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Sample records for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate

  1. Solvent and rotational relaxation of Coumarin-153 in a micellar solution of a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate, in ethylammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Ghatak, Chiranjib; Pramanik, Rajib; Sarkar, Souravi; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated the micelle formation by room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate (bmimOs) with another RTIL, ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). In addition, the effect of micelle formation on the solvation and rotational relaxation dynamics have been observed using steady-state and picoseconds time-resolved spectroscopy. Both the solvent and rotational relaxations of Coumarin-153 are retarded in the micelle compared to that of neat EAN. The increase in average solvation time on going from neat EAN to bmimOs-EAN micelle is very small compared to the increase in solvation time on going from pure water to water containing micelle.

  2. Swelling and hydrolysis kinetics of Kraft pulp fibers in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jia; Abushammala, Hatem; Pereira, Laura Barcellos; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2016-11-20

    1Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([Bmim]HSO4) is efficient at extracting cellulose nanocrystals from pulp fibers. To shed some light on the respective contributions of swelling and hydrolysis of pulp fibers by [Bmim]HSO4, the physical, structural and morphological characteristics of hardwood Kraft pulp fibers were monitored under various conditions of temperature, water content and time. Swelling was largely compounded by hydrolysis at the highest temperatures (120°C) as evidenced by mass loss and reduced degree of polymerization (DPn) at this temperature. At 120°C only, water content appeared to play a significant role on the extent of hydrolysis. At this temperature, a heterogeneous kinetic model involving weak links and amorphous regions best described the experimental data. Hydrolysis rates were maximum at 25% water content in the aqueous ionic liquid. PMID:27561498

  3. Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide on the Relative Stability between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoaggregates.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel M Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme M Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro J Patiño; Hespanhol da Silva, Maria C; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2015-12-24

    It is well-known that ionic liquids (ILs) alter the properties of aqueous systems containing only surfactants. However, the effect of ILs on polymer-surfactant systems is still unknown. Here, the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) and chloride (bmimCl) on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was evaluated using conductimetry, fluorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ILs decreased the critical micellar concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, stabilizing the SDS micelles. A second critical concentration (c2thc) was verified at high SDS concentrations, due to the micelle size decrease. The stability of PEO/SDS aggregates was also affected by ILs, and the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of SDS increased. Integral aggregation enthalpy changed from -0.72 in water to 2.16 kJ mol(-1) in 4.00 mM bmimBr. IL anions did not affect the SDS micellization or the beginning of PEO/SDS aggregation. Nevertheless, when chloride was replaced with bromide, the amount of SDS bound to the polymer increased. At 100.0 mM IL, the PEO-SDS interaction vanished. We suggest that the effect of ILs comes from participating in the structure of the formed aggregates, interacting with the SDS monomers at the core/interface of the micelles, and promoting preferential solvation of the polymer. PMID:26595360

  4. Characterization of cellulose II nanoparticles regenerated from ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regenerated cellulose nanoparticles (RCNs) including both elongated fiber and spherical structures were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)and cotton using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride followed by high-pressure homogenization. The crystalline structure of RCNs was cellulose II in ...

  5. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM TETRACHLOROGALLATE AND ITS CATALYTIC USE IN ACETAL FORMATION UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachlorogallate, [bmim][GaCl4], prepared via microwave-assisted protocol, is found to be an active catalyst for the efficient acetalization of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  6. Reductive splitting of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Van Doorslaer, Charlie; Mertens, Pascal G N; Binnemans, Koen; De Vos, Dirk E

    2010-01-01

    The depolymerization of cellulose is carried out in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in the presence of hydrogen gas. First, the ketal 1,1-diethoxycyclohexane and cellobiose were used as model substrates. For the depolymerization of cellulose itself, the combination of a heterogeneous metal catalyst and a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst proved effective. One of the possible roles of the ruthenium compound is to enhance the transfer of hydrogen to the metallic surface. The cellulose is fully converted under relatively mild conditions, with sorbitol as the dominant product in 51-74% yield. PMID:20049766

  7. Electron density analysis of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    del Olmo, Lourdes; Morera-Boado, Cercis; López, Rafael; García de la Vega, José M

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the electron density of different conformers of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (bmimCl) ionic liquid by using DFT through the BVP86 density functional has been obtained within the framework of Bader's atom in molecules (AIM), localized orbital locator (LOL), natural bond orbital (NBO), and deformed atoms in molecules (DAM). We also present an analysis of the reduced density gradients that deliver the non-covalent interaction regions and allow to understand the nature of intermolecular interactions. The most polar conformer can be characterized as ionic by AIM, LOL, and DAM methods while the most stable and the least polar shows shared-type interactions. The NBO method allows to comprehend what causes the stabilization of the most stable conformer based on analysis of the second-order perturbative energy and the charge transferred among the natural orbitals involved in the interaction. PMID:24878801

  8. Characterization of cellulose II nanoparticles regenerated from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingquan; Zhou, Chengjun; French, Alfred D; Han, Guangping; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    Regenerated cellulose nanoparticles (RCNs) including both elongated fiber and spherical structures were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and cotton using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride followed by high-pressure homogenization. The crystalline structure of RCNs was cellulose II in contrast to the cellulose I form of the starting materials. Also, the RCNs have decreased crystallinity and crystallite size. The elongated RCNs produced from cotton and MCC had average lengths of 123 ± 34 and 112 ± 42 nm, and mean widths of 12 ± 5 and 12 ± 3 nm, respectively. The average diameter of spherical RCNs from MCC was 118 ± 32nm. The dimensions of the various RCNs were all well fitted with an asymmetrical log-normal distribution function. The RCN has a two-step pyrolysis, different from raw MCC and cotton that have a one-step process. PMID:23544632

  9. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2014-09-03

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Wasewar, Kailas L; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z

    2016-05-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM]SCN has been presented on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. The FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]SCN. Further, thermal, conductivity, moisture content, viscosity, and solubility analyses of [BMIM]SCN were carried out. The effects of time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of [BMIM]SCN on removal of dibenzothiophene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization, removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 86.5 % for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild process conditions. [BMIM]SCN could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, in the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels. PMID:26139406

  11. Novel Electroactive-paper Gel Preparations via 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunchornsup, Wissawin; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2010-03-01

    Papers used in the field of electro-responsive applications are known as Electroactive-papers (EAPaps), consisting primarily of a cellulose. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) is an interesting ionic liquid that acts as an effective cellulose solvent for EAPap due to its high solubility without chain derivatization, less chain degradation, and stability in electro-responsive applications. In our work, physical and chemical cellulose gels were fabricated and studied for the effects of varying crosslinking ratio (CR) and aging time (tag), with glutaraldehyde (GA) acting as the crosslinking agent. The crosslinking reaction conversion could be increased by increasing the CR and tag; the reaction products are ketone linkages and by-product water molecules. A difference in optical properties could be observed and related to the differing amounts of ketone linkages, as confirmed by FTIR-ATR, and the degradation temperature (Td). Our paper-gels showed potential characteristics towards electro-responsive applications: less preparation time (< 14 hours) and stable gel properties.

  12. DFT study of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate: a third-generation ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J; Vraneš, Milan; Tot, Aleksandar; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2015-09-01

    A detailed theoretical investigation of the third-generation ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate ([BMIM][Sal]), performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT), is presented in this paper. The B3LYP-D3, M06-2X, and M06-2X-D3 functionals were used to obtain the equilibrium geometries of the two ions [BMIM](+) and [Sal](-). It is shown that the equilibrium ion geometries obtained with the dispersion-corrected B3LYP functional are very close to the ion geometries obtained with the M06-2X and M06-2X-D3 functionals. Global reactivity was assessed using molecular orbital theory and quantum molecular descriptors. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces and average local ionization energy (ALIE) surfaces were created in order to elucidate the charge distribution and reactivity of the investigated IL. Ion-pair binding energies were calculated with all three functionals, and the results confirmed the presence of a strong electrostatic interaction between the ions, while further insight into the interactions between the two ions was obtained by analyzing noncovalent interactions based on the reduced density gradient (RDG) surface, which revealed a total of nine interactions between the ions. Finally, the aromaticity of each ion was investigated by calculating the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) parameter, which indicated that significant changes in the charge delocalization on each ion occur when the two ions interact. PMID:26318199

  13. Electrodeposition of Nanocrystalline Chromium Coatings Based on 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium-Bromide Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    He, Xinkuai; Zhu, Qingyun; Hou, Bailong; Cai, Youxing; Li, Chen; Fu, Liqin; Wu, Luye

    2015-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of trivalent chromium reduction from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-bromide ([BMIM]Br) ionic liquid is studied. The result of cyclic voltammetry shows that the Cr(III) reduction is irreversible and occurs in two steps, Cr(III)to Cr(II), and Cr(II) to Cr(0), respectively. In the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, the preferable equivalent circuit is made to fit the experimental data. The effects of electroplating parameters on coating thickness and electrodepositon rate are investigated by potentiostatic method on Cu electrode from Cr(III)-[BMIM]Br solution. The results show that the temperature and depositing potential have great effect on the coating thickness and electrodeposition rate. The surface morphology and composition of deposited Cr are investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SEM analysis shows that chromium electrodeposits obtained on Cu electrodes present a ball-like structure. EDS analysis shows that the coatings are composed of Cr. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the as-deposited chromium layer is evaluated using polarization curves. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the chromium coatings obtained at higher potential is better. PMID:26682363

  14. Influence of counterions on micellization of tetramethylammonium perfluorononanoic carboxylate in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Long, Panfeng; Chen, Jingfei; Wang, Dong; Hu, Ziqi; Gao, Xuedong; Li, Ziran; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-07-01

    The influence of counterions on micellization of perfluorononanoic carboxylate ammonium salts in water and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF(4)) solutions was investigated by surface tension and (19)F NMR measurements and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) observations. Changes in the counterions of the fluorocarbon surfactants have different effects on the two solvents. With the increase of counterion volume, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of relevant fluorinated surfactant decreases in aqueous solutions. This is because the counterions with larger size, such as (+)N(CH(3))(4), can be little hydrated, which can screen the electrostatic repulsion of the headgroups of the fluorocarbon surfactant and thus facilitate micelle formation. However, the fluorocarbon surfactants can dissolve and form micelles in [bmim]BF(4) only when they provide with largest counterion such as (+)N(CH(3))(4). This is because the counterion, (+)N(CH(3))(4), disperses the charge of the cations, which could weaken the electrostatic interaction between the ion pair of the surfactant, leading to a higher degree of counterion binding. The thermodynamic parameters estimated from the temperature dependence of the cmc values tell us that the micelle formation for tetramethylammonium perfluorononanoic carboxylate (C(8)F(17)COON(CH(3))(4), PFNT) in ionic liquids (ILs) is an entropy-driven process at low temperature but an enthalpy-driven process at high temperature. The driving force of the micellization for fluorocarbon surfactants in [bmim]BF(4) is the solvophobic effect, due to the hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of fluorocarbon chains. PMID:22690854

  15. Rapid dissolution of switchgrass in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride by ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Montalbo-Lomboy, Melissa; Grewell, David

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ultrasonics to rapidly dissolve switchgrass in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]) was evaluated in this work. The objective of the study focused on determining the effects of various ultrasonic conditions on the recovery of carbohydrate from biomass, lignin removal, and enzymatic hydrolysis. Dried ground switchgrass was added to ionic liquid, then sonicated at a frequency of 20kHz. The experiments were conducted using a catenoidal horn at varying amplitudes of 96μm, 128μm, and 160μm and sonication times of 2, 3, and 4min. Similarly, ground switchgrass was dissolved in ionic liquid assisted by conventional heat treatment at 130°C for 12 and 24h. The results showed good delignification results of 53% for the 24h heat pretreated samples and of 50.8% for ultrasonic assisted samples at 160μm amplitude and 4min. Even in the presence of lignin in the recovered biopolymer, both of heat treated and ultrasonicated samples obtained 100% glucan digestibility after only 3h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Heat pretreated samples exhibited 44-59% lower xylan digestibility compared to ultrasonic pretreated samples (160μm amplitude and 4min sonication time). Scanning electron microscope images displayed significant changes in biomass structure from intact and crystalline of the untreated biomass to disintegrated and amorphous of the treated biomass (heat treated and ultrasonicated). With increasing ultrasonic amplitude the carbohydrate recovery decreased. Also, more than 50% of the hemicellulose fraction was lost during biomass recovery. Overall, it was concluded that ultrasonication was a promising technology to enhance dissolution of lignocellulose in ionic liquid. PMID:25041976

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Mena, María; Chanfreau, Sébastien; Gimeno, Miquel; Bárzana, Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    This article reports the lipase-catalyzed ring-opening copolymerization of L-lactide (LLA) and glycolide using the commercially available ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as solvent media. Candida antarctica lipase B, immobilized in an acrylic support was used as biocatalyst. The reaction temperature had a direct influence on yields and molecular weights of the copolymers as well as LLA incorporation. The materials presented semi-crystalline structures assessed by DSC and powder XR diffraction analyses. PMID:20490553

  17. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Inverstigation of Molecular-level Behavior within Aqueous 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Abhra; Ali, Maroof; Baker, Gary A; Tetin, Sergey Y.; Ruan, Qiaoqiao; Pandey, Siddharth

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an array of molecular-level solvent featuressincluding solute-solvent/solvent-solvent interactions, dipolarity, heterogeneity, dynamics, probe accessibility, and diffusionswere investigated across the entire composition of ambient mixtures containing the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer, based on results assembled for nine different molecular probes utilized in a range of spectroscopic modes. These studies uncovered interesting and unusual solvatochromic probe behavior within this benchmark mixture. Solvatochromic absorbance probessa watersoluble betaine dye (betaine dye 33), N,N-diethyl-4-nitroaniline, and 4-nitroanilineswere employed to determine ET (a blend of dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor contributions) and the Kamlet-Taft indices * (dipolarity/polarizability), R (hydrogen bond donor acidity), and (hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) characterizing the [bmim][BF4] + phosphate buffer system. These parameters each showed a marked deviation from ideality, suggesting selective solvation of the individual probe solutes by [bmim][BF4]. Similar conclusions were derived from the responses of the fluorescent polarity-sensitive probes pyrene and pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde. Importantly, the fluorescent microfluidity probe 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane senses a microviscosity within the mixture that significantly exceeds expectations derived from simple interpolation of the behavior in the neat solvents. On the basis of results from this probe, a correlation between microviscosity and bulk viscosity was established; pronounced solvent-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions were implicit in this behavior. The greatest deviation from ideal additive behavior for the probes studied herein was consistently observed to occur in the buffer-rich regime. Nitromethane-based fluorescence quenching of pyrene within the [bmim][BF4] + phosphate buffer system showed unusual compliance with a sphere

  18. Glycine in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and trifluoroacetate ionic liquids: effect of fluorination and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Podgoršek, Ajda; Macchiagodena, Marina; Ramondo, Fabio; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Pádua, Agílio A H

    2012-05-14

    The solvation of glycine in two ionic liquids (ILs), namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C(1)C(4)Im][OAc], and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, [C(1)C(4)Im][TFA], was studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The solubility of glycine in both ILs was determined at 333.15 K to be (8.1±0.5) and (1.0±0.5) wt % in [C(1)C(4)Im][OAc] and [C(1)C(4)Im][TFA], respectively. By IR spectroscopy it was found that, when dissolved in the ILs, glycine was mainly present in its zwitterionic form. Structural and energetic aspects of the solvation of glycine in the ILs and in mixtures of ILs and water were investigated by ab initio calculations and molecular dynamic simulations. It was observed that the firstly solvation shell around glycine consisted predominantly of acetate or trifluoroacetate anions, which formed hydrogen bonds either with the carboxylic group of neutral glycine or with the protonated ammonium group of the zwitterionic form. When water is present in the solutions, hydrogen bonds between water and the anion prevail. The overall energy of the system was decomposed into its components between pairs of species. It was established that the dominant contribution to the interaction energy between glycine and the IL was due to hydrogen bonds with the anions and the statistics of hydrogen bonds were analysed. PMID:22434786

  19. Anomalous Freezing of Nano-Confined Water in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nitrate.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Saihara, Koji; Shimizu, Akio

    2016-04-18

    Non-crystal formation of ice is investigated by simultaneous X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements upon cooling to -100 °C. At room temperature, size-tunable water confinement (≈20 Å size) in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, [C4 mim][NO3 ]) exists in a water-rich region (70-90 mol % D2 O). The confined water (water pocket) is characterized by almost monodispersive size distribution. In [C4 mim][NO3 ]-x mol % D2 O (70

  20. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-01

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10-4 S cm-1 at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  1. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-25

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  2. Transport properties of binary mixtures of carbon dioxide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate studied by transient grating spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Demizu, Masashi; Terazima, Masahide; Kimura, Yoshifumi

    2008-10-01

    Transient grating spectroscopy was applied to measurements of sound velocity and thermal diffusivity in binary mixture solutions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF(6)]) along the saturated line of CO(2) at 40 degrees C up to 20.0 MPa. The sound velocity decreased more than 10% by increasing the pressure to 10 MPa, and the pressure effect was very small above 10 MPa. The change in the thermal diffusivity was small. The translational diffusion coefficients of carbon monoxide, diphenylacetylene (DPA), and diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) were also determined. The diffusion coefficients increased up to 10 MPa, and the pressure effect was almost saturated above 10 MPa. The pressure dependence of the diffusion coefficients of DPCP and DPA was larger than that of carbon monoxide. The results are discussed in relation with the viscosity change caused by applying pressure. PMID:18845895

  3. Comparison and Characterisation of Regenerated Chitosan from 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride and Chitosan from Crab Shells

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin which is naturally occurring in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. This paper reports dissolution and regeneration of chitosan by directly dissolving in an ionic liquid solvent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl). This will provide an ideal platform to solubilise these kinds of polymers to achieve the dissolution. The current study dissolved chitosan from crab shell utilising BMIMCl as a solvent and characterised the resultant regenerated polymer. The regenerated chitosan showed increased hydrogen bonding when characterised by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. In addition, the study also compared the characteristics of regenerated and generic chitosan. The regenerated chitosan was also evaluated for antimicrobial properties and showed to possess antibacterial features similar to the commercial grade. This method can be utilised in future for blending of polymers with chitosan in a dissolved phase. PMID:26090452

  4. Experimental and quantum study of corrosion of A36 mild steel towards 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Sami; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Shariff, Azmi Mohamad; Gonfa, Girma; Izzat, Khairul

    2016-03-01

    The corrosion behaviour of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate ([C4C1im][FeCl4]) towards A36 mild steel was studied through experiments and quantum calculations. The corrosion rates were obtained through immersion tests both in open and controlled environments. The surface morphology of the A36 mild steel was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of temperature and water content on the corrosion of the ionic liquid towards A36 mild steel were studied through electrochemical corrosion measurement techniques. The results show that the corrosion of [C4C1im][FeCl4] towards the mild steel in the open environment is 17 times higher than in the control environment. The corrosion rate increases with increasing temperature and water content in [C4C1im][FeCl4]. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed to gain some insight into the interactions of [C4C1im][FeCl4] with the A36 mild steels surface.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane at 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide interface

    SciTech Connect

    Lisal, Martin; Izak, Pavel

    2013-07-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane adsorbed onto the interface of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([bmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) are performed at three n-hexane surface densities, ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} at 300 K. For [bmim][Tf{sub 2}N] room-temperature ionic liquid, we use a non-polarizable all-atom force field with the partial atomic charges based on ab initio calculations for the isolated ion pair. The net charges of the ions are {+-}0.89e, which mimics the anion to cation charge transfer and polarization effects. The OPLS-AA force field is employed for modeling of n-hexane. The surface tension is computed using the mechanical route and its value decreases with increase of the n-hexane surface density. The [bmim][Tf{sub 2}N]/n-hexane interface is analyzed using the intrinsic method, and the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial, sub-interfacial, and central layers are computed. We determine the surface roughness, global and intrinsic density profiles, and orientation ordering of the molecules to describe the structure of the interface. We further compute the survival probability, normal and lateral self-diffusion coefficients, and re-orientation correlation functions to elucidate the effects of n-hexane on dynamics of the cations and anions in the layers.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3 methylimidazolium chloride as green material for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Wasewar, Kailas L

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency. PMID:24307868

  7. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

    2015-03-21

    Although considered as "green" solvents, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) on organisms have been widely investigated in recent years. However, studies on the toxic effects of ILs on plants all focus on toxicity in nutrient solution. In the present paper, the toxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) on Vicia faba seedlings in soil at 0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg kg(-1) on day 10 were studied. The present results showed that the growth of V. faba seedlings may be seriously inhibited when the IL concentrations were higher than 500 mg kg(-1). The EC50 values for shoot length, root length, and dry weight were 3886, 2483, and 3359 mg kg(-1), respectively. In addition, [C4mim]Cl caused lipid peroxidation and DNA damage at 500 mg kg(-1) and oxidative stress at 1500 mg kg(-1), which indicated that [C4mim]Cl may have genotoxicity and cytotoxicity on V. faba seedlings. Moreover, oxidative damage may be the main toxic mechanism of ILs. PMID:25462868

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A.; Varma, Mahesh N.; Shende, Diwakar Z.; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Wasewar, Kailas L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency. PMID:24307868

  9. Role of solubilized water in micelles formed by Triton X-100 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Shaohua; Ma, Hongchao; Zheng, Liqiang

    2010-06-15

    We demonstrate here the aggregation behavior of a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 in two 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids (the hydrophilic IL [bmim][BF(4)] and the hydrophobic IL [bmim][PF(6)]) by surface tension measurements. The effects of added water on the microstructure of Triton X-100 in ILs micelles are investigated. When small amounts of water are added to Triton X-100 in [bmim][PF(6)] micelles, the water molecules are first bound to the ethylene oxide (EO) units of Triton X-100 and then form the water pool in the core of the microemulsion. When water molecules are added to the Triton X-100 in [bmim][BF(4)] micelles, there is no microemulsion formed; these water molecules are first solubilized in [bmim][BF(4)]. When the solubilization is saturated, the water molecules start to bind to the EO group of Triton X-100; these results are confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, and (1)H NMR spectra. PMID:20302278

  10. Catalytic activities of fungal oxidases in hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate-based microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gui-Ping; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Xi-Rong; Shi, Chuan-Hong; Liu, Wei-Feng; Li, Yue-Zhong; Qu, Yin-Bo; Gao, Pei-Ji

    2008-10-01

    For hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF(6)]), an H(2)O-in-[BMIM][PF(6)] microemulsion could be formed in the presence of nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100). In such a medium, both lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase could express their catalytic activity with the optimum molar ratio of H(2)O to TX-100 at 8.0 for LiP and >20 for laccase, and the optimum pH values at 3.2 for LiP and 4.2 for laccase, respectively. As compared with pure or water saturated [BMIM][PF(6)], in which the two oxidases had negligible catalytic activity due to the strong inactivating effect of [BMIM][PF(6)] on both enzymes, the use of the [BMIM][PF(6)]-based microemulsion had some advantages. Not only the catalytic activities of both fungal oxidases greatly enhanced, but also the apparent viscosity of the medium decreased. PMID:18602799

  11. Structural studies of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/ p-xylene ionic liquid microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan'an; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Hongyan; Zhao, Xueyan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Xinwei; Yu, Li

    2006-07-17

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) forms nonaqueous microemulsions with p-xylene, with the aid of the nonionic surfactant TX-100. The phase behavior of the ternary system is investigated, and three microregions of the microemulsions-ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O), bicontinuous, and oil-in-ionic liquid (O/IL)-are identified by conductivity measurements, according to percolation theory. On the basis of a phase diagram, a series of IL/O microemulsions are chosen and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The size of aggregates increases on increasing the amount of added polar component (bmimBF(4)), which is a similar phenomenon to that observed for typical water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions, suggesting the formation of IL/O microemulsions. The microstructural characteristics of the microemulsions are investigated by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the interaction between the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene (OE) units in TX-100 and the electropositive imidazolium ring may be the driving force for the solubilization of bmimBF4 into the core of the TX-100 aggregates. In addition, the micropolarity of the microemulsions is investigated by using methyl orange (MO) as a UV/Vis spectroscopic probe. A relatively constant polarity of the microemulsion droplets is obtained in the IL microemulsion. Finally, a plausible structure for the IL/O microemulsion is presented. PMID:16789041

  12. The effect of water on the microstructure of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/benzene ionic liquid microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan'an; Li, Na; Zheng, Liqiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Quan; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2007-01-01

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) forms nonaqueous microemulsions with benzene with the aid of nonionic surfactant TX-100. The phase diagram of the ternary system was prepared, and the microstructures of the microemulsion were recognized. On the basis of the phase diagram, a series of ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsions were chosen and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), which shows a similar swelling behavior to typical water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The existence of IL pools in the IL/O microemulsion was confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis with CoCl2 and methylene blue (MB) as the absorption probes. A constant polarity of the IL pool is observed, even if small amounts of water are added to the microemulsion, thus suggesting that the water molecules are solubilized in the polar outer shell of the microemulsion, as confirmed by FTIR spectra. 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis shows that these water molecules interact with the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene (OE) units of TX-100 through hydrogen-bonding interactions, and the electronegative oxygen atoms of the water molecules attract the electropositive imidazolium rings of [bmim][BF4]. Hence, the water molecules are like a glue that stick the IL and OE units more tightly together and thus make the microemulsion system more stable. Considering the unique solubilization behavior of added water molecules, the IL/O microemulsion system may be used as a medium to prepare porous or hollow nanomaterials by hydrolysis reactions. PMID:17177215

  13. Role of solubilized water in the reverse ionic liquid microemulsion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/benzene.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan'an; Li, Na; Zheng, Liqiang; Bai, Xiangtao; Yu, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Zhen

    2007-03-15

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) can form nonaqueous microemulsions with benzene by the aid of nonionic surfactant TX-100. The effect of water on ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsions was studied, and it was shown that the addition of small amount of water to the IL microemulsion contributed to the stability of microemulsion and thus increased the amount of solubilized bmimBF4 in the microemulsion. The conductivity measurements also showed that the attractive interactions between IL microdroplets were weakened, that is, the IL/O microemulsion becomes more stable in the present of some water. Fourier transform IR was carried out to analyze the states of the added water, and the result showed that these water molecules mainly behaved as bound water and trapped water, indicating that the water molecules are located in the palisade layers of the IL/O microemulsion. Furthermore, 1H NMR and 19F NMR spectra suggested that the added water molecules built the hydrogen binding network of imidazolium cations and H2O, BF4- anion and H2O, and at the same time the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene units of TX-100 and water in the palisade layers, which made the palisade layers more firm and thus increased the stability of the microemulsion. The study can help in further understanding the formation mechanism of microemulsions. In addition, the characteristic solubilization behavior of the added water can provide an aqueous interface film for hydrolysis reactions and therefore may be used as an ideal medium to prepare porous or hollow nanomaterials. PMID:17305388

  14. Local Structure in Terms of Nearest-Neighbor Approach in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: MD Simulations.

