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Sample records for 1-antichymotrypsin antithrombin iii

  1. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  2. [Role of antithrombin iii in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Muedra, V; Barettino, D; D'Ocón, P

    2013-11-01

    Coagulation of blood is of multidisciplinary interest. Cardiac surgery produces major changes in the delicate balance between pro-and anti-coagulant serum factors. The role of antithrombin iii has been analysed after finding evidence that associated decreased levels of protein activity to postoperative morbidity and mortality. Supplementing exogenous antithrombin is considered with the aim of optimising outcomes. Its intrinsic anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties have stimulated a growing interest, and suggests new lines of research.

  3. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antithrombin III assay. 864.7060 Section 864.7060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7060 Antithrombin III...

  7. [Plasma antithrombin III activity in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Vertun, B; Filipecki, S; Szczepański, M; Wawrzyńska, L; Rózycka, J

    A decreased plasma antithrombin III activity has been noted in 12 out of 20 patients. In 2 patients it was most probably congenital defect, whereas in the remaining 10 patients--acquired. The observed disorders in the activity of antithrombin III with particular reference to anticoagulant therapy have been discussed.

  8. Evidence for a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III-thrombin complex formation in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Lefèbvre, P

    1990-03-01

    In the presence of increased levels of fibrinopeptide A, decreased antithrombin III biological activity, and thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels are seen in diabetic patients. Induced-hyperglycaemia in diabetic and normal subjects decreased antithrombin III activity and thrombin-antithrombin III levels, and increased fibrinopeptide A plasma levels, while antithrombin III concentration did not change; heparin was shown to reduced these phenomena. In diabetic patients, euglycaemia induced by insulin infusion restored antithrombin III activity, thrombin-antithrombin III complex and fibrinopeptide A concentrations; heparin administration had the same effects. These data stress the role of a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III activity in precipitating thrombin hyperactivity in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Antithrombin III: biodistribution in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Knot, E A; de Jong, E; ten Cate, J W; Gie, L K; van Royen, E A

    1987-12-18

    Five healthy volunteers were injected intravenously with 73-90 uCi purified human 131I-Antithrombin III (AT III), specific biological activity 5.6 U/mg. The tracer data were analysed using a three compartment model. The plasma radioactivity half life was 66.2 +/- 1.2 (sem) h, the fractional catabolic rate constant of the plasma pool was 0.025 +/- 0.002 (sem) h-1. These data were comparable with those described in the literature. Because of the difficulty in translating the mathematical analysis of various compartments into the biological model, biodistribution was monitored by a gamma camera linked to a DEC PDP 11/34 computer system. Dynamic and static images were obtained at fixed time intervals following the injection of 131I-AT III. Whole body scanning at intervals between the time of injection (t = 0) and t = 24.5 h showed 131I-AT III distribution over the heart, lungs, liver, spleen and great vessels. Dynamic scanning was performed over the heart, spleen and liver. Overlayed frames in the first ten minutes after the 131I-AT III injection showed the following radioactivity expressed as percentage of the injected dose; 5.9% +/- 0.3 (sem) over the heart, 10.6% +/- 0.9 (sem) over the liver and 1.1% +/- 0.1 (sem) over the spleen. A slower decline of the radioactivity between t = 0 and t = 24 h; (19%) was measured over the liver compared with the radioactivity disappearance over the heart region. This shows, in combination with the fact that the radioactivity disappearance over the heart was identical with the radioactivity decline measured in the plasma samples that retention of 131I-AT III occurred in the liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. 21 CFR 864.7060 - Antithrombin III assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... level of antithrombin III (a substance which acts with the anticoagulant heparin to prevent coagulation). This determination is used to monitor the administration of heparin in the treatment of thrombosis. The...

  11. Technology evaluation: transgenic antithrombin III (rhAT-III), Genzyme Transgenics.

    PubMed

    Yeung, P K

    2000-06-01

    AT-III LLC, a joint venture between Genzyme Transgenics (GTC) and Genzyme General, is developing transgenic recombinant human antithrombin III (rhAT-III) as a potential treatment for sepsis and other disorders involving thrombosis. It is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe as an anticoagulant in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery such as cardiopulmonary bypass.

  12. Antithrombin III in animal models of sepsis and organ failure.

    PubMed

    Dickneite, G

    1998-01-01

    Antithrombin III (AT III) is the physiological inhibitor of thrombin and other serine proteases of the clotting cascade. In the development of sepsis, septic shock and organ failure, the plasma levels of AT III decrease considerably, suggesting the concept of a substitution therapy with the inhibitor. A decrease of AT III plasma levels might also be associated with other pathological disorders like trauma, burns, pancreatitis or preclampsia. Activation of coagulation and consumption of AT III is the consequence of a generalized inflammation called SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome). The clotting cascade is also frequently activated after organ transplantation, especially if organs are grafted between different species (xenotransplantation). During the past years AT III has been investigated in numerous corresponding disease models in different animal species which will be reviewed here. The bulk of evidence suggests, that AT III substitution reduces morbidity and mortality in the diseased animals. While gaining more experience with AT III, the concept of substitution therapy to maximal baseline plasma levels (100%) appears to become insufficient. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies now suggests to adjust the AT III plasma levels to about 200%, i.e., doubling the normal value. During the last few years several authors proposed that AT III might not only be an anti-thrombotic agent, but to have in addition an anti-inflammatory effect.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin helps protect tissues against proteolytic (protein-splitting) enzymes released during...

  14. Anti-HSV activity of serpin antithrombin III

    PubMed Central

    Quenelle, Debra C.; Hartman, Tracy L.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Prichard, Mark N.; Lynn, Ralf Geiben

    2014-01-01

    Natural serine protease inhibitors (serpins) elicit sensing of a microbial cell intruder and activate an intrinsic cellular immune response in HIV and HCV infected cells. Here, we demonstrate in vitro inhibition of HSV with serpin antithrombin III (ATIII) early during infection pointing towards inhibition of an entry event. We also found reduction of mortality from 90% to 40% in an abrasion mice model demonstrating a strong reduction of infection in vivo. Our data also indicated that this treatment might be suitable for drug-resistant viruses since high inhibition of an acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strain was found. Thus, an ATIII tropical treatment might be used for immunocompromised patients where prolonged treatment leads to drug resistant HSV-1 strains. Understanding how ATIII regulates HSV-1 infections may reveal new avenues for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25215309

  15. Anti-HSV activity of serpin antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Quenelle, Debra C; Hartman, Tracy L; Buckheit, Robert W; Prichard, Mark N; Lynn, Ralf Geiben

    2014-04-01

    Natural serine protease inhibitors (serpins) elicit sensing of a microbial cell intruder and activate an intrinsic cellular immune response in HIV and HCV infected cells. Here, we demonstrate in vitro inhibition of HSV with serpin antithrombin III (ATIII) early during infection pointing towards inhibition of an entry event. We also found reduction of mortality from 90% to 40% in an abrasion mice model demonstrating a strong reduction of infection in vivo. Our data also indicated that this treatment might be suitable for drug-resistant viruses since high inhibition of an acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strain was found. Thus, an ATIII tropical treatment might be used for immunocompromised patients where prolonged treatment leads to drug resistant HSV-1 strains. Understanding how ATIII regulates HSV-1 infections may reveal new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

  16. Oral contraceptives, antithrombin- III activity, and postoperative deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, S; Stamatakis, J D; Thomas, D P; Kakkar, V V

    1976-03-06

    Deep-vein thrombosis (D.V.T.) was detected by the fibrinogen-uptake test in six out of a total of thirty-one young women undergoing emergency abdominal surgery who gave a history of recent oral contraceptive intake. In contrast, no D.V.T. developed in nineteen similar patients who were not on oral contraceptives (P less than 0-01). Plasma-antithrombin-III activity was significantly lower preoperatively in patients taking oral contraceptives; postoperative D.V.T. subsequently developed in three out of five patients with preoperative antithrombin-III activity below 50%. In seventy-eight dental patients undergoing molar extraction, antithrombin-III activity was measured before, during, and after operation. Activity fell in all patients during operation, but the fall was significantly greater in women taking oral contraceptives (P less than 0-01). The intra-operative fall in antithrombin-III activity was prevented by a small preoperative dose of subcutaneous heparin.

  17. [Changes in antithrombin III, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and thrombin-antithrombin III complex following implantation of a coronary Palmaz-Schatz stent].

    PubMed

    Dittel, M; Haushofer, A; Spiel, R; Halbmayer, W M; Prachar, H; Fischer, M; Mlczoch, J

    1995-01-01

    To detect changes in the clotting parameters antithrombin III (AT III), prothrombin-fragment 1 + 2 (F 1 + 2) and thrombin-antithrombin-III-complex (TAT) after implantation of Palmaz Schatz stents, coagulation was monitored at standardized time points in 35 patients for 10 days. All patients were anticoagulated using a combination of heparin, phenprocoumon, and acetyl salicylic acid. Heparin therapy was guided by APTT levels (normal range 25-35 s), which were still within the therapeutic range (median 49.6 s (25%/75% percentiles 41.6/54.4) on day 10. Simultaneous oral anticoagulation was found to be effective on day 8 on average (INR median 2.24 (1.93/2.50)). The AT III activity dropped significantly (p < 0.0001) after a heparin loading dose of 15,000 IU during stenting. As the heparin dose was reduced on the following days, AT III levels increased significantly (p < 0.0001) during the observation time. There was a highly significant (p < 0.001) negative correlation between AT III and heparin levels. On days 4 and 5 F 1 + 2 values were significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) higher than on the day of stenting (median 1.07 (0.90/1.31) 1.13 nmol/l and 1.06 (0.85/1.23) nmol/l vs. 0.97 (0.69/1.15) nmol/l) and dropped during anticoagulation. F 1 + 2 levels showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.0005) with APTT values. TAT values showed no significant changes during the observation period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. [Comparative measurement of antithrombin III by latex agglutination and radial immunodiffusion in patients with peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Miagkova, M A; Aleshkin, A V; Abramenko, T V; Savitskaia, Iu A; Aleshkin, V A

    1997-01-01

    A highly sensitive and rapid method, based on latex agglutination, has been developed for measuring antithrombin III (AT III) in the blood serum of patients and donors. The sensitivity of analysis is 0.6 microgram/ml, time 2 to 3 min. The method is simple, requires no sophisticated equipment, and may be used under field conditions. The results are assessed visually. Immunochemical reagents have been synthesized for the method: latex conjugates and specific antibodies to AT III. The method was tried in patients with peritonitis. An additional criterion for diagnosing the respiratory distress syndrome of adults in this patient population has been developed.

  19. Domain structure of antithrombin III. Tentative localization of the heparin binding region using /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gettins, P.; Wooten, E.W.

    1987-07-14

    The denaturation of human and bovine antithrombin III by guanidine hydrochloride has been followed by /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy. The same unfolding transition seen previously from circular dichroism studies at low denaturant concentration was detected here by discontinuous changes in the chemical shifts of the C(2) protons of two of the five histidines in human antithrombin III and of three of the six histidines in bovine antithrombin III. These two histidines in human antithrombin III are assigned to residue 1 and, more tentatively, to residue 65. Two of the three histidines similarly affected in the bovine protein appear to be homologous to residues in the human protein. This supports the proposal of similar structures for the two proteins. In the presence of heparin, the discontinuous titration behavior of these histidine resonances is shifted to higher denaturant concentration, reflecting the stabilization of the easily unfolded first domain of the protein by bound heparin. From the tentative assignment of one of these resonances to histidine-1, it is proposed that the heparin binding site of antithrombin III is located in the N-terminal region and that this region forms a separate domain from the rest of the protein. The pattern of disulfide linkages is such that this domain may well extend from residue 1 to at least residue 128. Thermal denaturation also leads to major perturbation of these two histidine resonances in human antithrombin III, though stable intermediates in the unfolding were not detected.

  20. Familial antithrombin III deficiency in a Malay patient with massive thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wan Ab Rahman, W S; Abdullah, W Z; Hassan, M N; Hussin, A; Zulkafli, Z; Haron, J

    2017-08-01

    Patients with low antithrombin III (AT III) has increased risk for arteriovenous thromboembolic (TE) disease. We report a 28-year-old Malay lady who presented with spontaneous right calf pain and swelling of one week duration. She was on oral contraceptive pills and had a history of travelling for a long distance prior to the presentation. Her brother who was diagnosed with AT III deficiency had arterial thrombosis at a young age. She was diagnosed as having right popliteal vein thrombosis by ultrasound and treated with subcutaneous fondaparinux. While on treatment, she developed massive bilateral pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombophilia study showed reduced AT III activity (38μl/dl) and normal results for protein C, protein S, activated protein C resistance and lupus anticoagulant assays. This patient has heterozygous AT III deficiency added with significant acquired factors responsible for the TE events. Those with AT III deficiency may have resistance to heparin therapy and require higher doses of heparin.

  1. Antithrombin III/SerpinC1 insufficiency exacerbates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Guangyuan; Lu, Zeyuan; Geurts, Aron M; Usa, Kristie; Jacob, Howard J; Cowley, Allen W; Wang, Niansong; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Antithrombin III, encoded by SerpinC1, is a major anti-coagulation molecule in vivo and has anti-inflammatory effects. We found that patients with low antithrombin III activities presented a higher risk of developing acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. To study this further, we generated SerpinC1 heterozygous knockout rats and followed the development of acute kidney injury in a model of modest renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Renal injury, assessed by serum creatinine and renal tubular injury scores after 24 h of reperfusion, was significantly exacerbated in SerpinC1+/− rats compared to wild-type littermates. Concomitantly, renal oxidative stress, tubular apoptosis, and macrophage infiltration following this injury were significantly aggravated in SerpinC1+/− rats. However, significant thrombosis was not found in the kidneys of any group of rats. Antithrombin III is reported to stimulate the production of prostaglandin I2, a known regulator of renal cortical blood flow, in addition to having anti-inflammatory effects and to protect against renal failure. Prostaglandin F1α, an assayable metabolite of prostaglandin I2, was increased in the kidneys of the wild-type rats at 3 h after reperfusion. The increase of prostaglandin F1α was significantly blunted in SerpinC1+/− rats, which preceded increased tubular injury and oxidative stress. Thus, our study found a novel role of SerpinC1 insufficiency in increasing the severity of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26108065

  2. Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III: effect of single amino acid substitutions and relationship with functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, V; Leone, G; Mastrangelo, S; Lane, D A; Girolami, A; de Moerloose, P; Sas, G; Abildgaard, U; Blajchman, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1994-02-01

    Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III (AT-III) was investigated by crossed immunoelectrofocusing (CIEF) on eleven molecular variants. A normal pattern was found in five variants while two different abnormal CIEF patterns were found in the other four and two variants, respectively. Point mutations causing a major pI change (exceeding 4.0) of the amino acid substituted lead to alterations in the overall microheterogeneity. The variants thus substituted share a first type of abnormal CIEF pattern with alterations throughout the pH range, regardless of the location of the mutation (reactive site and adjacent regions or heparin binding region). Minor amino acid pI changes in these regions do not alter the AT-III overall microheterogeneity, whatever the resulting functional defect. However, if the mutation is placed in the region around positions 404 or 429, then even minor changes of the amino acid pI seem able to alter the overall charge, leading to a second type of abnormal CIEF pattern with the main alteration at pH 4.8-4.6. Neuraminidase treatment leads to disappearance of microheterogeneity except for the variants with the Arg393 to Cys substitution. Addition of thrombin induces CIEF modifications specifically related to the functional defect. A normal formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes induces a shift towards the more acid pH range, whereas in the variants substituted at the reactive site the CIEF pattern is substantially unaffected by thrombin; variants substituted at positions 382-384 show a maximal thrombin-induced increase of the isoforms at pI 4.8-4.6. Therefore mutant antithrombins with different functional abnormalities but sharing a common CIEF pattern were well distinguished.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Pivotal Role for α1-Antichymotrypsin in Skin Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Textoris, Christine; Oehme, Felix; Klaassen, Tobias; Goppelt, Andreas; Römer, Axel; Fugmann, Burkhard; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Werner, Sabine; Krieg, Thomas; Eming, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    α1-Antichymotrypsin (α1-ACT) is a specific inhibitor of leukocyte-derived chymotrypsin-like proteases with largely unknown functions in tissue repair. By examining human and murine skin wounds, we showed that following mechanical injury the physiological repair response is associated with an acute phase response of α1-ACT and the mouse homologue Spi-2, respectively. In both species, attenuated α1-ACT/Spi-2 activity and gene expression at the local wound site was associated with severe wound healing defects. Topical application of recombinant α1-ACT to wounds of diabetic mice rescued the impaired healing phenotype. LC-MS analysis of α1-ACT cleavage fragments identified a novel cleavage site within the reactive center loop and showed that neutrophil elastase was the predominant protease involved in unusual α1-ACT cleavage and inactivation in nonhealing human wounds. These results reveal critical functions for locally acting α1-ACT in the acute phase response following skin injury, provide mechanistic insight into its function during the repair response, and raise novel perspectives for its potential therapeutic value in inflammation-mediated tissue damage. PMID:21693707

  4. [Prophylaxis of consumption coagulopathy in shock. Dependence of the effect of heparin on the activity of antithrombin III (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, H; Blauhut, B; Necek, S; Kramar, H; Vinazzer, H

    1980-11-01

    In 16 patients admitted in shock, heparin prophylaxis for DIC was carried out. The effect of heparin was monitored by a series of coagulation tests. A distinct relation was found between the effect of heparin on the aPTT and on the thrombin clotting time and the activity of antithrombin III. Even a comparatively slight diminution of this activity resulted in a considerable decrease of the heparin effect on coagulation. Since this effect is of primary importance for the efficacy of prophylaxis of DIC, regular assays of antithrombin III are proposed in shock patients receiving heparin.

  5. Antithrombin III Doses Rounded to Available Vial Sizes in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Winifred M.; Padilla-Tolentino, Eimeira

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Children have decreased levels of antithrombin III (AT III) compared to adults. These levels may be further decreased during acute illness. Administration of exogenous AT III can increase anticoagulant efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate AT III doses rounded to available vial sizes compared to partial vial doses in critically ill pediatric patients, including patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). METHOD This retrospective review evaluated pediatric patients 0–18 years of age admitted to a 24-bed medical/surgical pediatric intensive care unit between June 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, who received plasma-derived AT III. Patients received unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or no anticoagulation. This review included patients who received ECMO and CRRT. RESULTS Eighty doses of AT III were administered to 24 patients (38 full vial size doses and 42 partial vial size doses). The AT III level following dose administration was ≥80% for 26 full vial doses (70%) and 16 partial vial doses (41%; p = 0.010). For patients who received multiple doses of AT III, the median time between doses was 45 hours following full vial doses, and 23 hours following partial vial doses (p = 0.011). Seven patients (29%) had documentation of new or increased bleeding. The median waste prevented from rounding doses to full vial sizes was 363 units. CONCLUSIONS After receiving AT III doses rounded to full vial sizes, patients were more likely to have a therapeutic AT III level and a longer interval between administrations. Rounding AT III doses to full vial sizes reduces waste and can result in cost savings.

  6. Acquired deficiency and urinary excretion of antithrombin III in nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, N D; Paule, P; Toohey, J; Hung, E; Alikhani, S; Darwish, R; Pahl, M V

    1984-09-01

    The published data concerning changes of antithrombin III (ATIII) in nephrotic syndrome (NS) are contradictory. While increased ATIII activity has been reported by some investigators, decreased concentration has been shown by others and normal values by yet another group of authors. We determined plasma and urine concentrations of ATIII in a group of 20 patients with NS using an immunologic assay. In addition, plasma ATIII activity was determined. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of normal volunteers. Plasma concentration and activity of ATIII were both greatly reduced in the patients with NS. In addition, substantial quantities of ATIII were recovered in the urine of all tested patients. The present study, therefore, substantiates the low plasma concentrations of ATIII and its urinary losses in NS. In addition, a parallel reduction in plasma ATIII activity is demonstrated providing functional evidence of acquired ATIII deficiency in this condition.

  7. Interaction of a trypsin-like enzyme of Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 with antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Curtis, M A; Slaney, J M; Carman, R J; Pemberton, P A

    1993-04-01

    We have previously observed that trypsin-like activity in Porphyromonas gingivalis culture supernatants is inhibitable by the plasma arg-serpin antithrombin III (ATIII). This report demonstrates that a partially purified P. gingivalis trypsin-like enzyme (M(r) 47,000) is inhibited by ATIII with an association rate constant (k(ass)) of 5.65 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 but does not form SDS-stable complexes. Heparin enhances the k(ass) and stabilizes the complexes but in either case such inhibition is temporary and results in ATIII inactivation by reactive centre proteolysis between R393-S394. In the absence of heparin this is accompanied by N-terminal cleavage between K39-I40.

  8. Low molecular weight heparin restores antithrombin III activity from hyperglycemia induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Palazzni, E; Quatraro, A; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    Alteration of antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, glycemia level dependent, exists in diabetes mellitus. In this study the ability of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (Fluxum, Alfa-Wassermann S.p.A., Bologna, Italy), as well as unfractioned héparin, to preserve ATIII activity from glucose-induced alterations, both in vitro and in vivo, is reported. The subcutaneous and intravenous LMWH and heparin administration increases basal depressed ATIII activity in diabetic patients. Heparin shows an equivalent effect on both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity of ATIII, while LMWH is more effective in preserving the anti-Xa activity. Similarity, heparin preserves ATIII activity from hyperglycemia-induced alterations, during hyperglycemic clamp, and LMWH infusion is able to preserve a significant amount of anti-Xa activity from glucose-induced alterations. Since diabetic patients show a high incidence of thrombotic accidents, LMWH appears to be a promising innovation for the prevention of diabetic thrombophylia.

  9. Purified radiolabeled antithrombin III metabolism in three families with hereditary AT III deficiency: application of a three-compartment model

    SciTech Connect

    Knot, E.A.; de Jong, E.; ten Cate, J.W.; Iburg, A.H.; Henny, C.P.; Bruin, T.; Stibbe, J.

    1986-01-01

    Purified human radioiodinated antithrombin III (125I-AT III) was used to study its metabolism in six members from three different families with a known hereditary AT III deficiency. Six healthy volunteers served as a control group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) showed the purified AT III to be homogeneous. Amino acid analysis of the protein revealed a composition identical to a highly purified internal standard. The specific activity was 5.6 U/mg. Analysis of plasma radioactivity data was performed, using a three-compartment model. Neither plasma disappearance half-times nor fractional catabolic rate constants differed significantly between patients and control subjects. The mean absolute catabolic rate in the patient group was significantly lower than that of the control group at 2.57 +/- 0.44 and 4.46 +/- 0.80 mg/kg/day, respectively. In addition, the mean patient alpha 1-phase, flux ratio (k1,2 and k2,1) of the second compartment alpha 2-phase and influx (k3,1) of the third compartment were significantly reduced as compared with control values. It has been tentatively concluded that the observed reduction in the second compartment may be caused by a decrease in endothelial cell surface binding.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  14. Intravenous nitroglycerin-induced heparin resistance: a qualitative antithrombin III abnormality.

    PubMed

    Becker, R C; Corrao, J M; Bovill, E G; Gore, J M; Baker, S P; Miller, M L; Lucas, F V; Alpert, J A

    1990-06-01

    An ability of intravenous nitroglycerin to interfere with the anticoagulant properties of intravenous heparin would have profound clinical implications. To investigation nitroglycerin-heparin interactions, the following pilot study was performed. Patients (N = 18) admitted to the coronary care unit with a diagnosis of either acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina were divided into four treatment groups: (1) intravenous nitroglycerin and intravenous heparin; (2) intravenous nitroglycerin alone; (3) intravenous heparin alone; or (4) neither intravenous nitroglycerin nor intravenous heparin. Serial determinations of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum heparin concentration, antithrombin III (ATIII) antigen (ATA), and ATIII activity (ATC) were obtained over a 72-hour period. Overall, patients receiving intravenous nitroglycerin did not differ significantly from other patients in APTT, heparin dose, heparin concentration, ATA, ATC, or ATA/ATC ratio (ATR). However, patients receiving intravenous nitroglycerin at a rate exceeding 350 micrograms per minute had a lower APTT (p less than 0.05), lower ATC (p = 0.02), higher ATR (p = 0.004), and a larger heparin dose requirement than patients receiving lower infusion rates. ATR correlated directly (r = 0.91; p less than 0.05) and ATC inversely (r = -0.78; p less than 0.05) with the intravenous nitroglycerin dose. Serum heparin concentration did not correlate with the intravenous nitroglycerin dose. Intravenous nitroglycerin-induced heparin resistance occurs at a critical nitroglycerin dose. A nitroglycerin-induced qualitative ATIII abnormality may be the underlying mechanism.

  15. Targeted mutagenesis of zebrafish antithrombin III triggers disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombosis, revealing insight into function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Kretz, Colin A.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Richter, Catherine E.; Tsao, Philip; Vo, Andy H.; Huarng, Michael C.; Rode, Thomas; Hu, Zhilian; Mehra, Rohit; Olson, Steven T.; Joung, J. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic blood clotting is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, underlying deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Genetic predisposition to thrombosis is still poorly understood, and we hypothesize that there are many additional risk alleles and modifying factors remaining to be discovered. Mammalian models have contributed to our understanding of thrombosis, but are low throughput and costly. We have turned to the zebrafish, a tool for high-throughput genetic analysis. Using zinc finger nucleases, we show that disruption of the zebrafish antithrombin III (at3) locus results in spontaneous venous thrombosis in larvae. Although homozygous mutants survive into early adulthood, they eventually succumb to massive intracardiac thrombosis. Characterization of null fish revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation in larvae secondary to unopposed thrombin activity and fibrinogen consumption, which could be rescued by both human and zebrafish at3 complementary DNAs. Mutation of the human AT3-reactive center loop abolished the ability to rescue, but the heparin-binding site was dispensable. These results demonstrate overall conservation of AT3 function in zebrafish, but reveal developmental variances in the ability to tolerate excessive clot formation. The accessibility of early zebrafish development will provide unique methods for dissection of the underlying mechanisms of thrombosis. PMID:24782510

  16. Amide-HILIC LC/MS for the characterization of Antithrombin III heparin binders

    PubMed Central

    Naimy, Hicham; Leymarie, Nancy; Bowman, Michael J.; Costello, Catherine E.; Zaia, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan attached to a core protein on the cell surface. Protein binding to cell surface Heparan sulfate (HS) is a key regulatory event for many cellular processes. The concept whereby protein binding to HS is not random but requires a limited number of sulfation patterns is becoming clear. Here we describe a hydrophobic trapping assay to screen a library of heparin hexasaccharides for binders to Antithrombin III (ATIII). Out of five initial hexasaccharide compositions present in the library (1:2:3:6:1), (1:2:3:7:1), (1:2:3:7:0), (1:2:3:8:0), (1:2:3:9:0) only two are shown to be able to bind ATIII, namely (1:2:3:8:0) and (1:2:3:9:0). The use of an amide hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) LC/MS permitted reproducible quantitative analysis of the composition of the initial library as well as that of the binding fraction. This type of LC/MS has never been applied to heparinoids. The specificity of the hexasaccharides binding ATIII was confirmed by assaying their ability to enhance ATIII mediated inhibition of Factor Xa in vitro. PMID:18260648

  17. Heparin binding domain of antithrombin III: Characterization using a synthetic peptide directed polyclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.; Dey, B.; Knauer, D.J. )

    1990-09-25

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a plasma-borne serine protease inhibitor that apparently forms covalent complexes with thrombin. The interaction between ATIII and thrombin is enhanced several thousandfold by the glycosaminoglycan, heparin. The authors have previously proposed that the heparin binding site of ATIII residues within a region extending from amino acid residues 114-156. Computer-assisted analysis of this region revealed the presence of a 22 amino acid domain (residues 124-145), part of which shows a strong potential for the formation of an amphipathic helix: hydrophobic on one face and highly positively charged on the other. In the presence studies, polyclonal antisera were generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 124-145 in native human ATIII. Affinity-purified IgG from these antisera, as well as monovalent Fab's derived from them, specifically blocked the binding of heparin to ATIII. Additionally, occupancy of the heparin binding site by these same monovalent and bivalent IgG's at least partially substituted for heparin, accelerating linkage formation between ATIII and thrombin. These results provide the first immunological evidence that region 124-145 is directly involved in the binding of heparin to ATIII and that an antibody-induced conformational change within this region can mediate ATIII activation.

  18. Antimicrobial effects of helix D-derived peptides of human antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-10-24

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a key antiproteinase involved in blood coagulation. Previous investigations have shown that ATIII is degraded by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, leading to release of heparin binding fragments derived from its D helix. As heparin binding and antimicrobial activity of peptides frequently overlap, we here set out to explore possible antibacterial effects of intact and degraded ATIII. In contrast to intact ATIII, the results showed that extensive degradation of the molecule yielded fragments with antimicrobial activity. Correspondingly, the heparin-binding, helix D-derived, peptide FFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLV (FFF21) of human ATIII, was found to be antimicrobial against particularly the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that FFF21 binds to and permeabilizes bacterial membranes. Analogously, FFF21 was found to induce membrane leakage of model anionic liposomes. In vivo, FFF21 significantly reduced P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Additionally, FFF21 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest novel roles for ATIII-derived peptide fragments in host defense.

  19. Increased alpha 2-macroglobulin in diabetes: a hyperglycemia related phenomenon associated with reduced antithrombin III activity.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Stante, A; Dello Russo, P; Torella, R

    1989-01-01

    Increased alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) activity and concentration, and decreased antithrombin III (ATIII) plasma concentration are reported in diabetic subjects. In diabetes an inverse correlation between ATIII activity and blood glucose, HbA1, alpha 2M activity and alpha 2M concentration, and a direct correlation between both alpha 2M activity and alpha 2M concentration with blood glucose and HbA1 are found. Moreover, a direct correlation between alpha 2M activity and alpha 2M concentration fails. In both diabetic and normal subjects induced hyperglycemia increases alpha 2M activity and alpha 2M concentration reduces ATIII activity, while ATIII concentration is not affected. These data which show that hyperglycemia may increase alpha 2M molecule levels while altering only the biological function of ATIII, provide evidence that hyperglycemia may decrease, directly, the biological function of some proteins and may condition the levels of some risk factors for the development of diabetic complications such as alpha 2M.

  20. Early prediction of postoperative liver dysfunction and clinical outcome using antithrombin III-activity

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, David; Offensperger, Florian; Klinglmueller, Florian; Haegele, Stefanie; Oehlberger, Lukas; Gruenberger, Thomas; Brostjan, Christine; Starlinger, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Antithrombin III (ATIII) has been reported to be associated with liver pathologies and was shown to predict outcome in patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. We now aimed to assess whether perioperative ATIII-activity could predict postoperative outcome in patients without underlying liver disease, as well as in a routine clinical setting of patients undergoing hepatic resection. Methods ATIII-activity was evaluated preoperatively and on the first (POD1) and fifth day after liver resection in a retrospective evaluation cohort of 228 colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis (mCRC). We further aimed to prospectively validate our results in a set of 177 consecutive patients undergoing hepatic resection. Results Patients developing postoperative liver dysfunction (LD) had a more pronounced postoperative decrease in ATIII-activity (P<0.001). ATIII-activity on POD1 significantly predicted postoperative LD (P<0.001, AUC = 84.4%) and remained independent upon multivariable analysis. A cut-off value of 61.5% ATIII-activity was determined using ROC analysis. This cut-off was vital to identify high-risk patients for postoperative LD, morbidity, severe morbidity and mortality (P<0.001, respectively) with a highly accurate negative predictive value of 97%, which could be confirmed for LD (P<0.001) and mortality (P = 0.014) in our independent validation cohort. Further, mCRC patients below our cut-off suffered from a significantly decreased overall survival (OS) at 1 and 3 years after surgery (P = 0.011, P = 0.025). Conclusions The routine laboratory parameter ATIII-activity on POD1 independently predicted postoperative LD and was associated with clinical outcome. Patients with a postoperative ATIII-activity <61.5% might benefit from close monitoring and timely initiation of supportive therapy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01700231 PMID:28406940

  1. Hyperglycemia-conditioned increase in alpha-2-macroglobulin in healthy normal subjects: a phenomenon correlated with deficient antithrombin III activity.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Giugliano, D

    1989-01-01

    Induced hyperglycemia in normal subjects increases alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) activity and alpha 2M concentration and reduces antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, while it does not affect ATIII plasma concentration. Hyperglycemia-determined variations in ATIII activity and alpha 2M molecules are correlated in an inverse and parallel fashion. A compensatory role for the increase in alpha 2M in the regulation of the coagulation system may be hypothesized. Moreover, these data provide evidence that hyperglycemia may decrease, directly, the biological function of some proteins and may influence the levels of some risk factors for the development of complications in diabetes.

  2. The role of hyperglycaemia-induced alterations of antithrombin III and factor X activation in the thrombin hyperactivity of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Quatraro, A; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Dello Russo, P; Lefebvre, P; Giugliano, D

    1990-05-01

    Factor X concentration and factor X activation, antithrombin III anti-Xa activity and plasma concentration, and fibrinopeptide A were measured in 20 diabetic patients and 20 normal subjects. Although factor X activation (81.3 +/- 2.2 vs 97.3 +/- 2.1%, p less than 0.01; mean +/- SE) and antithrombin III activity (76.5 +/- 2.2 vs 96.3 +/- 1.8%, p less than 0.01) were reduced in the diabetic patients, fibrinopeptide A concentration was increased (3.7 +/- 0.4 vs 1.7 +/- 0.2 ng ml-1, p less than 0.01). The ratio of factor X activation to antithrombin III anti-factor Xa activity was increased in the diabetic patients (1.10 +/- 0.01 vs 1.01 +/- 0.02, p less than 0.01). Induced hyperglycaemia was able to mimic all these abnormalities, without changing factor X or antithrombin III concentration. The results suggest that in vivo hyperglycaemia produces a decrease of factor X activation, but at the same time increases fibrinopeptide A formation due to a greater decrease of antithrombin III anti-Xa activity.

  3. Interaction of antithrombin III with bovine aortic segments. Role of heparin in binding and enhanced anticoagulant activity

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.; Nawroth, P.; Marcum, J.; Handley, D.; Kisiel, W.; Rosenberg, R.; Stern, K.

    1985-01-01

    Bovine antithrombin III (AT III) interaction with the luminal surface of bovine aortic segments with a continuous layer of endothelium was examined. Incubation of /sup 125/I-AT III with vessel segments, previously washed free of endogenous AT III, demonstrated specific, time-dependent binding to the protease inhibitor to the endothelium. Half-maximal binding was observed at an added AT III concentration of 14 nM. Binding of /sup 125/I-AT III to the vessel wall was reversible (50% dissociated in 4 min), and addition of either heparin or Factor Xa accelerated displacement of /sup 125/I-AT III from the vessel segment. Dissociation of /sup 125/I-AT III from the vessel segment in the presence of factor Xa coincided with the formation of a Factor Xa-/sup 125/I-AT III complex. Inactivation of Factor IXa and Factor Xa by AT III was facilitated in the presence of vessel segments. Pretreatment of vessel segments with highly purified Flavobacterium heparinase precluded the vessel-dependent augmentation of AT III anticoagulant activity as well as specific binding of /sup 125/I-AT III to the vessel endothelium. In contrast, pretreatment of the vessel segments with chrondroitinases (ABC or AC) had no detectable effect on /sup 125/I-AT III binding or on AT III anticoagulant activity. AT III binding to vessel segments was competitively inhibited by increasing concentration of platelet factor 4. Binding of the protease inhibitor to vessel segments was inhibited by chemical modification of AT III lysyl or tryptophan residues. These AT III derivatives retained progressive inhibitory activity. These data suggest that heparin-like molecules are present on the aortic vessel wall and mediate binding of AT III to the vessel surface, as well as enhancing the anticoagulant activity of AT III at these sites.

  4. Antithrombin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency. (For more about excessive clotting (such as deep vein thrombosis, DVT) and antithrombin deficiency, see the " ... affected person may bleed and/or clot. DVT (deep vein thrombosis – a blood clot usually in a ...

  5. Relationship between angiotensinogen, alpha 1-protease inhibitor elastase complex, antithrombin III and C-reactive protein in septic ARDS.

    PubMed

    Hilgenfeldt, U; Kellermann, W; Kienapfel, G; Jochum, M

    1990-01-01

    The time-course of plasma angiotensinogen (Ao), elastase-alpha 1-protease inhibitor complex (EL alpha 1PI), antithrombin III (AT III) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been investigated of six patients suffering from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The total plasma Ao level (active and inactive Ao) varied in individuals but was increased up to five-fold. An increasing amount of inactive Ao is found. From the beginning of their stay in the intensive care unit up to five days half of the patients displayed a positive correlation between the plasma CRP and Ao level. The CRP and Ao values were either not or were negatively correlated with the AT III values. In contrast plasma Ao and AT III levels in all patients were positively correlated during a particular period in the subsequent phase of the disease, where there was no or a negative correlation with CRP. The two acute phase reactants CRP and EL alpha 1PI were only correlated in two patients at the beginning of the disease. The markedly increased plasma level at the beginning of the inflammatory disease indicates that Ao is an acute phase reactant, and this is supported by the parallel changes in plasma CRP and Ao levels during the early days of ARDS. The relationship between the plasma levels of Ao and AT III for more than fourteen days suggests similar regulation of these members of the serpin family after termination of the acute-phase.

  6. Sex hormone-binding globulin and antithrombin III activity in women with oral ultra-low-dose estradiol.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Sumika; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Kana; Keyama, Kaoru; Yoshida, Kanako; Kato, Takeshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-03-20

    Oral oestrogen increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and increases production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in a dose-dependent manner. SHBG has been suggested to be involved in venous thromboembolism. We examined the effects of oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol on circulating levels of SHBG and coagulation parameters, and we compared the effects to those of transdermal oestradiol. Twenty women received oral oestradiol (500 μg) every day (oral ultra-low-dose group) and 20 women received a transdermal patch (50 μg) as a transdermal group. In addition, the women received dydrogesterone continuously (5 mg) except for women who underwent hysterectomy. Circulating SHBG, antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex were measured before and 3 months after the start of treatment. SHBG was significantly increased at 3 months in the oral ultra-low-dose group, but not in the transdermal group. However, percent changes in SHBG were not significantly different between the two groups. In both groups, ATIII was significantly decreased at 3 months. In conclusion, even ultra-low-dose oestradiol orally increases circulating SHBG level. However, the magnitude of change in SHBG caused by oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol is small and is comparable to that caused by transdermal oestradiol. Impact statement Oral oestrogen replacement therapy increases production of SHBG which may be related to increase in VTE risk. However, the effect of oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol on SHBG has not been clarified. Even ultra-low-dose oestradiol orally increases circulating SHBG levels, but the magnitude of change in SHBG caused by oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol is small and is comparable to that caused by transdermal oestradiol. VTE risk in women receiving oral ultra-low-dose oestradiol may be comparable to that in women receiving transdermal oestradiol.

  7. Novel mutation (E113X) of antithrombin III gene (AT3) in a woman with gestational recurrent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Hoshi, N; Kato, E H; Ebina, Y; Kishida, T; Sagawa, T; Matsuno, K; Fujimoto, S

    2000-04-24

    A 35-year-old Japanese woman with a low level (42-54%) of blood antithrombin (AT) III, experienced two induced abortions due to deep venous thrombosis at 8 weeks of gestation (GW) and cerebral thrombosis at 10 GW. The present pregnancy was successfully managed with intravenous administration of AT III (6,000-8,000 U/wk). Analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) for exons 3A and 4 of the AT III gene (AT3) using her DNA revealed extra expansion bands with altered migration. The DNA sequencing demonstrated novel mutations in exon 3A of AT3: a G to T substitution at nucleotide position 5333 in codon GAG for Glu 113, causing a stop codon (E113X), and an A to T substitution at position 5338 in codon AAA for Lys 114, forming Asn (K114N). These novel mutations, especially E113X, in AT3 may be related to recurrent thrombosis in the pregnancy. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in blood serum of women in labour.

    PubMed

    Wasiluk, A; Dabrowska, M; Jaworski, S; Prokopowicz, J

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-ACT) in blood serum of parturient women was determined. The investigation was conducted in 33 women bearing eutrophic newborns and 36 women bearing hypotrophic newborns. The control group consisted of 30 healthy non-pregnant women in reproductive age. Concentrations of A-1-ACT were determined using the radial immunodiffusion method according to Mancini et al. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group I was three times higher than minimal concentration. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group II was two times higher than minimal concentration. In the control group, the difference between minimal and maximal concentrations of A-1-ACT was inconsiderable. The lack of statistically significant differences between these three groups suggests that labour stress does not influence serum concentrations of this inhibitor. The importance of A-1-ACT in the placental tissue may be connected with immunological mechanisms that assure development and maintenance of pregnancy.

  9. No genetic effect of {alpha}{sub 1}-antichymotrypsin in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, J.L.; Pritchard, M.L.; Saunders, A.M.

    1996-04-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder for individuals over the age of 40.AD has a complex etiology, and it is likely that multiple genes, acting independently and/or interacting, affect the risk of developing AD. Several genes involved with AD have been described already, but only the APOE gene on chromosome 19q has been shown to affect the risk of the common late onset form of AD. {alpha}{sub 1}-Antichymotrypsin (AACT) is a major component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of AD patients, and an allele in its gene has been proposed to increase the risk of developing AD when also associated with the APOE-4 allele. We have examined the role of this AACT polymorphism in a large set of families and sporadic cases, and do not see any effect, either alone or in combination with the APOE-4 allele. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. The efficacy of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) vs antithrombin III (at III) vs heparin, in the healing process of partial-thickness burns: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kritikos, O.; Tsagarakis, M.; Tsoutsos, D.; Kittas, C.; Gorgoulis, V.; Papalois, A.; Giannopoulos, A.; Kakiopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This is an experimental study regarding the positive effect of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in the healing process of partial-thickness burns, in comparison to antithrombin III and heparin. On a porcine model we induced superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burns and performed intravenous administration of the elements of study during the first 48 h. The progress of the condition of the injured tissues was evaluated by histopathological examination at specific time intervals. The results showed an improved healing response of the specimens treated with rhAPC compared to those treated with antithrombin III, heparin, and placebo. PMID:23233823

  11. Recombinant human antithrombin III improves survival and attenuates inflammatory responses in baboons lethally challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Minnema, M C; Chang, A C; Jansen, P M; Lubbers, Y T; Pratt, B M; Whittaker, B G; Taylor, F B; Hack, C E; Friedman, B

    2000-02-15

    Plasma-derived antithrombin III (ATIII) prevents the lethal effects of Escherichia coli infusion in baboons, but the mechanisms behind this effect are not clear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human ATIII (rhATIII) on the clinical course and the inflammatory cytokine and coagulation responses in baboons challenged with lethal dose of E coli. Animals in the treatment group (n = 5) received high doses of rhATIII starting 1 hour before an E coli challenge. Those in the control group were administered saline. Survival was significantly improved in the treatment group (P =.002). Both groups had similar hemodynamic responses to E coli challenge but different coagulation and inflammatory responses. The rhATIII group had an accelerated increase of thrombin-ATIII complexes and significantly less fibrinogen consumption compared to controls. In addition, the rhATIII group had much less severe thrombotic pathology on autopsy and virtually no fibrinolytic response to E coli challenge. Furthermore, the rhATIII group had a significantly attenuated inflammatory response as evidenced by marked reduction of the release of various cytokines. We conclude that the early administration of high doses of rhATIII improves the outcome in baboons lethally challenged with E coli, probably due to the combined anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory effects of this therapy. (Blood. 2000;95:1117-1123)

  12. Blood macrophage colony-stimulating factor and thrombin-antithrombin III complex concentrations in pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Numaguchi, M; Ohkubo, N; Yaoi, Y

    1998-04-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a characteristic cytokine that plays an essential role in placenta maintenance, and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) is a hemostatic marker that is remarkably altered both in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia. The present study was designed in order to show various levels of M-CSF and TAT in pregnancies. Peripheral blood was collected from 49 subjects, of whom 31 were normal pregnant women consisting of the four groups (namely 10th, 20th, 30th, and 38th weeks of gestation), 13 were preeclamptic pregnant women (37th week of gestation; mean blood pressure, 158/99 mm Hg), and 5 were nonpregnant controls. We compared blood M-CSF and TAT levels among them. Results showed that blood M-CSF and TAT levels increased significantly with gestational age. Furthermore, the ratio of increase in M-CSF was significantly lower than that in TAT in normal pregnant women compared with controls. In contrast, the ratio of increase in M-CSF was significantly higher than that in TAT in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnant women. These results concerning the ratio of increase in M-CSF and TAT have not been reported. These findings show that M-CSF level increases significantly in preeclampsia even in its earlier stage, exhibiting a systolic blood pressure of less than 160 mm Hg.

  13. Serum alpha 1-antichymotrypsin level as a marker for Alzheimer-type dementia.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, J; Schleissner, L; Tachiki, K H; Kling, A S

    1995-01-01

    Excessive alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in brain has been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We measured serum ACT by radial immunodiffusion in 57 patients with presumed AD, 110 healthy controls (24 children; 86 adults), 67 non-AD patients from a geriatric private practice and a VA nursing home, and 136 asthmatics (56 adults; 80 children) as an inflammatory disease control group. Serum ACT was significantly higher in AD (73.1 +/- 22 mg/dl) than in healthy controls (47.9 +/- 8.1 mg/dl) or non-AD patients (61.8 +/- 23.9 mg/dl). A level of 60 mg/dl best separated AD patients from controls or non-AD patients. Serial measurements served to distinguish elevations of ACT level in AD from non-AD inflammatory conditions; the ACT level in the latter returned to normal with therapy or time, but the levels in AD remained elevated. A measure of serum ACT by radial immunodiffusion can be used to support a diagnosis of AD disease but not necessarily as a screening test due to the potentially large number of false positives (26% in the population studied) should malignancy or inflammatory disease be concurrent.

  14. Antithrombin III in patients with acute deep vein thrombosis during heparin treatment (subcutaneous and intravenous) and during and after treatment with oral coumarins.

    PubMed

    Andersson, G; Fagrell, B; Holmgren, K; Johnsson, H; Ljungberg, B; Wilhelmsson, S

    1984-05-15

    The antithrombin III (AT-III) concentration was studied in 98 patients with symptomatic acute deep-vein thrombosis. All patients were initially treated with heparin randomly by subcutaneous injections or by continuous infusions. Then the patients were treated with coumarins during one or six months. The AT-III concentration was estimated daily during heparin treatment and repeatedly during the first year. The mean AT-III concentration decreased progressively 25% during 5 days of heparin treatment regardless of whether heparin was given intravenously or subcutaneously. The mean AT-III concentration during coumarin treatment was higher than after coumarin treatment. Eleven patients developed recurrent thromboembolic episodes during the follow-up period. The mean AT-III concentration in these patients was not lower than in the patients without recurrences.

  15. Polyguluronate sulfate, polymannuronate sulfate, and their oligosaccharides have antithrombin III- and heparin cofactor II-independent anticoagulant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xuan; Lan, Ying; Zeng, Pengjiao; Guo, Zhihua; Hao, Cui; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading causes of death. However, the complications can be treated with heparin and heparinoids, such as heparin pentasaccharide Fondaparinux, dermatan sulfate, and PSS made from alginate extracted from brown seaweeds by chemical sulfation. Alginate is composed of a linear backbone of polymannuronate (PM), polyguluronate (PG), and alternate residues of mannuronic acid and guluronic acid. It is unknown if heparin and sulfated PG (PGS)/PM (PMS) have the same or different anticoagulant molecular targets. In the current study, the anticoagulant activities of PGS, PMS, and their oligosaccharides were directly compared to that of heparin, Fondaparinux, and dermatan sulfate by the activated partial thrombinplastin time (aPTT) assay using normal, antithrombin III (ATIII)-deficient, heparin co-factor II (HCII)-deficient, and ATIII- and HCII-double deficient human plasmas. Our results showed that PGS, PMS, and their oligosaccharides had better anticoagulant activity than that of Fondaparinux in all four human plasmas tested. As expected, heparin was the best anticoagulant in normal plasma. Moreover, PGS, PGS6, PGS12, PGS25, PMS6, PMS12, and PMS25 were better anticoagulants than dermatan sulfate in HCII-deficient plasma. Most strikingly, PGS, PGS12, PGS25, PMS6, PMS12, and PMS25 were better anticoagulants than that of heparin in ATIII- and HCII-double deficient human plasma. The results revealed for the first time that sulfated alginate had ATIII- and HCII-independent anticoagulant activities. Therefore, developing PGS and PMS-based anticoagulants might require to discover their major molecular targets and to develop target-specific anticoagulant assays.

