusion-energy-related components. The most recent NRC, ASME and fusion licensing developments are reviewed in this paper. In addition, an interesting comparison with ITER was made to foresee how US fusion power plants could leverage from ITER.

  15. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  16. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  17. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5094 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), stands at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  18. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  19. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  20. Cold Fusion Verification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    published work, talking with others in the field, and attending conferences, that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater ...way of N-rays and polywater . To date, no one, including Pons and Fleischmann, has been able to construct a so-called CNF electrochemical cell that...Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF), as originally reported in 1989. The conclusion is that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater

  1. Peregrinations on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.

    1989-01-01

    Attention is focused on the possibility of resonance-enhanced deuteron Coulomb barrier penetration. Because of the many-body nature of the interactions of room-temperature deuterons diffusing through a lattice possessing deuterons in many of the interstitial positions, the diffusing deuterons can resonate on the atomic scale in the potential wells bounded by the ascending walls of adjacent Coulomb barriers and thereby penetrate the Coulomb barriers in a fashion vastly underestimated by two-body calculations in which wells for possible resonance are absent. Indeed, perhaps the lack of robust reproducibility in cold fusion originates from the narrowness of such transmission resonances. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Physics of Fusion Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

  3. Physics of Fusion Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

  4. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  5. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MW power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full-sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MW Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  6. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  7. Membrane fusion machines of paramyxoviruses: capture of intermediates of fusion

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charles J.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Peptides derived from heptad repeat regions adjacent to the fusion peptide and transmembrane domains of many viral fusion proteins form stable helical bundles and inhibit fusion specifically. Paramyxovirus SV5 fusion (F) protein-mediated fusion and its inhibition by the peptides N-1 and C-1 were analyzed. The temperature dependence of fusion by F suggests that thermal energy, destabilizing proline residues and receptor binding by the hemagglutinin–neuraminidase (HN) protein collectively contribute to F activation from a metastable native state. F-mediated fusion was reversibly arrested by low temperature or membrane-incorporated lipids, and the resulting F intermediates were characterized. N-1 inhibited an earlier F intermediate than C-1. Co-expression of HN with F lowered the temperature required to attain the N-1-inhibited intermediate, consistent with HN binding to its receptor stimulating a conformational change in F. C-1 bound and inhibited an intermediate of F that could be detected until a point directly preceding membrane merger. The data are consistent with C-1 binding a pre-hairpin intermediate of F and with helical bundle formation being coupled directly to membrane fusion. PMID:11483506

  8. Fusion Safety Program annual report, Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Dolan, T.J.; Herring, J.S.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Motloch, C.G.; Petti, D.A.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in Fiscal Year 1993. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been designated by DOE as the lead laboratory for fusion safety, and EG&G Idaho, Inc., is the prime contractor for INEL operations. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations, including universities and private companies. Technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, beryllium safety, activation product release, reactions involving potential plasma-facing materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions and edge physics modeling, risk assessment failure rates, computer codes for reactor transient analysis, and regulatory support. These areas include work completed in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Also included in the report are summaries of the safety and environmental studies performed at the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiment and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and a summary of the technical support for the ARIES/PULSAR commercial reactor design studies.

  9. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1992-10-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  10. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1992-01-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  11. Review of LIBS application in nuclear fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Feng, Chun-Lei; Oderji, Hassan Yousefi; Luo, Guang-Nan; Ding, Hong-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear fusion has enormous potential to greatly affect global energy production. The next-generation tokamak ITER, which is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of energy production from fusion on a commercial scale, is under construction. Wall erosion, material transport, and fuel retention are known factors that shorten the lifetime of ITER during tokamak operation and give rise to safety issues. These factors, which must be understood and solved early in the process of fusion reactor design and development, are among the most important concerns for the community of plasma-wall interaction researchers. To date, laser techniques are among the most promising methods that can solve these open ITER issues, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal candidate for online monitoring of the walls of current and next-generation (such as ITER) fusion devices. LIBS is a widely used technique for various applications. It has been considered recently as a promising tool for analyzing plasma-facing components in fusion devices in situ. This article reviews the experiments that have been performed by many research groups to assess the feasibility of LIBS for this purpose.

  12. Recurrent fusion oncogenes in carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Manuel R

    2006-12-01

    Chromosome structural aberrations giving rise to fusion oncogenes is one of the most common mechanisms in oncogenesis. Although this type of gene rearrangement has long been recognized as a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism in hematologi-cal malignancies and soft-tissue tumors, it has until recently only rarely been described in the common carcinomas. In this review, the existing information on recurrent fusion oncogenes characterizing carcinomas is summarized, namely, the RET and NTRK1 fusion oncogenes in papillary thyroid carcinoma, PAX8-PPARG in follicular thyroid carcinoma, MECT1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the TFE3 and TFEB fusion oncogenes in kidney carcinomas, BRD4-NUT in midline carcinomas, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory breast carcinomas, and TMPRSS2-ETS fusion oncogenes in prostate carcinomas. As in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, the most common types of genes involved in fusion oncogenes in carcinomas are transcription factors and tyrosine kinases. With a few exceptions, most fusion oncogenes are tumor type specific in carcinomas, as in other cancers. The mechanisms behind the relative specificity of this type of somatic mutation involve the cellular environment influencing the selection of oncogenic fusions, and the oncogenic fusions in turn driving differentiation programs that may alter the cellular environment. The data summarized on different types of carcinomas characterized by fusion oncogenes indicate that the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in epithelial carcino-genesis may be similar to those known to operate in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, and further anticipates that many more fusion oncogenes await identification in the most common types of human cancer.

  13. Statistics in fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, D. H.

    1997-11-01

    Since the reasons for the variability in data from plasma experiments are often unknown or uncontrollable, statistical methods must be applied. Reliable interpretation and public accountability require full data sets. Two examples of data misrepresentation at PPPL are analyzed: Te >100 eV on S-1 spheromak.(M. Yamada, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1327 (1985); reports to DoE; etc.) The reported high values (statistical artifacts of Thomson scattering measurements) were selected from a mass of data with an average of 40 eV or less. ``Correlated'' spectroscopic data were meaningless. (2) Extrapolation to Q >=0.5 for DT in TFTR.(D. Meade et al., IAEA Baltimore (1990), V. 1, p. 9; H. P. Furth, Statements to U. S. Congress (1989).) The DD yield used there was the highest through 1990 (>= 50% above average) and the DT to DD power ratio used was about twice any published value. Average DD yields and published yield ratios scale to Q<0.15 for DT, in accord with the observed performance over the last 3 1/2 years. Press reports of outlier data from TFTR have obscured the fact that the DT behavior follows from trivial scaling of the DD data. Good practice in future fusion research would have confidence intervals and other descriptive statistics accompanying reported numerical values (cf. JAMA).

  14. Overview of MRB fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Maschke, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Momentum-Rich Beam (MRB) fusion concept is a new method of achieving thermonuclear ignition in a single shell DT target. The advantage of the system is that only 1/4 to 1/2 MJ is needed for ignition, and the acceleration system for producing the beams may be 80% efficient or better. This combination of circumstances means that the driver costs for a full-scale ignition system are an order of magnitude less expensive than a comparable laser or heavy ion driver. This is especially important when one realizes that the cost of a conventional 5 MJ driver is in the 1-2 G$ range. This same problem has arisen for magnetic confinement fusion, where the cost of the next step, a full-scale reactor, is prohibitive. The program at BNL is divided into two parts. One part is a program to investigate the physics of interaction between the MRB's and the pellet. This is done with the LASNEX hydro code at LANL. The purpose of this report is to determine the minimum requirements the MRB's must have in order to achieve ignition.

  15. Magnetless magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Beklemishev, A.D. |; Tajima, T.

    1994-02-01

    The authors propose a concept of thermonuclear fusion reactor in which the plasma pressure is balanced by direct gas-wall interaction in a high-pressure vessel. The energy confinement is achieved by means of the self-contained toroidal magnetic configuration sustained by an external current drive or charged fusion products. This field structure causes the plasma pressure to decrease toward the inside of the discharge and thus it should be magnetohydrodynamically stable. The maximum size, temperature and density profiles of the reactor are estimated. An important feature of confinement physics is the thin layer of cold gas at the wall and the adjacent transitional region of dense arc-like plasma. The burning condition is determined by the balance between these nonmagnetized layers and the current-carrying plasma. They suggest several questions for future investigation, such as the thermal stability of the transition layer and the possibility of an effective heating and current drive behind the dense edge plasma. The main advantage of this scheme is the absence of strong external magnets and, consequently, potentially cheaper design and lower energy consumption.

  16. Inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  17. Collaborations in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Davis, S.; Roney, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews current experimental collaborative efforts in the fusion community and extrapolates to operational scenarios for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current requirements, available technologies and tools, and problems, issues and concerns are discussed. This paper specifically focuses on the issues that apply to experimental operational collaborations. Special requirements for other types of collaborations, such as theoretical or design and construction efforts, will not be addressed. Our current collaborative efforts have been highly successful, even though the tools in use will be viewed as primitive by tomorrow`s standards. An overview of the tools and technologies in today`s collaborations can be found in the first section of this paper. The next generation of fusion devices will not be primarily institutionally based, but will be national (TPX) and international (ITER) in funding, management, operation and in ownership of scientific results. The TPX will present the initial challenge of real-time remotely distributed experimental data analysis for a steady state device. The ITER will present new challenges with the possibility of several remote control rooms all participating in the real-time operation of the experimental device. A view to the future of remote collaborations is provided in the second section of this paper.

  18. The possible hot nature of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehne, R.W. )

    1994-03-01

    Based on the model of micro hot fusion, the neutron emission rate of cold fusion is determined without the need for fine-tuning parameters. Moreover, the experimental conditions that are essential to reproduce fusion are determined. 84 refs.

  19. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  20. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  1. A Conserved Region in the F2 Subunit of Paramyxovirus Fusion Proteins Is Involved In Fusion Regulation▿

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Amanda E.; Dutch, Rebecca E.

    2007-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses utilize both an attachment protein and a fusion (F) protein to drive virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. F exists functionally as a trimer of two disulfide-linked subunits: F1 and F2. Alignment and analysis of a set of paramyxovirus F protein sequences identified three conserved blocks (CB): one in the fusion peptide/heptad repeat A domain, known to play important roles in fusion promotion, one in the region between the heptad repeats of F1 (CBF1) (A. E. Gardner, K. L. Martin, and R. E. Dutch, Biochemistry 46:5094-5105, 2007), and one in the F2 subunit (CBF2). To analyze the functions of CBF2, alanine substitutions at conserved positions were created in both the simian virus 5 (SV5) and Hendra virus F proteins. A number of the CBF2 mutations resulted in folding and expression defects. However, the CBF2 mutants that were properly expressed and trafficked had altered fusion promotion activity. The Hendra virus CBF2 Y79A and P89A mutants showed significantly decreased levels of fusion, whereas the SV5 CBF2 I49A mutant exhibited greatly increased cell-cell fusion relative to that for wild-type F. Additional substitutions at SV5 F I49 suggest that both side chain volume and hydrophobicity at this position are important in the folding of the metastable, prefusion state and the subsequent triggering of membrane fusion. The recently published prefusogenic structure of parainfluenza virus 5/SV5 F (H. S. Yin et al., Nature 439:38-44, 2006) places CBF2 in direct contact with heptad repeat A. Our data therefore indicate that this conserved region plays a critical role in stabilizing the prefusion state, likely through interactions with heptad repeat A, and in triggering membrane fusion. PMID:17507474

  2. Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2005-03-01

    Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.