    PubMed

    Marekha, Bogdan A; Koverga, Volodymyr A; Chesneau, Erwan; Kalugin, Oleg N; Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Jedlovszky, Pál; Idrissi, Abdenacer

    2016-06-01

    Description of the local microscopic structure in ionic liquids (ILs) is a prerequisite to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the influence of the nature of ions on the properties of ILs. The local structure is mainly determined by the spatial arrangement of the nearest neighboring ions. Therefore, the main interaction patterns in ILs, such as cation-anion H-bond-like motifs, cation-cation alkyl tail aggregation, and ring stacking, were considered within the framework of the nearest-neighbor approach with respect to each particular interaction site. We employed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study in detail the spatial, radial, and orientational relative distribution of ions in a set of imidazolium-based ILs, in which the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C4mim(+)) cation is coupled with the acetate (OAc(-)), chloride (Cl(-)), tetrafluoroborate (BF4(-)), hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)), trifluoromethanesulfonate (TfO(-)), or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (TFSA(-)) anion. It was established that several structural properties are strongly anion-specific, while some can be treated as universally applicable to ILs, regardless of the nature of the anion. Namely, strongly basic anions, such as OAc(-) and Cl(-), prefer to be located in the imidazolium ring plane next to the C-H(2/4-5) sites. By contrast, the other four bulky and weakly coordinating anions tend to occupy positions above/below the plane. Similarly, the H-bond-like interactions involving the H(2) site are found to be particularly enhanced in comparison with the ones at H(4-5) in the case of asymmetric and/or more basic anions (C4mimOAc, C4mimCl, C4mimTfO, and C4mimTFSA), in accordance with recent spectroscopic and theoretical findings. Other IL-specific details related to the multiple H-bond-like binding and cation stacking issues are also discussed in this paper. The secondary H-bonding of anions with the alkyl hydrogen atoms of cations as well as the cation-cation alkyl chain

  15. NMR study of cation dynamics in three crystalline states of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exhibiting crystal polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Endo, Takatsugu; Murata, Hiroki; Imanari, Mamoru; Mizushima, Noriko; Seki, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2012-03-29

    We investigate the cation rotational dynamics of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim]PF(6)) in its three crystalline states by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation time (T(1) and T(2), respectively) measurements as a function of temperature confirm the presence of three polymorphic crystals of [C(4)mim]PF(6): crystals α, β, and γ, which we previously discovered using Raman spectroscopy and calorimetry. Second moment calculations of (1)H NMR spectra reveal that certain segmental motions of the butyl group in addition to the rapid rotation of the two methyl groups in the cation occur in all the crystals. The trend in the mobility of the segmental motions is γ < β ≤ α, which is consistent with the strength of cation-anion interactions (or crystal packing density) estimated from high-frequency Raman scattering experiments. T(1) measurements demonstrate two types of rotational motions on the nanosecond time scale in all three crystals: fast and slow motions. The three crystals have similar activation energies of 12.5-15.1 kJ mol(-1) for the fast motion, which is assigned to the rotation of the methyl group at the terminal of the butyl group. These observed activation energies were consistent with that estimated by quantum chemical calculations in the gas phase (11.9 kJ mol(-1)). In contrast, the slow motions of crystals α and γ are attributed to different segmental motions of the butyl group and that of crystal β to either a little segmental motion or a certain PF(6)(-) rotational motion. These nanosecond rotational motions obtained from the T(1) measurements do not appear to be affected by crystal packing density because local interactions in the crystalline state rather than packing density govern such nanosecond motions. With respect to the segmental motions, the mobility is likely to change significantly with the conformation of the butyl group. On the basis of these

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigation of multistage extraction of 1,3-propanediol using the extraction system phosphate/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate/water.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anja; Lutze, Philip; Górak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The separation of 1,3-propanediol from fermentation broth is a challenging and energy-demanding step using conventional unit operations. One alternative process is the use of an aqueous two-phase system incorporating ionic liquids to use synergy effects of both technologies. Within this manuscript, the technical feasibility of the extraction of 1,3-propanediol using the aqueous two-phase system phosphate (salt)/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (ionic liquid)/water in a continuously operated process in pilot-scale is presented. The extraction was performed in a multistage mixer-settler unit and successfully modeled with an equilibrium-stage model and correlations to describe the liquid-liquid equilibrium of the salt/ionic liquid/water two-phase system. The developed and validated model was used for a further investigation of the influence of different process parameters in the determined operating window. Theses parameters include the number of stages, the phase ratio, the pH, and the mass fraction of the involved components. The results prove that the phosphate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate mass fraction, the phase ratio, and the number of stages have a considerable influence on the recovery of 1,3-propanediol, whereas the pH value has only a smaller impact. Those results can be used for optimization of the system as well as for targeting future research within this area. PMID:23554391

  17. States of water located in the continuous organic phase of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/Triton X-100/triethylamine reverse microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Cao, Quan; Gao, Yanan; Zhang, Jin; Zheng, Liqiang; Bai, Xiangtao; Dong, Bin; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Mingwei; Yu, Li

    2007-10-22

    We demonstrate a novel ionic liquid (IL) microemulsion, consisting of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) and nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 prepared in triethylamine which is used either as an organic solvent or a Lewis base. The effects of small amounts of added water on the microstructure of the IL microemulsion are investigated by various techniques. UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis and FTIR spectra indicate that these water molecules are not solubilized into the IL pools of the microemulsions. 1H NMR spectra further show that the added water binds with triethylamine to form a surrounding OH- base environment. Some of OH- ions enter the palisade layers of the IL microemulsions and a continuous base interface is created. The unique solubilization behavior of water reveals that it is possible to use the triethylamine microemulsions as a template to prepare metal hydroxides as well as metal oxides in the microemulsions, which is not possible when using traditional microemulsions. PMID:17886245

  18. Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hui; O'Hare, Bernie; Dong, Jing; Arzhantsev, Sergei; Baker, Gary A; Wishart, James F.; Benesi, Alan; Maroncelli, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of phase-transition temperatures, densities, refractive indices, surface tensions, solvatochromic polarities based on absorption of Nile Red, 19F chemical shifts of the Tf2N- anion, temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and cation diffusion coefficients are reported. Correlations among the measured quantities as well as the use of surface tension and molar volume for estimating Hildebrand solubility parameters of ionic liquids are also discussed.

  19. Rotational diffusion of neutral and charged solutes in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids: influence of the nature of the anion on solute rotation.

    PubMed

    Karve, Lalita; Dutt, G B

    2012-02-16

    Temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropies of two organic solutes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and rhodamine 110 (R110), have been measured in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim(+)])-based ionic liquids containing the anions hexafluorophosphate ([PF(6)(-)]), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Tf(2)N(-)]), tetrafluoroborate ([BF(4)(-)]), trifluoromethanesulfonate ([TfO(-)]), and nitrate ([NO(3)(-)]). This data has been used in conjunction with the recently published results (Dutt, G. B. J. Phys. Chem. B2010, 114, 8971) for the same solutes in [bmim(+)] tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([FAP(-)]) to understand the influence of various anions on solute rotation. The boundary condition parameter C(obs), which has been obtained from the analysis of the data using Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory, for the neutral solute DMDPP is more or less the same in all the ionic liquids. Moreover, C(obs) values are close to the predictions of slip boundary condition, which indicates that solvent viscosity alone governs the rotation of DMDPP. In contrast, for R110, which experiences specific interactions with the anions of the ionic liquids, the C(obs) values are close to stick hydrodynamics. It has also been noticed that the C(obs) values vary with the nature of the anion and this variation correlates with the hydrogen bond basicities of the anions of the ionic liquids. PMID:22233259

  20. Mechanical exfoliation of graphite in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) providing graphene nanoplatelets that exhibit enhanced electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, William Ignatius; Lubarsky, Gennady; Li, Meixian; Papakonstantinou, Pagona

    2014-12-01

    A novel production method for graphene nanoplatelets (GPs) with enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour is presented. GPs show improvement in their oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysis after prolonging the grinding of graphite in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Nitrogen doping of the GPs has inferred a further increase in ORR. The ORR onset potential, cathodic current magnitude and electron transfer efficiency have all improved as a direct consequence of increasing the graphite grinding duration from 30 min to 4 h. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed a decrease in the GP diameter and height as the grinding increases. Raman spectroscopy indicates a higher level of defects present after prolonging the graphite grinding in BMIM-PF6, most likely a result of the increased edge plane exposure. This increased edge plane appears to promote a higher level of nitrogen incorporation as the graphite grinding duration increases, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The stability of the cathodic current assessed by chronoamperometry analysis is higher for the GP and nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelet (N-GP) samples than the platinum on carbon black (Pt/C). This study presents a novel process for the production of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets, constituting a strategy for the up-scaled production of electrocatalysts.

  1. Decrease of droplet size of the reverse microemulsion 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/Triton X-100/cyclohexane by addition of water.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanan; Hilfert, Liane; Voigt, Andreas; Sundmacher, Kai

    2008-03-27

    In the present contribution, results concerning the role of small amounts of water in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4)-in-cyclohexane ionic liquid (IL) reverse microemulsions are reported. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the size of microemulsion droplets decreased remarkably with increasing water content although water is often used as a polar component to swell reverse microemulsions. It was thus deduced that the number of microemulsion droplets was increased which was confirmed by conductivity measurements. The states of dissolved water were investigated by Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showing that water molecules mainly act as bound water. 1H NMR along with two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments (ROESY) further revealed that water molecules were mainly located in the periphery of the polar core of the microemulsion droplets and behave like a chock being inserted in the palisade layer of the droplet. This increased the curvature of the surfactant film at the IL/cyclohexane interface and thus led to the decrease of the microemulsion droplet size. The order of surfactant molecules arranged in the interface film was increased and thus induced a loss of entropy. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that an enthalpy increase compensates for the loss of entropy during the process of microstructural transition. PMID:18318531

  2. Electrochemical and Thermodynamic Properties of Ln(III) (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Nd) in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; He, Ling; Qin, Song; Tao, Guo-Hong; Huang, Ming; Lv, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior and thermodynamic properties of Ln(III) (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Nd) were studied in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid (BmimBr) at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode in the range of 293–338 K. The electrode reaction of Eu(III) was found to be quasi-reversible by the cyclic voltammetry, the reactions of the other three lanthanide ions were regarded as irreversible systems. An increase of the current intensity was obtained with the temperature increase. At 293 K, the cathodic peak potentials of −0.893 V (Eu(III)), −0.596 V (Sm(III)), −0.637 V (Dy(III)) and −0.641 V (Nd(III)) were found, respectively, to be assigned to the reduction of Ln(III) to Ln(II). The diffusion coefficients (Do), the transfer coefficients (α) of Ln(III) (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Nd) and the charge transfer rate constants (ks) of Eu(III) were estimated. The apparent standard potential (E0*) and the thermodynamic properties of the reduction of Eu(III) to Eu(II) were also investigated. PMID:24752584

  3. Thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural properties of ionic liquids comprised of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and nitrate, azide, or dicyanamide anions.

    PubMed

    Bedrov, Dmitry; Borodin, Oleg

    2010-10-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of ionic liquids (IL) comprised of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [bmim] cation and nitrate [NO(3)], azide [N(3)], or dicyanamide [N(CN)(2)] anions were conducted using the polarizable APPLE&P force field. Comparison of thermodynamic properties such as densities, enthalpies of vaporization, and ion binding energies as well as structural correlations obtained from simulations at atmospheric pressure and temperature range 298-393 K showed that IL with the N(CN)(2) anion shows significantly different characteristics as compared to ILs with the N(3) and NO(3) anions. [bmim][N(CN)(2)] IL was found to have the lowest enthalpy of vaporization and the weakest ion-ion structural correlation as compared to ILs with the other two ions. This trend was further manifested in dynamical properties characterized by self-diffusion coefficients and molecular rotational relaxation times, where IL with the N(CN)(2) anion showed the fastest dynamics as compared to other ILs. We also examine the dynamic correlations between the ions' translational and rotational motions as well as discuss the anisotropy of the latter. PMID:20849137

  4. Liberation of fermentable sugars from soybean hull biomass using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and their bioconversion to ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Pereira, Fernanda; Rech, Rosane; Záchia Ayub, Marco Antônio; Pinheiro Dillon, Aldo; Dupont, Jairton

    2016-03-01

    Optimized hydrolysis of lignocellulosic waste biomass is essential to achieve the liberation of sugars to be used in fermentation process. Ionic liquids (ILs), a new class of solvents, have been tested in the pretreatment of cellulosic materials to improve the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass. Optimized application of ILs on biomass is important to advance the use of this technology. In this research, we investigated the effects of using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) on the decomposition of soybean hull, an abundant cellulosic industrial waste. Reaction aspects of temperature, incubation time, IL concentration, and solid load were optimized before carrying out the enzymatic hydrolysis of this residue to liberate fermentable glucose. Optimal conditions were found to be 75°C, 165 min incubation time, 57% (mass fraction) of [bmim][Ac], and 12.5% solid loading. Pretreated soybean hull lost its crystallinity, which eased enzymatic hydrolysis, confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass using an enzyme complex from Penicillium echinulatum liberated 92% of glucose from the cellulose matrix. The hydrolysate was free of any toxic compounds, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural. The obtained hydrolysate was tested for fermentation using Candida shehatae HM 52.2, which was able to convert glucose to ethanol at yields of 0.31. These results suggest the possible use of ILs for the pretreatment of some lignocellulosic waste materials, avoiding the formation of toxic compounds, to be used in second-generation ethanol production and other fermentation processes. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:312-320, 2016. PMID:26588200

  5. Temperature-programed time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry study of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate during glass-liquid transition, crystallization, melting, and solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Souda, Ryutaro; Guenster, Jens

    2008-09-07

    For this study, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to analyze the molecular orientation of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([bmim][OTf]) and its interaction with the adsorbed Na and LiI species at temperatures of 150-300 K. A glassy [bmim][OTf] film crystallizes at around 230 K, as observed from the increase in the [bmim]{sup +} yield. LiI and Na adsorbed on the glassy film are solvated, whereas they tend to form islands on a crystalline film. The crystalline surface inertness is ascribable to the termination with the CF{sub 3} and C{sub 4}H{sub 9} groups, whereas the exposure of polar SO{sub 3} and imidazole groups at the glassy film results in the solvation. Surface layering occurs during solvation of LiI on the glassy film in such a way that the [bmim]{sup +} ([OTf]{sup -}) moiety is exposed to the vacuum (oriented to the bulk). The LiI adsorbed on the glassy film is incorporated into the bulk at temperatures higher than 200 K because of the glass-liquid transition. No further uptake of LiI is observed during crystallization, providing a contrast to the results of normal molecular solids such as water and ethanol. The surface layers of the crystal melt at temperatures below the bulk melting point, as confirmed from the dissolution of adsorbed LiI, but the melting layer retains a short-range order similar to the crystal. The [bmim][OTf] can be regarded as a strongly correlated liquid with the combined liquid property and crystal-type local structure. The origin of this behavior is discussed.

  6. Aerosol-OT in water forms fully-branched cylindrical direct micelles in the presence of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Sergio; Palazzo, Gerardo; Mamusa, Marianna; Lampis, Sandrina; Monduzzi, Maura

    2011-05-28

    A recent investigation on the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/water/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoborate (NaAOT/W/bmimBF(4)) system showed that the anionic two-tailed surfactant NaAOT, that is known to form reverse micelles or planar interfaces (typically lamellar liquid crystals), can originate discrete spherical micelles of normal curvature because of strong interactions with the ionic liquid. The goal of the present paper was to detect macro- and microscopic modifications within such a system upon substitution of the ionic liquid's counter-ion tetrafluoroborate with bromide. Firstly, the phase diagram of the NaAOT/water/bmimBr system was determined. Then, the monophasic regions were investigated by means of NMR self-diffusion and SAXRD experiments. The results obtained proved this system to be surprisingly different from that containing bmimBF(4). This study focused mainly on the characterization of the micellar region, which turned out to be constituted of a bicontinuous nanostructure. This finding can be accounted for suggesting a decreasing of the NaAOT effective surfactant packing parameter, as in the case of NaAOT/water/bmimBF(4) system, although the effect in the presence of Br(-) is less pronounced. Data modeling showed the same degree of interfacial adsorption for the bmim(+) cation in both systems, regardless of the particular counterion used-either BF(4)(-) or Br(-). Thus, the remarkable differences between the two systems appear to be mainly due to a specific counterion effect. This result highlights once again the ions specificity, which is found ubiquitously in chemistry and biology. PMID:21468445

  7. Intramolecular Excimer Formation Dynamics of 1,3-Bis-(1-pyrenyl)propane within 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate and Its Polyethylene Glycol Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anita; Kurur, Narayanan D; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-10-22

    Mixtures of ionic liquid with polyethylene glycol (PEG) have shown interesting features as solubilizing media. Intramolecular excimer formation dynamics of 1,3-bis-(1-pyrenyl)propane [1Py(3)1Py] is investigated within mixtures of a common and popular ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) with PEGs of average molecular weight (MW) 200 (PEG200), average MW 400 (PEG400), number-average MW Mn 570-630 (PEG600), and number-average MW Mn 950-1050 (PEG1000) over the complete composition range at a 10° interval in the temperature range 10-90 °C. Irrespective of the composition of the medium and the temperature, excited-state intensity decay of the excimer fluorescence best fits to a three-exponential decay function, suggesting the presence of one excited-state monomer and two kinetically distinguishable excimers where both excimers are populated simultaneously by the excited monomer with no interconversion between the two excimers. In neat PEGs for temperatures ≤ 50 °C, intensity decay data of monomer fluorescence best fits to a single-exponential decay function, which implies the dissociation of both excimers back to the monomer to be insignificant. As the temperature is increased, the fits become closer to a double-exponential decay function, implying dissociation of one of the excimers to become significant. In neat [bmim][PF6], while a double-exponential decay function is required to fit the monomer excited-state intensity decay data at lower temperatures, three exponentials are required to satisfactorily fit the data at higher temperatures, suggesting both excimers significantly dissociate back to the monomer at higher temperatures within the ionic liquid. Within long-chain PEG-containing ([bmim][PF6] + PEG) mixtures, PEG as opposed to [bmim][PF6] controls the excimer formation dynamics by supposedly wrapping around the excimer, thus hindering dissociation back to the monomer. The overall rate constant of the excimer formation

  8. New solvents designed on the basis of the molecular-microscopic properties of binary mixtures of the type (protic molecular solvent + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquid).

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Graciela G; Mancini, Pedro M; Bravo, M Virginia; Adam, Claudia G

    2010-09-16

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the microscopic feature of solvent systems resulting from the basis of binary mixtures formed by a protic molecular solvent (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, and 2-ethoxyethanol) and a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim)-based ionic liquid (IL) cosolvent composed of different anions (tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, chloride, and bromide). At the same time, a complementary aim is to evaluate the incidence of anion type on the solvation pattern. The empirical solvatochromic parameters E(T)(N), π*, β, and α were determined from the UV-vis solvatochromic shifts of adequate probes. The behavior of the solvent systems was analyzed according to their deviation from ideality. E(T)(N) polarity and π* dipolarity/polarizability exhibit positive deviation from ideal behavior in all binary mixtures at the explored compositions. Moreover, E(T)(N) and α parameters display synergetic effects in some binary mixtures composed of tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate anions. The influence of anion nature on the response patterns is clearly manifested in the basicity β and acidity α of the media. This is connected with the degree and type of interaction between the anions and the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation. The ion-pair character of the ionic liquids affects their interactions with a solute or a molecular solvent. The application of an appropriate preferential solvation model allowed us to obtain valuable information about solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions of the selected ionic liquid mixtures. It is possible to identify relevant mixtures paying particular attention to the most remarkable microscopic properties, the acidity and the basicity, in order to propose "new solvents". Thus, the solvating feature can be tailored selecting the molecular and/or the ionic component at a particular composition. A simplified combined nearly ideal binary solvent/Redlich-Kister (CNIBS/R-K) equation is

  9. Solid phase extraction of cadmium on 2-mercaptobenzothiazole loaded on sulfur powder in the medium of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and cold vapor generation-atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, N; Ghanemi, K

    2010-06-15

    A novel solid phase extractor for preconcentration of cadmium at ng L(-1) levels has been developed. Cadmium ions were retained on a column packed with sulfur powder modified with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT) in the medium of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim](+)PF(6)(-)) ionic liquid. The presence of ionic liquid during modification of sulfur enhanced the retention of cadmium ions on the column. The retained cadmium ions were eluted with 2 mol L(-1) solution of HCl and measured by cold vapor generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (CVG-AAS). By using reaction cell-gas liquid separator (RC-GLS), gaseous cadmium vapors were produced and reached the atomic absorption spectrometer, instantaneously. The influence of different variables on both processes of solid phase extraction and CVG-AAS determination of cadmium ions was investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10-200 ng L(-1)of cadmium in the initial solution with r=0.9992 (n=8) under optimum conditions. The limit of detection based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3S(b), n=10) was 4.6 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 25 and 150 ng L(-1) of cadmium was 4.1 and 2.2% (n=8), respectively. The procedure was validated by the analysis of a certified reference material (DORM-3), water and fish samples. PMID:20176439

  10. Electrochemical reduction of aromatic ketones in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in the presence of carbon dioxide: the influence of the ketone substituent and the ionic liquid anion on bulk electrolysis product distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Feng; Horne, Mike; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-07-15

    Electrochemical reduction of aromatic ketones, including acetophenone, benzophenone and 4-phenylbenzophenone, has been undertaken in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids containing tetrafluoroborate ([BF4](-)), trifluoromethanesulfonate ([TfO](-)) and tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([FAP](-)) anions in the presence of carbon dioxide in order to investigate the ketone substituent effect and the influence of the acidic proton on the imidazolium cation (C2-H) on bulk electrolysis product distribution. For acetophenone, the minor products were dimers (<10%) in all ionic liquids, which are the result of acetophenone radical anion coupling. For benzophenone and 4-phenylbenzophenone, no dimers were formed due to steric hindrance. In these cases, even though carboxylic acids were obtained, the main products generated were alcohols (>50%) derived from proton coupled electron transfer reactions involving the electrogenerated radical anions and C2-H. In the cases of both acetophenone and benzophenone, the product distribution is essentially independent of the ionic liquid anion. By contrast, 4-phenylbenzophenone shows a product distribution that is dependent on the ionic liquid anion. Higher yields of carboxylic acids (∼40%) are obtained with [TfO](-) and [FAP](-) anions because in these ionic liquids the C2-H is less acidic, making the formation of alcohol less favourable. In comparison with benzophenone, a higher yield of carboxylic acid (>30% versus ∼15%) was obtained with 4-phenylbenzophenone in all ionic liquids due to the weaker basicity of 4-phenylbenzophenone radical anion. PMID:26136079

  11. Partitioning of amino acids in the aqueous biphasic system containing the water-miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and the water-structuring salt potassium citrate.