  16. Polymorphisms in factor V and antithrombin III gene in recurrent pregnancy loss: a case-control study in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Bhakuni, Teena; Ranjan, Ravi; Kumar, Ravi; Kishor, Kamal; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman; Saxena, Renu

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) can be caused due to diverse factors with thrombophilia being one of them. The association of various thrombophilic risk factors with RPL is inconsistent in different studies and the frequency of these risk factors in Indian population is obscure. Five hundred and eighty patients with either recurrent early miscarriage or a history of at least one late miscarriage were screened for deficiency of protein C (PC), protein S (PS), antithrombin III (AT), APC resistance and prothrombin 20210G > A mutation. APC resistance positive patients were typed for the factor V Leiden, factor V Hong Kong/Cambridge mutations, and HR2 haplotype. PstI and rs2227589 AT mutations were detected by direct sequencing. APC resistance (13.4 %) was detected to be most common in Indian RPL patients followed by PS (10.6 %), PC (9.8 %) and AT deficiency (4.31 %.). FV Leiden was shown to be associated with APC resistance while HR2 haplotype was not associated with APC resistance (p values: 0.0001 and 0.327 respectively) and the increased risk of RPL. PstI and rs2227589 polymorphisms were similar in patients and controls and not associated with AT deficiency in RPL. Our study emphasizes the presence of other contributory factors towards APC resistance rather than FV Leiden alone. This is the first Indian study where HR2 haplotype and rs2227589 are observed to be present in RPL population. Although not significant, occurrence of rs2227589 and FV HR2 in homozygous condition necessitates the study of these polymorphisms in a larger sample size.

  17. Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the in vivo metabolism of antithrombin III (AT III) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Maekawa, T.

    1985-11-01

    Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the metabolism of I-125-labelled canine AT III was studied in mongrel dogs. Under control condition, mean total amount of intravascular AT III with standard deviation was 23.4 +/- 2.4 mg/kg, plasma half life of i.v. injected I-125-AT III was 1.7 +/- 0.2 days, and the fractional catabolic flux (j3x) was 16.3 +/- 1.6 mg/kg/day. The total amount of intra- and extra-vascular AT III was 36.0 +/- 0.34 mg/kg. Neither a 3 hour infusion of a small dose (30 units/kg/hr) of thrombin nor i.v. injection of a large amount of thrombin (5,000-15,000 units/day) with heparin significantly affected AT III metabolism except for a transient decrease in AT III concentration in the latter case, although decrease in plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count was observed in both cases. Two injections with 200 micrograms/kg of endotoxin resulted in an evident acceleration of AT III metabolism with significant decrease in the plasma AT III, fibrinogen concentrations and platelet count. More marked changes in AT III metabolism were induced by a single infusion with 1 mg/kg of endotoxin. Changes in hemostatic system coincided with those observed in DIC.

  18. Congenital antithrombin III deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Nanda, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL. Review ...

  19. [Prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin III complex(TAT) and thrombophilia parameters in orally anticoagulated patients with inferior vena cava filters].

    PubMed

    Halbmayer, W M; Haushofer, A; Toth, E

    1993-01-01

    Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and thrombin-antithrombin-III-complex (TAT) levels were compared in 31 orally anticoagulated patients with inferior vena caval filters and a control group of 31 orally anticoagulated patients without caval filters and the incidence of markers of thrombophilia (deficiency of antithrombin-III, protein C, protein S and factor XII, presence of lupus anticoagulants) was determined. 8 of 31 patients (26%) from the group of caval filter carriers showed markers of thrombophilia (3 protein S deficiencies, 1 protein C deficiency, 2 factor XII deficiencies and 2 patients with lupus anticoagulants). In all orally anticoagulated patients a significant interdependence (p < 0.05) between F1 + 2- and TAT-levels and intensity (INR) of the oral anticoagulation could be observed. Comparison of F1 + 2- and TAT-levels of caval filter carriers and controls revealed no significant difference which leads to the conclusion that inferior vena caval filters do not induce detectable systemic activation of prothrombin under adequate oral anticoagulation therapy.

  20. Antithrombin III, but not C1 esterase inhibitor reduces inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes in an ex-vivo whole blood setting.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Patrick; Nestler, Frank; Leimert, Anja; Bucher, Michael; Czeslick, Elke; Sablotzki, Armin; Raspè, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    In order to examine the immunomodulatory effects of antithrombin III (AT-III) and C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) in human monocytes, we investigated the intracellular expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an ex-vivo laboratory study in a whole blood setting. Heparinized whole blood samples from 23 healthy male and female volunteers (mean age: 27±7years) were pre-incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of AT-III (n=11) and C1-INH (n=12), then stimulated with 0.2 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3h. After phenotyping CD14⁺ monocytes, intracellular expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed using flow cytometry. In addition, 12 whole blood samples (AT-III and C1-INH, n=6 each) were examined using hirudin for anticoagulation; all samples were processed in the same way. To exclude cytotoxicity effects, 7-amino-actinomycin D and Nonidet P40 staining were used to investigate probes. This study is the first to demonstrate the influence of C1-INH and AT-III on the monocytic inflammatory response in a whole blood setting, which mimics the optimal physiological setting. Cells treated with AT-III exhibited significant downregulation of the proportion of gated CD14⁺ monocytes for IL-6 and IL-8, in a dose-dependent manner; downregulation for TNF-α did not reach statistical significance. There were no significant effects on mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). In contrast, C1-INH did not significantly reduce the proportion of gated CD14⁺ monocytes or the MFI regarding IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8. When using hirudin for anticoagulation, no difference in the anti-inflammatory properties of AT-III and C1-INH in monocytes occurs. Taken together, in contrast to TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly downregulated in monocytes in an ex-vivo setting of human whole blood when treated with AT-III. This finding implicates monocytes as an important point of action regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of AT-III in sepsis. C1

  1. Association between alpha-1 antichymotrypsin gene A/T polymorphism and primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zusen; Ye, Qiang; Shao, Bei; He, Jincai; Zhu, Zhenguo; Cheng, Jianhua; Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Siyan; Huang, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    The present study is to use meta-analysis to explain the association between alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT) gene A/T polymorphism and the risk of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). Relevant studies before 1 June 2015 were identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane database and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), and the references of retrieved articles. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association. Five independent publications, with 774 PICH cases and 940 controls, were included. There was no statistical evidence of association between ACT polymorphism and PICH risk under all genetic models in overall estimates (allele model: OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.80-1.28; heterozygote model: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.60-1.45; homozygote model: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.59-1.80; dominant model: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.65-1.46; recessive model: OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.72-1.57). No association was found in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, location of hematoma and blood pressure. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the combined results were stable and reliable. No significant publication bias was found by Begg’s test and Egger’s regression test. The results of our meta-analysis indicate that ACT polymorphism is unlikely to contribute to PICH susceptibility. PMID:26885003

  2. In Vivo Anti-HIV Activity of the Heparin-Activated Serine Protease Inhibitor Antithrombin III Encapsulated in Lymph-Targeting Immunoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Asmal, Mohammed; Whitney, James B.; Luedemann, Corinne; Carville, Angela; Steen, Robert; Letvin, Norman L.; Geiben-Lynn, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are anti-inflammatory mediators with multiple biologic functions. Several serpins have been reported to modulate HIV pathogenesis, or exhibit potent anti-HIV activity in vitro, but the efficacy of serpins as therapeutic agents for HIV in vivo has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, we show that heparin-activated antithrombin III (hep-ATIII), a member of the serpin family, significantly inhibits lentiviral replication in a non-human primate model. We further demonstrate greater than one log10 reduction in plasma viremia in the nonhuman primate system by loading of hep-ATIII into anti-HLA-DR immunoliposomes, which target tissue reservoirs of viral replication. We also demonstrate the utility of hep-ATIIII as a potential salvage agent for HIV strains resistant to standard anti-retroviral treatment. Finally, we applied gene-expression arrays to analyze hep-ATIII-induced host cell interactomes and found that downstream of hep-ATIII, two independent gene networks were modulated by host factors prostaglandin synthetase-2, ERK1/2 and NFκB. Ultimately, understanding how serpins, such as hep-ATIII, regulate host responses during HIV infection may reveal new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23133620

  3. Interaction of heparin with internally quenched fluorogenic peptides derived from heparin-binding consensus sequences, kallistatin and anti-thrombin III.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Daniel C; Nantes, Iseli L; de Souza, Eduardo S; Le Bonniec, Bernard; Ito, Amando S; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz

    2002-09-01

    Internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) peptides bearing the fluorescence donor/acceptor pair o-aminobenzoic acid (Abz)/N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine (EDDnp) at N- and C-terminal ends were synthesized containing heparin-binding sites from the human serpins kallistatin and antithrombin, as well as consensus heparin-binding sequences (Cardin clusters). The dissociation constant (K(d)), as well as the stoichiometry for the heparin-peptide complexes, was determined directly by measuring the decrease in fluorescence of the peptide solution. Experimental procedures were as sensitive as those used to follow the fluorescence change of tryptophan in heparin-binding proteins. The conformation of the peptides and the heparin-peptide complexes were obtained from measurements of time-resolved fluorescence decay and CD spectra. Kallistatin (Arg(300)-Pro(319))-derived peptide (HC2) and one derived from antithrombin III helix D [(AT3D), corresponding to Ser(112)-Lys(139)], which are the heparin-binding sites in these serpins, showed significant affinity for 4500 Da heparin, for which K(d) values were 17 nM and 100 nM respectively. The CD spectra of the heparin-HC2 peptide complex did not show any significant alpha-helix content, different from the situation with peptide AT3D, for which complex-formation with heparin resulted in 24% alpha-helix content. The end-to-end distance distribution and the time-resolved fluorescence-decay measurements agree with the CD spectra and K(d) values. The synthetic alpha-methyl glycoside pentasaccharide AGA*IA(M) (where A represents N,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; G, beta-d-glucuronic acid; A*, N,3,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; I, 2-O-sulphated alpha-l-iduronic acid; and A(M), alpha-methyl glycoside of A) also binds to AT3D and other consensus heparin-binding sequences, although with lower affinity. The interaction of IQF peptides with 4500 Da heparin was displaced by protamine. In conclusion, IQF peptides containing Abz/EDDnp as the

  4. Interaction of heparin with internally quenched fluorogenic peptides derived from heparin-binding consensus sequences, kallistatin and anti-thrombin III.

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Daniel C; Nantes, Iseli L; de Souza, Eduardo S; Le Bonniec, Bernard; Ito, Amando S; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    Internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) peptides bearing the fluorescence donor/acceptor pair o-aminobenzoic acid (Abz)/N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine (EDDnp) at N- and C-terminal ends were synthesized containing heparin-binding sites from the human serpins kallistatin and antithrombin, as well as consensus heparin-binding sequences (Cardin clusters). The dissociation constant (K(d)), as well as the stoichiometry for the heparin-peptide complexes, was determined directly by measuring the decrease in fluorescence of the peptide solution. Experimental procedures were as sensitive as those used to follow the fluorescence change of tryptophan in heparin-binding proteins. The conformation of the peptides and the heparin-peptide complexes were obtained from measurements of time-resolved fluorescence decay and CD spectra. Kallistatin (Arg(300)-Pro(319))-derived peptide (HC2) and one derived from antithrombin III helix D [(AT3D), corresponding to Ser(112)-Lys(139)], which are the heparin-binding sites in these serpins, showed significant affinity for 4500 Da heparin, for which K(d) values were 17 nM and 100 nM respectively. The CD spectra of the heparin-HC2 peptide complex did not show any significant alpha-helix content, different from the situation with peptide AT3D, for which complex-formation with heparin resulted in 24% alpha-helix content. The end-to-end distance distribution and the time-resolved fluorescence-decay measurements agree with the CD spectra and K(d) values. The synthetic alpha-methyl glycoside pentasaccharide AGA*IA(M) (where A represents N,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; G, beta-d-glucuronic acid; A*, N,3,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; I, 2-O-sulphated alpha-l-iduronic acid; and A(M), alpha-methyl glycoside of A) also binds to AT3D and other consensus heparin-binding sequences, although with lower affinity. The interaction of IQF peptides with 4500 Da heparin was displaced by protamine. In conclusion, IQF peptides containing Abz/EDDnp as the

  5. Antithrombin and heparin.

    PubMed

    Carrell, R; Skinner, R; Warden, M; Whisstock, J

    1995-08-01

    Antithrombin, the main inhibitor of thrombosis in blood, is bound and activated by the heparin-like side-chains that line the small vasculature. We now have good depictions of the heparin-binding site on antithrombin, and of the way in which mutations at this site cause thrombotic disease. The interaction of heparin with antithrombin is, however, a kinetic one, with binding being followed by formation of a complex with thrombin and then release from the heparin. Our understanding of the processes involved is currently based on crystallographic models but, for a mobile mechanism, these merely provide snapshots - what is needed is a movie.

  6. Alpha1-antichymotrypsin induces TNF-alpha production and NF-kappaB activation in the murine N9 microglial cell line.

    PubMed

    Braghin, Elisa; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Bresolin, Nereo; Baron, Pierluigi

    2009-12-18

    Microglia are known to accumulate in senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with a set of proteins including alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT). To investigate the biological effects of the interaction between ACT and microglia, we examined cytokine production by the murine N9 microglial cell line after ACT treatment. Real-time PCR analysis and specific immunoassays demonstrate that ACT triggers mRNA expression and release of TNF-alpha by N9 microglial cells. Furthermore, we show that ACT induces a significant increase in NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ACT might contribute to the inflammatory mechanisms present in AD senile plaques.

  7. Investigating changes in the gas-phase conformation of Antithrombin III upon binding of Arixtra using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuejie; Singh, Arunima; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J.; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Woods, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We validate the utility of ion mobility to measure protein conformational changes induced by the binding of glycosaminoglycan ligands, using the well characterized system of Antithrombin III (ATIII) and Arixtra, a pharmaceutical agent with heparin (Hp) activity. Heparin has been used as a therapeutic anticoagulant drug for several decades through its interaction with ATIII, a serine protease inhibitor that plays a central role in the blood coagulation cascade. This interaction induces conformational changes within ATIII that dramatically enhance the ATIII-mediated inhibition rate. Arixtra is the smallest synthetic Hp containing the specific pentasaccharide sequence required to bind with ATIII. Here we report the first travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMS) investigation of the conformational changes in ATIII induced by its interaction with Arixtra. Native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allowed the gentle transfer of the native topology of ATIII and ATIII–Arixtra complex. IM measurements of ATIII and ATIII–Arixtra complex showed a single structure, with well-defined collisional cross section (CCS) values. An average 3.6% increase in CCS of ATIII occurred as a result of its interaction with Arixtra, which agrees closely with the theoretical estimation of the change in CCS based on protein crystal structures. A comparison of the binding behavior of ATIII under both denaturing and non-denaturing conditions confirmed the significance of a folded tertiary structure of ATIII for its biological activity. A Hp oligosaccharide whose structure is similar to Arixtra but missing the 3-O sulfo group on the central glucosamine residue showed a dramatic decrease in binding affinity towards ATIII, but no change in the mobility behavior of the complex, consistent with prior studies that suggested that 3-O sulfation affects the equilibrium constant for binding to ATIII, but not the mode of interaction. In contrast, nonspecific binding by a Hp

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merck Manual Home Edition for Patients and Caregivers: Thrombophilia National Blood Clot Alliance: Antithrombin Deficiency Orphanet: Hereditary thrombophilia due to congenital antithrombin deficiency Patient Support and ...

  9. Manufacturing process of anti-thrombin III concentrate: viral safety validation studies and effect of column re-use on viral clearance.

    PubMed

    Morrica, Antonietta; Nardini, Claudia; Falbo, Anna; Bailey, Andrew C; Bucci, E

    2003-09-01

    A manufacturing process for the production of Anti-thrombin IIII concentrate is described, which is based primarily on Heparin Sepharose affinity chromatography. The process includes two sequential viral inactivation/removal procedures, applied to the fraction eluted from the column, the first by heating in aqueous solution at 60 degrees C for 10 h and the second by nanofiltration. Using viral validation on a scaled-down process both treatments proved to be effective steps; able to inactivate or remove more than 4 logs of virus, and their combined effect (>8 logs) assured the safety of the final product. Viral validation studies of the Heparin Sepharose chromatographic step demonstrated a consistency of the affinity of the resin for viruses over repeated use (16 runs), thus providing evidence of absence of cross-contamination from one batch to the next. It was concluded that the process of ATIII manufacturing provides a high level of confidence that the product will not transmit viruses.

  10. Antithrombin activities in childhood malnutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, R A; Jiménez, E; Ingram, G I; Mora, L A; Atmetlla, F; Carrillo, J M; Vargas, W

    1979-01-01

    Antithrombin activities in 30 severely malnourished children and 40 normal children were estimated in clotting tests by thrombin neutralisation as anti-Xa and by a heparin antithrombin assay; and by immunodiffusion as alpha 2-globulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin. The patients' mean alpha 2-globulin was severely depressed, and there were less marked depletions in mean values for thrombin neutralisation, anti-Xa, and in the heparin antithrombin assay (which showed the flat curve thought to reflect a thrombotic tendency). The alpha 1-antitrypsin values were normal. The findings support the concept of antithrombin as the summation of alpha 2-globulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin (with alpha 2-macroglobulin); and the low values may be related to the high incidence of thrombosis reported in childhood malnutrition, although it was not seen in these patients. PMID:118190

  11. Antithrombin Activity of Erythrocyte Microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Levin, G Ya; Sukhareva, E G

    2017-04-01

    Coagulation and optical (based on chromogenic substrate) methods were employed to examine antithrombin activity of erythrocytes and erythrocyte-derived microvesicles isolated days 7, 14, 21, and 28 on erythrocyte storage. The erythrocyte-derived microvesicles decelerated fibrin clot formation from fibrinogen in the presence of exogenous thrombin both with and without heparin. Microvesicles reduced optical density of chromogenic substrate. These data suggest that erythrocyte-derived microvesicles display a prominent antithrombin activity, which significantly increases during erythrocyte storage.

  12. Alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin, an Inflammatory Protein Overexpressed in the Brains of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease, Induces Tau Hyperphosphorylation through c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Ethika; Fiorelli, Tina; Norden, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The association of inflammatory proteins with neuritic plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients has led to the hypothesis that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of pathology in AD. Earlier studies have shown that alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) enhances amyloid beta fibrillization and accelerated plaque formation in APP transgenic mice. Later studies from our laboratory have shown that purified ACT induces tau hyperphosphorylation and degeneration in neurons. In order to understand the mechanisms by which inflammatory proteins enhance tau hyperphosphorylation, we injected interleukin-1β (IL-1β) intracerebroventricularly into mice expressing human ACT, human tau, or both transgenes. It was found that the hyperphosphorylation of tau in ACT and ACT/htau mice after IL-1β injection correlated with increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We verified the involvement of JNK in ACT-induced tau phosphorylation by utilizing JNK inhibitors in cultured primary neurons treated with ACT, and we found that the inhibitor showed complete prevention of ACT-induced tau phosphorylation. These results indicate that JNK is one of the major kinases involved in the ACT-mediated tau hyperphosphorylation and suggest that inhibitors of this kinase may protect against inflammation-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration associated with AD. PMID:24175110

  13. Magnetic particles as affinity matrix for purification of antithrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercês, A. A. D.; Maciel, J. C.; Carvalho Júnior, L. B.

    2015-11-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto insoluble supports is an important tool for the fabrication of a diverse range of functional materials. It provides advantages: enhanced stability and easy separation. In this work two different magnetic composites were synthesized (MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS) to human antithrombin purification. The magnetic particles (MAG) were obtained by co-precipitation method of iron salts II and III and subsequently coated with polyaniline (MAG-PANI particles). Dacron (polyethylene terephthalate) suffered a hydrazinolysis reaction to obtain a powder (Dacron hydrazide) which was subsequently magnetized (mDAC particles) also by co-precipitation method. Heparan sulfate (HS) was immobilized to MAG-PANI and mDAC retained respectively 35μg and 38.6μg per of support. The magnetic composite containing HS immobilized (MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS) was incubated with human blood plasma (1mL) and then washed with NaCl gradients. Electrophoresis of proteins present in eluates showed bands of antithrombin (58kDa). A reduction in the antithrombin activity was detected in plasma that were incubated in the composites magnetic with HS immobilized, suggesting that the antithrombin was removed of the human blood plasma and then purified. Therefore, the above results suggest that both preparations: MAG-PANI-HS and mDAC-HS are able to affinity purify antithrombin, an important component of blood coagulation.

  14. Interstitial deletion of chromosome 1q [del(1)(q24q25.3)] identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene dosage analysis of apolipoprotein A-II, coagulation factor V, and antithrombin III

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Takako; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Mori, Yosuke

    1997-01-20

    We report on a 12-month-old Japanese boy with an interstitial deletion of the long-arm of chromosome 1 and meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, anal atresia, atrial septal defect, left renal agenesis, bilateral cryptorchidism, talipes equinovarus, low birth weight, growth/developmental retardation, and many minor anomalies. By conventional GTG-banding, his karyotype was first interpreted as 46,XY,de1(1)(q23q24), but it was corrected as 46,XY.ish del(1)(q24q25.3) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 known cosmid clones as probes. His serum levels of apolipoprotein A-II (gene symbol: APOA2, previously assigned to 1q21-q23) and coagulation factor V (F5, 1q21-q25) were normal, while serum concentration and activity of antithrombin III (AT3, 1q23-q25.1) was low. The results indicated that localization of APOA2 and F5 are proximal to the deleted region and AT3 is located within the deletion extent in the patient. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Purification and characterization of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin-like protease inhibitor that regulates prohormone thiol protease involved in enkephalin precursor processing.

    PubMed

    Hook, V Y; Purviance, R T; Azaryan, A V; Hubbard, G; Krieger, T J

    1993-09-25

    Evidence is presented showing that alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) inhibits a novel prohormone thiol protease (PTP) involved in processing the enkephalin precursor. Colocalization of ACT immunoreactivity with PTP within isolated secretory vesicles of bovine adrenal medulla and pituitary indicated that endogenous ACT could regulate PTP in vivo. The endogenous 60 kDa bovine ACT (bACT)-like protein was purified from pituitary by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, chromatofocusing, butyl-Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-200. Characterization showed that the bACT-like protein was a potent inhibitor of PTP (Ki,app value of 2.2 nM) as well as an effective inhibitor of chymotrypsin (Ki,app value of 2.3 nM). Furthermore, the bACT-like protein formed sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable complexes with chymotrypsin, which is typical of serpin protease inhibitors. Importantly, PTP formed sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable complexes with human ACT, suggesting that PTP's cleavage specificity may resemble the reactive center of ACT. PTP cleavage of enkephalin-containing peptides at the NH2-terminal side of paired basic residues (Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg, Lys-Lys), flanking the COOH terminus of (Met)enkephalin (Tyr-Gly-GLy-Phe-Met), indicates methionine at the P1 position. PTP cleavage of peptide-methylcoumarin amide and peptide-p-nitroanilide substrates demonstrated specificity for paired basic and monobasic residues, as well as a role for methionine in PTP's cleavage site. These results showing PTP's ability for processing at a methionine residue which resembles the P1 specificity of ACT are compatible with inhibition of PTP by ACT. These findings are the first demonstration of the involvement of a protease inhibitor in neuropeptide precursor processing. The known developmental regulation of ACT in brain and significant amounts of ACT in amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease suggest a possible role for PTP in the maturation of peptidergic neurons.

  16. Is Alpha-1 Antichymotrypsin Gene Polymorphism a Risk Factor for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage? A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Li, Yunke; Li, Hao; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT) signal peptide A/T polymorphism has been suggested to play a role in various brain diseases with arterial wall pathology. We conducted a case-control study and a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between this polymorphism and risk of primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Material/Methods A total of 188 patients and 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in our case-control study. The ACT polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-LDR. Further meta-analysis was conducted by searching literature from PUBMED, EMBASE, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases until December 2014, then combining data using STATA10.0. Results Similar genotype distribution was detected between PICH patients and healthy controls (p=0.523). Further analysis based on hypertension and location of hemorrhage did not observe significant association. Multiple logistic regression analysis also failed to identify ACT polymorphism as an independent risk factor for PICH. With regard to meta-analysis, a total of 6 case-control studies including 932 PICH patients and 1140 controls were enrolled. Pooled ORs failed to detect a significant association of ACT signal peptide A/T polymorphism with PICH (dominant model: OR=1.03, 95%CI=0.72–1.46; recessive model: OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.88–1.32). Subgroup analysis based on hypertension revealed no association in hypertensive PICH or in normotensive PICH. Conclusions Our case-control study in a Chinese population did not detect a significant association between ACT signal peptide A/T polymorphism and PICH. Moreover, meta-analysis combining data from relevant studies failed to provide evidence for the association. Further well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to verify our findings. PMID:26210716

  17. Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor is inhibited by plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and is stimulated by proteinases

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    TNF and IL-1 stimulate the synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) by neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells. Serum inhibits PAF production even after inactivation of an acetylhydrolase that degrades PAF. Human plasma was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography, and two inhibitory fractions were detected, one containing PAF-acetylhydrolase activity and the other alpha 1- proteinase inhibitor. Low concentrations of this antiproteinase and of human plasma alpha 1-antichymotrypsin inhibited TNF-induced PAF synthesis in neutrophils, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells. Both antiproteinases also inhibited PAF production stimulated by phagocytosis in macrophages and induced with IL-1 in neutrophils or with TNF in vascular endothelial cells. These results suggest that a proteinase activated on the plasma membrane or secreted by these cells is involved in promoting PAF synthesis. Indeed, addition of elastase to macrophages, neutrophils, and endothelial cells stimulated synthesis and release of PAF much faster than TNF. A similar stimulation was observed in incubations with cathepsin G. To identify a proteinase activated in TNF-treated cells, neutrophils and endothelial cells were incubated with specific chloromethyl ketone inhibitors of elastase and cathepsin G. Synthesis of PAF was significantly inhibited by low concentrations of the cathepsin G inhibitor. The finding that antiproteinases are inhibitory at concentrations 100-fold lower than those present in plasma raises questions as to the ability of TNF and IL-1 to stimulate neutrophils in circulation or endothelial cells to synthesize PAF. We propose that PAF production is limited to zones of close contact between cells, which exclude antiproteinases. PMID:3049910

  18. Proposed heparin binding site in antithrombin based on arginine 47. A new variant Rouen-II, 47 Arg to Ser.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, J Y; Owen, M C; Soria, C; Soria, J; Caen, J; Carrell, R W

    1988-01-01

    Antithrombin Rouen-II, a new inherited variant of antithrombin-III, was found in two members of a family with no definite history of thrombosis. The subjects had normal antigenic concentrations of antithrombin and normal progressive inhibitory activity. However, the variant had defective heparin and heparan sulfate cofactor activities, and was not activated by a synthetic pentasaccharide representing the minimum heparin sequence. The abnormal antithrombin was isolated using heparin-Sepharose chromatography, and on electrophoresis at pH 8.6 migrated more anodally than normal. Two-dimensional peptide mapping of tryptic and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digests was performed and the abnormal peptide was located by tryptophan staining. Amino acid sequence studies demonstrated a substitution of arginine at residue 47 by a serine. Evidence strongly suggests that arginine 47 is a prime heparin binding site in antithrombin and that it forms part of a proposed positively charged linear site (to which heparin binds) that stretches across the surface of the molecule from the A to the D helix. PMID:3350974

  19. Antithrombin alfa in hereditary antithrombin deficient patients: A phase 3 study of prophylactic intravenous administration in high risk situations.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Andreas; Tait, R Campbell; Shaffer, Don W; Baudo, Francesco; Boneu, Bernard; Dempfle, Carl Erik; Horellou, Marie Helene; Klamroth, Robert; Lazarchick, John; Mumford, Andrew D; Schulman, Sam; Shiach, Caroline; Bonfiglio, Laura J; Frieling, Johan T M; Conard, Jacqueline; von Depka, Mario

    2008-03-01

    During surgery and childbirth, patients with hereditary antithrombin (AT) deficiency are at high risk for thrombosis, and heparin prophylaxis may not be sufficiently efficacious. In these patients, exogenous AT may be used in association with heparin. A recombinant human AT (generic name: antithrombin alfa) has been developed. This multi-center study assessed the efficacy and safety of prophylactic intravenous administration of antithrombin alfa to hereditary AT deficient patients in high risk situations, including elective surgery, childbirth, or cesarean section. Antithrombin alfa was administered prior to and during the high risk period for restoration and maintenance of AT activity at 100% of normal. Heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and/or vitamin K antagonists were used according to standard of care. The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from baseline up to day 30 post dosing as assessed by independent central review of duplex ultrasonograms and/or venograms. Safety was assessed based on adverse events (AEs) and laboratory evaluations. Five surgical and nine obstetrical hereditary AT deficiency patients received antithrombin alfa for a mean period of seven days. No clinically overt DVT occurred. Central review of ultrasonograms identified signs of acute DVT in two out of 13 evaluable patients. No antithrombin alfa-related AEs were reported. No patient developed anti-antithrombin alfa antibodies. In conclusion, this study suggests that antithrombin alfa is a safe and effective alternative to human plasma-derived AT for treating hereditary AT deficiency patients at high risk for thromboembolic events.

  20. Complete antithrombin deficiency in mice results in embryonic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Tetsuhito; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Nakayama, Yukiko; Takagi, Akira; Suzuki, Misao; Takeda, Naoki; Ito, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Koji; Matsushita, Tadashi; Kusugami, Kazuo; Muramatsu, Takashi; Saito, Hidehiko

    2000-01-01

    Antithrombin is a plasma protease inhibitor that inhibits thrombin and contributes to the maintenance of blood fluidity. Using targeted gene disruption, we investigated the role of antithrombin in embryogenesis. Mating mice heterozygous for antithrombin gene (ATIII) disruption, ATIII+/–, yielded the expected Mendelian distribution of genotypes until 14.5 gestational days (gd). However, approximately 70% of the ATIII–/– embryos at 15.5 gd and 100% at 16.5 gd had died and showed extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage. Histological examination of those embryos revealed extensive fibrin(ogen) deposition in the myocardium and liver, but not in the brain or lung. Furthermore, no apparent fibrin(ogen) deposition was detected in the extensive hemorrhagic region, suggesting that fibrinogen might be decreased due to consumptive coagulopathy and/or liver dysfunction. These findings suggest that antithrombin is essential for embryonic survival and that it plays an important role in regulation of blood coagulation in the myocardium and liver. PMID:11018075

  1. Canine Antithrombin-III: Some Biochemical and Biologic Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-02

    8217 •, 3. Immunodiffusion Immunodiffusion tests were performed by the method of Ouchterlony (70) using a 196 agarose matrix. Volumes of samples tested...cross (specie) reactivities - an anticipated finding in view of the apparent antigen similarities. Results obtained with Ouchterlony double diffusion...York, Academic Press: 1953, pp. 393-460. 70. Ouchterlony , D.: Diffusion in gel methods for immunological analysis. Prog. Allergy 5:1 (1958). 71

  2. Early Changes in the Antithrombin and Thrombin-Antithrombin Complex in Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Negreva, Mariya; Georgiev, Svetoslav; Prodanova, Krasimira; Nikolova, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on coagulation changes in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine plasma antithrombin (AT) levels and activity as well as thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex levels in the early hours of the clinical manifestation of PAF. Methods Fifty-one patients (26 men and 25 women; mean age 59.84 ± 1.60 years) were consecutively selected with PAF duration < 24 hours, and 52 controls (26 men and 26 women; mean age 59.50 ± 1.46 years) matched the patients in terms of gender, age and comorbidities. Plasma levels and activity of AT and levels of the covalent TAT complex were studied once in each study participant. Results AT plasma levels in PAF patients were statistically significantly lower compared to controls (164.69 ± 10.51 vs. 276.21 ± 8.29 μg/mL, P < 0.001). Plasma activity of the anticoagulant was also significantly lower in PAF (71.33±4.87 vs. 110.72±3.09%, P < 0.001). TAT complex concentration in plasma was higher in the patient group (5.32 ± 0.23 vs. 3.20 ± 0.14 μg/L, P < 0.001). Conclusion We can say that PAF is associated with significantly reduced AT levels and activity and increased levels of TAT complex during the first 24 hours after its manifestation. These changes indicate a reduced activity of AT anticoagulant system, which is a probable prerequisite for the established enhanced coagulation (high TAT complex levels). PMID:28197274

  3. Characterization of the conformational alterations, reduced anticoagulant activity, and enhanced antiangiogenic activity of prelatent antithrombin.

    PubMed

    Richard, Benjamin; Swanson, Richard; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Ramirez, Ben; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Gettins, Peter G W; Olson, Steven T

    2008-05-23

    A conformationally altered prelatent form of antithrombin that possesses both anticoagulant and antiangiogenic activities is produced during the conversion of native to latent antithrombin (Larsson, H., Akerud, P., Nordling, K., Raub-Segall, E., Claesson-Welsh, L., and Björk, I. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11996-12002). Here, we show that the previously characterized prelatent antithrombin is a mixture of native antithrombin and a modified, true prelatent antithrombin that are resolvable by heparin-agarose chromatography. Kinetic analyses revealed that prelatent antithrombin is an intermediate in the conversion of native to latent antithrombin whose formation is favored by stabilizing anions of the Hofmeister series. Purified prelatent antithrombin had reduced anticoagulant function compared with native antithrombin, due to a reduced heparin affinity and consequent impaired ability of heparin to either bridge prelatent antithrombin and coagulation proteases in a ternary complex or to induce full conformational activation of the serpin. Significantly, prelatent antithrombin possessed an antiangiogenic activity more potent than that of latent antithrombin, based on the relative abilities of the two forms to inhibit endothelial cell growth. The prelatent form was conformationally altered from native antithrombin as judged from an attenuation of tryptophan fluorescence changes following heparin activation and a reduced thermal stability. The alterations are consistent with the limited structural changes involving strand 1C observed in a prelatent form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Dupont, D. M., Blouse, G. E., Hansen, M., Mathiasen, L., Kjelgaard, S., Jensen, J. K., Christensen, A., Gils, A., Declerck, P. J., Andreasen, P. A., and Wind, T. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36071-36081), since the (1)H NMR spectrum, electrophoretic mobility, and proteolytic susceptibility of prelatent antithrombin most resemble those of native rather than those of latent antithrombin

  4. A Pilot Study of Antithrombin Replacement Prior to Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Niebler, Robert A; Woods, Katherine J; Murkowski, Kathleen; Ghanayem, Nancy S; Hoffman, George; Mitchell, Michael E; Punzalan, Rowena C; Scott, J Paul; Simpson, Pippa; Tweddell, James S

    2016-01-01

    Neonates have low levels of antithrombin. Inadequate anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) due to low antithrombin activity may result in a poor preservation of the coagulation system during bypass. We hypothesize that antithrombin replacement to neonates prior to CPB will preserve the hemostatic system and result in less postoperative bleeding. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study of antithrombin replacement to neonates prior to CPB was conducted. Preoperative antithrombin levels determined the dose of recombinant antithrombin or placebo to be given. Antithrombin levels were measured following the dosing of the antithrombin/placebo, after initiation of bypass, near the completion of bypass, and upon intensive care unit admission. Eight subjects were enrolled. No subject had safety concerns. Mediastinal exploration occurred in two antithrombin subjects and one placebo subject. Antithrombin activity levels were significantly higher in the treated group following drug administration; levels continued to be higher than preoperatively but not different from the placebo group at all other time points. Total heparin administration was less in the antithrombin group; measurements of blood loss were similar in both groups. A single dose of recombinant antithrombin did not maintain 100% activity levels throughout the entire operation. Although no safety concerns were identified in this pilot study, a larger trial is necessary to determine clinical efficacy.

  5. Issues in the Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Antithrombin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kenneth A; Nguyen-Cao, Tam M; Spears, Jeffrey B

    2016-09-01

    To review insights gained in the past several years about hereditary antithrombin (AT) deficiency and to outline approaches to the management of patients with AT deficiency in the acute and chronic settings. An extensive literature search of Scopus (January 2008-April 2016) was performed for the terms congenital antithrombin deficiency, inherited antithrombin deficiency, or hereditary antithrombin deficiency Additional references were identified by reviewing literature citations. All relevant English-language case reports, reviews, clinical studies, meeting abstracts, and book chapters assessing hereditary AT deficiency were included. AT deficiency significantly increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk of VTE is particularly high during pregnancy, the postpartum period, and following major surgery. Effective clinical management includes determination of the appropriate type and duration of antithrombotic therapy (ie, AT replacement for acute situations) while minimizing the risk of bleeding. For persons newly diagnosed with AT deficiency, age, lifestyle, concurrent medical conditions, family history, and personal treatment preferences can be used to individualize patient management. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with hormonal therapy, pregnancy, surgical procedures, and immobility, which further increase the risk of VTE in patients with AT deficiency. AT deficiency poses the highest risk for VTE among the hereditary thrombophilias, often requiring long-term anticoagulation. Undertaking an evaluation for hereditary thrombophilia is controversial; however, a diagnosis of VTE in association with AT deficiency can have management implications. An important treatment option for patients with this disorder in high-risk situations is AT concentrate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. [Antithrombin resistance: a new mechanism of inherited thrombophilia].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tetsuhito; Takagi, Akira; Murata, Moe; Takagi, Yuki

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a multifactorial disease resulting from complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors. To date, numerous genetic defects have been found in families with hereditary thrombophilia, but there may still be many undiscovered causative gene mutations. We investigated a possible causative gene defect in a large Japanese family with inherited thrombophilia, and found a novel missense mutation in the prothrombin gene (p.Arg596Leu) resulting in a variant prothrombin (prothrombin Yukuhashi). The mutant prothrombin had moderately lower activity than wild type prothrombin in clotting assays, but formation of the thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex was substantially impaired resulting in prolonged thrombin activity. A thrombin generation assay revealed that the peak activity of the mutant prothrombin was fairly low, but its inactivation was extremely slow in reconstituted plasma. The Leu596 substitution caused a gain-of-function mutation in the prothrombin gene, resulting in resistance to antithrombin and susceptibility to thrombosis. We also showed the effects of the prothrombin Yukuhashi mutation on the thrombomodulin-protein C anticoagulation system, recent development of a laboratory test detecting antithrombin resistance in plasma, and another antithrombin resistant mutation found in other thrombophilia families.

  7. Antithrombin controls tumor migration, invasion and angiogenesis by inhibition of enteropeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Luengo-Gil, Ginés; Calvo, María Inmaculada; Martín-Villar, Ester; Águila, Sonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Antón, Ana I.; Espín, Salvador; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier; Quintanilla, Miguel; Martínez-Martínez, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a key inhibitor of the coagulation cascade, but it may also function as an anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-viral and anti-apoptotic protein. Here, we report a novel function of antithrombin as a modulator of tumor cell migration and invasion. Antithrombin inhibited enteropeptidase on the membrane surface of HT-29, A549 and U-87 MG cells. The inhibitory process required the activation of antithrombin by heparin, and the reactive center loop and the heparin binding domain were essential. Surprisingly, antithrombin non-covalently inhibited enteropeptidase, revealing a novel mechanism of inhibition for this serpin. Moreover, as a consequence of this inhibition, antithrombin was cleaved, resulting in a molecule with anti-angiogenic properties that reduced vessel-like formation of endothelial cells. The addition of antithrombin and heparin to U-87 MG and A549 cells reduced motility in wound healing assays, inhibited the invasion in transwell assays and the degradation of a gelatin matrix mediated by invadopodia. These processes were controlled by enteropeptidase, as demonstrated by RNA interference experiments. Carcinoma cell xenografts in nude mice showed in vivo co-localization of enteropeptidase and antithrombin. Finally, treatment with heparin reduced experimental metastasis induced by HT29 cells in vivo. In conclusion, the inhibition of enteropeptidase by antithrombin may have a double anti-tumor effect through inhibiting a protease involved in metastasis and generating an anti-angiogenic molecule. PMID:27270881

  8. Antithrombin controls tumor migration, invasion and angiogenesis by inhibition of enteropeptidase.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Gil, Ginés; Calvo, María Inmaculada; Martín-Villar, Ester; Águila, Sonia; Bohdan, Nataliya; Antón, Ana I; Espín, Salvador; Ayala de la Peña, Francisco; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier; Quintanilla, Miguel; Martínez-Martínez, Irene

    2016-06-08

    Antithrombin is a key inhibitor of the coagulation cascade, but it may also function as an anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-viral and anti-apoptotic protein. Here, we report a novel function of antithrombin as a modulator of tumor cell migration and invasion. Antithrombin inhibited enteropeptidase on the membrane surface of HT-29, A549 and U-87 MG cells. The inhibitory process required the activation of antithrombin by heparin, and the reactive center loop and the heparin binding domain were essential. Surprisingly, antithrombin non-covalently inhibited enteropeptidase, revealing a novel mechanism of inhibition for this serpin. Moreover, as a consequence of this inhibition, antithrombin was cleaved, resulting in a molecule with anti-angiogenic properties that reduced vessel-like formation of endothelial cells. The addition of antithrombin and heparin to U-87 MG and A549 cells reduced motility in wound healing assays, inhibited the invasion in transwell assays and the degradation of a gelatin matrix mediated by invadopodia. These processes were controlled by enteropeptidase, as demonstrated by RNA interference experiments. Carcinoma cell xenografts in nude mice showed in vivo co-localization of enteropeptidase and antithrombin. Finally, treatment with heparin reduced experimental metastasis induced by HT29 cells in vivo. In conclusion, the inhibition of enteropeptidase by antithrombin may have a double anti-tumor effect through inhibiting a protease involved in metastasis and generating an anti-angiogenic molecule.

  9. Insight into residues critical for antithrombin function from analysis of an expanded database of sequences that includes frog, turtle, and ostrich antithrombins.

    PubMed

    Backovic, Marija; Gettins, Peter G W

    2002-01-01

    Complete sequences were determined for frog, turtle, and ostrich antithrombins. Protein sequence comparisons with the other 10 known antithrombin sequences and with sequences of other serpins have provided striking evidence for the conservation of the heparin activation mechanism and new insight into those residues important for heparin binding, for heparin activation, and for reactive center loop function, as well as an indication of which glycosylation sites might be needed for function. Importantly, an understanding of, as yet, poorly understood antithrombin-protein interactions will be greatly aided by this expanded database and comparative analysis.

  10. The usefulness of antithrombin activity monitoring during antithrombin supplementation in patients with sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Iba, Toshiaki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Gando, Satoshi; Thachil, Jecko

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have repeatedly reported the effectiveness of antithrombin (AT) supplementation for sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In this study, we intended to elucidate the usefulness of monitoring antithrombin activity during antithrombin supplementation. Data of 926 patients with sepsis-associated DIC who had been undergone AT substitution were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients had received 1500IU/day of AT concentrate for three consecutive days. The patients' demographic characteristics, including the age, body weight, baseline DIC score and baseline AT activity, and treatment-related markers such as the change in DIC score and the change in the AT activity with treatment were analyzed in relation to the 28-day mortality. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association of the patients' age, baseline AT activity, Δ AT activity, baseline DIC score and Δ DIC score to the patients' outcomes. The cutoff values of the AT activities for death calculated by the ROC curve analysis were 41.3% for the baseline AT activity, 72.9% for the post-treatment AT activity and 37.0% for Δ AT activity. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) showed discriminative powers for the baseline AT activity, post-treatment AT activity and Δ AT activity of 0.58, 0.69 and 0.66, respectively. Monitoring of the AT activity is useful to predict the patients' outcome. Furthermore, the measurement of baseline AT activity may help in determining the appropriate dose for AT supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of recombinant human antithrombin by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kuwae, Shinobu; Ohyama, Masao; Ohya, Tomoshi; Ohi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2005-03-01

    This paper deals with the production of recombinant human antithrombin (rAT) by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. In preliminary methanol-limited fed-batch fermentation, the rAT concentration reached 324 mg/l at 192 h of cultivation, but the specific heparin cofactor (HC) activity of rAT in the culture supernatant was 10% of that of plasma-derived antithrombin (pAT). To improve the specific HC activity of rAT, effort was first focused on the optimization of culture pH and media composition, resulting in protection of rAT against pH-dependent instability and proteolytic degradation. However, even in the optimized methanol-limited fed-batch fermentation, the specific HC activity of rAT in the culture supernatant was still 20% that of pAT. To investigate the unknown mechanisms involved in the decreased specific HC activity of rAT, the culture supernatant of mock-transfected cells was prepared by methanol-limited fed-batch fermentation. When pAT was added to this supernatant, a rapid decrease in HC activity was observed; the residual HC activity was 26% after 24 h of incubation at 25 degrees C. The loss of pAT activity was prevented by addition of a formaldehyde scavenger, amino urea, to the supernatant. In addition, alcohol oxidase activity was observed in the supernatant, resulting in the accumulation of formaldehyde in the culture broth. These results suggest that the formaldehyde produced by methanol oxidation in the culture broth of P. pastoris might decrease the HC activity of rAT during fermentation. Replacing the methanol with glycerol as the carbon source improved the specific HC activity of rAT from 20% to above 40% of that of pAT. In the glycerol-limited fed-batch fermentation, rAT is expressed at 100 mg/l under the control of the truncated mutated AOX2 promoter.

  12. Alpha(2)-macroglobulin levels are high in adult patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, A; Chantarangkul, V; De Stefano, V; Mannucci, P

    2000-04-15

    Antithrombin is responsible for about 80% of the progressive inhibitory activity of thrombin in human plasma. The role of other protease inhibitors known to inhibit thrombin is not completely clarified. However, their contribution may become relevant when antithrombin is low. We elected to investigate adult patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency to assess the concentration of other naturally occurring thrombin inhibitors such as alpha(2)-macroglobulin, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, heparin cofactor II, and C(1)-inhibitor. The study included 59 patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency with and without a previous history of thrombosis, together with an equal number of control subjects matched for age and sex. Statistically significant differences (patients vs. controls) were observed only for alpha(2)-macroglobulin (i.e., 120 vs. 102%, p<0.01). Further analysis of antithrombin-deficient carriers with and without a past history of thrombosis showed that alpha(2)-macroglobulin levels were higher than the 90th percentile of control distribution more often in asymptomatic than symptomatic men (odds ratio=0.04; confidence interval=0.003-0.60), but not in women (odds ratio=2.14; confidence interval=0.35-13.1). In conclusion, results from this cross sectional study showed that alpha(2)-macroglobulin levels were high in patients with congenital antithrombin deficiency. Furthermore, the high levels were found more often in asymptomatic than symptomatic men. Whether this increase provides protection against thrombosis should be evaluated in a prospective study.

  13. Thromboembolic disease due to thermolabile conformational changes of antithrombin Rouen-VI (187 Asn-->Asp)

    PubMed

    Bruce, D; Perry, D J; Borg, J Y; Carrell, R W; Wardell, M R

    1994-12-01

    A new variant of antithrombin (Rouen-VI, 187 Asn-->Asp) with increased heparin affinity was shown to have normal inhibitory activity which decreased slowly at 4 degrees C and rapidly at 41 degrees C. On electrophoresis the freshly isolated variant had an anodal shift relative to native antithrombin due to the mutation. A further anodal transition occurred after either prolonged storage at 4 degrees C or incubation at 41 degrees C due to the formation of a new inactive uncleaved component with properties characteristic of L-form (latent) antithrombin. At the same time, polymerization also occurred with a predominance of di-, tri-, and tetra-mers. These findings fit with the observed mutation of the conserved asparagine (187) in the F-helix destabilizing the underlying A-sheet of the molecule. Evidence of A-sheet perturbation is provided by the increased rate of peptide insertion into the A-sheet and by the decreased vulnerability of the reactive loop to proteolysis. The spontaneous formation of both L-antithrombin and polymers is consistent with our crystal structure of intact antithrombin where L-form and active antithrombin are linked together as dimers. The nature of this linkage favors a mechanism of polymerization whereby the opening of the A-sheet, to give incorporation of the reactive center loop, is accompanied by the bonding of the loop of one molecule to the C-sheet of the next. The accelerated lability of antithrombin Rouen-VI at 41 versus 37 degrees C provides an explanation for the clinical observation that episodes of thrombosis were preceded by unrelated pyrexias.

  14. Postoperative costs associated with outcomes after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation: role of antithrombin levels.