  3. Herpes simplex virus Membrane Fusion.

    PubMed

    Weed, Darin J; Nicola, Anthony V

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation. Two experimental methods, the transient cell-cell fusion approach and fusion from without, are useful surrogate assays of HSV fusion. These five fusion processes are considered in terms of their requirements, mechanism, and regulation. The execution and modulation of these events require distinct yet often overlapping sets of viral proteins and host cell factors. The core machinery of HSV gB, gD, and the heterodimer gH/gL is required for most if not all of the HSV fusion mechanisms.

  4. Cold fusion; Myth versus reality

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several different nuclear reactions are taking place. Some of the experiments point to D-D fusion with a cominant tritium channel as one of the reactions. The article notes a similarity between Prometheus and the discoveries of cold fusion.

  5. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  6. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. Fusion Power measurement at ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Bertalot, L.; Barnsley, R.; Krasilnikov, V.; Stott, P.; Suarez, A.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear fusion research aims to provide energy for the future in a sustainable way and the ITER project scope is to demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear fusion energy. ITER is a nuclear experimental reactor based on a large scale fusion plasma (tokamak type) device generating Deuterium - Tritium (DT) fusion reactions with emission of 14 MeV neutrons producing up to 700 MW fusion power. The measurement of fusion power, i.e. total neutron emissivity, will play an important role for achieving ITER goals, in particular the fusion gain factor Q related to the reactor performance. Particular attention is given also to the development of the neutron calibration strategy whose main scope is to achieve the required accuracy of 10% for the measurement of fusion power. Neutron Flux Monitors located in diagnostic ports and inside the vacuum vessel will measure ITER total neutron emissivity, expected to range from 1014 n/s in Deuterium - Deuterium (DD) plasmas up to almost 10{sup 21} n/s in DT plasmas. The neutron detection systems as well all other ITER diagnostics have to withstand high nuclear radiation and electromagnetic fields as well ultrahigh vacuum and thermal loads. (authors)

  8. Multi-sensor fusion development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  9. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  10. Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry.

    PubMed

    Moss, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Poxviruses comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Poxviruses, unlike most DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and encode enzymes and other proteins that enable entry, gene expression, genome replication, virion assembly and resistance to host defenses. Entry of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family, can occur at the plasma membrane or following endocytosis. Whereas many viruses encode one or two proteins for attachment and membrane fusion, vaccinia virus encodes four proteins for attachment and eleven more for membrane fusion and core entry. The entry-fusion proteins are conserved in all poxviruses and form a complex, known as the Entry Fusion Complex (EFC), which is embedded in the membrane of the mature virion. An additional membrane that encloses the mature virion and is discarded prior to entry is present on an extracellular form of the virus. The EFC is held together by multiple interactions that depend on nine of the eleven proteins. The entry process can be divided into attachment, hemifusion and core entry. All eleven EFC proteins are required for core entry and at least eight for hemifusion. To mediate fusion the virus particle is activated by low pH, which removes one or more fusion repressors that interact with EFC components. Additional EFC-interacting fusion repressors insert into cell membranes and prevent secondary infection. The absence of detailed structural information, except for two attachment proteins and one EFC protein, is delaying efforts to determine the fusion mechanism.

  11. Importance of neonatal FcR in regulating the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins containing the Fc domain of human IgG1: a comparative study of the affinity of monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins to human neonatal FcR.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takuo; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Tada, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Kawanishi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2010-02-15

    The neonatal FcR (FcRn) binds to the Fc domain of IgG at acidic pH in the endosome and protects IgG from degradation, thereby contributing to the long serum half-life of IgG. To date, more than 20 mAb products and 5 Fc-fusion protein products have received marketing authorization approval in the United States, the European Union, or Japan. Many of these therapeutic proteins have the Fc domain of human IgG1; however, the serum half-lives differ in each protein. To elucidate the role of FcRn in the pharmacokinetics of Fc domain-containing therapeutic proteins, we evaluated the affinity of the clinically used human, humanized, chimeric, or mouse mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins to recombinant human FcRn by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The affinities of these therapeutic proteins to FcRn were found to be closely correlated with the serum half-lives reported from clinical studies, suggesting the important role of FcRn in regulating their serum half-lives. The relatively short serum half-life of Fc-fusion proteins was thought to arise from the low affinity to FcRn. The existence of some mAbs having high affinity to FcRn and a short serum half-life, however, suggested the involvement of other critical factor(s) in determining the serum half-life of such Abs. We further investigated the reason for the relatively low affinity of Fc-fusion proteins to FcRn and suggested the possibility that the receptor domain of Fc-fusion protein influences the structural environment of the FcRn binding region but not of the FcgammaRI binding region of the Fc domain.

  12. Television Commercials' Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research focused on characteristics of children's TV commercials, the relationship between commercials and children's learning and reasoning, and effects of commercials on children's language, attitudes, and beliefs. (Author/RH)

  13. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

  14. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  15. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  16. Innovative energy production in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-10-01

    Concepts of innovative energy production in neutron-lean fusion reactors without having the conventional turbine-type generator are proposed for improving the plant efficiency. These concepts are: (1) traveling wave direct energy conversion of 14.7 MeV protons; (2) cusp type direct energy conversion of charged particles; (3) efficient use of radiation with semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas; and (4) direct energy conversion from deposited heat to electric power with semiconductor utilizing Nernst effect. The candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system are also studied for application of the new concepts. The study shows the above concepts for a commercial reactor are promising.

  17. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  18. Commercial space services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space service opportunities as identified by a Wyle Laboratories' research team is given. Through the use of a baseline space scenario, a variety of space hardware, services, and commercial activities are identified and related on a time-phased basis. A model is presented to relate the potential functions of government and the private sector in a commercialized space environment during the period 1984 to 2004. Barriers, incentives and key issues are likewise identified and addressed to aid in the implementation of private sector activities for spacerelated programs. Broader awareness, legislative actions, incentive development and benefit analyses are considered in the presentation. The time-phased plan provides a useful planning and management tool, allows broader communication, and supports overall space commercialization program assessment.

  19. Recombinant avidin and avidin-fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Airenne, K J; Marjomäki, V S; Kulomaa, M S

    1999-12-31

    Both chicken egg-white avidin and its bacterial relative streptavidin are well known for their extraordinary high affinity with biotin (Kd approximately 10(-15) M). They are widely used as tools in a number of affinity-based separations, in diagnostic assays and in a variety of other applications. These methods have collectively become known as (strept)avidin-biotin technology. Biotin can easily and effectively be attached to different molecules, termed binders and probes, without destroying their biological activity. The exceptional stability of the avidin-biotin complex and the wide range of commercially available reagents explain the popularity of this system. In order by genetic engineering to modify the unwanted properties of avidin and to further expand the existing avidin-biotin technology, production systems for recombinant avidin and avidin-fusion proteins have been established. This review article presents an overview of the current status of these systems. Future trends in the production and applications of recombinant avidin and avidin-fusion proteins are also discussed.

  20. HYFIRE: fusion-high temperature electrolysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J R; Steinberg, M; Benenati, R; Dang, V D; Horn, F; Isaacs, H; Lazareth, O; Makowitz, H; Usher, J

    1980-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a comprehensive conceptual design study called HYFIRE of a commercial fusion Tokamak reactor, high-temperature electrolysis system. The study is placing particular emphasis on the adaptability of the STARFIRE power reactor to a synfuel application. The HYFIRE blanket must perform three functions: (a) provide high-temperature (approx. 1400/sup 0/C) process steam at moderate pressures (in the range of 10 to 30 atm) to the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) units; (b) provide high-temperature (approx. 700 to 800/sup 0/C) heat to a thermal power cycle for generation of electricity to the HTE units; and (c) breed enough tritium to sustain the D-T fuel cycle. In addition to thermal energy for the decomposition of steam into its constitutents, H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, electrical input is required. Power cycle efficiencies of approx. 40% require He cooling for steam superheat. Fourteen hundred degree steam coupled with 40% power cycle efficiency results in a process efficiency (conversion of fusion energy to hydrogen chemical energy) of 50%.

  1. Validation test of fusion grade superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, U.; Pradhan, S.; Raj, P.; Varmora, P.; Panchal, A.; Bano, A.; Ghate, M.

    2017-02-01

    The need of high magnetic field for long pulse operation of Tokamaks and future fusion reactors is an essential requirement. The superconducting magnets operating at low temperature, high current and produce high magnetic field for long time can certainly full-fill this requirement. Three types of magnets namely central solenoid, toroidal filed and poloidal filed are used for initiation, confinement and equilibrium of plasma. The presently available basic conductors for these magnets are Nb3Sn, Nb3Al, NbTi and MgB2. The presently operating SST-1 Tokamak has superconducting magnets made up of NbTi as basic conductor. The design and prototype initiative for SST-2 magnets has also begun at IPR. The low temperature and high magnetic field characterization of in-house developed and commercial superconducting strands have also been initiated in the custom made standard test facility at IPR. Encouraging results on testing of Nb3Sn, NbTi and MgB2 have been found for suitability of these conductors for magnets and current leads. The basic test set up and test results of fusion grade conductors will be discussed in this presentation.

  2. Fusion rate following extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Berjano, Pedro; Langella, Francesco; Damilano, Marco; Pejrona, Matteo; Buric, Josip; Ismael, Maryem; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Lamartina, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Lumbar fusion has been found to be a clinically effective procedure in adult patients. The lateral transpsoas approach allows for direct visualization of the intervertebral space, significant support of the vertebral anterior column, while avoiding the complications associated with the posterior procedures. The aim of this study is to determine the fusion rate of inter body fusion using computed tomography in patients treated by extreme lateral intersomatic fusion (XLIF) technique. All patients intervened by XLIF procedure between 2009 and 2013 by a single operating team at a single institution were recruited for this study. A clinical evaluation and a CT scan of the involved spinal segments were then performed with at least 1-year follow-up following the standard clinical practice in the center. A total of 77 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 53 were available for review with a mean follow-up of 34.5 (12-62) months. A total of 68 (87.1 %) of the 78 operated levels were considered as completely fused, 8 (10.2 %) were considered as stable, probably fused, and 2 (2.6 %) of the operated levels were diagnosed as pseudarthrosis. When stratified by type of graft material complete fusion was obtained in 75 % of patients in which autograft was used to fill the cages, compared to 89 % of patients in which calcium triphosphate was used, and 83 % of patients in which Attrax™ was used. Reports of XLIF fusion rate in the literature vary from 85 to 93 % at 1-year follow-up. Fusion rate in our series corroborates data from previous publications. The results of this series confirm that anterior inter body fusion by means of XLIF approach is a technique that achieves high fusion rate and satisfactory clinical outcomes.

  3. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  4. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  5. Fusion pumped light source

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  6. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  7. Fusion reactor systems studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-09-01

    Fusion Technology Institute personnel actively participated in the ARIES/PULSAR project during the present contract period. Numerous presentations were made at PULSAR project meetings, major contributions were written for the ARIES-2/4 Final Report presentations, and papers were given at technical conferences. Additionally, contributions were written for the ARIES Lessons Learned report, and a very large number of electronic-mail and regular-mail communications were sent. The remaining sections of this progress report will summarize the work accomplished and in progress for the PULSAR project during the contract period. The main areas of effort are as follows: PULSAR Research; ARIES-2/4 Report Contributions; ARIES Lessons Learned Report Contributions; and Stellarator Study.

  8. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  9. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  10. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  11. Mobilization of the private sector in effective development of fusion energy: Papers for and a summary of a workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four papers and a summary of a workshop on the mobilization of the private sector in developing fusion energy is reported. The workshop is one of a series which assesses Federal policy options relating to the commercialization of selected energy technologies viewed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. The papers focused on the potential roles to be played by fusion energy in the future electric generating industry; current commitments and participation of the private sector in fusion energy development; suggestions for policy incentives to enhance private participation in fusion research; organization, staffing, and operating a center for fusion engineering; the industrial structure and practices in developing and deploying power generating facilities and their implications in relation to fusion energy development; and characteristics required by any new energy-producing technology such as low capital and operating costs and minimal environmental output.