    PubMed

    Zafarani-Moattar, Mohammed Taghi; Hamzehzadeh, Sholeh

    2011-07-01

    In biotechnology, extraction by means of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) is known as a promising tool for the recovery and purification of bio-molecules. Over the past decade, the increasing emphasis on cleaner and environmentally benign extraction procedures has led to enhanced interest in the ABS containing ionic liquids (ILs)-a new class of non-volatile alternative solvents. ABS composed of the hydrophilic IL {1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4 mim]Br)} and potassium citrate-which is easily degraded-represents a clean media to green separation of bio-molecules. In this regard, here, the extraction capability of this ABS was evaluated through its application to the extraction of some amino acids. To gain an insight into the driving forces of amino acid partitioning in the studied IL-based ABS, the distribution of five model amino acids (L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, L-leucine, and L-valine) at different aqueous medium pH values and different phase compositions was investigated. The studies indicated that hydrophobic interactions were the main driving force, although electrostatic interactions and salting-out effects were also important for the transfer of the amino acids. Moreover, based on the statistical analysis of the driving forces of amino acid partitioning in the studied IL-based ABS, a model was established to describe the partition coefficient of three model amino acids, L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-valine, and employed to predict the partition coefficient of two other model amino acids, L-tyrosine and L-leucine. PMID:21509956

  12. Interaction of ionic liquid with water in ternary microemulsions (Triton X-100/water/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) probed by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 151.

    PubMed

    Seth, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Anjan; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2006-08-29

    The interaction of ionic liquid with water in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])/Triton X-100 (TX-100)/H2O ternary microemulsions, i.e., "[bmim][PF6]-in-water" microregions of the microemulsions, has been studied by the dynamics of solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 151 (C-151). The variation of the time constants of solvent relaxation of C-153 is very small with an increase in the [bmim][PF6]/TX-100 ratio (R). The rotational relaxation time of C-153 also remains unchanged in all micremulsions of different R values. The invariance of solvation and rotational relaxation times of C-153 indicates that the position of C-153 remains unaltered with an increase in R and probably the probe is located at the interfacial region of [bmim][PF6] and TX-100 in the microemulsions. On the other hand, in the case of C-151, with an increase in R the fast component of the solvation time gradually increases and the slow component gradually decreases, although the change in solvation time is small in comparison to that of microemulsions containing common polar solvents such as water, methanol, acetonitrile, etc. The rotational relaxation time of C-151 increases with an increase in R. This indicates that with an increase in the [bmim][PF6] content the number of C-151 molecules in the core of the microemulsions gradually increases. In general, the solvent relaxation time is retarded in this room temperature ionic liquid/water-containing microemulsion compared to that of a neat solvent, although retardation is very small compared to that of the solvent relaxation time of the conventional solvent in the core of the microemulsions. PMID:16922562

  13. Solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 and coumarin-480 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) modified sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-02-01

    Understanding ion transport dynamics, structure of surfactant aggregates in ionic liquids or ionic liquid/water solutions are quite interesting and potentially important due to widespread applications of surfactant-based systems. In this manuscript we have investigated the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) addition on solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 (C-153) and coumarin-480 (C-480) in aqueous solution of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface and the role of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+ in the modification of the interfacial geometry were probed by the analysis of decay parameters and the rotational relaxation parameters. Since the addition of the NaAOT in water-bmimBF4 mixture above critical micellar concentration (48 mM, obtained from observing pyrene fluorescence) causes strong adsorption of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+, the average solvation time, particularly the slow component increases significantly. More importantly we have found the probe dependent solvation dynamics due to the different location of the probe molecules, C-153 and C-480. C-153 being hydrophobic in nature resides in the stern layer and the adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface modifies stern layer more effectively. So we have observed more pronounced change in solvation dynamics in case of C-153 compared to that in case of C-480. The fluorescence anisotropy decays of the probe molecules were found to be biexponential in nature. The anisotropy decay was interpreted by using a model which consists of the wobbling (rotational) and translational diffusion of the dye coupled with the rotational motion of the micelle as a whole.

  14. Solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 and coumarin-480 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) modified sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) micelle.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-02-01

    Understanding ion transport dynamics, structure of surfactant aggregates in ionic liquids or ionic liquid/water solutions are quite interesting and potentially important due to widespread applications of surfactant-based systems. In this manuscript we have investigated the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF(4)) addition on solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 (C-153) and coumarin-480 (C-480) in aqueous solution of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong adsorption of the bmim(+) at the interface and the role of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim(+) in the modification of the interfacial geometry were probed by the analysis of decay parameters and the rotational relaxation parameters. Since the addition of the NaAOT in water-bmimBF(4) mixture above critical micellar concentration (48 mM, obtained from observing pyrene fluorescence) causes strong adsorption of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim(+), the average solvation time, particularly the slow component increases significantly. More importantly we have found the probe dependent solvation dynamics due to the different location of the probe molecules, C-153 and C-480. C-153 being hydrophobic in nature resides in the stern layer and the adsorption of the bmim(+) at the interface modifies stern layer more effectively. So we have observed more pronounced change in solvation dynamics in case of C-153 compared to that in case of C-480. The fluorescence anisotropy decays of the probe molecules were found to be biexponential in nature. The anisotropy decay was interpreted by using a model which consists of the wobbling (rotational) and translational diffusion of the dye coupled with the rotational motion of the micelle as a whole. PMID:23220680

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid materials based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and Dawson-type tungstophosphate K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O and K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Ammam, Malika; Fransaer, Jan

    2011-04-15

    In this study, we synthesized hybrid materials using well-Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs), K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O or K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]). K, W, P and CHN elemental analysis showed that one mole of [H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 7-} reacts with 6 moles of BMIM{sup +} and one mole of [P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} reacts with 4 moles of BMIM{sup +} to form, respectively, K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. X-ray diffraction illustrated amorphous structure of the hybrid materials. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and the Dawson anion. TG analysis displayed a relative thermal stability of the hybrid materials compared to the parents Dawson POMs. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the reduction peak potentials of the Dawson anion in the hybrid materials shift towards negative values and the shift is more pronounced for K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} compared to K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. This was attributed to a decrease in the acidity of the Dawson POM anion in the hybrid material. -- Graphical abstract: Powder XRD patterns of (a) PW{sub 18}, (b) K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}, (c) P{sub 2}W{sub 18}, and (d) K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]) reacts with K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O to form K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} [BMIM][BF{sub 4}] reacts with K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O to form K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} displayed amorphous structures. {yields} K

  16. Isolation of Photosystem I Complexes from Octyl Glucoside/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solubilized Spinach Thylakoids 1

    PubMed Central

    Dunahay, Terri G.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    1985-01-01

    We have used the nonionic detergent octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate to isolate two novel Photosystem I (PSI) complexes from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) thylakoid membranes. These complexes have been characterized as to their spectral properties, content of PSI reaction center chlorophyll P700, and protein composition. PSI-B, purified from solubilized membranes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, is a putative native PSI complex. PSI-B contains four polypeptides between 21 and 25 kilodaltons in addition to the components of the PSI antenna complex (LHCI); three of these polypeptides have not previously been associated with PSI. A second complex, CPI*, is purified from octyl glucoside/sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized thylakoids by two cycles of preparative gel electrophoresis under mildly denaturing conditions. Electrophoresis under these conditions releases a discrete set of polypeptides from PSI producing a complex composed only of the PSI reaction center and the LHCI antenna. In addition, the PSI reaction center complex CPI isolated from preparative gels and PSI-B were reconstituted into lecithin liposomes for structural analysis using freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The results suggest that the native PSI complex produces 12- to 13-nanometer particles, while the PSI reaction center, depleted of LHCI and peripheral proteins, produces particles with an average diameter of 10 nanometers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664291

  17. ALPHA-AMYLASE ACTIVITY IN VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF THE IONIC LIQUID, 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is an extremely abundant, economical and versatile industrial commodity. Many industrial uses of starch depend on hydrolyzing the polymer for the conversion of glucose and maltodextrins. Starch hydrolysis is frequently achieved by utilizing alpha-amylase, which is an endo-acting enzyme that...

  18. Distribution of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Bistrifluoromethylsulfonimide in Mesoporous Silica as a Function of Pore Filling

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Xiqing; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Rotational dynamics of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methlyimidazolium bistrifluoromethylsulfonimide, [C4mim][Tf2N], 1, as a neat liquid and confined in mesoporous silica were investigated by 1H spin-spin (T2) and spin-lattice (T1) relaxation measurements and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Translational dynamics (self-diffusion) were monitored via the diffusion coefficient, D, obtained with 1H pulsed field gradient NMR measurements. These data were used to determine the distribution of 1 in the pores of KIT-6, a mesoporous silica with a bicontinuous gyroid pore structure, as a function of filling fraction. Relaxation studies performed as a function of filling factor and temperature, reveal a dynamic heterogeneity in both translational and rotational motions for 1 at filling factors, f, = 0.2-1.0 (f = 1 corresponds to fully filled pores). Spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times reveal the motion of 1 in silica mesopores conform to that expected for a two-dimensional relaxation model. The relaxation dynamics are interpreted using a two-state, fast exchange model for all motions; a slow rotation (and translation) of molecules in contact with the surface and a faster motion approximated by the values for bulk relaxation and diffusion. 1 retains liquid like behavior at all filling factors and temperatures that extend to ca. 50 degrees below the bulk melting point. Translational motion in these systems, interpreted with MD-simulated diffusivity limits, confirms the high propensity of 1 to form a monolayer film on the silica surface at low filling factors.. The attractive interaction of 1 with the surface is greater than that for self-association of 1. The trends in diffusion data at short and long diffusion time suggest that the population of surface-bound 1 is in intimate contact with 1 in the pores. This condition is most easily met at higher filling fractions with successive additions of 1 increasing the layer thickness built up on the surface layer.

  19. N-Octyl-O-sulfate chitosan stabilises single wall carbon nanotubes in aqueous media and bestows biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Roldo, Marta; Power, Kieron; Smith, James R; Cox, Paul A; Papagelis, Kostas; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Fatouros, Dimitrios G

    2009-12-01

    A non-covalent approach to debundle single wall carbon nanotubes using a biocompatible chitosan-derivative, namely N-octyl-O-sulfate chitosan (NOSC), was investigated. The resulting stable dispersions were characterised by Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta-potential measurements. Both AFM and TEM studies revealed the presence of individual carbon nanotubes wrapped with the polymer (diameters up to 7 nm). Raman spectra showed radial breathing mode frequency shifts, after the addition of NOSC, due to the wrapping of the biomolecules onto the graphitic sidewalls. Molecular modelling studies were employed to investigate the mode of binding of the NOSC chains to the surface of the nanotubes. In agreement with the experiments, modelling studies predicted that the wrapped tube has a maximum thickness of approximately 7 nm. Studies on the anticoagulant properties of these complexes revealed that NOSC coated SWCNTs exhibit similar activity to the polymer alone, this property would eliminate the risk for SWCNTs to induce coagulation as a host reaction process when used in vivo. PMID:20648275

  20. Accurate measurements of thermodynamic properties of solutes in ionic liquids using inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2006-01-13

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of 29 organic compounds in two room temperature ionic liquids were determined using inverse gas chromatography. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between 323.15 and 343.15K. To establish the influence of concurrent retention mechanisms on the accuracy of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate, phase loading studies of the net retention volume per gram of packing as a function of the percent phase loading were used. It is shown that most of the solutes are retained largely by partition with a small contribution from adsorption on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and that the n-alkanes are retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate. PMID:16310203

  1. CRYSTAL POLYMORPHISM IN 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM HALIDES: SUPPORTING IONIC LIQUID FORMATION THROUGH INHIBITION OF CRYSTALLIZATION. (R828257)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cyanamide (bmim [dca]) as a solvent and catalyst for acylation of maltodextrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have found a novel method to prepare maltodextrin stearate with DS upto 0.60 in 90% yields from maltodextrin in IL bmim[dca] reacted with vinyl stearate or stearic acid. In this work we have demonstrated that IL could simultaneously act as a solvent and as a catalyst for reaction of maltodextrin...

  3. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF CORN, RICE, WHEAT AND POTATO STARCH DISPERSED IN THE IONIC LIQUID, 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ionic liquid has gained industry attention, especially in environmentally friendly green chemistry. Researchers have utilized ionic liquid for dispersing cellulose, but no report using ionic liquid for other polysaccharides. In this study, corn, rice, wheat and potato starches were dispersed in ho...

  4. Probing the Aggregation Behavior of Neat Imidazolium-Based Alkyl Sulfate (Alkyl = Ethyl, Butyl, Hexyl, and Octyl) Ionic Liquids through Time Resolved Florescence Anisotropy and NMR and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Debashis; Pabbathi, Ashok; Sarkar, Moloy

    2016-01-14

    Aggregation behavior of a series of neat 1-ethyl 3-methylimidazolium alkyl sulfate (alkyl = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl) ionic liquids has been investigated through combined time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Interestingly, experimentally measured rotational relaxation times (τr) for ethyl, butyl, hexyl and octyl systems are measured to be 2.25, 1.64, 1.36, and 1.32 times higher than the estimated (from Stokes-Einstein-Debye theory) values for the same respective systems. This indicates that the emitting species is not the monomeric imidazolium moiety rather an associated species, and volume of the rotating fluorescing species decreases even though the length of the alkyl moiety on the anions is increased. The shift in the (1)H proton signal as well as a change in the width of the same signal upon dilution of the neat ionic liquids indicates that ionic liquids exist in the aggregated form. Further investigation through the 2D-ROESY experiment shows that interaction between imidazolium and sulfate is relatively stronger in the ethyl system than that of the longer octyl system. FCS measurements independently show that the hydrodynamic volume decreases with an increase in the anion chain length. The NMR and FCS results are consistent with the findings of the fluorescence anisotropy study. PMID:26654730

  5. Phase behavior and physicochemical properties of sodium octyl sulfate/n-decane/1-hexanol/aqueous AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Tadao; Ogino, Keizo )

    1992-03-01

    The phase behavior and physicochemical properties of sodium octyl sulfate/n-decane/1-hexanol/aqueous AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion have been studied as a function of salinity to develop an experimental investigation for better understanding of the microstructure of a middle-phase microemulsion. The system exhibits a Winsor-type phase transition (Winsor I [leftrightarrow] Winsor III [leftrightarrow] Winsor II) with increasing salinity. Over an appreciable salinity (from 0.50% to 9.2%), the formation of Winsor III, composed of a middle-phase microemulsion in equilibrium with the excess water and oil phases, was observed. It has been observed that as the salinity is increased, the phase volume of the middle-phase microemulsion undergoes a drastic decrease at a specific brine concentration (3.8%). Furthermore, the physicochemical properties such as water content, electrical conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and solubilization of 1-hexanol in the AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion all show abrupt changes at this salinity. The drastic change in the phase volume and physicochemical properties at the specific salinity of 3.8% may be attributed to a phase inversion of the AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion from oil-rich to water-rich continuous phase with increasing AlCl[sub 3] concentration, which is quite a different behavior from that observed for monovalent and divalent salt systems. Specifically, it may be assumed that a fluctuating structure of bicontinuous type and a liquid crystal structure overcome the droplet structure in the phase equilibrium at a certain salinity during the increase in the trivalent salt concentration. 25 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Water Nanocluster Formation in the Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4])-D2O Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingsi; Wagner, Norman J

    2016-05-24

    The microstructure of mixtures of deuterated water in the ionic liquid [C4mim][BF4] is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurement. In the salt-rich region, water dissolves in the ionic liquid up to 0.7 mole fraction, whereupon distinct, nanometer-sized water clusters are observed. These water nanoclusters increase in size with increasing water addition while the mole ratio of water dissolved into the ionic liquid nanostructure increases from 2 to 4. These results provide direct confirmation for recent simulations as well insight into the source of nonidealities in some thermophysical and transport properties (e.g., density and viscosity) of salt-rich aqueous mixtures reported in the literature. PMID:27152941

  7. Extraction and characterization of lignin from oil palm biomass via ionic liquid dissolution and non-toxic aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate precipitation processes.

    PubMed

    Mohtar, S S; Tengku Malim Busu, T N Z; Md Noor, A M; Shaari, N; Yusoff, N A; Bustam Khalil, M A; Abdul Mutalib, M I; Mat, H B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to extract and characterize lignin from oil palm biomass (OPB) by dissolution in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]), followed by the lignin extraction through the CO2 gas purging prior to addition of aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O). The lignin yield, Y(L) (%wt.) was found to be dependent of the types of OPB observed for all precipitation methods used. The lignin recovery, RL (%wt.) obtained from CO2-AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O precipitation was, however dependent on the types of OPB, which contradicted to that of the acidified H2SO4 and HCl solutions of pH 0.7 and 2 precipitations. Only about 54% of lignin was recovered from the OPB. The FTIR results indicate that the monodispersed lignin was successfully extracted from the OPT, OPF and OPEFB having a molecular weight (MW) of 1331, 1263 and 1473 g/mol, and degradation temperature of 215, 207.5 and 272 °C, respectively. PMID:26038325

  8. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  13. The Sunscreen Octyl Methoxycinnamate Binds to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrell, Johannes; Vohra, Shikhar; Nordlund, T. M.

    2000-03-01

    Sunscreens are designed to prevent skin cancer by absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun before it gets to the DNA in skin cells. The purpose of this work is to determine whether or not octyl methoxycinnamate, an active ingredient in many sunscreens, will bind to DNA. If so, the sunscreen could transfer the energy it absorbed from the sun to the DNA and cause damage. To determine this, we prepared samples with varying concentrations of cinnamate added to herring sperm DNA, sonicating the mixture to disperse the hydrophobic sunscreen into solution. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the mixtures showed (i) much more sunscreen was dispersed into solution when DNA was present, and (ii) the spectra of both DNA and sunscreen differed from those of the separate solutions. We conclude that the octyl methoxycinnamate can indeed bind to DNA in aqueous solution. Energy transfer experiments from DNA to sunscreen and from sunscreen to 2-aminopurine- (a fluorescent DNA base) labeled DNA will be presented.

  14. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of gold, silver, platinum and palladium nanostructures and their use in electrocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Tohidi, Maryam

    2014-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic liquid method was used for synthesis of various noble metals, such as gold, silver, platinum and palladium nanomaterials. This route does not employ any template agent, surface capping agents or reducing agents. The process is fast, simple and of high yield. Different metal precursors in various ionic liquids media (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, octyl pyridinium hexaflurophosphate and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate) were applied to produce metal nanomaterials. Silver, platinium and palladium nanoparticles exhibit spherical morphology while nanosheets with high aspect ratio were obtained for gold. These metal nanostructures were incorporated into a carbon ionic liquid electrode to investigate their electrocatalytic properties. It was found that synthesis in different ionic liquids result in different activity. Excellent electrocatalytic effects toward adenine, hydrazine, formaldehyde and ethanol were observed for the modified electrodes with different nanoparticles synthesized in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. The high conductivity, large surface-to-volume ratio and active sites of nanosized metal particles are responsible for their electrocatalytic activity. In contrast, the carbon ionic liquid electrode modified with synthesized metal nanoparticles in octyl pyridinium hexaflurophosphate and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate showed negligible activity for detection of these probes. PMID:25924389

  16. Understanding chemical reactions of CO2 and its isoelectronic molecules with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by changing the nature of the cation: The case of CS2 in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaço, M. Isabel; Besnard, Marcel; Chávez, Fabián Vaca; Pinaud, Noël; Sebastião, Pedro J.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Danten, Yann

    2014-06-01

    NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 15N) shows that carbon disulfide reacts spontaneously with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate ([BmPyrro][Ac]) in the liquid phase. It is found that the acetate anions play an important role in conditioning chemical reactions with CS2 leading, via coupled complex reactions, to the degradation of this molecule to form thioacetate anion (CH3COS-), CO2, OCS, and trithiocarbonate (CS32-). In marked contrast, the cation does not lead to the formation of any adducts allowing to conclude that, at most, its role consists in assisting indirectly these reactions. The choice of the [BmPyrro]+ cation in the present study allows disentangling the role of the anion and the cation in the reactions. As a consequence, the ensemble of results already reported on CS2-[Bmim][Ac] (1), OCS-[Bmim][Ac] (2), and CO2-[Bmim][Ac] (3) systems can be consistently rationalized. It is argued that in system (1) both anion and cation play a role. The CS2 reacts with the acetate anion leading to the formation of CH3COS-, CO2, and OCS. After these reactions have proceeded the nascent CO2 and OCS interact with the cation to form imidazolium-carboxylate ([Bmim] CO2) and imidazolium-thiocarboxylate ([Bmim] COS). The same scenario also applies to system (2). In contrast, in the CO2-[Bmim] [Ac] system a concerted cooperative process between the cation, the anion, and the CO2 molecule takes place. A carbene issued from the cation reacts to form the [Bmim] CO2, whereas the proton released by the ring interacts with the anion to produce acetic acid. In all these systems, the formation of adduct resulting from the reaction between the solute molecule and the carbene species originating from the cation is expected. However, this species was only observed in systems (2) and (3). The absence of such an adduct in system (1) has been theoretically investigated using DFT calculations. The values of the energetic barrier of the reactions show that the formation of [Bmim] CS2 is unfavoured and that the anion offers a competitive reactive channel via an oxygen-sulphur exchange mechanism with the solute in systems (1) and (2).

  17. Understanding chemical reactions of CO{sub 2} and its isoelectronic molecules with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by changing the nature of the cation: The case of CS{sub 2} in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabaço, M. Isabel; Besnard, Marcel; Danten, Yann; Chávez, Fabián Vaca; Pinaud, Noël; Sebastião, Pedro J.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-06-28

    NMR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) shows that carbon disulfide reacts spontaneously with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate ([BmPyrro][Ac]) in the liquid phase. It is found that the acetate anions play an important role in conditioning chemical reactions with CS{sub 2} leading, via coupled complex reactions, to the degradation of this molecule to form thioacetate anion (CH{sub 3}COS{sup −}), CO{sub 2}, OCS, and trithiocarbonate (CS{sub 3}{sup 2−}). In marked contrast, the cation does not lead to the formation of any adducts allowing to conclude that, at most, its role consists in assisting indirectly these reactions. The choice of the [BmPyrro]{sup +} cation in the present study allows disentangling the role of the anion and the cation in the reactions. As a consequence, the ensemble of results already reported on CS{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (1), OCS-[Bmim][Ac] (2), and CO{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (3) systems can be consistently rationalized. It is argued that in system (1) both anion and cation play a role. The CS{sub 2} reacts with the acetate anion leading to the formation of CH{sub 3}COS{sup −}, CO{sub 2}, and OCS. After these reactions have proceeded the nascent CO{sub 2} and OCS interact with the cation to form imidazolium-carboxylate ([Bmim] CO{sub 2}) and imidazolium-thiocarboxylate ([Bmim] COS). The same scenario also applies to system (2). In contrast, in the CO{sub 2}-[Bmim] [Ac] system a concerted cooperative process between the cation, the anion, and the CO{sub 2} molecule takes place. A carbene issued from the cation reacts to form the [Bmim] CO{sub 2}, whereas the proton released by the ring interacts with the anion to produce acetic acid. In all these systems, the formation of adduct resulting from the reaction between the solute molecule and the carbene species originating from the cation is expected. However, this species was only observed in systems (2) and (3). The absence of such an adduct in system (1) has been theoretically investigated using DFT calculations. The values of the energetic barrier of the reactions show that the formation of [Bmim] CS{sub 2} is unfavoured and that the anion offers a competitive reactive channel via an oxygen-sulphur exchange mechanism with the solute in systems (1) and (2)

  18. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  19. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  20. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  1. PEG-Biscyanoacrylate Crosslinker for Octyl Cyanoacrylate Bioadhesive.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arijit; Veprinsky-Zuzulia, Ilana; Levinman, Mira; Barkan, Yoav; Golenser, Jacob; Domb, Abraham J

    2016-02-01

    PEG400 (polyethylene glycol, MW 400) biscyanoacrylate is synthesized and copolymerized with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate for potential use as bioadhesive. PEG400 biscyanoacrylate is synthesized from the esterification of anthracenyl cyanoacrylic acid where the anthracene unit serves as vinyl-protecting group. Copolymerization increases the plasticity, mechanical strength, and resilience of the resulted polymer as determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Peeling test confirms its superior bioadhesive properties. Surface morphology is characterized by SEM imaging. The formulations are cytocompatible and safe. This cyanoacrylate composition may provide improved bioadhesive cyanoacrylates. PMID:26572088

  2. 40 CFR 180.367 - n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide... Tolerances § 180.367 n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance of 5 parts per million is established for residues of the insecticide synergist...