    PubMed

    Muedra, Vicente; Llau, Juan V; Llagunes, José; Paniagua, Pilar; Veiras, Sonia; Fernández-López, Antonio R; Diago, Carmen; Hidalgo, Francisco; Gil, Jesús; Valiño, Cristina; Moret, Enric; Gómez, Laura; Pajares, Azucena; de Prada, Blanca

    2013-04-01

    To study the impact on postoperative costs of a patient's antithrombin levels associated with outcomes after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. An analytic decision model was designed to estimate costs and clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery in a typical patient with low antithrombin levels (<63.7%) compared with a patient with normal antithrombin levels (≥63.7%). The data used in the model were obtained from a literature review and subsequently validated by a panel of experts in cardiothoracic anesthesiology. Multi-institutional (14 Spanish hospitals). Consultant anesthesiologists. A sensitivity analysis of extreme scenarios was carried out to assess the impact of the major variables in the model results. The average cost per patient was €18,772 for a typical patient with low antithrombin levels and €13,881 for a typical patient with normal antithrombin levels. The difference in cost was due mainly to the longer hospital stay of a patient with low antithrombin levels compared with a patient with normal levels (13 v 10 days, respectively, representing a €4,596 higher cost) rather than to costs related to the management of postoperative complications (€215, mostly owing to transfusions). Sensitivity analysis showed a high variability range of approximately ±55% of the base case cost between the minimum and maximum scenarios, with the hospital stay contributing more significantly to the variation. Based on this analytic decision model, there could be a marked increase in the postoperative costs of patients with low antithrombin activity levels at the end of cardiac surgery, mainly ascribed to a longer hospitalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heparanase Activates Antithrombin through the Binding to Its Heparin Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Águila, Sonia; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that participates in morphogenesis, tissue repair, heparan sulphates turnover and immune response processes. It is over-expressed in tumor cells favoring the metastasis as it penetrates the endothelial layer that lines blood vessels and facilitates the metastasis by degradation of heparan sulphate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. Heparanase may also affect the hemostatic system in a non-enzymatic manner, up-regulating the expression of tissue factor, which is the initiator of blood coagulation, and dissociating tissue factor pathway inhibitor on the cell surface membrane of endothelial and tumor cells, thus resulting in a procoagulant state. Trying to check the effect of heparanase on heparin, a highly sulphated glycosaminoglycan, when it activates antithrombin, our results demonstrated that heparanase, but not proheparanase, interacted directly with antithrombin in a non-covalent manner. This interaction resulted in the activation of antithrombin, which is the most important endogenous anticoagulant. This activation mainly accelerated FXa inhibition, supporting an allosteric activation effect. Heparanase bound to the heparin binding site of antithrombin as the activation of Pro41Leu, Arg47Cys, Lys114Ala and Lys125Alaantithrombin mutants was impaired when it was compared to wild type antithrombin. Intrinsic fluorescence analysis showed that heparanase induced an activating conformational change in antithrombin similar to that induced by heparin and with a KD of 18.81 pM. In conclusion, under physiological pH and low levels of tissue factor, heparanase may exert a non-enzymatic function interacting and activating the inhibitory function of antithrombin. PMID:27322195

  16. Hydration structure of antithrombin conformers and water transfer during reactive loop insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, J; McGee, M P

    1998-01-01

    The serine protease inhibitor antithrombin undergoes extensive conformational changes during functional interaction with its target proteases. Changes include insertion of the reactive loop region into a beta-sheet structure in the protein core. We explore the possibility that these changes are linked to water transfer. Volumes of water transferred during inhibition of coagulation factor Xa are compared to water-permeable volumes in the x-ray structure of two different antithrombin conformers. In one conformer, the reactive loop is largely exposed to solvent, and in the other, the loop is inserted. Hydration fingerprints of antithrombin (that is, water-permeable pockets) are analyzed to determine their location, volume, and size of access pores, using alpha shape-based methods from computational geometry. Water transfer during reactions is calculated from changes in rate with osmotic pressure. Hydration fingerprints prove markedly different in the two conformers. There is an excess of 61-76 water molecules in loop-exposed as compared to loop-inserted conformers. Quantitatively, rate increases with osmotic pressure are consistent with the transfer of 73 +/- 7 water molecules. This study demonstrates that conformational changes of antithrombin, including loop insertion, are linked to water transfer from antithrombin to bulk solution. It also illustrates the combined use of osmotic stress and analytical geometry as a new and effective tool for structure/function studies. PMID:9675160

  17. Antithrombin deficiency in three Japanese families: one novel and two reported point mutations in the antithrombin gene.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Keiko; Morishita, Eriko; Karato, Megumi; Kadono, Tadaaki; Sekiya, Akiko; Goto, Yukie; Sato, Tomomi; Nomoto, Haruka; Omi, Wataru; Tsuzura, Sachie; Imai, Hidenori; Asakura, Hidesaku; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakao, Shinji

    2013-08-01

    Inherited antithrombin (AT) deficiency is associated with a predisposition to familial venous thromboembolic disease. We analyzed the AT gene in three unrelated patients with an AT deficiency who developed thrombosis. We analyzed the SERPINC1 gene in three patients. Additionally, we expressed the three mutants in the COS-1 cells and compared their secretion rates and levels of AT activity with those of the wild-type (WT). We identified three distinct heterozygous mutations of c.2534C>T: p.56Arginine → Cysteine (R56C), c.13398C>A: p.459Alanine → Aspartic acid (A459D) and c.2703C>G: p.112 Proline → Arginine (P112R). In the in vitro expression experiments, the AT antigen levels in the conditioned media (CM) of the R56C mutant were nearly equal to those of WT. In contrast, the AT antigen levels in the CM of the A459D and P112R mutants were significantly decreased. The AT activity of R56C was decreased in association with a shorter incubation time in a FXa inhibition assay and a thrombin inhibition-based activity test. However, the AT activity of R56C was comparable to that of WT when the incubation time was increased. We concluded that the R56C mutant is responsible for type II HBS deficiency. We considered that the A459D and P112R mutants can be classified as belonging to the type I AT deficiency. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation frequency and antithrombin activity levels in 120 of deep venous thrombosis and 150 of cerebral infarction patients in a single center in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-sen; Tang, Yang-ming; Tang, Mei-qing; Qing, Zi-Ju; Shu, Chang; Tang, Xiang-qi; Deng, Ming-yang; Tan, Li-ming

    2010-09-01

    Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation shows a relatively high frequency in western population. Some studies suggest that the mutation is an independent genetic risk factor both for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for arterial thrombosis, but whether the mutation has racial difference or has a general significance for thrombophilia remains unclear. In this study we performed an analysis of the prevalence of the mutation in Chinese southern population; Also, the antithrombin activity levels were evaluated in each investigated individual. The studies included 120 patients with DVT, 150 patients with cerebral infarction, and 110 controls. The mutation was detected using polymerase chain reaction/PvuII restrictive fragment length polymorphism procedures. Antithrombin activity assay was done using chromogenic substrate method. The results showed that no antithrombin Cambridge II mutation was detected in all three groups (DVT, cerebral infarction and controls), the incidence was 0/380. Plasma antithrombin activity was 91.37% +/- 16.15% in the DVT patients and 102.68% +/- 13.10% in the controls; the antithrombin activity was significantly reduced in the DVT group (P < 0.0001). In DVT patients, eight cases were identified as primary antithrombin deficiency, accounting for an incidence of 6.7%. No significant difference was found for antithrombin activity between cerebral infarction group and controls. These results suggest that antithrombin Cambridge II mutation has a racial difference, and may not be a valuable risk factor of thrombophilia in Asian population, and antithrombin deficiency remains a major genetic risk factor for DVT patients in China.

  19. Synthesis and characterisation of magnetised Dacron-heparin composite employed for antithrombin affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Mercês, Aurenice Arruda Dutra das; Silva, Ricardo de Souza; Silva, Karciano José Santos; Maciel, Jackeline da Costa; Oliveira, Givanildo Bezerra; Buitrago, Davian Martinez; de Aguiar, José Albino Oliveira; de Carvalho-Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2016-12-01

    Human antithrombin is a blood derivative widely used in the treatment of coagulation dysfunction. Affinity chromatography using heparin (HEP) derivatives is usually used for antithrombin purification. In this study, an affinity procedure based on a magnetic Dacron-HEP composite is proposed. Dacron was firstly converted to Dacron-hydrazide and magnetised by co-precipitation with of Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) (mDAC). HEP was activated by carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide and covalently linked to mDAC (mDAC-HEP). EDX and infrared spectra analyses confirmed each synthesis step of mDAC-HEP. This composite exhibited superparamagnetism behaviour. Human plasma was incubated with mDAC-HEP (fresh and stored over a long period) and washed with phosphate buffer containing increasing concentrations of NaCl. Human plasma antithrombin activity was reduced by approximately 20% in the presence of the 1.0M NaCl fraction, and this eluate was able to prolong coagulation time (aPTT) using both preparations. Electrophoresis of the eluates revealed bands corresponding to the expected size of antithrombin (58kDa). The mDAC-HEP particles are reusable. This method presents the following advantages: easy, low-cost synthesis of the composite, magnet-based affinity purification steps, and reusability.

  20. Antithrombin reduces monocyte and neutrophil CD11b up regulation in addition to blocking platelet activation during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Rinder, Christine S; Rinder, Henry M; Smith, Michael J; Fitch, Jane C K; Tracey, Jayne B; Chandler, Wayne L; Rollins, Scott A; Smith, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass develop a systemic inflammatory reaction. Antithrombin III (AT) has anticoagulant effects but also shows evidence of anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to examine whether exogenous AT could reduce white blood cell activation (CD11b up regulation or elastase release), in addition to inhibiting platelet (PLT) activation and fibrin generation, during simulated cardiopulmonary bypass (sCPB), undertaken in the absence of endothelium. sCPB was carried out with minimally heparinized (2 U/mL) human blood for 90 minutes in controls and with supplementation by low-dose (1 U/mL) and high-dose (5 U/mL) AT. High-dose AT blunted thrombin generation during sCPB (prothrombin fragment 1.2); both doses significantly inhibited thrombin activity (fibrinopeptide A). Complement activation (C3a and C5b-9) was unaffected by AT. High-dose AT inhibited PLT activation (P-selectin expression and P-selectin-dependent monocyte-PLT conjugate formation). AT supplementation at the higher dose significantly abrogated monocyte and neutrophil CD11b up regulation and neutrophil elastase release. In addition to anticoagulant and anti-PLT effects, pharmacologic AT doses significantly blunted monocyte and neutrophil CD11b up regulation and neutrophil elastase release during sCPB, independent of endothelial effects. These data provide evidence for the direct anti-inflammatory activity of AT that has clinical relevance for CPB complications.

  1. Hypoglycosylation is a common finding in antithrombin deficiency in the absence of a SERPINC1 gene defect.

    PubMed

    de la Morena-Barrio, M E; Martínez-Martínez, I; de Cos, C; Wypasek, E; Roldán, V; Undas, A; van Scherpenzeel, M; Lefeber, D J; Toderici, M; Sevivas, T; España, F; Jaeken, J; Corral, J; Vicente, V

    2016-08-01

    Essentials We investigated the molecular base of antithrombin deficiency in cases without SERPINC1 defects. 27% of cases presented hypoglycosylation, transient in 62% and not restricted to antithrombin. Variations in genes involved in N-glycosylation underline this phenotype. These results support a new form of thrombophilia. Click here to listen to Dr Huntington's perspective on thrombin inhibition by the serpins Background Since the discovery of antithrombin deficiency, 50 years ago, few new thrombophilic defects have been identified, all with weaker risk of thrombosis than antithrombin deficiency. Objective To identify new thrombophilic mechanisms. Patients/methods We studied 30 patients with antithrombin deficiency but no defects in the gene encoding this key anticoagulant (SERPINC1). Results A high proportion of these patients (8/30: 27%) had increased hypoglycosylated forms of antithrombin. All N-glycoproteins tested in these patients (α1-antitrypsin, FXI and transferrin) had electrophoretic, HPLC and Q-TOF patterns indistinguishable from those of the congenital disorders of glycosylation (rare recessive multisystem disorders). However, all except one had no mental disability. Moreover, intermittent antithrombin deficiency and hypoglycosylation was recorded in five out of these eight patients, all associated with moderate alcohol intake. Genetic analysis, including whole exome sequencing, revealed mutations in different genes involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. Conclusions Our study provides substantial and novel mechanistic insights into two disease processes, with potential implications for diagnosis and clinical care. An aberrant N-glycosylation causing a recessive or transient antithrombin deficiency is a new form of thrombophilia. Our data suggest that congenital disorders of glycosylation are probably underestimated, especially in cases with thrombosis as the main or only clinical manifestation. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and

  2. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic effects of antithrombin: comparison with either heparin or defibrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Miwa, Atsuko; Fujimori, Yoshiharu; Uchida, Yasumi

    1993-05-01

    Anti-thrombotic and thrombolytic effects of anti-thrombin agent (Argatroban;Arg 0.5 mg/kg) was evaluated by angioscopy and compared with heparin (250 U/kg). Occlusive thrombus was produced in canine iliac artery by balloon injury. At another side, balloon denudation was attempted at 20 minutes after the administration of the agent. One hour thrombus was control. Angioscopic percent luminal obstruction with thrombus reduced by Arg (from 69 to 32%, P < 0.0001), but not by heparin (from 53% to 59%). Both agents had antithrombotic effects and prevented thrombus formation. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) prolonged to 190% with argatroban and 1253% with heparin (P < 0.0001). Thus, antithrombin agent has both preventive effect of thrombosis and thrombolytic effect without marked prolongation of the APTT.

  3. Treatment of accidental perianal injection of topical thrombin with intravenous antithrombin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Paidy, Samata R; McLeod, Whitney; Fox, Alexandra; Nfonsam, Valentine N

    2017-04-01

    While topical thrombin application can markedly improve surgical hemostasis, rapid absorption of thrombin can result in pulmonary embolism and death. We report a case of accidental interstitial infiltration of topical thrombin after hemorrhoidectomy that was treated with administration of human antithrombin and heparin anticoagulation. Except for a marked decrease in antithrombin activity from super normal to normal values, the patient exhibited no laboratory or clinical signs of pulmonary embolism, thrombin mediated consumptive loss of procoagulants, or regional thrombosis. The patient had an uncomplicated recovery without sign of thrombotic morbidity. While it is hoped that such a medical misadventure should not occur, our case may serve as a reference to guide anticoagulant therapy if such a clinical scenario arises.

  4. Non-enzymatic glycation reduces heparin cofactor II anti-thrombin activity.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Barbanti, M; Milani, M R; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Lefebvre, P

    1990-04-01

    The effects of non-enzymatic glycation on heparin cofactor II activity, at glucose concentrations which might be expected in physiological or diabetic conditions have been evaluated in this study. Radiolabelled glucose incorporation was associated with a loss of heparin cofactor anti-thrombin activity. The heparin cofactor heparin and dermatan sulfate-dependent inhibition of thrombin was significantly reduced, showing a remarkable decrease of the maximum second order rate constant. This study shows that heparin cofactor can be glycated at glucose concentrations found in the blood, and that this phenomenon produces a loss of heparin cofactor-antithrombin activity. These data suggest, furthermore, a possible link between heparin cofactor glycation and the pathogenesis of thrombosis in diabetes mellitus.

  5. Mechanism of poly(acrylic acid) acceleration of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin: implications for the design of novel heparin mimics.

    PubMed

    Monien, Bernhard H; Cheang, Kai I; Desai, Umesh R

    2005-08-11

    The bridging mechanism of antithrombin inhibition of thrombin is a dominant mechanism contributing a massive approximately 2500-fold acceleration in the reaction rate and is also a key reason for the clinical usage of heparin. Our recent study of the antithrombin-activating properties of a carboxylic acid-based polymer, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), demonstrated a surprisingly high acceleration in thrombin inhibition (Monien, B. H.; Desai, U. R. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 1269). To better understand this interesting phenomenon, we have studied the mechanism of PAA-dependent acceleration in antithrombin inhibition of thrombin. Competitive binding studies with low-affinity heparin and a heparin tetrasaccharide suggest that PAA binds antithrombin in both the pentasaccharide- and the extended heparin-binding sites, and these results are corroborated by molecular modeling. The salt-dependence of the K(D) of the PAA-antithrombin interaction shows the formation of five ionic interactions. In contrast, the contribution of nonionic forces is miniscule, resulting in an interaction that is significantly weaker than that observed for heparins. A bell-shaped profile of the observed rate constant for antithrombin inhibition of thrombin as a function of PAA concentration was observed, suggesting that inhibition proceeds through the "bridging" mechanism. The knowledge gained in this mechanistic study highlights important rules for the rational design of orally available heparin mimics.

  6. Identification of Antithrombin-Modulating Genes. Role of LARGE, a Gene Encoding a Bifunctional Glycosyltransferase, in the Secretion of Proteins?

    PubMed Central

    de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Buil, Alfonso; Antón, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Miñano, Antonia; Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo; Navarro-Fernández, José; Aguila, Sonia; Souto, Juan Carlos; Vicente, Vicente; Soria, José Manuel; Corral, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The haemostatic relevance of antithrombin together with the low genetic variability of SERPINC1, and the high heritability of plasma levels encourage the search for modulating genes. We used a hypothesis-free approach to identify these genes, evaluating associations between plasma antithrombin and 307,984 polymorphisms in the GAIT study (352 individuals from 21 Spanish families). Despite no SNP reaching the genome wide significance threshold, we verified milder positive associations in 307 blood donors from a different cohort. This validation study suggested LARGE, a gene encoding a protein with xylosyltransferase and glucuronyltransferase activities that forms heparin-like linear polysaccharides, as a potential modulator of antithrombin based on the significant association of one SNPs, rs762057, with anti-FXa activity, particularly after adjustment for age, sex and SERPINC1 rs2227589 genotype, all factors influencing antithrombin levels (p = 0.02). Additional results sustained this association. LARGE silencing inHepG2 and HEK-EBNA cells did not affect SERPINC1 mRNA levels but significantly reduced the secretion of antithrombin with moderate intracellular retention. Milder effects were observed on α1-antitrypsin, prothrombin and transferrin. Our study suggests LARGE as the first known modifier of plasma antithrombin, and proposes a new role for LARGE in modulating extracellular secretion of certain glycoproteins. PMID:23705025

  7. Targeting of Antithrombin in Hemophilia A or B with RNAi Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pasi, K John; Rangarajan, Savita; Georgiev, Pencho; Mant, Tim; Creagh, Michael D; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Bevan, David; Austin, Steve; Hay, Charles R; Hegemann, Inga; Kazmi, Rashid; Chowdary, Pratima; Gercheva-Kyuchukova, Liana; Mamonov, Vasily; Timofeeva, Margarita; Soh, Chang-Heok; Garg, Pushkal; Vaishnaw, Akshay; Akinc, Akin; Sørensen, Benny; Ragni, Margaret V

    2017-08-31

    Current hemophilia treatment involves frequent intravenous infusions of clotting factors, which is associated with variable hemostatic protection, a high treatment burden, and a risk of the development of inhibitory alloantibodies. Fitusiran, an investigational RNA interference (RNAi) therapy that targets antithrombin (encoded by SERPINC1), is in development to address these and other limitations. In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, we enrolled 4 healthy volunteers and 25 participants with moderate or severe hemophilia A or B who did not have inhibitory alloantibodies. Healthy volunteers received a single subcutaneous injection of fitusiran (at a dose of 0.03 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. The participants with hemophilia received three injections of fitusiran administered either once weekly (at a dose of 0.015, 0.045, or 0.075 mg per kilogram) or once monthly (at a dose of 0.225, 0.45, 0.9, or 1.8 mg per kilogram or a fixed dose of 80 mg). The study objectives were to assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and safety of fitusiran. No thromboembolic events were observed during the study. The most common adverse events were mild injection-site reactions. Plasma levels of fitusiran increased in a dose-dependent manner and showed no accumulation with repeated administration. The monthly regimen induced a dose-dependent mean maximum antithrombin reduction of 70 to 89% from baseline. A reduction in the antithrombin level of more than 75% from baseline resulted in median peak thrombin values at the lower end of the range observed in healthy participants. Once-monthly subcutaneous administration of fitusiran resulted in dose-dependent lowering of the antithrombin level and increased thrombin generation in participants with hemophilia A or B who did not have inhibitory alloantibodies. (Funded by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02035605 .).

  8. Inhibition of thrombin generation in plasma by fibrin formation (Antithrombin I).

    PubMed

    de Bosch, N B; Mosesson, M W; Ruiz-Sáez, A; Echenagucia, M; Rodriguez-Lemoin, A

    2002-08-01

    The adsorption of thrombin to fibrin during clotting defines "Antithrombin I" activity. We confirmed that thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or in Reptilase defibrinated normal plasma was higher than in normal plasma. Repletion of these fibrinogen-deficient plasmas with fibrinogen 1 (gamma A/gamma A), whose fibrin has two "low affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding sites, resulted in moderately reduced thrombin generation by 29-37%. Repletion with fibrinogen 2 (gamma'/gamma A), which in addition to low affinity thrombin-binding sites in fibrin, has a "high affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding site in the carboxy-terminal region of its gamma' chain, was even more effective and reduced thrombin generation by 57-67%. Adding peptides that compete for thrombin binding to fibrin [S-Hir53-64 (hirugen) or gamma'414-427] caused a transient delay in the onset of otherwise robust thrombin generation, indicating that fibrin formation is necessary for full expression of Antithrombin I activity. Considered together, 1) the increased thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or fibrinogen-depleted normal plasma that is mitigated by fibrinogen replacement; 2) evidence that prothrombin activation is increased in afibrinogenemia and normalized by fibrinogen replacement; 3) the severe thrombophilia that is associated with defective thrombin-binding in dysfibrinogenemias Naples I and New York I, and 4) the association of afibrinogenemia or hypofibrinogenemia with venous or arterial thromboembolism, indicate that Antithrombin I (fibrin) modulates thromboembolic potential by inhibiting thrombin generation in blood.

  9. Management of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Hereditary Antithrombin Deficiency and Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lydia; Lim, Wendy; Crowther, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hereditary antithrombin deficiency is a thrombogenic disorder associated with a 50–90% lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is increased during pregnancy and the puerperium in these patients. We present a case of a woman with antithrombin (AT) deficiency who presented with a VTE despite therapeutic low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Though the pregnancy was deemed unviable, further maternal complications were mitigated through the combined use of therapeutic anticoagulation and plasma-derived antithrombin concentrate infusions to normalize her functional antithrombin levels. Methods. A review of the literature was conducted for studies on prophylaxis and management of VTE in pregnant patients with hereditary AT deficiency. The search involved a number of electronic databases, using combinations of keywords as described in the text. Only English language studies between 1946 and 2015 were included. Conclusion. Antithrombin concentrate is indicated in pregnant women with hereditary AT deficiency who develop VTE despite being on therapeutic dose anticoagulation. Expert opinion suggests AT concentrate should be used concomitantly with therapeutic dose anticoagulation. However, further high-quality studies on the dose and duration of treatment in the postpartum period are required. Use of AT concentrate for prophylaxis is controversial and should be based on individual VTE risk stratification. PMID:28168066

  10. Antithrombin Administration During Intravenous Heparin Anticoagulation in the Intensive Care Unit: A Single-Center Matched Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jacob T; Schoeppler, Kelly E; Zanotti, Giorgio; Weiss, Gregory M; Mueller, Scott W; MacLaren, Robert; Fish, Douglas N; Kiser, Tyree H

    2016-09-13

    Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is a frequently utilized indirect anticoagulant that induces therapeutic effect by enhancing antithrombin (AT)-mediated procoagulant enzyme inhibition. In suspected heparin resistance (HR) during cardiopulmonary bypass, AT activity may be decreased and AT supplementation helps restore UFH responsiveness. The benefit of AT supplementation in HR over longer durations of UFH therapy is unclear. The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the use of AT III concentrate in the intensive care units (ICUs) at our institution for improving UFH therapy response over 72 hours. A total of 44 critically ill patients were included in the analysis-22 patients received at least 1 dose of AT and 22 patients received no AT. Thirty (68.2%) of the 44 patients were receiving mechanical circulatory support. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The average AT activity prior to AT supplementation was 57.9% in the treatment group, and the median cumulative dose of AT was 786.5 U (9.26 U/kg) per patient. There were no significant differences observed in proportion of time spent in therapeutic range (31.9% vs 35.2%, P = .65), time to therapeutic goal (16.5 vs 15.5 hours, P = .97), or patients who experienced a bleeding event (5 vs 5, P = .99) between groups. In conclusion, AT supplementation had minimal impact on anticoagulant response in this cohort of ICU patients with mild to moderate HR receiving a prolonged UFH infusion. Additional research is needed to define AT activity targets and to standardize AT supplementation practices in patients receiving prolonged heparin infusion.

  11. The effect of plasma antithrombin concentration on thrombin generation and fibrin gel structure.

    PubMed

    Elgue, G; Sanchez, J; Fatah, K; Olsson, P; Blombäck, B

    1994-07-15

    Congenital deficiency of antithrombin (AT) is associated with thrombotic events and AT consumption occurs in some severe disorders and after treatment with heparin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether variations in the level of plasma AT modify thrombin generation and the fibrin formation process after the intrinsic coagulation mechanism is triggered. Normal plasma was depleted of AT by immunoadsorption on CNBr-Sepharose coupled with the anti-AT-IgG fraction of antiserum. The AT-depleted plasma was reconstituted with AT (between 0.3 and 1.5 AT units per ml). Thrombin generation was measured as the development of thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT). The lag phase preceding fibrin formation depended on the concentration of AT. The short lag phase was seen in completely AT-depleted plasma and the long in plasma with 1.5 AT units per ml. TAT generation, determined in parallel consecutive samples, showed that the rate at which thrombin was generated was inverse to the AT concentration in plasma. The network structure of hydrated fibrin gels in the clotted plasma was studied by measuring the wavelength dependence of gel turbidity. The mass/length ratio value, -i.e. the thickness of fiber strands and porosity of the gel increased with increasing AT concentrations. It is concluded that plasma AT regulates the rate of prothrombin-thrombin conversion, the clotting time and the consequently network structure of the fibrin gel.

  12. Heparin chain-length dependence of factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin in plasma.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Alireza R

    2007-01-01

    Heparin anticoagulants function by enhancing the inhibition of coagulation proteases by the serpin antithrombin (AT). A direct evaluation of the specific anti-factor Xa (fXa) activity of therapeutic heparins in the physiologically relevant plasma-based clotting assays has not been feasible since thrombin, the final protease of the cascade, is the primary target for inhibition by AT in the presence of heparin. To circumvent this problem, we developed an assay in which the native AT in plasma was replaced with an AT mutant which exhibits identical affinity for heparin and near normal reactivity for fXa, but does not react with thrombin and other coagulation proteases in either the absence or presence of heparin. This assay was used to distinguish the anti-fXa activity of different molecular weight heparins from their anti-thrombin activity in clotting assays which were initiated by the triggers of either the extrinsic or intrinsic coagulation pathway. The results suggest that the acceleration of fXa inhibition by AT exhibits a marked heparin chain-length dependence, with fondaparinux (a pentasaccharide) having the lowest and unfractionated heparin having the highest effect. Interestingly, comparative studies revealed that the fondaparinux-catalyzed acceleration of thrombin inhibition by AT also contributes to the prolongation of the clotting time, possibly suggesting that the anticoagulant function of the therapeutic pentasaccharide is mediated though the inhibition of both fXa and thrombin.

  13. Surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane with a covalent antithrombin-heparin complex to prevent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jennifer M; Berry, Leslie R; Chan, Anthony K C; Brash, John L

    2014-01-01

    To prevent coagulation in contact with blood, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was modified with an antithrombin-heparin (ATH) covalent complex using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a linker/spacer. Using NHS chemistry, ATH was attached covalently to the distal chain end of the immobilized PEG linker. Surfaces were characterized by contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; attachment was confirmed by decrease in contact angles and an increase in nitrogen content as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Protein interactions in plasma were investigated using radiolabeled proteins added to plasma as tracers, and by immunoblotting of eluted proteins. Modification of PDMS with PEG alone was effective in reducing non-specific protein adsorption; attachment of ATH at the distal end of the PEG chains did not significantly affect protein resistance. It was shown that surfaces modified with ATH bound antithrombin selectively from plasma through the pentasaccharide sequence on the heparin moiety of ATH, indicating the ability of the ATH-modified surfaces to inhibit coagulation. Using thromboelastography, the effect of ATH modification on plasma coagulation was evaluated directly. It was found that initiation of coagulation was delayed and the time to clot was prolonged on PDMS modified with ATH/PEG compared to controls. For comparison, surfaces modified in a similar way with heparin were prepared and investigated using the same methods. The data suggest that the ATH-modified surfaces have superior anticoagulant properties compared to those modified with heparin.

  14. Transient desialylation in combination with a novel antithrombin deficiency causing a severe and recurrent thrombosis despite anticoagulation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Revilla, Nuria; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Miñano, Antonia; López-Gálvez, Raquel; Toderici, Mara; Padilla, José; García-Avello, Ángel; Lozano, María Luisa; Lefeber, Dirk J.; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth focused study of specific cases of patients with recurrent thrombosis may help to identify novel circumstances, genetic and acquired factors contributing to the development of this disorder. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed and sequential analysis of samples from a patient suffering from early and recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. We performed thrombophilic tests, biochemical, functional, genetic and glycomic analysis of antithrombin and other plasma proteins. The patient carried a new type I antithrombin mutation (p.Ile218del), whose structural relevance was verified in a recombinant model. Experiments with N-glycosidase F and neuraminidase suggested a nearly full desialylation of plasma proteins, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of transferrin glycoforms. However, partial desialylation and normal patterns were detected in samples collected at other time-points. Desialylation was noticeable after arterial events and was associated with low antithrombin activity, reduced platelet count and glomerular filtration rate. This is the first description of a global and transient desialylation of plasma proteins associated with thrombosis. The decrease in the strong electronegative charge of terminal glycans may modulate hemostatic protein-protein interactions, which in combination with a strong prothrombotic situation, such as antithrombin deficiency, could increase the risk of thrombosis. PMID:28303970

  15. Transient desialylation in combination with a novel antithrombin deficiency causing a severe and recurrent thrombosis despite anticoagulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Nuria; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Miñano, Antonia; López-Gálvez, Raquel; Toderici, Mara; Padilla, José; García-Avello, Ángel; Lozano, María Luisa; Lefeber, Dirk J; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2017-03-17

    An in-depth focused study of specific cases of patients with recurrent thrombosis may help to identify novel circumstances, genetic and acquired factors contributing to the development of this disorder. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed and sequential analysis of samples from a patient suffering from early and recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. We performed thrombophilic tests, biochemical, functional, genetic and glycomic analysis of antithrombin and other plasma proteins. The patient carried a new type I antithrombin mutation (p.Ile218del), whose structural relevance was verified in a recombinant model. Experiments with N-glycosidase F and neuraminidase suggested a nearly full desialylation of plasma proteins, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of transferrin glycoforms. However, partial desialylation and normal patterns were detected in samples collected at other time-points. Desialylation was noticeable after arterial events and was associated with low antithrombin activity, reduced platelet count and glomerular filtration rate. This is the first description of a global and transient desialylation of plasma proteins associated with thrombosis. The decrease in the strong electronegative charge of terminal glycans may modulate hemostatic protein-protein interactions, which in combination with a strong prothrombotic situation, such as antithrombin deficiency, could increase the risk of thrombosis.

  16. An unusual antithrombin-binding heparin octasaccharide with an additional 3-O-sulfated glucosamine in the active pentasaccharide sequence.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Marco; Elli, Stefano; Mourier, Pierre; Rudd, Timothy R; Gaudesi, Davide; Casu, Benito; Boudier, Christian; Torri, Giangiacomo; Viskov, Christian

    2013-01-15

    The 3-O-sulfation of N-sulfated glucosamine is the last event in the biosynthesis of heparin/heparan sulfate, giving rise to the antithrombin-binding pentasaccharide sequence AGA*IA, which is largely associated with the antithrombotic activity of these molecules. The aim of the present study was the structural and biochemical characterization of a previously unreported AGA*IA*-containing octasaccharide isolated from the very-low-molecular-mass heparin semuloparin, in which both glucosamine residues of the pentasaccharide moiety located at the non-reducing end bear 3-O-sulfate groups. Two-dimensional and STD (saturation transfer difference) NMR experiments clearly confirmed its structure and identified its ligand epitope binding to antithrombin. The molecular conformation of the octasaccharide-antithrombin complex has been determined by NMR experiments and docking/energy minimization. The presence of the second 3-O-sulfated glucosamine in the octasaccharide induced more than one order of magnitude increase in affinity to antithrombin compared to the pentasaccharide AGA*IA.

  17. Comparison of antithrombin activity of the polysulphate chitosan derivatives in in vivo and in vitro system.

    PubMed

    Drozd, N N; Sher, A I; Makarov, V A; Galbraikh, L S; Vikhoreva, G A; Gorbachiova, I N

    2001-06-01

    In order to choose the proper method for evaluating the antithrombin activity in samples of chitosan polysulphate (CP) with different polymerization degrees and sulphation degrees, we estimated the ability of direct anticoagulants to depress the coagulability of recalcified sheep blood using the third international heparin standard (A1 - in vitro system) and determined such activity on pharmacodynamic curve (A2 - in vivo system). The curve admits the kinetics of CP elimination to be nonlinear in case of intravenous injection to rabbits, as it is observed in heparin: Ct = C(o)exp(-K(e)lt), where Ct is the CP concentration at the time moment t; C(o) is the CP concentration at the injection moment; Kel is the elimination constant. Besides, it is assumed that there is a linear approximation of the anticoagulant effect on the dose, which finally makes it possible to calculate the specific activity A2: T = KTCt+T(in), where T is the time of clot formation at different time intervals after CP injection; T(in) is the time of clot formation prior to CP injection. T value was assessed in two tests: blood coagulation time (BCT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). No correlation was observed between A1 and A2. At the same time, the values of Kel and the period of semi-elimination, with the use of the biospecific cetylpyridinium chloride electrophores for the quantitative determination of CP in rabbit's blood taken at different time intervals after injection, showed a close correlation (r = .94, P < .05) between the same parameters, obtained with the help of the rectilinear pharmacodynamic plot in BCT test. Thus, experimentally, it was proven that the assumption of the CP nonlinear elimination and the CP effect-dose dependence was true, which is necessary for A2 calculation. Relatively low molecular weights (MW 61-82 kDa, polymerization degree 188-252 ) and high sulphation patterns (sulphur amounts 15.6-16.9%, sulphation degree 1.58-1.86) were slowly cleared and

  18. Changes in Plasma Levels of Natural Anticoagulants in Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: High Prognostic Value of Antithrombin and Protein C in Patients with Underlying Sepsis or Severe Infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Qute; Hong, Ki Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional natural anticoagulant systems enhance intravascular fibrin for mation in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and plasma levels of natural anti coagulants can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of DIC. Herein, the diagnostic value of 4 natural anticoagulants was assessed, and the prognostic value of antithrombin and protein C were validated in a large population. Methods Part 1 study included 126 patients with clinically suspected DIC and estimated plasma levels of 4 candidate anticoagulant proteins: antithrombin, protein C, protein S, and protein Z. Part 2 comprised 1,846 patients, in whom plasma antithrombin and protein C levels were compared with other well-known DIC markers according to the underlying dis eases. The 28-day mortality rate was used to assess prognostic outcome. Results Antithrombin and protein C showed higher areas under the ROC curve than pro tein S and protein Z. In part 2 of the study, antithrombin and protein C levels significantly correlated with DIC score, suggesting that these factors are good indicators of DIC severity. Antithrombin and protein C showed significant prognostic power in Kaplan-Meier analyses. In patients with sepsis/severe infection, antithrombin and protein C showed higher hazard ratios than D-dimer. Platelet count showed the highest hazard ratio in patients with hemato logic malignancy. In patients with liver disease, the hazard ratio for antithrombin levels was significantly high. Conclusions Decreased plasma anticoagulant levels reflect florid consumption of the phys iologic defense system against DIC-induced hypercoagulation. Plasma antithrombin and protein C levels are powerful prognostic markers of DIC, especially in patients with sepsis/severe infection. PMID:24624342

  19. Long-term stability of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin complexed form of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Brawer, M K; Ferreri, L F; Bankson, D D

    2000-11-01

    PSA complexed with alpha-1-anti-chymotrypsin (cPSA trade mark ) is the moiety in greatest proportion in the serum of men with prostate cancer (CAP). The performance of this analyte has been established primarily in retrospective archival serum. Studies indicate cPSA trade mark provides the specificity enhancement of the free-to-total PSA ratio, yet obviates the need to measure two markers. In the present investigation we sought to establish the stability of cPSA trade mark with long-term storage. Serum from men undergoing ultrasound-guided biopsy was utilized. Serum was assayed soon after collection and 18 months later. All serum was initially aliquotted and stored at -80 degrees C. There was no freeze-thaw. cPSA trade mark was measured utilizing the Bayer Immuno 1 method according to manufacturer's recommendations. The mean (s.d.) PSA was 5.5 (3.8) and 5.6 (3.9) ng/ml at the initial and subsequent testing, respectively. The medians were 4.3 and 4.4 ng/ml, respectively. No significant differences exist between the two determinants (r(2)=1.0, slope=1.01, t-test P=0.9194). These data establish for the first time the long-term stability of cPSA trade mark. Retrospective studies performed on archival material should give meaningful results. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 191-194

  20. Antithrombin nanoparticles inhibit stent thrombosis in ex vivo static and flow models.

    PubMed

    Palekar, Rohun U; Vemuri, Chandu; Marsh, Jon N; Arif, Batool; Wickline, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    antithrombin perfluorocarbon NPs exert marked focal antithrombin activity to prevent intravascular stent thrombosis and occlusion. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Basement-membrane heparan sulphate with high affinity for antithrombin synthesized by normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pejler, G; David, G

    1987-01-01

    Basement-membrane proteoglycans, biosynthetically labelled with [35S]sulphate, were isolated from normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells. Proteoglycans synthesized by normal cells contained mainly heparan sulphate and, in addition, small amounts of chondroitin sulphate chains, whereas transformed cells synthesized a relatively higher proportion of chondroitin sulphate. Polysaccharide chains from transformed cells were of lower average Mr and of lower anionic charge density compared with chains isolated from the untransformed counterparts, confirming results reported previously [David & Van den Berghe (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7338-7344]. A large proportion of the chains isolated from normal cells bound with high affinity to immobilized antithrombin, and the presence of 3-O-sulphated glucosamine residues, previously identified as unique markers for the antithrombin-binding region of heparin [Lindahl, Bäckström, Thunberg & Leder (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6551-6555], could be demonstrated. A significantly lower proportion of the chains derived from transformed cells bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and a corresponding decrease in the amount of incorporated 3-O-sulphate was observed. PMID:2963617

  2. A capillary zone electrophoresis method to detect conformers and dimers of antithrombin in therapeutic preparations.

    PubMed

    Marie, Anne-Lise; Tran, Nguyet Thuy; Saller, François; Abdou, Youmna Mohamed; Zeau, Pascal; Plantier, Jean-Luc; Urbain, Rémi; Borgel, Delphine; Taverna, Myriam

    2016-07-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a human plasma glycoprotein that possesses anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the native (active) form of AT is unstable and undergoes conformational changes, leading to latent, cleaved, and heterodimeric forms. The presence of these alternative forms mostly inactive can highly impact the quality and therapeutic activity of pharmaceutical AT preparations. We developed a capillary zone electrophoresis method, based on a neutral polyethylene oxide-coated capillary and a buffer close to physiological conditions, enabling the separation of more than eight forms of AT. Several peaks were identified as native, latent, and heterodimeric forms. The CZE method was reproducible with intraday relative standard deviations less than 0.5 and 2% for migration times and peak areas, respectively. The method was applied to the comparison of AT preparations produced by five competitive pharmaceutical companies, and statistical tests were performed. Important differences in the proportion of each form were highlighted. In particular, one AT preparation was shown to contain a high quantity of heterodimer, and two preparations contained high quantities of latent form. In addition, one AT preparation exhibited additional forms, not yet identified. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development of a recombinant antithrombin variant as a potent antidote to fondaparinux and other heparin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Elsa P; Fazavana, Judicael; Picard, Veronique; Borgel, Delphine

    2011-02-10

    Heparin derivative-based therapy has evolved from unfractionated heparin (UFH) to low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) and now fondaparinux, a synthetic pentasaccharide. Contrary to UFH or LMWHs, fondaparinux is not neutralized by protamine sulfate, and no antidote is available to counteract bleeding disorders associated with overdosing. To make the use of fondaparinux safer, we developed an antithrombin (AT) variant as a potent antidote to heparin derivatives. This variant (AT-N135Q-Pro394) combines 2 mutations: substitution of Asn135 by a Gln to remove a glycosylation site and increase affinity for heparins, and the insertion of a Pro between Arg393 and Ser394 to abolish its anticoagulant activity. As expected, AT-N135Q-Pro394 anticoagulant activity was almost abolished, and it exhibited a 3-fold increase in fondaparinux affinity. AT-N135Q-Pro394 was shown to reverse fondaparinux overdosing in vitro in a dose-dependent manner through a competitive process with plasma AT for fondaparinux binding. This antidote effect was also observed in vivo: administration of AT-N135Q-Pro394 in 2.5-fold molar excess versus plasma AT neutralized 86% of the anti-Xa activity within 5 minutes in mice treated with fondaparinux. These results clearly demonstrate that AT-N135Q-Pro394 can reverse the anticoagulant activity of fondaparinux and thus could be used as an antidote for this drug.

  4. A small deletion in SERPINC1 causes type I antithrombin deficiency by promoting endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Yu; Liu, Jianren

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin (AT) deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder, and identification of mutation AT variants would improve our understanding of the anticoagulant function of this serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) and the molecular pathways underlying this disorder. In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of a Chinese family with deep vein thrombosis, and identified a new small deletion that eliminates four amino acids (INEL) from exon 4 of SERPINC1 gene. This causes type I AT deficiency by enhancing the intracellular retention of this protein. AT retention leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which further inhibits AT release. In addition, ER stress activates ER-associated degradation, which promotes AT degradation. Suppression of ER stress enhanced the secretion of AT, while inhibition of ER-associated degradation suppressed AT release. Thus, our study identified a new mutation (INEL deletion) causing type I AT deficiency, and uncovered a novel mechanism for AT retention through enhanced ER stress, which may provide an innovative approach for treating AT deficiency. PMID:27708219

  5. Isolated pregnancy-induced anti-thrombin deficiency in a woman with twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Kosuke; Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takahiro; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-06-01

    A woman with twin pregnancy had a gradual decline in anti-thrombin (AT) activity from 72% at gestational week (GW) 29(-3/7) , to 53% at GW31(-2/7) , and to 41% at GW32(-2/7) , at which time hypertension (148/90 mmHg) and proteinuria (protein-to-creatinine ratio [P/Cr], 0.79 mg/mg) developed in the presence of normal platelet count (159 × 10(9) /L) and serum aspartate aminotransferase/lactate dehydrogenase (22/164 IU/L). AT product was given three times to maintain AT activity >50% and blood pressure was maintained below 155/95 mmHg with no treatment, but generalized edema with a weekly weight gain of 4.9 kg and increased proteinuria (to P/Cr, 7.6 mg/mg) required cesarean section at GW33(-3/7) . This case highlights the occurrence of pregnancy-induced AT deficiency alone in the absence of any other abnormality, including hypertension, proteinuria, or thrombocytopenia. Measurement of AT activity was considered helpful for determination of the appropriate time for delivery in this patient.

  6. Prevention, management and extent of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with hereditary antithrombin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rogenhofer, Nina; Bohlmann, Michael K; Beuter-Winkler, Petra; Würfel, Wolfgang; Rank, Andreas; Thaler, Christian J; Toth, Bettina

    2014-03-01

    Antithrombin (AT) deficiency is a rare hereditary thrombophilia with a mean prevalence of 0.02 % in the general population, associated with a more than ten-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Within this multicenter retrospective clinical analysis, female patients with inherited AT deficiency were evaluated concerning the type of inheritance and extent of AT deficiency, medical treatment during pregnancy and postpartally, VTE risk as well as maternal and neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis was performed with SPPS for Windows (19.0). A total of 18 pregnancies in 7 patients were evaluated, including 11 healthy newborns ≥37th gestational weeks (gw), one small for gestational age premature infant (25th gw), two late-pregnancy losses (21st and 28th gw) and four early miscarriages. Despite low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administration, three VTE occurred during pregnancy and one postpartally. Several adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred including fetal and neonatal death, as well as severe maternal neurologic disorders occurred. Patients with substitution of AT during pregnancy in addition to LMWH showed the best maternal and neonatal outcome. Close monitoring with appropriate anticoagulant treatment including surveillance of AT levels might help to optimize maternal and fetal outcome in patients with hereditary AT deficiency.

  7. Oxidized antithrombin is a dual inhibitor of coagulation and angiogenesis: Importance of low heparin affinity.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Asim; Khan, Mohammad Sazzad; Swaminathan, Akila; Naseem, Asma; Chatterjee, Suvro; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous proteins that promote vascular endothelial cell based inhibition of angiogenesis are an attractive option for antitumor therapy. Inactive cleaved and latent conformations of antithrombin (AT) are antiangiogenic, but not its native form which is an inhibitor of proteases involved in blood coagulation. Unlike native, the cleaved and latent conformations are reactive center loop inserted conformations which binds heparin with very low affinity. We use a sulfoxy modified AT to assess the role of reactive center loop insertion and heparin affinity in antiangiogenic function. Chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) shows that antiangiogenic activity of latent and oxidized AT are better than thalidomide, a potent antiangiogenic drug. Wound healing experiments suggest that latent and oxidized conformations can influence endothelial cell migration. Latent and cleaved conformations of AT shows an increase in α-helical content in the presence of unfractionated heparin, but not the oxidized AT. Unlike the loop inserted polymer, cleaved and latent conformations, oxidized AT has factor Xa inhibitory activity indicating that loop insertion is not necessary for antiangiogenic role. The results of our study establish that active conformation of AT can become antiangiogenic while maintaining its anticoagulant activity possibly through chelation of low affinity heparin in the vicinity of endothelial cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comprehensive Docking and MM/GBSA Rescoring Study of Ligand Recognition upon Binding Antithrombin

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Perez-Sanchez, Horacio; C. Lightstone, Felice

    2017-04-06

    A high-throughput virtual screening pipeline has been extended from single energetically minimized structure Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) rescoring to ensemble-average MM/GBSA rescoring. The correlation coefficient (R2) of calculated and experimental binding free energies for a series of antithrombin ligands has been improved from 0.36 to 0.69 when switching from the single-structure MM/GBSA rescoring to ensemble-average one. The electrostatic interactions in both solute and solvent are identified to play an important role in determining the binding free energy after the decomposition of the calculated binding free energy. Furthermore, the increasing negative charge of the compounds provides a more favorablemore » electrostatic energy change but creates a higher penalty for the solvation free energy. Such a penalty is compensated by the electrostatic energy change, which results in a better binding affinity. A highly hydrophobic ligand is determined by the docking program to be a non-specific binder. Finally, these results have demonstrated that it is very important to keep a few top poses for rescoring, if the binding is non-specific or the binding mode is not well determined by the docking calculation.« less

  9. Different duplex/quadruplex junctions determine the properties of anti-thrombin aptamers with mixed folding.

    PubMed

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Spiridonova, Vera; Pica, Andrea; Napolitano, Valeria; Sica, Filomena

    2016-01-29

    Mixed duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides have attracted great interest as therapeutic targets as well as effective biomedical aptamers. In the case of thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), the addition of a duplex motif to the G-quadruplex module improves the aptamer resistance to biodegradation and the affinity for thrombin. In particular, the mixed oligonucleotide RE31 is significantly more effective than TBA in anticoagulation experiments and shows a slower disappearance rate in human plasma and blood. In the crystal structure of the complex with thrombin, RE31 adopts an elongated structure in which the duplex and quadruplex regions are perfectly stacked on top of each other, firmly connected by a well-structured junction. The lock-and-key shape complementarity between the TT loops of the G-quadruplex and the protein exosite I gives rise to the basic interaction that stabilizes the complex. However, our data suggest that the duplex motif may have an active role in determining the greater anti-thrombin activity in biological fluids with respect to TBA. This work gives new information on mixed oligonucleotides and highlights the importance of structural data on duplex/quadruplex junctions, which appear to be varied, unpredictable, and fundamental in determining the aptamer functional properties.

  10. A small deletion in SERPINC1 causes type I antithrombin deficiency by promoting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Su, Jingjing; Shu, Liang; Zhang, Zhou; Cai, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Yu; Liu, Jianren

    2016-11-22

    Antithrombin (AT) deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder, and identification of mutation AT variants would improve our understanding of the anticoagulant function of this serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) and the molecular pathways underlying this disorder. In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of a Chinese family with deep vein thrombosis, and identified a new small deletion that eliminates four amino acids (INEL) from exon 4 of SERPINC1 gene. This causes type I AT deficiency by enhancing the intracellular retention of this protein. AT retention leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which further inhibits AT release. In addition, ER stress activates ER-associated degradation, which promotes AT degradation. Suppression of ER stress enhanced the secretion of AT, while inhibition of ER-associated degradation suppressed AT release. Thus, our study identified a new mutation (INEL deletion) causing type I AT deficiency, and uncovered a novel mechanism for AT retention through enhanced ER stress, which may provide an innovative approach for treating AT deficiency.

  11. [Antithrombin III dosage using the chromogenic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-NAN, in several pathological situations].

    PubMed

    Lourenço, D M; Noguti, M A; Juliano, L

    1995-01-01

    Functional methods for ATIII determination are essential for the diagnosis of deficiencies of this important thrombin inhibitor. The aim of this work was standardize the method for ATIII level determination in plasma, in microplates. ATIII levels were measured, using the chromogenic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-NAN, which is specific for thrombin, and which has been sinthesized at the Biophysical Department of the Escola Paulista de Medicina of the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Among 21 patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 20 had ATIII levels above 70% (113 +/- 22%). A 22 year-old female patient, who had recurrent DVT and a familiar DVT antecedent, had a congenital ATIII deficiency (56%). ATIII levels were normal in 6 patients with von Willebrand disease (109 +/- 28%), as expected. In 20 patients with severe hepatic failure, it has been found reduced ATIII levels (42 +/- 19%), since this inhibitor is produced by the liver. In 3 patients with sepsis and DIC, ATIII levels have also been reduced (45 +/- 5%) owing to consumption during blood coagulation activation. There was a significant correlation between ATIII levels and the prothrombin time, as well as the factor V levels, and both are good parameters to assess hepatic function and to monitor DIC. There was a significant correlation between ATIII levels measured using the chromogenic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-NAN and those measured using S-2238, produced by Kabi Laboratories. This method for ATIII determination in plasma is easy to perform and it can detect ATIII deficiency in patients with hepatic failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombophilia.