  12. Commercialization of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Evers, Kathinka; Forsberg, Joanna; Hansson, Mats

    2012-02-01

    Biobank policy and regulations profoundly vary between different societies. One area with profound differences in culture and tradition concerns commercialization, and the possibility of using the human body as a capital resource. In the United States there is acceptance of this possibility, whereas European law is based on principles that categorically prohibit selling parts of the human body. We suggest that questions of commercialization in the area of biobanking must be considered in relation to different ethical values, notably the principle of best possible use of collected biobank materials for the benefit of vital patient interests.

  13. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  14. Commercial Fisheries Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Richards, R. Anne; Murphy, Brian R.; Willis, David W.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe methods for sampling commercial fisheries and identify factors affecting the design of sampling plans. When sampled properly, commercial fisheries can provide important information on the response of aquatic organisms to exploitation; such information can be used by management agencies to develop regulations for ensuring long-term production of the resource and long-term economic benefit. Fishery statistics are typically used to estimate abundance, mortality, recruitment, growth, and other vital characterisitcs of populations. Fishery statistics can also be used to study changes in fish community composition resulting from differential exploitation of species.

  15. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  16. Prospects for bubble fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  17. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterberg, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jülich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for

  18. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  19. Analytical performance evaluation for autonomous sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. C.

    2008-04-01

    A distributed data fusion system consists of a network of sensors, each capable of local processing and fusion of sensor data. There has been a great deal of work in developing distributed fusion algorithms applicable to a network centric architecture. Currently there are at least a few approaches including naive fusion, cross-correlation fusion, information graph fusion, maximum a posteriori (MAP) fusion, channel filter fusion, and covariance intersection fusion. However, in general, in a distributed system such as the ad hoc sensor networks, the communication architecture is not fixed. Each node has knowledge of only its local connectivity but not the global network topology. In those cases, the distributed fusion algorithm based on information graph type of approach may not scale due to its requirements to carry long pedigree information for decorrelation. In this paper, we focus on scalable fusion algorithms and conduct analytical performance evaluation to compare their performance. The goal is to understand the performance of those algorithms under different operating conditions. Specifically, we evaluate the performance of channel filter fusion, Chernoff fusion, Shannon Fusion, and Battachayya fusion algorithms. We also compare their results to NaÃve fusion and "optimal" centralized fusion algorithms under a specific communication pattern.

  20. Fusion Simulation Project Workshop Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritz, Arnold; Keyes, David

    2009-03-01

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved 46 physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from 21 institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a 3-day workshop in May 2007.

  1. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Bernard . E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2006-01-05

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

  2. Future of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J H; Wood, L L

    2002-09-04

    In the past 50 years, fusion R&D programs have made enormous technical progress. Projected billion-dollar scale research facilities are designed to approach net energy production. In this century, scientific and engineering progress must continue until the economics of fusion power plants improves sufficiently to win large scale private funding in competition with fission and non-nuclear energy systems. This economic advantage must be sustained: trillion dollar investments will be required to build enough fusion power plants to generate ten percent of the world's energy. For Inertial Fusion Energy, multi-billion dollar driver costs must be reduced by up to an order of magnitude, to a small fraction of the total cost of the power plant. Major cost reductions could be achieved via substantial improvements in target performance-both higher gain and reduced ignition energy. Large target performance improvements may be feasible through a combination of design innovations, e.g., ''fast ignition,'' propagation down density gradients, and compression of fusion fuel with a combination of driver and chemical energy. The assumptions that limit projected performance of fusion targets should be carefully examined. The National Ignition Facility will enable development and testing of revolutionary targets designed to make possible economically competitive fusion power plants.

  3. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  4. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  5. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  6. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5093 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), makes a visual check of the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF), a single-rack-mounted facility in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  7. Frameworks for commercial success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    Taking chemical technology from the bench to the consumer is a formidable challenge, but it is how research can ultimately benefit wider society. Companies are now beginning to incorporate metal-organic frameworks into commercial products, heralding a new era for the field.

  8. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  9. Estolides - Ready for commercialization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estolides have shown great promise as a bio-based lubricant and are ready for commercialization. Estolides are nontoxic and biodegradable. Testing has shown estolides have increased oxidative stability over vegetable oil based lubricants and have a relatively low pour point, allowing them to be use...

  10. Kids vs. commercials.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Lewis, C E

    1975-11-01

    A game show with fifth and sixth graders effectively demonstrated their ability to critically evaluate television commercials about health-related products. While the family physician is in a unique position to affect future drug utilization patterns of children by counseling parents, a more active role, such as this exercise in the evaluation of TV messages, may be even more effective.

  11. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  12. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  13. Commercial Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    blank) 9 Naval Research Advisory Committee ABB Helsinki, Finland ALCATEL Paris, France ALSTOM Rugby, England Nokia Helsinki, Finland Siemens Erlangen...DON CTO Telecommunications Siemens Telecommunications Nokia Telecommunications Alcatel Power Electronics ABB Marine Power Electronics Alstom Power...panel received many briefs, including presentations on commercial research issues from multiple speakers at Siemens, Nokia, Alcatel, ABB and Alstom . To

  14. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  15. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  16. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  17. Commercial Carpentry: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.

    This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…

  18. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  19. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  20. Two Distinct Modes of Exocytotic Fusion Pore Expansion in Large Astrocytic Vesicles*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong; Kang, Ning; Xu, Jun; Stanton, Patric K.; Kang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the fusion pore is a central question for regulated exocytosis by which secretory cells release neurotransmitters or hormones. Here, by dynamically monitoring exocytosis of large vesicles (2–7 μm) in astrocytes with two-photon microscopy imaging, we found that the exocytotic fusion pore was generated from the SNARE-dependent fusion at a ring shape of the docked plasma-vesicular membrane and the movement of a fusion-produced membrane fragment. We observed two modes of fragment movements, 1) a shift fragment that shifted to expand the fusion pore and 2) a fall-in fragment that fell into the collapsed vesicle to expand the fusion pore. Shift and fall-in modes are associated with full and partial collapses of large vesicles, respectively. The astrocytic marker, sulforhodamine 101, stained the fusion-produced membrane fragment more brightly than FM 1-43. Sulforhodamine 101 imaging showed that double fusion pores could simultaneously occur in a single vesicle (16% of large vesicles) to accelerate discharge of vesicular contents. Electron microscopy of large astrocytic vesicles showed shift and fall-in membrane fragments. Two modes of fusion pore formation demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying fusion pore expansion and provide a new explanation for full and partial collapses of large secretory vesicles. PMID:23620588

  1. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  2. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Prakash, P

    1991-01-01

    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  3. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  4. The path to fusion power†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16 MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

  5. Generalized Chernoff Fusion Approximation for Practical Distributed Data Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Generalized Chernoff Fusion Approximation for Practical Distributed Data Fusion William J. Farrell III R&D Department Adaptive Methods , Inc...independence or modify legacy systems with pedigree tagging techniques . Leveraging the well- known Covariance Intersection algorithm, its generalization...Adaptive Methods , Inc.,Centreville, VA , , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  6. In vitro fusion of endocytic vesicles: effects of reagents that alter endosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Pless, D D; Wellner, R B

    1996-07-01

    Ricin, a plant toxin that binds to galactose-terminated glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface, is internalized into endosomes before reaching the cytosol where it exerts its toxic activity. Fusion of early endosomes containing ricin or transferrin was demonstrated by using postnuclear supernatant fractions from K-562 cells. For both ligands, fusion depended on time, temperature, and ATP and was blocked by preincubation with N-ethylmaleimide. Some reagents that increase endosomal pH, the ionophores monensin and nigericin and the weak base chloroquine, stimulated the rate of fusion. However, bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, did not alter the rate of fusion. Moreover, it reduced or eliminated stimulation caused by monensin, nigericin, or chloroquine. Thus, the increased rate of fusion did not correlate with the higher lumenal pH of the endosome. The results suggest instead that fusion was stimulated by reagents that promoted accumulation of cations within the vesicles.

  7. Fusion-fission-fusion fast ignition plasma focus [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-03-01

    A crucial advancement in the problem for the controlled release of energy by nuclear fusion appears possible by an autocatalytic fusion-fission-fusion microexplosion, where the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reaction of a dense magnetized DT plasma placed inside a thin liner made up of U238, Th232 (perhaps B10) releases a sufficient number of 14 MeV fusion neutrons which by fission reactions in the liner implode the liner on the DT plasma. The liner implosion increases the DT plasma density and with it the neutron output accelerating the fast fission reactions. Following the fast fission assisted ignition, a thermonuclear detonation wave can propagate into unburnt DT to reach a high gain. The simplest way for the realization of this concept appears to be the dense plasma focus configuration, amended with a nested high voltage magnetically insulated transmission line for the heating of the DT. The large magnetic field needed for the α-particle entrapment of the DT fusion reaction is here generated by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect, amplifying the magnetic field of the plasma focus current sheet.

  8. Systematic analysis of advanced fusion fuel in inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Piera, M.; Martinez-Val, J. M.

    1997-04-01

    Aneutronic fusion reactions can be considered as the cleanest way to exploit nuclear energy. However, these reactions present in general two main drawbacks.—very high temperatures are needed to reach relevant values of their cross sections—Moderate (and even low) energy yield per reaction. This value is still lower if measured in relation to the Z number of the reacting particles. It is already known that bremsstrahlung overruns the plasma reheating by fusion born charged-particles in most of the advanced fuels. This is for instance the case for proton-boron-11 fusion in a stoichiometric plasma and is also so in lithium isotopes fusion reactions. In this paper, the use of deuterium-tritium seeding is suggested to allow to reach higher burnup fractions of advanced fuels, starting at a lower ignition temperature. Of course, neutron production increases as DT contents does. Nevertheless, the ratio of neutron production to energy generation is much lower in DT-advanced fuel mixtures than in pure DT plasmas. One of the main findings of this work is that some natural resources (as D and Li-7) can be burned-up in a catalytic regime for tritium. In this case, neither external tritium breeding nor tritium storage are needed, because the tritium inventory after the fusion burst is the same as before it. The fusion reactor can thus operate on a pure recycling of a small tritium inventory.