  3. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you have asthma, use chondroitin sulfate cautiously. Blood clotting disorders: In theory, administering chondroitin sulfate might increase the risk of bleeding in people with blood clotting disorders. Prostate cancer: Early research suggests that chondroitin ...

  4. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Glucosamine ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  5. Barium Sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Furfural production in biphasic media using an acidic ionic liquid as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Parajó, Juan C

    2016-11-20

    Ionic liquids are valuable tools for biorefineries. This study provides an experimental assessment on the utilization of an acidic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) as a catalyst for furfural production in water/solvent media. The substrates employed in experiments were commercial xylose (employed as a reference compound) or hemicellulosic saccharides obtained by hydrothermal processing of Eucalyptus globulus wood (which were employed as produced, after membrane concentration or after freeze-drying). A variety of reaction conditions (defined by temperature, reaction time and type of organic solvent) were considered. The possibility of recycling the catalyst was assessed in selected experiments. PMID:27561513

  7. Lignin dissolution in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yantao; Wei, Ligang; Li, Kunlan; Ma, Yingchong; Ma, Ningning; Ding, Shan; Wang, Linlin; Zhao, Deyang; Yan, Bing; Wan, Wenying; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xin; Wang, Junmei; Li, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Lignin dissolution in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL)-water mixtures (40wt%-100wt% IL content) at 60°C was investigated. The IL content and type are found to considerably affect lignin solubility. For the IL-water mixtures except 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4C1im]BF4), the maximum lignin solubility can be achieved at 70wt% IL content. Lignin solubility in IL-water mixtures with different cations follows the order 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4C1im](+))>1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C6C1im](+))>1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2C1im](+))>1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8C1im](+))>1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium ([C4C2im](+))>1-butyl-3-propylimidazolium ([C4C3im](+)). For IL mixtures with different anions, lignin solubility decreases in the following order: methanesulfonate (MeSO3(-))>acetate (MeCO2(-))>bromide (Br(-))>dibutylphosphate (DBP(-)). Evaluation using the theory of Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) is consistent with the experimental results, suggesting that HSP can aid in finding the appropriate range of IL content for IL-water mixtures. However, HSP cannot be used to evaluate the effect of IL type on lignin solubility. PMID:25164342

  8. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can cause some mild side effects including nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, and constipation. Uncommon side effects are drowsiness, skin reactions, and headache. These are ...

  9. 40 CFR 180.367 - n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide n-octyl bicycloheptene-dicarboximide, resulting... combination with piperonyl butoxide and pyrethrins for insect control in food-processing and...

  10. Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-09-15

    This paper reports synthesis of some ionic liquids based on cations 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium and anions dicyanamide [N(CN)2]-, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf2N]-, bis(pentafluoroethylsulfonyl)imide [BETI]-, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]-, nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]-, tetrafluoroborate [BF4]-, trifluorophenylborate [BF3Ph]- or hexafluoroarsenate [AsF6]-. Melting points, decomposition temperatures, densities, mutual solubilities with water, and viscosities have been measured. Unlike similar ionic liquids containing imidazolium cations, pyridinium ionic liquids studied here are nearly immiscible in water. Viscosities are similar and water content is slightly lower than those for ionic liquids containing imidazolium cations.

  11. Reversible Immobilization of Lipases on Heterofunctional Octyl-Amino Agarose Beads Prevents Enzyme Desorption.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Nazzoly; Albuquerque, Tiago L; Bartolome-Cabrero, Rocio; Fernandez-Lopez, Laura; Torres, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Claudia; Dos Santos, Jose C S; Barbosa, Oveimar; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Two different heterofunctional octyl-amino supports have been prepared using ethylenediamine and hexylendiamine (OCEDA and OCHDA) and utilized to immobilize five lipases (lipases A (CALA) and B (CALB) from Candida antarctica, lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL), from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and from Candida rugosa (CRL) and the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra (LU). Using pH 5 and 50 mM sodium acetate, the immobilizations proceeded via interfacial activation on the octyl layer, after some ionic bridges were established. These supports did not release enzyme when incubated at Triton X-100 concentrations that released all enzyme molecules from the octyl support. The octyl support produced significant enzyme hyperactivation, except for CALB. However, the activities of the immobilized enzymes were usually slightly higher using the new supports than the octyl ones. Thermal and solvent stabilities of LU and TLL were significantly improved compared to the OC counterparts, while in the other enzymes the stability decreased in most cases (depending on the pH value). As a general rule, OCEDA had lower negative effects on the stability of the immobilized enzymes than OCHDA and while in solvent inactivation the enzyme molecules remained attached to the support using the new supports and were released using monofunctional octyl supports, in thermal inactivations this only occurred in certain cases. PMID:27196882

  12. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Varjão Mota, Aline de Carvalho; Faria de Freitas, Zaida Maria; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. Methods The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen’s egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. Results The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm2/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm2/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm2 of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm2

  13. 76 FR 6342 - n-Octyl Alcohol and n-Decyl Alcohol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ...) 305-5805. II. Petition for Exemption In the Federal Register of March 24, 2010 (75 FR 14154) (FRL-8815... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 n-Octyl Alcohol and n-Decyl Alcohol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of n-octyl alcohol (CAS Reg. No....

  14. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely ... The following doses have been studied in scientific research: BY MOUTH: ... dose of chondroitin sulfate is 800-2000 mg taken as a single dose or in two ...

  17. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  18. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis. PMID:26797225

  19. n-Octyl gallate as inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; de Moraes, Amarilis Giaretta; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2015-04-01

    The alkyl gallates are found in several natural and industrial products. In the latter products, these compounds are added mainly for preventing oxidation. In the present work, the potencies of methyl gallate, n-propyl gallate, n-pentyl gallate, and n-octyl gallate as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis were evaluated. Experiments were done with isolated mitochondria and the isolated perfused rat liver. The potency of the gallic acid esters as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation in isolated mitochondria obeyed the following decreasing sequence: n-octyl gallate > n-pentyl gallate > n-propyl gallate > methyl gallate. A similar sequence of decreasing potency for lactate gluconeogenesis inhibition in the perfused liver was found in terms of the portal venous concentration. Both actions correlate with the lipophilicity of the compounds. The effects are harmful at high concentrations. At appropriate concentrations, however, octyl gallate should act therapeutically because its inhibitory action on gluconeogenesis will contribute further to its proposed antihyperglycemic effects. PMID:25487712

  20. Photophysics of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) in ionic liquid micelle and binary mixtures of ionic liquids: effect of confinement and viscosity on photoisomerization rate.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Surajit; Mandal, Sarthak; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2012-08-01

    The dynamics of photoisomerization of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) has been investigated inside micellar environment formed by a surfactant-like ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate ([C(4)mim][C(8)SO(4)]) and also in binary mixture of another ionic liquid, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propyl ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide, ([N(3111)][Tf(2)N]) with methanol, acetonitrile, and n-propanol by using steady-state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The entrapment of DODCI into the [C(4)mim][C(8)SO(4)] micellar environment led to the enhanced fluorescence intensity along with ~13 nm red shift in the emission maxima. A sharp increase in the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ) and the lifetime (τ(f)) near the critical micelle concentration (cmc) range is observed followed by saturation at higher concentration. As a result of partitioning of the probe molecules in the micellar phase from water, the nonradiative rate constant (k(nr)) of DODCI decreases 2.7 times than in water. The retardation of isomerization rate is due to high microviscosity of the micellar system compared to bulk water. In order to understand how the rate of isomerization depends on polarity as well as viscosity, we have measured isomerization rate in neat [N(3111)][Tf(2)N] and its mixtures with polar solvents, like methanol, acetonitrile, and n-propanol. The addition of methanol and n-propanol increases the polarity, but viscosity of the medium decreases. The nonradiative rate constant that represents the rate of photoisomerization decreases with the addition of the polar solvent in [N(3111)][Tf(2)N]. Complete analysis of all the experimental results indicate that viscosity is the sole parameter that regulates the rate of photoisomerization. Temperature-dependent k(nr) are used to determine the activation energy (E(a)) in 100 mM [C(4)mim][C(8)SO(4)] solution and neat [N(3111)][Tf(2)N] system. PMID:22793684

  1. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  2. Utilization of ethyl cyanoacrylate and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesives for autogenous bone graft fixation: histomorphometric study in rats.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Monteiro, Jônatas Mattos; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Betoni Junior, Walter; Sonoda, Celso Koogi

    2014-08-01

    The present study analyzes the repair process of autogenous bone graft in a block fixed with ethyl cyanoacrylate and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesives in rat calvaria. Forty-eight rats, divided into 3 groups, received round osteotomies at the right parietal bone for the attainment of autogenous bone graft fragment, which was fixed at the opposite side to the donor site with ethyl cyanoacrylate (ethyl group) and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (octyl group) adhesives. In the control group, bone fragment was only juxtaposed at the parietal bone surface without any fixation material. The animals were euthanized after 10 and 60 postoperative days. The calvariae were processed in a laboratory for the attainment of slides stained through the hematoxylin and eosin technique for histological and histometric analysis. The qualitative analysis showed a discrete inflammatory infiltrate in the control group and moderate inflammatory infiltrate in the ethyl and octyl groups at the 10-day period, which remained at the 60-day period, mainly in the octyl group. The bone fragment remained bonded to the recipient site through the adhesive, but graft incorporation was not observed in any of the specimens. Resorption was higher in the octyl group followed by the ethyl and control groups, both at the 10- and 60-day periods, but with no statistical significance (P < .05). Although promoting graft fixation and its maintenance at the recipient site, both studied adhesives did not allow the graft incorporation, producing a localized and discrete inflammatory reaction, which persisted at 60 days, being more intense in the octyl cyanoacrylate group. PMID:25106004

  3. Keratan Sulfate Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Funderburgh, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Keratan sulfate was originally identified as the major glycosaminoglycan of cornea but is now known to modify at least a dozen different proteins in a wide variety of tissues. Despite a large body of research documenting keratan sulfate structure, and an increasing interest in the biological functions of keratan sulfate, until recently little was known of the specific enzymes involved in keratan sulfate biosynthesis or of the molecular mechanisms that control keratan sulfate expression. In the last 2 years, however, marked progress has been achieved in identification of genes involved in keratan sulfate biosynthesis and in development of experimental conditions to study keratan sulfate secretion and control in vitro. This review summarizes current understanding of keratan sulfate structure and recent developments in understanding keratan sulfate biosynthesis. PMID:12512857

  4. Fractionation of Thylakoid Membranes with the Nonionic Detergent Octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside: RESOLUTION OF CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPLEX II INTO TWO CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPLEXES.

    PubMed

    Camm, E L; Green, B R

    1980-09-01

    The detergent octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (30 millimolar in 2 millimolar Tris-maleate, pH 7.0) preferentially extracts complexes containing protein and chlorophylls a plus b (CP) from spinach, leaving a residue highly enriched in CP I (P700-chlorophyll a protein). Use of the detergent results in a relatively gentle extraction since little free chlorophyll is formed and since sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis (on 10% acrylamide) of the extract also reveals the presence of two minor chlorophyll a complexes (apparent molecular weight, 47,000 and 43,000) instead of the usual single complex. The major complex preserved is CP 64, a chlorophyll a/b complex (apparent molecular weight, 64,000) which is an oligomer of another chlorophyll a/b complex, CP 27, the light-harvesting complex (apparent molecular weight, 27,000). Dissociation of each complex reveals two polypeptides (molecular weight, 32,000 and 28,000) and limited proteolysis confirms that those of CP 64 have the same structure as those of CP 27. An additional chlorophyll a/b complex (apparent molecular weight, 29,000) is clearly separable from CP 27, and differs from it and CP 64 in having a higher chlorophyll a/b ratio and a single polypeptide (molecular weight, 29,000) which differs structurally from those of the other complexes. PMID:16661449

  5. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  6. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  7. Oral Sustained Release of a Hydrophilic Drug Using the Lauryl Sulfate Salt/Complex.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yuuki; Yoshihara, Keiichi; Yasuji, Takehiko; Sako, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the key factor of the lauryl sulfate (LS) salt/complex for sustained release of a hydrophilic drug at various physiological pH levels. Mirabegron is a hydrophilic drug that exhibits pH-dependent solubility. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) bound to mirabegron in a stoichiometric manner. The formation of the LS salt/complex significantly reduced mirabegron solubility and helped achieve sustained release of mirabegron over a wide range of pH levels. In addition to SLS, other additives containing a sulfate group formed salts/complexes with mirabegron and reduced its solubility at different pH levels. Furthermore, octyl sulfate (OS), myristyl sulfate (MS), and cetyl sulfate (CS) salts/complexes, which contain alkyl chains of different lengths, showed a lower solubility than mirabegron and promoted sustained release of mirabegron. The rank order of solubility and dissolution rate were as follows: OS salt/complex>LS salt/complex>MS salt/complex>CS salt/complex, which corresponded to the rank of alkyl chain lengths. We conclude that the presence of a sulfate group and the length of the alkyl chain are key factors of the LS salt/complex for sustained release of a hydrophilic drug at various physiological pH levels. PMID:27581634

  8. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. PMID:27112846

  9. Synergistic effects of surfactant-assisted ionic liquid pretreatment rice straw.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Han, Ye-Ju; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Potprommanee, Laddawan; Ning, Xun-An; Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Jian; Peng, Yen-Ping; Sun, Shui-Yu; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study an environmentally friendly method for pretreating rice straw by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as an ionic liquid (IL) assisted by surfactants. Different temperatures, reaction times, and surfactant concentrations were studied. Compared with [BMIM]Cl only pretreatment, the addition of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1% cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) increased lignin removal to 49.48% and 34.76%, respectively. Untreated and pretreated rice straw was thoroughly characterized through FTIR, XRD, and FE-SEM. Cellulose crystallinity and surface morphology of the rice straw were substantially altered after surfactant-assisted IL pretreatment. In conclusion, surfactant-assisted IL pretreatment is an effective method for producing fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:27155265

  10. The Assembling of Poly (3-Octyl-Thiophene) on CVD Grown Single Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanqiu; Yang, Ling; Guo, Zongxia; Lei, Shengbin

    2015-01-01

    The interface between organic semiconductor and graphene electrode, especially the structure of the first few molecular layers at the interface, is crucial for the device properties such as the charge transport in organic field effect transistors. In this work, we have used scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the poly (3-octyl-thiophene) (P3OT)-graphene interface. Our results reveal the dynamic assembling of P3OT on single layer graphene. As on other substrates the epitaxial effect plays a role in determining the orientation of the P3OT assembling, however, the inter-thiophene distance along the backbone is consistent with that optimized in vaccum, no compression was observed. Adsorption of P3OT on ripples is weaker due to local curvature, which has been verified both by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory simulation. Scanning tunneling microscopy also reveals that P3OT tends to form hairpin folds when meets a ripple. PMID:26634648

  11. The Assembling of Poly (3-Octyl-Thiophene) on CVD Grown Single Layer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanqiu; Yang, Ling; Guo, Zongxia; Lei, Shengbin

    2015-12-01

    The interface between organic semiconductor and graphene electrode, especially the structure of the first few molecular layers at the interface, is crucial for the device properties such as the charge transport in organic field effect transistors. In this work, we have used scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the poly (3-octyl-thiophene) (P3OT)-graphene interface. Our results reveal the dynamic assembling of P3OT on single layer graphene. As on other substrates the epitaxial effect plays a role in determining the orientation of the P3OT assembling, however, the inter-thiophene distance along the backbone is consistent with that optimized in vaccum, no compression was observed. Adsorption of P3OT on ripples is weaker due to local curvature, which has been verified both by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory simulation. Scanning tunneling microscopy also reveals that P3OT tends to form hairpin folds when meets a ripple.

  12. Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di-n-octyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Earl Gray, L; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Herbert, Arnetra R; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6-C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), and other oxidative products. The urinary levels of one of these oxidative metabolites, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), were about 560-fold higher than MnOP in Sprague-Dawley rats dosed with DnOP by gavage. Furthermore, MCPP was also found in the urine of rats dosed with di-isooctyl phthalate (DiOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), although at concentrations considerably lower than in rats given similar concentrations of DnOP. The comparatively much higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than of the hydrolytic monoesters of the high-molecular-weight phthalates DiOP, DiNP, and DiDP in the exposed rats suggest that these monoesters may be poor biomarkers of exposure to their precursor phthalates and may explain the relatively low frequency of detection of these monoester metabolites in human populations. MCPP and MnOP were also measured in 267 human urine samples. The frequent detection and higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than MnOP suggest that exposure to DnOP might be higher than previously thought based on the measurements of MnOP alone. However, because MCPP is also a minor metabolite of DBP and other phthalates in rats, and the metabolism of phthalates in rodents and humans may differ, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of MCPP are needed to completely understand the extent of human exposure to DnOP from the urinary concentrations of MCPP. PMID:16263692

  13. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

  14. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  15. Evaluation of thermophysical properties of ionic liquids with polar solvent: a comparable study of two families of ionic liquids with various ions.

    PubMed

    Govinda, Varadhi; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Punnuru; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri

    2013-10-17

    In this work, we explore and compare the role of the ion effect on the thermophysical properties of two families of ionic liquids (ILs), namely, tetra-alkyl ammonium cation [R4N](+) with hydroxide [OH](-) anion and 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium cation [amim](+) with different anions (chloride, methyl sulfate, and tetrafluoroborate), with polar solvent such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in the temperature range from 25 to 40 °C and over the whole concentration range of ILs. Two families of ILs, namely, tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4N][OH] (TMAH), tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide [(C2H5)4N][OH] (TEAH), tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide [(C3H7)4N][OH] (TPAH), and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide [(C4H9)4N][OH] (TBAH) from ammonium-based ILs and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Emim][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate [Emim][MeSO4], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [Bmim][BF4], and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]) from imidazolium family of ILs, are used in the present study. To address the molecular interactions of ILs with DMSO, densities (ρ), ultrasonic sound velocities (u), and viscosities (η) have been measured over the entire composition range and at four temperatures, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C, under atmospheric pressure. From these experimental data, the excess molar volume (V(E)), the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs), and the deviation in viscosity (Δη) were calculated and were adequately correlated by using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The measured and predicted data were interpreted on the basis of intermolecular interactions and structural effects between like and unlike molecules upon mixing. The hydrogen-bonding features between ammonium-based ILs and DMSO were analyzed using molecular modeling program by HyperChem 7. PMID:24087984

  16. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  17. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy. PMID:16933356

  18. A Comparison of 2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate Adhesives versus Conventional Suture Materials for Eyelid Wound Closure in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Min; Roh, Mee-Sook; Jeung, Woo-Jin; Park, Woo-Chan; Rho, Sae-Heun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical efficacy and histopathological tolerance of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate versus conventional suture materials for eyelid wound closure in rabbits. Methods We performed an experimental study on 16 eyes of eight New Zealand albino rabbits. Eyelid incisions of 15 mm were done 4mm from the upper eyelid margin in both eyes. The eyes of the rabbits were divided into two groups: eyelid incisions of the right eye were closed by a 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive (group A) and eyelid incisions of the left eye were closed by 7-0 nylon sutures (group B). At 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery, the rabbits were macroscopically examined and then sacrificed. The specimens of their eyelid tissues were stained by a hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson-trichrome stain, and were observed under microscope. Results Both eyelid surgical closure methods were found to be equally efficacious in fixing the eyelids of groups A and B, and their clinical efficacy was similar. Histopathological findings of the hematoxylin and eosin stain of group A showed less inflammatory infiltration than group B at 2 weeks. There were no significant histopathological differences between the two groups at 1, 4, and 8 weeks. The degree of fibrosis of the Masson-trichrome stain was similar between the two groups at 8 weeks. Conclusions The 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive proved to be an effective eyelid closure method and was very well tolerated by the skin surface. 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate could be used as an alternative tissue adhesive for eyelid wound closure along with conventional suture materials. PMID:21461225

  19. Phytotoxicity and oxidative stress effect of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid on rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Shuxian; Hu, Xiaona; Chen, Caidong

    2013-10-01

    The effects of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([OMIM]Cl) was studied in hydroponically grown rice seedlings. Observed effects included increased root length and weight at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L [OMIM]Cl, however, as concentrations increased a reversed response was observed where roots and stems grew shorter and the weight decreased. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50,5d) values for root length and stem length were 0.59 mg/L and 0.70 mg/L, respectively. The Hill reaction activity and root system activity in [OMIM]Cl-treated rice seedlings were observed to be lower than the controls, however, root membrane permeability increased. The antioxidant enzyme activity in roots decreased, while in leaves there was an initial stimulation followed by a decrease. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was found to be greater in seedlings subjected to [OMIM]Cl treatment. The cellular structures, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum in rice root and leaf cells were affected at concentrations of 0.6 mg/L [OMIM]Cl. PMID:23877038

  20. Solid lipid microparticles containing the sunscreen agent, octyl-dimethylaminobenzoate: effect of the vehicle.

    PubMed

    Tursilli, Rosanna; Piel, Géraldine; Delattre, Luc; Scalia, Santo

    2007-06-01

    Solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) loaded with the sunscreen agent, octyl-dimethylaminobenzoate (ODAB), were prepared in order to achieve enhanced sunscreen photostability. The microparticles were produced by the melt dispersion technique using glyceryl behenate as lipidic material and poloxamer 188 as the emulsifier. The obtained SLMs showed proper features in terms of morphology, size distribution (1.67-15.81 microm) and ODAB loading (16.15+/-0.11%, w/w). The sunscreen release from the SLMs was slower than its dissolution rate and the photodecomposition of ODAB was markedly decreased (>51.3%) by encapsulation into the lipid microparticles. The efficacy of the SLM carrier system was also evaluated after their introduction in model topical formulations (i.e., hydrogel and oil-in-water emulsion). Further in vitro release measurements, performed using Franz diffusion cells with polycarbonate membranes, indicated that the retention capacity of the microparticles was lost after their incorporation into the emulsion, whereas it was retained in the hydrogel. Moreover, the SLMs achieved a reduction of the sunscreen photodegradation in the hydrogel vehicle (the ODAB loss decreased from 87.4% to 59.1%), whereas no significant photoprotective effect was observed in the emulsion. Therefore, the efficacy of the ODAB-loaded SLMs was markedly affected by the vehicle. PMID:17407809

  1. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Bing; Sun, Yong; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Peng, Han; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O), has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu) and Cat D inhibitor (pepA) inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p < 0.05) in lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome. PMID:27120618

  2. Stabilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) Immobilized on Octyl Agarose by Treatment with Polyethyleneimine (PEI).