  12. Distribution of a length polymorphism 5{prime} to exon 1 of the antithrombin III (ATIII) gene in the Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Low, P.S.; Liu, Y.; Saha, N.

    1994-09-01

    A length polymorphism at the 5{prime} untranslated region of the ATIII gene has been described as having been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a frequency of 0.75 for the short allele (S) in the Caucasian population. This length polymorphism of the ATIII gene has been studied in 251 Chinese healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was amplified by PCR with primers of published sequences. Fragments of the amplified DNA were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis (3% NuSieve and 1% Seakem GTG) and photographed on a UV transilluminator. The frequency of the short allele (S) was found to be significantly lower (0.37) than that in the Caucasians (0.75). The distribution of genotypes of this polymorphism of the ATIII gene was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The large difference of allelic frequencies in the Mongoloid and Caucasian populations makes it a useful marker for population studies.

  13. Polymorphisms in antithrombin and in tissue factor pathway inhibitor genes are associated with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M; Bertinato, Juliano Felix; Tosin Bueno, Carolina; Cordeiro da Silva, Kelma; Burlacchini de Carvalho, Mário Henrique; Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Rossana; Zugaib, Marcelo; Cerda, Alvaro; Morelli, Vânia Maris

    2012-10-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial condition. The effect of antithrombin (SERPINC1), protein C (PROC), thrombomodulin (THBD) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the risk of RPL is thus far unknown. Our objective was to determine the association of SNPs in the above mentioned genes with RPL. We included 117 non-pregnant women with three or more consecutive losses prior to 20 weeks of pregnancy without a previous history of carrying a fetus to viability, and 264 healthy fertile non-pregnant women who had at least two term deliveries and no known pregnancy losses. The PROC (rs1799809 and rs1799808), SERPINC1 (rs2227589), THBD (rs1042579) and TFPI (rs10931292, rs8176592 and rs10153820) SNPs were analysed by Real Time PCR. Genotype frequencies for PROC 2418A>G, PROC 2405C>T, THBD 1418C>T, TFPI (T-33C and TFPI C-399T) SNPs were similar in cases and controls. The carriers of SERPINC1 786A allele (GA + AA genotypes) had an increased risk for RPL (odds ratio [OR]: 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.00, p= 0.034) while women carrying the TFPI -287C allele (TC + CC genotypes) had a protection effect on having RPL (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.83, p= 0.009). The TCC haplotype for TFPI T-33C/ TFPI T-287C/ TFPI C-399T SNPs was less frequent in cases (5.7%) than in controls (11.6%) (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.90, p= 0.025). In conclusion, our data indicate that SERPINC1 786G>A variant increases the risk for RPL, while TFPI T-287C variant is protective; however, further studies are required to confirm our findings.

  14. Inhibition of antithrombin and bovine serum albumin native state aggregation by heparin.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Zheng, Bingqian; Dubin, Paul L

    2014-01-14

    Protein native state aggregation, a major problem in pharmaceutical and biological processes, has been addressed pharmacologically by the addition of protein-binding excipients. Heparin (Hp), a highly sulfated polysaccharide, interacts with numerous proteins with moderate to high affinity, but reports about its effect on protein aggregation are contradictory. We studied the pH dependence of the aggregation of antithrombin (AT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence and absence of heparin. High-precision turbidimetry showed strong aggregation for both AT and BSA in I = 10 mM NaCl, conditions at which electrostatically driven Hp binding and aggregation both occur, with more obvious aggregation of heparin-free AT appearing as larger aggregate size. Aggregation of AT was dramatically inhibited at Hp: protein 6:1 (mole ratio); however, the effect at 0.5:1 Hp:protein was greater for BSA. Frontal analysis capillary electrophoresis showed a much larger equilibrium association constant Kobs between Hp and AT, in accord with the onset of Hp binding at a higher pH; both effects are explained by the higher charge density of the positive domain for AT as revealed by modeling with DelPhi. The corresponding modeling images showed that these domains persist at high salt only for AT, consistent with the 160-fold drop in Kobs at 100 mM salt for BSA-Hp binding. The smaller inhibition effect for AT arises from the tendency of its uncomplexed monomer to form larger aggregates more rapidly, but the stronger binding of Hp to AT does not facilitate Hp-induced aggregate dissolution which occurs more readily for BSA. This can be attributed to the higher density of AT aggregates evidenced by higher fractal dimensions. Differences between inhibition and reversal by Hp arise because the former may depend on the stage at which Hp enters the aggregation process and the latter on aggregate size and morphology.

  15. Glycosaminoglycans as naturally occurring combinatorial libraries: developing a mass spectrometry-based strategy for characterization of anti-thrombin interaction with low molecular weight heparin and heparin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Abzalimov, Rinat R; Dubin, Paul L; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2007-08-15

    Heparin is a densely charged polysaccharide, which is best known for its anticoagulant activity, although it also modulates a plethora of other biological processes. Unlike biopolymers whose synthesis is strictly controlled by a unique genetic template, heparin molecules exhibit a remarkable degree of structural heterogeneity, which poses a serious challenge for studies of heparin-protein interactions. This analytical challenge is often dealt with by reducing the enormous structural repertoire of heparin to a model small molecule. In this paper, we describe a different approach inspired by the experimental methodologies from the arsenal of combinatorial chemistry. Interaction of anti-thrombin III (AT) with heparinoids is studied using a mixture of oligoheparin molecules of fixed degree of polymerization, but varying chemical composition (heparin hexasaccharides obtained by size exclusion chromatography of an enzymatic digest of porcine intestinal heparin with bacterial heparinase), as well as a heparin-derived pharmaceutical preparation Tinzaparin (heparin oligosaccharides up to a 22-mer). AT binders are identified based on the results of ESI MS measurements of complexes formed by protein-oligoheparin association. Additionally, differential depletion of free heparin oligomers in solution in the presence of AT is used to verify the binding preferences. ESI MS characterization of oligoheparin-AT interaction under partially denaturing conditions allowed the conformer specificity of the protein-polyanion binding to be monitored. A model emerging from these studies invokes the notion of a well-defined binding site on AT, to which a flexible partner (heparin) adapts to maximize favorable intermolecular electrostatic interactions. This study demonstrates the enormous potential of ESI MS as an analytical tool to study the interactions of highly heterogeneous glycosaminoglycans with their cognate proteins outside of the commonly accepted reductionist paradigm, which reduces

  16. Clinical and biochemical characterization of the prothrombin Belgrade mutation in a large Serbian pedigree: new insights into the antithrombin resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miljic, P; Gvozdenov, M; Takagi, Y; Takagi, A; Pruner, I; Dragojevic, M; Tomic, B; Bodrozic, J; Kojima, T; Radojkovic, D; Djordjevic, V

    2017-01-11

    Essentials Prothrombin Belgrade mutation leads to antithrombin resistance. Clinical and biochemical phenotypes in a large family with this mutation were investigated. In carriers, we detected decreased factor II activity and increased endogenous thrombin potential. Prothrombin Belgrade mutation represents a strong prothrombotic risk factor.

  17. [Preparation and antithrombogenicity of oxidated low molecular weight heparin-antithrombin complex coated-polyvinyl chloride tubing].

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Liu, Weiyong; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Hua; Cao, Ruijun; Yang, Jian

    2011-02-01

    Based on non-enzymatic protein glycated reaction, the sodium periodate-oxidated low molecular weight heparin-antithrombin covalent complex (SPLMWATH) was produced. By using polyethyleneimine-glutaraldehyde bonding technique, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings were coated with SPLMWATH, heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Spectrophotometry and dynamic clotting time experiment were used to determine the synthetic ratio of SPLMWATH, graft density, coating leaching ratio and to evaluate the antithrombogenicity of different coating on the PVC tubings. The results showed that the synthetic ratio of SPLMWATH was approximately 55%, and compared with heparin coating and LMWH coating, the graft density of SPLMWATH coating on the PVC tubing was smaller, but its coating stability and antithrombogenicity were significantly better than that of heparin coating and LMWH coating on the PVC tubings.

  18. Case Report of Severe Antithrombin Deficiency During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Therapeutic Plasma Exchange for Double Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brittney; Mazzeffi, Michael A; Sanchez, Pablo G; Pham, Si M; Kon, Zachary; Tanaka, Kenichi A

    2017-01-01

    Acquired antithrombin (AT) deficiency is not uncommon in cardiothoracic surgery because of heparin exposure and dilutional or consumptive losses. We report a case of acquired AT deficiency and resultant multiple deep vein thrombosis in a patient with pulmonary fibrosis on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation who underwent double lung transplantation with intraoperative therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) as a part of an immunomodulation regimen for allosensitization. Preoperative heparin anticoagulation resulted in AT deficiency, which was further exacerbated by TPE using albumin. The recovery of AT activity after TPE with plasma was incomplete, and postoperative deficiencies of AT and other anticoagulants might have contributed to deep vein thromboses. The limitation of thromboelastometry in detecting AT deficiency was evident.

  19. [Influence of intravenous injection of fucoidan from brown seaweed Fucus evanescens by plasma rabbits anticoagulant activity and neutralisation by sulphate protamin of fucoidans antithrombin activity in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lapikova, E S; Drozd, N N; Makarov, V A; Zviagintseva, T N; Shevchenko, N M; Kuznetsova, T A; Besednova, N N

    2012-01-01

    With fucoidan from Fucus evanescens dose increase from 1 to 5 mg/kg plasma coagulation time in test A(see symbol)TB increases. Sulphate protamin in final concentration 0.67-1.35 mkg/ml will neutralise antithrombin activity of fucoidans from brown seaweed Fucus evanescens and Laminaria cichorioides. The gravimetrichesky relation for the investigated samples makes an antidot/anticoagulant 1.

  20. Present and future of anticoagulant therapy using antithrombin and thrombomodulin for sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation: a perspective from Japan.

    PubMed

    Iba, Toshiaki; Thachil, Jecko

    2016-03-01

    In sepsis, the coagulation system is often systemically activated in combination with the simultaneous impairment of fibrinolysis and anticoagulant systems. Since this hypercoagulable state often leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients, the appropriate management of DIC itself is a crucial part of treatment strategies for severe sepsis. In this context, the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM) scoring system for DIC has been proposed as a valid test for diagnosing DIC; this system is also expected to aid in devising specifically tailored management strategies. Anticoagulant therapy is commonly given to septic patients with DIC as part of the standard care in Japan. More recently, antithrombin concentrate and recombinant thrombomodulin have become the two major anticoagulant agents of choice. In relation to the use of antithrombin, recent studies have indicated that the recovery of antithrombin activity to within the normal range (>70%) is necessary if supplementation therapy is to provide a favorable outcome. Recombinant thrombomodulin is slightly more controversial, with favorable results being greater among severe cases of DIC. In the present review, we summarize recent clinical advances in anticoagulant therapy for sepsis-associated DIC.

  1. Synthesis and anticoagulant activity of bioisosteric sulfonic-Acid analogues of the antithrombin-binding pentasaccharide domain of heparin.

    PubMed

    Herczeg, Mihály; Lázár, László; Bereczky, Zsuzsanna; Kövér, Katalin E; Timári, István; Kappelmayer, János; Lipták, András; Antus, Sándor; Borbás, Anikó

    2012-08-20

    Two pentasaccharide sulfonic acids that were related to the antithrombin-binding domain of heparin were prepared, in which two or three primary sulfate esters were replaced by sodium-sulfonatomethyl moieties. The sulfonic-acid groups were formed on a monosaccharide level and the obtained carbohydrate sulfonic-acid esters were found to be excellent donors and acceptors in the glycosylation reactions. Throughout the synthesis, the hydroxy groups to be methylated were masked in the form of acetates and the hydroxy groups to be sulfated were masked with benzyl groups. The disulfonic-acid analogue was prepared in a [2+3] block synthesis by using a trisaccharide disulfonic acid as an acceptor and a glucuronide disaccharide as a donor. For the synthesis of the pentasaccharide trisulfonic acid, a more-efficient approach, which involved elongation of the trisaccharide acceptor with a non-oxidized precursor of the glucuronic acid followed by post-glycosidation oxidation at the tetrasaccharide level and a subsequent [1+4] coupling reaction, was elaborated. In vitro evaluation of the anticoagulant activity of these new sulfonic-acid derivatives revealed that the disulfonate analogue inhibited the blood-coagulation-proteinase factor Xa with outstanding efficacy; however, the introduction of the third sulfonic-acid moiety resulted in a notable decrease in the anti-Xa activity. The difference in the biological activity of the disulfonic- and trisulfonic-acid counterparts could be explained by the different conformation of their L-iduronic-acid residues.

  2. Factor VIIa-antithrombin complexes in patients with non-neoplastic portal vein thrombosis with and without cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, V; Spiezia, L; Senzolo, M; Rodriguez, K; Gavasso, S; Woodhams, B; Simioni, P

    2013-02-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is caused by local and systemic prothrombotic risk factors. In this case-control study, we evaluated the use of the Factor VIIa-antithrombin complex (FVIIa-AT) complex assay as a hypercoagulability marker in patients with PVT. Two different groups of cases were considered: (i) n = 12 noncirrhotic PVT patients, (ii) n = 33 cirrhotic patients with PVT. Controls were sex and age-matched healthy volunteers and cirrhotic subjects without PVT, respectively. Levels of the FVIIa-AT complex were significantly higher in noncirrhotic PVT subjects (132 ± 32 pM) than in healthy volunteers (108 ± 18 pM, P = 0.04). No significant difference in FVIIa-AT complexes was seen between cirrhotic patients with (64 ± 20 pM) or without (61 ± 24 pM) PVT. A linear correlation was seen between FVIIa-AT and FVIIa in noncirrhotic PVT subjects. In cirrhotic patients, FVIIa-AT complexes depended on both FVIIa and AT. These results confirm the utility of the FVIIa-AT assay in identifying the hypercoagulable state of noncirrhotic patients because of a previous thrombotic event. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. [Study on antiplatelet and antithrombin activitives and effective components variation of Puhuang-Wulingzhi before and after compatibility].

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-lan; Xue, Ping; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhou, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-08-01

    The changes of bioactive constituents were analyzed for Puhuang-Wulingzhi before and after compatibility and the antiplatelet and antithrombin activitives were evaluated in order to elucidate the scientific and reasonable of Puhuang-Wulingzhi compatibility. UPLC-QTOF-MA-Markerlynx, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis were used for data analysis and tracking changes of chemical composition during the decocting process. In vitro platelet aggregation induced by ADP, thrombin time(TT) and prothrombin time (PT) were investigated for Puhuang-Wulingzhi before and after compatibility. The results showed that significant differences were found between the mixed decoction and codecoction of Wulingzhi and Puhuang. Five compounds changed obviously were identified as typhaneoside, naringenin, isorhamnetin-3-O-ruinoside, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside. The codecoction, comparing with the single decoction, was more significant in antiplatelet aggregation and could prolong thrombin time. In the same crude drug dose, the thrombin time (TT) elongation were greater. These data could provide references for elucidation of bioactive components for this herb pair.

  4. The Critical Role of Hinge Region Expulsion in the Induced-fit Heparin Binding Mechanism of Antithrombin

    PubMed Central

    Langdown, Jonathan; Belzar, Klara J.; Savory, Wendy J.; Baglin, Trevor P.; Huntington, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Antithrombin (AT) is the most important inhibitor of the coagulation proteases. Its activity is stimulated by glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, through allosteric and template mechanisms. AT utilises an induced-fit mechanism to bind with high affinity to a pentasaccharide sequence found in about one-third of heparin chains. The conformational changes behind this mechanism have been characterised by several crystal structures of AT in the absence and presence of the pentasaccharide. Pentasaccharide binding ultimately results in a conformational change that improves affinity by about 1000-fold. Crystal structures show several differences, including the expulsion of the hinge region of the reactive centre loop from β-sheet A, known to be critical for the allosteric activation of AT. Here we present data that reveals an energetically distinct intermediate on the path to full activation, where the majority of conformational changes have already occurred. A crystal structure of this intermediate shows that the hinge region is in a native like state, in spite of having the pentasaccharide bound in the normal fashion. We engineered a disulphide bond to lock the hinge in its native position to determine the energetic contributions of the initial and final conformational events. Approximately 60% of the free energy contribution of conformational change is provided by the final step of hinge region expulsion and subsequent closure of the main β-sheet A. A new analysis of the individual structural changes provides a plausible mechanism for propagation of conformational change from the heparin binding site to the remote hinge region in β-sheet A. PMID:19452598

  5. Molecular basis of inherited antithrombin deficiency in Portuguese families: identification of genetic alterations and screening for additional thrombotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    David, Dezsö; Ribeiro, Sofia; Ferrão, Lénia; Gago, Teresa; Crespo, Francisco

    2004-06-01

    Antithrombin (AT), the most important coagulation serine proteases inhibitor, plays an important role in maintaining the hemostatic balance. Inherited AT deficiency, mainly characterized by predisposition to recurrent venous thromboembolism, is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. In this study, we analyzed the underlying genetic alterations in 12 unrelated Portuguese thrombophilic families with AT deficiency. At the same time, the modulating effect of the FV Leiden mutation, PT 20210A, PAI-1 4G, and MTHFR 677T allelic variants, on the thrombotic risk of AT deficient patients was also evaluated. Three novel frameshift alterations, a 4-bp deletion in exon 4 and two 1-bp insertions in exon 6, were identified in six unrelated type I AT deficient families. A novel missense mutation in exon 3a, which changes the highly conserved F147 residue, and a novel splice site mutation in the invariant acceptor AG dinucleotide of intron 2 were also identified in unrelated type I AT deficient families. In addition to these, two previously reported missense mutations changing the AT reactive site bond (R393-S394) and leading to type II-RS deficiency, and a previously reported cryptic splice site mutation (IVS4-14G-->A), were also identified. In these families, increased thrombotic risk associated with co-inheritance of the FV Leiden mutation and of the PAI-1 4G variant was also observed. In conclusion, we present the first data regarding the underlying genetic alterations in Portuguese thrombophilic families with AT deficiency, and confirm that the FV Leiden mutation and probably the PAI-1 4G variant represent additional thrombotic risk factors in these families.

  6. Missense mutations in the gene encoding prothrombin corresponding to Arg596 cause antithrombin resistance and thrombomodulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yuki; Murata, Moe; Kozuka, Toshihiro; Nakata, Yukiko; Hasebe, Ryo; Tamura, Shogo; Takagi, Akira; Matsushita, Tadashi; Saito, Hidehiko; Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2016-11-30

    Antithrombin (AT) and thrombomodulin (TM) play important roles in the process of natural anticoagulation in vivo. Recently, we reported that the prothrombin Yukuhashi mutation (p.Arg596Leu) was associated with AT and TM resistance-related thrombophilia. To assess the AT and TM resistances associated with other missense mutations by single base substitution in the Arg596 codon, we generated recombinant variants (596Gln, 596Trp, 596Gly, and 596Pro) and investigated the effects on AT and TM anticoagulant functions. All variants except 596Pro were secreted in amounts comparable to that of the wild-type but exhibited variable procoagulant activities. After a 30-minute inactivation by AT, the relative residual activity of wild-type thrombin decreased to 15 ± 4.0 %, in contrast to values of all variants were maintained at above 80 %. The thrombin-AT complex formation, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was reduced with all tested variants in the presence and absence of heparin. In the presence of soluble TM (sTM), the relative fibrinogen clotting activity of wild-type thrombin decreased to 16 ± 0.12 %, whereas that of tested variants was 37 %-56 %. In a surface plasmon resonance assay, missense Arg596 mutations reduced thrombin-TM affinity to an extent similar to the reduction of fibrinogen clotting inhibition. In the presence of sTM or cultured endothelial-like cells, APC generation was enhanced differently by variant thrombins in a thrombin-TM affinity-dependent manner. These data indicate that prothrombin Arg596 missense mutations lead to AT and TM resistance in the variant thrombins and suggest that prothrombin Arg596 is important for AT- and TM-mediated anticoagulation.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium between polymorphisms at the 5{prime} untranslated region and intron 5 (Dde I) of the antithrombin III (ATIII) gene in the Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.S.H.; Liu, Y.; Low, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    A length polymorphism at the 5{prime} untranslated region of exon 1 and an RFLP (Dde I) in intron 5 (nt 160) of the ATIII gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with primers of published sequences. DNA fragments were size-fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis (3% NuSieve and 1% Seakem GTG) and photographed over a UV transilluminator. A strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between these two polymorphisms of the ATIII gene in the Chinese ({chi}{sup 2} = 63.7; {triangle} 0.42, P < 0.001). The estimated frequencies of the three haplotypes were found to be 0.37 for SD+, 0.40 for LD+ and 0.23 for LD-.

  8. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-13

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Additional Info:  Data Format: HDF-EOS or Big Endian/IEEE Binary SCAR-B Block:  ...

  9. BIOPLUME III

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BIOPLUME III is a two-dimensional finite difference model for simulating the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater due to the processes of advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation.

  10. Rat heparan sulphates. A study of the antithrombin-binding properties of heparan sulphate chains from rat adipose tissue, brain, carcase, heart, intestine, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, A A

    1990-01-01

    Adult male rats were given [35S]sulphate intraperitoneally. Heparan [35S]sulphate (HS) chains were recovered from adipose tissue, brain, carcase, heart, intestine, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin and spleen by digestion with Pronase, precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride, digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase and DNAase and gradient elution from DEAE-Sephacel. Purity was confirmed by agarose-gel electrophoresis and degradation with HNO2. Fractionation by gradient elution from antithrombin-agarose indicated that the proportion of HS with high binding affinity for antithrombin (HA-HS) ranged from 4.7% (kidneys) to 21.5% (brain). On a mass basis the major sources of HA-HS were carcase, skin and intestine. HA-HS from intestine was arbitrarily divided into subfractions I-VI, with anticoagulant activities ranging from 1 to 60 units/mg [by amidolytic anti-(Factor IIa) assay] and from 4 to 98 units/mg [by amidolytic anti-(Factor Xa) assay], indicating that the antithrombin-binding-site densities of HA-HS chains covered a wide range, as shown previously for rat HA-heparin chains [Horner, Kusche, Lindahl & Peterson (1988) Biochem. J. 251, 141-145]. HA-HS subfractions II, IV and VI were mixed with samples of HA-[3H]heparin chains and rechromatographed on antithrombin-agarose. Affinity for matrix-bound antithrombin did not correlate with anticoagulant activity, e.g. HA-HS subfraction IV [38 anti-(Factor Xa) units/mg] was co-eluted with HA-heparin chains [127 anti-(Factor Xa) units/mg]. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2138457

  11. Deficiencies of Proteins C, S and Antithrombin and Activated Protein C Resistance–Their Involvement in the Occurrence of Arterial Thromboses

    PubMed Central

    Popa, C

    2010-01-01

    Deficiencies of natural anticoagulants protein C, protein S, antithrombin and activated protein C resistance are components of inherited thrombophilia. Inherited thrombophilia was defined as a genetically determined tendency towards venous thromboembolism which characteristically occurs in young age (before 40 to 45 years) without apparent causes and tend to recur. In the recent years, there has been a lot of debate about the implication of these defects in arterial thromboses (peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction). The screening for thrombophilia is recommended for young patients with spontaneous thromboses, arterial infarctions, family history of thromboses, personal history of recurrent abortions, with thrombosis of venous dural sinuses or strokes or myocardial infarctions, in patients with venous thrombosis at unusual sites, because the diagnosis of such a disease leads to a treatment that is lifesaving [1,2]. PMID:21254740

  12. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Responsible Office References Program Name Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) DoD Component Air Force

  13. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  14. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  15. Rat heparins. A study of the relative sizes and antithrombin-binding characteristics of heparin proteoglycans, chains and depolymerization products from rat adipose tissue, heart, lungs, peritoneal cavity and skin.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, A A

    1986-01-01

    35S-labelled heparins were recovered from adipose tissue, hearts, lungs, peritoneal cavities and skins of rats given H2(35)SO4. Their purification involved incubation with Pronase, precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride in 1.0 M-NaCl, gradient elution from DEAE-Sephacel and incubation with chondroitinase ABC. Each product was divided into proteoglycan and "depolymerization products' fractions by gel filtration on Bio-Gel A-15m. Heparin chains were released from a portion of each proteoglycan fraction by beta-elimination with NaOH. Proteoglycans, chains and depolymerization products were separated by gradient elution from a column of antithrombin-agarose into fractions with no affinity, low affinity and high affinity for antithrombin. The relative sizes of the products were determined by gel filtration on columns of Bio-Gel A-50m, A-15m, A-1.5m and A-0.5m. Skin was the major source of heparin and contained the largest proteoglycans and the lowest proportion of depolymerization products. Lungs contained the smallest proteoglycans, the smallest depolymerization products and the highest proportion of depolymerization products. The highest proportions of proteoglycans, chains and depolymerization products with high affinity for antithrombin were found in adipose tissue. The lowest proportions of each of these fractions were found in the peritoneal cavity. The data suggest that there was relatively little biosynthesis of sites with high affinity for antithrombin in peritoneal-cavity mast cells and that heparin catabolism was most active in lungs. Each source of heparin was unique with respect to both biosynthesis and subsequent breakdown of its proteoglycans. PMID:3827837

  16. Plasma-derived human antithrombin attenuates ventilator-induced coagulopathy but not inflammation in a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia model in rats.

    PubMed

    Aslami, H; Haitsma, J J; Hofstra, J J; Florquin, S; Dos Santos, C; Streutker, C; Zhang, H; Levi, M; Slutsky, A S; Schultz, M J

    2012-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation exaggerates pneumonia-associated pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation. We hypothesized that the administration of plasma-derived human antithrombin (AT), one of the natural inhibitors of coagulation, prevents ventilator-induced pulmonary coagulopathy, inflammation and bacterial outgrowth in a Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia model in rats. Forty-eight hours after induction of S. pneumoniae pneumonia rats were subjected to mechanical ventilation (tidal volume 12 mL kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure 0 cmH(2)O and inspired oxygen fraction 40%). Rats were randomized to systemic treatment with AT (250 IU administered intravenously (i.v.) before the start of mechanical ventilation) or placebo (saline). Non-ventilated, non-infected rats and non-ventilated rats with pneumonia served as controls. The primary endpoints were pulmonary coagulation and inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pneumonia was characterized by local activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis, resulting in increased levels of fibrin degradation products and fibrin deposition in the lung. Mechanical ventilation exaggerated pulmonary coagulopathy and inflammation. Systemic administration of AT led to supra-normal BALF levels of AT and decreased ventilator-associated activation of coagulation. AT neither affected pulmonary inflammation nor bacterial outgrowth from the lungs or blood. Plasma-derived human AT attenuates ventilator-induced coagulopathy, but not inflammation and bacterial outgrowth in a S. pneumoniae pneumonia model in rats. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Conversion of antithrombin from an inhibitor of thrombin to a substrate with reduced heparin affinity and enhanced conformational stability by binding of a tetradecapeptide corresponding to the P1 to P14 region of the putative reactive bond loop of the inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Björk, I; Ylinenjärvi, K; Olson, S T; Bock, P E

    1992-01-25

    A synthetic tetradecapeptide having the sequence of the region of the antithrombin chain amino-terminal to the reactive bond, i.e. comprising residues P1 to P14, was shown to form a tight equimolar complex with antithrombin. A similar complex has previously been demonstrated between alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and the analogous peptide of this inhibitor (Schulze, A. J., Baumann, U., Knof, S., Jaeger, E., Huber, R. and Laurell, C.-B. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem. 194, 51-56). The antithrombin-peptide complex had a conformation similar to that of reactive bond-cleaved antithrombin and, like the cleaved inhibitor, also had a higher conformational stability and lower heparin affinity than intact antithrombin. These properties suggest that the peptide bound to intact antithrombin at the same site that the P1 to P14 segment of the inhibitor occupies in reactive-bond-cleaved antithrombin, i.e. was incorporated as a sixth strand in the middle of the major beta-sheet, the A sheet. The extent of complex formation was reduced in the presence of heparin with high affinity for antithrombin, which is consistent with heparin binding and peptide incorporation being linked. Antithrombin in the complex with the tetradecapeptide had lost its ability to inactivate thrombin, but the reactive bond of the inhibitor was cleaved as in a normal substrate. These observations suggest a model, analogous to that proposed for alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (Engh, R.A., Wright, H.T., and Huber, R. (1990) Protein Eng. 3, 469-477) for the structure of intact antithrombin, in which the A sheet contains only five strands and the P1 to P14 segment of the chain forms part of an exposed loop of the protein. The results further support a reaction model for serpins in which partial insertion of this loop into the A sheet is required for trapping of a proteinase in a stable complex, and complete insertion is responsible for the conformational change accompanying cleavage of the reactive bond of the inhibitor.

  18. Founder effect is responsible for the p.Leu131Phe heparin-binding-site antithrombin mutation common in Hungary: phenotype analysis in a large cohort.

    PubMed

    Gindele, R; Oláh, Z; Ilonczai, P; Speker, M; Udvari, Á; Selmeczi, A; Pfliegler, G; Marján, E; Kovács, B; Boda, Z; Muszbek, L; Bereczky, Z

    2016-04-01

    Antithrombin (AT) is a key regulator of the coagulation. In type II deficiency, the heparin-binding-site defect (type II HBS) is considered to be relatively low thrombosis risk. Our aims were to search for SERPINC1 mutation(s) and to describe the clinical and laboratory phenotype of a large number of AT Budapest3 (ATBp3, p.Leu131Phe) carriers and confirm the presence of a founder effect. AT-deficient patients were recruited and carriers of ATBp3, n = 102 (63 families) were selected. To investigate the founder effect, eight intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms, a 5'-length dimorphism, and five microsatellite markers were detected. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients were collected and analyzed. In AT deficiency, 16 different causative mutations were found, and the great majority of patients were of type II HBS subtype. Most of them (n = 102/118, 86.5%) carried the ATBp3 mutation. The ATBp3 mutant allele was associated with one single haplotype, while different haplotypes were detected in the case of normal allele. The anti-factor Xa-based AT activity assay that we used could detect all ATBp3 patients with high sensitivity in our cohort. ATBp3 homozygosity (n = 26) was associated with thrombosis at a young age and conferred a high thrombotic risk. Half of the heterozygotes (n = 41/76, 53.9%) also had venous and/or arterial thrombosis, and pregnancy complications were also recorded. In Hungary, the founder mutation, ATBp3, is the most common AT deficiency. Our study is the first in which the clinical characterization of ATBp3 mutation was executed in a large population. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Influence of 8 and 24-h storage of whole blood at ambient temperature on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thrombin time, antithrombin and D-dimer.

    PubMed

    Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina; Fischer, Ronald; Peetz, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluates the effect of whole blood storage on common coagulation parameters in order to confirm or revise acceptable storage limits as defined by current guidelines and diverse study reports. Aliquots were taken from the citrated whole blood of inpatients and outpatients (n = 147) within 4 h after blood withdrawal and after extended storage of whole blood for 8 and 24 h at ambient temperature. Aliquots were centrifuged and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer. For each parameter, samples from 33-56 patients were investigated covering a wide range of normal and pathological values. Samples from patients receiving heparin were excluded from analyses of APTT and TT. All assays were performed using reagents and an analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Products GmbH. The mean percentage change after 8 and 24-h storage was below 10% for all parameters. Considering the changes in individual samples, all parameters can be reliably tested after 8-h storage, since less than 15% of the samples demonstrated individual changes of above 10%. The acceptable storage time can be extended to 24 h for PT, TT and D-dimer. Clinically relevant changes were detected after 24-h storage for APTT: 41% of the investigated samples demonstrated changes of above 10%. After 24-h storage, changes for Fbg and AT values were more than 15% in five out of 49 and in three out of 45 samples, respectively. This sporadic increase of values is clinically acceptable except for borderline samples.

  20. Inactivation of Factor VIIa by Antithrombin In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo: Role of Tissue Factor and Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Vatsyayan, Rit; Kothari, Hema; Mackman, Nigel; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that antithrombin (AT) could act as a significant physiologic regulator of FVIIa. However, in vitro studies showed that AT could inhibit FVIIa effectively only when it was bound to tissue factor (TF). Circulating blood is known to contain only traces of TF, at best. FVIIa also binds endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), but the role of EPCR on FVIIa inactivation by AT is unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the role of TF and EPCR in inactivation of FVIIa by AT in vivo. Low human TF mice (low TF, ∼1% expression of the mouse TF level) and high human TF mice (HTF, ∼100% of the mouse TF level) were injected with human rFVIIa (120 µg kg−1 body weight) via the tail vein. At varying time intervals following rFVIIa administration, blood was collected to measure FVIIa-AT complex and rFVIIa antigen levels in the plasma. Despite the large difference in TF expression in the mice, HTF mice generated only 40–50% more of FVIIa-AT complex as compared to low TF mice. Increasing the concentration of TF in vivo in HTF mice by LPS injection increased the levels of FVIIa-AT complexes by about 25%. No significant differences were found in FVIIa-AT levels among wild-type, EPCR-deficient, and EPCR-overexpressing mice. The levels of FVIIa-AT complex formed in vitro and ex vivo were much lower than that was found in vivo. In summary, our results suggest that traces of TF that may be present in circulating blood or extravascular TF that is transiently exposed during normal vessel damage contributes to inactivation of FVIIa by AT in circulation. However, TF’s role in AT inactivation of FVIIa appears to be minor and other factor(s) present in plasma, on blood cells or vascular endothelium may play a predominant role in this process. PMID:25102166

  1. Comparison of activated clotting times obtained using Hemochron and Medtronic analysers in patients receiving anti-thrombin therapy during cardiac catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Chia, Stanley; Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Raffel, O Christopher; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2009-03-01

    Accurate monitoring of anti-thrombin therapy with activated clotting time (ACT) is important to prevent thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications during cardiac catheterisation. Significant variability in ACT tests exists when different analysers are used. Our objective was to compare ACT results obtained using Hemochron and Medtronic ACT PLUS devices and antiXa activity in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation. Thirty-two patients who received unfractionated heparin or argatroban therapy during cardiac catheterisation were enrolled. Blood sampling was performed to determine ACT values using Hemochron and Medtronic (with high-range cartridges) devices in all patients (n = 130 pairs), and anti-Xa activity following heparin administration. In the heparin group, ACT tests (n = 95 pairs) showed very good correlation (r = 0.84, y = 1.31x-0.81; p<0.001). However, Hemochron values were consistently higher and the difference more pronounced with increasing ACT (for ACT>150 sec, mean difference 65 +/- 48 sec; p<0.001). Both Hemochron and Medtronic ACT tests correlated well with plasma anti-Xa levels (r = 0.85, r = 0.81, respectively; p<0.001); Hemochron ACT>300 sec corresponded to anti-Xa>1.48 IU/ml. With concomitant eptifibatide therapy, the divergence in ACT was greater compared to heparin alone. In the argatroban group, ACT tests (n = 35 pairs) demonstrated excellent correlation (r = 0.94, y = 0.61x+79.9; p<0.001). In contrast to the heparin group, ACT values were higher with Medtronic compared to Hemochron. Therefore, despite good correlation between Hemochron and Medtronic ACT results, and strong association with anti-Xa activity, Medtronic ACT values were consistently lower compared to Hemochron following heparin anticoagulation. Paradoxically, Medtronic ACT results were higher after argatroban therapy. Understanding this discrepancy is crucial when using ACT to guide invasive cardiac procedures.

  2. Analytical comparison of a US generic enoxaparin with the originator product: The focus on comparative assessment of antithrombin-binding components.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Pierre A J; Herman, Fréderic; Sizun, Philippe; Viskov, Christian

    2016-09-10

    Enoxaparin sodium, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prepared from porcine intestinal heparin, is widely used for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. The antithrombotic activity of heparin is mediated mainly through its activation of antithrombin (AT) and subsequent inhibition of coagulation factors. Heparin is a complex heteropolymer and the sulfation pattern of its alternating uronic acid and glucosamine sugar units is a major factor influencing its biological activity. The manufacturing process itself is associated with the introduction of exogenous microheterogeneities that may further affect its biological efficacy. This is important since enoxaparin is prepared by depolymerizing the heparin with the aim of optimizing its biological activity and safety. Changes during its manufacture could thus affect its biological activity and safety. The current study was performed to assess potential differences between the originator enoxaparin and a new generic enoxaparin commercialized by Teva. Heparinase digestion, AT affinity chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, anion exchange chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance methodologies were used. The results indicated differences in oligosaccharides related to the cleavage selectivity around the heparin AT-binding sequences of the Teva Enoxaparin Sodium Injection, USP and the originator Sanofi enoxaparin. These differences influence the strength of the AT-binding affinity of the individual oligosaccharides, their ability to activate AT and, therefore, the inhibitory potency on the proteases of the coagulation cascade. This study, together with other published analytical reports, describes specific compositional differences between generics and originator LWMHs. However, it is yet to be established whether such variations might have any clinical relevance. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Lys335 in the metastability and function of inhibitory serpins.

    PubMed Central

    Im, H.; Yu, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    The native form of inhibitory serpins (serine protease inhibitors) is not in the thermodynamically most stable state but in a metastable state, which is critical to inhibitory functions. To understand structural basis and functional roles of the native metastability of inhibitory serpins, we have been characterizing stabilizing mutations of human alpha1-antitrypsin, a prototype inhibitory serpin. One of the sites that has been shown to be critical in stability and inhibitory activity of alpha1-antitrypsin is Lys335. In the present study, detailed roles of this lysine were analyzed by assessing the effects of 13 different amino acid substitutions. Results suggest that size and architect of the side chains at the 335 site determine the metastability of alpha1-antitrypsin. Moreover, factors such as polarity and flexibility of the side chain at this site, in addition to the metastability, seem to be critical for the inhibitory activity. Substitutions of the lysine at equivalent positions in two other inhibitory serpins, human alpha1-antichymotrypsin and human antithrombin III, also increased stability and decreased inhibitory activity toward alpha-chymotrypsin and thrombin, respectively. These results and characteristics of lysine side chain, such as flexibility, polarity, and the energetic cost upon burial, suggest that this lysine is one of the structural designs in regulating metastability and function of inhibitory serpins in general. PMID:10850803

  4. Human inhibitor of the first component of complement, C1: characterization of cDNA clones and localization of the gene to chromosome 11.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A E; Whitehead, A S; Harrison, R A; Dauphinais, A; Bruns, G A; Cicardi, M; Rosen, F S

    1986-01-01

    C1 inhibitor is a heavily glycosylated plasma protein that regulates the activity of the first component of complement (C1) by inactivation of the serine protease subcomponents, C1r and C1s. C1 inhibitor cDNA clones have been isolated, and one of these (pC1INH1, 950 base pairs) has been partially sequenced. Sequence analysis demonstrates that the C1 inhibitor is a member of the serpin "superfamily" of protease inhibitors. In the region sequenced, C1 inhibitor has 22% identity with antithrombin III, 26% with alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and 18% with human angiotensinogen. C1 inhibitor has a larger amino-terminal extension than do the other plasma protease inhibitors. In addition, inspection of residues that are invariant among the other protease inhibitors shows that C1 inhibitor differs at 14 of 41 of these positions. Thus, it appears that C1 inhibitor diverged from the group relatively early in evolution, although probably after the divergence of angiotensinogen. Southern blot analysis of BamHI-digested DNA from normal individuals and from rodent-human somatic cell hybrid cell lines (that contain a limited but varied human chromosome complement) was used to localize the human C1 inhibitor gene to chromosome 11. Images PMID:3458172

  5. Identification of GlcNAcylated alpha-1-antichymotrypsin as an early biomarker in human non-small-cell lung cancer by quantitative proteomic analysis with two lectins

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yanxia; Wang, Jie; Ye, Xiangdong; Su, Yanting; Yu, Guojun; Yang, Qing; Liu, Wei; Yu, Wenhui; Cai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Liang, Yi; Chen, Yijie; Wong, Barry Hon Cheung; Fu, Xiangning; Sun, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main type of lung cancer with high mortality rates in worldwide. There is a need to identify better biomarkers to detect NSCLC at an early stage as this will improve therapeutic effect and patient survival rates. Methods: Two lectins (AAL/AAGL and AAL2/AANL), which specifically bind to tumour-related glycan antigens, were first used to enrich serum glycoproteins from the serum of early NSCLC patients, benign lung diseases subjects and healthy individuals. The samples were investigated by using iTRAQ labelling and LC-MS/MS. Results: A total of 53 differentially expressed proteins were identified by quantitative proteomics and four glycoproteins (AACT, AGP1, CFB and HPX) were selected for further verification by western blotting. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed AACT was the best candidate for early NSCLC diagnosis of the four proteins, with 94.1% sensitivity in distinguishing early tumour Stage (IA+IB) from tumour-free samples (healthy and benign samples, HB). The GlcNAcylated AACT was further detected by lectin-based ELISA and has better advantage in clinical application than total AACT. The GlcNAcylated AACT can effectively differentiate Stage I from HB samples with an AUC of 0.908 and 90.9% sensitivity at a specificity of 86.2%. A combination of GlcNAcylated AACT and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was able to effectively differing Stage I from HB samples (AUC=0.914), which significantly improve the specificity of CEA. The combination application also has the better clinical diagnostic efficacy in distinguishing cancer (NSCLC) from HB samples than CEA or GlcNAcylated AACT used alone, and yielded an AUC of 0.817 with 93.1% specificity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the GlcNAcylated AACT will be a promising clinical biomarker in diagnosis of early NSCLC. PMID:26908325

  6. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    modernization of the constellation . GPS III complies with 10 United States Code (USC) § 2281, ensuring the continued sustainment and operation of GPS for... constellations , further increasing the accuracy and availability of user PNT solutions. GPS III December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:15:29 UNCLASSIFIED

  7. Normal prothrombinase activity, increased systemic thrombin activity, and lower antithrombin levels in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation at an early phase of trauma: comparison with acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Yuichiro; Gando, Satoshi; Sawamura, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Mineji; Uegaki, Shinji; Kubota, Nobuhiko; Homma, Taeko; Ono, Yuichi; Honma, Yoshinori; Wada, Takeshi; Jesmin, Subrina

    2013-07-01

    We tested the hypotheses that an increase in systemic thrombin activity occurs in both disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with the fibrinolytic phenotype and in acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS), and that the patients diagnosed as having ACoTS overlap or are identical with those diagnosed as having DIC. We made a prospective study of 57 trauma patients, including 30 patients with DIC and 27 patients without DIC. Patients with ACoTS, defined as a prothrombin time ratio >1.2, were also investigated. We included 12 healthy volunteers as controls. The levels of soluble fibrin, antithrombin, prothrombinase activity, soluble thrombomodulin, and markers of fibrin(ogen)olysis were measured on days 1 and 3 after the trauma. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment were scored to evaluate the extent of inflammation and organ dysfunction. Patients with DIC showed more systemic inflammation and greater Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and were transfused with more blood products than the patients without DIC. On day 1, normal prothrombinase activity, increased soluble fibrin, lesser levels of antithrombin, and increased soluble thrombomodulin were observed in patients with DIC in comparison with controls and non-DIC patients. These changes were more prominent in patients with DIC who met the overt criteria for DIC established by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Multiple regression analysis showed that antithrombin is an independent predictor of high soluble fibrin in DIC patients. Greater levels of fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products, D-dimer, and the fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products/D-dimer ratio indicated increased fibrin(ogen)olysis in DIC patients. Almost all ACoTS patients overlapped with the DIC patients. The changes in the measured variables in ACoTS patients coincided with those in DIC patients. Normal prothrombinase activity and insufficient control of

  8. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  9. Combination of thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and protein C activity for early identification of severe coagulopathy in initial phase of sepsis: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kansuke; Madoiwa, Seiji; Nunomiya, Shin; Koinuma, Toshitaka; Wada, Masahiko; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Mimuro, Jun; Sakata, Yoichi

    2014-01-13

    Current criteria for early diagnosis of coagulopathy in sepsis are limited. We postulated that coagulopathy is already complicated with sepsis in the initial phase, and severe coagulopathy or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) becomes overt after progressive consumption of platelet and coagulation factors. To determine early diagnostic markers for severe coagulopathy, we evaluated plasma biomarkers for association with subsequent development of overt DIC in patients with sepsis. A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted in an adult ICU at a university hospital. Plasma samples were obtained from patients with sepsis at ICU admission. Fourteen biomarkers including global markers (platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and fibrin degradation product (FDP)); markers of thrombin generation (thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and soluble fibrin); markers of anticoagulants (protein C (PC) and antithrombin); markers of fibrinolysis (plasminogen, α2-plasmin inhibitor (PI), plasmin-α2-PI complex, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1); and a marker of endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin) were assayed. Patients who had overt DIC at baseline were excluded, and the remaining patients were followed for development of overt DIC in 5 days, and for mortality in 28 days. A total of 77 patients were enrolled, and 37 developed overt DIC within the following 5 days. Most patients demonstrated hemostatic abnormalities at baseline with 98.7% TAT, 97.4% FDP and 88.3% PC. Most hemostatic biomarkers at baseline were significantly associated with subsequent development of overt DIC. Notably, TAT, PAI-1 and PC discriminated well between patients with and without developing overt DIC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.86); 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92); 0.85 (0.76 to 0.91), respectively), and using the three together, significantly improved

  10. Combination of thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and protein C activity for early identification of severe coagulopathy in initial phase of sepsis: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current criteria for early diagnosis of coagulopathy in sepsis are limited. We postulated that coagulopathy is already complicated with sepsis in the initial phase, and severe coagulopathy or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) becomes overt after progressive consumption of platelet and coagulation factors. To determine early diagnostic markers for severe coagulopathy, we evaluated plasma biomarkers for association with subsequent development of overt DIC in patients with sepsis. Methods A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted in an adult ICU at a university hospital. Plasma samples were obtained from patients with sepsis at ICU admission. Fourteen biomarkers including global markers (platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and fibrin degradation product (FDP)); markers of thrombin generation (thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and soluble fibrin); markers of anticoagulants (protein C (PC) and antithrombin); markers of fibrinolysis (plasminogen, α2-plasmin inhibitor (PI), plasmin-α2-PI complex, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1); and a marker of endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin) were assayed. Patients who had overt DIC at baseline were excluded, and the remaining patients were followed for development of overt DIC in 5 days, and for mortality in 28 days. Results A total of 77 patients were enrolled, and 37 developed overt DIC within the following 5 days. Most patients demonstrated hemostatic abnormalities at baseline with 98.7% TAT, 97.4% FDP and 88.3% PC. Most hemostatic biomarkers at baseline were significantly associated with subsequent development of overt DIC. Notably, TAT, PAI-1 and PC discriminated well between patients with and without developing overt DIC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.86); 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92); 0.85 (0.76 to 0.91), respectively), and using the three

  11. ApoC-I and ApoC-III as potential plasmatic markers to distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Allard, Laure; Lescuyer, Pierre; Burgess, Jennifer; Leung, Kit-Yi; Ward, Malcolm; Walter, Nadia; Burkhard, Pierre R; Corthals, Garry; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2004-08-01

    Early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic interventions are crucial factors to reduce the damage extent and the risk of death. Currently, the diagnosis of stroke relies on neurological assessment of the patient and neuro-imaging techniques including computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scan. An early diagnostic marker of stroke, ideally capable to discriminate ischemic from hemorrhagic stroke would considerably improve patient acute management. Using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) technology, we aimed at finding new early diagnostic plasmatic markers of stroke. Strong anionic exchange (SAX) SELDI profiles of plasma samples from 21 stroke patients were compared to 21 samples from healthy controls. Seven peaks appeared to be differentially expressed with significant p values (p < 0.05). Proteins were stripped from the SAX chips, separated on a one-dimensional electrophoresis (1-DE) gel and stained using mass spectrometry (MS)-compatible silver staining. Following in-gel tryptic digestion, the peptides were analyzed by MS. Four candidate proteins were identified as apolipoprotein CI (ApoC-I), apolipoprotein CIII (ApoC-III), serum amyloid A (SAA), and antithrombin-III fragment (AT-III fragment). Assessment of ApoC-I and ApoC-III levels in plasma samples using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) allowed to distinguish between hemorrhagic (n = 15) and ischemic (n = 16) stroke (p < 0.001). To the best of our knowledge, ApoC-I and ApoC-III are the first reported plasmatic biomarkers capable to accurately distinguish between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in a small number of patients. It requires further investigation in a large cohort of patients.