  9. A1.5 Fusion Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P

    2011-03-31

    Analysis and radiation hydrodynamics simulations for expected high-gain fusion target performance on a demonstration 1-GWe Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant in the mid-2030s timeframe are presented. The required laser energy driver is 2.2 MJ at a 0.351-{micro}m wavelength, and a fusion target gain greater than 60 at a repetition rate of 16 Hz is the design goal for economic and commercial attractiveness. A scaling-law analysis is developed to benchmark the design parameter space for hohlraum-driven central hot-spot ignition. A suite of integrated hohlraum simulations is presented to test the modeling assumptions and provide a basis for a near-term experimental resolution of the key physics uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is poised to demonstrate ignition by 2012 based on the central hot spot (CHS) mode of ignition and propagating thermonuclear burn [1]. This immediate prospect underscores the imperative and timeliness of advancing inertial fusion as a carbon-free, virtually limitless source of energy by the mid-21st century to substantially offset fossil fuel technologies. To this end, an intensive effort is underway to leverage success at the NIF and to provide the foundations for a prototype 'LIFE.1' engineering test facility by {approx}2025, followed by a commercially viable 'LIFE.2' demonstration power plant operating at 1 GWe by {approx}2035. The current design goal for LIFE.2 is to accommodate {approx}2.2 MJ of laser energy (entering the high-Z radiation enclosure or 'hohlraum') at a 0.351-{micro}m wavelength operating at a repetition rate of 16 Hz and to provide a fusion target yield of 132 MJ. To achieve this design goal first requires a '0-d' analytic gain model that allows convenient exploration of parameter space and target optimization. This step is then followed by 2- and 3-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations that incorporate laser beam transport, x-ray radiation transport, atomic physics, and

  10. Motorized fusion guided prostate biopsy: phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifabadi, Reza; Xu, Sheng; Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Fusion of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with intraoperative real-time Ultrasound (US) during prostate biopsy has significantly improved the sensitivity of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided cancer detection. Currently, sweeping of the TRUS probe to build a 3D volume as part of the fusion process and the TRUS probe manipulation for needle guidance are both done manually. A motorized, joystick controlled, probe holder was custom fabricated that can potentially reduce inter-operator variability, provide standardization of needle placement, improve repeatability and uniformity of needle placement, which may have impacts upon the learning curve after clinical deployment of this emerging approach. Method: a 2DOF motorized probe holder was designed to provide translation and rotation of a triplane TRUS end firing probe for prostate biopsy. The probe holder was joystick controlled and can assist manipulation of the probe during needle insertion as well as in acquiring a smoother US 2D to 3D sweep in which the 3D US volume for fusion is built. A commercial MRI-US fusion platform was used. Three targets were specified on MR image of a commercial prostate phantom. After performing the registration, two operators performed targeting, once manually and once with the assistance of the motorized probe holder. They repeated these tasks 5 times resulting in a total of 30 targeting events. Time of completion and mechanical error i.e. distance of the target from the needle trajectory in the software user interface were measured. Repeatability in reaching a given target in a systematic and consistent way was measured using a scatter plot showing all targets in the US coordinate system. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) was used to demonstrate the probe steadiness during targeting. Results: the completion time was 25+/-17 sec, 25+/-24 sec, and 27+/-15 sec for free hand and 24+/-10 sec, 22.5+/-10 sec, and 37+/-10 sec for motorized insertion, for target

  11. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Weirather, Jason L; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S; Underwood, Jason G; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-10-15

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes.

  12. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G.; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  13. Nervousness in Europe's fusion labs

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, D.

    1984-11-02

    Europe's fusion research program is a successful example of international scientific and political collaboration, but a debate over the optimum strategy for fusion research bears many of the characteristics of the current US debate over budget priorities. At $560 million for the 1985-89 period, fusion is currently the largest single item in the European Economic Community Commission's proposed budget. A commitment to the full experimental exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET) and support to research at laboratories run by national nuclear research organizations throughout Europe which are linked to the Euratom fusion program will retain their top priority. Cuts are likely to occur in the Next European Torus (NET) program. Member countries disagree on the importance of sticking to the original research timetable.

  14. The reality of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Case, L.C. )

    1991-12-01

    Despite the unreproducibility, doubt, and controversy involved in the question of the cold fusion of deuterium, enough good data have been published to clearly indicate the reality of some sort of nuclear fusion. Yamaguchi and Niushioka reported a thrice-repeated event in which large amounts of heat and definite bursts of neutrons evolved simultaneously with considerable out-gassing of absorbed deuterium. These results are consistent with nuclear fusion and not with a chemical reaction. In this paper a detailed mechanism is proposed that is consistent with these events and that also generally explains many of the scattered indications of cold fusion that have been reported. There must be an adventitiously large enough presence of tritium to initiate the nuclear reaction. The results of previously successful experiments cannot now be reproduced because currently available D{sub 2}O (and D{sub 2}) is so low in adventitious tritium as to preclude initiation of the nuclear reaction.

  15. Osmotic control of bilayer fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, L R; Parker, N S

    1984-01-01

    We have used photography and capacitance measurement to monitor the steps in the interaction and eventual fusion of optically black lipid bilayers (BLMs), hydrostatically bulged to approximately hemispherical shape and pushed together mechanically. A necessary first step is drainage of aqueous solution from between the bilayers to allow close contact of the bilayers. The drainage can be controlled by varying the osmotic difference across the bilayers. If the differences are such as to remove water from between the bilayers, fusion occurs after a time that depends on the net osmotic difference and the area of contact. If there is an osmotic flow of water into the space between the bilayers, fusion never occurs. In the fusion process, a single central bilayer forms from the original apposed pair of bilayers. The central bilayer may later burst to allow mixing of the two volumes originally bounded by the separate bilayer; the topological equivalent of exocytosis. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:6541065

  16. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  17. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

  18. HUMINT Extraction and Fusion System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2005-12 Final Technical Report January 2005 HUMINT EXTRACTION AND FUSION SYSTEM General Dynamics...January 2005 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED FINAL Aug 02 – Sep 04 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HUMINT EXTRACTION AND FUSION SYSTEM 6...The objective of this effort was to develop the HUMINT Processing Subsystem (HPS) which extracts and exploits information from text documents to

  19. World progress toward fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements (about 75 percent of that required for ignition) have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R&D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century.

  20. CT navigated lateral interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    Lateral interbody fusion techniques are heavily reliant on fluoroscopy for retractor docking and graft placement, which expose both the patient and surgeon to high doses of radiation. Use of image-guided technologies with CT-based images, however, can eliminate this radiation exposure for the surgeon. We describe the surgical technique of performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion using CT navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  2. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks, as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, left, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station look on during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    From left, NASA Public Affairs Officer Stephanie Schierholz, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, are seen during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Commercial jet transport crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmayer, E.; Brende, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study to identify areas of research and approaches that may result in improved occupant survivability and crashworthiness of transport aircraft are given. The study defines areas of structural crashworthiness for transport aircraft which might form the basis for a research program. A 10-year research and development program to improve the structural impact resistance of general aviation and commercial jet transport aircraft is planned. As part of this program parallel studies were conducted to review the accident experience of commercial transport aircraft, assess the accident performance of structural components and the status of impact resistance technology, and recommend areas of research and development for that 10-year plan. The results of that study are also given.

  6. Cold fusion verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, M. H.; Mastny, G. F.; Wesley, E. J.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this work to verify and reproduce experimental observations of Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF), as originally reported in 1989. The method was to start with the original report and add such additional information as became available to build a set of operational electrolytic CNF cells. Verification was to be achieved by first observing cells for neutron production, and for those cells that demonstrated a nuclear effect, careful calorimetric measurements were planned. The authors concluded, after laboratory experience, reading published work, talking with others in the field, and attending conferences, that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater. The neutron detector used for these tests was a completely packaged unit built into a metal suitcase that afforded electrostatic shielding for the detectors and self-contained electronics. It was battery-powered, although it was on charge for most of the long tests. The sensor element consists of He detectors arranged in three independent layers in a solid moderating block. The count from each of the three layers as well as the sum of all the detectors were brought out and recorded separately. The neutron measurements were made with both the neutron detector and the sample tested in a cave made of thick moderating material that surrounded the two units on the sides and bottom.

  7. Horizontal model fusion paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.

    1996-05-01

    In navigation and tracking problems, the identification of an appropriate model of vehicular or target motion is vital to most practical data fusion algorithms. The true system dynamics are rarely known, and approximations are usually employed. Since systems can exhibit strikingly different behaviors, multiple models may be needed to describe each of these behaviors. Current methods either use model switching (a single process model is chosen from the set using a decision rule) or consider the models as a set of competing hypothesis, only one of which is 'correct'. However, these methods fail to exploit the fact that all models are of the same system and that all of them are, to some degree, 'correct'. In this paper we present a new paradigm for fusing information from a set of multiple process models. The predictions from each process model are regarded as observations which are corrupted by correlated noise. By employing the standard Kalman filter equations we combine data from multiple sensors and multiple process models optimally. There are a number of significant practical advantages to this technique. First, the performance of the system always equals or betters that of the best estimator in the set of models being used. Second, the same decision theoretic machinery can be used to select the process models as well as the sensor suites.

  8. Opportunities for commercial organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vardaman, W. K.; Atkins, H.; Taylor, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible applications of technology of materials processing in low gravity is discussed. A special office established by NASA to familiarize commercial organizations with materials processing in low gravity is described. This office provides information on present research and will, if requested, hold a seminar to present the technological and business aspects of joint investigations and joint endeavors to interested organizations. Arrangements can be made for visits to laboratories where ground based research is in progress.

  9. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. European commercial aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, J Parker

    1925-01-01

    During the months of June to September, 1924, I personally visited the principal airports of Europe and traveled as a passenger some 6500 air miles on English, French, Romanian, Polish, German and Dutch air lines in order to investigate the development of commercial aviation abroad. The results of the investigation are embodied in a series of reports, of which a summary of the general findings is given below.

  11. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  12. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  13. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  14. Image Fusion During Vascular and Nonvascular Image-Guided Procedures☆

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kobeiter, Hicham; Xu, Sheng; Wood, Bradford J.

    2013-01-01

    Image fusion may be useful in any procedure where previous imaging such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) defines information that is referenced to the procedural imaging, to the needle or catheter, or to an ultrasound transducer. Fusion of prior and intraoperative imaging provides real-time feedback on tumor location or margin, metabolic activity, device location, or vessel location. Multimodality image fusion in interventional radiology was initially introduced for biopsies and ablations, especially for lesions only seen on arterial phase CT, magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography/CT but has more recently been applied to other vascular and nonvascular procedures. Two different types of platforms are commonly used for image fusion and navigation: (1) electromagnetic tracking and (2) cone-beam CT. Both technologies would be reviewed as well as their strengths and weaknesses, indications, when to use one vs the other, tips and guidance to streamline use, and early evidence defining clinical benefits of these rapidly evolving, commercially available and emerging techniques. PMID:23993079

  15. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.F.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Herring, J.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1992. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and EG G Idaho, Inc. is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations including the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, activation product release, reactions involving beryllium, reactions involving lithium breeding materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base, and computer code development for reactor transients. Also included in the report is a summary of the safety and environmental studies performed by the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiments and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, the safety analysis for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design, and the technical support for the ARIES commercial reactor design study.

  16. Fusion Safety Program annual report, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.F.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Herring, J.S.; Longhurst, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Merrill, B.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in fiscal year 1992. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory and EG&G Idaho, Inc. is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. Activities are conducted at the INEL and in participating organizations including the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin. The technical areas covered in the report include tritium safety, activation product release, reactions involving beryllium, reactions involving lithium breeding materials, safety of fusion magnet systems, plasma disruptions, risk assessment failure rate data base, and computer code development for reactor transients. Also included in the report is a summary of the safety and environmental studies performed by the INEL for the Tokamak Physics Experiments and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, the safety analysis for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design, and the technical support for the ARIES commercial reactor design study.

  17. COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    GOODIN,D.T; NOBILE,A; SCHROEN,D.G; MAXWELL,J.L; RICKMAN,W.S

    2004-03-01

    A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE.

  18. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization.

  19. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  20. Successful anterior fusion following posterior cervical fusion for revision of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion pseudarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Sankey, Eric W; Theodros, Debebe; Bydon, Mohamad; Goodwin, C Rory; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Belzberg, Allen J; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Sciubba, Daniel M; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-02-01

    Pseudarthrosis occurs after approximately 2-20% of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures; it is unclear if posterior or anterior revision should be pursued. In this study, we retrospectively evaluate the outcomes in 22 patients with pseudarthrosis following ACDF and revision via posterior cervical fusion (PCF). Baseline demographics, preoperative symptoms, operative data, time to fusion failure, symptoms of pseudarthrosis, and revision method were assessed. Fusion outcome and clinical outcome were determined at last follow-up (LFU). Thirteen females (59%) and 9 (41%) males experienced pseudarthrosis at a median of 11 (range: 3-151)months after ACDF. Median age at index surgery was 51 (range: 33-67)years. All patients with pseudarthrosis presented with progressive neck pain, with median visual analog scale (VAS) score of 8 (range: 0-10), and/or myeloradiculopathy. Patients with pseudarthrosis <12 months compared to >12 months after index surgery were older (p=0.013), had more frequent preoperative neurological deficits (p=0.064), and lower baseline VAS scores (p=0.006). Fusion was successful after PCF in all patients, with median time to fusion of 10 (range: 2-14)months. Eighteen patients fused both anteriorly and posteriorly, two patients fused anteriorly only, and two patients fused posteriorly only. Median VAS neck score at LFU significantly improved from the time of pseudarthrosis (p=0.012). While uncommon, pseudarthrosis may occur after ACDF. All patients achieved successful fusion after subsequent posterior cervical fusion, with 91% fusing a previous anterior pseudarthrosis after posterior stabilization. Neck pain significantly improved by LFU in the majority of patients in this study.