    PubMed

    Peirce, Sara; Tacias-Pascacio, Veymar G; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Virgen-Ortíz, José J; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) was immobilized on octyl agarose (OC) and physically modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) in order to confer a strong ion exchange character to the enzyme and thus enable the immobilization of other enzymes on its surface. The enzyme activity was fully maintained during the coating and the thermal stability was marginally improved. The enzyme release from the support by incubation in the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 was more difficult after the PEI-coating, suggesting that some intermolecular physical crosslinking had occurred, making this desorption more difficult. Thermal stability was marginally improved, but the stability of the OCCALB-PEI was significantly better than that of OCCALB during inactivation in mixtures of aqueous buffer and organic cosolvents. SDS-PAGE analysis of the inactivated biocatalyst showed the OCCALB released some enzyme to the medium during inactivation, and this was partially prevented by coating with PEI. This effect was obtained without preventing the possibility of reuse of the support by incubation in 2% ionic detergents. That way, this modified CALB not only has a strong anion exchange nature, while maintaining the activity, but it also shows improved stability under diverse reaction conditions without affecting the reversibility of the immobilization. PMID:27338317

  3. Lipid nanoparticles as carrier for octyl-methoxycinnamate: in vitro percutaneous absorption and photostability studies.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Rizza, Luisa; Blasi, Paolo; Schoubben, Aurelie; Perrotta, Rosario; Tarico, Maria Stella; Damiani, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN, and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC) as potential carriers for octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC). The release pattern of OMC from SLN and NLC was evaluated in vitro, determining its percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of OMC-loaded lipid nanoparticles. From the obtained results, ultrasonication method yielded both SLN and NLC in the nanometer range with a high active loading and a particle shape close to spherical. Differential scanning calorimetry data pointed out the key role of the inner oil phase of NLC in stabilizing the particle architecture and in increasing the solubility of OMC as compared with SLN. In vitro results showed that OMC, when incorporated in viscosized NLC dispersions (OMC-NLC), exhibited a lower flux with respect to viscosized SLN dispersions (OMC-SLN) and two reference formulations: a microemulsion (OMC-ME) and a hydroalcoholic gel (OMC-GEL). Photostability studies revealed that viscosized NLC dispersions were the most efficient at preserving OMC from ultraviolet-mediated photodegradation. PMID:21905033

  4. Synthesis and spectral studies of copper complexes using a N-octylated bis benzimidazole diamide ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Subash Chandra; Mathur, Pavan

    2011-02-01

    Monomeric Cu(II) and Cu(I) complexes bound to a tetradentate bis-benzimidazole diamide ligand N,N'-bis(N-octyl benzimidazolyl-2yl)(methyl)pentane diamide (O-GBGA) have been isolated and characterized. X-Band EPR spectra of the copper(II) complexes in CH 2Cl 2 were recorded in a frozen solution as solvent at liquid nitrogen temperature. Solution spectra typically indicate a d ground state ( g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023) and show less than four nuclear hyperfine lines with broadening of g⊥ line in some cases, thus indicating distorted tetragonal geometry. One of the copper(II) complexes shows a five line N-SHF structure (16 ± 1 G) implying the binding of imine nitrogen of the benzimidazole to copper ion. α2 ranges from 0.57-0.97 indicating considerable amount of covalent character in Cu-L bond. Anodic shifts in E1/2 values indicate the retention of anion in the coordination sphere of Cu(II), E1/2 values becoming anodic in the order C 6H 5COO - < SCN - < Cl -. The fluorescence quantum yield of complexes was found to be lower than that of the ligand O-GBGA ( Φ = 0.029) and the relative fluorescence data reveals that fluorescence of such compounds could distinguish between small and large anions.

  5. Surface layer in composites containing 4- n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl. FTIR spectroscopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunza, L.; Kosslick, H.; Bentrup, U.; Pitsch, I.; Fricke, R.; Frunza, S.; Schönhals, A.

    2003-06-01

    Composites containing 4- n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) either confined to nanopores of molecular sieves with very large pores or coating silica nanoparticles of aerosil type at high silica-to-8CB ratios are investigated by IR spectroscopy. Band shape analysis was performed in wavenumber regions in which the peaks due to CN stretching, CH stretching and CH out-of-plane vibrations appear. Some of molecules confined to molecular sieves show spectroscopic features characteristic to a bulk-like 8CB matter located in the centre of the pores or in the inter-grain space. Other features of the IR spectra are due to 8CB molecules located in the surface layer, mostly forming hydrogen bonds between their CN groups and surface OH groups. Another part of the 8CB molecules in the surface layer may also interact by π electrons of the aromatic rings. Hydrogen bonding is less hindered for the molecules of the surface layers onto aerosil particles than inside pores of the molecular sieves. Comparison is also made with the case of composites based on molecular sieves with small pores.

  6. Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and 1-Octyl-2-pyrrolidinone Modified Ionic Microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Beitz, T.; Kötz, J.; Wolf, G.; Kleinpeter, E.; Friberg, S. E.

    2001-08-15

    The influence of the nonionic polymer poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) in comparison to the surfactant 1-octyl-2-pyrrolidinone (OP) on the phase behavior of the system SDS/pentanol/xylene/water was studied. In both modified systems a strong increase in the water solubilization capacity was found, accompanied by a change in the spontaneous curvature toward zero. In the polymer-modified system an isotropic phase channel is formed with increasing polymer content that connects the L1 and the L2 phase. The lamellar liquid crystalline phase is destabilized in both cases. In the L1 phase the adsorption of PVP at the surface of the microemulsion droplets and the formation of a cluster-like structure is proven by several methods like (13)C NMR T(1) relaxation time measurments, zeta potential measurements, and rheology. In the L2 phase a modification of the interface of the inverse droplets is detected by a shift in the percolation boundary (conductivity) and (13)C NMR T(1) relaxation measurements. The formation of a cluster-like structure can be assumed on the basis of our rheological measurements. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11482969

  7. Three degradation pathways of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cation by activated sludge from wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Woong; Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kim, Sok; Song, Myung-Hee; Chung, Yun-Jo; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-03-01

    The biodegradability and degradation pathways of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [OMIM](+) by microbial community of wastewater treatment plant in Jeonju city, Korea were investigated. It was found that [OMIM](+) could be easily degraded by the microbial community. New degradation products and pathways of [OMIM](+) were identified, which are partially different from previous results (Green Chem. 2008, 10, 214-224). For the analysis of the degradation pathways and intermediates, the mass peaks observed in the range m/z of 50-300 were screened by using a tandem mass spectrometer (MS), and their fragmentation patterns were investigated by MS/MS. Surprisingly, we found three different degradation pathways of [OMIM](+), which were separated according to the initially oxidized position i.e. middle of the long alkyl chain, end of the long alkyl chain, and end of the short alkyl chain. The degradation pathways showed that the long and short alkyl chains of [OMIM](+) gradually degraded by repeating oxidation and carbon release. The results presented here shows that [OMIM](+) can be easily biodegraded through three different degradation pathways in wastewater treatment plants. PMID:26748207

  8. The influence of octyl β-D-glucopyranoside on cell lysis induced by ultrasonic cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    Octyl β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP) has been reported to completely inhibit cavitation-induced cell lysis in vitro, possibly by quenching critical free-radical effects. In this study, the influence of OGP on cell lysis in a 60 rpm rotating-tube exposure apparatus was assessed. HL-60 cell lysis was estimated with a Coulter Multisizer counter. Cavitation activity from the 2.3 MHz, 30 s duration exposures were monitored at the 1.15 MHz subharmonic. Cavitation nucleation was accomplished by addition of an ultrasound contrast agent, or by using freshly dissolved culture media. For both nucleation methods, exposures were conducted for 0–0.7 MPa peak rarefactional pressure-amplitudes with and without 5 mM OGP, and for 0.5 MPa with 0-5 mM OGP. The addition of OGP to the cell suspension medium generally had little influence on cavitation-induced cell lysis. Exposures with no rotation had reduced subharmonic and lysis for added contrast agent, but essentially no cavitation for the fresh medium. Since the decreases or increases in cell lysis found for added OGP generally were accounted for by concomitant decreases or increases in cavitation activity, the changes in cell lysis could be explained by variation of the mechanical effects of cavitation without invoking a critical role for free-radical effects. PMID:22088023

  9. Mechanical and cytotoxicity testing of acrylic bone cement embedded with microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Evans, Gregory A.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The water-reactive tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was microencapsulated in polyurethane shells and incorporated into Palacos R bone cement. The tensile and compressive properties of the composite material were investigated in accordance with commercial standards, and fracture toughness of the capsule-embedded bone cement was measured using the tapered double-cantilever beam geometry. Viability and proliferation of MG63 human osteosarcoma cells after culture with extracts from Palacos R bone cement, capsule-embedded Palacos R bone cement, and OCA were also analyzed. Incorporating up to 5 wt % capsules had little effect on the compressive and tensile properties of the composite, but greater than 5 wt % capsules reduced these values below commercial standards. Fracture toughness was increased by 13% through the incorporation of 3 wt % capsules and eventually decreased below the toughness of the capsule-free controls at capsule contents of 15 wt % and higher. The effect on cell proliferation and viability in response to extracts prepared from capsule-embedded and commercial bone cements were not significantly different from each other, whereas extracts from OCA were moderately toxic to cells. Overall, the addition of lower wt % of OCA-containing microcapsules to commercial bone cement was found to moderately increase static mechanical properties without increasing the toxicity of the material. PMID:23913367

  10. Influence of collection solvent on permeation of di-n-octyl disulfide through nitrile glove material.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

    2008-03-01

    The influence of collection solvents hexane and perfluorohexane on the permeation of the non-polar and non-volatile di-n-octyl disulfide (DOD) through nitrile glove material was investigated using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739-99a method. The weight and the thickness of the nitrile material increased about 6%, statistically significant at p

  11. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Bing; Sun, Yong; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Peng, Han; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O), has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu) and Cat D inhibitor (pepA) inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p < 0.05) in lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome. PMID:27120618

  12. Green and efficient production of octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate using an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Chen; Chen, Hsiao Ching; Ju, Hen Yi; Chen, Jiann Hwa; Kuo, Chia Hung; Chung, Yi Lin; Liu, Yung Chuan; Shieh, Chwen Jen

    2012-04-01

    A solvent-free system to produce octyl hydroxyphenylpropionate (OHPP) from p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and octanol using immobilized lipase (Novozym® 435) as a catalyst in an ultrasound-assisted packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. Response-surface methodology (RSM) and a three-level-three-factor Box-Behnken design were employed to evaluate the effects of reaction temperature (x₁), flow rate (x₂) and ultrasonic power (x₃) on the percentage of molar production of OHPP. The results indicate that the reaction temperature and flow rate were the most important variables in optimizing the production of OHPP. Based on a ridge max analysis, the optimum conditions for OHPP synthesis were predicted to consist of a reaction temperature of 65°C, a flow rate of 0.05 ml/min and an ultrasonic power of 1.74 W/cm² with a yield of 99.25%. A reaction was performed under these optimal conditions, and a yield of 99.33 ± 0.1% was obtained. PMID:22120649

  13. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells need to grow (see Question 3 ). In randomized clinical trials (a type of research study ), hydrazine ... make tumors shrink or go away. In some randomized trials, however, hydrazine sulfate was reported to be ...

  14. Synergistic extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides from acidic chloride media by tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide

    SciTech Connect

    McAlister, D.R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2008-07-01

    Ferric chloride has been found to induce a significant synergistic enhancement of the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides by tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide (TODGA) from acidic chloride media. In this manuscript, results of a thorough investigation of the TODGA-HCl-Fe(III) system using solvent-extraction experiments designed to elucidate the stoichiometry of the synergistic species will be described. Results for Ac(III), Am(III), Eu(III), Pm(III), Y(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), and U(VI) will be discussed. (authors)

  15. Extraction of actinides and fission products by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide from nitric acid media.

    PubMed

    Mathur, J N; Murali, M S; Natarajan, P R; Badheka, L P; Banerji, A

    1992-05-01

    Extraction of promethium(III), uranium(VI), plutonium(IV), americium(III), zirconium(IV), ruthenium(III), iron(III) and palladium(II) has been carried out with a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in dodecane. The effects of nitric acid, TBP and CMPO concentrations on the extraction of these metal ions have been studied. The nature of the species of the above metal ions extracted into the organic phase has been suggested. PMID:18965406

  16. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  17. A kinetic study on the Novozyme 435-catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids with octanol to produce octyl esters.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Avisha; Mitra, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Octyl esters can serve as an important class of biolubricant components replacing their mineral oil counterparts. The purpose of the current work was to investigate the enzymatic esterification reaction of free fatty acids (FFA, from waste cooking oil) with octanol in a solvent-free system using a commercial lipase Novozyme 435. It was found that the esterificaton reaction followed the Ping-pong bi-bi kinetics with no inhibition by substrates or products within the studied concentration range. The maximum reaction rate was estimated to be 0.041 mol L(-1) g(-1) h(-1) . Additionally, the stability of Novozyme 435 in the current reaction system was studied by determining its activity and final conversion of FFA to esters after 12 successive utilizations. Novozyme 435 exhibited almost 100% enzyme activity up to 7 cycles of reaction and gradually decreased (by 5%) thereafter. The kinetic parameters evaluated from the study shall assist in the design of reactors for large-scale production of octyl esters from a cheap biomass source. The enzyme reusability data can further facilitate mass production by curtailing the cost of expensive enzyme consumption. PMID:26334440

  18. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  19. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  20. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1130 Section 180.1130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1130 Section 180.1130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...

  3. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, G; Silbert, J E

    1988-04-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent. These results indicate that the intact microsomal system was not accessible to the larger

  4. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  5. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  6. Phase Transitions of Triflate-Based Ionic Liquids under High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2015-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to study phase transitions of ionic liquids based on the triflate anion, [TfO](-), as a function of pressure or temperature. Raman spectra of ionic liquids containing the cations 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C4C1Im](+), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C8C1Im](+), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C4C1C1Im](+), and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, [C4C1Pyr](+), were compared. Vibrational frequencies and binding energy of ionic pairs were calculated by quantum chemistry methods. The ionic liquids [C4C1Im][TfO] and [C4C1Pyr][TfO] crystallize at 1.0 GPa when the pressure is increased in steps of ∼ 0.2 GPa from the atmospheric pressure, whereas [C8C1Im][TfO] and [C4C1C1Im][TfO] do not crystallize up to 2.3 GPa of applied pressure. The low-frequency range of the Raman spectrum of [C4C1Im][TfO] indicates that the system undergoes glass transition, rather than crystallization, when the pressure applied on the liquid has been increased above 2.0 GPa in a single step. Strong hysteresis of spectral features (frequency shift and bandwidth) of the high-pressure crystalline phase when the pressure was released stepwise back to the atmospheric pressure has been found . PMID:26457868

  7. Effects of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids on Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, D. M.; Bernot, R. J.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are exotic bivalves that are widely distributed in eastern North America. We propose that this nuisance organism could serve as a model species for studies of aquatic toxicology. We tested zebra mussels response to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which are being synthesized as environmentally friendly alternatives to volatile organic solvents. Volatile organic solvents contribute to atmospheric pollution and ozone depletion, whereas ILs are non-volatile and less harmful to the atmosphere. Although ILs would contribute significantly less to air pollution, little is known about their potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. In 72-hour toxicity tests, we determined the acute effects of three imidazolium-based ILs (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (hmimBr), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (omimBr)) on the survival of zebra mussels. As alkyl chain length decreased, median lethal concentration (LC50) decreased from 1291 mg L-1 for bmimBr, to 105 mg L-1 for hmimBr, and 21.2 mg L-1 for omimBr. For bivalve mussels, the toxicities of these ILs are comparable to the toxicities of commonly used industrial solvents (e.g., toluene, benzene). This study presents a foundation for using zebra mussels in toxicity studies as well as possible models for less common Unionid mussels.

  8. Charging and aggregation of latex particles in aqueous solutions of ionic liquids: towards an extended Hofmeister series.

    PubMed

    Oncsik, Tamas; Desert, Anthony; Trefalt, Gregor; Borkovec, Michal; Szilagyi, Istvan

    2016-03-01

    The effect of ionic liquid (IL) constituents and other monovalent salts on the stability of polystyrene latex particles was studied by electrophoresis and light scattering in dilute aqueous suspensions. The surface charge and the aggregation rate were both sensitive to the type of ion leading to different critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values. Systematic variation of the type of IL cation and anion allows us to place these ions within the Hofmeister series. We find that the dicyanoamide anion should be placed between iodide and thiocyanate, while all 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations can be positioned to the left of the tetramethylammonium and ammonium ions. The hydrophobicity of the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium (BMPL(+)) ion is intermediate between 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM(+)) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM(+)). With increasing alkyl chain length, the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations adsorb on the latex particles very strongly, and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium (HMIM(+)) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (OMIM(+)) lead to pronounced charge reversal and to an intermediate restabilization region. PMID:26902948

  9. Effects of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids on Freshwater Primary Producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulacki, K. J.; Bernot, R. J.; Lamberti, G. A.; Lodge, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are non-volatile chemicals, which are presumed to be environmentally friendly because they pose no significant threat to air quality. However, the potential toxic effects of ILs on aquatic environments have not been studied, despite the likelihood of unintentional releases into streams and lakes during industrial applications. We studied the effects of ILs on the growth rates of the freshwater green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in 96-h bioassays. ILs with increasing alkyl chain lengths (from 1-butyl- to 1-hexyl- to 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) were increasingly toxic to S. quadricauda (EC-50 values of 0.28 mg*L-1, 0.04 mg*L-1, and <0.005 mg*L-1 respectively). S. quadricauda growth rates decreased with increasing IL concentration across all treatments. Compared to controls, C. reinhardtii growth rates were higher at 200-800 mg*L-1 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) treatments, but declined at 1600 mg*L-1 bmimBr. These results illustrate that different algal taxa can respond quite differently to potential chemical pollutants. Furthermore, by studying the effects of ILs on primary producers in concert with organisms from other trophic levels, we can develop hypotheses about how these effects may be felt throughout aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Ionic liquid biodegradability depends on specific wastewater microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Aiello, Steven W; Buehler, Barbara K; Jones, Stuart E; Szymczyna, Blair R; Walker, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    Complete biodegradation of a newly-synthesized chemical in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) eliminates the potential for novel environmental pollutants. However, differences within- and between-WWTP microbial communities may alter expectations for biodegradation. WWTP communities can also serve as a source of unique consortia that, when enriched, can metabolize chemicals that tend to resist degradation, but are otherwise promising green alternatives. We tested the biodegradability of three ionic liquids (ILs): 1-octyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (OMP), 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (BMP) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM). We performed tests using communities from two WWTPs at three time points. Site-specific and temporal variation both influenced community composition, which impacted the success of OMP biodegradability. Neither BMP nor BMIM degraded in any test, suggesting that these ILs are unlikely to be removed by traditional treatment. Following standard biodegradation assays, we enriched for three consortia that were capable of quickly degrading OMP, BMP and BMIM. Our results indicate WWTPs are not functionally redundant with regard to biodegradation of specific ionic liquids. However, consortia can be enriched to degrade chemicals that fail biodegradability assays. This information can be used to prepare pre-treatment procedures and prevent environmental release of novel pollutants. PMID:25985304

  11. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. PMID:25839183

  12. Liberation of sulfate from sulfate esters by soils.

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, C; Rose, R A

    1976-01-01

    When incubated with acid, alkaline, and neutral soils, a variety of synthetic sulfate esters representing the various classes of these compounds was hydrolyzed by enzymes, probably of microbial origin. The appearance of sulfate in the soil water occurred immediately after introduction into the soils with some esters, whereas with others it occurred only after lag periods. Heat treatment destroyed the hydrolytic acitivity in the soils. The ester sulfate groups present in humic acid extracted from the soil appeared to be resistant to hydrolysis by a variety of sulfohydrolases extracted from bacteria and other organisms. Images PMID:938044

  13. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhu, Lusheng; Dong, Miao; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui; Liu, Tong; Guo, Yingying

    2014-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have a great reputation due to their negligible volatility, designability, good stability, and ability to be recycled. They are considered to be "green" solvents and have great promise in many fields. In recent years, the toxicities of ILs have garnered increasing attention as reported by a number of studies. However, previous studies have primarily focused on their lethal toxicities, and data were limited on their toxic effects at nonlethal doses. We performed a study on the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Omim]Br) on zebrafish. During a 28-day period, male and female zebrafish were separately exposed to sequential concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L) of [Omim]Br. Fishes were sampled after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of exposure, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and DNA damage in fish livers were measured. ROS, LPO, and DNA damage were all induced by the ionic liquid, and antioxidant enzyme activities increased at the beginning and then decreased. These phenomena demonstrate that [Omim]Br can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in zebrafish. PMID:24908585

  14. Metabolism of n-butyl, n-hexyl, and n-octyl benzene in the bile of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; King, A.

    1987-08-01

    Exposure of fish to petroleum can occur directly in the aquatic environment, via the water, or indirectly through the diet. In previous investigations of petroleum metabolites extracted from the bile of fish, the analysis indicated the presence of ..beta..-glucuronides enriched with unsaturated vs saturated carbons, when comparing the metabolites mixture to No. 2 fuel oil. The naphthenic carbons represented a significant fraction of the total carbons and were observed at different chemical shifts than in the petroleum oil, strongly indicating that metabolic oxidations took place on the aliphatic carbons. Mass spectra analysis of the hydrolyzed metabolites isolated from the bile of trout exposed to No. 2 fuel oil, using ..beta..-glucuronidase, enabled the identification of at least eight metabolites. These two- and three-ring aromatic alcohols had side chains of two to six carbons. In order to answer some of the questions raised from the above observations, the metabolism of n-butyl benzene, n-hexyl benzene and n-octyl benzene was considered. The present study was undertaken in order to answer three questions: (1) For a given ring system, does the number of carbons in the alkyl side chain influence the rate of hydrocarbon uptake. (2) For n-alkyl aromatic molecules, are primary, secondary or aromatic alcohols formed preferentially. (3) Are long alkyl side chains attached to aromatic rings degraded to a relatively shorter number of carbon atoms prior to excretion. To the authors knowledge, these questions had not been previously considered in the study of fish metabolites.

  15. Chronic toxicity of di-n-butyl and di-n-octyl phthalate to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Whitmore, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicities of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were assessed by measuring the effect of exposure to these compounds on the fecundity of Daphnia magna and on the hatching and survival of the early life stages of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. For D. magna, exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP or 1.0 mg/L DOP caused a significant reduction in reproduction. Doses of 0.56 mg/L DBP or 0.32 mg/L DOP had no significant effect in decreasing reproduction. Survival of fathead minnow embryos was decreased by exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP; none of the embryos exposed to this dose hatched successfully. Hatching and larval survival were affected by exposure to 1.0 mg/L DBP, but not to 0.56 mg/L. Exposure to DOP did not affect survival of either early embryos or larvae of the fathead minnow at doses up to 10 mg/L (the highest dose tested). Hatching of the embryos was significantly decreased at 10 mg/L, but not at 3.2 mg/L DOP. 26 references, 4 figures, 11 tables.

  16. Long-term effects of di-octyl phthalate on the expression of immune-related genes in Tegillarca granosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Li, Ye; Dai, Juan; Su, Xiurong; Li, Chenghua; Shen, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Di-octyl phthalate (DOP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the plastics industry. As a result, DOP is often found in marine water ecosystems where many species are exposed to it. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of long-term (14 d) DOP exposure (2.6, 7.8, or 31.2 mg/L) on the expression of immunerelated genes in Tegillarca granosa. The expression of small heat shock protein (sHSPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) were highest in clams exposed to 31.2 mg/L DOP on days 7 and 14. The relative expression of Tg-ferritin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and metallothionein (MT) increased initially then decreased as the concentration of DOP increased. The hemoglobin of T. granosa (Tg-HbI) exhibited two distinct expression patterns at two time points. Our results suggest that the immune response of T. granosa against DOP pollution varies depending on the dose. Additionally, we identified some immune-related genes that are promising candidates for biomarkers of DOP.

  17. The targeted behavior of folate-decorated N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan evaluated by NIR system in mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongyan; Deng, Dawei; Chen, Haiyan; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2010-11-01

    The development of more selective delivery systems for cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy is one of the most important goals of current anticancer research. The purpose of this study is to construct and evaluate the folate-decorated, self-assembled nanoparticles as candidates to deliver near infrared fluorescent dyes into tumors and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the tumor targeting with folate-decorated, self-assembled nanoparticles. Folate-decorated N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan (folate-SOC) were synthesized. The chemical modification chitosan could self-assemble into stable micelles in aqueous medium. Micelle size determined by size analysis was around 140 nm in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, PH 7.4). Folate-SOC could maintain their structure for up to 15 days in PBS. Near infrared dye ICG-Der-01 as a mode drug was loaded in the micelles, and the entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were investigated. The targeted behavior of folate-SOC was evaluated by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo on different groups of denuded mice, with A549 or Bel-7402 tumors. The optical imaging results indicated that folated-decorated SOC showed an excellent tumor specificity in Bel-7402 tumor-bearing mice, and weak tumor specificity in A549 tumor bearing mice. We believe that this work can provide insight for the engineering of nanoparticles and be extended to cancer therapy and diagnosis so as to deliver multiple therapeutic agents and imaging probes at high local concentrations.