  12. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  13. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  14. HERMES III source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Radasky, W.A. ); Halbleib, J. ); Nunan, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Distant Light Program sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (RAEE) is directed toward understanding the response of electronic systems to Source Region EMP (SREMP) and will result in the development of proven system hardening and validation techniques for SREMP. This program relies very strongly on testing in above ground test (AGT) simulators such as the HERMES III gamma ray simulator at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This paper describes theoretical and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the gamma ray flux produced by HERMES III in terms of its time dependence, spatial variation and spectrum. As part of this characterization, the calibration of various measuring devices must be considered. This paper describes the progress made in characterizing the HERMES III radiation output through December of 1990.

  15. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  16. Structural and Functional Characterization of Cleavage and Inactivation of Human Serine Protease Inhibitors by the Bacterial SPATE Protease EspPα from Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, André; Joerss, Hanna; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    EspPα and EspI are serine protease autotransporters found in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. They both belong to the SPATE autotransporter family and are believed to contribute to pathogenicity via proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of different key host proteins during infection. Here, we describe the specific cleavage and functional inactivation of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) by EspPα and compare this activity with the related SPATE EspI. Serpins are structurally related proteins that regulate vital protease cascades, such as blood coagulation and inflammatory host response. For the rapid determination of serpin cleavage sites, we applied direct MALDI-TOF-MS or ESI-FTMS analysis of coincubations of serpins and SPATE proteases and confirmed observed cleavage positions using in-gel-digest of SDS-PAGE-separated degradation products. Activities of both serpin and SPATE protease were assessed in a newly developed photometrical assay using chromogenic peptide substrates. EspPα cleaved the serpins α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI), α1-antichymotrypsin, angiotensinogen, and α2-antiplasmin. Serpin cleavage led to loss of inhibitory function as demonstrated for α1-PI while EspPα activity was not affected. Notably, EspPα showed pronounced specificity and cleaved procoagulatory serpins such as α2-antiplasmin while the anticoagulatory antithrombin III was not affected. Together with recently published research, this underlines the interference of EspPα with hemostasis or inflammatory responses during infection, while the observed interaction of EspI with serpins is likely to be not physiologically relevant. EspPα-mediated serpin cleavage occurred always in flexible loops, indicating that this structural motif might be required for substrate recognition. PMID:25347319

  17. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  18. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  19. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  20. Pacific Barrier Radar III (PACBAR III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. D.; Sigler, J. D.

    1983-11-01

    The Pacific Barrier (PACBAR III) C-band radar is being installed at the Western Space and Missile Center to furnish Revolution 0 detection of foreign launches. Previously installed on a tracking ship, the upgraded system will also identify and target space objects, maintain a catalog, and cover maneuvers and decay of space objects. Nominal operation will comprise a search of a predesignated 15 deg azimuth with the capability of detecting a 6 sq m target in a 400 km orbit, track spacecraft in orbits up to 800 km altitude, have a range resolution of about 80 yd, provide realtime payload and rocket body discrimination, and transmit two-way digital message traffic between the Center and NORAD in Cheyenne Mt. Interlaced vertical and horizontal pulses will augment the search and acquisition capabilities, and the antenna will have a 140 deg plunge range. The transmitter will function at 5.4-5.65 GHz, 320 p/sec, with a peak power of 0.8 MW, and the system will have a nonambiguous range of 32,768 nmi.

  1. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  2. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  3. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  4. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  5. Population III Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Fryer, Chris L.

    2014-12-01

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M ⊙ hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ~ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  6. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  7. Plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragments 1 and 2, and D-dimer levels are elevated after endovascular but not open repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Marc A; Griffin, Kathryn J; Sohrabi, Soroush; Whalley, Daniel J; Johnson, Anne B; Baxter, Paul D; Ariëns, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian A

    2013-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with hypercoagulability, evidenced by increased markers of coagulation activation, including thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1+2), and D-dimer. Our aim was to compare the effect of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open aneurysm repair (OAR) on changes in coagulation activation markers after intervention. Consecutive patients with AAAs reaching their intervention threshold in a tertiary vascular referral unit in the United Kingdom were invited to participate. The coagulation markers TAT, F1+2, and D-dimer were measured in venous blood collected at baseline and at 5 months after intervention. A forward stepwise multiple linear regression model was used to identify whether treatment by OAR or EVAR had an effect on changes in coagulation factors, independent of significant covariates. The study included 47 patients (14 EVAR, 33 OAR; 85% men) who were a median age of 76 years (range, 69.5-80 years). Aortic diameter at intervention was 5.9 cm (range, 5.5-6.8 cm). There were no significant differences in clinical, anthropometric, or hematologic parameters between groups. At baseline, TAT (P = .13), F1+2 (P = .08), and D-dimer (P = .11) were similar in EVAR and OAR patients. Postintervention, there was a significant increase in TAT (3.0 [2.1-6.0] vs 7.2 [6.3-8.4] ng/mL; P = .03), F1+2 (242 [189-323] vs 392 [312-494] ng/mL; P = .003), and D-dimer (457 [336-615] vs 1197 [840-1509] ng/mL; P = .002) in the EVAR group. No significant changes were observed after intervention in the OAR group. AAA-related hypercoagulability persists after intervention, with increased TAT, F1+2, and D-dimer levels after EVAR. These findings suggest a potential period of increased cardiovascular risk in the postoperative period after EVAR. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  9. SUPERSTARS III: 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  10. SUPERSTARS III: 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  11. Using dBase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four articles on dBASE III include three on library applications: a photocopy invoicing system for interlibrary loan, a vertical file subject headings list program, and a subject index to statistical resources. Another article explains the differences between interpreters and compilers and the advantages of the Clipper compiler for dBASE III. (EM)

  12. Title III and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Title III projects dealing with cultural diversity in the classroom are described in this issue of the Title III Quarterly. Major articles are devoted to the following projects: Two Arts Culture Three Project, developing the crafts and music of mountain whites, blacks, and Cherokees; the Rota Bilingual Project, the Marianas District, emphasizing…

  13. Division III--Another Ballgame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grites, Thomas J.; James, G. Larry

    1986-01-01

    The non-scholarship athletes of Division III represent a substantial group of advisees that are similar to, and yet different from the scholarship athlete. Division III student-athletes, their characteristics, situations, and needs are examined and specific efforts to improve their quality of student life are identified. (MLW)

  14. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA III.

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, Morrison; Bishop, Ferial S.

    1964-01-01

    Rogosa, Morrison (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Ferial S. Bishop. The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J. Bacteriol. 88:37–41. 1964.—The conditions necessary for H2S production by 105 strains of Veillonella, from a variety of sources and comprising seven anti-genic groups, are presented and discussed. All strains, during 1 to 2 days of growth, produced H2S in a defined medium supplemented with proper amounts of l-cysteine, l-cystine, reduced glutathione, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, or thioglycolate. Erratic or negative results were obtained with some commonly used media containing yeast extract and casein digest, but which were not supplemented with appropriate substrates for H2S production. Previous literature descriptions of V. alcalescens as not producing H2S are incorrect; H2S production, or the previously presumed lack of it, cannot be used as a criterion differentiating V. alcalescens from V. parvula. PMID:14198791

  15. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  16. Viking Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    VIKING PHASE III - With the incredible success of the Viking missions on Mars, mission operations have progressed though a series of phases - each being funded as mission success dictated its potential. The Viking Primary Mission phase was concluded in November, 1976, when the reins were passed on to the second phase - the Viking Extended Mission. The Extended Mission successfully carried spacecraft operations through the desired period of time needed to provided a profile of a full Martian year, but would have fallen a little short of connecting and overlapping a full Martian year of Viking operations which scientists desired as a means of determining the degree of duplicity in the red planet's seasons - at least for the summer period. Without this continuation of spacecraft data acquisitions to and beyond the seasonal points when the spacecraft actually began their Mars observations, there would be no way of knowing whether the changing environmental values - such as temperatures and winds atmospheric dynamics and water vapor, surface thermal dynamics, etc. - would match up with those acquired as the spacecraft began investigations during the summer and fall of 1976. This same broad interest can be specifically pursued at the surface - where hundreds of rocks, soil drifts and other features have become extremely familiar during long-term analysis. This picture was acquired on the 690th Martian day of Lander 1 operations - 4009th picture sequence commanded of the two Viking Landers. As such, it became the first picture acquired as the third phase of Viking operations got under way - the Viking Continuation Mission. Between the start of the Continuation Mission in April, 1978, until spacecraft operations are concluded in November, the landers will acquire an additional 200 pictures. These will be used to monitor the two landscaped for the surface changes. All four cameras, two on Lander 1 and two on Lander 2, continue to operate perfectly. Both landers will also

  17. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes . It causes double vision and eyelid drooping . ... Cooper ME, Vinik AI, Plutzky J, Boulton AJM. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  18. Division III: Planetary Systems Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowell, Edward L. G.; Meech, Karen J.; Williams, Iwan P.; Boss, Alan; Courtin, Régis; Gustafson, Bo Å. S.; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Mayor, Michel; Spurný, Pavel; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Fernández, Julio A.; Huebner, Walter F.; Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Schulz, Rita M.; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Witt, Adolf N.

    2010-05-01

    The meeting was opened by Ted Bowell, president, at 11 am. The 2006 Division III meetings were reviewed by Guy Consolmagno, secretary; as the minutes of those meetings have already been published, they were assumed to be approved.

  19. Division Iii: Planetary System Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Iwan P.; Bowell, Edward L. G.; Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Boss, Alan P.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Levasseur-Regord, Anny-Chantal; Morrison, David; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2007-12-01

    Division III gathers astronomers engaged in the study of a comprehensive range of phenomena in the solar system and its bodies, from the major planets via comets to meteorites and interplanetary dust.

  20. Updating quasar bolometric luminosity corrections - III. [O iii] bolometric corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, Alison; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Brotherton, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    We present quasar bolometric corrections using the [O III] λ 5007 narrow emission line luminosity based on the detailed spectral energy distributions of 53 bright quasars at low to moderate redshift (0.0345 < z < 1.0002). We adopted two functional forms to calculate Liso, the bolometric luminosity determined under the assumption of isotropy: {L_{iso}}=A {L_{[O III]}} for comparison with the literature and {log(L_{iso})}=B+C log(L_{[O III]}), which better characterizes the data. We also explored whether 'Eigenvector 1 (EV1)', which describes the range of quasar spectral properties and quantifies their diversity, introduces scatter into the L_{[O III]}-Liso relationship. We found that the {[O III]} bolometric correction can be significantly improved by adding a term including the equivalent width ratio R_{Fe II} ≡ EW_{{Fe II}}/EW_{Hβ }, which is an EV1 indicator. Inclusion of R_{Fe II} in predicting Liso is significant at nearly the 3σ level and reduces the scatter and systematic offset of the luminosity residuals. Typically, {[O III]} bolometric corrections are adopted for Type 2 sources where the quasar continuum is not observed and in these cases, R_{Fe II} cannot be measured. We searched for an alternative measure of EV1 that could be measured in the optical spectra of Type 2 sources but were unable to identify one. Thus, the main contribution of this work is to present an improved {[O III]} bolometric correction based on measured bolometric luminosities and highlight the EV1 dependence of the correction in Type 1 sources.

  1. Impact analysis of Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III

    SciTech Connect

    Stirbis, P.P.

    1993-12-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III into a nonyielding target at 46 m.p.h. and 30 m.p.h., and into a yielding target at 46 m.p.h. is presented. The analysis considers the structural response of the tiedown system which secures the Minuteman III re-entry system to the floor of the payload transporter. A finite element model of the re-entry system, its tiedown system, which includes tie-rods and shear pins, and the pallet plate which is attached to the transporter floating plate, was constructed. Because accelerations of the payload transporter are not known, acceleration data from one-quarter scale testing of the Safe Secure Trailer was used to investigate the response of the tiedown system. These accelerations were applied to the pallet plate. The ABAQUS computer code was used to predict the forces in the members of the tiedown system.

  2. Dissociation of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomova, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of dissociation of phthalocyanine complexes with cerium(III) and neodymium(III) (X)LnPc (X = Cl-, Br-, AcO-) under the action of acetic acid in ethanol with isolation of the macrocyclic ligand depending on the temperature was studied. The kinetic equations with the numerical values of rate constants, activation parameters, and the stoichiometric mechanisms with the limiting simple reaction between the nonionized AcOH molecule and (phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) in the axially coordinated ((X)LnPc, cerium complexes) or axially ionized ([(AcOH)LnPc]+X-, neodymium complexes) state were derived by solving the direct and inverse problems. As shown by a comparative analysis of quantitative kinetic data, the state is determined by the electronic structure of the metal cation and the mutual effect of the axial and equatorial ligands in the first coordination sphere.

  3. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  4. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  5. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  6. First Stars III Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, B. W.; McKee, C. F.; Heger, A.; Abel, T.

    2008-03-01

    The understanding of the formation, life, and death of Population III stars, as well as the impact that these objects had on later generations of structure formation, is one of the foremost issues in modern cosmological research and has been an active area of research during the past several years. We summarize the results presented at "First Stars III," a conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics. This conference, the third in a series, took place in July 2007 at the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.

  7. Improved Wavelengths and Oscillator Strengths of Cr III, Co III, and Fe III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R. J.

    2008-05-01

    Improvements in the resolution, accuracy, and range of spectra obtained by state-of-the-art space- and ground-based astronomical spectrographs have demonstrated a need for corresponding improvements in atomic data. Transition wavelengths with uncertainties of 1 part in 10^7 and oscillator strengths (f-values) with uncertainties of 10 to 15% are needed to accurately interpret modern astrophysical spectra. Our focus has been on spectra of doubly ionized iron group elements that dominate the UV spectra of hot B stars. We report here completion of measurements on Cr III, Co III, Fe III made with a UV high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) [J. C. Pickering, Vibrational Spectrosc. 29, 27 (2002)] with a typical wavelength/wavenumber uncertainty of a few parts in 10^8, supplemented by measurements were carried out at the US National Institute of Standards & Technology using their FTS and the Normal Incidence Vacuum (grating) Spectrograph (NIVS). The spectra were analyzed and line lists were produced to give calibrated line wavelengths and relative intensities. Measured wavelengths are, in many cases, an order of magnitude more accurate than previous measurements, and the energy level uncertainties are typically reduced by a factor or 3 more. Summaries of submitted papers on Cr III and Co III will be presented, as will work on improved wavelengths, energy levels, and oscillator strengths for Fe III. Limitations to the method and possible solutions will be discussed. This work is, or has been, supported in part by NASA Grant NAG5-12668; NASA inter-agency agreement W-10255; PPARC; the Royal Society of the UK; and by the Leverhulme Trust.

  8. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  9. Terrain Perception for DEMO III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, R.; Bellutta, P.; Matthies, L.; Owens, K.; Rankin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Demo III program has as its primary focus the development of autonomous mobility for a small rugged cross country vehicle. In this paper we report recent progress on both stereo-based obstacle detection and terrain cover color-based classification.

  10. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  11. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  12. Transition probabilities in O III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froese Fischer, Charlotte

    1994-01-01

    Transition data has been computed in the MCHF + Breit-Pauli approximation for a number of the low lying triplets in O III. Special attention was given to the 2p3p 3P-2p3d 3P transition which is a primary cascade for the Bowen fluorescence mechanism in O III. The relativistic, largely spin-orbit, effect on the intensity ratio of primary decays was found to be as large as 50%, whereas the effect on secondary cascades was less than 30%. Agreement with astrophysically observed intensity ratios is excellent. There also is good agreement between the present liftimes and the beam-foil mean lifetimes obtained by Pinnington et al., though for 2p3p 3D and 3S the theoretical lifetimes are considerably shorter.

  13. Jovian type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    Radio bursts have been observed in the Voyager plasma wave data from Jupiter that bear a striking resemblance to solar type III radio bursts. The emissions lie in the frequency range near 10 kHz, have durations of a minute or so, and occur in a set of periodically spaced bursts. The spacing between primary bursts is typically 15 min, but the bursts may have additional components which recur on time scales of about 3 min. The similarity with solar type III radio bursts suggests a source mechanism involving the movement of energetic electrons through a density gradient in the plasma surrounding Jupiter. The periodicity of bursts suggests Io may be involved in the generation of waves, since the timing is similar to the Alfven wave travel time from one hemisphere to the other through the Io torus.

  14. Silver europium(III) polyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Mounir; Férid, Mokhtar; Moine, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Europium(III) silver polyphosphate, AgEu(PO3)4, was prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains (periodicity of 4) extending along the c axis. These chains are joined to each other by EuO8 dodeca­hedra. The Ag+ cations are located in the voids of this arrangement and are surrounded by five oxygen atoms in a distorted [4+1] coordination. PMID:21582031

  15. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  16. Association of europium(III), americium(III), and curium(III) with cellulose, chitin, and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kirishima, Akira; Yoshida, Takahiro; Isobe, Hiroshi; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2006-08-01

    The association of trivalent f-elements-Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III)--with cellulose, chitin, and chitosan was determined by batch experiments and time-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The properties of these biopolymers as an adsorbent were characterized based on speciation calculation of Eu(III). The adsorption study showed that an increase of the ionic strength by NaCl did not affect the adsorption kinetics of Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) for all the biopolymers, but the addition of Na2CO3 significantly delayed the kinetics because of their trivalent f-element complexation with carbonate ions. It also was suggested from the speciation calculation study that all the biopolymers were degraded under alkaline conditions, leading to their masking of the adsorption of Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) on the nondegraded biopolymers. The masking effect was higher for cellulose than for chitin and chitosan, indicating that of the three, cellulose was degraded most significantly in alkaline solutions. Desorption experiments suggested that some portion of the adsorbed Eu(III) penetrated deep into the matrix, being isolated in a cavity-like site. The TRLFS study showed that the coordination environment of Eu(III) is stabilized mainly by the inner spherical coordination in chitin and by the outer spherical coordination in chitosan, with less association in cellulose in comparison to chitin and chitosan. These results suggest that the association of these biopolymers with Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) is governed not only by the affinity of the functional groups alone but also by other factors, such as the macromolecular steric effect. The association of degraded materials of the biopolymers also should be taken into consideration for an accurate prediction of the influence of biopolymers on the migration behavior of trivalent f-elements.

  17. Development of Demographic Norms for Four New WAIS-III/WMS-III Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Chelune, Gordon J.; Taylor, Michael J.; Woodward, Todd S.; Heaton, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been…

  18. Palladium(III) in Synthesis and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Powers, David C.; Ritter, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    While the organometallic chemistry of Pd in its (0), (+II), and (+IV) oxidation states is well-established, organometallic Pd(III) chemistry remains widely unexplored. Few characterized Pd(III) complexes are known, which has inhibited detailed study of the organometallic chemistry of Pd(III). In this review, the potential roles of both mono- and dinuclear Pd(III) complexes in organometallic chemistry will be discussed. While not widely recognized, Pd in the (+III) oxidation state may play a significant role in a variety of known Pd-catalyzed reactions. PMID:21461129

  19. Optical properties of the Eu(III)-La(III)-complex-doped polyolefine film and rod samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogreb, Roman; Popov, Oleg; Lirtsman, Vlad; Pyshkin, Oleg; Kazachkov, Alexander; Musin, Albina; Finkelshtein, Binyamin; Shmukler, Yuri; Davidov, Dan; Bormashenko, Edward

    2005-04-01

    The work is devoted to luminescent properties of trivalent lanthanide complexes dispersed in thermoplastic host matrices. Polyethylene-based film and polypropylene-based rod both doped with these complexes were manufactured using an extrusion technique. Two kinds of dopants were used: Eu(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)) and Eu(III)-La(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)-La(III)). Comparison was made between these samples regarding absorption, excitation, emission and a lifetime of luminescence. Dependence of emission intensity on the excitation energy was determined. Emission spectra of the films were studied at room and helium temperatures. Optical properties of Eu(III) samples are different from Eu(III)-La(III) samples. Significant difference in spectra of these two types of samples may be attributed to the La(III) action.

  20. Development of demographic norms for four new WAIS-III/WMS-III indexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Taylor, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-06-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been developed: the WAIS-III General Ability Index, the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index, and the two alternate Immediate and Delayed Memory Indexes. The purpose of this study was to develop demographically corrected norms for the four new indexes using the standardization sample and education oversample from the WAIS-III and WMS-III. These norms were developed using the same methodology as the demographically corrected norms made available in the WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant.

  1. The Nimbus III Michelson Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Hanel, R A; Schlachman, B; Clark, F D; Prokesh, C H; Taylor, J B; Wilson, W M; Chaney, L

    1970-08-01

    The Michelson interferometer flown on Nimbus III in April 1969 has obtained infrared emission spectra of the earth and its atmosphere within 400 cm(-1) and 2000 cm(-1) (5 micro and 25 micro). Spectra of good quality have been recorded with a spectral resolution corresponding to 5 cm(-1). This paper discusses the design of the instrument including the optical layout, the phase locked loop operation of the Michelson motor, and the functioning of the reference interferometer. The methods of data reduction and in-flight calibration are demonstrated on sample spectra recorded while in orbit around the earth.

  2. Division Iii: Planetary Systems Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen; Valsecchi, Giovanni; Bowell, Edward L.; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Boss, Alan; Cellino, Alberto; Consolmagno, Guy; Fernandez, Julio; Irvine, William; Lazzaro, Daniela; Michel, Patrick; Noll, Keith; Schulz, Rita; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Zhu, Jin

    2012-04-01

    Division III, with 1126 members, is the third largest of the 12 IAU Divisions, focusing on subject matter related to the physical study of interplanetary dust, comets, minor planets, satellites, planets, planetary systems and astrobiology. Within the Division are very active working groups that are responsible for planetary system and small body nomenclature, as well as a newly created working group on Near Earth Objects which was established order to investigate the requirements for international ground-and/or space-based NEO surveys to characterize 90% of all NEOs with diameters >40m in order to establish a permanent international NEO Early Warning System.

  3. Recent results for Mark III

    SciTech Connect

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-..pi../sup 0/'s D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to K..pi pi.. is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Level III Ecoregions of Indiana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  5. Level III Ecoregions of Ohio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  6. Level III Ecoregions of Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  7. Level III Ecoregions of Kentucky

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  8. Level III Ecoregions of Florida

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  9. Level III Ecoregions of Alabama

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  10. Level III Ecoregions of Tennessee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  11. Level III Ecoregions of Arkansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  12. Level III Ecoregions of Wisconsin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  13. Level III Ecoregions of Illinois

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  14. Level III Ecoregions of Vermont

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  15. Level III Ecoregions of Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  16. Level III Ecoregions of Maine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  17. Level III Ecoregions of Mississippi

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  18. III-nitride nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key figure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical confinement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve single-mode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode operation. The first method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-off condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter efficiency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, specifically a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip

  19. III-Nitride Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key gure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical con nement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve singlemode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode op eration. The rst method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-o condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter e ciency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, speci cally a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip that emit

  20. Allerton III. Beyond livestock genomics.

    PubMed

    Hamernik, Debora L; Lewin, Harris A; Schook, Lawrence B

    2003-05-01

    Throughout the Allerton III Conference, several consistent research needs were identified across scientific disciplines. First, additional basic research is needed to identify genomic mechanisms and novel genes/proteins in a variety of tissues under different conditions. Second, expansion of the infrastructure of the scientific community is needed. This can best be accomplished by additional competitive grants programs for training grants, program project grants, and multidisciplinary research projects. Third, the need for improved tools for animal bioinformatics was emphasized. Fourth, competitive grants programs for extension/outreach efforts and application of genomic technologies to production systems are needed. Finally, efforts to publicize and document the benefits of animal genomics for improved human health and animal production systems to members of Congress and the general public should be enhanced.

  1. III-Nitride UV Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif Khan, M.; Shatalov, M.; Maruska, H. P.; Wang, H. M.; Kuokstis, E.

    2005-10-01

    The need for efficient, compact and robust solid-state UV optical sources and sensors had stimulated the development of optical devices based on III-nitride material system. Rapid progress in material growth, device fabrication and packaging enabled demonstration of high efficiency visible-blind and solar-blind photodetectors, deep-UV light-emitting diodes with emission from 400 to 250 nm, and UV laser diodes with operation wavelengths ranging from 340 to 350 nm. Applications of these UV optical devices include flame sensing; fluorescence-based biochemical sensing; covert communications; air, water and food purification and disinfection; and biomedical instrumentation. This paper provides a review of recent advances in the development of UV optical devices. Performance of state-of-the-art devices as well as future prospects and challenges are discussed.

  2. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  3. Ecotoxicity assessment of ionic As(III), As(V), In(III) and Ga(III) species potentially released from novel III-V semiconductor materials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Adrian; Orenstein, Emily; Field, Jim A; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-06-01

    III-V materials such as indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are increasingly used in electronic and photovoltaic devices. The extensive application of these materials may lead to release of III-V ionic species during semiconductor manufacturing or disposal of decommissioned devices into the environment. Although arsenic is recognized as an important contaminant due to its high toxicity, there is a lack of information about the toxic effects of indium and gallium ions. In this study, acute toxicity of As(III), As(V), In(III) and Ga(III) species was evaluated using two microbial assays testing for methanogenic activity and O2 uptake, as well as two bioassays targeting aquatic organisms, including the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (bioluminescence inhibition) and the crustacean Daphnia magna (mortality). The most noteworthy finding was that the toxicity is mostly impacted by the element tested. Secondarily, the toxicity of these species also depended on the bioassay target. In(III) and Ga(III) were not or only mildly toxic in the experiments. D. magna was the most sensitive organism for In(III) and Ga(III) with 50% lethal concentrations of 0.5 and 3.4mM, respectively. On the other hand, As(III) and As(V) caused clear inhibitory effects, particularly in the methanogenic toxicity bioassay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of both arsenic species towards methanogens were about 0.02mM, which is lower than the regulated maximum allowable daily effluent discharge concentration (2.09mg/L or 0.03mM) for facilities manufacturing electronic components in the US. Overall, the results indicate that the ecotoxicity of In(III) and Ga(III) is much lower than that of the As species tested. This finding is important in filling the knowledge gap regarding the ecotoxicology of In and Ga. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decameter Type III-Like Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Rucker, H. O.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lecacheux, A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Stanislavskyy, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Starting from 1960s Type III-like bursts (Type III bursts with high drift rates) in a wide frequency range from 300 to 950MHz have been observed. These new bursts observed at certain frequency being compared to the usual Type III bursts at the same frequency show similar behaviour but feature frequency drift 2-6 times higher than the normal bursts. In this paper we report the first observations of Type III-like bursts in decameter range, carried out during summer campaigns 2002 - 2004 at UTR-2 radio telescope. The circular polarization of the bursts was measured by the radio telescope URAN-2 in 2004. The observed bursts are analyzed and compared with usual Type III bursts in the decameter range. From the analysis of over 1100 Type III-like bursts, their main parameters have been found. Characteristic feature of the observed bursts is similar to Type III-like bursts at other frequencies, i.e. measured drift rates (5-10 MHz/s) of this bursts are few times larger than that for usual Type III bursts, and their durations (1-2 s) are few times smaller than that for usual Type III bursts in this frequency band.

  5. Spectrofluorimetric determination of Er (III) with diantipyrylmethane.

    PubMed

    Sungur, S

    2001-02-01

    The optimum fluorescence conditions for erbium (III) are obtained by irradiating this lanthanide at 435 nm in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution at pH = 8 (lambdaem = 510 nm). The method proposed is satisfactory for the determination of erbium (III) in the range of 0.001 to 1 microg ml(-1). The relative standard deviation 0.02 microg ml(-1) Er (III) in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution is 1.1%. The effect of other rare earths upon the intensity of the fluorescence emitted by erbium (III) is discussed.

  6. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella.

  7. Comparative adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on TPD.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Zhao, X L; Ma, X X; Yang, Y B; Wu, W S; Zheng, G D; Wang, D L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative adsorption behaviors of Eu(III) and Am(III) on thorium phosphate diphosphate (TPD), i.e., Th4(PO4)4P2O7, have been studied using a batch approach and surface complexation model (SCM) in this study. The results showed that Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption increased to a large extent with the increase in TPD dose. Strong pH-dependence was observed in both Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption processes, suggesting that inner-sphere complexes (ISCs) were possibly responsible for the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III). Meanwhile, the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) decreased to a different extent with the increase in ion strength, which was possibly related to outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) showed high enhancement mainly due to the ternary surface complexes of TPD-FA-Eu(3+) and TPD-FA-Am(3+). The SCM showed that one ion exchange (≡S3Am/Eu) and two ISCs (≡(XO)2Am/EuNO3 and ≡(YO)2Am/EuNO3) seemed more reasonable to quantitatively describe the adsorption edges of both Eu(III) and Am(III). Our findings obviously showed that Eu(III) could be a good analogue to study actinide behaviors in practical terms. However, it should be kept in mind that there are still obvious differences between the characteristics of Eu(III) and Am(III) in some special cases, for instance, the complex ability with organic matter and adsorption affinity to a solid surface.

  8. Mechanisms of Sb(III) Photooxidation by the Excitation of Organic Fe(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2016-07-05

    Organic Fe(III) complexes are widely distributed in the aqueous environment, which can efficiently generate free radicals under light illumination, playing a significant role in heavy metal speciation. However, the potential importance of the photooxidation of Sb(III) by organic Fe(III) complexes remains unclear. Therefore, the photooxidation mechanisms of Sb(III) were comprehensively investigated in Fe(III)-oxalate, Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-fulvic acid (FA) solutions by kinetic measurements and modeling. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) was observed in an Fe(III)-oxalate solution over the pH range of 3 to 7. The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as an ·OH scavenger quenched the Sb(III) oxidation, suggesting that ·OH is an important oxidant for Sb(III). However, the incomplete quenching of Sb(III) oxidation indicated the existence of other oxidants, presumably an Fe(IV) species in irradiated Fe(III)-oxalate solution. In acidic solutions, ·OH may be formed by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4) with H2O2, but a hypothetical Fe(IV) species may be generated by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4)2(2-) with H2O2 at higher pH. Kinetic modeling provides a quantitative explanation of the results. Evidence for the existence of ·OH and hypothetical Fe(IV) was also observed in an irradiated Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-FA system. This study demonstrated an important pathway of Sb(III) oxidation in surface waters.

  9. Cyanido Antimonate(III) and Bismuthate(III) Anions.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Sören; Harloff, Jörg; Schulz, Axel; Stoffers, Alrik; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-12-05

    The reaction of in situ generated E(CN)3 (E = Sb, Bi) with different amounts of [Ph4P]CN and [PPN]CN ([PPN](+) = [Ph3P-N-PPh3](+)) was studied, affording salts bearing the novel ions [E(CN)5](2-), [Bi2(CN)11](5-), and [Bi(CN)6](3-). The valence lone pair of electrons on the central atom of antimony and bismuth(III) compounds can be either sterically active in an unsymmetric fashion (three shorter bonds + x longer bonds) or symmetric (with rather long averaged bonds). In the presence of weakly coordinating cations (e.g., [Ph4P](+) and [PPN](+)), the solid-state structures of salts with [E(CN)5](2-) anions contain well-separated cations and monomeric anions, which display a sterically active lone pair and a monomeric square-based pyramidal (pseudo-octahedral) structure. The [Bi(CN)5·MeCN](2-) acetonitrile adduct ion exhibits a strongly distorted octahedral structure, which is better understood as a [5 + 1] coordination. The intriguing [Ph4P]6[Bi2(CN)11]CN salt consists of separated cations and anions as well as well-separated [Bi2(CN)11](5-) and CN(-) ions. The structure of the molecular [Bi2(CN)11](5-) ion can be described as two square-based-pyramidal [Bi(CN)5](2-) fragments connected by a disordered bridging CN(-) ion, thereby leading to a distorted-octahedral environment around the two Bi centers. Here the steric effect of the lone pair is much less pronounced but still present.

  10. National Coastal Condition Report III (2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Coastal Condition Report III (NCCR III) is the third in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico.

  11. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype.

  12. Explorations: Title III ESEA Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    Seventy projects funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III, and providing the funds to public school districts to demonstrate the feasibility of educational innovations, are described in this document about Iowa Title III exemplary programs. Projects are subdivided according to planning grants, operational grants, guidance…

  13. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  14. Comprehensive School Transformation, Phase III. Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prine, Donald; Wilkinson, David

    The Iowa Educational Excellence Act and its amendments provide for four types of Phase III programs: performance-based pay, supplemental pay, a combination of both, or comprehensive school transformation. In 1993, the Des Moines Phase III program, which originated as a combination of performance-based pay and supplemental pay, changed to a…

  15. National Coastal Condition Report III Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Coastal Condition Report III (NCCR III) is the third in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico.

  16. Cyanoacrylate glue for type iii lad perforation.

    PubMed

    Trehan, V K; Nigam, Arima

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation especially type III is a rare and catastrophic complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. It mandates emergency open heart surgery if hemostasis is not achieved promptly. We report a case of type III left anterior descending artery (LAD) perforation which was managed successfully with cyanoacrylate glue.

  17. Grant Administration Manual for Title III Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Emily Duncan; Ashmore, Frances W.

    Guidelines for coordinators of programs under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965 are presented, based on a national survey of Title III program coordinators. The responsibilities of the coordinator and information on administering the Strengthening Developing Institutions Program (SDIP) grant are covered. The program can either be a…

  18. JumpStart III Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.; Brawer, Florence B.; Kozeracki, Carol A.

    This final report for the JumpStart III program presents a summary of the entrepreneurship training programs developed by each of the four JumpStart III partners selected in March 1997. Grants for the colleges totaled $354,546 over 2 years. The Jumpstart funding has been only a starting point for these and the other 12 Jumpstart partners in…

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S; Kobeasy, Mohamed I

    2015-05-05

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E(∗), ΔH(∗), ΔS(∗) and ΔG(∗) were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4‧-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.; Kobeasy, Mohamed I.

    2015-05-01

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III gamma

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. People with mucolipidosis III gamma often have heart valve abnormalities and mild clouding of the clear covering ... III Gamma MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Cloudy Cornea MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Heart Valves General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  3. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  4. WAVEWATCH III Supports Arctic Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykes, J.; Rogers, W.

    2016-02-01

    The WAVEWATCH III wave model (WW3) was implemented by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as part of an Arctic modeling system to support U.S. Coast Guard and Office of Naval Research Arctic operations in the summer and autumn of 2015 providing real-time 72-hour forecasts of sea state. A 5-km domain centered over the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas nested in a larger 18-km Arctic domain were used together in a multiple-domain implementation. High resolution wind fields from the mesoscale atmospheric model (COAMPS) run at NRL forced the 5-km domain. In addition, ice concentration fields from the locally run regional sea ice model (CICE) were input to influence the generation, propagation, and decay of the predicted waves. Different model configurations regarding the ice input that have been applied will be described. Model performance of the wave model predictions of significant wave height and wave directions within the required criteria will be evaluated using available in situ data. Model accuracy for increasing forecast period will also be presented along with a quantification of accuracy differences under different configurations.

  5. Design III with Marker Loci

    PubMed Central

    Cockerham, C. C.; Zeng, Z. B.

    1996-01-01

    Design III is an experimental design originally proposed by R. E. COMSTOCK and H. F. ROBINSON for estimating genetic variances and the average degree of dominance for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and has recently been extended for mapping QTL. In this paper, we first extend COMSTOCK and ROBINSON's analysis of variance to include linkage, two-locus epistasis and the use of F(3) parents. Then we develop the theory and statistical analysis of orthogonal contrasts and contrast X environment interaction for a single marker locus to characterize the effects of QTL. The methods are applied to the maize data of C. W. STUBER. The analyses strongly suggest that there are multiple linked QTL in many chromosomes for several traits examined. QTL effects are largely environment-independent for grain yield, ear height, plant height and ear leaf area and largely environment dependent for days to tassel, grain moisture and ear number. There is significant QTL epistasis. The results are generally in favor of the hypothesis of dominance of favorable genes to explain the observed heterosis in grain yield and other traits, although epistasis could also play an important role and overdominance at individual QTL level can not be ruled out. PMID:8807314

  6. Mark III results from SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, W.

    1983-11-01

    First results from the MARK III detector at SPEAR are presented based on 2.7 million J/psi decays. The eta/sub c/ is observed in three modes, J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..eta/sub c/, (eta/sub c/ ..-->.. rho anti rho, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/, and phi phi). Using the phi phi mode, the eta/sub c/ spin-parity is determined to be 0/sup -/. The known radiative J/psi decays J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..f(f ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..eta'(eta' ..-->.. ..gamma..rho/sup 0/, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..f'(f' ..-->.. kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/), ..gamma..theta(theta ..-->.. kappa anti kappa), and ..gamma..iota(iota ..-->.. ..pi..kappa anti kappa) are observed and their branching ratios found to be in agreement with previous measurements. In the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/ mode a new state is observed at 2.22 GeV and in the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..rho/sup 0/ and ..gamma..eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ modes evidence for new structures near 1.4 GeV is presented. 29 references.

  7. Level III Ecoregions of Alaska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. The ecoregions of Alaska are a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for State, national, and international level inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. The map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing information on the geographic distribution of environmental factors such as climate, physiography, geology, permafrost, soils, and vegetation. A qualitative assessment was used to interpret the distributional patterns and relative importance of these factors from place to place (Gallant and others, 1995). Numeric identifiers assigned to the ecoregions are coordinated with those used on the map of Ecoregions of the Conterminous United States (Omernik 1987, U.S. EPA 2010) as a continuation of efforts to map ecoregions for the United States. Additionally, the ecoregions for Alaska and the conterminous United States, along with ecological regions for Canada (Wiken 1986) and Mexico, have been combined for maps at three hierarchical levels for North America (Omernik 1995, Commission for Environmental Cooperation, 1997, 2006). A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions. At Level III, there are currently 182

  8. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF CORRINOIDS III.

    PubMed Central

    Burgus, R. C.; Hufham, J. B.; Scott, W. M.; Pfiffner, J. J.

    1964-01-01

    Burgus, R. C. (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.), J. B. Hufham, W. M. Scott, and J. J. Pfiffner. Microbial degradation of corrinoids. III. Pigments derived from vitamin B12 by Pseudomonas rubescens. J. Bacteriol. 88:1139–1144. 1964.—Products derived from vitamin B12 by Pseudomonas rubescens under anaerobic conditions were examined. After incubation of the organism in broth containing Co57- or P32- vitamin B12, electrophoresis of the extracted corrinoids yielded two major, yellow, radioactive fractions, designated A and B, with spectral and electrophoretic properties similar to pigments I and II, derived from vitamin B12 by Aerobacter aerogenes. Fractions A and B were essentially inactive in promoting the growth of Lactobacillus leichmannii. Chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose separated both fractions A and B into four yellow, radioactive fractions. The absorption spectrum of each of the major subfractions showed a maximum in the ultraviolet region characteristic of a 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole nucleotide, but lacked a maximum in the 360-mμ region characteristic of vitamin B12 and many of its analogues and derivatives. The pigments were stable to cyanide and, although they were more stable to air and light than were the vitamin B12 coenzymes and coenzyme analogues, they were apparently slowly decomposed by light. The data suggest that the bacteria alter the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12. Images PMID:14219029

  9. III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor are disclosed. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V materials varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V material can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  10. Subcellular location of horseradish peroxidase in horseradish leaves treated with La(III), Ce(III) and Tb(III).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yaxin; Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Zhou, Qing; Guo, Shaofen

    2008-11-01

    The agricultural application of rare-earth elements (REEs) would promote REEs inevitably to enter in the environment and then to threaten the environmental safety and human health. Therefore, the distribution of the REEs ion, (141)Ce(III) and effects of La(III), Ce(III) and Tb(III) on the distribution of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in horseradish mesophyll cells were investigated with electron microscopic radioautography and transmission electron microscopic cytochemistry. It was found for the first time that REEs ions can enter into the mesophyll cells, deposit in both extra and intra-cellular. Compared to the normal condition, after the horseradish leaves treated with La(III) or Tb(III), HRP located on the tonoplast is decreased and HRP is mainly located on the cell wall, while HRP is mainly located on the plasma membrane after the horseradish leaves were treated with Ce(III). This also indicated that REEs ions may regulate the plant growth through changing the distribution of enzymes.

  11. Redox reactions of V(III) and Cr(III)picolinate complexes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayakumar, C. K.; Dey, G. R.; Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P. N.

    1996-12-01

    Reactions of e aq-, H-atoms, OH, (CH 3) 2COH, and CO 2- radicals with V(III)picolinate and Cr(III)picolinate have been studied by the pulse radiolysis technique. The spectra of V(II)picolinate, V(IV)picolinate, Cr(II)picolinate, OH adduct of Cr(III)picolinate and Cr(IV)picolinate have been obtained and the rate constants of the reactions of various radicals with V(III) and Cr(III)picolinate have been determined. The implications of these results to the chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor systems are discussed.

  12. Separation studies of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) by reversed-phase paper chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, B.; Shinde, V.M.

    1987-07-01

    Reversed-phase paper chromatographic separations of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) have been carried out on Whatman No 1 filter paper impregnated with triphenylphosphine oxide as stationary phase and using organic complexing agents such as sodium acetate, sodium succinate and sodium malonate solutions as active mobile phases. Results for the separation of binary and ternary mixtures are reported and the method has been successfully applied to the separation and detection of these elements present in real samples and at ppm level concentration.

  13. Glomerular Collagen V Codeposition and Hepatic Perisinusoidal Collagen III Accumulation in Canine Collagen Type III Glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    Rørtveit, R; Reiten, M R; Lingaas, F; Sveri, S B; Brech, A; Espenes, A; Jansen, J H

    2015-11-01

    Collagen type III glomerulopathy, also known as collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy, is a rare renal disease of unknown pathogenesis. The disease occurs in humans and animals and is characterized by massive glomerular accumulations of collagen type III. In the present study, we describe a Drever dog litter affected by an early onset variant of this glomerular disease, where 4 of 9 puppies developed renal failure within 50 days of age. Necropsy specimens of kidney from the 4 affected cases were studied by light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry, and characteristic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of collagen type III glomerulopathy were found. In addition, 2 cases showed atypical epithelium in the collecting ducts of the medulla, so-called adenomatoid change. Immunohistochemistry of renal specimens from collagen type III glomerulopathy-affected dogs (n = 10) originating from two different dog strains, the Drever dogs and a mixed-breed strain, demonstrated that the deposited glomerular collagen is composed of a mixture of collagen III and collagen V. The distribution of the collagen V corresponded to the localization of collagen III; however, differences in staining intensity showed that collagen type III is the dominating component. Immunohistochemistry for collagen III (n = 9) and a transmission electron microscopic study (n = 1) showed hepatic perisinusoidal collagen type III deposition in affected cases from both dog strains. This is the first report documenting glomerular accumulations of collagen type V and perisinusoidal liver collagen III deposition in canine collagen type III glomerulopathy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Rivaroxaban in antiphospholipid syndrome (RAPS) protocol: a prospective, randomized controlled phase II/III clinical trial of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in patients with thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome, with or without SLE.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H; Doré, C J; Clawson, S; Hunt, B J; Isenberg, D; Khamashta, M; Muirhead, N

    2015-09-01

    The current mainstay of the treatment of thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is long-term anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin. Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which include rivaroxaban, have been shown to be effective and safe compared with warfarin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in major phase III prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but the results may not be directly generalizable to patients with APS. The primary aim is to demonstrate, in patients with APS and previous VTE, with or without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), that the intensity of anticoagulation achieved with rivaroxaban is not inferior to that of warfarin. Secondary aims are to compare rates of recurrent thrombosis, bleeding and the quality of life in patients on rivaroxaban with those on warfarin. Rivaroxaban in antiphospholipid syndrome (RAPS) is a phase II/III prospective non-inferiority RCT in which eligible patients with APS, with or without SLE, who are on warfarin, target international normalized ratio (INR) 2.5 for previous VTE, will be randomized either to continue warfarin (standard of care) or to switch to rivaroxaban. Intensity of anticoagulation will be assessed using thrombin generation (TG) testing, with the primary outcome the percentage change in endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) from randomization to day 42. Other TG parameters, markers of in vivo coagulation activation, prothrombin fragment 1.2, thrombin antithrombin complex and D-dimer, will also be assessed. If RAPS demonstrates i) that the anticoagulant effect of rivaroxaban is not inferior to that of warfarin and ii) the absence of any adverse effects that cause concern with regard to the use of rivaroxaban, this would provide sufficient supporting evidence to make rivaroxaban a standard of care for the treatment of APS patients with previous VTE, requiring a target INR of 2.5. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Lanthanide(III) and Yttrium(III) Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III) Complex on Germination of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Shenoy, Rashmi V.; Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Patil, Manjula S.; Patil, Siddappa A.; Hanchinal, Rayappa R.; Desai, Srinivas A.; Lohithaswa, H.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA) are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [Ln3(BIA)2(NO3)7(H2O)4] · 3H2O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(II), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Y(III). The effect of La(III) complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods. PMID:17497017

  16. Type III polyketide synthases in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) are simple homodimers of ketosynthases which catalyze the condensation of one to several molecules of extender substrate onto a starter substrate through iterative decarboxylative Claisen condensation reactions. Type III PKSs have been found in bacteria and fungi, as well as plants. Microbial type III PKSs, which are involved in the biosynthesis of some lipidic compounds and various secondary metabolites, have several interesting characteristics that are not shared by plant type III PKSs. Further, many compounds produced by microbial type III PKSs have significant biological functions and/or important pharmaceutical activities. Thus, studies on this class of enzymes will expand our knowledge of the biosynthetic machineries that generate natural products and generate new findings about microbial physiology. The recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing has allowed for an increase in the number of microbial genomes sequenced and the discovery of many microbial type III PKS genes. Here, we describe basic methods to study microbial type III PKSs whose genes are easy to clone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neptunium(III) application in extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Nadeau, Kenny; Larivière, Dominic

    2011-12-15

    This paper describes a novel strategy for actinide separation by extraction chromatography with Np(III) valence adjustment. Neptunium(IV) was reduced to Np(III) using Cr(II) and then selectively separated from uranium (IV) on a TEVA resin. After elution, Np(III) was retained on a DGA resin in order to remove any detrimental chromium impurities. Neptunium(III) formation was demonstrated by the complete and selective elution of Np from TEVA resin (99 ± 7%) in less than 12 mL of 9M HCl from U(IV) (0.7 ± 0.7%). It was determined by UV-visible and kinetic studies that Cr(II) was the only species responsible for the elution of Np(IV) as Np(III) and that the Cr(II) solution could be prepared from 2 to 30 min before its use without the need of complex degassing systems to prevent the oxidation of Np(III) by oxygen. The methodology proposed here with TEVA/DGA resins provides removal of Cr(III) impurities produced at high decontamination factors (2.8 × 10(3) and 7.3 × 10(4) respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The mass distribution of Population III stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Casey, A. R.; Gilmore, G.; Heger, A.; Chan, C.

    2017-06-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are uniquely informative on the nature of massive Population III stars. Modulo a few elements that vary with stellar evolution, the present-day photospheric abundances observed in EMP stars are representative of their natal gas cloud composition. For this reason, the chemistry of EMP stars closely reflects the nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae from massive Population III stars. Here we collate detailed abundances of 53 EMP stars from the literature and infer the masses of their Population III progenitors. We fit a simple initial mass function (IMF) to a subset of 29 of the inferred Population III star masses, and find that the mass distribution is well represented by a power-law IMF with exponent α = 2.35^{+0.29}_{-0.24}. The inferred maximum progenitor mass for supernovae from massive Population III stars is M_{max} = 87^{+13}_{-33} M⊙, and we find no evidence in our sample for a contribution from stars with masses above ˜120 M⊙. The minimum mass is strongly consistent with the theoretical lower mass limit for Population III supernovae. We conclude that the IMF for massive Population III stars is consistent with the IMF of present-day massive stars and there may well have formed stars much below the supernova mass limit that could have survived to the present day.

  19. Transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    PubMed Central

    Paule, Marvin R.; White, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The task of transcribing nuclear genes is shared between three RNA polymerases in eukaryotes: RNA polymerase (pol) I synthesises the large rRNA, pol II synthesises mRNA and pol III synthesises tRNA and 5S rRNA. Although pol II has received most attention, pol I and pol III are together responsible for the bulk of transcriptional activity. This survey will summarise what is known about the process of transcription by pol I and pol III, how it happens and the proteins involved. Attention will be drawn to the similarities between the three nuclear RNA polymerase systems and also to their differences. PMID:10684922

  20. [Napoleon III's urogenital disease (1808-1873)].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G

    2000-02-01

    We tried through this paper to reconstitute the evolution of the urologic illness of Napoleon III, last emperor of France, the first symptoms of which appeared many years before the fatal war of 1870, which led to the dismembering of France. In this connection, we present Napoleon III's physicians and his cures, along with the diagnostic and therapeutic errors. The case of Napoleon III is a typical example of the influence the bad health of a sovereign can exercise on the destiny of his country.

  1. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.; Misra, M.

    1997-10-14

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector. 24 figs.

  2. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Misra, Mira

    1997-01-01

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector.