  1. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Several approaches to initiating the provision of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) commercial infrastructure are discussed, including proposals from the private sector, the commercial development of infrastructure, and the commercial operation of infrastructure. Specific options for SSF commercial infrastructure which are currently being studied by NASA are described. One candidate for commercial service is the supplemental power for SSF beyond the Assembly Complete phase. The methods which a company could use in providing supplemental power are discussed, with special attention given to the use of solar dynamic power elements attached ot the SSF evolution structure. Another option under evaluation is commercial provision of SSF logistics services using ELVs.

  2. SKIDS data fusion project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenway, Phil

    1992-04-01

    The European Community's strategic research initiative in information technology (ESPRIT) has been in place for nearly five years. An early example of the pan-European collaborative projects being conducted under this initiative is 'SKIDS': Signal and Knowledge Integration with Decisional Control for Multisensory Systems. This four year project, which is approaching completion, aims to build a real-time multisensor perception machine. This machine will be capable of performing data fusion, interpretation, situation assessment, and resource allocation tasks, under the constraints of both time and resource availability, and in the presence of uncertain data. Of the many possible applications, the surveillance and monitoring of a semi-automated 'factory environment' has been chosen as a challenging and representative test scenario. This paper presents an overview of the goals and objectives of the project, the makeup of the consortium, and roles of the members within it, and the main technical achievements to data. In particular, the following are discussed: relevant application domains, and the generic requirements that can be inferred from them; sensor configuration, including choice, placement, etc.; control paradigms, including the possible trade-offs between centralized, hierarchical, and decentralized approaches; the corresponding hardware architectural choices, including the need for parallel processing; and the appropriate software architecture and infra-structure required to support the chosen task oriented approach. Specific attention is paid to the functional decomposition of the system and how the requirements for control impact the organization of the identified interpretation tasks. Future work and outstanding problems are considered in some concluding remarks. By virtue of limited space, this paper is descriptive rather than explanatory.

  3. Interkingdom gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Y I; Kondrashov, A S; Koonin, E V

    2000-01-01

    Genome comparisons have revealed major lateral gene transfer between the three primary kingdoms of life - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Another important evolutionary phenomenon involves the evolutionary mobility of protein domains that form versatile multidomain architectures. We were interested in investigating the possibility of a combination of these phenomena, with an invading gene merging with a pre-existing gene in the recipient genome. Complete genomes of fifteen bacteria, four archaea and one eukaryote were searched for interkingdom gene fusions (IKFs); that is, genes coding for proteins that apparently consist of domains originating from different primary kingdoms. Phylogenetic analysis supported 37 cases of IKF, each of which includes a 'native' domain and a horizontally acquired 'alien' domain. IKFs could have evolved via lateral transfer of a gene coding for the alien domain (or a larger protein containing this domain) followed by recombination with a native gene. For several IKFs, this scenario is supported by the presence of a gene coding for a second, stand-alone version of the alien domain in the recipient genome. Among the genomes investigated, the greatest number of IKFs has been detected in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where they are almost always accompanied by a stand-alone alien domain. For most of the IKF cases detected in other genomes, the stand-alone counterpart is missing. The results of comparative genome analysis show that IKF formation is a real, but relatively rare, evolutionary phenomenon. We hypothesize that IKFs are formed primarily via the proposed two-stage mechanism, but other than in the Actinomycetes, in which IKF generation seems to be an active, ongoing process, most of the stand-alone intermediates have been eliminated, perhaps because of functional redundancy.

  4. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Lauri; Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification.

  5. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification. PMID:27706254

  6. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production. .

  7. High temperature superconductors for fusion at the Swiss Plasma Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Wesche, R.; Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.

    2017-08-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTS) may become in future an option for the superconducting magnets of commercial fusion plants. At the Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) the R&D activity toward HTS high current, high field cables suitable for fusion magnets started in 2012 and led in 2015 to the assembly of the first 60 kA, 12 T prototype conductor. The cable concept developed at the SPC is based on the principle of ‘soldered, twisted stacks’ of REBCO tapes. The required number of stacks is assembled in a cored flat cable, cooled by forced flow of supercritical helium. The sample environment of the test facility at SPC has been upgraded with a HTS adapter and a counter-flow heat exchanger to allow testing the HTS sample in a broader range of temperature (4.5 K-50 K) using the existing, NbTi based superconducting transformer and the closed loop refrigerator.

  8. Isotopic enrichment of fuels for D-T fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, B.; Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic enrichment scenarios using cryogenic distillation were developed for a near-term D-T burning fusion-reactor design (ETF) as well as for a commercial fusion-reactor design (STARFIRE). The analytical results of studies of spent-fuel reprocessing for ETF show that isotopic enrichment can be carried out to meet fuel-purity requirements by a system consisting of a 5-column distillation cascade and two chemical equilibrators. For STARFIRE, the analytical results show that, for a fixed number of columns and chemical equilibrators in a reprocessing syste, the compositions of the recycle streams depend strongly on whether the two fuel streams (plasma exhaust and blanket) are processed separately or mixed and then processed as a single stream.

  9. Determining Model Correctness for Situations of Belief Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 World X’ Statements States Frame X represent A’s belief Source A B’s belief Source B...expresses expresses World X’ Correct statement x True state x’ Frame X represents supports [A,B]’s fused belief Combined Sources [A,B...express Fusion Process Figure 1. A conceptual model of the belief fusion process. on a (part of the) perceived real world denoted X ′ where var- ious

  10. Designing Image Operators for MRI-PET Image Fusion of the Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez, Jorge; Gastelum, Alfonso; Padilla, Miguel A.

    2006-09-08

    Our goal is to obtain images combining in a useful and precise way the information from 3D volumes of medical imaging sets. We address two modalities combining anatomy (Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI) and functional information (Positron Emission Tomography or PET). Commercial imaging software offers image fusion tools based on fixed blending or color-channel combination of two modalities, and color Look-Up Tables (LUTs), without considering the anatomical and functional character of the image features. We used a sensible approach for image fusion taking advantage mainly from the HSL (Hue, Saturation and Luminosity) color space, in order to enhance the fusion results. We further tested operators for gradient and contour extraction to enhance anatomical details, plus other spatial-domain filters for functional features corresponding to wide point-spread-function responses in PET images. A set of image-fusion operators was formulated and tested on PET and MRI acquisitions.

  11. Fusion of declassified airphotos and Landsat MSS data for old landslides detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kavoura, Katerina; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Vaiopoulos, Aristides D.

    2014-10-01

    In this study eight commercial available fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, High Pass Filter, HCS (Hyperspherical Color Space), Modified IHS (ModIHS), Pansharp, Pansharp2, PCA, and Wavelet were used for the fusion of a Declassified KH-7 airphoto and a Landsat1 MSS image. Both images were acquired on 1972. The panchromatic data have a spatial resolution of 8m while the multispectral data have a spatial resolution of 80m. The optical result, the statistical parameters and different quality indexes such as ERGAS, Q, entropy were examined and the results are presented. As the ultimate purpose of the data fusion is to help in the detection of old landslides, two small areas where historical landslides have been occurred were selected for the evaluation of the fusion algorithms. Both areas are located in western Peloponnese in Achaia Prefecture.

  12. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  13. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  14. Cold fusion in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schommers, W.; Politis, C. )

    1989-01-01

    A model for cold fusion in condensed matter is proposed (cold fusion of deuterons in palladium). It is assumed that the palladium-deuterium system forms an alloy, i.e., it is assumed that Pd ions as well as d/sup +/ ions are embedded in an uniform background of negative charge (conduction electrons). The model is based on an interaction potential for deuterons in solid palladium which has been estimated by means of a theoretical picture well known in the physics of liquids. In particular, the following effects are possible: 1. Cold fusion in condensed matter can take place. 2. The observed energy should be larger than that given by the fusion reactions. 3. Hitherto unknown nuclear processes must not be postulated as reported by Fleischmann and Pons. 4. The deuterons are mobile. 5. The deuterons can form close-packed clusters, and in principle a fusion reaction can take place within such a cluster. 6. Not only /sup 3/He should be produced in Pd but possible /sup 4/He too. From their theoretical picture, it can be concluded that experimental results will be strongly dependent on the condition of the materials used in the experiments. This can possible explain that only a part of experiments could show up cold fusion. A well defined condition (lattice defects, different phases, impurities, etc.) of the materials is probably the most critical point in connection with the observation of cold fusion in condensed matter. The effect should also be influenced by lattice dilatations. Experiments with other materials instead of palladium (e.g. vanadium, titanium, lanthanide metals, and different alloys) should be probably more informative.

  15. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  16. Process economics and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Katzen, R.; Doncheck, J.

    1995-12-31

    This session has been organized to present new developments in biomass conversion that could improve process economics and lead toward commercialization of such novel technology. Papers in this session will cover such matters as design and testing of pilot facilities for new biomass conversion technology. The technical and economic evaluation approach will also be covered for traditional and unique reactors, as well as for overall installations for conversion of cellulosic wastes to fuels and chemicals. papers will cover not only the major current interest in ethanol, but also other products, such as acetic and lactic acids, which can be produced by bioconversion of biomass.

  17. Commercialization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C Servo, Ph D

    2008-02-15

    The Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP) is offered to Phase II awardees of the Department of Energy's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. The purpose of this program is to increase both the likelihood and speed of technology transition to Phase III of technologies which DOE has funded. This program has been offered to DOE SBIR firms since 1990 and has resulted in significant and well documented return on investment. This final report decribes the results of the CAP that was offered to participants during the last cycle.

  18. Management: Commercial Activities Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    or agreements with commercial sources, state and local governments, and federal agencies outside the Department of Defense. This regu- lation...s t a n d o b t a i n H Q D A a p p r o v a l t h r o u g h MACOM before transferring contracted work to a MTOE unit . When the unit departs the...the Department of Labor . The contracting officer will request a wage determination from Department of Labor no earlier than 120 calen- dar days, and no

  19. Commercial television bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vande Walle, J; Theunis, M; Renson, C; Raes, A; Hoebeke, P

    1995-05-01

    Bladderdysfunction seems to have an increasing frequency in infancy, and especially in children without obvious congenital organic or functional bladderdysfunction. The disorder seems is related with changes in our behaviour, that are stimulated by familial and social pseudo-reasons. Commercial interests and marketing play a major role. This leads to wrong dry-training, an exaggerated hygienic education, prudisheness, wrong toilet-posture, lack of time to void, post-poning, wrong drink- and void-pattern, wrong food-pattern and increasing constipation. Prevention is necessary by an adapted reeducation of parents ans society.

  20. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  1. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  2. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  3. Ultrastructural Analysis of Myoblast Fusion in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiliang; Chen, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myoblast fusion in Drosophila has become a powerful genetic system with which to unravel the mechanisms underlying cell fusion. The identification of important components of myoblast fusion by genetic analysis has led to a molecular pathway toward our understanding of this cellular process. In addition to the application of immunohistochemistry and live imaging techniques to visualize myoblast fusion at the light microscopic level, ultrastructural analysis using electron microscopy remains an indispensable tool to reveal fusion intermediates and specific membrane events at sites of fusion. In this chapter, we describe conventional chemical fixation and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution methods for visualizing fusion intermediates during Drosophila myoblast fusion. Furthermore, we describe an immunoelectron microscopic method for localizing specific proteins relative to the fusion apparatus. PMID:18979250

  4. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  5. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  6. Analyses in support of the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and ICF commercial reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.