  18. Effects of N-octyl lactate as plasticizer on the thermal and functional properties of extruded PLA-based films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Qin, Yuyue; Zhang, Yingjie; Yuan, Mingwei; Li, Hongli; Yuan, Minglong

    2014-06-01

    Films of poly(l-lactide) (PLA) plasticized with varying levels of N-octyl lactate (NOL) were prepared by extrusion. The thermal and functional properties of the blends were investigated by SEM, DSC, TGA, tensile, opacity, water vapor permeability, and water contact angle tests. The compatibility of the plasticizer with PLA was confirmed by DSC and SEM analysis. A higher plasticizing effect on the thermal properties of PLA was generally observed with the increase in NOL content. Additionally, the mechanical properties were improved with the increase in NOL content. The mechanical resistance of the films could be related to their glass transition temperature. The effect of the concentration of plasticizer on the opacity of the films was negligible. The water vapor permeability of the PLA/NOL composite films increased with the increase in the concentration of NOL; however, the values observed were still lower than the water vapor permeability of commercial LDPE films. In conclusion, the extruded PLA-based films with NOL plasticizers could be used as food-packaging materials. PMID:24598202

  19. Octreotide-modified N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan micelles as potential carriers for targeted antitumor drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zou, Aifeng; Huo, Meirong; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Jianping; Yin, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Chengli; Zhu, Qinnv; Zhang, Min; Ren, Jinshan; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Octreotide (OCT) was recently found to have high binding affinity to the positive tumor cells of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). In this study, octreotide-Phe-polyethylene glycol-stearic acid was first successfully synthesized and used as a targeting molecule for N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCC). Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into OCT-modified OCC micelles (DOX-OCC-OCT). The drug-loaded micelles obtained exhibited spherical shape, small particle sizes, and negative zeta potentials. The cytotoxicity of DOX-OCC-OCT micelles against MCF-7 cells (SSTRs expressing) was found to significantly increase with the increased amount of OCT modification, whereas no significant difference was observed against WI-38 cells (no SSTRs expressing). Results of flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that DOX-OCC-OCT micelles could remarkably increase the uptake of DOX in MCF-7 cells. All the results indicated that OCC-OCT micelles may be a promising intracellular targeting carrier for efficient delivery of antitumor drugs into tumor cells. PMID:22083725

  20. Heparin modification enhances the delivery and tumor targeting of paclitaxel-loaded N-octyl-N-trimethyl chitosan micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feiran; Fei, Jia; Sun, Minjie; Ping, Qineng

    2016-09-10

    Polycations have been widely used as efficient drug and gene carriers. However, the further application of polycation nanocarriers is greatly hampered by the serious cytotoxicity caused by exposed positive charges. Despite recent progress towards the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acids, there remains a compelling need for development of novel delivery systems for various types of drug. Here, we created mixed micelles based on N-octyl-N-trimethyl chitosan (OTMC) and coated them with an anionic polymer for delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). OTMC/PEG-100 stearate (S-100) micelles (PTX-SN) were firstly prepared by a dialysis method with a high drug loading efficiency and positive charge. PTX-SN micelles were then coated with two anionic polymers, heparin sodium (PTX-HSN) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (PTX-CSN) to shield positive charges. Both PTX-HSN and PTX-CSN micelles showed decreased cytotoxicity and hemolysis while retaining high uptake efficiency. PTX-HSN micelles were taken up more effectively than PTX-CSN by HeLa cells, which over-express heparanase. PTX-HSN micelles persisted longer in the circulation of rats than free drug in pharmacokinetic studies. DIR-HSN micelles accumulated strongly in tumors, and PTX-HSN micelles significantly inhibited tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Overall, the results validate heparin-coated OTMC micelles as safe and effective tumor-targeting carriers that are suitable for anti-tumor drug delivery. PMID:27426109

  1. Photolysis of the organic UV filter, avobenzone, combined with octyl methoxycinnamate by nano-TiO2 composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Kim, M J; Im, N R; Park, S N

    2015-08-01

    A protection of the skin from harmful UV rays is important in preventing the skin damage and skin aging when exposed to sunlight. Titanium dioxide composites are used as a UV filter in sunscreen products combined with organic compounds such as butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) to improve the function of the sunscreen. In this study, the photolysis of avobenzone and OMC caused by the photocatalytic TiO2 nano composites (NCs) is investigated. Three different types of oil/water (O/W) sunscreen formulations containing avobenzone and OMC were prepared. Each formulation contained one of three different types of surface modified TiO2 NCs, which were WP-S (small sized hydrophilic TiO2NCs, ~10nm), OP-S (small sized hydrophobic TiO2NCs, ~15nm), and OP-L (large sized hydrophobic TiO2NCs, ~200nm). The physicochemical properties of the NCs were analyzed using biophysical tools. Addition of a different size of TiO2NCs into O/W sunscreen formulations significantly increased the photolysis of OMC. Effect of quercetin on degradation of avobenzone and OMC by the NCs was also studied for all three formulations. Although the OP-S NCs showed the lowest photocatalytic ability and the highest UV blocking capability, the NCs promoted the photolysis of OMC to the greatest extent. These results can be utilized to design more effective sunscreens, which could potentially ensure optimal photo-protection. PMID:26093231

  2. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of silver nanoparticles in water using ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sha; Sun, Yuanjing; Chao, Jingbo; Cheng, Liping; Chen, Yun; Liu, Jingfu

    2016-03-01

    Using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractant and methanol as the dispersion solvent, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed to extract silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from environmental water samples. Parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency such as IL concentration, pH and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest extraction efficiency for AgNPs was above 90% with an enrichment factor of >90. The extracted AgNPs in the IL phase were identified by transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion, with a detection limit of 0.01μg/L. The spiked recovery of AgNPs was 84.4% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.8% (n=6) at a spiked level of 5μg/L, and 89.7% with a RSD of 2.2% (n=6) at a spiked level of 300μg/L, respectively. Commonly existed environmental ions had a very limited influence on the extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of AgNPs in river water, lake water, and the influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, with recoveries in the range of 71.0%-90.9% at spiking levels of 0.11-4.7μg/L. PMID:26969067

  3. Enhanced tumor targeting and antitumor efficacy via hydroxycamptothecin-encapsulated folate-modified N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyan; Cao, Jie; Cui, Sisi; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-04-01

    10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) is an effective anticancer drug against various types of solid tumors. But the antitumor efficacy of HCPT is far from satisfactory because of its poor physicochemical properties, short circulating half-life, low stability, and nonspecific toxicity to normal tissues. Therefore, a targeted delivery strategy for HCPT to pathological sites is eagerly needed to overcome these limitations. The folate-modified N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan (folate-SOC) micelle was chosen in this study and served as the targeted delivery system for HCPT to improve the antitumor efficacy. The water-insoluble anticancer drug HCPT was encapsulated into the folate-SOC micelles by the dialysis method. The near-spherical HCPT-loaded folate-SOC (HCPT/folate-SOC) micelles were formed in aqueous media with diameter of about 100-200 nm. The HCPT/folate-SOC micelles displayed a good stability, reasonable drug-loading content (about 10%), and sustained release behavior for the water-insoluble HCPT. Compared with free HCPT, HCPT/folate-SOC micelles exhibited a significant enhancement of cellular uptake, higher cytotoxicity against folate receptor positive tumor cell (Bel-7402), excellent tumor-targeting capability and substantially better antitumor efficacy on the nude mice bearing Bel-7402 xenografts. These results demonstrate the potential of folate-SOC micelles as long-term stable and effective drug delivery systems in cancer therapy. PMID:23400693

  4. In situ Determination of Fluoride in Groundwater Using N-Octyl Acetamide with Iron(III)-Thiocyanate Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, R.; Tapadia, K.; Sharma, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the nanodrop spectrophotometric determination of fluoride (F-) in a ground water sample using the organic reagent N-octylacetamide (N-OAA) with iron(III)-thiocyanate complex. The iron(III)-thiocyanate complex was extracted with a chloroform solution of amide (N-phenylacetamide, N-alkylacetamide, alkyl = butyl, phenyl, hexyl, and octyl group). This method is based upon the bleaching effect of fluoride on the red-colored extracted complex of iron(III)-thiocyanate-OAA in chloroform. The absorbance of the extract was measured pre and post F- addition at λmax = 470 nm against the reagent blank. The limit of detection and %RSD of F- was 38 μg/L and ±1.6%. The designed work followed Beer's law between 0.5 to 10 μg/mL with slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient values of -0.1101, 1.116, and -0.997, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the present investigation was extended for the determination of F- in a groundwater sample, and the results obtained were compared with those from another reported method.

  5. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using mesoporous silica synthesized from 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekka, Basanti; Nayak, Soumitra Ranjan; Dash, Priyabrat; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2016-04-01

    In this research, mesoporous silica was synthesized via a modified sol-gel route using 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and was employed to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Subsequently, this material was characterized and identified by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermosgravimetric analysis (TGA). Unique properties such as high surface area and pore diameter, in addition to highly reactive atoms and presence of various functional groups make the mesoporous silica possible for efficient removal of malachite green (MG). In batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for quantitative removal of MG by mesoporous silica was attained by varying different variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time, and pH. Optimum values were set as pH of 8.0, 0.5 g of adsorbent at contact time of 120 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model at all amount of adsorbent, while maximum adsorption capacity was 5.981 mg g-1 for 0.5 g mesoporous silica synthesized in IL.

  6. Self-Assembly, Surface Activity and Structure of n-Octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside in Ethylene Glycol-Water Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cristóbal Carnero; Molina-Bolívar, José Antonio; Hierrezuelo, José Manuel; Liger, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the addition of ethylene glycol (EG) on the interfacial adsorption and micellar properties of the alkylglucoside surfactant n-octyl-β-d-thioglucopyranoside (OTG) has been investigated. Critical micelle concentrations (cmc) upon EG addition were obtained by both surface tension measurements and the pyrene 1:3 ratio method. A systematic increase in the cmc induced by the presence of the co-solvent was observed. This behavior was attributed to a reduction in the cohesive energy of the mixed solvent with respect to pure water, which favors an increase in the solubility of the surfactant with EG content. Static light scattering measurements revealed a decrease in the mean aggregation number of the OTG micelles with EG addition. Moreover, dynamic light scattering data showed that the effect of the surfactant concentration on micellar size is also controlled by the content of the co-solvent in the system. Finally, the effect of EG addition on the microstructure of OTG micelles was investigated using the hydrophobic probe Coumarin 153 (C153). Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay curves of the probe solubilized in micelles were analyzed using the two-step model. The results indicate a slight reduction of the average reorientation time of the probe molecule with increasing EG in the mixed solvent system, thereby suggesting a lesser compactness induced by the presence of the co-solvent. PMID:23385232

  7. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  8. Biochemical and genetic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yingying; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Yang, Jinhui

    2016-02-01

    Ionic liquids also known as "green solvents," are used in many fields. However, the dispersion of ionic liquids in soil systems is likely to cause damage to soil organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8 mim]Cl) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). For this purpose, earthworms were exposed to different concentrations of [C8 mim]Cl (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg artificial soil) and sampled at 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d. The results indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could cause an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms, even at the lowest concentration (5 mg/kg). Compared with the controls, during the [C8 mim]Cl exposure period, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased and then increased, whereas the activities of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased. These changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GST indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could induce oxidative damage in earthworms. The malondialdehyde content was increased by high levels of [C8 mim]Cl at 14 d and 28 d, indicating that [C8 mim]Cl could lead to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. In addition, the degree of DNA damage significantly increased with increasing [C8 mim]Cl concentrations and exposure time. The present study shows that [C8 mim]Cl caused biochemical and genetic toxicity in earthworms. PMID:26671879

  9. Characterization of Microemulsion Systems Formed by a Mixed 1,3-Dioxolane Ethoxylate / Octyl Glucoside Surfactant System

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhatib, Mayson H; Hayes, Douglas G; Urban, Volker S

    2009-01-01

    The phase behavior of microemulsion systems containing water (or 1.0 wt% NaCl{sub aq}), isooctane, and the binary surfactant system consisting of n-octyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}, and the acid-cleavable alkyl ethoxylate, 4-CH{sub 3}O (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 7.2}, 2-(CH{sub 2}){sub 12}CH{sub 3}, 2-(CH{sub 2})CH{sub 3}, 1,3-dioxolane, or 'cyclic ketal' ('CK-2,13'), was determined. Large temperature-insensitive one, two, and three-phase microemulsion-phase regions were obtained when equal masses of the two surfactants were employed, suggesting that C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} reduces the temperature sensitivity of CK-2,13's ethoxylate group. Addition of C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} to CK-2,13 greatly improves the latter's low efficiency, evidenced by the formation of a three-phase microemulsion system for surfactant concentrations at low fractions of total surfactants for systems with equal mass ratios of water to oil and CK-2,13 to C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}. Analysis of the phase diagrams also suggests that CK-2,13 and C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} impart hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, respectively, to the surfactant mixture, and that addition of salt further increases the hydrophilicity of C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}, presumably because of the salting-in of the latter. Analysis of small-angle neutron scattering data revealed that the mixed surfactant system formed spherical oil-in-water microemulsions, and that increasing the CK-2,13 fraction among the surfactants reduced the critical microemulsion concentration but slightly increased the nanodroplet size.

  10. Degradable copolymer based on amphiphilic N-octyl-N-quatenary chitosan and low-molecular weight polyethylenimine for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengchu; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Wenhui; Xu, Xiaolin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gao, Shen; Liu, Kehai

    2012-01-01

    Background Chitosan shows particularly high biocompatibility and fairly low cytotoxicity. However, chitosan is insoluble at physiological pH. Moreover, it lacks charge, so shows poor transfection. In order to develop a new type of gene vector with high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity, amphiphilic chitosan was synthesized and linked with low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI). Methods We first synthesized amphiphilic chitosan – N-octyl-N-quatenary chitosan (OTMCS), then prepared degradable PEI derivates by cross-linking low-molecular weight PEI with amphiphilic chitosan to produce a new polymeric gene vector (OTMCS–PEI). The new gene vector was characterized by various physicochemical methods. We also determined its cytotoxicity and gene transfecton efficiency in vitro and in vivo. Results The vector showed controlled degradation. It was very stable and showed excellent buffering capacity. The particle sizes of the OTMCS–PEI/DNA complexes were around 150–200 nm with proper zeta potentials from 10 mV to 30 mV. The polymer could protect plasmid DNA from being digested by DNase I at a concentration of 2.25 U DNase I/μg DNA. Furthermore, they were resistant to dissociation induced by 50% fetal bovine serum and 1100 μg/mL sodium heparin. OTMCS–PEI revealed lower cytotoxicity, even at higher doses. Compared with PEI 25 KDa, the OTMCS–PEI/DNA complexes also showed higher transfection efficiency in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion OTMCS–PEI was a potential candidate as a safe and efficient gene vector for gene therapy. PMID:23071395

  11. Growth inhibition and oxidative stress induced by 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide on the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Hu, Xiao-Li; Cheng, Jie; Ma, Zhi-Xin; Gao, Kun

    2016-10-01

    Marine diatom Skeletonema costatum is an important prey in the marine food web and is often used as a standard test organism in ecotoxicological studies. In this study, in vivo experiments were performed to analyze the effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) on the growth, photosynthetic activity, and oxidative stress in S. costatum using 96h growth tests with a batch-culture system. The growth of S. costatum was significantly inhibited by [C8mim]Br with 48 and 96h-EC50 of 17.9 and 39.9mgL(-1), respectively. The maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and the light use efficiency (α) were inhibited by [C8mim]Br, which affected the growth of S. costatum. Subsequent biochemical assays in S. costatum revealed that [C8mim]Br induced changes of Chl a content, soluble protein content, and SOD activity, which had significant increases in low [C8mim]Br treatments (≤20mgL(-1)), but decreased in high [C8mim]Br exposures (≥40mgL(-1)). The increase of SOD activity at low concentrations (≤20mgL(-1)) may be considered as an active defense of S. costatum against [C8mim]Br stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching. In addition, [C8mim]Br increased ROS level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in S. costatum, suggesting that the physiological effects of [C8mim]Br are resulted from ROS generation. PMID:27318558

  12. Dodecyl and octyl esters of fluorescein as protonophores and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria at submicromolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shchepinova, Maria M; Denisov, Stepan S; Kotova, Elena A; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Knorre, Dmitry A; Korshunova, Galina A; Tashlitsky, Vadim N; Severin, Fedor F; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2014-01-01

    In our search for fluorescent uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, three esters of fluorescein, n-butyl-, n-octyl-, and n-dodecyl-oxycarbonyl-fluorescein (C4-FL, C8-FL, C12-FL) were synthesized and characterized. With increasing liposomal lipid content, the long-chain alkyl derivatives of fluorescein (C8-FL, C12-FL and commercially available C18-FL), but not C4-FL and unsubstituted fluorescein, exhibited an increase in fluorescence polarization reflecting the dye binding to liposomes. C12-FL induced proton permeability in lipid membranes, while C4-FL was inactive. In contrast to C4-FL and C18-FL, C12-FL and C8-FL increased the respiration rate and decreased the membrane potential of isolated rat liver mitochondria with half-maximal effective concentrations of 700nM and 300nM, respectively. The effect of Cn-FL on the respiration correlated with that on proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, as measured by induction of mitochondria swelling in the potassium acetate medium. Binding of C8-FL to mitochondria depended on their energization, which was apparently associated with pH gradient generation across the inner mitochondrial membrane in the presence of a respiratory substrate. In wild-type yeast cells, C12-FL localized predominantly in plasma membrane, whereas in AD1-8 mutants lacking MDR pumps, it stained cytoplasmic organelles with some preference for mitochondria. Fluorescent uncouplers can be useful as a tool for determining their localization in a cell or distribution between different tissues in a living animal by fluorescent microscopy. PMID:24076107

  13. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. PMID:26555370

  14. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  15. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections. PMID:26081987

  16. A procoagulant chemically sulfated mannan.

    PubMed

    Gracher, Ana Helena P; Santana, Aline G; Cipriani, Thales R; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-01-20

    Disorders of hemostasis can produce innumerous problems. Polysaccharides have been studied both as anticoagulant and as procoagulant agents. A mannan with a main chain of α-(1 → 6)-linked-Manp units, branched at O-2 mainly by side-chains of 2-O-linked-α-Manp units was chemically sulfated, structurally characterized by NMR and GC-MS (methylation, desulfation and methylation with trideuterated iodomethane), and tested in vitro and in vivo on blood coagulation models. Chemical analyses indicate a high degree of substitution on the sulfated polysaccharide. This polymer acted as a procoagulant agent, increasing blood coagulation in normal and hemophilic plasma, activated platelet aggregation and also decreased ex vivo aPTT. Polymers such as the sulfated mannan could be a helpful source of hemostatic agents to prevent hemorrhagic states. PMID:26572344

  17. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  18. Universal charge quenching and stability of proteins in 1-methyl-3-alkyl (hexyl/octyl) imidazolium chloride ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B

    2012-09-13

    This study reports pH dependent stability of protein dispersions of five common proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin (IgG), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), and gelatin-B (Gel-B), all having isoelectric pH, pI ≈ 5, in room temperature ionic liquid solutions of 1-methyl-3-alkyl (hexyl/octyl) imidazolium chloride (concentration 0-0.2% w/v). Molecular hydrophobicity index, (H-index = hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) of these molecules spanned the range 0.43-0.87. Electrophoretic characteristics, surface tension data and hydrodynamic size information revealed that IL solutions provide dispersion stability owing to specific protein-IL binding which did not alter their pI values though their surface charge was considerably screened. Change in maximum (ζ(max)) and minimum (ζ(min)) zeta potential values observed at pH ~3 (maximum protonated state) and pH ~8 (maximum deprotonated state) could be described universally as function of IL concentration, c as Δζ(x) = [1 - exp(-ac)] where Δζ(x) is either |(ζ(max) - ζ(w))|/ζ(w) or |(ζ(min) - ζ(w))|/ζ(w), and ζ(w) is the corresponding value in water. Tensiometry data showed two major stages of protein-IL interactions: (i) for c < cmc of IL, the IL molecules selectively bind with imidazolium cation through electrostatic forces forming protein-IL (complex) and (ii) for c> cmc free IL-aggregates begin to form. Similarly, we can define Δγ(x) as either |(γ(max) - γ(w))|/γ(w) at pH 3 or |(γ(min) - γ(w))|/γ(w) at pH 8. Both Δζ(x) and Δγ(x) showed linear dependence with c, Δγ(min, max) (or Δζ(min, max)) = (1 - K(γ) (or K(ζ)) H-index), where the slopes K(ζ) and K(γ) defined intermolecular interactions. Hydrodynamic radii data revealed protein stabilization, circular dichroism spectra implied retention of secondary structures, and Raman spectra confirmed a marginal increase in water structure. Results concluded that selective binding of IL molecules to protein surface in

  19. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  20. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  1. Status of copper sulfate - 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  2. Microbial sulfation of 8-prenylnaringenin.

    PubMed

    Bartmańska, Agnieszka; Tronina, Tomasz; Huszcza, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Out of 24 fungal strains tested for their ability to transform 8-prenylnaringenin, Syncephalastrum racemosum was found to convert this phytoestrogen to a sulfate derivative. The conjugation with sulfuric acid observed in this study is paralleled in mammals indicating that microbes can be used to mimic mammalian metabolism. PMID:23923620

  3. Status of Copper Sulfate - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish - February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. Synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside catalyzed by Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying Pichia pastoris in an aqueous/organic two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Guo, DongHeng; Xu, YanShan; Kang, YaJun; Han, ShuangYan; Zheng, SuiPing

    2016-04-01

    We explored the ability of a Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst (Pp-DCBGL) system to synthesize alkyl β-D-glucosides. The primary investigation centered on the synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl-glu, OG). OG could be synthesized through reverse hydrolysis reaction with very low efficiency. Then, OG was synthesized between BG and octanol by a transglycosylation reaction. In a 2-ml reaction system, OG was synthesized with a conversion rate of 51.1% in 3h when 5 mg/ml BG was utilized as the glucosyl donor under optimized conditions. And, even after being reused four times, the Pp-DCBGL was relatively stable. Additionally, a 500-ml-scale reaction system was conducted in a 2-L stirred reactor with a conversion rate of 47.5% in 1.5 h. Moreover, the conversion rate did not decrease after the whole-cell catalyst was reused two times. In conclusion, Pp-DCBGL has high reaction efficiency and operational stability, which is a powerful biocatalyst available for industrial synthesis. PMID:26920486

  8. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and....1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7758-99-8) usually... sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  13. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O,...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2) occurs... neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  7. Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside partitioning into lipid bilayers: thermodynamics of binding and structural changes of the bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Wenk, M R; Alt, T; Seelig, A; Seelig, J

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the nonionic detergent octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) with lipid bilayers was studied with high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and solid-state 2H-NMR spectroscopy. The transfer of OG from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) can be investigated by employing detergent at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration; it can be defined by a surface partition equilibrium with a partition coefficient of K = 120 +/- 10 M-1, a molar binding enthalpy of delta H degrees D = 1.3 +/- 0.15 kcal/mol, and a free energy of binding of delta G degrees D = -5.2 kcal/mol. The heat of transfer is temperature dependent, with a molar heat capacity of delta CP = -75 cal K-1 mol-1. The large heat capacity and the near-zero delta H are typical for a hydrophobic binding equilibrium. The partition constant K decreased to approximately 100 M-1 for POPC membranes mixed with either negatively charged lipids or cholesterol, but was independent of membrane curvature. In contrast, a much larger variation was observed in the partition enthalpy. delta H degrees D increased by about 50% for large vesicles and by 75% for membranes containing 50 mol% cholesterol. Structural changes in the lipid bilayer were investigated with solid-state 2H-NMR. POPC was selectively deuterated at the headgroup segments and at different positions of the fatty acyl chains, and the measurement of the quadrupolar splittings provided information on the conformation and the order of the bilayer membrane. Addition of OG had almost no influence on the lipid headgroup region, even at concentrations close to bilayer disruption. In contrast, the fluctuations of fatty acyl chain segments located in the inner part of the bilayer increased strongly with increasing OG concentration. The 2H-NMR results demonstrate that the headgroup region is the most stable structural element of the lipid membrane, remaining intact

  8. Molecular dynamics investigation of the ionic liquid/enzyme interface: application to engineering enzyme surface charge.

    PubMed

    Burney, Patrick R; Nordwald, Erik M; Hickman, Katie; Kaar, Joel L; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Molecular simulations of the enzymes Candida rugosa lipase and Bos taurus α-chymotrypsin in aqueous ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate were used to study the change in enzyme-solvent interactions induced by modification of the enzyme surface charge. The enzymes were altered by randomly mutating lysine surface residues to glutamate, effectively decreasing the net surface charge by two for each mutation. These mutations resemble succinylation of the enzyme by chemical modification, which has been shown to enhance the stability of both enzymes in ILs. After establishing that the enzymes were stable on the simulated time scales, we focused the analysis on the organization of the ionic liquid substituents about the enzyme surface. Calculated solvent charge densities show that for both enzymes and in both solvents that changing positively charged residues to negative charge does indeed increase the charge density of the solvent near the enzyme surface. The radial distribution of IL constituents with respect to the enzyme reveals decreased interactions with the anion are prevalent in the modified systems when compared to the wild type, which is largely accompanied by an increase in cation contact. Additionally, the radial dependence of the charge density and ion distribution indicates that the effect of altering enzyme charge is confined to short range (≤1 nm) ordering of the IL. Ultimately, these results, which are consistent with that from prior experiments, provide molecular insight into the effect of enzyme surface charge on enzyme stability in ILs. PMID:25641162

  9. Solvent effects on the polar network of ionic liquid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Carlos E. S.; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N.