  3. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on rat intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Shiga, Kazuki; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-03-01

    The effects of difructose anhydride III (di-D-fructofuranose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride; DFA III) administration (3% DFA III for 4 weeks) on rat intestinal microbiota were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). According to DGGE profiles, the number of bacteria related to Bacteroides acidofaciens and uncultured bacteria within the Clostridium lituseburense group decreased, while that of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus productus increased in DFA III-fed rat cecum. In the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats, a lowering of pH and an increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic acid, were observed. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus sp. M-1, was isolated from the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats. The strain had 98% similarity with R. productus ATCC 27340T (L76595), and mainly produced acetic acid. These results confirmed that the bacteria harmful to host health were not increased by DFA III administration. Moreover, DFA III stimulated the growth of Ruminococcus sp. M-1 producing acetic acid, which may alter the intestinal microbiota towards a healthier composition. It is expected that DFA III would be a new candidate as a prebiotic.

  4. Extraction chromatographic separation of Am(III) and Eu(III) by TPEN-immobilized gel

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Ogata, T.; Oaki, H.; Inaba, Y.; Mori, A.; Yaita, T.; Koyama, S.I.

    2013-07-01

    A TPEN derivative with 4 vinyl groups, N,N,N',N' -tetrakis-(4-propenyloxy-2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPPEN) was synthesized for the separation of trivalent minor actinides (Am(III)) and lanthanides (Eu(III)). A co-polymer gel with TPPEN and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) showed a high separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) (SF[Am/Eu]), which was evaluated to be 26 at pH=5. Thin film of NIPA-TPPEN gel (average thickness: 2-40 nm) was immobilized on the pore surface in porous silica particles (particle diameter : 50 μm, average pore diameter : 50 and 300 nm) and a chromatographic column (diameter: 6 mm, height: 11 mm) packed with the gel-coated particles was prepared. A small amount of weakly acidic solution (pH=4) containing Am(III) and Eu(III) was supplied in the column and the elution tests of Am(III) and Eu(III) were carried out. Eu(III) was recovered separately by a weakly acidic eluent (pH=4) at 313 K and Am(III) by a highly acidic eluent (pH=2) at 298 K. These results suggest that the contentious separation of minor actinides and lanthanides is attainable by a new extraction chromatographic process with two columns adjusted to 298 K and 313 K. (authors)

  5. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-06

    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  6. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  7. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  8. Level III and IV Ecoregions by State

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information and links to downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions, listed by state. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  9. SAGE III capabilities and global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The science objectives of the satellite-borne SAGE III are presented as they pertain to detecting global change. SAGE III is the proposed follow on and improved version of SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II which have measured stratospheric and, in some cases, tropospheric species since late 1978. Specifically, SAGE III will measure profiles of aerosols, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide and trioxide, neutral density, temperature, clouds, and chlorine dioxide using the solar and lunar occultation techniques. These techniques are inherently self-calibrating, provide high vertical resolution, and use well-behaved data retrievals making them ideal for trend detection and global change studies. The potential capabilities of SAGE III are illustrated by using data and results from SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II.

  10. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S

    2014-07-15

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH(*), ΔS(*) and ΔG(*) were estimated from the DTG curves.

  11. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial complex III deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complex III is found in cell structures called mitochondria , which convert the energy from food into a ... CYB gene is found in DNA located in mitochondria, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This location may help ...

  13. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Potentiometry: A Chromium (III) -- EDTA Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, J. I.; Howell, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the preparation of a chromium (III)-EDTA compound, a study of its infrared spectrum, and the potentiometric determination of two successive acid dissociation constants. (Author/GS)

  15. Junto III: Collaboration Outreach by AAACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses recommendations developed by Junto III of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education concerning association responsibility, specific group action (full representation, socialization of new membership, generation of new research), and special needs. (CT)

  16. Isolatable organophosphorus(III)-tellurium heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Nordheider, Andreas; Chivers, Tristram; Schön, Oliver; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun S; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2014-01-13

    A new structural arrangement Te3 (RP(III) )3 and the first crystal structures of organophosphorus(III)-tellurium heterocycles are presented. The heterocycles can be stabilized and structurally characterized by the appropriate choice of substituents in Tem (P(III) R)n (m=1: n=2, R=OMes* (Mes*=supermesityl or 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl); n=3, R=adamantyl (Ad); n=4, R=ferrocene (Fc); m=n=3: R=trityl (Trt), Mesor by the installation of a P(V) 2 N2 anchor in RP(III) [TeP(V) (tBuN)(μ-NtBu)]2 (R=Ad, tBu).

  17. Design of Training Systems Phase III Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    as the reader is aware of this approach and relies on the T&E Report for a more detailed analysis , this summary should highlight the key T&E concerns... ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION GROUP LIBRARY TECHNICAL REPORT SECTION NAVAL POSTGRADUATE S^ MONTEREY CALliChMA TAEG REPORT NO. 28 DESIGN...EVALUATION SUMMARY I II-l IV PHASE III PRODUCTS CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IV-1 PHASE III DOCUMENTATION IV-7 11 TAE6 REPORT NO. 28

  18. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  19. Population III Stars Around the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the possibility of observing Population III (Pop III) stars, born of primordial gas. Pop III stars with masses below 0.8 M⊙ should survive to date though are not yet observed, but the existence of stars with low metallicity as [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]\\lt -5 in the Milky Way halo suggests the surface pollution of Pop III stars with accreted metals from the interstellar gas after birth. In this paper, we investigate the runaway of Pop III stars from their host mini-halos, considering the ejection of secondary members from binary systems when their massive primaries explode as supernovae. These stars save them from surface pollution. By computing the star formation and chemical evolution along with the hierarchical structure formation based on the extended Press-Schechter merger trees, we demonstrate that several hundreds to tens of thousands of low-mass Pop III stars escape from the building blocks of the Milky Way. The second and later generations of extremely metal-poor stars also escaped from the mini-halos. We discuss the spatial distributions of these escaped stars by evaluating the distances between the mini-halos in the branches of merger trees under the spherical collapse model of dark matter halos. It is demonstrated that the escaped stars distribute beyond the stellar halo with a density profile close to the dark matter halo, while Pop III stars are slightly more centrally concentrated. 6%-30% of the escaped stars leave the Milky Way and go out into the intergalactic space. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of observing the Pop III stars with the pristine surface abundance.

  20. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K; Pandey, Om P

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H2O]n have been obtained (where Ln=La(III) or Pr(III); L=barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 degrees C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr3+.

  1. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  2. Helical lanthanide(III) complexes with chiral nonaaza macrocycle.

    PubMed

    Gregoliński, Janusz; Starynowicz, Przemysław; Hua, KimNgan T; Lunkley, Jamie L; Muller, Gilles; Lisowski, Jerzy

    2008-12-31

    The chiral nonaazamacrocyclic amine L, which is a reduction product of the 3 + 3 Schiff base macrocycle, wraps around the lanthanide(III) ions to form enantiopure helical complexes. These Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) complexes have been isolated in enantiopure form and have been characterized by spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystal structures of the Ln(III) complexes with L show that the thermodynamic product of the complexation of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is the (M)-helical complex in the case of Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III). In contrast, the (P)-helical complex is the thermodynamic product in the case of Yb(III) and Lu(III). The NMR and CD spectra show that the (M)-helicity for the kinetic complexation product of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is preferred for all investigated lanthanide(III) ions, while the preferred helicity of the thermodynamic product is (M) for the early lanthanide(III) ions and (P) for the late lanthanide(III) ions. In the case of the late lanthanide(III) ions, a slow inversion of helicity between the kinetic (M)-helical product and the thermodynamic (P)-helical product is observed in solution. For Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) both forms have been isolated in pure form and characterized by NMR and CD. The analysis of 2D NMR spectra of the Lu(III) complex reveals the NOE correlations that prove that the helical structure is retained in solution. The NMR spectra also reveal large isotopic effect on the 1H NMR shifts of paramagnetic Ln(III) complexes, related to NH/ND exchange. Photophysical measurements show that L(RRRRRR) appears to favor an efficient 3pipi*-to-Ln energy transfer process taking place for Eu(III) and Tb(III), but these Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-containing complexes with L(RRRRRR) lead to small luminescent quantum yields due to an incomplete intersystem crossing (isc) transfer, a weak efficiency of the luminescence sensitization by the ligand, and

  3. Luminescense properties of new complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with heterotopic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patroniak, Violetta; Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Grochowska, Agnieszka M.; Stefankiewicz, Artur R.

    2006-07-01

    As a result of coordination between ligands L and L' and europium(III) and terbium(III) ions, the new architectures were formed. The formulae of the complexes have been assigned on the basis of the spectroscopic data in solution and microanalyses. The europium complexes show excellent luminescence properties with high quantum yield ( 1b-Eu 3L2) and effective intramolecular energy transfer from the ligand to the Eu(III) ions.

  4. Luminescense properties of new complexes of Eu(III) and Tb(III) with heterotopic ligands.

    PubMed

    Patroniak, Violetta; Hnatejko, Zbigniew; Grochowska, Agnieszka M; Stefankiewicz, Artur R

    2006-07-01

    As a result of coordination between ligands L and L' and europium(III) and terbium(III) ions, the new architectures were formed. The formulae of the complexes have been assigned on the basis of the spectroscopic data in solution and microanalyses. The europium complexes show excellent luminescence properties with high quantum yield (1b-Eu(3)L(2)) and effective intramolecular energy transfer from the ligand to the Eu(III) ions.

  5. WAIS-III and WMS-III profiles of mildly to severely brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D C; Ledbetter, M F; Cohen, N J; Marmor, D; Tulsky, D S

    2000-01-01

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III; The Psychological Corporation, 1997) scores of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI, n = 23) to moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (M-S TBI, n = 22) were compared to those of 45 matched normal control patients. WAIS-III results revealed that IQ and index scores of MTBI patients did not significantly differ from those of controls, whereas M-S TBI patients received significantly lower mean scores on all measures. All M-S TBI patients' WMS-III index scores also revealed significantly lower scores in comparison to those of control participants, with the exception of Delayed Auditory Recognition. MTBI patients showed significantly lower mean index scores compared to normal controls on measures of immediate and delayed auditory memory, immediate memory, visual delayed memory, and general memory. Eta-squared analyses revealed that WMS-III visual indexes and WAIS-III processing speed showed particularly large effect sizes. These results suggest that symptomatic MTBI patients obtain some low WMS-III test scores comparable to those of more severely injured patients.

  6. Design of Integrated III-Nitride/Non-III-Nitride Tandem Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, N. G.; Friedman, D..J.; Farrell, R. M.; Perl, E. E.; Lin, C. T.; Bowers, J. E.; Speck, J. S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2012-03-01

    The integration of III-nitride and non-III-nitride materials for tandem solar cell applications can improve the efficiency of the photovoltaic device due to the added power contributed by the III-nitride top cell to that of high-efficiency multi-junction non-III-nitride solar cells if the device components are properly designed and optimized. The proposed tandem solar cell is comprised of a III-nitride top cell bonded to a non-III-nitride, series-constrained, multi-junction subcell. The top cell is electrically isolated, but optically coupled to the underlying subcell. The use of a III-nitride top cell is potentially beneficial when the top junction of a stand-alone non-III-nitride subcell generates more photocurrent than the limiting current of the non-III-nitride subcell. Light producing this excess current can either be redirected to the III-nitride top cell through high energy photon absorption, redirected to the lower junctions through layer thickness optimization, or a combination of both, resulting in improved total efficiency. When the non-III-nitride cell's top junction is the limiting junction, the minimum power conversion efficiency that the III-nitride top cell must contribute should compensate for the spectrum filtered from the multi-junction subcell for this design to be useful. As the III-nitride absorption edge wavelength, {lambda}{sub N}, increases, the performance of the multi-junction subcell decreases due to spectral filtering. In the most common spectra of interest (AM1.5G, AM1.5 D, and AM0), the technology to grow InGaN cells with {lambda}{sub N}<520 nm is found to be sufficient for III-nitride top cell applications. The external quantum efficiency performance, however, of state-of-the-art InGaN solar cells still needs to be improved. The effects of surface/interface reflections are also presented. The management of these reflection issues determines the feasibility of the integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride design to improve overall cell

  7. New Samarium(III), Gadolinium(III), and Dysprosium(III) Complexes of Coumarin-3-Carboxylic Acid as Antiproliferative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kostova, Irena; Momekov, Georgi; Stancheva, Peya

    2007-01-01

    New complexes of samarium(III), gadolinium(III), and dysprosium(III) with coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) were prepared by the reaction of the ligand with respective metal nitrates in ethanol. The structures of the final complexes were determined by means of physicochemical data, elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectra. The metal-ligand binding mode in the new Ln(III) complexes of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid was elucidated. The vibrational study gave evidence for bidentate coordination of CCA− to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen atoms. The complexes were tested for antiproliferative activitiy on the chronic myeloid leukemia-derived K-562, overexpressing the BCR-ABL fusion protein. Cytotoxicity towards tumor cells was determined for a broad concentration range. The samarium salt exerted a very weak antiproliferative effect on these cells. This is in contrast to the lanthanide complexes, especially samarium complex, which exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. The present study confirms our previous observations that the lanthanide complexes of coumarins exhibit antiproliferative activity towards K-562 cell line. PMID:18274603

  8. Blood folate status and expression of proteins involved in immune function, inflammation, and coagulation: biochemical and proteomic changes in the plasma of humans in response to long-term synthetic folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Susan J; Horgan, Graham; de Roos, Baukje; Rucklidge, Garry; Reid, Martin; Duncan, Gary; Pirie, Lynn; Basten, Graham P; Powers, Hilary J

    2010-04-05

    We used plasma proteomics to identify human proteins responsive to folate status. Plasma was collected from subjects treated with placebo or 1.2 mg of folic acid daily for 12 weeks in a randomized controlled trial. Homocysteine and folate were measured by immunoassay and uracil misincorporation by electrophoresis. The plasma proteome was assessed by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and proteins were identified by LC MS/MS. 5-methylTHF increased 5-fold (P = 0.000003) in response to intervention. Red cell folate doubled (P = 0.013), and lymphocyte folate increased 44% (P = 0.0001). Hcy and uracil dropped 22% (P = 0.0005) and 25% (P = 0.05), respectively. ApoE A-1, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, antithrombin, and serum amyloid P were downregulated, while albumin, IgM C, and complement C3 were upregulated (P < 0.05). More than 60 proteins were significantly associated with folate pre- and postintervention (P < 0.01). These were categorized into metabolic pathways related to complement fixation (e.g., C1, C3, C4, Factor H, Factor 1, Factor B, clusterin), coagulation (e.g., antithrombin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, kininogen) and mineral transport (e.g., transthyretin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin). Low folate status pre- and post-treatment were associated with lower levels of proteins involved in activation and regulation of immune function and coagulation. Supplementation with synthetic folic acid increased expression of these proteins but did not substantially disrupt the balance of these pathways.

  9. Comparative serum albumin interactions and antitumor effects of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdemir, Ayse; Karaboduk, Kuddusi; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, interactions of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions on human serum albumin (HSA) were studied comparatively via spectroscopic and thermal analysis methods: UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The potential antitumor effects of these ions were studied on MCF-7 cells via Alamar blue assay. It was found that both Au(III) and Ga(III) ions can interact with HSA, however; Au(III) ions interact with HSA more favorably and with a higher affinity. FT-IR second derivative analysis results demonstrated that, high concentrations of both metal ions led to a considerable decrease in the α-helix content of HSA; while Au(III) led to around 5% of decrease in the α-helix content at 200μM, it was around 1% for Ga(III) at the same concentration. Calorimetric analysis gave the binding kinetics of metal-HSA interactions; while the binding affinity (Ka) of Au(III)-HSA binding was around 3.87×10(5)M(-1), it was around 9.68×10(3)M(-1) for Ga(III)-HSA binding. Spectroscopy studies overall suggest that both metal ions have significant effects on the chemical structure of HSA, including the secondary structure alterations. Antitumor activity studies on MCF7 tumor cell line with both metal ions revealed that, Au(III) ions have a higher antiproliferative activity compared to Ga(III) ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Sorption of phosphate and Cr(VI) by Fe(III) and Cr(III) hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Y M; Wang, M K; Loeppert, R H

    2003-05-01

    Understanding the chemical behavior and interactions of Cr(VI) ( e.g., HCrO(4)(-)) and other anions, such as orthophosphate (P) with insoluble metal hydroxides ( i.e., Cr[III] and Fe[III]) in disposal landfills or in chromite ore processing residue (CORP)-enriched soil is very important in predicting the movement and the fate of Cr(VI). This study evaluates the sorption behavior of P and Cr(VI) by Fe(III) ( i.e., ferrihydrite), Cr(III) ( i.e., Cr[OH](3)), and coprecipitated Fe(III)/Cr(III) hydroxides. These metal hydroxide sorbents were synthesized, and sorption of P and Cr(VI) were conducted at different pH using a batch technology. Our results show that P and Cr(VI) sorption by metal hydroxides decreased with increasing suspension pH. Greater decrease in P sorption was observed when Cr(III) was present in the structures of hydroxides. Following the sorption of low concentration of P ( i.e., 0.5 mM), the sorption of subsequently added Cr(VI) by hydroxides was less influenced. However, Cr(VI) sorption was greatly inhibited when high concentration of P ( i.e., 10 mM) prereacted with hydroxides, particularly in Fe(III) hydroxide system. Results also indicated that high concentration of Cr(VI) (10 mM) could dissolve Cr(III) hydroxide at pH 3 and reprecipitate as an amorphous form of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) compound at pH about 6.5. Although coprecipitation of Cr(VI) with Cr(III) can inhibit Cr(VI) movement through soil profiles, the inhibition seems to be low due to the gradual release of Cr(VI) with increasing pH.

  11. Sparkle/PM3 Parameters for the Modeling of Neodymium(III), Promethium(III), and Samarium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2007-07-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to neodymium(III), promethium(III), and samarium(III) complexes. The unsigned mean error, for all Sparkle/PM3 interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.074 Å for Nd(III); 0.057 Å for Pm(III); and 0.075 Å for Sm(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.076 Å, 0.059 Å, and 0.075 Å, respectively, indicating they are all comparable models. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective potential calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Hence, the choice of which model to utilize will depend on the assessment of the effect of either AM1 or PM3 on the quantum chemical description of the organic ligands. Finally, we present a preliminary attempt to verify the geometry prediction consistency of Sparkle/PM3. Since lanthanide complexes are usually flexible, we randomly generated 200 different input geometries for the samarium complex QIPQOV which were then fully optimized by Sparkle/PM3. A trend appeared in that, on average, the lower the total energy of the local minima found, the lower the unsigned mean errors, and the higher the accuracy of the model. These preliminary results do indicate that attempting to find, with Sparkle/PM3, a global minimum for the geometry of a given complex, with the understanding that it will tend to be closer to the experimental geometry, appears to be warranted. Therefore, the sparkle model is seemingly a trustworthy semiempirical quantum chemical model for the prediction of lanthanide complexes geometries.

  12. Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) With Halophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, T.; Takenaka, Y.; Ohnuki, T.; Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halophiles live in high ionic strength brine. The mechanisms of metal association with these microorganisms are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the distribution of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on halophiles, Halomonas sp. (WIPP1A) which was isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository in Carlsbad, US., Halomonas elongata (ATCC33173), Halobacterium salinarum (ATCC19700), and Halobacterium halobium (ATCC43214) and examined the coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on the cells by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The cells of Halomonas sp. and H. elongata were grown in media containing 10 - 15 w/v% and 3.5 - 30 w/v% NaCl, respectively. Halobacterium salinarum and H. halobium were grown in media containing 25 w/v% NaCl. The logarithmic distribution coefficient (log Kd) was measured by using the cells at the late exponential phase. After washing the cells with the same concentrations of NaCl, the cells were mixed with 1x10-6 mol dm-3 Eu(III) and 1x10-8 mol dm-3 Cm(III) at pH 5 in the same concentrations of NaCl and log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) was determined. For Halomonas sp. and H. elongata, log Kd was determined as a function of NaCl concentrations. The coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on the cells was estimated by TRLFS. For TRLFS measurements, samples were prepared by adding cells to a solution of 1x10-3 mol dm-3 Eu(III) with the same concentrations of NaCl as the culture media. For Halomonas sp. and H. elongata, log Kd of Cm(III) was apparently larger than that of Eu(III) at all the NaCl concentrations examined. On the other hand, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for H. salinarum and H. halobium was almost identical. Our previous study demonstrated that non-halophiles, Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens show no preferences between these elements. Chemical properties of Eu(III) and Cm(III) are almost identical. Our findings suggest that the difference in log Kd

  13. Population III Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Mészáros, P.

    Population III stars are theoretically expected to be prominent around redshifts z ˜ 20, consisting of mainly very massive stars (VMSs) with M_* ∼ 100;M_⊙, but there is no direct observational evidence for these objects. They may produce collapsar gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with jets driven by magnetohydrodynamic processes, whose total isotropic-equivalent energy could be as high as E_iso ∼ 1057;erg over a cosmological-rest-frame duration of t_d ∼ 104;s, depending on the progenitor mass. The detection of a burst with such a high total energy and a long duration would be a strong evidence for a VMS progenitor. We calculate the prompt emission and afterglow spectra of such Pop. III GRBs based on the standard models, and show that they will be detectable with the Swift BAT/XRT and Fermi LAT instruments. We also show that the late-time radio afterglows of Pop. III GRBs for typical parameters, despite the large distances, can be very bright: ≃ 140;mJy at 1;GHz, which may lead to a constraint on the Pop. III GRB rate from the current radio survey data, and ≃ 2.4;mJy at 70;MHz, which implies that Pop. III GRB radio afterglows could be interesting background source candidates for 21 cm absorption line detections.

  14. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  15. Failures in Phase III: Causes and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Seruga, Bostjan; Ocana, Alberto; Amir, Eitan; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-15

    Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCT) in oncology fail to lead to registration of new therapies more often than RCTs in other medical disciplines. Most RCTs are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry, which reflects industry's increasing responsibility in cancer drug development. Many preclinical models are unreliable for evaluation of new anticancer agents, and stronger evidence of biologic effect should be required before a new agent enters the clinical development pathway. Whenever possible, early-phase clinical trials should include pharmacodynamic studies to demonstrate that new agents inhibit their molecular targets and demonstrate substantial antitumor activity at tolerated doses in an enriched population of patients. Here, we review recent RCTs and found that these conditions were not met for most of the targeted anticancer agents, which failed in recent RCTs. Many recent phase III RCTs were initiated without sufficient evidence of activity from early-phase clinical trials. Because patients treated within such trials can be harmed, they should not be undertaken. The bar should also be raised when making decisions to proceed from phase II to III and from phase III to marketing approval. Many approved agents showed only better progression-free survival than standard treatment in phase III trials and were not shown to improve survival or its quality. Introduction of value-based pricing of new anticancer agents would dissuade the continued development of agents with borderline activity in early-phase clinical trials. When collaborating with industry, oncologists should be more critical and better advocates for cancer patients.

  16. Novel, highly photoluminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) tetrazolate-2-pyridine-1-oxide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietraszkiewicz, Marek; Mal, Suraj; Pietraszkiewicz, Oksana

    2012-07-01

    Tetrazole-2-pyridine-1-oxide was prepared from 2-cyanopyridine and sodium azide, followed by oxidation with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. This ligand forms neutral 1:3 complexes with Eu(III) and Tb(III) cations. The complexes are photoluminescent in solution, with photoluminescence quantum yields 13% and 31%, respectively.

  17. Hexaammine Complexes of Cr(III) and Co(III): A Spectral Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, D. R.; Pavlis, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are provided for experiments containing complex ions with octahedral symmetry, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride and hexaamminechromium(III) nitrate, so students can interpret fully the ultra violet/visible spectra of the complex cations in terms of the ligand field parameters, 10 "Dq," the Racah interelectron repulsion parameters, "B,"…

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  19. The remarkable efficiency of N-heterocyclic carbenes in lanthanide(III)/actinide(III) differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mehdoui, Thouraya; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Thuéry, Pierre; Ephritikhine, Michel

    2005-06-14

    The capacity of NHC molecules to discriminate between trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions was revealed by competition reactions of analogous U(III) and Ce(III) compounds with C3Me4N2 and a comparison of the crystal structures of the corresponding carbene adducts.

  20. Teachers' Guide to Music Appreciation III A and III B in the Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. Mark; Dawkins, Barbara R.

    This guide to music appreciation courses was developed for use in senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. Music Appreciation III A examines the development of music, from the Gothic period through the Classical period. Music Appreciation III B examines the development of music from the Romantic period through the 1970s.…

  1. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production Using a Red-Absorbing Ir(III)-Co(III) Dyad.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Cédric; Schott, Olivier; Auvray, Thomas; Hanan, Garry; Elias, Benjamin

    2017-05-16

    The synthesis of a Ir(III)-Co(III) dyad with vectorial electron transfer afforded a novel supramolecular system that photocatalytically produces hydrogen in a range extending from the blue region of the spectrum to the red region with higher turnover number and frequency compared to other bimetallic dyads.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetism of iron(III) and manganese(III) dipicolinates with pyridinemethanols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrecký, Róbert; Pavlik, Ján; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Dlháň, Ľubor; Koman, Marian; Boča, Roman; Moncoľ, Ján

    2014-11-01

    Four ionic iron(III) and manganese(III) dipicolinato complexes of the formula (2-pymeH) [FeIII(dipic)2]ṡ[FeIII(H2O)2Cl(dipic)]ṡ2H2O, (3-pymeH)[MnIII(dipic)2]ṡ1.5H2O, (4-pymeH)[FeIII(dipic)2]ṡ2H2O and (4-pymeH)[MnIII(dipic)2]ṡ2H2O, where H2dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, 2-pyme = 2-pyridinemethanol, 3-pyme = 3-pyridinemethanol, 4-pyme = 4-pyridinemethanol, have been prepared and characterized by the single-crystal X-ray structure analysis, infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The magnetic data were fitted to a zero-field splitting model revealing a slight magnetic anisotropy for Mn(III) systems. The molecular field correction was consistently formulated and included in the analysis for both, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization data.

  3. Hexaammine Complexes of Cr(III) and Co(III): A Spectral Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, D. R.; Pavlis, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are provided for experiments containing complex ions with octahedral symmetry, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride and hexaamminechromium(III) nitrate, so students can interpret fully the ultra violet/visible spectra of the complex cations in terms of the ligand field parameters, 10 "Dq," the Racah interelectron repulsion parameters, "B,"…

  4. Luminescent xerogels obtained through embedding Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Corneliu S.; Marcotte, Nathalie; Secula, Marius S.; Popa, Marcel

    2013-07-01

    The paper reports the preparation of two luminescent xerogels through embedding in a silica matrix of Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes using succinimide (SI) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHSI) as ligands. In the first stage, Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes with N-hydroxysuccinimide and succinimide were prepared at 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. Strong luminescent emission was observed only in case of Eu(III)-SI and Tb(III)-NHSI complexes while the Eu(III)-NHSI and Tb(III)-SI complexes exhibited none or weak photoluminescent properties. In the second stage, the selected highly luminescent complexes were embedded in silica matrices via a sol-gel procedure leading to the formation of xerogels with transparent-glassy aspect which keep the remarkable photoluminescence properties of the free complexes. The selected, highly luminescent free complexes and their correspondent silica xerogels were investigated through thermal analysis, powder XRD, SEM, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Their excellent photoluminescent properties and excitation spectra, conveniently located in UV-A region, might recommend these materials for applications in optoelectronic devices where photonic conversion layers are required.

  5. Discrepancies between the [O iii] and [S iii] temperatures in H ii regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Matadamas, R.; Hägele, G. F.; Nicholls, D. C.; Magris C., G.; Peña-Guerrero, M. Á.; Morisset, C.; Rodríguez-González, A.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Analysis of published [O iii] and [S iii] temperatures measurements of emission line objects consisting of Hii galaxies, giant extragalactic Hii regions, Galactic Hii regions, and Hii regions from the Magellanic Clouds reveal that the [O iii] temperatures are higher than the corresponding values from [S iii] in most objects with gas metallicities in excess of 0.2 solar. For the coolest nebulae (the highest metallicities), the [O iii] temperature excess can reach ~3000 K. Aims: We look for an explanation for these temperature differences and explore the parameter space of models with the aim of reproducing the observed trend of TO iii > TS iii in Hii regions with temperatures below 14 000 K. Methods: Using standard photoionization models, we varied the ionization parameter, the hardness of the ionizing continuum, and the gas metallicities in order to characterize how models behave with respect to the observations. We introduced temperature inhomogeneities and varied their mean squared amplitude t2 . We explored the possibility of inhomogeneities in abundances by combining two models of widely different metallicity. We calculated models that consider the possibility of a non-Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution (a κ-distribution) for the electron energies. We also considered shock heating within the photoionized nebula. Results: Simple photoionization calculations yield nearly equal [O iii] and [S iii] temperatures in the domain of interest. Hence these models fail to reproduce the [O iii] temperature excess. Models that consider temperature inhomogeneities, as measured by the mean squared amplitude t2 , also fail in the regime where TO iii < 14 000 K. Three options remain that can reproduce the observed excess in TO iii temperatures: (1) large metallicity inhomogeneities in the nebula; a (2) κ-distribution for the electron energies; and (3) shock waves that propagate in the photoionized plasma at velocities ~60 km s-1. Conclusions: The observed nebular

  6. Psychometric Testing of the FACES III with Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Bette; Dingmann, Colleen; Cuevas, Elizabeth; Meehan, Maurita

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the validity and reliability of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) in two samples of rural adolescents. The underlying theory is the linear 3-D circumplex model. The FACES III was administered to 1,632 adolescents in Grades 7 through 12 in two counties in a rural western state. The FACES III Scale and the…

  7. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  8. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  9. Iodine(III) Reagents in Radical Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus The chemistry of hypervalent iodine(III) compounds has gained great interest over the past 30 years. Hypervalent iodine(III) compounds show valuable ionic reactivity due to their high electrophilicity but also express radical reactivity as single electron oxidants for carbon and heteroatom radical generation. Looking at ionic chemistry, these iodine(III) reagents can act as electrophiles to efficiently construct C–CF3, X–CF3 (X = heteroatom), C–Rf (Rf = perfluoroalkyl), X–Rf, C–N3, C–CN, S–CN, and C–X bonds. In some cases, a Lewis or a Bronsted acid is necessary to increase their electrophilicity. In these transformations, the iodine(III) compounds react as formal “CF3+”, “Rf+”, “N3+”, “Ar+”, “CN+”, and “X+” equivalents. On the other hand, one electron reduction of the I(III) reagents opens the door to the radical world, which is the topic of this Account that focuses on radical reactivity of hypervalent iodine(III) compounds such as the Togni reagent, Zhdankin reagent, diaryliodonium salts, aryliodonium ylides, aryl(cyano)iodonium triflates, and aryl(perfluoroalkyl)iodonium triflates. Radical generation starting with I(III) reagents can also occur via thermal or light mediated homolysis of the weak hypervalent bond in such reagents. This reactivity can be used for alkane C–H functionalization. We will address important pioneering work in the area but will mainly focus on studies that have been conducted by our group over the last 5 years. We entered the field by investigating transition metal free single electron reduction of Togni type reagents using the readily available sodium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl salt (TEMPONa) as an organic one electron reductant for clean generation of the trifluoromethyl radical and perfluoroalkyl radicals. That valuable approach was later successfully also applied to the generation of azidyl and aryl radicals starting with the corresponding benziodoxole (Zhdankin reagent

  10. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.

  11. Solidity of Type III Bernoulli Crossed Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrakchi, Amine

    2017-03-01

    We generalize a theorem of Chifan and Ioana by proving that for any, possibly type III, amenable von Neumann algebra A 0, any faithful normal state φ_0 and any discrete group {Γ}, the associated Bernoulli crossed product von Neumann algebra {M=(A_0,φ_0)^{overline{⊗} Γ} rtimes Γ} is solid relatively to L(Γ). In particular, if L(Γ) is solid then M is solid and if {Γ} is non-amenable and {A_0 ≠ C then M is a full prime factor. This gives many new examples of solid or prime type III factors. Following Chifan and Ioana, we also obtain the first examples of solid non-amenable type III equivalence relations.

  12. SAGE III Aerosol Extinction Validation in the Arctic Winter: Comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Randall, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10-20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020-nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of approx. 30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that the two data sets are not well correlated below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  13. Complexation of Cm(III)/Eu(III) with Silicate in Basic Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R; Xia, Yuanxian; Qafoku, Odeta; Yantasee, Wassana; Cho, Herman M

    2005-12-01

    The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with dissolved silica was studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in basic solutions over a range of total silica concentrations and ionic strengths (NaNO3). In highly basic solutions, both the fluorescence spectra and lifetime data indicate the formation of Eu(III)/Cm(III) complexes with oligomeric silicates as well as hydroxide groups and/or nitrate in the presence of concentrated NaNO3. At high silica concentration the inner-sphere complexation caused the shift of the fluorescence spectral maximum for Cm(III)(aq) from 594 nm to up to 607 nm and a significant increase of the hypersensitive 5D0 → 7F2 band around 615 nm relative to the non-hypersensitive 5D0 → 7F1 band at 592 nm for Eu(III). At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime increased from 68 s to up to 202 s for Cm(III) in 0.1 M NaNO3 and from 115 s to 1.8 ms for Eu(III) in 3.0 M and 5.0 M NaNO3, consistent with the removal of 6 or more water molecules upon silicate complexation. Linear correlations between the spectral intensity of Cm(III) complexes and the concentrations of the dissolved silicates suggest that Cm(III) complexation with the silicate dimer, Si2O2(OH)22-, may play a role.

  14. Stellar populations of Shapley constellation III

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, N.; Mould, J.; Thompson, I.

    1987-12-01

    A V-I color-magnitude diagram is presented for a 0.6-sq deg field encompassing part of the LMC's Shapley III star-formation region. The pronounced luminosity function peak exhibited by the main-sequence stars is identified with the turnoff of the first star-forming burst, and then used as an age indicator with which to compare stellar evolutionary models with the dynamical age estimate determined by Dopita et al. (1985); the initial luminosity and mass functions are derived. The dynamical clock in Shapley III is in better agreement with the stellar evolutionary clock if models without convective overshoot are adopted. 42 references.

  15. Siderophores are not involved in Fe(III) solubilization during anaerobic Fe(III) respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Fennessey, Christine M; Jones, Morris E; Taillefert, Martial; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2010-04-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 respires a wide range of anaerobic electron acceptors, including sparingly soluble Fe(III) oxides. In the present study, S. oneidensis was found to produce Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration, a respiratory strategy postulated to destabilize Fe(III) and produce more readily reducible soluble organic Fe(III). In-frame gene deletion mutagenesis, siderophore detection assays, and voltammetric techniques were combined to determine (i) if the Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands produced by S. oneidensis during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration were synthesized via siderophore biosynthesis systems and (ii) if the Fe(III)-siderophore reductase was required for respiration of soluble organic Fe(III) as an anaerobic electron acceptor. Genes predicted to encode the siderophore (hydroxamate) biosynthesis system (SO3030 to SO3032), the Fe(III)-hydroxamate receptor (SO3033), and the Fe(III)-hydroxamate reductase (SO3034) were identified in the S. oneidensis genome, and corresponding in-frame gene deletion mutants were constructed. DeltaSO3031 was unable to synthesize siderophores or produce soluble organic Fe(III) during aerobic respiration yet retained the ability to solubilize and respire Fe(III) at wild-type rates during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration. DeltaSO3034 retained the ability to synthesize siderophores during aerobic respiration and to solubilize and respire Fe(III) at wild-type rates during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration. These findings indicate that the Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands produced by S. oneidensis during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration are not synthesized via the hydroxamate biosynthesis system and that the Fe(III)-hydroxamate reductase is not essential for respiration of Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as an anaerobic electron acceptor.

  16. Shewanella putrefaciens produces an Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligand during anaerobic respiration on insoluble Fe(III) oxides.

    PubMed

    Taillefert, Martial; Beckler, Jordon S; Carey, Elizabeth; Burns, Justin L; Fennessey, Christine M; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of Fe(III) reduction was investigated using voltammetric techniques in anaerobic incubations of Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 supplemented with Fe(III) citrate or a suite of Fe(III) oxides as terminal electron acceptor. Results indicate that organic complexes of Fe(III) are produced during the reduction of Fe(III) at rates that correlate with the reactivity of the Fe(III) phase and bacterial cell density. Anaerobic Fe(III) solubilization activity is detected with either Fe(III) oxides or Fe(III) citrate, suggesting that the organic ligand produced is strong enough to destabilize Fe(III) from soluble or solid Fe(III) substrates. Results also demonstrate that Fe(III) oxide dissolution is not controlled by the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the Fe(III) oxides. Instead, the chemical reaction between the endogenous organic ligand is only affected by the number of reactive surface sites available to S. putrefaciens. This report describes the first application of voltammetric techniques to demonstrate production of soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes by any Fe(III)-reducing microorganism and is the first report of a Fe(III)-solubilizing ligand generated by a metal-reducing member of the genus Shewanella.

  17. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat. PMID:28241045

  18. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  19. Arsenic (III, V), indium (III), and gallium (III) toxicity to zebrafish embryos using a high-throughput multi-endpoint in vivo developmental and behavioral assay.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Christopher I; Field, Jim A; Simonich, Michael; Tanguay, Robert L; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other III/V materials are finding increasing application in microelectronic components. The rising demand for III/V-based products is leading to increasing generation of effluents containing ionic species of gallium, indium, and arsenic. The ecotoxicological hazard potential of these streams is unknown. While the toxicology of arsenic is comprehensive, much less is known about the effects of In(III) and Ga(III). The embryonic zebrafish was evaluated for mortality, developmental abnormalities, and photomotor response (PMR) behavior changes associated with exposure to As(III), As(V), Ga(III), and In(III). The As(III) lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for mortality was 500 μM at 24 and 120 h post fertilization (hpf). As(V) exposure was associated with significant mortality at 63 μM. The Ga(III)-citrate LOEL was 113 μM at 24 and 120 hpf. There was no association of significant mortality over the tested range of In(III)-citrate (56-900 μM) or sodium citrate (213-3400 μM) exposures. Only As(V) resulted in significant developmental abnormalities with LOEL of 500 μM. Removal of the chorion prior to As(III) and As(V) exposure was associated with increased incidence of mortality and developmental abnormality suggesting that the chorion may normally attenuate mass uptake of these metals by the embryo. Finally, As(III), As(V), and In(III) caused PMR hypoactivity (49-69% of control PMR) at 900-1000 μM. Overall, our results represent the first characterization of multidimensional toxicity effects of III/V ions in zebrafish embryos helping to fill a significant knowledge gap, particularly in Ga(III) and In(III) toxicology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpreting change on the WAIS-III/WMS-III in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Iverson, G L

    2001-02-01

    Clinicians should note that there is considerable variability in the reliabilities of the index and subtest scores derived from the third editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The purpose of this article is to review these reliabilities and to illustrate how they can be used to interpret change in patients' performances from test to retest. The WAIS-III IQ and Index scores are consistently the most reliable scores, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The most internally consistent WAIS-III subtests are Vocabulary, Information, Digit Span, Matrix Reasoning, and Arithmetic. Information and Vocabulary have the highest test-retest reliability. On the WMS-III, the Auditory Immediate Index, Immediate Memory Index, Auditory Delayed Index, and General Memory Index are the most reliable, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The Logical Memory I and Verbal Paired Associates I subtests are the most reliable. Data from three clinical groups (i.e., Alzheimer's disease, chronic alcohol abuse, and schizophrenia) were extracted from the Technical Manual [Psychological Corporation (1997). WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual. San Antonio: Harcourt Brace] for the purpose of calculating reliable change estimates. A table of confidence intervals for test-retest measurement error is provided to help the clinician determine if patients have reliably improved or deteriorated on follow-up testing.

  1. Modulation of active Cr(III) complexes by bath preparation to adjust Cr(III) electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Ming-yong; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    The preparation process of the Cr(III) bath was studied based on a perspective of accelerating the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and electrodeposition showed that active Cr(III) complexes in the bath prepared at room temperature in several days were rare for depositing chromium. The increase of heating temperature, time, and pH value during the bath preparation promoted the formation of active Cr(III) complexes. The chromium deposition rate increased with the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increasing. Increasing the heating temperature from 60 to 96°C, the chromium deposition rate increased from 0.40 to 0.71 μm/min. When the concentration of active Cr(III) complexes increased, the grain size of Cr coatings increased, and the carbon content of the coating decreased. It is deduced that Cr(H2O)4(OH)L2+ (L is an organic ligand, and its valence is omitted) is a primary active Cr(III) complex.

  2. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.

    1998-12-08

    A bandpass photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The bandpass photodetector detects electromagnetic radiation between a lower transition wavelength and an upper transition wavelength. That detector comprises two low pass photodetectors. The response of the two low pass photodetectors is subtracted to yield a response signal. 24 figs.

  3. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.

    1998-01-01

    A bandpass photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties. The bandpass photodetector detects electromagnetic radiation between a lower transition wavelength and an upper transition wavelength. That detector comprises two low pass photodetectors. The response of the two low pass photodetectors is subtracted to yield a response signal.

  4. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set III) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into an Overview, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and…

  5. Maggie III: The Prototypical Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Maggie III automated library system, which supports a public access catalog, cataloging interface, bibliographic maintenance, circulation, electronic mail, and community information databases, with acquisitions and serials modules planned. Sidebars describe the community information database's structure, planned use of software by…

  6. Gold(III)-Catalyzed Hydration of Phenylacetylene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, J. Michelle; Tzeel, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    A guided inquiry-based experiment exploring the regioselectivity of the hydration of phenylacetylene is described. The experiment uses an acidic gold(III) catalyst in a benign methanol/water solvent system to introduce students to alkyne chemistry and key principles of green chemistry. The experiment can be easily completed in approximately 2 h,…

  7. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  8. Leveraging Information Technology. Track III: Organizational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track III, Organizational Issues, are presented. They include: "Learning Resources and Technologies: A Unified Organizational Reorientation to Administering Educational Support Services" (Morrell D. Boone); "IRM: A Short-Lived Concept?" (James I. Penrod and Michael G. Dolence);…

  9. Sex Bias, Diagnosis, and DSM-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Sandra; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-five clinical psycholgists independently diagnosed 18 written case histories on the basis of 110 DSM-III categories. Females were rated significantly more histrionic than males exhibiting identical histrionic symptoms, but males were not rated as more antisocial than females. The findings suggest that vague diagnostic descriptions promote…

  10. Kenston Aerospace: Title III ESEA Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenston Local School District, Chagrin Falls, OH.

    The objectives of a three-year comprehensive aerospace education program at Kenston High School, Chagrin Falls, Ohio, funded under Title III ESEA, were to provide marketable skills for non-College-bound students as well as counseling for the student planning on college or technical school education in the aviation field. Students also were taught…

  11. The Changing Nature of Division III Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    2014-01-01

    Non-selective Division III institutions often face challenges in meeting their enrollment goals. To ensure their continued viability, these schools recruit large numbers of student athletes. As a result, when compared to FBS (Football Bowl Division) institutions these schools have a much higher percentage of student athletes on campus and a…

  12. Gold(III)-Catalyzed Hydration of Phenylacetylene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, J. Michelle; Tzeel, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    A guided inquiry-based experiment exploring the regioselectivity of the hydration of phenylacetylene is described. The experiment uses an acidic gold(III) catalyst in a benign methanol/water solvent system to introduce students to alkyne chemistry and key principles of green chemistry. The experiment can be easily completed in approximately 2 h,…

  13. Covalency in Americium(III) Hexachloride

    DOE PAGES

    Cross, Justin Neil; Su, Jing; Batista, Enrigue R.; ...

    2017-06-14

    Developing a better understanding of covalency (or orbital mixing) is of fundamental importance. Covalency occupies a central role in directing chemical and physical properties for almost any given compound or material. Hence, the concept of covalency has potential to generate broad and substantial scientific advances, ranging from biological applications to condensed matter physics. Given the importance orbital mixing combined with the difficultly in measuring covalency, estimating or inferring covalency often leads to fiery debate. Consider the 60-year controversy sparked by SEABORG and COWORKERS (1954) when it was proposed that covalency from 5f-orbitals contributed to the unique behavior of americium inmore » chloride matrixes. Herein, we describe the use of ligand K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electronic structure calculations to quantify the extent of covalent bonding in – arguably – one of the most difficult systems to study, the Am–Cl interaction within AmCl63-. We observed both 5fand 6d-orbital mixing with the Cl-3p orbitals; however, contributions from the 6d-orbitals were more substantial. Comparisons with the isoelectronic EuCl63- indicated similar bonding for the AmIII 6d- and EuIII 5d-orbitals. Meanwhile, the results confirmed SEABORG’S 1954 hypothesis that AmIII 5f-orbital covalency was more substantial than 4forbital mixing for EuIII.« less

  14. Alberta Grade III Achievement Study. Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, S. C. T.; And Others

    As a companion project to the Edmonton Grade III Achievement: 1956-1977 Comparisons, this study had two purposes: to establish benchmarks of basic skills achievement and to compare the achievement of various subgroups. Third grade students in Alberta were administered the Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests--Vocabulary and Comprehension, and the…

  15. Project 8 Phase III Design Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtari Esfahani, A.; Böser, S.; Claessens, C.; de Viveiros, L.; Doe, P. J.; Doeleman, S.; Fertl, M.; Finn, E. C.; Formaggio, J. A.; Guigue, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Jones, A. M.; Kazkaz, K.; LaRoque, B. H.; Machado, E.; Monreal, B.; Nikkel, J. A.; Oblath, N. S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Rybka, G.; Saldaña, L.; Slocum, P. L.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Thümmler, T.; VanDevender, B. A.; Wachtendonk, M.; Weintroub, J.; Young, A.; Zayas, E.

    2017-09-01

    We present a working concept for Phase III of the Project 8 experiment, aiming to achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of 2 eV (90 % C.L.) using a large volume of molecular tritium and a phased antenna array. The detection system is discussed in detail.

  16. The Zeplin-Iii Veto Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scovell, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    An active veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III two phase Xenon, direct dark matter device is described. The design consists of 52 plastic scintillator segments, individually read out by high efficiency photomultipliers, coupled to a Gd loaded passive polypropylene shield. Experimental work was performed to determine the plastic scintillator characteristics which were used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation of the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an active veto detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of tagging over 65% of expected coincident nuclear recoil events in the energy range of interest in ZEPLIN-III, and over 14% for gamma ray rejection (gamma and neutron rate is predicted by simulation), while contributing no significant additional background. In addition it will also provide valuable diagnostic capabilities. The inclusion of the veto to ZEPLIN-III will aid to significantly improve the sensitivity to spin independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections 10-9 pb.

  17. International Space Programs. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, S. B.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, is a collection of the diverse information available regarding the international space programs. The five goals listed for the book are: to examine the Soviet space program, to understand the future of Soviet space activity, to examine other national and international space programs, to…

  18. ESEA III Evaluation and Dissemination: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balyeat, Ralph R.; Norman, C. Douglas

    This study surveyed evaluation and dissemination/diffusion practices of ESEA III projects funded in the 1969 fiscal year, which projects are nearing the end of their operations as federally supported programs. The study attempted to discover if (1) the projects were evaluated in accordance with generally accepted procedures, (2) the project…

  19. Type III functional response in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Sarnelle, Orlando; Wilson, Alan E

    2008-06-01

    The functional response of Daphnia, a common pelagic herbivore in lakes, was assessed with a combination of secondary and meta-analyses of published data and new data from an experiment conducted using very low food levels. Secondary analyses of literature data (28 studies, n = 239-393) revealed a significant positive influence of food concentration on Daphnia clearance rate at low food levels, i.e., evidence of an overall Type III functional response. This result was not an artifact of including data from Daphnia that were exhausted from prolonged food deprivation (more than three hours at very low food). Meta-analysis of Daphnia clearance rate vs. food concentration across a range of low food concentrations (eight studies) showed a significantly positive slope across studies, which also supports the presence of a Type III response. Congruent with these analyses of published data, the feeding experiment showed clear evidence of a Type III functional response for D. pulicaria feeding on Ankistrodesmus falcatus. Food levels at which Daphnia clearance rate declined with decreasing food were near the minimum resource requirement for Daphnia population maintenance at steady state (R*). We suggest that Type III responses are more common than previously believed, perhaps because of the relative paucity of observations at low food levels, and that reduced prey mortality at low phytoplankton densities could be a stabilizing mechanism for Daphnia-phytoplankton systems under resource scarcity.

  20. Chracterization of class III peroxidases from switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Class III peroxidases (CIIIPRX) catalyze the oxidation of monolignols, generate radicals, and ultimately lead to the formation of lignin. In general, CIIIPRX genes encode a large number of isozymes with ranges of in vitro substrate specificities. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate specifici...

  1. The Changing Nature of Division III Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    2014-01-01

    Non-selective Division III institutions often face challenges in meeting their enrollment goals. To ensure their continued viability, these schools recruit large numbers of student athletes. As a result, when compared to FBS (Football Bowl Division) institutions these schools have a much higher percentage of student athletes on campus and a…

  2. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  3. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  4. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present document describes key discussion points and outcomes of a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Workshop, entitled FutureTox III1,2 that was held in Crystal City, Virginia, November 19-20, 2015. The workshop built on the many lessons l...

  5. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present document describes key discussion points and outcomes of a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Workshop, entitled FutureTox III1,2 that was held in Crystal City, Virginia, November 19-20, 2015. The workshop built on the many lessons l...