    1988-12-28

    Our work on this contract was divided into two major categories; two thirds of the total effort was in support of the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), and one third of the effort was in support of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) commercial reactors. This final report includes copies of the formal reports, memoranda, and viewgraph presentations that were completed under this contract.

  7. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  8. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  9. A Model for Membrane Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngatchou, Annita

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland which originates from chromaffin cells and is characterized by the secretion of excessive amounts of neurotransmitter which lead to high blood pressure and palpitations. Pheochromocytoma contain membrane bound granules that store neurotransmitter. The release of these stored molecules into the extracellular space occurs by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell plasma membrane, a process called exocytosis. The molecular mechanism of this membrane fusion is not well understood. It is proposed that the so called SNARE proteins [1] are the pillar of vesicle fusion as their cleavage by clostridial toxin notably, Botulinum neurotoxin and Tetanus toxin abrogate the secretion of neurotransmitter [2]. Here, I describe how physical principles are applied to a biological cell to explore the role of the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2 in easing granule fusion. The data presented here suggest a paradigm according to which the movement of the C-terminal of synaptobrevin-2 disrupts the lipid bilayer to form a fusion pore through which molecules can exit.

  10. Fusion reactions at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fusion measurement methods at low energies are briefly described, and experimental and theoretical fusion cross sections for /sup 58/Ni + /sup 58/Ni, /sup 58/Ni + /sup 64/Ni and /sup 64/Ni + /sup 64/Ni reactions are discussed. It is shown that quantal tunneling calculations do not describe the near- and sub-barrier behavior of the fusion data. Instead, the WKB predictions fall progressively further blow the experimental results as the energy is lowered. At far subbarrier energies the measured cross sections exceed the WKB predictions by more than three orders of magnitude. The unexpectedly strong dependence of the fusion probability upon the nuclear valence structure is illustrated and discussed. The relationship of channel coupling and quantal tunneling is discussed. In conclusion, it was established that atomic nuclei fuse far more readily at low energies that would be expected from quantal tunneling considerations alone. It was found that the behavior of the cross sections for fusion depends strongly upon the valence structure of the collision partners. This structural dependence extends from light 1p-shell systems to systems involving nearly 200 nucleons. These new phenomena may be viewed as characterizing the tunneling of a quantal system with many degrees of freedom. The failure of standard tunneling models may be understood as resulting from the ability of the dinuclear system to tunnel into the classically forbidden region by means of couplings to intrinsic degrees of freedom. 38 refs. (WHK)

  11. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  12. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  14. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  15. Hot fusion or cold fusion, best route to the SHEs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, Walter

    2010-02-01

    Elements 102-113 have been synthesized using cold fusion reactions (Pb or Bi target nuclei, massive projectiles., E*=13 MeV, high survival probabilities,significant fusion hindrance). The production cross sections decrease with increasing ZCN with a cross section of 27 fb being measured for element 113. Synthesis of elements 102-108 by hot fusion reactions (actinide target nuclei, intermediate mass projectiles, E*=30-50 MeV, low survival probability, small fusion hindrance) shows decreasing production cross sections for Z=102 to Z=108 and then the cross sections level out at a few pb out to Z=118. Upper limit cross sections for the production of Z=120 nuclei in hot fusion reactions are ˜ 0.1 pb. How should one go forward to make nuclei with Z > 120 or with large neutron numbers, N ˜ 184? The cross section for the production of an evaporation residue, σEVR, is σEVR=σCNWsur where σCN is the complete fusion cross section and Wsur is the survival probability of the completely fused system. The complete fusion cross section can be written as σCN=∑J=0^J σcapture (Ec.m.,J)PCN( Ec.m.,J) where σcapture(Ec.m.,J) is the capture cross section and PCN is the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve inside the fission saddle point to form a completely fused system rather than reseparating (quasifission). I have used this formalism to make estimates of the best reactions to make new heavy nuclei using stable and radioactive beams. I conclude that stable beams offer the best opportunities to make new chemical elements and that radioactive beams offer new opportunities to make nuclei to study the atomic physics and chemistry of the heaviest elements. The radioactive beam reactions involve the light neutron-rich projectiles interacting in hot fusion reactions. If time permits I will also discuss recent experiments to make heavy nuclei using multi-nucleon transfer reactions. )

  16. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  17. Mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics in neurodegeneration and neuronal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Bertholet, A M; Delerue, T; Millet, A M; Moulis, M F; David, C; Daloyau, M; Arnauné-Pelloquin, L; Davezac, N; Mils, V; Miquel, M C; Rojo, M; Belenguer, P

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that continually move, fuse and divide. The dynamic balance of fusion and fission of mitochondria determines their morphology and allows their immediate adaptation to energetic needs, keeps mitochondria in good health by restoring or removing damaged organelles or precipitates cells in apoptosis in cases of severe defects. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are essential in mammals and their disturbances are associated with several diseases. However, while mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics, and the proteins that control these processes, are ubiquitous, associated diseases are primarily neurological disorders. Accordingly, inactivation of the main actors of mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics is associated with defects in neuronal development, plasticity and functioning, both ex vivo and in vivo. Here, we present the central actors of mitochondrial fusion and fission and review the role of mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal physiology and pathophysiology. Particular emphasis is placed on the three main actors of these processes i.e. DRP1,MFN1-2, and OPA1 as well as on GDAP1, a protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane preferentially expressed in neurons. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria & Brain.

  18. Fusion Safety Program Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarizes the major activities of the Fusion Safety Program in FY 1996. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is the designated lead laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor for this program. The Fusion Safety Program was initiated in 1979. The objective is to perform research and develop data needed to ensure safety in fusion facilities. Activities include experiments, analysis, code development and application, and other forms of research. These activities are conducted at the INEL, at other DOE laboratories, and at other institutions. Among the technical areas covered in this report are tritium safety, chemical reactions and activation product release, risk assessment failure rate database development, and safety code development and application to fusion safety issues. Most of this work has been done in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Work done for ITER this year has focused on developing the needed information for the Non- Site- Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). A final area of activity described is development of the new DOE Technical Standards for Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities.

  19. Membrane fusion in muscle development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Demonbreun, Alexis R.; Biersmith, Bridget H.

    2015-01-01

    Mature skeletal muscle forms from the fusion of skeletal muscle precursor cells, myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to other myoblasts to generate multinucleate myotubes during myogenesis, and myoblasts also fuse to other myotubes during muscle growth and repair. Proteins within myoblasts and myotubes regulate complex processes such as elongation, migration, cell adherence, cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane coalescence, and ultimately fusion. Recent studies have identified cell surface proteins, intracellular proteins, and extracellular signaling molecules required for the proper fusion of muscle. Many proteins that actively participate in myoblast fusion also coordinate membrane repair. Here we will review mammalian membrane fusion with specific attention to proteins that mediate myoblast fusion and muscle repair. PMID:26537430

  20. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  1. TV Commercials Can Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Catherine

    1974-01-01

    In California non-commercial "commercials" short spots of pantomime and bilingual messages fitted into and around television's entertainment programs, are used as a means of providing nutrition education to urban and rural low-income people. As revealed by audience requests for nutritional information offered, the commercials are popular…

  2. Present status of liquid metal research for a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabarés, Francisco L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of solid materials as targets of divertor plasmas in magnetic fusion research is accepted as the standard solution for the very challenging issue of power and particle handling in a fusion reactor, a generalized feeling that the present options chosen for ITER will not represent the best choice for a reactor is growing up. The problems found for tungsten, the present selection for the divertor target of ITER, in laboratory tests and in hot plasma fusion devices suggest so. Even in the absence of the strong neutron irradiation expected in a reactor, issues like surface melting, droplet ejection, surface cracking, dust generation, etc., call for alternative solutions in a long pulse, high efficient fusion energy-producing continuous machine. Fortunately enough, decades of research on plasma facing materials based on liquid metals (LMs) have produced a wealth of appealing ideas that could find practical application in the route to the realization of a commercial fusion power plant. The options presently available, although in a different degree of maturity, range from full coverage of the inner wall of the device with liquid metals, so that power and particle exhaust together with neutron shielding could be provided, to more conservative combinations of liquid metal films and conventional solid targets basically representing a sort of high performance, evaporative coating for the alleviation of the surface degradation issues found so far. In this work, an updated review of worldwide activities on LM research is presented, together with some open issues still remaining and some proposals based on simple physical considerations leading to the optimization of the most conservative alternatives.

  3. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R. W.; Martovetsky, N. N.; Molvik, A. W.; Ryutov, D. D.; Simonen, T. C.

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  4. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-07-02

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size.

  5. Tissue fusion over nonadhering surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Nier, Vincent; Deforet, Maxime; Duclos, Guillaume; Yevick, Hannah G.; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Marcq, Philippe; Silberzan, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Tissue fusion eliminates physical voids in a tissue to form a continuous structure and is central to many processes in development and repair. Fusion events in vivo, particularly in embryonic development, often involve the purse-string contraction of a pluricellular actomyosin cable at the free edge. However, in vitro, adhesion of the cells to their substrate favors a closure mechanism mediated by lamellipodial protrusions, which has prevented a systematic study of the purse-string mechanism. Here, we show that monolayers can cover well-controlled mesoscopic nonadherent areas much larger than a cell size by purse-string closure and that active epithelial fluctuations are required for this process. We have formulated a simple stochastic model that includes purse-string contractility, tissue fluctuations, and effective friction to qualitatively and quantitatively account for the dynamics of closure. Our data suggest that, in vivo, tissue fusion adapts to the local environment by coordinating lamellipodial protrusions and purse-string contractions. PMID:26199417

  6. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  7. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  8. The commercialization of migration.

    PubMed

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  9. Use of Allogenic Mesenchymal Cellular Bone Matrix in Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spinal Fusion: A Case Series of 21 Patients.

    PubMed

    Divi, Srikanth Naga; Mikhael, Mark M

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective case series. To report our early experience using allogenic mesenchymal cellular bone matrix (CBM) products in cervical spine fusion. Multi-level cervical fusions have historically yielded lower fusion rates than single level fusions, especially in patients with high risk medical comorbidities. At this time, significant literature in cervical fusion outcomes with this cellular allograft technology is lacking. Twenty-one patients underwent either multilevel (3 or 4 level) anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, or posterior cervical fusion. ViviGen (DePuy Synthes Spine, Raynham, MA, USA), an allogenic bone matrix product, was used in addition to standard instrumentation. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 2 weeks, 12 weeks, 24 weeks and 1 year postoperative. Visual analog scale (VAS) and neck disability index (NDI) scores along with return to work and leisure activity were recorded. At 6 months postoperative, all patients had radiographic evidence of bone fusion regardless of age or medical comorbidities. All patients reported subjective improvement with a mean decrease in VAS from 8.3 to 1.5 and a mean decrease in NDI from 40.3% to 6.0% at 1 year. All patients also returned to work and/or regular leisure activity within 3 months. Twenty-one patients undergoing high-risk anterior and posterior cervical spine fusion, with the use of a commercially available mesenchymal CBM product, went on to radiographic fusion and all had improvement in subjective outcomes. While further effort and research is needed to validate its widespread use, this study shows favorable use of CBM in cervical fusion for high-risk cases.

  10. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  11. The first fusion reactor: ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    Established by the signature of the ITER Agreement in November 2006 and currently under construction at St Paul-lez-Durance in southern France, the ITER project [1,2] involves the European Union (including Switzerland), China, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, South Korea and the United States. ITER (`the way' in Latin) is a critical step in the development of fusion energy. Its role is to provide an integrated demonstration of the physics and technology required for a fusion power plant based on magnetic confinement.