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common molecular solvents. Four types of systems were considered: (i) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide plus benzene, hexafluorobenzene or 1,2-difluorobenzene mixtures; (ii) choline-based ILs plus ether mixtures (iii) choline-based ILs plus n-alkanol mixtures; and (iv) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate aqueous mixtures. The results produced a wealth of structural and aggregation information that highlight the resilience of the polar network of the ILs (formed by clusters of alternating ions and counter-ions) to the addition of different types of molecular solvent. The analysis of the MD data also shows that the intricate balance between different types of interaction (electrostatic, van der Waals, H-bond-like) between the different species present in the mixtures has a profound effect on the morphology of the mixtures at a mesoscopic scale. In the case of the IL aqueous solutions, the present results suggest an alternative interpretation for very recently published x-ray and neutron diffraction data on similar systems.

  10. Comparison of different ionic liquids pretreatment for corn stover enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Mood, Sohrab Haghighi; Golfeshan, Amir Hossein; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, application of ionic liquids (ILs) has received much attention due to their special solvency properties as a promising method of pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Easy recovery of ionic liquids, chemical stability, temperature stability, nonflammability, low vapor pressure, and wide liquidus range are among those unique properties. These solvents are also known as green solvents due to their low vapor pressure. The present study was set to compare the effect of five different ILs, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]), 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium diethyl phosphate ([EMIM][DEP]), 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM][Cl]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-hydrogen sulfate ([EMIM][HSO₄]), on corn stover in a bioethanol production process. The performance of ILs was evaluated based on the change observed in chemical structure, crystallinity index, cellulose digestibility, and glucose release. Overall, [EMIM][Ac]-pretreated corn stover led to significantly higher saccharification, with cellulose digestibility reaching 69% after 72 hr, whereas digestibility of untreated barley straw was measured at only 21%. PMID:24397717

  11. Analysis of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin in Scutellariae radix and its preparation by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with 1-butyl-3-methylimizolium tetrafluoborate ionic liquid as additive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huige; Tian, Kan; Tang, Jianghong; Qi, Shengda; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-10-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4) ionic liquid (IL) as additive was developed for the analysis of baicalin, wogonin and baicalein in Scutellariae radix and its preparation. After conducting a series of optimizations, baseline separation was obtained for the analytes within 5min under the optimum conditions (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) 0.88% (m/v) ethyl acetate 0.8% (v/v) butan-1-ol 0.2% (v/v) and the buffer composition were 25% acetonitrile (v/v), 7.5 mM BMIM-BF4 and 10 mM NaH2PO4, pH 8.2, applied voltage 17.5 kV and detection at 254 nm), the method has been successfully applied to the determination and quantification of the analytes in the extracts of S. radix (cooked), S. radix (raw) and Qingfeiyihuowan which was the preparation including S. radix. PMID:16952364

  12. Solvent effects on the polar network of ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Carlos E S; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N

    2015-05-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common molecular solvents. Four types of systems were considered: (i) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide plus benzene, hexafluorobenzene or 1,2-difluorobenzene mixtures; (ii) choline-based ILs plus ether mixtures (iii) choline-based ILs plus n-alkanol mixtures; and (iv) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate aqueous mixtures. The results produced a wealth of structural and aggregation information that highlight the resilience of the polar network of the ILs (formed by clusters of alternating ions and counter-ions) to the addition of different types of molecular solvent. The analysis of the MD data also shows that the intricate balance between different types of interaction (electrostatic, van der Waals, H-bond-like) between the different species present in the mixtures has a profound effect on the morphology of the mixtures at a mesoscopic scale. In the case of the IL aqueous solutions, the present results suggest an alternative interpretation for very recently published x-ray and neutron diffraction data on similar systems. PMID:25923649

  13. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  14. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  15. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  16. Sulfate ingress in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick; Leterrier, Nikos

    2010-08-15

    The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

  17. Bovine serum albumin-sodium alkyl sulfates bioconjugates as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Benkő, M; Varga, N; Sebők, D; Bohus, G; Juhász, Á; Dékány, I

    2015-06-01

    Precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by anionic surfactants with alkyl chains of increasing lengths (octyl, decyl, dodecyl sulfates) was studied at room temperature, at pH 3.0, in isotonic sodium chloride solution. The particle size of albumin, the zeta potential, the surface charge and fluorescent properties of BSA-surfactant composites were investigated concerning addition of increasing amount of surfactant. The thermal stability of the systems was monitored by calorimetric analysis (DSC). The formation of the well-ordered structure in the self-assembly process in liquid phase was studied by XRD measurement. The structure of the precipitated BSA-surfactant nanocomposites was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Finally, ibuprofen (IBU) molecules were enclosed in BSA-surfactant bioconjugate systems and the release properties of the drug were investigated. It has been found out that, as a consequence to the increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chains of the surfactant, the structure and the fluorescent properties of the aggregates formed can be controlled due to the increase in the hydrophobicity of BSA-surfactant composites. The bioconjugates are well applicable as carrier to realize controlled release of drug molecules. PMID:25935562

  18. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  19. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: A rare modification in search of a function

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Bryan E.; Xu, Ding; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, oligomerization or conformational activation. Binding depends on the pattern of sulfation and arrangement of uronic acid epimers along the chains. Sulfation at the C3 position of glucosamine is a relatively rare, yet biologically significant modification, initially described as a key determinant for binding and activation of antithrombin and later for infection by Type I Herpes Simplex virus. In mammals, a family of seven heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases installs sulfate groups at this position and constitutes the largest group of sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate formation. However, to date very few proteins or biological systems have been described that are influenced by 3-O-sulfation. This review describes our current understanding of the prevalence and structure of 3-O-sulfation sites, expression and substrate specificity of the 3-O-sulfotransferase family and the emerging roles of 3-O-sulfation in biology. PMID:24361527

  20. Fluorescence Up-Conversion Studies of [2,2'-Bipyridyl]-3,3'-diol in Octyl-β-d-glucoside and Other Micellar Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Satpathi, Sagar; Gavvala, Krishna; Hazra, Partha

    2015-12-24

    In this present work, excited state double proton transfer dynamics (ESIDPT) of 2,2'-bipyridyl-3,3'-diol (BP(OH)2) molecules has been probed in a nontoxic, biocompatible sugar surfactant assembly, namely, octyl-β-d-glucoside (OBG) micelle with the help of steady state and fluorescence up-conversion techniques. Moreover, the ultrafast double proton transfer dynamics in conventional micelles (SDS, CTAB) and bile salts aggregates have been probed and compared. Interestingly, in all these supramolecular aggregates, the ESIDPT dynamics is found to follow sequential pathway; however, the time-scale of proton transfer dynamics varies from 11 to 30 ps. This difference in proton transfer time scale in different supramolecular aggregates has been explained in terms of accessibility of water molecules in the vicinity of probe. PMID:26613290

  1. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  2. Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Bielik, Alicia M.; Zaia, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in abundance in extracellular matrices. In connective tissue, CS/DS proteoglycans play structural roles in maintaining viscoelasticity through the large number of immobilized sulfate groups on CS/DS chains. CS/DS chains also bind protein families including growth factors and growth factor receptors. Through such interactions, CS/DS chains play important roles in neurobiochemical processes, connective tissue homeostasis, coagulation, and cell growth regulation. Expression of DS has been observed to increase in cancerous tissue relative to controls. In earlier studies, MS2 was used to compare the types of CS/DS isomers present in biological samples. The results demonstrated that product ion abundances reflect the types of CS/DS repeats present and can be used quantitatively. It was not clear, however, to which of the CS/DS repeats the product ions abundances were sensitive. The present work explores the utility of MS3 for structural characterization of CS/DS oligosaccharides. The data show that MS3 product ion abundances correlate with the presence of DS-like repeats in specific positions on the oligosaccharide chains. PMID:21860601

  3. The dependence of bacterial sulfate reduction on sulfate concentration in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.; Westrich, Joseph T.

    1984-12-01

    The effect of dissolved sulfate concentration on the rate of bacterial sulfate reduction in marine sediment from Long Island Sound was examined using a radio-sulfur technique. The experimental results show that the rate is independent of the dissolved sulfate concentration until low levels are reached (<3 mM), and that, when interpreted using a Monod-type rate law, a saturation constant, Ks, of 1.62 ± 0.16 M results. This weak dependence implies that the dissolved sulfate exerts only a limited influence on the rate of sulfate reduction in marine sediments. Given such a weak dependence, dissolved sulfate profiles in marine sediments must resemble profiles generated by models with sulfate independent kinetics. Initially, this would suggest that currently used sulfate-independent diagenetic models are appropriate in modelling sulfate profiles. However, comparison of these models with those containing weak sulfate-dependent kinetic terms shows that there exists considerable disagreement between these models when the parameter grouping (D sk) 1/2/w is larger than ~0.2 and smaller than ~3.0. (Here Ds is the SO ; 4 diffusion coefficient, k the organic matter decay constant and w the sediment burial velocity.) When the currently used models are corrected by employing physically meaningful boundary conditions, this divergence disappears. The modelling results, therefore, confirm the conclusion that any sulfate dependence inherent to the reduction kinetics does not appreciably affect sulfate pore water profiles, and that previous diagenetic studies using strong sulfate dependent models are erroneous.

  4. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P.

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  5. Grafting Sulfated Zirconia on Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Lee, Kwan Young; Choi, Saemin; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Peden, Charles HF

    2007-06-01

    Sulfated zirconia has received considerable attention as a potential solid acid catalyst in recent years. In this paper, the preparation and properties of acid catalysts obtained by grafting ziconia with atomic precision on MCM-41 mesoporous silica were studied. TEM and potential titration characterizations revealed that ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage can be obtained using this grafting technique. Sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 exhibits improved thermal stability than that of bulk sulfated zirconia, as evidenced by temperature programmed characterizations and XRD analysis. Temperature programmed reaction of isopropanol was used to evaluate the acidity of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41. It was found that the acid strength of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage is weaker than bulk sulfated zirconia but stronger than SiO2-Al2O3, a common strong acid catalyst.

  6. Study examines sulfate-reducing bacteria activity

    SciTech Connect

    McElhiney, J.E.; Hardy, J.A.; Rizk, T.Y.; Stott, J.F.D.; Eden, R.D.

    1996-12-09

    Low-sulfate seawater injection can reduce the potential of an oil reservoir turning sour because of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) convert sulfate ions in seawater used in waterflooding into sulfide with the concomitant oxidation of a carbon source. A recent study at Capcis investigated the efficiency of SRB under various conditions of sulfate limitation. This study was conducted in a flowing bioreactor at 2,000 psia with different temperature zones (mesophilic 35 C and thermophilic 60--80 C). The study mixed microfloral populations derived from real North Sea-produced fluids, and included an active population of marine methanogenic bacteria present to provide competition for the available carbon sources. In general, results showed that SRB continue to convert sulfate to sulfide in stoichiometric quantities without regard to absolute concentrations. The paper discusses the results and recommends nanofiltration of seawater for ``sweet`` reservoirs.

  7. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. PMID:27364687

  8. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  9. Patch testing with cement containing iron sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Fregert, S; Gruvberger, B

    1990-01-01

    Addition of iron sulfate to cement means transformation of water-soluble hexavalent chromium into nonwater-soluble trivalent chromium. This has been the basis for preventive measures concerning sensitization to hexavalent chromium (chromate) in cement. For some years, iron sulfate has been added to cement manufactured in the Scandinavian countries. In the present in vivo study, cements with and without iron sulfate were compared concerning their capacity to elicit allergic patch-test reactions in eight chromate-hypersensitive individuals. No patch-test reactions were obtained from a water extract of cement with iron sulfate when appropriately buffered. PMID:2137395

  10. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAcore SA biochips and their interactions with fibroblast growth factors displayed very similar binding kinetics and binding affinities. The current semi-synthesis offers an economical approach for the preparation of the rare chondroitin sulfate-E from the readily available chondroitin sulfate-A. PMID:22140285

  11. [Regulation of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in technogenic reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Hudz', S P; Peretiatko, T B; Moroz, O M; Hnatush, S O; Klym, I R

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Ya-11 in the presence of sulfates and organic compounds in the medium reduce sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (dissimilatory sulfate reduction). Heavy metals in concentration over 2 mM inhibit this process. Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions in concentration 1-1.5 mM display insignificant inhibiting effect on sulfate reduction process, and metals precipitate in the form of sulfides. At concentrations of heavy metals 2-3 mM one can observe a decrease of sulfates reduction intensity, and a percent of metals binding does not exceed 72%. Obtained results give reason to confirm, that sulfate-reducing bacteria play an important role in regulation of the level of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in reservoirs and they may be used for purification of water environment from these compounds. PMID:21598657

  12. Chondroitin sulfate and neuronal disorders.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shinji; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks. Recent studies have indicated that PNNs control PV-cell function by enhancing the accumulation of specific proteins at the cell surface and/or acting as neuroprotective shields against oxidative stress. Since dysfunction of PV-cells and remodeling of CSPGs are commonly observed in several disorders, including schizophrenia, Costello syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy, modulation of PV-cell function by CSPGs may provide a novel strategy for these neuronal disorders. Here we review the potential roles of CSPGs as therapeutic targets for neuronal disorders, with particular focus on structural changes of CS chains under pathological conditions. PMID:27100510

  13. Expanding the 3-O-Sulfate Proteome-Enhanced Binding of Neuropilin-1 to 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Modulates Its Activity.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Bryan E; Seamen, Emylie; Lawrence, Roger; Parker, Matthew W; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-15

    Binding of proteins to heparan sulfate is driven predominantly by electrostatic interactions between positively charged amino acid residues in the protein and negatively charged sulfate groups located at various positions along the polysaccharide chain. Although many heparin/heparan-sulfate-binding proteins have been described, few exhibit preferential binding for heparan sulfates containing relatively rare 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues. To expand the "3-O-sulfate proteome," affinity matrices were created from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell heparan sulfate engineered in vitro with and without 3-O-sulfate groups. Fractionation of different animal sera yielded several proteins that bound specifically to columns containing 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate modified by two members of the heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase superfamily, Hs3st1 and Hs3st2. Neuropilin-1 was analyzed in detail because it has been implicated in angiogenesis and axon guidance. We show that 3-O-sulfation enhanced the binding of neuropilin-1 to heparan sulfate immobilized on plastic plates and to heparan sulfate present on cultured cells. Chemoenzymatically synthesized 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate dodecamers protected neuropilin-1 from thermal denaturation and inhibited neuropilin-1-dependent, semaphorin-3a-induced growth cone collapse of neurons derived from murine dorsal root ganglia. The effect of 3-O-sulfation was cell autonomous and specific to Hs3st2 based on collapse assays of neurons derived from Hs3st1- and Hs3st2-deficient mice. Finally, 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate enhanced the inhibition of endothelial cell sprouting by exogenous heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate a reliable method to identify members of the 3-O-sulfate proteome and that 3-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate can modulate axonal growth cone collapse and endothelial cell sprouting. PMID:26731579

  14. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a)...

  16. NATURAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SULFATE-REDUCING EUBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phylogenetic relationships among 20 nonsporeforming and two endospore-forming species of sulfate-reducing eubacteria were inferred from comparative 16S rRNA seguencing. ll genera of mesophilic sulfate-reducing eubacteria except the new genus Desulfomicrobium and the gliding Desul...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a)...

  19. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

  20. Quinine sulfate and HSV replication.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Baroni, Adone; Greco, Rita; Corrado, Federica; Ruocco, Eleonora; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2003-08-01

    Although antimalarial drugs have been developed primarily to treat malaria, they are also beneficial for many dermatological, immunological, and rheumatological diseases, for which they are mostly used today in the Western world. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quinine sulfate (QS) on the multiplication and adsorption of herpes virus type I (HSV-1). When Vero cells (African green monkey kidney) are infected with HSV-1 in the presence of QS, the viral adsorption is reduced, as demonstrated by a decrease of the number of microscopic plaques of the virus. When the virus-infected Vero cells are incubated in the presence of QS, the multiplication of HSV-1 is also reduced, and the diameter of the plaque are visibly smaller. The practical implications of the antiviral action of antimalarial drugs might be especially important to immunosuppressed patients who receive these drugs for autoimmune collagen-vascular diseases or as additional therapy for AIDS. PMID:12952750

  1. Influence of sulfate solution concentration on the formation of gypsum in sulfate resistance test specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Bellmann, Frank . E-mail: frank.bellmann@bauing.uni-weimar.de; Moeser, Bernd; Stark, Jochen

    2006-02-15

    The sulfate concentration, which is required to form gypsum from portlandite, was derived from thermodynamical calculations and experimental measurements. The obtained results were compared to the sulfate concentrations in laboratory solutions that are commonly used to test the performance of concrete exposed to sulfate attack and also to sulfate concentrations that can be expected under field conditions. It was derived that the formation of gypsum can strongly affect the performance of binders in the tests, but has a less marked impact under most field conditions. An SEM investigation of mortar bars that were exposed to different sulfate concentrations supports the suggestion made.

  2. Sulfate attack on concrete with mineral admixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Irassar, E.F.; Di Maio, A.; Batic, O.R.

    1996-01-01

    The sulfate resistance of concretes containing fly ash, natural pozzolan and slag is investigated in a field test in which concrete specimens were half-buried in sulfate soil for five years. Mineral admixtures were used as a partial replacement for ordinary portland cement (C{sub 3}A = 8.5%), and the progress of sulfate attack was evaluated by several methods (visual rating, loss in mass, dynamic modulus, strength, X-ray analysis). Results of this study show that mineral admixtures improved the sulfate resistance when the concrete is buried in the soil. However, concretes with high content of mineral admixtures exhibit a greater surface scaling over soil level due to the sulfate salt crystallization. In this zone, capillary suction of concrete is the main mechanism of water and salt transportation. Concrete with 20% fly ash provides an integral solution for half-buried structures.

  3. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  4. In vitro proteoglycan sulfation derived from sulfhydryl compounds in sulfate transporter chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Antonio; Cetta, Giuseppe; Piazza, Rocco; Bonaventure, Jacky; Steinmann, Beat; Supereti-Furga, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in a sulfate-chloride antiporter gene, the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST), have been associated with a family of skeletal dysplasias including recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, diastrophic dysplasia (DTD), atelosteogenesis type 2, and achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG1B). DTDST function is crucial for uptake of extracellular sulfate required for proteoglycan (PG) sulfation; the tissue-specific expression of the clinical phenotype may be the consequence of the high rate of PG synthesis in chondrocytes and the ensuing high sulfate requirement. We have studied the contribution of cysteine and its derivatives to PG sulfation in fibroblast and chondrocyte cultures from sulfate transporter dysplasia patients. Incubation of ACG1B fibroblasts in medium containing different concentrations of cystine indicated partial recovery of PG sulfation as measured by HPLC disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate PGs; similar results were observed after incubation with N-acetylcysteine. When both compounds were tested in primary chondrocytes from a DTD patient, partial rescue of PG sulfation was observed, suggesting that the metabolic pathways producing cytoplasmic sulfate from thiols are also active in this cell type. PMID:14692227

  5. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  6. STABILITY OF CEFPIROME SULFATE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Jelińska, Anna; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Stfpniak, Piotr; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefpirome sulfate was investigated in the pH range of 0.44 - 13.00. The degradation of cefpirome sulfate as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. General acid-base hydrolysis of cefpirome sulfate was not observed. In the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffer, k(obs) = k(pH) because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of cefpirome sulfate consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of cefpirome sulfate catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k₁H₂O) monocations (k₂ H₂O), zwitter ions (k₃H₂O) and monoanions (k₄ H₂O) of cefpirome sulfate under the influence of water. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions k(pH) = kH+ x aH+ + kH₂O x f₁ + k₂H₂O x f₂ + k₃H₂O x f₃ + k₄ H₂O x f₄. Based on the dependence k(pH) = f(pH) it was found that cefpirome sulfate was the most stable in aqueous solutions in the pH range of 4-6. PMID:27008797

  7. Volcanic sulfate aerosol formation in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Erwan; Bekki, Slimane; Ninin, Charlotte; Bindeman, Ilya

    2014-11-01

    The isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate provides insights into the atmospheric chemical processing of volcanic plumes. First, mass-independent isotopic anomalies quantified by Δ17O and to a lesser extent Δ33S and Δ36S in sulfate depend on the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms that generate sulfate aerosols. Second, the isotopic composition of sulfate (δ34S and δ18O) could be an indicator of fractionation (distillation/condensation) processes occurring in volcanic plumes. Here we present analyses of O- and S isotopic compositions of volcanic sulfate absorbed on very fresh volcanic ash from nine moderate historical eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of our volcanic sulfate samples, which are thought to have been generated in the troposphere or in the tropopause region, do not exhibit any significant mass-independent fractionation (MIF) isotopic anomalies, apart from those from an eruption of a Mexican volcano. Coupled to simple chemistry model calculations representative of the background atmosphere, our data set suggests that although H2O2 (a MIF-carrying oxidant) is thought to be by far the most efficient sulfur oxidant in the background atmosphere, it is probably quickly consumed in large dense tropospheric volcanic plumes. We estimate that in the troposphere, at least, more than 90% of volcanic secondary sulfate is not generated by MIF processes. Volcanic S-bearing gases, mostly SO2, appear to be oxidized through channels that do not generate significant isotopically mass-independent sulfate, possibly via OH in the gas phase and/or transition metal ion catalysis in the aqueous phase. It is also likely that some of the sulfates sampled were not entirely produced by atmospheric oxidation processes but came out directly from volcanoes without any MIF anomalies.

  8. Phyllosilicate and Hydrated Sulfate Deposits in Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, S. M.; Avidson, R. E.; Murchie, S.; Poulet, F.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F. P.

    2008-01-01

    Several phyllosilicate and hydrated sulfate deposits in Meridiani have been mapped in detail with high resolution MRO CRISM [1] data. Previous studies have documented extensive exposures of outcrop in Meridiani (fig 1), or etched terrain (ET), that has been interpreted to be sedimentary in origin [e.g., 2,3]. These deposits have been mapped at a regional scale with OMEGA data and show enhanced hydration (1.9 m absorption) in several areas [4]. However, hydrated sulfate detections were restricted to valley exposures in northern Meridiani ET [5]. New high resolution CRISM images show that hydrated sulfates are present in several spatially isolated exposures throughout the ET (fig 1). The hydrated sulfate deposits in the valley are vertically heterogeneous with layers of mono and polyhydrated sulfates and are morphologically distinct from other areas of the ET. We are currently mapping the detailed spatial distribution of sulfates and searching for distinct geochemical horizons that may be traced back to differential ground water recharge and/or evaporative loss rates. The high resolution CRISM data has allowed us to map out several phyllosilicate deposits within the fluvially dissected Noachian cratered terrain (DCT) to the south and west of the hematite-bearing plains (Ph) and ET (fig 1). In Miyamoto crater, phyllosilicates are located within 30km of the edge of Ph, which is presumably underlain by acid sulfate deposits similar to those explored by Opportunity. The deposits within this crater may record the transition from fluvial conditions which produced and/or preserved phyllosilicates deposits to a progressively acid sulfate dominated groundwater system in which large accumulations of sulfate-rich evaporites were deposited .

  9. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  10. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.

  11. Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants for recovering transuranic elements from irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2009-10-14

    Advanced concepts for closing the nuclear fuel cycle include separating Am and Cm from other fuel components. Separating these elements from the lanthanide elements at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge. We describe here a chemical system in which a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO)--is combined with an acidic extractant--bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent (with dodecane as the diluent) for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. Continuous variation experiments in which the relative CMPO and HDEHP concentrations are varied indicate a synergistic relationship between the two extractants in the extraction of Am from buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solutions. A solvent mixture consisting or 0.1 M CMPO + 1 M HDEHP in dodecane offers acceptable extraction efficiency for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 1 M HNO3 while maintaining good lanthanide/actinide separation factors in the stripping regime (buffered DTPA solutions with pH 3.5 to 4). Using citrate buffer instead of lactate buffer results in improved lanthanide/actinide separation factors.

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of the interaction of lithium with thin films of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide.