  6. Modelling the arsenic (V) and (III) adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, I.; Meghea, A.; Peleanu, I.; Gonzalo, A.; Valiente, M.; Zaharescu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic has gained great notoriety historically for its toxic properties. In aquatic environment, arsenic can exist in several oxidation states, as both inorganic and organometallic species. As (V) is less toxic than As (III). Most research has been directed to the control of arsenic pollution of potable water. Various techniques such as precipitation with iron and aluminium hydroxides, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and adsorption are used for As (V) removal from surface and waste waters. Because of the easy handling of sludge, its free operation and regeneration capability, the adsorption technique has secured a place as one of the advanced methods of arsenic removal. A study of As (III) and As (V) sorption onto some different adsorbents (Fe (III) — iminodiacetate resin, nanocomposite materials, Fe(III) — forager sponge) referring to kinetic considerations and modelling of the process will be presented. All the systems studied are better described by Freundlich-Langmuir isotherm and the rate constant evaluation shows a sub-unitary order for the adsorption process.

  7. Constraining the Statistics of Population III Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of approx. 36, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at approx. < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, approx. 50 are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and 50 of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.

  8. Solvent extraction of Sc(III), Zr(IV), Th(IV), Fe(III), and Lu(III) with thiosubstituted organophosphinic acid extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Li, D.

    1995-05-01

    The solvent extraction of Sc(III), Zr(IV), Th(IV), Fe(III) and Lu(III) with Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)monothiphosphinic acid) and Cyanex 301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid) in n-hexane from acidic aqueous solutions has been investigated systematically. The effect of equilibrium aqueous acidity on the extraction with these reagents was studied. The separation of Th(IV), Fe(III) and Lu(III) from Sc(III), or the separation of other metals from Lu(III) with Cyanex 302, can be achieved by controlling the aqueous acidity. However, Cyanex 301 exhibited a poor selectivity for the above metals, except for Lu(III). The extraction of these metals with Cyanex 272, Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 has been compared. The stripping percentages of Sc(III) for Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 in a single stage are near 78% and 75% with 3.5 mol/L and 5.8 mol/L sulphuric acid solutions, respectively. The effects of extractant concentration and temperature on the extraction of Sc(III) were investigated. The stoichiometry of the extraction of Sc(III) with Cyanex 302 was determined. The role of different components of Cyanex 302 in the extraction of Sc(III) was discussed. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Cosmological Impact of Population III Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Bromm, Volker; Heger, Alexander; Jeon, Myoungwon; Woosley, Stan

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of the stellar feedback from Population III (Pop III) binaries by employing improved, more realistic Pop III evolutionary stellar models. To facilitate a meaningful comparison, we consider a fixed mass of 60 {{M}⊙ } incorporated in Pop III stars, either contained in a single star, or split up in binary stars of 30 {{M}⊙ } each or an asymmetric case of one 45 and one 15 {{M}⊙ } star. Whereas the sizes of the resulting H ii regions are comparable across all cases, the He iii regions around binary stars are significantly smaller than that of the single star. Consequently, the He+ 1640 \\overset{\\circ}A recombination line is expected to become much weaker. Supernova (SN) feedback exhibits great variety due to the uncertainty in possible explosion pathways. If at least one of the component stars dies as a hypernova about 10 times more energetic than conventional core-collapse SNe, the gas inside the host minihalo is effectively blown out, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) to an average metallicity of {{10}-4}-{{10}-3} {{Z}⊙ }, out to ˜ 2 kpc. The single star, however, is more likely to collapse into a black hole, accompanied by at most very weak explosions. The effectiveness of early chemical enrichment would thus be significantly reduced, in contrast to the lower mass binary stars, where at least one component is likely to contribute to heavy element production and dispersal. Important new feedback physics is also introduced if close binaries can form high-mass X-ray binaries, leading to the pre-heating and -ionization of the IGM beyond the extent of the stellar H ii regions.

  10. Inhibition of HTLV-III by exogenous oligonucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodchild, J.; Zamecnik, P.C.

    1989-02-21

    A method is described of detecting the presence of HTLV-III virus in a sample by demonstrating inhibition of replication of the virus in cells which are normally killed by the HTLV-III virus after the cells have been (a) combined with the sample and an oligonucleotide complementary to at least one highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome necessary for HTLV-III replication and capable of hybridizing with at least the highly conserved region, the highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome being a nucleotide sequence present in the genomes of HTLV-III isolates and the oligonucleotide complementary to at least one highly conserved region of the HTLV-III genome necessary for HTLV-III replication being complementary to a region of the HTLV-III genome.

  11. LM1500 Engine Marinization Contract. Phase III. Materials and Processes Development for Phase III Engine Components.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this report is to briefly document the principal difficulties encountered and the solutions which were effected in the course of manufacturing the modified Phase III test engine hardware. (Author)

  12. Theoretical insights into the separation of Am(III) over Eu(III) with PhenBHPPA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han; Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2015-10-14

    Due to the similar chemical properties of actinides An(iii) and lanthanides Ln(iii), their separation in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is extremely challenging. A 1,10-phenanthroline dipicolinamide-based ligand (PhenBHPPA) has been identified to possess a selectivity for Am(iii) over Eu(iii) and could potentially be used for group actinide extraction. In this study, quasi-relativistic density functional theoretical calculations have been used to disclose the interaction mechanisms of Am(iii) and Eu(iii) complexes with PhenBHPPA. The electronic structures, bonding nature, QTAIM (Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules) analyses and thermodynamic behaviors of the Am(iii) and Eu(iii) complexes with PhenBHPPA have been explored in detail. According to the Wiberg bond indices (WBIs) and QTAIM analyses, interactions between the ligand and metal cations (Am(iii) and Eu(iii)) exhibit a weakly covalent character. Thermodynamic analyses show that the charged complexes [ML(NO3)2](+) appear to be the most stable species in the complexation processes. Moreover, it is more energetically favorable for PhenBHPPA to bind to Am(iii) compared to Eu(iii). Our study could render new insights into understanding the selectivity of the ligand towards minor actinides and the separation of An(iii) from Ln(iii) via liquid-liquid extraction.

  13. Hyper III on ramp, front view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a low-cost test vehicle for an advanced lifting-body shape. Like the earlier M2-F1, it was a 'homebuilt' research aircraft, i.e., built at the Flight Research Center (FRC), later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center. It had a steel-tube frame covered with Dacron, a fiberglass nose, sheet aluminum fins, and a wing from an HP-11 sailplane. Construction was by volunteers at the FRC. Although the Hyper III was to be flown remotely in its initial tests, it was fitted with a cockpit for a pilot. On the Hyper III's only flight, it was towed aloft attached to a Navy SH-3 helicopter by a 400-foot cable. NASA research pilot Bruce Peterson flew the SH-3. After he released the Hyper III from the cable, NASA research pilot Milt Thompson flew the vehicle by radio control until the final approach when Dick Fischer took over control using a model-airplane radio-control box. The Hyper III flared, then landed and slid to a stop on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross

  14. Hyper III on ramp, front view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a low-cost test vehicle for an advanced lifting-body shape. Like the earlier M2-F1, it was a 'homebuilt' research aircraft, i.e., built at the Flight Research Center (FRC), later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center. It had a steel-tube frame covered with Dacron, a fiberglass nose, sheet aluminum fins, and a wing from an HP-11 sailplane. Construction was by volunteers at the FRC. Although the Hyper III was to be flown remotely in its initial tests, it was fitted with a cockpit for a pilot. On the Hyper III's only flight, it was towed aloft attached to a Navy SH-3 helicopter by a 400-foot cable. NASA research pilot Bruce Peterson flew the SH-3. After he released the Hyper III from the cable, NASA research pilot Milt Thompson flew the vehicle by radio control until the final approach when Dick Fischer took over control using a model-airplane radio-control box. The Hyper III flared, then landed and slid to a stop on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross

  15. Coronal type III radio bursts and their X-ray flare and interplanetary type III counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Vilmer, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Context. Type III bursts and hard X-rays are both produced by flare energetic electron beams. The link between both emissions has been investigated in many previous studies, but no statistical studies have compared both coronal and interplanetary type III bursts with X-ray flares. Aims: Using events where the coronal radio emission above 100 MHz is exclusively from type III bursts, we revisited some long-standing questions regarding the relation between type III bursts and X-ray flares: Do all coronal type III bursts have X-ray counterparts? What correlation, if any, occurs between radio and X-ray intensities? What X-ray and radio signatures above 100 MHz occur in connection with interplanetary type III bursts below 14 MHz? Methods: We analysed ten years of data from 2002 to 2011 starting with a selection of coronal type III bursts above 100 MHz. We used X-ray flare information from RHESSI >6 keV to make a list of 321 events that have associated type III bursts and X-ray flares, encompassing at least 28% of the initial sample of type III events. We then examined the timings, intensities, associated GOES class, and whether there was an associated interplanetary radio signature in both radio and X-rays. Results: For our 321 events with radio and X-ray signatures, the X-ray emission at 6 keV usually lasted much longer than the groups of type III bursts at frequencies >100 MHz. The selected events were mostly associated with GOES B and C class flares. A weak correlation was found between the type III radio flux at frequencies below 327 MHz and the X-ray intensity at 25-50 keV, with an absence of events at high X-ray intensity and low type III radio flux. The weakness of the correlation is related to the coherent emission mechanism of radio type IIIs which can produce high radio fluxes by low density electron beams. Interplanetary type III bursts (<4 MHz) were observed for 54% of the events. The percentage of association increased when events were observed with 25-50 ke

  16. The Behavior of Thallium(III) During Jarosite Precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Dutrizac,J.; Chen, T.; Beauchemin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of thallium(III) under the general conditions employed for jarosite precipitation in the zinc industry was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Thallium(III) does not appear to form end-member jarosite-type compounds, MTl{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, where M is Na, K, NH{sub 4}, etc. In acid solutions at pH > 0.7, the thallium(III) hydrolyzes to Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}; in more strongly acid media, two K-Tl(III) sulphate phases crystallize at temperatures < 90 C. The K-Tl(III) sulphate phases were investigated by chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses and by thermogravimetry. Although end-member Tl(III) analogues of jarosite-type compounds could not be synthesized, it is possible to incorporate significant amounts of Tl(III) in potassium jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6), and over 20 at.% substitution of Tl(III) for Fe(III) was achieved. The presence of Tl(III) in the potassium jarosite structure was confirmed by microscopic methods, electron microprobe analyses and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The Tl(III)-bearing species forms rapidly, and excess Fe(III) precipitates as nearly Tl-free potassium jarosite which envelops the initially formed Tl(III)-bearing potassium jarosite phase.

  17. Luminescence of europium (III) complexes for visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Pozharov, Mikhail V.; Korolovich, Vladimir F.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Kirdyanova, Anna N.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.; Zakharova, Tamara V.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.

    2016-04-01

    With the purpose to develop bright non-toxic luminescent label for theranostic application we have studied complexation of lanthanide dipicolinates (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylates) by sodium alginate and effect of thermal exposure of synthesized micro-capsules on their luminescent properties. Synthesized micro-capsules are stable in acidic medium but dissolve at pH ~ 4 due to transformation of cationic europium dipicolinate complex to anionic. Luminescence studies have shown that emission spectra of europium(III)-alginate complexes (both chloride and dipicolinate) contain two intensive bands characteristic to Eu3+ ion (5D0 --> 7F1 (590 nm) and 5D0 --> 7F1 (612 nm)). We have also found that at 160ºC europium(III)- alginate micro-capsules decompose to black, soot-like substance, therefore, their thermal treatment must be performed in closed environment (i.e., sealed ampoules).

  18. Benchmarking atomic data for astrophysics: Si iii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Fernández-Menchero, L.; Badnell, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the main spectral diagnostics for Si iii UV lines, which have been previously used to measure electron densities, temperatures, and to suggest that non-Maxwellian electron distributions might be present in the low transition region of the solar atmosphere. Previous atomic calculations and observations are reviewed. We benchmark the observations using a new large-scale R-matrix scattering calculation for electron collisional excitation of Si iii, carried out with the intermediate-coupling frame transformation (ICFT) method. We find generally good agreement between predicted and observed line intensities, if one takes into account the different temperature sensitivity of the lines, and the structure of the solar transition region. We find no conclusive evidence for the presence of non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The full dataset (energies, transition probabilities and rates) are available in electronic form at our APAP website (http://www.apap-network.org)

  19. Overview of the Demo III UGV program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Chuck M.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    1998-08-01

    Planning for future military capabilities assumes the availability of highly mobile, agile, rapidly deployable forces. Incorporation of robotic systems into future force structure to reduce casualties, increase tactical reach, counter battle fatigue, and reduce logistics burdens for rapid reaction forces offers one potential pathway for achieving this goal. The Demo III Unmanned Ground Vehicle Program is designed to advance and demonstrate the technology required to develop future unmanned ground combat vehicles through three major thrusts: (1) concerted technology development; (2) modeling, simulation and experimentation; and (3) technology integration and evaluation with users. Demo III focuses on demonstration of technology that will enable the development of small, highly agile, unmanned vehicles capable of off-road, semi- autonomous operation at speeds of up to 32 km/hr during daylight and 16 km/hr at night by summer 2001.

  20. LSPRAY-III: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    LSPRAY-III is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-III, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  1. Background investigation in EDELWEISS-III

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, Silvia

    2015-08-17

    Protection from and rejection of backgrounds is a key issue for the EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter detection experiment which aims at exploring the 10{sup −9} pb cross-section region for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction. The detector is located in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory and consists of 36 advanced FID germanium detectors operating at 18 mK in a dilution refrigerator in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. I will discuss the background and the methods of rejecting it with the FID detectors. Detector performances and the first analysis of data acquired in a long-term campaign will be presented as well. The FID detector technology is not limited to EDELWEISS-III but can further be employed in the next generation of cryogenic detector experiments.

  2. BES-III distributed computing status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S. D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Korenkov, V. V.; Li, W. D.; Lin, T.; Ma, Z. T.; Nicholson, C.; Pelevanyuk, I. S.; Suo, B.; Trofimov, V. V.; Tsaregorodtsev, A. U.; Uzhinskiy, A. V.; Yan, T.; Yan, X. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Zhemchugov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The BES-III experiment at the Institute of High Energy Physics (Beijing, China) is aimed at the precision measurements in e+e- annihilation in the energy range from 2.0 till 4.6 GeV. The world's largest samples of J/psi and psi' events and unique samples of XYZ data have been already collected. The expected increase of the data volume in the coming years required a significant evolution of the computing model, namely shift from a centralized data processing to a distributed one. This report summarizes a current design of the BES-III distributed computing system, some of key decisions and experience gained during 2 years of operations.

  3. First Science Results from ZEPLIN-III

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T. J.

    2010-02-10

    ZEPLIN-III uses a 12 kg two-phase xenon time projection chamber to search for the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) that may account for the dark matter of our Galaxy. The detector measures both scintillation and ionisation produced interactions in the liquid to differentiate between nuclear recoils expected from WIMPs and electron recoil background signals down to approx10 keV nuclear recoil energy. Analysis of 847 kgcentre dotdays of data acquired between February 27th 2008 and May 20th 2008 has excluded a WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering spin-independent cross-section above 8.1x10approx{sup -8} pb at 60 GeVc{sup -2} with a 90% confidence limit. ZEPLIN-III demonstrated better discrimination at low-energy than previously achieved by any other xenon-based experiments.

  4. Flexor tendon repair in zone III.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of the literature on the outcome of zone III flexor tendon injuries. In this paper, we report on the results of zone III flexor tendon repair in 35 consecutive adult patients with clean cut lacerations of both flexor tendons in 42 fingers. There were 25 men and 10 women with an average age of 32 years. Repair of both flexor tendons was performed using 'figure of eight' core sutures and a continuous epitendinous suture. Postoperatively, an immediate active range of motion protocol was applied to ensure full active extension of the interphalangeal joints. The results were assessed using the Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures. One patient with two injured fingers developed complex regional pain syndrome and the final outcome was fair in both fingers. In the remaining 34 patients (40 fingers), 33 patients (38 fingers) had an excellent outcome and the remaining patient (two fingers) had a good outcome.

  5. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  6. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation.

    PubMed

    Juberg, Daland R; Knudsen, Thomas B; Sander, Miriam; Beck, Nancy B; Faustman, Elaine M; Mendrick, Donna L; Fowle, John R; Hartung, Thomas; Tice, Raymond R; Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Becker, Richard A; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne Compton; Daston, George P; Harrill, Alison; Hines, Ronald N; Keller, Douglas A; Lipscomb, John C; Watson, David; Bahadori, Tina; Crofton, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    Future Tox III, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in November 2015. Building upon Future Tox I and II, Future Tox III was focused on developing the high throughput risk assessment paradigm and taking the science of in vitro data and in silico models forward to explore the question-what progress is being made to address challenges in implementing the emerging big-data toolbox for risk assessment and regulatory decision-making. This article reports on the outcome of the workshop including 2 examples of where advancements in predictive toxicology approaches are being applied within Federal agencies, where opportunities remain within the exposome and AOP domains, and how collectively the toxicology community across multiple sectors can continue to bridge the translation from historical approaches to Tox21 implementation relative to risk assessment and regulatory decision-making.

  7. Gold(III) complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Maia, Pedro Ivo da Silva; Deflon, Victor M; Abram, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    A number of gold(III) compounds has been designed with the objective of overcoming the disadvantages associated with the platinum-based drugs for cancer treatment. Compounds of a remarkable structural manifold show significant antiproliferative effects in vitro against a number of cancer cells, including cisplatin resistant ones. The target of most of them is, unlike that of cisplatin, not the DNA. Although the mechanisms of action displayed by the gold compounds in biological media are still under investigation, many studies show evidence that the cellular targets are mitochondria-based. Recent advances in gold(III) medicinal chemistry also recommend such compounds for other pharmacological applications such as the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. The radioactive isotopes (198)Au and (199)Au present potential in radiotherapy.

  8. A catalog of interplanetary type III storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S. E.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog describing the characteristics of all the interplanetary type III storms observed at kilometric wavelengths by the radio astronomy experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft between September 1978 and October 1982 is presented. Three-dimensional trajectories have been determined for about one-third of these storms using radio techniques. Solar coordinate and solar wind parameters derived from the trajectories are also tabulated. A statistical summary of the data is included.

  9. Doublet III: status and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    A synopsis is presented of the experimental results from the ohmic heating phase of Doublet III, with emphasis on the production of good target plasmas for the upcoming neutral beam injection phase. The program plan for the device over the life of the US-Japan cooperative program is discussed, as is the status of the preliminary investigation into replacing the present vacuum vessel by one better suited for ETF simulation.

  10. High-Resolution Group III Nitride Microdisplays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-14

    emissive displays based on gallium nitride micro-size LEDs may be suitable for ultra-portable products such as next- generation handheld projectors...semiconductors. Such devices would benefit from the outstanding physical properties of III- nitrides such as gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium ...projected image of a leopard from a green video graphics array indium gallium nitride (InGaN) microdisplay (640 480 pixels, each 12m in size with 15m

  11. Mark-III VLBI astrometry of pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Dewey, Rachel J.; Gwinn, Carl R.; Davis, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    Differential 18-cm VLBI measurements of the position of PSR 1937 + 214 with respect to the quasar 1923 + 210 are reported. The preliminary results for VLBI minus timing position are +21 +/- 2 milliarcsec in right ascension and +14 +/- 9 milliarcsec in declination. The results show the value of combining the large collecting area of the Arecibo telescope with the Mk-III VLBI recording system.

  12. Type III-B rotaxane dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Watson K-W; Lee, Siu-Fung; Wong, Chi-Hin; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Kwan, Chak-Shing; Chak, Chun-Pong; Mendes, Paula M; Cheng, Christopher H K; Leung, Ken Cham-Fai

    2013-11-28

    Type III-B first generation [3]rotaxane and second generation [4]rotaxane dendrimers have been synthesized via (1) a modified copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC), (2) Glaser-Hay's acetylenic oxidative homo-coupling, and (3) amide formation. The dendron does not reveal obvious cytotoxicities in L929 fibroblast cells. The rotaxane dendrimers can capture ammonia and are switchable both in solution and on surfaces.

  13. Division III / Working Group Planetary System Nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Rita M.; Aksnes, Kaare; Blue, Jennifer S.; Blunck, Jürgen; Bowell, Edward L. G.; Burba, George A.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Courtin, Régis; Lopes-Gautier, Rosaly M.; Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Marsden, Brian G.; Robinson, Mark S.; Shevchenko, Vladislav V.; Smith, Bradford A.

    The Working Group on Planetary System Nomenclature (WG-PSN) develops, maintains and publishes guidelines for naming natural satellites of planets and surface features on all solar system bodies except Earth. When required the WG approves lists of new nomenclature, with accompanying explanatory notes, based on the established guidelines. Approved names are immediately added into the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Objections based on significant, substantive problems may be submitted within a 3-months period, and will be ruled on by Division III.

  14. Objectives and methodology of BIOBADASER phase iii.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Piedra, Carlos; Hernández Miguel, M Victoria; Manero, Javier; Roselló, Rosa; Sánchez-Costa, Jesús Tomás; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Campos, Cristina; Cuende, Eduardo; Fernández-Lopez, Jesús Carlos; Bustabad, Sagrario; Martín Domenech, Raquel; Pérez-Pampín, Eva; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Millan-Arcineas, Ana Milena; Díaz-González, Federico; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús

    2017-09-18

    Describe the objectives, methods and results of the first year of the new version of the Spanish registry of adverse events involving biological therapies and synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatic diseases (BIOBADASER III). Multicenter prospective registry of patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases being treated with biological drugs or synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatology departments in Spain. The main objective of BIOBADASER Phase III is the registry and analysis of adverse events; moreover, a secondary objective was added consisting of assessing the effectiveness by means of the registry of activity indexes. Patients in the registry are evaluated at least once every year and whenever they experience an adverse event or a change in treatment. The collection of data for phase iii began on 17 December 2015. During the first year, 35 centers participated. The number of patients included in this new phase in December 2016 was 2,664. The mean age was 53.7 years and the median duration of treatment was 8.1 years. In all, 40.4% of the patients were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent adverse events were infections and infestations. BIOBADASER Phase III has been launched to adapt to a changing pharmacological environment, with the introduction of biosimilars and small molecules in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This new stage is adapted to the changes in the reporting of adverse events and now includes information related to activity scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Co(II)4, Co(II)7, and a Series of Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) Coordination Clusters: Search for Single Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Modak, Ritwik; Sikdar, Yeasin; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Christou, George; Goswami, Sanchita

    2016-10-03

    We report herein the syntheses and investigation of the magnetic properties of a Co(II)4 compound, a series of trinuclear Co(II)2Ln(III) (Ln(III) = Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III)) complexes, and a Co(II)7 complex. The homometallic Co(II)4 core was obtained from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(NO3)2·6H2O/H2vab/Et3N in a 0.5:0.5:1:2 ratio in methanol. Variation in synthetic conditions was necessary to get the desired Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes. The Co(II)-Ln(III) assembly was synthesized from Ln(NO3)3·xH2O/Co(OAc)2·4H2O/H2vab/NaOMe in a 0.4:0.5:1:1 ratio in methanol. The isostructural Co(II)2Ln(III) complexes have a core structure with the general formula [Co2Ln(Hvab)4(NO3)](NO3)2·MeOH·H2O, (where H2vab = 2-[(2-hydroxymethyl-phenylimino)-methyl]-6-methoxy-phenol) with simultaneous crystallization of Co(II)7 complex in each reaction. The magnetic investigation of these complexes reveals that both homometallic complexes and four Co(II)-Ln(III) complexes (except Co(II)-Nd(III)) display behavior characteristic of single molecule magnets.

  16. An octanuclear iron(III) isobutyrate wheel.

    PubMed

    Baca, Svetlana G; Breukers, Stefanie; Ellern, Arkady; Kögerler, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The reaction of the μ(3)-oxido-centred trinuclear isobutyrate cluster [Fe(3)O(O(2)CCHMe(2))(6)(H(2)O)(3)](+) with an excess of phenol (PhOH) in chloroform produces a novel octanuclear Fe(III) cluster, cyclo-tetra-μ(2)-hydroxido-dodeca-μ(2)-isobutyrato-κ(24)O:O'-octa-μ(2)-phenolato-κ(16)O:O'-octairon(III) phenol hexasolvate monohydrate, [Fe(8)(C(4)H(7)O(2))(12)(C(6)H(5)O)(8)(OH)(4)]·6C(6)H(5)OH·H(2)O. The neutral cluster is located about a centre of inversion and consists of a planar ring of eight Fe(III) centres with two types of bridges between adjacent Fe atoms: each Fe atom is bridged to one of its neighbours by a μ-hydroxide and two 1,3-bridging carboxylates, or by two phenolate and one 1,3-bridging isobutyrate ligand. The cavity within the {Fe(8)} wheel is occupied by a disordered water molecule. Intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds and C-H···π interactions connect the clusters and the phenol solvent molecules to form a three-dimensional network.

  17. III-nitride-based avalanche photo detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, Ryan; Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; Bayram, Can; Razeghi, Manijeh; Ulmer, Melville P.

    2010-08-01

    Research into III-Nitride based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing III-Nitride photodetectors that utilize low-noise impact ionization high internal gain can be realized-GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can achieve gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs and discuss the critical design choices necessary to achieve high performance Geiger mode devices. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. The photon detection efficiency, dark count rate, and spectral response of or most recent Geiger-mode GaN APDs on free-standing GaN substrates are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. We also present our latest results regarding linear mode gain uniformity: the study of gain uniformity helps reveal the spatial origins of gain so that we can better understand the role of defects.

  18. Addendum I, BIOPLUME III Graphics Conversion to SURFER Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This procedure can be used to create a SURFER® compatible grid file from Bioplume III input and output graphics. The input data and results from Bioplume III can be contoured and printed directly from SURFER.

  19. RNA polymerase III under control: repression and de-repression.

    PubMed

    Boguta, Magdalena; Graczyk, Damian

    2011-09-01

    The synthesis of tRNA by yeast RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is regulated in response to changing environmental conditions. This control is mediated by Maf1, the global negative regulator of Pol III transcription conserved from yeast to humans. Details regarding the molecular basis of Pol III repression by Maf1 are now emerging from recently reported structural and biochemical data on Pol III and Maf1. Efficient Pol III transcription, following the shift of cells from a non-fermentable carbon source to glucose, requires phosphorylation of Maf1. One of the newly identified Maf1 kinases is the chromatin-bound casein kinase II (CK2). Current studies have allowed us to propose an innovative mechanism of Pol III regulation. We suggest that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Maf1, occurring directly on tDNA chromatin, controls Pol III recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide (III). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, M.; Kasuga, K.

    1980-06-01

    The NMR spectra of bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide (III) complexes (La, Nd, Sm, and Eu) have been examined. An effect of a macrocyclic-ring current and induced shift caused by lanthanide (III) ions were discussed.

  1. 1,2,4-Diazaphospholide complexes of lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii): synthesis, X-ray structural characterization, and magnetic susceptibility studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minggang; Wang, Lixia; Li, Pangpang; Ma, Jianping; Zheng, Wenjun

    2016-07-05

    A few heteroleptic, charge-separated heterobimetallic, and polymeric alkali metalate complexes of 1,2,4-diazaphospholide lanthanum(iii), cerium(iii), neodymium(iii), praseodymium(iii), and samarium(iii) were simply prepared via the metathesis reaction of MCl3 (THF)m (m = 1-2) and K[3,5-R2dp] ([3,5-R2dp](-) = 3,5-di-substituent-1,2,4-diazaphospholide; R = tBu, Ph) in a varied ratio (1 : 3, 1 : 4, and 1 : 5, respectively) at room temperature in tetrahydrofuran. All the complexes were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (31)P{(1)H}, IR, and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis despite their paramagnetism (excluding La(iii) complexes). The structures of the complexes were found to feature varied coordination modes. The magnetic properties of several compounds were studied by magnetic susceptibility, and the complexes presented the magnetic moments close to or lower than the theoretical values for the free ions in the trivalent oxidation states (Pr(3+), Nd(3+)).

  2. First heterometallic Ga(III)-Dy(III) single-molecule magnets: implication of Ga(III) in extracting Fe-Dy interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sihuai; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2016-05-31

    The compounds of the system [M4M'2(μ3-OH)2(nbdea)4(C6H5CO2)8]·MeCN, where M = Ga(III), M' = Dy(III) (), M = Fe(III), M' = Y(III) () are isostructural to the known [Fe4Dy2] compound (). Those of the system [M4M'4(μ3-OH)4(nbdea)4(m-CH3C6H4CO2)12]·nMeCN, where M = Ga(III), M' = Dy(III), n = 4 (), M = Fe(III), M' = Y(III), n = 1 () are isostructural to the [Fe4Dy4] compound (). This allows for comparisons between single ion effects of the paramagnetic ions. The structures were determined using single crystal analysis. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that the Ga(III)-Dy(III) compounds and are SMMs. The energy barrier for is close to that for the known isostructural Fe4Dy2 compound (), but with a significantly increased relaxation time.

  3. Comparative Studies on Periodatocuprate(II, III) and Telluratocuprate(II, III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingmei, Wu; Qiang, Su; Gang, Hu; Yufang, Ren

    1995-02-01

    The crystal structures, electronic spectra, and Cu2 p XPS of Cu(III) complexes Na 4H[Cu(H 2TeO 6) 2] · 17H 2O and Na 4K[Cu (HIO 6) 2] · 12H2O have been described. The characterizations of a Cu(III) atom in a complex are as follows: (i) In a square-planar coordination, the average bond length of Cu-O is 0.183 nm, shorter than the 0.190-0.200 nm found for a Cu(II) complex. (2) The "blue shift" occurs for d-d transitions in the electronic spectrum of the Cu(III) complex compared to those of its related Cu(II) complex, resulting from the higher valence state. (3) Cu(III) compounds with CuO 4 square-planar coordination are expected to be diamagnetic whereas Cu(II) compounds to be paramagnetic. (4) Comprehensive investigations on Cu2 p XPS show that the binding energy of Cu2 p3/2 of a pure Cu(III) compound is about 2.0 eV higher than that of its corresponding Cu(II) compound: the shakeup satellites do not appear in the Cu2 p XPS for a pure diamagnetic Cu(III) compound, the same as found for a diamagnetic Ni(II) compound: the FWHM of the signal of Cu2 p XPS may become broader for Cu(III) compound because its core hole's lifetime shortens due to the higher valence state of copper.

  4. Biosorption of Cr(III) and Fe(III) in single and binary systems onto pretreated orange peel.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Lugo, V; Barrera-Díaz, C; Ureña-Núñez, F; Bilyeu, B; Linares-Hernández, I

    2012-12-15

    Trivalent chromium and iron are the products of the traditional reduction of hexavalent chromium by ferrous salts in industrial wastewater. Although there have been a few studies of Cr(III) adsorption, none have considered the effect of Fe(III) on Cr(III) adsorption in a binary system representing expected products of hexavalent chromium in industrial wastewater. The biosorption of Cr(III) and Fe(III) ions onto pretreated ground orange peel in single and binary systems was studied in batch experiments using a variety of techniques. The kinetic results showed a rapid rate of biosorption of Cr(III) and Fe(III) in single and binary systems and mutual interference effects in the competitive binary Cr(III)-Fe(III) system. Second order kinetic models showed the best fit for all systems. The behavior of competitive Cr(III)-Fe(III) biosorption were successfully described by the multicomponent Langmuir model, obtaining maximum capacities for Cr(III) and Fe(III) of 9.43 and 18.19 mg/g respectively. SEM/EDS results confirmed that the metals adsorb on the surface and FTIR identified the hydroxyl groups on the carboxylic acids as the active binding sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A newly developed chromium(III) gel technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D. . Research Div.)

    1990-08-01

    Laboratory testing of a recently developed chromium(III) (Cr(III)) gel technology is reported. The gels can be used in conjunction with a number of oilfield treatments. The single-fluid acrylamide-polymer/Cr(III)-carboxylate aqueous gels are formed by crosslinking acrylamide polymer with a Cr(III)-carboxylate-complex crosslinking agent. Representative gel compositions and associated gel properties are discussed.

  6. The Structure of Bis(phthalocyaninato)neodymium(III).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    synthesis of lanthanide (III) phthalocyanine complexes 1 was established by Kirin and Moskalev, many studies on their composi- 2 tions and properties have...been reported. For instance, intense attention has been directed toward electrochromism of bis(phthalocyaninato) lanthanide (III) complexes , Pc2Ln(III)H...The structural analysis of bis(phthalocyaninato) lanthanide (III) complexes would provide useful information to investigate their electo- chromuism, and

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biologically Active Lanthanide (III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostova, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Georgieva, I.; Rastogi, V. K.; Kiefer, W.

    2008-11-01

    The complexation ability and the binding mode of the ligand coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) are elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques as well as DFT quantum chemical calculations were used for characterization of the binding mode and the structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of HCCA. The metal—ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different Ln—CCA structures using B3LYP/6-31G(d) method combined with a large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanide ion. The energies obtained predict bidentate coordination of CCA- to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA- and Ln(III) complexes based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal—ligand binding mode. The natural bonding analysis predicts strongly ionic character of the Ln(III)-CCA bonding in the- complexes studied. With the relatively resistant tumor cell line K-562 we obtained very interesting in-vitro results which are in accordance with our previously published data concerning the activity of lanthanide(III) complexes with other coumarin derivatives.

  8. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  9. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying with...

  10. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying with...

  11. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class III...

  12. Microbial As(III) Oxidation in Water Treatment Plant Filters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exists in two oxidation states in water - arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. As(III) is relatively mobile in water and difficult to remove by arsenic-removal treatment processes. Source waters that contain As(III) must add a strong oxidant such as free chlorine or p...

  13. 75 FR 14575 - Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Voting Equipment Evaluations Phase III AGENCY: National... Phase III of the benchmark research for voting equipment used in an election in 2008 or later and/ or... Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will be conducting Phase III research on voting equipment...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart III of... - Tables: Note

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tables: Note Appendix to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., Subpt. III, App. Appendix to Subpart III of Part 63—Tables: Note For the convenience of the readers of...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart III of... - Tables: Note

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tables: Note Appendix to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., Subpt. III, App. Appendix to Subpart III of Part 63—Tables: Note For the convenience of the readers of...

  16. Microbial As(III) Oxidation in Water Treatment Plant Filters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exists in two oxidation states in water - arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. As(III) is relatively mobile in water and difficult to remove by arsenic-removal treatment processes. Source waters that contain As(III) must add a strong oxidant such as free chlorine or p...

  17. A Study of Title III Impact on Historically Black Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    The intent of this report is to examine the status and functions of the nation's historically black institutions as they have been affected by the assistance provided under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965. First, background to the development of Title III legislation is reviewed. Second, evaluations of Title III programs that have…

  18. Teaching a Course on World War III: An Introductory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Provides a description of an upper division college course on nuclear war. The course, which used an interdisciplinary approach and many resource speakers, was divided into three components: the consequences of World War III, the causes of World War III, and the prevention of World War III. Includes a detailed course outline along with required…

  19. 76 FR 33589 - Standards Improvement Project-Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...Phase III of the Standards Improvement Project (SIP-III) is the third in a series of rulemaking actions to improve and streamline OSHA standards. The Standards Improvement Project removes or revises individual requirements within rules that are confusing, outdated, duplicative, or inconsistent. OSHA identified several requirements for SIP-III (e.g., rigging, NIOSH records, and training......

  20. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  1. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false III Appendix III to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix III to Part 261 ...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 261 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false III Appendix III to Part 261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Appendix III to Part 261 ...

  3. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying with...

  4. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying with...

  5. 49 CFR 172.440 - RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. 172.440 Section 172... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.440 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (a) Except for size and color, the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label must be as follows: EC02MR91.034 (b) In addition to complying with...

  6. Mechanisms for Fe(III) oxide reduction in sedimentary environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    Although it was previously considered that Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms must come into direct contact with Fe(III) oxides in order to reduce them, recent studies have suggested that electron-shuttling compounds and/or Fe(III) chelators, either naturally present or produced by the Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms themselves, may alleviate the need for the Fe(III) reducers to establish direct contact with Fe(III) oxides. Studies with Shewanella alga strain BrY and Fe(III) oxides sequestered within microporous beads demonstrated for the first time that this organism releases a compound(s) that permits electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides which the organism cannot directly contact. Furthermore, as much as 450 w M dissolved Fe(III) was detected in cultures of S. alga growing in Fe(III) oxide medium, suggesting that this organism releases compounds that can solublize Fe(III) from Fe(III) oxide. These results contrast with previous studies, which demonstrated that Geobacter metallireducens does not produce electron-shuttles or Fe(III) chelators. Some freshwater aquatic sediments and groundwaters contained compounds, which could act as electron shuttles by accepting electrons from G. metallireducens and then transferring the electrons to Fe(III). However, other samples lacked significant electron-shuttling capacity. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the electron-shuttling capacity of the waters was not only associated with the presence of humic substances, but water extracts of walnut, oak, and maple leaves contained electron-shuttling compounds did not appear to be humic substances. Porewater from a freshwater aquatic sediment and groundwater from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer contained dissolved Fe(III) (4-16 w M), suggesting that soluble Fe(III) may be available as an electron acceptor in some sedimentary environments. These results demonstrate that in order to accurately model the mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction in sedimentary environments it will be necessary

  7. WAIS-III and WMS-III performance in chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Keilp, John G; Corbera, Kathy; Slavov, Iordan; Taylor, Michael J; Sackeim, Harold A; Fallon, Brian A

    2006-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the nature and degree of intellectual and memory deficits in chronic Lyme disease. In this study, 81 participants with rigorously diagnosed chronic Lyme disease were administered the newest revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III), and compared to 39 nonpatients. On the WAIS-III, Lyme disease participants had poorer Full Scale and Performance IQ's. At the subtest level, differences were restricted to Information and the Processing Speed subtests. On the WMS-III, Lyme disease participants performed more poorly on Auditory Immediate, Immediate, Auditory Delayed, Auditory Recognition Delayed, and General Memory indices. Among WMS-III subtests, however, differences were restricted to Logical Memory (immediate and delayed) and Family Pictures (delayed only), a Visual Memory subtest. Discriminant analyses suggest deficits in chronic Lyme are best characterized as a combination of memory difficulty and diminished processing speed. Deficits were modest, between one-third and two-thirds of a standard deviation, consistent with earlier studies. Depression severity had a weak relationship to processing speed, but little other association to test performance. Deficits in chronic Lyme disease are consistent with a subtle neuropathological process affecting multiple performance tasks, although further work is needed to definitively rule out nonspecific illness effects.

  8. Interactions Between Fe(III)-oxides and Fe(III)-phyllosilicates During Microbial Reduction 2: Natural Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.; Griffin, A. M.; Gorski, C. A.; Shelobolina, E. S.; Xu, H.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Roden, E. E.

    2016-04-19

    Dissimilatory microbial reduction of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxides and Fe(III)-bearing phyllosilicates (Fe(III)-phyllosilicates) is an important process in anoxic soils, sediments, and subsurface materials. Although various studies have documented the relative extent of microbial reduction of single-phase Fe(III)-oxides and Fe(III)-phyllosilicates, detailed information is not available on interaction between these two processes in situations where both phases are available for microbial reduction. The goal of this research was to use the model dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium (DIRB) Geobacter sulfurreducens to study Fe(III)-oxide vs. Fe(III)-phyllosilicate reduction in a range of subsurface materials and Fe(III)-oxide stripped versions of the materials. Low temperature (12K) Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to infer changes in the relative abundances of Fe(III)-oxide, Fe(III)-phyllosilicate, and phyllosilicate-associated Fe(II) (Fe(II)-phyllosilicate). A Fe partitioning model was employed to analyze the fate of Fe(II) and assess the potential for abiotic Fe(II)-catalyzed reduction of Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. The results showed that in most cases Fe(III)- oxide utilization dominated (70-100 %) bulk Fe(III) reduction activity, and that electron transfer from oxide-derived Fe(II) played only a minor role (ca. 10-20 %) in Fe partitioning. In addition, the extent of Fe(III)-oxide reduction was positively correlated to surface area-normalized cation exchange capacity and the phyllosilicate-Fe(III)/total Fe(III) ratio, which suggests that the phyllosilicates in the natural sediments promoted Fe(III)-oxide reduction by binding of oxide-derived Fe(II), thereby enhancing Fe(III)-oxide reduction by reducing or delaying the inhibitory effect that Fe(II) accumulation on oxide and DIRB cell surfaces has on Fe(III)-oxide reduction. In general our results suggest that although Fe(III)-oxide reduction is likely to dominate bulk Fe(III) reduction in most subsurface sediments, Fe

  9. Solvent extraction behaviour of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), europium(III), thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) with 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, A; Rao, G N

    1990-04-01

    The extraction behaviour of La(III), Ce(III), Eu(III), Th(IV) and U(VI) with 3-phenyl-4- benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (HPBI) in chloroform has been studied. The mechanism of extraction and the species extracted have been identified. Extraction constants for each system have been calculated. The system has been used to separate Th(IV) from U(VI) and from La(III), Ce(III) and Eu(III). A comparison of the extraction constants with those for the 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HPMBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) systems indicates that HPBI extracts these metal species better than HPMBP and HTTA do.

  10. A spectrophotometric study of Nd(III), Sm(III) and Er(III) complexation in sulfate-bearing solutions at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdisov, Art. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2008-11-01

    The speciation of Nd(III), Sm(III), and Er(III) in sulfate-bearing solutions has been determined spectrophotometrically at temperatures from 25 to 250 °C and a pressure of 100 bars. The data obtained earlier on the speciation of Nd in sulfate-bearing solutions ( Migdisov et al., 2006) have been re-evaluated and corrected using a more appropriate activity model and are compared with the corresponding data for Sm(III) and Er(III) and new data for Nd(III). Based on this comparison, the dominant species in the solution are interpreted to be REESO4+ and REE(SO)2-, with the latter complex increasing in importance at higher temperature. Equilibrium constants were calculated for the following reactions:

  11. Development and Evaluation of Adeno-HTLV-III Hybrid Virus and Non- Cytopathic HTLV-III Mutant for Vaccine Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    AD_______________ DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ADENO- HTLV -III HYBRID VIRUS AND NON- (V) CYTOPATHIC HTLV -III MUTANT FOR VACCINE USE Lf In Annual...Development and Evaluation of Adeno- HTLV -III Hybrid Virus and Non-Cytopathic HTLV -III Mutant for Vaccine Use 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lubet, Martha Turner...HIV virus. Assessment of vaccine efficacy against the virus challenge will include T4/T8 ratios, Interleukin-2 production, HTLV -IJT serology and ability

  12. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG) of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016). Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012). Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32), three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M) and Doctorate (PhD). The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2) jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity reaching a high level and matched to areas of greatest

  13. Does As(III) interact with Fe(II), Fe(III) and organic matter through ternary complexes?

    PubMed

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Demangeat, Edwige; Gruau, Gérard

    2016-05-15

    Up until now, only a small number of studies have been dedicated to the binding processes of As(III) with organic matter (OM) via ionic Fe(III) bridges; none was interested in Fe (II). Complexation isotherms were carried out with As(III), Fe(II) or Fe(III) and Leonardite humic acid (HA). Although PHREEQC/Model VI, implemented with OM thiol groups, reproduced the experimental datasets with Fe(III), the poor fit between the experimental and modeled Fe(II) data suggested another binding mechanism for As(III) to OM. PHREEQC/Model VI was modified to take various possible As(III)-Fe(II)-OM ternary complex conformations into account. The complexation of As(III) as a mononuclear bidentate complex to a bidentate Fe(II)-HA complex was evidenced. However, the model needed to be improved since the distribution of the bidentate sites appeared to be unrealistic with regards to the published XAS data. In the presence of Fe(III), As(III) was bound to thiol groups which are more competitive with regards to the low density of formed Fe(III)-HA complexes. Based on the new data and previously published results, we propose a general scheme describing the various As(III)-Fe-MO complexes that are able to form in Fe and OM-rich waters.

  14. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    PubMed

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  15. Methods of Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III).

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul D; Gottschalk, Alexander; Sostman, H Dirk; Chenevert, Thomas L; Fowler, Sarah E; Goodman, Lawrence R; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Kanal, Emanuel; Leeper, Kenneth V; Nadich, David P; Sak, Daniel J; Tapson, Victor F; Wakefield, Thomas W; Weg, John G; Woodard, Pamela K

    2008-11-01

    In this work, the methods of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III) are described in detail. PIOPED III is a multicenter collaborative investigation sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The purpose is to determine the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in combination with venous phase magnetic resonance venography for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A composite reference standard based on usual diagnostic methods for PE is used. All images will be read by 2 blinded and study-certified central readers. Patients with no PE according to the composite reference test will be randomized to undergo gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in combination with venous phase magnetic resonance venography. This procedure will reduce the proportion of patients with negative tests at no loss in evaluation of sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Methods of Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Paul D.; Gottschalk, Alexander; Sostman, H. Dirk; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Fowler, Sarah E.; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Kanal, Emanuel; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Nadich, David P.; Sak, Daniel J; Tapson, Victor F.; Wakefield, Thomas W.; Weg, John G.; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2008-01-01

    The methods of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis III (PIOPED III) are described in detail. PIOPED III is a multicenter collaborative investigation sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The purpose is to determine the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA) in combination with venous phase magnetic resonance venography (Gd-MRV) for the diagnosis for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A composite reference standard based on usual diagnostic methods for pulmonary embolism is used. All images will be read by two blinded and study-certified central readers. Patients with no PE according to the composite reference test will be randomized to undergo Gd-MRA/MRV. This will reduce the proportion of patients with negative tests at no loss in evaluation of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19331840

  17. Decorating the lanthanide terminus of self-assembled heterodinuclear lanthanum(III)/gallium(III) helicates.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Markus; Latorre, Irene; Mehmeti, Gent; Hengst, Konstantin; Oppel, Iris M

    2011-12-07

    Arylacylhydrazones of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde are appropriate ligands for the preparation of heterodinuclear triple-stranded helicates involving high coordinated lanthanide(III) ions. In the present study, three different kinds of substituents are introduced at the ligands in order to modify the organic periphery of the coordination compounds: (1) alkoxy groups are attached to the terminal phenyl groups, (2) NH protons of the hydrazones are substituted by phenyl moieties and (3) amino acid bearing units are attached to the terminus of the ligand. The new ligands nicely form the desired triple-stranded gallium(III)-lanthanum(III) complexes [(5a-c,7,12,15)(3)GaLa] of which the highly phenylated derivative was crystallized and studied by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Transparent Glass Ceramics Doped by Chromium(III) and Chromium(III) and Neodymium(III) as New Materials for Lasers and Luminescent Solar Concentrators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    absorption spectrum of glass- ceramics doped by 3 m.p. Nd(III) and 0.1 m.p. Cr(IIl). The last shows very weak absorption bands due to Cr(III) in a high ...AP-4i91 140 Crn7ISi I xU ~ 3U ’h u UNCLSUFID nA*VI..R~L,! 5 i520 IIIJIL25 1. -S-o 0 MflC ILEz COPYT TRANSPARENT GLASS CERAMICS DOPED BY CHROMIUM(III...first two years of the research we have shown that spectroscopic properties of Cr(III) in several singly doped glass- ceramics are comparable to those

  19. Solubility of Fe(III) in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently Kuma et al. [K. Kuma, J. Nishioka, K. Matsunaga, Controls on iron (III) hydroxide solubility in seawater: The influence of pH and natural organic chelators, Limnol. Oceanogr. 41 (1996) 396-407] made some careful measurements of the solubility of Fe(III) in UV and non-UV irradiated seawater as a function of pH (5-8). They showed that organic compounds can increase the solubility (32-65%) at pH=8.1, apparently due to the formation of Fe(III) organic complexes. In this paper I have examined how these results can be quantified using a speciation model for Fe(III). The results indicate that the effect of pH (2-9) on coastal and open ocean waters by Kuma et al. and the earlier filtration measurement of Byrne and Kester [R.H. Byrne, D.R. Kester, Solubility of hydrous ferric oxide and iron speciation in sea water, Mar. Chem. 4 (1976) 255-274] can be adequately represented by considering the formation of FeOH 2+ and Fe(OH) 2+ using the hydrolysis constants ( K ∗1=10 -2.62, K ∗2=10 -6.0) determined by Millero et al. [F.J. Millero, W. Yao, J. Aicher, The speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in natural waters, Mar. Chem. 50 (1995) 21-39]. The solubility measurements [Kuma et al., 1996] on unaltered coastal and open ocean waters appear to require the consideration of the formation of Fe(OH) 30 ( K ∗3=10 -13.3-10 -14.3). A more careful look at these measurements indicates that the curvature between pH 7 and 8 can be attributed to the formation of complexes of Fe 3+ with organic ligands (FeL). Model speciation calculations (pH 6-8) yield total ligand concentrations of [L] T=1.2 nM and 0.17 nM for unaltered coastal and open ocean waters, respectively, assuming K' FeL=10 21. These estimates are in good agreement with the values found for ocean waters by voltammetric methods. The model calculations for the solubility of Fe(III) (0.2 nM at pH=8.1 and 0.6 nM at pH=7.65) are in good agreement with measured open ocean surface (0.2 nM) and deep waters (0.6 nM) determined by

  20. The role of Ce(III) in BZ oscillating reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Paulo A.; Varela, Hamilton; Faria, Roberto B.