  12. Percutaneous Hindfoot and Midfoot Fusion.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Hindfoot and midfoot fusions can be performed with percutaneous techniques. Preliminary results of these procedures are encouraging because they provide similar results than those obtained with open techniques with less morbidity and quick recovery. The best indications are probably fusions for mild-to-moderate reducible hindfoot and midfoot deformities in fragile patients with general or local bad conditions. The main limit is linked to the surgeon's experience in percutaneous foot surgery because a learning curve with the specific tools is necessary before doing these procedures.

  13. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  14. Electromagnetic computations for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.

    1989-09-01

    Among the difficulties in making nuclear fusion a useful energy source, two important ones are producing the magnetic fields needed to drive and confine the plasma, and controlling the eddy currents induced in electrically conducting components by changing fields. All over the world, researchers are developing electromagnetic codes and employing them to compute electromagnetic effects. Ferromagnetic components of a fusion reactor introduce field distortions. Eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel, blanket and other torus components of a tokamak when the plasma current disrupts. These eddy currents lead to large forces, and 3-D codes are being developed to study the currents and forces. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  16. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  17. Plasma physics goes beyond fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Raoul

    2008-11-01

    I was interested to read the fusion supplement published with the October issue of Physics World. However, in asserting that fusion created the need to recognize plasma physics as a separate branch of the subject, Stephen Cowley, the new director of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, was not quite correct. In fact, the word "plasma" was appropriated from the Greek by the chemical physicist (and later Nobel laureate) Irving Langmuir in 1928. It was used to describe the positive column of a gas discharge, which was then the subject of research into better lighting sources and advertising displays, as well as the underlying science.

  18. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, announces the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida looks on at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to a reporter’s question after he announced the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Commercializing solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.T.; Prairie, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a government-supported program to commercialize hydrogen production methods which use solar energy as the main source of energy. Current methods use hydrocarbons and generate large amounts of carbon dioxide. The paper describes results from a literature survey performed to identify technologies using direct solar energy that were likely to succeed on an industrial scale in the near term. Critical parameters included calculated efficiencies, measured efficiencies, and development status. The cost of solar collectors is cited as the reason most promising solar hydrogen research is not taken to the pilot plant stage. The author recommends use of existing DOE facilities already in operation for pilot plant testing. 14 refs. (CK)

  3. Multilayer ceramic actuator commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Andrew P.

    1995-05-01

    AVX is the largest US manufacturer of multilayer ceramic capacitors, producing 10's of millions per day. Multilayer ceramic actuators are manufactured using virtually identical fabrication methods. Fabrication from this ceramic tape allows tremendous latitude in device shape, size and material choice. This paper will discuss several different actuator configurations-including stacks, plates and chips- with respect to performance and cost tradeoffs. Virtually all developing smart material applications are 'technology driven,' however the widespread availability of devices at commercial scale relies on 'market pull' to achieve a balance of high annualized volumes and low cost. Given sufficient demand, devices can be produced such that the raw materials themselves dominate the unit cost. Generalized price-volume-performance relationships for the different actuator configurations can both guide system designers and focus long-term component development efforts.

  4. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  5. Endotoxins in commercial vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, M R; Stanbro, H; Merril, C R

    1978-01-01

    Twenty samples of commercial vaccines intended for administration to humans were assayed for the presence of bacterial endotoxins by using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Sixteen of the vaccines contained more than 0.1 ng of endotoxin per ml (which corresponds to 103 bacterial cell wall equivalents per ml in the undiluted vaccines). These results suggest that at some stage of preparation, the vaccines have contained varying amounts of gram-negative bacteria and may indicate the presence of other bacterial products as well. It might be useful to list the level of endotoxins, phage, and other contaminants on each vaccine lot to facilitate studies on any side effects of these contaminants. Selection of vaccine lots with the least endotoxin might reduce some of the adverse effects of vaccinations. PMID:727776

  6. Equivalence of measurement space solution data fusion and complete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many observation systems are operating on space-borne and airborne platforms, as well as from ground-based stations, providing measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters. When independent measurements of the same profile are available data fusion methods can be used to combine them and exploit all the available information for a more comprehensive and accurate description of the atmospheric state. Several data fusion methods can be used. Among the others, both the measurement space solution data fusion method and the complete fusion method have the remarkable properties of using all the acquired information and of providing results that are independent from a priori information used in the individual retrievals. For this reason, though the two methods use two completely different procedures, it is reasonable to expect that they give the same results and in this paper the rigorous proof of the equivalence of the two methods is given. Therefore, the choice between them is only driven by the advantages of the different implementations.

  7. Whither Commercial Nanobiosensors?

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2011-01-01

    The excitement surrounding the marriage of biosensors and nanotechnology is palpable even from a cursory examination of the scientific literature. Indeed, the word “nano” might be in danger of being overused and reduced to a cliché, although probably essential for publishing papers or securing research funding. The biosensor literature is littered with clever or catchy acronyms, birds being apparently favored (“CANARY”, “SPARROW”), quite apart from “electronic tongue,” “electronic nose,” and so on. Although biosensors have been around since glucose monitors were commercialized in the 1970s, the transition of laboratory research and innumerable research papers on biosensors into the world of commerce has lagged. There are several reasons for this phenomenon including the infamous “valley of death” afflicting entrepreneurs emerging from academic environment into the industrial world, where the rules for success can be radically different. In this context, musings on biosensors and especially nanobiosensors in an open access journal such as Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics is topical and appropriate especially since market surveys of biosensors are prohibitively expensive, sometimes running into thousands of dollars for a single copy. The contents and predictions of market share for biosensors in these reports also keep changing every time a report is published. Not only that, the market share projections for biosensors differs considerably amongst various reports. An editorial provides the opportunity to offer personal opinions and perhaps stimulate debate on a particular topic. In this sense, editorials are a departure from the rigor of a research paper. This editorial is no exception. With this preamble, it is worthwhile to stop and ponder the status of commercial biosensors and nanobiosensors.

  8. Taxol commercial supply strategy.

    PubMed

    DeFuria, M D; Horovitz, Z

    1993-01-01

    Evidence of Taxol's safety and efficacy for treatment of refractory ovarian cancer convinced the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to seek a pharmaceutical partner and approval. After an open competition, NCI entered a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) to obtain approval of a New Drug Application (NDA) so that Taxol could be marketed as well as to provide supplies for clinical trials and compassionate use. To assure a successful commercialization of Taxol, BMS developed a strategic plan for expanding drug supplies. The strategy included immediately increasing the amount of Taxol derived from yew bark and establishing a broad research program to evaluate alternative sourcing options and their commercial feasibility. The options included precursor isolation and semisynthesis, yew plantations for biomass production, plant cell culture, and total synthesis. A number of both academic and industrial investigators, already interested in various Taxol supply issues, were enlisted for collaborations with the company. Progress on this research during the first 18 months has enabled BMS to do the following: 1) double the yield of Taxol from bark extraction; 2) exceed NCI's request for drug supplies in 1991, permitting establishment of an ovarian cancer treatment referral center (TRC) with a national network of comprehensive cancer centers; 3) increase NCI supplies from 5000 to 50,000 vials/month in 1992, permitting establishment of TRC protocol for breast cancer; 4) identify several potentially viable alternative sources; 5) schedule production of large amounts of Taxol by precursor conversion during 1993; and 6) ensure that sufficient quantities of the product will be available for treatment and continued clinical research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed.

  10. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  11. Collescipoli - An unusual fusion crust glass. [chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.

    1979-01-01

    An electron microprobe study was conducted on glass fragments taken from the fusion crust and an internal glass-lined vein in the H-5 chondrite Collescipoli. Microprobe analyses of the glasses revealed an unusual fusion crust composition, and analyses of glass from inside the meteorite showed compositions expected for a melt of an H-group chondrite. Studies of fusion crusts by previous workers, e.g., Krinov and Ramdohr, showed that fusion crusts contain large amounts of magnetite and other oxidized minerals. The Collescipoli fusion crusts do contain these minerals, but they also contain relatively large amounts of reduced metal, sulphide, and a sodium-rich glass. This study seems to indicate that Collescipoli preserved an early type of fusion crust. Oxidation was incomplete in the fusion crust melt that drained into a crack. From this study it is concluded that fusion crust formation does not invariably result in complete oxidation of metal and sulphide phases.

  12. Self-pinched beam transport experiments Relevant to Heavy Ion Driven inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Fessenden, T.J.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Olson, C.L.; Welch, D.R.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Logan, B.G.; Moir, R.W.; Haber, I.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.; Peterson, R.R.; Briggs, R.J.

    1998-02-06

    An attractive feature of the inertial fusion energy (IFE) approach to commercial energy production is that the fusion driver is well separated from the fusion confinement chamber. This ''standoff'' feature means the driver is largely isolated from fusion reaction products. Further, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target ignition (with modest gain) is now scheduled to be demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using a laser driver system. The NIF program will, to a considerable extent, validate indirectly-driven heavy-ion fusion (HIF) target designs for IFE. However, it remains that HIF standoff between the final focus system and the fusion target needs to be seriously addressed. In fact, there now exists a timely opportunity for the Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES) to experimentally explore the feasibility of one of the attractive final transport options in the fusion chamber: the self-pinched transport mode. Presently, there are several mainline approaches for HIF beam transport and neutralization in the fusion chamber. These range from the (conservative) vacuum ballistic focus, for which there is much experience from high energy research accelerators, to highly neutralized ballistic focus, which matches well to lower voltage acceleration with resulting lower driver costs. Alternatively, Z-discharge channel transport and self-pinched transport in gas-filled chambers may relax requirements on beam quality and final focusing systems, leading to even lower driver cost. In any case, these alternative methods of transport, especially self-pinched transport, are unusually attractive from the standpoint of chamber design and neutronics. There is no requirement for low chamber pressure. Moreover, only a minuscule fraction of the fusion neutrons can escape from the chamber. Therefore, it is relatively easy to shield sensitive components, e-g., superconducting magnets from any significant neutron flux. Indeed, self-pinched transport and liquid wall

  13. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2008-01-01

    Reports were presented covering a selection of topics on the safety of fusion power plants. These included a review on licensing studies developed for ITER site preparation surveying common and non-common issues (i.e. site dependent) as lessons to a broader approach for fusion power plant safety. Several fusion power plant models, spanning from accessible technology to more advanced-materials based concepts, were discussed. On the topic related to fusion-specific technology, safety studies were reported on different concepts of breeding blanket modules, tritium handling and auxiliary systems under normal and accident scenarios' operation. The testing of power plant relevant technology in ITER was also assessed in terms of normal operation and accident scenarios, and occupational doses and radioactive releases under these testings have been determined. Other specific safety issues for fusion have also been discussed such as availability and reliability of fusion power plants, dust and tritium inventories and component failure databases. This study reveals that the environmental impact of fusion power plants can be minimized through a proper selection of low activation materials and using recycling technology helping to reduce waste volume and potentially open the route for its reutilization for the nuclear sector or even its clearance into the commercial circuit. Computational codes for fusion safety have been presented in support of the many studies reported. The on-going work on establishing validation approaches aiming at improving the prediction capability of fusion codes has been supported by experimental results and new directions for development have been identified. Fusion standards are not available and fission experience is mostly used as the framework basis for licensing and target design for safe operation and occupational and environmental constraints. It has been argued that fusion can benefit if a specific fusion approach is implemented, in particular

  14. Fusion and Breakup of Weakly Bound Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.; Crema, E.; Chamon, L. C.; Hussein, M. S.; Canto, L. F.