    2012-03-01

    Herein we present results on the oscillatory dynamics in the bromate-oxalic acid-acetone-Ce(III)/Ce(IV) system in batch and also in a CSTR. We show that Ce(III) is the necessary reactant to allow the emergence of oscillations. In batch, oscillations occur with Ce(III) and also with Ce(IV), but no induction period is observed with Ce(III). In a CSTR, no oscillations were found using a freshly prepared Ce(IV), but only when the cerium-containing solution was aged, allowing partial conversion of Ce(IV) to Ce(III) by reaction with acetone.

  1. Removal of arsenic(III) and arsenic(IV) ions from aqueous solutions with lanthanum(III) salt and comparison with aluminum(III), calcium(II), and iron(III) salts

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, S.; Yokoyama, S.; Wasay, S.A.

    1999-05-01

    Interactions of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) ions with a lanthanum salt were studied with the aim of developing a new precipitation method for removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions. Performance was compared to those of aluminum, polyaluminum chloride (PAC), calcium, and iron(III) salts. Arsenic(III) was removed by iron(III) and lanthanum in a narrow pH range with less than 605 removal. Arsenic(V) was removed more efficiently by aluminum, PAC, iron(III), and lanthanum. Lanthanum was most effective, meeting Japanese effluent and drinking water standards by adding three times as much lanthanum as arsenic(V).

  2. III Astronomy School: the world of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivielso, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Astronomy School is an activity organized by the Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón. It is celebrated every year at the end of the summer or the beginning of autumn with the purpose of bringing Astronomy and Astrophysics to the population from an educational and a training point of view. Its III Edition, held in October 2013, has been financed by the Spanish Astronomical Society and was focused on stellar physics. This contribution describes the School and the results.

  3. Treatment of Class III with Facemask Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Snigdha; Mishra, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is one of the most difficult problems to treat in the mixed dentition. It has a multifactorial etiology involving both genetic and environmental causes. The dental and skeletal effects of maxillary protraction with a facemask are well documented in several studies. Although treatment in the late mixed or early permanent dentition can be successful, results are generally better in the deciduous or early mixed dentition. The following case shows early treatment of a young patient with severe sagittal and transverse discrepancy of the maxilla and mandible, using a facemask. PMID:26925273

  4. Semiconductors A(III)B(VI): Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhundov, G. A.; Abdullaev, G. B.; Guseynov, G. D.; Mekhtiyev, R. F.; Aliyeva, M. Kh.

    1993-11-01

    Semiconductors A(III) B(VI) crystallize in laminated or chain structures and contain nine valence electrons in each molecule. Connection in the layers and the chains is predominantly covalent, and Van der Waal between the layers and the chains. Calculated data of the energy spectrum of these compounds are absent, and the available experimental studies are insufficient for understanding of the zone structures. We have obtained and studied single crystals of GaS, GaSe, GaTe, InSe, and TiSe.

  5. High-Resolution Group III Nitride Microdisplays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    gallium nitride ( InGaN ), the tunable emission wavelength of InGaN , and the ability of the LEDs to be integrated with other functional devices. III...Grayscale projected image of a leopard from a green video graphics array indium gallium nitride ( InGaN ) microdisplay (640 480 pixels, each 12m in size...design and fabrication of an active matrix driver integrated circuit. Finally, it required hybrid integration of the InGaN LED array with the

  6. Intercalation of Europium (III) species into bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, A.; Echeverria, Y.; Torres, C.M. Sotomayor; Gonzalez, G.; Benavente, E. . E-mail: ebenaven@uchile.cl

    2006-06-15

    It is shown that the intercalation of [Europium(bipyridine){sub 2}]{sup 3+} into bentonite results in a new nanocomposite which preserves the emission properties of Europium (III). The exchange of sodium by europium in bentonite is correlated with the cation exchange capacity and molecular size. The intercalated complex exhibits luminescence where both the 2,2-bipyridine 'antenna' effect and the intensity maxima are comparable to the free complex suggesting that clay intercalated with rare earths may results in novel optical materials.

  7. Have We Finally Found Pop III Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Elusive Population: Population III stars — the theoretical generation of extremely metal-poor stars that should have been formed in the early universe before metals existed — have been conspicuously absent in observations. But a team led by David Sobral (Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of Lisbon, and Leiden Observatory) may have changed this paradigm with their recent detection of an extremely bright galaxy in the early universe. The team's broad survey of distant galaxies using ESO's Very Large Telescope provides a glimpse of the universe as it was only 800 million years after the Big Bang. The survey uncovered several unusually bright galaxies — including the brightest galaxy ever seen at this distance, an important discovery by itself. But further scrutiny of this galaxy, named CR7, produced an even more exciting find: a bright pocket of the galaxy contained no sign of any metals. Follow-up with other telescopes confirmed this initial detection. Formation Waves: Sobral and his team postulate that we are observing this galaxy at just the right time to have caught a cluster of Population III stars — the bright, metal-free region of the galaxy — at the end of a wave of early star formation. The observations of CR7 also suggest the presence of regular stars in clumps around the metal-free pocket. These older, surrounding clusters may have formed stars first, helping to ionize a local bubble in the galaxy and allowing us to now observe the light from CR7. It was previously thought that Population III stars might only be found in small, dim galaxies, making them impossible for us to detect. But CR7 provides an interesting alternative: this galaxy is bright, and the candidate Population III stars are surrounded by clusters of normal stars. This suggests that these first-generation stars might in fact be easier to detect than was originally thought. Additional follow-up observations with other telescopes will help to confirm the

  8. The Trident III radio position finding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, J.-C.; Chantome, M.

    1980-07-01

    The Trident III radio position finding system is based on the precise and simultaneous measurement of the distances between an interrogator and two, three or four responding markers at perfectly determined geodesic points. Attention is given to the pulse duration (0.35 to 0.5 microsec) and emission and reception frequencies of the marker and interrogator, as well as to the structure of the data and information. It is noted that when associated with a programmable calculator, the system is capable of use as a guiding system.

  9. Space Processing Applications Rocket project SPAR III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presented the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarized the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies.

  10. Modulating Magnetic Refrigeration through Structural Variation in Co(II/III)-Gd(III) Clusters.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Clearfield, Abraham

    2017-03-06

    Three heterometallic aggregates, [(Co(II))2(Gd(III))2((t)BuPO3)2(O2C(t)Bu)2(HO2C(t)Bu)2(NO3)4]·NEt3 (1), [(Co(II))2(Co(III))2(Gd(III))3(μ3-OH)2((t)BuPO3)2(O2C(t)Bu)9(deaH)2(H2O)2] (2), and (Co(III))2(Gd(III))5(μ2-OH)(μ3-OH)2((t)BuPO3)2(O2C(t)Bu)10(HO2C(t)Bu)(deaH)2]·MeOH (3), were successfully isolated in reactions of [Co2(μ-OH2)(O2C(t)Bu)4]·(HO2C(t)Bu)4, Gd(NO3)3·6H2O, (t)Bu-PO3H2, and diethanolamine (deaH3) by varying the stoichiometry of the reactants and/or changing the solvent. The structures of the final products were profoundly affected by these minor changes in stoichiometry or a change in solvent. The metal-oxo core of these complexes displays a hemicubane or a defective dicubane-like view. Bond valence sum calculations and bond lengths indicate the presence of Co(II) centers in compound 1, mixed valent Co centers (Co(II)/Co(III)) in compound 2, and only Co(III) centers in compound 3 as required for the charge balances and supported by the magnetic measurements. Magnetic studies reveal significant magnetic entropy changes for complexes 1-3 (-ΔSm values of 28.14, 25.06, and 29.19 J kg(-1) K(-1) for 3 K and 7 T, respectively). This study shows how magnetic refrigeration can be affected by anisotropy, magnetic interactions (ferro- or antiferromagnetic), the metal/ligand ratio, and the content of Gd(III) in the molecule.

  11. Approaching actinide(+III) hydration from first principles.

    PubMed

    Wiebke, J; Moritz, A; Cao, X; Dolg, M

    2007-01-28

    A systematic computational approach to An(III) hydration on a density-functional level of theory, using quasi-relativistic 5f-in-core pseudopotentials and valence-only basis sets for the An(III) subsystems, is presented. Molecular structures, binding energies, hydration energies, and Gibbs free energies of hydration have been calculated for [An(III)(OH(2))(h)](3+) (h = 7, 8, 9) and [An(III)(OH(2))(h-1) * OH(2)](3+) (h = 8, 9), using large (7s6p5d2f1g)/[6s5p4d2f1g] An(III) and cc-pVQZ O and H basis sets within the COSMO implicit solvation model. An(III) preferred primary hydration numbers are found to be 8 for all An(III) at the gradient-corrected density-functional level of theory. Second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory predicts preferred primary hydration numbers of 9 and 8 for Ac(III)-Md(III) and No(III)-Lr(III), respectively.

  12. Central and peripheral cardiovascular effects of angiotensin III in trout.

    PubMed

    Mimassi, N; Lancien, F; Le Mével, J C

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the central and peripheral actions of trout angiotensin III (ANG III) on heart rate (HR) and mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (P(DA)) in the unanaesthetized rainbow trout. Intracerebroventricular injection of ANG III (5-100 pmol) produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in HR without significant change in P(DA). In contrast, when injected peripherally ANG III (5-50 pmol) evoked a significant and dose-dependent increase in P(DA). The hypertensive responses were accompanied by a bradycardia that reached significance only for the highest dose of ANG III tested. In conclusion, our results have shown that ANG III has potent and contrasting cardiovascular actions depending on whether its site of action is the brain or the peripheral circulation. Endogenous ANG III may have important physiological functions in teleost fishes.

  13. Ribonuclease revisited: structural insights into ribonuclease III family enzymes.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Ian J; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2007-02-01

    Ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes occur ubiquitously in biology and are responsible for processing RNA precursors into functional RNAs that participate in protein synthesis, RNA interference and a range of other cellular activities. Members of the RNase III enzyme family, including Escherichia coli RNase III, Rnt1, Dicer and Drosha, share the ability to recognize and cleave double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), typically at specific positions or sequences. Recent biochemical and structural data have shed new light on how RNase III enzymes catalyze dsRNA hydrolysis and how substrate specificity is achieved. A major theme emerging from these studies is that accessory domains present in different RNase III enzymes are the key determinants of substrate selectivity, which in turn dictates the specialized biological function of each type of RNase III protein.

  14. Oxidative UO2 dissolution induced by soluble Mn(III).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zimeng; Xiong, Wei; Tebo, Bradley M; Giammar, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    The stability of UO2 is critical to the success of reductive bioremediation of uranium. When reducing conditions are no longer maintained, Mn redox cycling may catalytically mediate the oxidation of UO2 and remobilization of uranium. Ligand-stabilized soluble Mn(III) was recently recognized as an important redox-active intermediate in Mn biogeochemical cycling. This study evaluated the kinetics of oxidative UO2 dissolution by soluble Mn(III) stabilized by pyrophosphate (PP) and desferrioxamine B (DFOB). The Mn(III)-PP complex was a potent oxidant that induced rapid UO2 dissolution at a rate higher than that by a comparable concentration of dissolved O2. However, the Mn(III)-DFOB complex was not able to induce oxidative dissolution of UO2. The ability of Mn(III) complexes to oxidize UO2 was probably determined by whether the coordination of Mn(III) with ligands allowed the attachment of the complexes to the UO2 surface to facilitate electron transfer. Systematic investigation into the kinetics of UO2 oxidative dissolution by the Mn(III)-PP complex suggested that Mn(III) could directly oxidize UO2 without involving particulate Mn species (e.g., MnO2). The expected 2:1 reaction stoichiometry between Mn(III) and UO2 was observed. The reactivity of soluble Mn(III) in oxidizing UO2 was higher at lower ratios of pyrophosphate to Mn(III) and lower pH, which is probably related to differences in the ligand-to-metal ratio and/or protonation states of the Mn(III)-pyrophosphate complexes. Disproportionation of Mn(III)-PP occurred at pH 9.0, and the oxidation of UO2 was then driven by both MnO2 and soluble Mn(III). Kinetic models were derived that provided excellent fits of the experimental results.

  15. Luminescence spectroscopy of europium(III) and terbium(III) penta-, octa- and nonanuclear clusters with beta-diketonate ligands.

    PubMed

    Petit, Sarah; Baril-Robert, François; Pilet, Guillaume; Reber, Christian; Luneau, Dominique

    2009-09-14

    A series of Eu(III) and Tb(III) clusters as well as their Y(III) analogues with increasing nuclearities of 5, 8 and 9 have been synthesised using beta-diketonate ligands with decreasing steric hindrance. Their molecular structures have been established from X-ray diffraction on single crystals for most clusters and studied by luminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra have distinctive patterns for each nuclearity in accordance with their crystal structure. The luminescence spectra of the Eu(III) and Tb(III) clusters also show distinctive features.

  16. ARIES-III divertor engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.; Hasan, M.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Sze, D.K.; Herring, J.S.; Valenti, M.; Steiner, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the engineering design of the ARIES-III double- null divertor. The divertor coolant tubes are made from W-3Re alloy and cooled by subcooled flow boiling of organic coolant. A coating of 4 mm thick tungsten is plasma sprayed onto the divertor surface. This W layer can withstand the thermal deposition of a few disruptions. At a maximum surface heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}, a conventional divertor design can be used. The divertor surface is contoured to have a constant heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}. The net erosion of the W-surface was found to be negligible at about 0.1 mm/year. After 3 years of operation, the W-3Re alloy ARIES-III divertor can be disposed of as Class A waste. In order to control the prompt dose release at site boundary to less than 200 Rem, isotopic tailoring of the W-alloy will be needed.

  17. Class III peroxidases in plant defence reactions.

    PubMed

    Almagro, L; Gómez Ros, L V; Belchi-Navarro, S; Bru, R; Ros Barceló, A; Pedreño, M A

    2009-01-01

    When plants are attacked by pathogens, they defend themselves with an arsenal of defence mechanisms, both passive and active. The active defence responses, which require de novo protein synthesis, are regulated through a complex and interconnected network of signalling pathways that mainly involve three molecules, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET), and which results in the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Microbe or elicitor-induced signal transduction pathways lead to (i) the reinforcement of cell walls and lignification, (ii) the production of antimicrobial metabolites (phytoalexins), and (iii) the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Among the proteins induced during the host plant defence, class III plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7; hydrogen donor: H(2)O(2) oxidoreductase, Prxs) are well known. They belong to a large multigene family, and participate in a broad range of physiological processes, such as lignin and suberin formation, cross-linking of cell wall components, and synthesis of phytoalexins, or participate in the metabolism of ROS and RNS, both switching on the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed host cell death at the infection site associated with limited pathogen development. The present review focuses on these plant defence reactions in which Prxs are directly or indirectly involved, and ends with the signalling pathways, which regulate Prx gene expression during plant defence. How they are integrated within the complex network of defence responses of any host plant cell will be the cornerstone of future research.

  18. Evolution and expression of class III peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Mathé, Catherine; Barre, Annick; Jourda, Cyril; Dunand, Christophe

    2010-08-01

    Class III peroxidases are members of a large multigenic family, only detected in the plant kingdom and absent from green algae sensu stricto (chlorophyte algae or Chlorophyta). Their evolution is thought to be related to the emergence of the land plants. However class III peroxidases are present in a lower copy number in some basal Streptophytes (Charapyceae), which predate land colonization. Gene structures are variable among organisms and within species with respect to the number of introns, but their positions are highly conserved. Their high copy number, as well as their conservation could be related to plant complexity and adaptation to increasing stresses. No specific function has been assigned to respective isoforms, but in large multigenic families, particular structure-function relations can be expected. Plant peroxidase sequences contain highly conserved residues and motifs, variable domains surrounded by conserved residues and present a low identity level among their promoter regions, further suggesting the existence of sub-functionalization of the different isoforms. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioactivity backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, H. M.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; Deviveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lüscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Reichhart, L.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2012-03-01

    We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75 ± 0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05 ± 0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1 yr dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from β activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter γ-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of ˜1 × 10-8pb · yr to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

  20. [Exclusive radiotherapy in stage III esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Tombolini, V; Banelli, E; Cavaceppi, P; Donato, V; Montagna, A; Raffetto, N; Santarelli, M; Vitturini, A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to evaluate the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of stage III esophageal carcinoma and to analyze the influence of site, extension, grade of dysphagia and histology on local control and survival. Twenty males and 6 females were submitted to external beam therapy with 4-6 MV X-rays and received 60-70 Gy in fractions of 180 cGY to 200 cGy per day, 5 days a week. Radiation therapy technique was two posterior oblique portals and a single anterior field at 100 cm SAD. After 4500 cGy portals were coned down, holding the spinal cord dose below 4500 cGy. Global response to therapy was 73.1%. Median survival was 11 months. The 2-year survival rate was 12.5% in patients with lesions smaller than 5 cm and 5.5% for those with lesions greater than 5 cm. Patients with grade 2 dysphagia had a median survival of 16 months, those with grade 1, 11 months and 2 patients with grade 0, 4 and 9 months. In all patients mild to moderate esophagitis was observed. Two patients developed esophagotracheal fistula. Exclusively radiotherapy cannot be considered the treatment of choice in III stage patients. Primary chemoradiotherapy may emerge as the treatment of choice for cancer of the esophagus.

  1. White Light Emissive Dy(III) Single-Molecule Magnets Sensitized by Diamagnetic [Co(III) (CN)6 ](3-) Linkers.

    PubMed

    Chorazy, Szymon; Rams, Michał; Nakabayashi, Koji; Sieklucka, Barbara; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-23

    The self-assembly of Dy(III) -3-hydroxypyridine (3-OHpy) complexes with hexacyanidocobaltate(III) anions in water produces cyanido-bridged {[Dy(III) (3-OHpy)2 (H2 O)4 ] [Co(III) (CN)6 ]}⋅H2 O (1) chains. They reveal a single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with a large zero direct current (dc) field energy barrier, ΔE=266(12) cm(-1) (≈385 K), originating from the single-ion property of eight-coordinated Dy(III) of an elongated dodecahedral geometry, which are embedded with diamagnetic [Co(III) (CN)6 ](3-) ions into zig-zag coordination chains. The SMM character is enhanced by the external dc magnetic field, which results in the ΔE of 320(23) cm(-1) (≈460 K) at Hdc =1 kOe, and the opening of a butterfly hysteresis loop below 6 K. Complex 1 exhibits white Dy(III) -based emission realized by energy transfer from Co(III) and 3-OHpy to Dy(III) . Low temperature emission spectra were correlated with SMM property giving the estimation of the zero field ΔE. 1 is a unique example of bifunctional magneto-luminescent material combining white emission and slow magnetic relaxation with a large energy barrier, both controlled by rich structural and electronic interplay between Dy(III) , 3-OHpy, and [Co(III) (CN)6 ](3-) .

  2. Performance characteristics of postacute traumatic brain injury patients on the WAIS-III and WMS-III.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, B N; Fichtenberg, N L; Liethen, P C; Czarnota, M A; Stucky, K

    2001-12-01

    Publication of the third editions of the Wechsler intelligence and memory batteries in 1997 created a need for research identifying Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition/Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III/WMS-III) profile patterns associated with neuropathology. The WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual offers data on various diagnostic groups, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hawkins (1998) employed Technical Manual data to propose certain diagnostic guidelines. In order to validate the conclusions put forth by Hawkins as they apply to brain injury, we examined WAIS-III and WMS-III profiles in an independent sample of 46 TBI cases. As expected, the WAIS-III Processing Speed Index (PSI) was more sensitive to brain injury than other WAIS-III composites; and specific WAIS-III scores were stronger than certain WMS-III scores. On the other hand, the predicted relationship for WMS-III auditory and visual indexes was not found. The lack of specificity for TBI of the proposed index comparisons confirms the need to validate such hypotheses in independent samples.

  3. A comparison of weight histories in women with class III vs. class I-II obesity.

    PubMed

    Crerand, Canice E; Wadden, Thomas A; Sarwer, David B; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Kuehnel, Robert H; Gibbons, Lauren M; Brock, Johanna R; Williams, Noel N

    2006-03-01

    To describe the weight histories of women with extreme or class III obesity (BMI >or= 40 kg/m(2)) in comparison with a sample of women with class I-II obesity (BMI < 40 kg/m(2)) and to provide reliability data for a clinical instrument that assesses weight history. Female patients (N = 149) with extreme obesity seeking bariatric surgery and 90 class I-II obese women seeking behavioral treatment completed the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI), a self-report instrument that assesses age of onset of obesity, maximum weight at different ages, family weight history, and weight changes related to pregnancy. Test-retest reliability data were obtained by administering the WALI to a subsample (n = 58) of class I-II obese participants at their initial visit and at another pretreatment visit 1 to 2 weeks later. Patients with extreme obesity had a significantly younger age of onset of obesity, were significantly heavier at all age ranges, reported significantly more weight gain with their first pregnancy, and had significantly heavier parents and siblings as compared with less obese patients. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to weight gain during second pregnancies or postpartum weight retention. Robust test-retest correlations were obtained for the weight history items on the WALI. Patients with extreme obesity report more indicators of a genetic predisposition to obesity as compared with less obese patients. The WALI appears to be a reliable instrument for the assessment of weight history in obese patients.

  4. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  5. Iron(III) and aluminium(III) complexes with substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids.

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Crisponi, Guido; Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Zoroddu, M Antonietta

    2013-11-01

    The chelating properties toward iron(III) and aluminium(III) of variously substituted salicyl-aldehydes and salicylic acids have been evaluated, together with the effect of methoxy and nitro substituents in ortho and para position with respect to the phenolic group. The protonation and iron and aluminium complex formation equilibria have been studied by potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The overall results highlight that salicyl-aldehydes present good chelating properties toward iron(III), with pFe ranging from 14.2 with nitro to 15.7 with methoxy substituent, being ineffective toward aluminium; the pFe values for salicylic acids are generally lower than those for salicyl-aldehydes, and about 4 units higher than the corresponding pAl values. The effect of the two substituents on the chelating properties of the ligands can be rationalized in terms of the Swain-Lupton treatment which accounts for the field and resonance effects. The structural characterization of the 1:2 iron complex with p-nitro salicylic acid shows that iron(III) ion exhibits an octahedral surrounding where two salicylate chelating ligands supply two O-phenolate and two O-carboxylate donor atoms in a roughly equatorial plane. The trans-apical sites are occupied by two aqua ligands. © 2013.

  6. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with isatin thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K; Pandey, Om P

    2005-09-01

    Ten new lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes of the general formula Na[La(L)2H2O] (Ln=La(III) or Pr(III); LH2=thiosemicarbazones) derived from the condensation of isatin with 4-phenyl thiosemicarbazide, 4-(4-chlorophenyl) thiosemicarbazide, 4-(2-nitrophenyl) thiosemicarbazide, 4-(2-bromophenyl) thiosemicarbazide and 4-(2-methylphenyl) thiosemicarbazide, have been synthesized in methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The XRD spectra of the complexes were monitored to verify complex formation. The complexes have also been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. Thermal studies of these complexes have been carried out in the temperature range 25-800 degrees C using TG, DTG and DTA techniques. All these complexes decompose gradually with the formation of Ln2O3 as the end product. The Judd-ofelt intensity parameter, oscillator strength, transition probability, stimulated emission cross section for different transitions of Pr3+ for 4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones have been calculated.

  7. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), Data Release 8

    DOE Data Explorer

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and SDSS-II, the SDSS-III Collaboration is working to map the Milky Way, search for extrasolar planets, and solve the mystery of dark energy. SDSS-III's first release, Data Release 8 (DR8), became available in the first half of 2012. DR8 contains all the images ever taken by the SDSS telescope. Together, these images make up the largest color image of the sky ever made. A version of the DR8 image is shown to the right. DR8 also includes measurements for nearly 500 million stars, galaxies, and quasars, and spectra for nearly two million. All of DR8's images, spectra, and measurements are available to anyone online. You can browse through sky images, look up data for individual objects, or search for objects anywhere using any criteria. SDSS-III will collect data from 2008 to 2014, using the 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory. SDSS-III consists of four surveys, each focused on a different scientific theme. These four surveys are: 1) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS); 2) SEGUE-2 (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration); 3) The APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE); and 4) The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). [Copied with edits from http://www.sdss3.org/index.php

  8. Overview of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittner, David; Pitts, Michael; Zawodny, Joe; Hill, Charles; Damadeo, Robert; Moore, Randy; Cisewski, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III is the fourth generation of solar occultation instruments operated by NASA, the first coming under a different acronym, to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. Three flight-ready SAGE III instruments were built by Ball Aerospace in the late 1990s, with one launched aboard the former Russian Avaiation and Space Agency (now known as Roskosmos) Meteor-3M (M3M) platform on 10 December 2001 (continuing until the platform lost power in 2006). Another of the original instruments was manifested for the International Space Station (ISS) in the 2004 time frame, but was delayed because of budgetary considerations. Fortunately, that SAGE III/ISS mission was restarted in 2009 with a major focus upon filling an anticipated gap in ozone and aerosol observations in the second half of this decade. This exciting mission utilizes contributions from both the Science Mission Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the European Space Agency to enable scientific measurements that will provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. A related paper by Anderson et al. discusses the. Presented here is an overview of the mission architecture, its implementation and the data that will be produced by SAGE III/ISS, including their expected accuracy and coverage. The 52-degree inclined orbit of the ISS is well-suited for solar occultation and provides near-global observations on a monthly basis with excellent coverage of low and mid-latitudes. This is similar to that of the SAGE II mission (1985-2005), whose data set has served the international atmospheric science community as a standard for stratospheric ozone and aerosol measurements. The nominal science products include vertical profiles of trace gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water

  9. Synthesis, characterization and stability of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Papassiopi, N; Vaxevanidou, K; Christou, C; Karagianni, E; Antipas, G S E

    2014-01-15

    Chromium is a common contaminant of soils and aquifers and constitutes a major environmental problem. In nature, chromium usually exists in the form of two oxidation states, trivalent, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous for biota and for the aquatic environment, and hexavalent, Cr(VI) which is toxic, carcinogenic and very soluble. Accordingly, the majority of wastewater and groundwater treatment technologies, include a stage where Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), in order to remove chromium from the aqueous phase and bind the element in the form of environmentally stable solid compounds. In the absence of iron the final product is typically of the form Cr(OH)3·xH2O whereas in the presence of iron the precipitate is a mixed Fe(1-x)Crx(OH)3 phase. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterisation and stability of mixed (Fex,Cr1-x)(OH)3 hydroxides as compared to the stability of Cr(OH)3. We established that the plain Cr(III) hydroxide, abiding to the approximate molecular formula Cr(OH)3·3H2O, was crystalline, highly soluble, i.e. unstable, with a tendency to transform into the stable amorphous hydroxide Cr(OH)3(am) phase. Mixed Fe0.75Cr0.25(OH)3 hydroxides were found to be of the ferrihydrite structure, Fe(OH)3, and we correlated their solubility to that of a solid solution formed by plain ferrihydrite and the amorphous Cr(III) hydroxide. Both our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides are more effective enhancers of groundwater quality, in comparison to the plain amorphous or crystalline Cr(III) hydroxides, the latter found to have a solubility typically higher than 50μg/l (maximum EU permitted Cr level in drinking water), while the amorphous Cr(OH)3(am) phase was within the drinking water threshold in the range 5.7

  10. Synthesis of Imine-Naphthol Tripodal Ligand and Study of Its Coordination Behaviour towards Fe(III), Al(III), and Cr(III) Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kirandeep

    2014-01-01

    A hexadentate Schiff base tripodal ligand is synthesized by the condensation of tris (2-aminoethyl) amine with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like UV-VIS, IR, NMR, MASS, and elemental analysis. The solution studies by potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods are done at 25 ± 1°C, µ = 0.1 M KCl, to calculate the protonation constants of the ligand and formation constants of metal complexes formed by the ligand with Fe(III), Al(III), and Cr(III) metal ions. The affinity of the ligand towards Fe(III) is compared with deferiprone (a drug applied for iron intoxication) and transferrin (the main Fe(III) binding protein in plasma). Structural analysis of the ligand and the metal complexes was done using semiempirical PM6 method. Electronic and IR spectra are calculated by semiempirical methods and compared with experimental one. PMID:25294978

  11. AUTOCLASS III - AUTOMATIC CLASS DISCOVERY FROM DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The program AUTOCLASS III, Automatic Class Discovery from Data, uses Bayesian probability theory to provide a simple and extensible approach to problems such as classification and general mixture separation. Its theoretical basis is free from ad hoc quantities, and in particular free of any measures which alter the data to suit the needs of the program. As a result, the elementary classification model used lends itself easily to extensions. The standard approach to classification in much of artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition research involves partitioning of the data into separate subsets, known as classes. AUTOCLASS III uses the Bayesian approach in which classes are described by probability distributions over the attributes of the objects, specified by a model function and its parameters. The calculation of the probability of each object's membership in each class provides a more intuitive classification than absolute partitioning techniques. AUTOCLASS III is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or omitted. The user specifies a class probability distribution function by associating attribute sets with supplied likelihood function terms. AUTOCLASS then searches in the space of class numbers and parameters for the maximally probable combination. It returns the set of class probability function parameters, and the class membership probabilities for each data instance. AUTOCLASS III is written in Common Lisp, and is designed to be platform independent. This program has been successfully run on Symbolics and Explorer Lisp machines. It has been successfully used with the following implementations of Common LISP on the Sun: Franz Allegro CL, Lucid Common Lisp, and Austin Kyoto Common Lisp and similar UNIX platforms; under the Lucid Common Lisp implementations on VAX/VMS v5

  12. Neptunium(III) copper(I) diselenide

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Daniel M.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L.; Ibers, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, NpCuSe2, is the first ternary neptunium transition-metal chalcogenide. It was synthesized from the elements at 873 K in an evacuated fused-silica tube. Single crystals were grown by vapor transport with I2. NpCuSe2 crystallizes in the LaCuS2 structure type and can be viewed as a stacking of layers of CuSe4 tetra­hedra and of double layers of NpSe7 monocapped trigonal prisms along [100]. Because there are no Se—Se bonds in the structure, the formal oxidation states of Np/Cu/Se may be assigned as +III/+I/−II, respectively. PMID:21582032

  13. Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Laville, Cedric; Dyrda, James; Mennerdahl, Dennis; Golovko, Yury; Raskach, Kirill; Tsiboulia, Anatoly; Lee, Gil Soo; Woo, Sweng-Woong; Bidaud, Adrien; Patel, Amrit; Bledsoe, Keith C; Rearden, Bradley T; Gulliford, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

  14. Structural characterization of dimeric murine aminoacylase III.

    PubMed

    Ryazantsev, Sergey; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Bondar, Galyna; Kurtz, Ira; Pushkin, Alexander

    2007-05-01

    Aminoacylase III (AAIII) plays an important role in deacetylation of acetylated amino acids and N-acetylated S-cysteine conjugates of halogenated alkenes and alkanes. AAIII, recently cloned from mouse kidney and partially characterized, is a mixture of tetramers and dimers. In the present work, AAIII dimers were purified and shown to be enzymatically active. Limited trypsinolysis showed two domains of approximately 9 and 25 kDa. The three-dimensional structure of the dimer was studied by electron microscopy of negative stained samples and by single-particle reconstruction. A 16A resolution model of the AAIII dimer was created. It has an unusual, cage-like, structure. A realistic AAIII tetramer model was built from two dimers.

  15. Titan III - Commercial access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizinski, Stephen J., III; Herrington, Douglas B.

    1988-06-01

    The commercial Titan III launch vehicle is discussed, reviewing the history of the Titan program, the technical aspects of the launcher, and the market outlook. The solid rocket motors of the boost vehicle, core, attitude control system, and payload carrier are described. The vehicle can carry one or two payloads taking up a space of up to 3.65 m in diameter and 10.7 m in length. The avionics, communications, and electrical power systems of the vehicle are examined and the range of perigree stages with which the vehicle is compatible is given. An overview of the mission and the launch facilities is presented and future markets for commercial satellites are considered.

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  17. Neptunium(III) copper(I) diselenide.

    PubMed

    Wells, Daniel M; Skanthakumar, S; Soderholm, L; Ibers, James A

    2009-02-11

    The title compound, NpCuSe(2), is the first ternary neptunium transition-metal chalcogenide. It was synthesized from the elements at 873 K in an evacuated fused-silica tube. Single crystals were grown by vapor transport with I(2). NpCuSe(2) crystallizes in the LaCuS(2) structure type and can be viewed as a stacking of layers of CuSe(4) tetra-hedra and of double layers of NpSe(7) monocapped trigonal prisms along [100]. Because there are no Se-Se bonds in the structure, the formal oxidation states of Np/Cu/Se may be assigned as +III/+I/-II, respectively.

  18. The NATO III 5 MHz Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vulcan, A.; Bloch, M.

    1981-01-01

    A high performance 5 MHz distribution system is described which has extremely low phase noise and jitter characteristics and provides multiple buffered outputs. The system is completely redundant with automatic switchover and is self-testing. Since the 5 MHz reference signals distributed by the NATO III distribution system are used for up-conversion and multiplicative functions, a high degree of phase stability and isolation between outputs is necessary. Unique circuit design and packaging concepts insure that the isolation between outputs is sufficient to quarantee a phase perturbation of less than 0.0016 deg when other outputs are open circuited, short circuited or terminated in 50 ohms. Circuit design techniques include high isolation cascode amplifiers. Negative feedback stabilizes system gain and minimizes circuit phase noise contributions. Balanced lines, in lieu of single ended coaxial transmission media, minimize pickup.

  19. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J

    2011-07-15

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease.

  20. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Sachin

    2011-01-01

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease. PMID:21636980

  1. The type III effectors of Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    White, Frank F; Potnis, Neha; Jones, Jeffrey B; Koebnik, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    A review of type III effectors (T3 effectors) from strains of Xanthomonas reveals a growing list of candidate and known effectors based on functional assays and sequence and structural similarity searches of genomic data. We propose that the effectors and suspected effectors should be distributed into 39 so-called Xop groups reflecting sequence similarity. Some groups have structural motifs for putative enzymatic functions, and recent studies have provided considerable insight into the interaction with host factors in their function as mediators of virulence and elicitors of resistance for a few specific T3 effectors. Many groups are related to T3 effectors of plant and animal pathogenic bacteria, and several groups appear to have been exploited primarily by Xanthomonas species based on available data. At the same time, a relatively large number of candidate effectors remain to be examined in more detail with regard to their function within host cells.

  2. AUTOCLASS III - AUTOMATIC CLASS DISCOVERY FROM DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The program AUTOCLASS III, Automatic Class Discovery from Data, uses Bayesian probability theory to provide a simple and extensible approach to problems such as classification and general mixture separation. Its theoretical basis is free from ad hoc quantities, and in particular free of any measures which alter the data to suit the needs of the program. As a result, the elementary classification model used lends itself easily to extensions. The standard approach to classification in much of artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition research involves partitioning of the data into separate subsets, known as classes. AUTOCLASS III uses the Bayesian approach in which classes are described by probability distributions over the attributes of the objects, specified by a model function and its parameters. The calculation of the probability of each object's membership in each class provides a more intuitive classification than absolute partitioning techniques. AUTOCLASS III is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or omitted. The user specifies a class probability distribution function by associating attribute sets with supplied likelihood function terms. AUTOCLASS then searches in the space of class numbers and parameters for the maximally probable combination. It returns the set of class probability function parameters, and the class membership probabilities for each data instance. AUTOCLASS III is written in Common Lisp, and is designed to be platform independent. This program has been successfully run on Symbolics and Explorer Lisp machines. It has been successfully used with the following implementations of Common LISP on the Sun: Franz Allegro CL, Lucid Common Lisp, and Austin Kyoto Common Lisp and similar UNIX platforms; under the Lucid Common Lisp implementations on VAX/VMS v5

  3. 77 FR 62518 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) Request for Generic Clearance SUMMARY: In compliance...: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III). Type of Information Collection Request... Evaluation ] Study-III (REDS-III) program is to ensure safe and effective blood banking and transfusion...

  4. Variation in plasmonic (electronic) spectral parameters of Pr (III) and Nd (III) with varied concentration of moderators

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Shubha; Limaye, S. N.

    2015-07-31

    It is said that the -4f shells behave as core and are least perturbed by changes around metal ion surrounding. However, there are evidences that-4f shells partially involved in direct moderator interaction. A systematic investigation on the plasmonic (electronic) spectral studies of some Rare Earths[RE(III).Mod] where, RE(III) = Pr(III),Nd(III) and Mod(moderator) = Y(III),La(III),Gd(III) and Lu(III), increased moderator concentration from 0.01 mol dm{sup −3} to 0.025 mol dm{sup −3} keeping the metal ion concentration at 0.01mol dm{sup −3} have been carried out. Variations in oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt parameters (T{sub λ}),inter-electronic repulsion Racah parameters (δE{sup k}),nephelauxetic ratio (β), radiative parameters (S{sub ED},A{sub T},β{sub R},T{sub R}). The values of oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt parameters have been discussed in the light of coordination number of RE(III) metal ions, denticity and basicity of the moderators. The [RE(III).Mod] bonding pattern has been studies in the light of the change in Racah parameters and nephelauxetic ratio.

  5. Expression of anti-neuroexcitation peptide III of scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch BmK ANEP III in plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Y B; Huang, T T; Lai, L L; Zhou, J; Yang, W Y; Zhang, J H

    2011-01-01

    Anti-neuroexcitation peptide III of Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK ANEP III) has better anti-epileptic and anticonvulsive effects in the test animal models. The present study is aimed at developing transgenic tomato and tobacco lines overproducing the ANEP III protein. Using the molecular cloning technique, the plant expression vector pBI-ANEP III was constructed successfully. The ANEP III expression cassette included a double CaMV 35S promoter with omega enhancers, the ANEP III gene with the Kozak sequence, the ER retention signal and the NOS terminator. Recombinant plasmids were transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 by freeze-thaw transformation methods. By the Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation method, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) lines were transformed. Transformants were screened and confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. It was demonstrated that the ANEP III gene was successfully expressed in the genomic DNA of transgenic plants. The ANEP III protein was detected by immunofluorescence analysis, and the results confirmed the high amount of ANEP III protein, being 0.81 and 1.08% of total soluble proteins in transgenic tobacco and tomato. The study of plants with high expression levels of ANEP III has an important theoretical and practical significance and provides valuable information for establishing a new, economical and effective system for industrial protein production.

  6. DECIMETRIC TYPE III BURSTS: GENERATION AND PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Yan, Y. H.

    2011-09-01

    Simulations are presented for decimetric type III radio bursts at 2f{sub p} , where f{sub p} is the local electron plasma frequency. The simulations show that 2f{sub p} radiation can be observed at Earth in two scenarios for the radiation's generation and propagation. In Scenario A, radiation is produced and propagates in warm plasmas in the lower corona that are caused by previous magnetic reconnection outflows and/or chromospheric evaporation. In Scenario B radiation is generated in normal plasmas, then due to its natural directivity pattern and refraction, radiation partly propagates into nearby regions, which are hot because of previous reconnection/evaporation. The profiles of plasma density n{sub e} (r) and electron temperature T{sub e} (r) in the lower corona (r - R{sub sun} {approx}< 100 Mm) are found to be crucial to whether radiation can be produced and escape at observable levels against the effects of free-free absorption, where r is the heliocentric distance. Significantly, the observed wide ranges of radiation properties (e.g., drift rates) require n{sub e} (r) with a large range of scale heights h{sub s} , consistent nonetheless for Scenario B with short observed EUV loops. This is relevant to problems with large h{sub s} inferred from tall EUV loops. The simulations suggest: (1) n{sub e} (r) with small h{sub s} , such as n{sub e} (r){proportional_to}(r - R{sub sun}){sup -2.38} for flaring regions, are unexpectedly common deep in the corona. This result is consistent with recent work on n{sub e} (r) for r {approx} (1.05-2)R{sub sun} extracted from observed metric type IIIs. (2) The dominance of reverse-slope bursts over normal bursts sometimes observed may originate from asymmetric reconnection/acceleration, which favors downgoing beams.

  7. IFU spectroscopy of southern planetary nebulae - III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Dopita, M. A.; Basurah, H. M.; Amer, M. A.; Alsulami, R.; Alruhaili, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we describe integral field spectroscopic observations of four southern Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), M3-4, M3-6, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 covering the spectral range 3400-7000 Å. We derive the ionization structure, the physical conditions, the chemical compositions and the kinematical characteristics of these PNe and find good agreement with previous studies that relied upon the long-slit technique in their co-spatial area. From their chemical compositions as well as their spatial and kinematic characteristics, we determined that Hen2-29 is of the Peimbert type I (He- and N-rich), while the other three are of type II. The strength of the nebular He II line reveals that M3-3, Hen2-29 and Hen2-37 are of mid to high excitation classes while M3-6 is a low-excitation PN. A series of emission-line maps extracted from the data cubes were constructed for each PN to describe its overall structure. These show remarkable morphological diversity. Spatially resolved spectroscopy of M3-6 shows that the recombination lines of C II, C III, C IV and N III are of nebular origin, rather than arising from the central star as had been previously proposed. This result increases doubts regarding the weak emission-line star (WELS) classification raised by Basurah et al. In addition, they reinforce the probability that most genuine cases of WELS arise from irradiation effects in close binary central stars.

  8. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  9. Detecting population III galaxies with HST and JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackrisson, E.

    2012-09-01

    A small fraction of the atomic-cooling halos assembling at z < 15 may form out of minihalos that never experienced any prior star formation, and could in principle host small galaxies of chemically unenriched stars. Since the prospects of detecting isolated population III stars appear bleak even with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), these population III galaxies may offer one of the best probes of population III stars in the foreseeable future. By projecting the results from population III galaxy simulations through cluster magnification maps, we predict the fluxes and surface number densities of pop III galaxy galaxies as a function of their typical star formation efficiency. We argue that a small number of lensed population III galaxies in principle could turn up at z ~ 7-10 in the ongoing Hubble Space Telecope survey CLASH, which covers a total of 25 low-redshift galaxy clusters.

  10. [Biotransformation of mogroside III by human intestinal bacteria].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu Wei; Zhang, Jian Ye; Xu, Wei

    2007-12-18

    To investigate the biotransformation of mogroside III, one of the main chemical constituent in the fruits of Momordica grosvenori Swingle, by the crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria, and determine the structure of biotransformation products and provide scientific basis for absorption evaluation of primary mogroside III in human intestine. The mogroside III was incubated with crude enzymes of human intestinal bacteria under the anaerobic environment and 37 degrees C condition to transform mogroside III. The biotransformation products were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, and structurally determined by infra-red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and mass spectroscopy (MS) techniques. Mogroside III was converted to mogroside II(A1) and mogrol by successive deglycosylation at C-3 of the glucosyl group and C-24 of the gentiobiosyl group. The human intestinal bacteria showed potent ability to transform mogroside III to release secondary glycoside mogroside II(A1) and aglycone mogrol.

  11. Wide Bandgap III-Nitride Micro- and Nano-Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-05

    AND DATES COVERED Final Report 10/2003 – 10/2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wide Bandgap III-Nitride Micro - and Nano -Photonics 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...device issues and to explore potential applications of III-nitrides for UV micro - and nano -photonic devices. The KSU team has achieved 1. n-type...Award No: DAAD19-03-1-0337 Project Title: Wide Bandgap III-Nitride Micro - and Nano -Photonics PI Name: Hongxing Jiang & Jingyu Lin PI Address

  12. Skeletal and dental modifications produced by the Bionator III appliance.

    PubMed

    Garattini, G; Levrini, L; Crozzoli, P; Levrini, A

    1998-07-01

    The therapeutic results of a functional orthopedic treatment with a Balters' Bionator III appliance were evaluated. The sample group included 39 white growing subjects with a dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion. A 2-year study compared results with a control group. The results showed that the Bionator III is effective, especially when the malocclusion is mainly the result of a midfacial deficiency and when there is a hypodivergent growth pattern.

  13. Environmentally friendly organic synthesis using bismuth(III) compounds.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Scott W; Mohan, Ram S

    2012-01-01

    With increasing environmental concerns, the need for environmentally friendly organic synthesis has gained increased importance. In this regard, bismuth(III) compounds are especially attractive as "green" reagents and catalysts for organic synthesis. Bismuth(III) compounds are remarkably nontoxic, relatively air and moisture stable, and easy to handle. The contributions from our laboratory in the last 5 years in the field of applications of bismuth(III) compounds as catalysts are presented.

  14. ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ALTERNATIVE TO A CLASS III SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997

  15. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide (III).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    examined. An effect of a macrocyclic -ring current and an induced shift caused by lanthanide (III) ions were discussed. INTRODUCTION NMR studies of...reported some NMR results of lithium, zinc, 2 and uranyl phthalocyanines. Lanthanide complexes such as acethylacetonato- lanthanide (III) and its...University, College Station, TX 77843 (Received , 1980) The NHR spectra of bisphthalocyaninatolanthanide(III) complexes (La, Nd, Sm, and Eu) have been

  16. Wide-bandgap III-Nitride based Second Harmonic Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    Jun-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Wide-bandgap III - Nitride based Second Harmonic Generation The views...Report: Wide-bandgap III - Nitride based Second Harmonic Generation Report Title It was demonstrated that GaN, AlGaN and AlN lateral polar structures can...research have been socialized to the III - Nitride Optoelectronics Center of Excellence (ARL SEDD) and to the 2013 ARO Staff Research Symposium and at

  17. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chroneos, A.; Tahini, H. A.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Grimes, R. W.

    2014-07-14

    Density functional based simulation, corrected for finite size effects, is used to investigate systematically the formation of antisite defects in III-V semiconductors (III = Al, Ga, and In and V = P, As, and Sb). Different charge states are modelled as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III{sub V}{sup q}) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V{sub III}{sup q}) show a consistent decrease in formation energies with increase in group III and group V covalent radii. In general, III{sub V}{sup q} defects dominate under III-rich conditions and V{sub III}{sup q} under V-rich conditions. Comparison with equivalent vacancy formation energy simulations shows that while antisite concentrations are always dominant under stoichiometric conditions, modest variation in growth or doping conditions can lead to a significantly higher concentration of vacancies.

  18. Mobility and recalcitrance of organo-chromium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Puzon, Geoffrey J; Tokala, Ranjeet K; Zhang, Hua; Yonge, David; Peyton, Brent M; Xun, Luying

    2008-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a major industrial pollutant. Bioremediation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is a viable clean-up approach. However, Cr(VI) bioreduction also produces soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes, and little is known about their behavior in the environment. When tested with soil columns, citrate-Cr(III) showed little sorption to soil; malate-Cr(III) had limited partitioning with soil; and histidine-Cr(III) exhibited significant interaction with soil. It appears that the mobility varies depending on the organic ligand. Further, Ralstonia eutropha JMP 134 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pAO1 readily degraded malate, citrate, and histidine, but not the corresponding organo-Cr(III) complexes. The recalcitrance is not due to toxicity, but the complexes are likely to cause hindrance to enzymes, as malate dehydrogenase and amino acid oxidase could not use malate-Cr(III) and histidine-Cr(III), respectively. The data are in agreement with the reports of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes in the environment.

  19. [Principle and practice of clinical phase III studies].

    PubMed

    Morant, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Randomized phase III studies compare new treatments with standard therapy according to defined guidelines and legal rules. Large international randomized phase III studies are some of the most complex and expensive medical experiments. The results of such trials will decide about the future of new drugs and are the basis of evidence-based medicine and the development of clinical guidelines. This contribution discusses randomization, endpoints, inclusion and exclusion criteria of phase III trials as well as further challenges when developing and conducting phase III studies in oncology. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Characterization of the biochemical properties of Campylobacter jejuni RNase III

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Nabila; Saramago, Margarida; Matos, Rute G.; Prévost, Hervé; Arraiano, Cecília M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen, which is now considered as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The information regarding ribonucleases in C. jejuni is very scarce but there are hints that they can be instrumental in virulence mechanisms. Namely, PNPase (polynucleotide phosphorylase) was shown to allow survival of C. jejuni in refrigerated conditions, to facilitate bacterial swimming, cell adhesion, colonization and invasion. In several microorganisms PNPase synthesis is auto-controlled in an RNase III (ribonuclease III)-dependent mechanism. Thereby, we have cloned, overexpressed, purified and characterized Cj-RNase III (C. jejuni RNase III). We have demonstrated that Cj-RNase III is able to complement an Escherichia coli rnc-deficient strain in 30S rRNA processing and PNPase regulation. Cj-RNase III was shown to be active in an unexpectedly large range of conditions, and Mn2+ seems to be its preferred co-factor, contrarily to what was described for other RNase III orthologues. The results lead us to speculate that Cj-RNase III may have an important role under a Mn2+-rich environment. Mutational analysis strengthened the function of some residues in the catalytic mechanism of action of RNase III, which was shown to be conserved. PMID:24073828