    2006-08-14

    We discuss the influence of the breakup process of weakly bound nuclei on the fusion cross section. The complete fusion for heavy targets is found to be suppressed due to the incomplete fusion following the breakup, whereas this effect is negligible for light targets. The total fusion cross sections for stable projectiles are not affected by the breakup process, whereas it is suppressed for halo projectiles. The non capture breakup is the dominant process at sub-barrier energies.

  15. A Review of Data Fusion Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The integration of data and knowledge from several sources is known as data fusion. This paper summarizes the state of the data fusion field and describes the most relevant studies. We first enumerate and explain different classification schemes for data fusion. Then, the most common algorithms are reviewed. These methods and algorithms are presented using three different categories: (i) data association, (ii) state estimation, and (iii) decision fusion. PMID:24288502

  16. Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1986-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of a fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The resulting cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 100 MWe.

  17. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawarasaki, Y.

    1996-05-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; (1) so-called cold fusion (CF), (2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and (3) accelerator-based D-T (D) neutron source. Through the comparison of the characteristics among ICF, LCF, and MCF, the feasibility of the LCFs is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. A review of data fusion techniques.

    PubMed

    Castanedo, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The integration of data and knowledge from several sources is known as data fusion. This paper summarizes the state of the data fusion field and describes the most relevant studies. We first enumerate and explain different classification schemes for data fusion. Then, the most common algorithms are reviewed. These methods and algorithms are presented using three different categories: (i) data association, (ii) state estimation, and (iii) decision fusion.

  19. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Benjamin S; Larenas, Edmund A; Mitchinson, Colin

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  20. Frequency of rare BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Arun, A K; Senthamizhselvi, A; Mani, S; Vinodhini, K; Janet, N B; Lakshmi, K M; Abraham, A; George, B; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V M; Mathews, V; Balasubramanian, P

    2017-06-01

    The hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the presence of Philadelphia chromosome, its resultant fusion transcript (BCR-ABL1), and fusion protein (p210). Alternate breakpoints in BCR (m-bcr, μ-bcr, and others) or ABL1 result in the expression of few rare fusion transcripts (e19a2, e1a2, e13a3, e14a3) and fusion proteins (p190, p200, p225) whose exact clinical significance remains to be determined. Our study was designed to determine the type and frequency of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts in 1260 CML patients and to analyze the prognosis and treatment response in patients harboring rare BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts. The frequency of various BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts was as follows: e14a2 (60%), e13a2 (34.3%), e1a2 (1.2%), e1a2 + e13a2 (2.0%), e1a2 + e14a2 (1.8%), e19a2 (0.3%), and e14a3 (0.3%). CML patients with e1a2 transcripts had higher rates of disease progression, resistance, or suboptimal response to imatinib and failed to achieve major molecular response. Characterization of the specific fusion transcript in CML patients is important owing to the difference in prognosis and response to therapy in addition to the conventional need for monitoring treatment response. CML patients with e1a2 transcripts have to be closely monitored due to the high incidence of disease progression and treatment resistance/failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  2. Advanced algorithms for distributed fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, A.; Smith, C.; Colony, M.; Bowman, C.; Pei, R.; Huynh, T.; Brown, C.

    2008-03-01

    The US Military has been undergoing a radical transition from a traditional "platform-centric" force to one capable of performing in a "Network-Centric" environment. This transformation will place all of the data needed to efficiently meet tactical and strategic goals at the warfighter's fingertips. With access to this information, the challenge of fusing data from across the batttlespace into an operational picture for real-time Situational Awareness emerges. In such an environment, centralized fusion approaches will have limited application due to the constraints of real-time communications networks and computational resources. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a formalized architecture for fusion and track adjudication that allows the distribution of fusion processes over a dynamically created and managed information network. This network will support the incorporation and utilization of low level tracking information within the Army Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A) or Future Combat System (FCS). The framework is based on Bowman's Dual Node Network (DNN) architecture that utilizes a distributed network of interlaced fusion and track adjudication nodes to build and maintain a globally consistent picture across all assets.

  3. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  4. Progress in pulsed power fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    Pulsed power offers and efficient, high energy, economical source of x-rays for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. We are pursuing two main approaches to ICF driven with pulsed power accelerators: intense light ion beams and z-pinches. This paper describes recent progress in each approach and plans for future development.

  5. Tungsten Spectroscopy for Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, R.; Puetterich, T.; Dux, R.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Sergienko, G.

    2007-04-06

    Tungsten is one of very few candidate materials for plasma facing components in future fusion devices. Therefore, investigations have been started at fusion devices and EBITs to provide atomic data for W in fusion plasmas. Usually the influx of impurities is deduced from the intensity of spectral lines from neutrals or ions in a low ionisation state. For this purpose the appropriate ionisation rates and excitation rates have to be known. At the moment, a WI transition (7S-7P) at 400.9 nm is used, but an extension of the method to other lines is under investigation. In the core of present day plasmas ionisation states up to W56+ can be reached and in a reactor states up to around W68+ will be present. In order to extract information on the local W concentrations over the whole plasma radius atomic data (wavelength, excitation, ionisation, recombination) for all the charge states up to the maximum ionisation state are necessary. Similarly, a high sensitivity has to be achieved since the central W concentrations should stay below 10-4. For an unambiguous identification of the transitions EBIT measurements are of great advantage, but due to the lower electron density compared to fusion plasmas, investigations there are indispensable.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

    1996-03-01

    During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

  7. Magnetic Inertial Confinement Fusion (MICF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Feng; Zheng, Xianjun; Deng, Baiquan; Liu, Wei; Ou, Wei; Huang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the similarity in models of the early Sun and the 3-D common focal region of the micro-pinch in X-pinch experiments, a novel hybrid fusion configuration by continuous focusing of multiple Z-pinched plasma beams on spatially symmetric plasma is proposed. By replacing gravity with Lorentz force with subsequent centripetal spherical pinch, the beam-target fusion reactivity is enhanced in a quasi-spherical converging region, thus achieving MICF. An assessment, presented here, suggests that a practical fusion power source could be achieved using deuterium alone. Plasma instabilities can be suppressed by fast rotation resulting from an asymmetric tangential torsion in the spherical focal region of this configuration. Mathematical equivalence with the Sun allows the development of appropriate equations for the focal region of MICF, which are solved numerically to provide density, temperature and pressure distributions that produce net fusion energy output. An analysis of MICF physics and a preliminary experimental demonstration of a single beam are also carried out. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11374217 and 11176020)

  8. Magnetic fusion and project ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.

    1992-09-01

    It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ``International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)`` will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

  9. Nuclear Fusion by Lattice Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados-Estévez, Francisco M.; Subashiev, Arsen V.; Nee, Han H.

    2017-07-01

    The experimental data for the screening potential in metals shows evidence of huge enhancements in the nuclear fusion cross section at energies ≤10 keV. These enhancements could imply the possibility of nuclear fusion in local high density clusters in solids. High concentration of Hydrogen isotopes can be found in monovacancies and divacancies in face-centered cubic (fcc) metals such as Ni with densities of ˜6 × 1023 and ˜9 × 1023 atom/cm3, respectively. These monovacancies and divacancies can be excellent candidates for these clusters due to the high density which is an essential parameter in the nuclear fusion reaction rates. This paper discusses the enhancement of cross sections and reactivities for D(t,n)4He and D(d,p)3H reactions, considering the experimental screening potential measured in molecular D2, Ni, Pd, and PdO, and the possibility to use monovacancies and divacancies as possible locations where nuclear fusion reactions could be enhanced.

  10. ICF research at KMS Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, A.J.; Henderson, T.M.; Storm, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The principal accomplishments of the KMS Fusion program over the past year are reviewed. Our activities in the area of target fabrication include both the production of high quality fuel shells, and the development of techniques for the production of special target materials.

  11. Prospects for fusion neutron NPLs

    SciTech Connect

    Petra, M.; Miley, G.H.; Batyrbekov, E.; Jassby, D.L.; McArthur, D.

    1996-05-01

    To date, nuclear pumped lasers (NPLs) have been driven by neutrons from pulsed research fission reactors. However, future applications using either a Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) neutron source or an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) source appear attractive. One unique combination proposed earlier would use a neutron feedback NPL driver in an ICF power plant. 14-MeV D-T neutrons (and 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons) provide a unique opportunity for a neutron recoil pumped NPL. Alternatively, these neutrons can be thermalized to provide thermal-neutron induced reactions for pumping. Initial experience with a fusion-pumped NPL can possibly be obtained using the D-T burn experiments in progress/planning at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak devices or at the planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) high-gain ICF target experimental facility. With neutron fluxes presently available, peak thermalized fluxes at a test laser in the shield region could exceed 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/sec. Several low-threshold NPLs might be utilized in such an experiment, including the He-Ne-H{sub 2} NPL and the Ar-Xe NPL. Experimental set-ups for both the tokamak and the NIF will be described. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Membrane fusion during phage lysis.

    PubMed

    Rajaure, Manoj; Berry, Joel; Kongari, Rohit; Cahill, Jesse; Young, Ry

    2015-04-28

    In general, phages cause lysis of the bacterial host to effect release of the progeny virions. Until recently, it was thought that degradation of the peptidoglycan (PG) was necessary and sufficient for osmotic bursting of the cell. Recently, we have shown that in Gram-negative hosts, phage lysis also requires the disruption of the outer membrane (OM). This is accomplished by spanins, which are phage-encoded proteins that connect the cytoplasmic membrane (inner membrane, IM) and the OM. The mechanism by which the spanins destroy the OM is unknown. Here we show that the spanins of the paradigm coliphage lambda mediate efficient membrane fusion. This supports the notion that the last step of lysis is the fusion of the IM and OM. Moreover, data are provided indicating that spanin-mediated fusion is regulated by the meshwork of the PG, thus coupling fusion to murein degradation by the phage endolysin. Because endolysin function requires the formation of μm-scale holes by the phage holin, the lysis pathway is seen to require dramatic dynamics on the part of the OM and IM, as well as destruction of the PG.

  13. Cold fusion anomalies more perplexing than ever

    SciTech Connect

    Dagani, R

    1989-11-01

    This article addresses the debate over research on cold fusion. Analysis is made of the research efforts that have taken place since cold fusion was first thought to have been discovered in Utah. Research in the Soviet Union on the cold fusion phenomenon is also discussed.

  14. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future.

  15. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  16. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, η (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, χCN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross

  17. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finken, K. H.

    2006-04-01

    In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasma has become more and more recognized. These fields will cause ergodization at well defined plasma layers and can induce large size islands at rational q-surfaces. A hope for future large scale tokamak devices is the development of a reliable method for mitigating the large ELMs of type 1 ELMy-H-modes by modifying the edge transport. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area and optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, or the understanding of the transport around tearing mode instabilities. The cluster of papers in this issue of Nuclear Fusion is a successor to the 2004 special issue (Nuclear Fusion 44 S1-122 ) intended to raise interest in the subject. The contents of this present issue are based on presentations at the Second Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Juelich, Germany, 15-17 March 2005. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop was originally devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge but it has been broadened to transport questions over the whole plasma cross-section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2007 in Juelich, Germany. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. The content of the workshop is summarized in the following conference summary (K.H. Finken 2006 Nuclear Fusion 46 S107-112). At the workshop experimental results on the plasma transport resulting from ergodization in various devices were presented. Highlights were the results from DIII-D on the mitigation of ELMs (see also T.E. Evans et al 2005 Nuclear Fusion 45 595 ). Theoretical work was focused around the topics

  18. Commercializing medical technology.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  19. Commercializing medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain

  20. Fusion safety regulations in the United States: Progress and trends

    SciTech Connect

    DeLooper, J.

    1994-07-01

    This paper explores the issue of regulations as they apply to current and future fusion experimental machines. It addresses fusion regulatory issues, current regulations used for fusion, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experience with regulations, and future regulations to achieve fusion`s safety and environmental potential.