    PubMed

    Olschewski, Mark; Gustus, René; Marschewski, Marcel; Höfft, Oliver; Endres, Frank

    2014-12-21

    In this experimental investigation the interaction of lithium with 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([OMIm]Tf2N) is shown. For this purpose thin films of lithium and [OMIm]Tf2N were successively vapor deposited on a copper substrate and analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) as well as by Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS). When [OMIm]Tf2N is evaporated on top of a thin lithium film a chemical shift analysis of XPS spectra shows a variety of reaction products like LiF, Li2O and LixCHy which reveals the instability of the IL against lithium. Time resolved XPS spectra were discussed to distinguish cation reactions from beam damage effects. In a second step lithium is deposited on a [OMIm]Tf2N layer. The XPS spectra are in agreement with the results of the previous step, but show some differences concerning the [OMIm] cation. In a third step [OMIm]Tf2N has been deposited on a passivated lithium layer. XPS results show nearly unaffected [Tf2N](-) anions and partially decomposed [OMIm](+) cations. Interestingly the cation reactions show similarities when compared to the interaction of [C4C1Pyrr]Tf2N (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]amide) and lithium. PMID:25356533

  13. Nanoemulsions containing octyl methoxycinnamate and solid particles of TiO₂: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of the solar protection factor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Flavia F F; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the physical-chemical properties of oil-in-water nanoemulsions for application as nanocosmetics for sun protection. Oil-in-water dispersions were processed by ultrasound (US) to obtain small emulsion droplets. These emulsions were obtained in the presence of commercial nonionic surfactants based on polyoxides and avocado oil as the oil phase. The US generated small but unstable droplets. This problem was solved by using a different surfactant, with a longer ethylene oxide chain, able to promote stabilization by steric mechanisms. The light scattering technique was used to characterize the nanoemulsions by their dispersed droplets' size, size distribution and variation of distribution with time (stability). Chemical and physical sunscreens - octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂), respectively - were added to the stable system. The anti-UVB activity of the nanoemulsions and their components were evaluated by the method of Mansur et al. (1986) and spectral transmittance. The solar protection factor (SPF) was proportional to the OMC and TiO₂ concentrations. The in vitro OMC release was evaluated, and the presence of TiO₂ in the nanoemulsion did not affect the release profile, which showed the diffusion-dependent kinetics of the active ingredient in the formulation. PMID:22998354

  14. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to combined UVB (4-methylbenzylidene camphor/octyl methoxycinnamate) and UVA (benzophenone-3/butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane) absorber sensitization.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    1998-01-01

    In a 71-year-old male Caucasian patient with persistent eczema on light-exposed skin, photocontact allergy was demonstrated to the UV filter substances 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (UVB), octyl methoxycinnamate (UVB), benzophenone-3 (UVA) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (UVA) present in sunscreen products used by the patient over several years. A significantly reduced UVB sensitivity of 25 mJ/cm2 in this patient (normal minimal erythema dose in our laboratory = 70-130 mJ/cm2) was considered an early indication of a persistent light reaction. Topical anti-inflammatory treatment over 2 weeks together with consequent application of a sunscreen containing Mexoryl SX/titanium dioxide led to complete remission. Taking into account the widespread use of the above UV filter substances not only in sun protection products, but also in cosmetics such as antiaging lotions and day care products, the possible risk of allergy to these chemicals has to be taken seriously. The substitution of known photocontact sensitizers in UV filters by photostable compounds and detailed product information are the basis of preventive strategies. PMID:9621150

  15. Nanoscale Control Over Interfacial Properties in Mixed Reverse Micelles Formulated by Using Sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate and Tri-n-octyl Phosphine Oxide Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Odella, Emmanuel; Falcone, R Darío; Silber, Juana J; Correa, N Mariano

    2016-08-01

    The interfacial properties of pure reverse micelles (RMs) are a consequence of the magnitude and nature of noncovalent interactions between confined water and the surfactant polar head. Addition of a second surfactant to form mixed RMs is expected to influence these interactions and thus affect these properties at the nanoscale level. Herein, pure and mixed RMs stabilized by sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) surfactants in n-heptane were formulated and studied by varying both the water content and the TOPO mole fraction. The microenvironment generated was sensed by following the solvatochromic behavior of the 1-methyl-8-oxyquinolinium betaine probe and (31) P NMR spectroscopy. The results reveal unique properties of mixed RMs and we give experimental evidence that free water can be detected in the polar core of the mixed RMs at very low water content. We anticipate that these findings will have an impact on the use of such media as nanoreactors for many types of chemical reactions, such as enzymatic reactions and nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:27128745

  16. Complexation between poly(maleic acid/octyl vinyl ether) and poly(vinyl caprolactam) in aqueous solution and at the alumina/water interface.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Q; Somasundaran, P

    2002-09-01

    Solution and interfacial properties of binary polymer mixtures of poly(maleic acid/octyl vinyl ether) (PMAOVE) and poly(vinyl caprolactam) (PVCAP) have been studied for the alumina/water system. To test the hydrophobic effect, mixtures of poly(maleic acid/methyl vinyl ether) (PMAMVE) and PVCAP are also investigated and compared to the behavior of PMAOVE/PVCAP. At low pH, both polymer mixtures become turbid upon mixing. The turbidity increases at low mixing ratios of PVCAP to the vinyl ether component, reaches a maximum, and then decreases at higher mixing ratios. Upon shifting the pH to the alkaline range, i.e., pH 7.5 and above, the turbid solution becomes clear for both the polymer mixtures. Cloud point measurements indicate the absence of complexation of PVCAP with PMAMVE under the alkaline conditions, but strong interaction with PMAOVE. This is attributed to the different forces involved in the complexation among the polymers: H bonding for PVCAP/PMAMVE and both H bonding and hydrophobic effects for PVCAP/PMAOVE. At the alumina/water interface, the normally nonadsorbing PVCAP is triggered to adsorb by PMAOVE, attributed to the hydrophobic complexation between the two. However, the adsorption of PVCAP shows a maximum as a function of the concentration of PMAOVE. At concentrations of PMAOVE above the onset of its own plateau adsorption, the amount of PVCAP triggered to adsorb is reduced possibly due to the polymer complex formation in solution. PMID:16290852

  17. TRU decontamination of high-level Purex waste by solvent extraction using a mixed octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide/TBP/NPH (TRUEX) solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Kaplan, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process was tested on a simulated high-level dissolved sludge waste (DSW). A batch counter-current extraction mode was used for seven extraction and three scrub stages. One additional extraction stage and two scrub stages and all strip stages were performed by batch extraction. The TRUEX solvent consisted of 0.20 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide-1.4 M TBP in Conoco (C/sub 12/-C/sub 14/). The feed solution was 1.0 M in HNO/sub 3/, 0.3 M in H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and contained mixed (stable) fission products, U, Np, Pu, and Am, and a number of inert constituents, e.g., Fe and Al. The test showed that the process is capable of reducing the TRU concentration in the DSW by a factor of 4 x 10/sup 4/ (to <100 nCi/g of disposed form) and reducing the quantity of TRU waste by two orders of magnitude.

  18. Biological activities of heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Muthuvel; Giji, Sadhasivam

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate was isolated from two bivalve mollusks such as Tridacna maxima and Perna viridis. The isolated heparin was quantified in crude as well as purified samples and they were estimated as 2.72 and 2.2g/kg (crude) and 260 and 248 mg/g (purified) in T. maxima and P. viridis, respectively. Both the bivalves showed the anticoagulant activity of the crude and purified sample as 20,128 USP units/kg and 7.4 USP units/mg, 39,000 USP units/kg and 75 USP units/mg, 9460 USP units/kg and 4.3 USP units/mg, and 13,392 USP units/kg and 54 USP units/mg correspondingly in T. maxima and P. viridis. The antiproliferative activity that was studied with pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells using RPMI media reported that the result is in a dose-dependent manner. Among the two clams, P. viridis showed more antiproliferative activity than that of T. maxima. PMID:25081081

  19. Novel Alkylsulfatases Required for Biodegradation of the Branched Primary Alkyl Sulfate Surfactant 2-Butyloctyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Andrew J.; Hales, Stephen G.; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G. A.; White, Graham F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent

  20. Novel alkylsulfatases required for biodegradation of the branched primary alkyl sulfate surfactant 2-butyloctyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Andrew J; Hales, Stephen G; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G A; White, Graham F

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent

  1. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  2. Sulfated triterpene derivatives from Fagonia arabica.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Angela; Masullo, Milena; Bassarello, Carla; Hamed, Arafa I; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2007-04-01

    Two new sulfated triterpenes (1, 6) and four new sulfated triterpene glycosides (2-5) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Fagonia arabica. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1/2 and 3/4 are sulfated derivatives of the rare sapogenins 3beta,27-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 3beta,27-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively. Compound 5 is an unusual disulfated oleanene derivative characterized by the occurrence of a 13,18-double bond, while compound 6 is the first reported naturally occurring saturated and sulfated pentacyclic triterpene of the taraxastane series with a C-20,28 lactone unit. PMID:17338564

  3. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  4. Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... nutrient supplements as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter and as a processing aid as defined...

  6. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions. PMID:26810064

  7. Chlorophenol degradation coupled to sulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, M.M.; Young, L.Y. )

    1990-11-01

    We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO{sub 2}. Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique. No methane was formed, verifying that sulfate reduction was the electron sink. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited chlorophenol degradation completely. These results indicate that the chlorophenols were mineralized under sulfidogenic conditions and that substrate oxidation was coupled to sulfate reduction. In acclimated cultures the three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4-dichlorophenol were degraded at rates of 8 to 37 {mu}mol liter{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}. The relative rates of degradation were 4-chlorophenol > 3-chlorophenol > 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sulfidogenic cultures initiated with biomass from an anaerobic bioreactor used in treatment of pulp-bleaching effluents dechlorinated 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, which persisted, whereas 2,6-dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated first to 2-chlorophenol and then to phenol.

  8. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Dulaney, Steven B; Xu, Yongmei; Wang, Peng; Tiruchinapally, Gopinath; Wang, Zhen; Kathawa, Jolian; El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jian; Huang, Xuefei

    2015-12-18

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  9. A Sustainable Approach to the Stereoselective Synthesis of Diazaheptacyclic Cage Systems Based on a Multicomponent Strategy in an Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, Raju; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Arumugam, Natarajan; Altaf, Mohammad; Menéndez, José Carlos; Kumar, Raju Ranjith; Osman, Hasnah

    2016-01-01

    The microwave-assisted three-component reactions of 3,5-bis(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones, acenaphthenequinone and cyclic α-amino acids in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, occurred through a domino sequence affording structurally intriguing diazaheptacyclic cage-like compounds in excellent yields. PMID:26840282

  10. Ionic Liquid as a Solvent and Catalyst for Acylation of Maltodextrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catalyst-free esterification of maltodextrin was carried out in ionic liquid. Stearate esters of maltodextrin were obtained in various degree of substitution (DS) when vinyl stearate or stearic acid was heated with maltodextrin in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cyanamide (bmim[dca]). Re...

  11. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  12. Ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Eastoe, Julian; Gold, Sarah; Rogers, Sarah E; Paul, Alison; Welton, Tom; Heenan, Richard K; Grillo, Isabelle

    2005-05-25

    Phase stability and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that surfactant-stabilized nanodomains of a typical ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF4]) may be dispersed by the nonionic surfactant Triton-X100 in cyclohexane. Analyses of these SANS data are consistent with the formation of ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion droplets. PMID:15898765

  13. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  14. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  15. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  16. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  17. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  18. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

  19. Resolution of D- and L-glucoses by chiral N-octyl-beta-D-glycoside-Cu(II) complex adsorbed at the gas/liquid interface of small bubbles.

    PubMed

    Sakai, M; Miyazawa, K; Jitsumatsu, H; Kamio, K; Mitsuiki, S; Toh, N; Sugihara, G; Norde, W

    2010-10-15

    A new technique of the jet drop method (JDM) was applied to a chiral molecular discrimination of optically active D- or L-glucose (guest) by chiral N-octyl-beta-D-glycoside (ObetaDG)-Cu(II) complex (host) at the gas/liquid interface of small bubbles. The discrimination of glucoses as the guests is possible using ObetaDG adsorbed at the gas/liquid interface of bubbles where it acts as the host, either in the presence or the absence of Cu(II) ions. In order to make clear the host-guest interaction at the gas/liquid interface, the composition of 5000 top jet drops periodically collected onto a slide glass receiver was analyzed. The relative concentration (eta(i)-1) and the surface excess amount, Gamma(i)(0) of species i such as D- and L-glucoses, and ObetaDG were determined as a function of bubble size, d(b) and bulk concentration C(b). The partition coefficient, Pi(i)=Gamma(i)(0)/C(b) was also evaluated for each component. The adsorption of these materials either in the presence or absence of Cu(II) ions, was assigned to the Freundlich type, and the discrimination of D- and L-glucoses with ObetaDG was evaluated in terms of the Freundlich constant, k(i) and 1/n. The discrimination ability of ObetaDG was also evaluated by determining the equilibrium constants, K(c) of complex formations for the respective glucoses in the presence and absence of Cu(II) ions. It was found that L-glucose can form a more stable complex with ObetaDG-Cu(II). PMID:20634045

  20. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza de Bustamante Monteiro, Mariana Sato; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Volpato, Nadia Maria; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has led to the increasing use of sunscreens, thus, the development of safe and effective antisolar preparations is important. The inclusion of sunscreen molecules in different release systems, like liposomes (lipo) and cyclodextrins (CD) is therefore required. Methods The in vivo sun protection factor (SPF), water resistance, and in vitro transdermal penetration test of octyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) in different dispersions, such as OMC encapsulated in liposomes (lipo/OMC), OMC encapsulated in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD/OMC), OMC encapsulated in both release systems (lipo/OMC and β-CD/OMC), and an OMC-free formulation were determined. Results Although the formulation containing only the lipo/OMC system revealed high value of in vivo SPF (11.0 ± 1.3) and water resistance (SPF = 10.3 ± 2.2), the formulation containing both release systems (lipo/OMC + β-cyclodextrin/OMC) showed the best result in the in vivo SPF test (11.6 ± 1.6). In the penetration test, the formulation containing the lipo/OMC system had better performance, since a high amount of OMC in the epidermis (18.04 ± 1.17 μg) and a low amount of OMC in the dermis (9.4 ± 2.36 μg) were observed. These results suggest that liposomes interact with the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting retention of OMC in this layer. Conclusion According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption. PMID:22787399

  1. Identical Origin for Halide and Sulfate Efflorescences on Meteorite Finds and Sulfate Veins in Orgueil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Halide and sulfate efflorescences are common on meteorite finds, especially those from cold deserts. Meanwhile, the late-stage sulfate veins in Orgueil are universally accepted as having originated by the action of late-stage high fO2 aqueous alteration on an asteroid. I suggest here that these phenomena have essentially the same origin.

  2. Identical Origin for Halide and Sulfate Efflorescences On Meteorite Finds and Sulfate Veins In Orgueil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Halide and sulfate efflorescences are common on meteorite finds, especially those from cold deserts. Meanwhile, the late-stage sulfate veins in Orgueil are universally accepted as having originated by the action of late-stage high fO2 aqueous alteration on an asteroid. I suggest here that these phenomena have essentially the same origin.

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND...

  5. Metal removal and sulfate reduction in low-sulfate mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.H.; Updegraff, D.M.; Radehaus, P.M.; Bates, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    A treatability study using two continuous upflow bioreactors was conducted to evaluate the potential removal of metal contamination, primarily zinc, from mine drainage with constructed wetlands that incorporate sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel in Silver Plume, Colorado, contains low levels of sulfate that may limit the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria, thus limiting metal removal by the system. Total metals, anions, and field parameters in the mine drainage and the bioreactor effluents were routinely analyzed over 8 weeks. In addition, the bioreactor compost packing was analyzed for metals and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Zinc removal in both reactors was in excess of 99% after 8 weeks of operation. Furthermore, sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bioreactor compost ranged from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} colony-forming units per gram of compost.

  6. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles).

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge

  7. Plant sulfate assimilation genes: redundancy versus specialization.

    PubMed

    Kopriva, Stanislav; Mugford, Sarah G; Matthewman, Colette; Koprivova, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur is an essential nutrient present in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, co-enzymes and vitamins. Plants and many microorganisms are able to utilize inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into these compounds. Sulfate assimilation in plants has been extensively studied because of the many functions of sulfur in plant metabolism and stress defense. The pathway is highly regulated in a demand-driven manner. A characteristic feature of this pathway is that most of its components are encoded by small multigene families. This may not be surprising, as several steps of sulfate assimilation occur in multiple cellular compartments, but the composition of the gene families is more complex than simply organellar versus cytosolic forms. Recently, several of these gene families have been investigated in a systematic manner utilizing Arabidopsis reverse genetics tools. In this review, we will assess how far the individual isoforms of sulfate assimilation enzymes possess specific functions and what level of genetic redundancy is retained. We will also compare the genomic organization of sulfate assimilation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with other plant species to find common and species-specific features of the pathway. PMID:19876632

  8. Role of 6-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate in Chronic Renal Fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Alhasan, Abd A.; Spielhofer, Julia; Kusche-Gullberg, Marion; Kirby, John A.; Ali, Simi

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) plays a crucial role in the fibrosis associated with chronic allograft dysfunction by binding and presenting cytokines and growth factors to their receptors. These interactions critically depend on the distribution of 6-O-sulfated glucosamine residues, which is generated by glucosaminyl-6-O-sulfotransferases (HS6STs) and selectively removed by cell surface HS-6-O-endosulfatases (SULFs). Using human renal allografts we found increased expression of 6-O-sulfated HS domains in tubular epithelial cells during chronic rejection as compared with the controls. Stimulation of renal epithelial cells with TGF-β induced SULF2 expression. To examine the role of 6-O-sulfated HS in the development of fibrosis, we generated stable HS6ST1 and SULF2 overexpressing renal epithelial cells. Compared with mock transfectants, the HS6ST1 transfectants showed significantly increased binding of FGF2 (p = 0.0086) and pERK activation. HS6ST1 transfectants displayed a relative increase in mono-6-O-sulfated disaccharides accompanied by a decrease in iduronic acid 2-O-sulfated disaccharide structures. In contrast, SULF2 transfectants showed significantly reduced FGF2 binding and phosphorylation of ERK. Structural analysis of HS showed about 40% down-regulation in 6-O-sulfation with a parallel increase in iduronic acid mono-2-O-sulfated disaccharides. To assess the relevance of these data in vivo we established a murine model of fibrosis (unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO)). HS-specific phage display antibodies (HS3A8 and RB4EA12) showed significant increase in 6-O-sulfation in fibrotic kidney compared with the control. These results suggest an important role of 6-O-sulfation in the pathogenesis of fibrosis associated with chronic rejection. PMID:24878958

  9. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  10. Structure and biological functions of keratan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Greiling, H

    1994-01-01

    The skeletal and corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycans show a different metabolic and structural heterogeneity. The domain structure of the carbohydrate chain has been shown to be different in various animal species. There are two major types of skeletal keratan sulfate proteoglycans with and without fucose. The protein cores of the corneal chicken keratan sulfate proteoglycan (lumican) and those of another small keratan sulfate proteoglycan (fibromodulin) have been sequenced. Keratan sulfate oligosaccharides belong to the members of an antigen family of the poly-N-acetyllactosamine series. Monoclonal antibodies and immunoassay procedures for keratan sulfate proteoglycans have been prepared. In osteoarthritis, no significant specific increase of keratan sulfate has been found. Keratan sulfate is a functional substitute for chondroitin sulfate in O2-deficient tissues. PMID:8298243

  11. Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Microbiology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfate reducing bacteria, the first nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria demonstrated to contain c type cytochromes, perform electron transfer coupled to phosphorylation. A new bioenergetic scheme for the formation of a proton gradient for growth of Desulfovibrio on organic substrates and sulfate involving vectors electron transfer and consistent with the cellular localization of enzymes and electron transfer components was proposed. Hydrogen is produced in the cytoplasm from organic substrates and, as a permease molecule diffuses rapidly across the cytoplasmic membrane, it is oxidized to protons and electrons by the periplasmic hydrogenase. The electrons only are transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cytoplasm where they are used to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The protons are used for transport or to drive a reversible ATPOSE. The net effect is the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane with the intervention of a proton pump. This type of H2 cycling is relevant to the bioenergetics of other types of anaerobic microorganisms.

  12. Tetrasulfated Disaccharide Unit in Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Hideo; Yoshida, Keiichi; Shibata, Yuniko; Kimata, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that the heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase (3OST)-5 produces a novel component of heparan sulfate, i.e. the tetrasulfated disaccharide (Di-tetraS) unit (Mochizuki, H., Yoshida, K., Gotoh, M., Sugioka, S., Kikuchi, N., Kwon, Y.-D., Tawada, A., Maeyama, K., Inaba, N., Hiruma, T., Kimata, K., and Narimatsu, H. (2003) J. Biol. Chem.278 ,26780 -2678712740361). In the present study, we investigated the potential of other 3OST isoforms to produce Di-tetraS with heparan sulfate and heparin as acceptor substrates. 3OST-2, 3OST-3, and 3OST-4 produce Di-tetraS units as a major product from both substrates. 3OST-5 showed the same specificity for heparin, but the production from heparan sulfate was very low. Di-tetraS production by 3OST-1 was negligible. We then investigated the presence of Di-tetraS units in heparan sulfates from various rat tissues. Di-tetraS was detected in all of the tissues analyzed. Liver and spleen contain relatively high levels of Di-tetraS, 1.6 and 0.95%, respectively. However, the content of this unit in heart, large intestine, ileum, and lung is low, less than 0.2%. We further determined the expression levels of 3OST transcripts by quantitative real time PCR. The 3OST-3 transcripts are highly expressed in spleen and liver. The 3OST-2 and -4 are specifically expressed in brain. These results indicate that the Di-tetraS unit is widely distributed throughout the body as a rare and unique component of heparan sulfate and is synthesized by tissue-specific 3OST isoforms specific for Di-tetraS production. PMID:18757372

  13. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    PubMed Central

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor–liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

  14. 2-Amino­pyrimidinium hydrogen sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Elboulali, Adel; Akriche, Samah Toumi; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H6N3 +·HSO4 −, hydrogen sulfate anions self-assemble through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis, while the cations form centrosymmetric pairs via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino­pyrimidinium pairs are linked to the sulfate anions via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (10). In addition, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O contacts generate a three-dimensional network. PMID:21754030

  15. Membranes solve North Sea waterflood sulfate problems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Lomax, I.; Plummer, M.

    1996-11-25

    To prevent barium sulfate scale from forming in the North Sea Brae field producing wells, Marathon Oil Co. UK Ltd. is successfully employing thin-film composite (nanofiltration) membranes for removing sulfate from injected seawater. In the early 1980s, FilmTec Corp., a Dow Chemical Co. subsidiary, first developed these composite membranes, which now are in their third generation. Marathon Oil Co. holds the patent for the specific nanofiltration membrane process for mitigating scale formation and deleterious reservoir effects. This first article in a three-part series describes membrane technology. The remaining articles detail specific membrane performance characteristics and field experiences in the Brae fields.

  16. Synthesis of bis(diaryltelluralkoxy)sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Sadekov, I.D.; Maksimenko, A.A.; Minkin, V.I.

    1987-01-10

    The reactions of diaryltelluroxides with alkylating agents have not been studied with the exception of the treatment with methyl iodide. The authors have shown that reaction of diaryltelluroxides with dialkylsulfates in the corresponding alcohols leads to the previously unknown sigma-telluranes - bis(diaryltelluralkoxy)sulfates - in high yields. The composition and structure of the synthesized compounds were shown by elemental analytical data, IR spectra (band at 1200 cm/sup -1/ for S=O in covalent sulfates), PMR spectra and by their conversion to the corresponding tellurides using formamide (analogously to other sigma-telluranes, Ar/sub 2/TeX/sub 2/ with X = F, Cl Br, or I).

  17. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  18. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  19. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  20. Properties of an ionic liquid-tolerant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1 and its extracellular protease.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Atsushi; Senoo, Humiya; Ikeda, Yasuyuki; Kaida, Hideaki; Matsuhara, Chiaki; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2016-07-01

    An ionic liquid-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1, was isolated from a Japanese fermented soybean paste. Strain CMW1 grew in the presence of 10 % (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), a commonly used ionic liquid. Additionally, strain CMW1 grew adequately in the presence of the hydrophilic ionic liquids 10 % (v/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM]CF3SO3) or 2.5 % (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([BMIM]CF3SO3). Strain CMW1 produced an extracellular protease (BapIL) in the culture medium. BapIL was stable in the presence of 80 % (v/v) ionic liquids, [EMIM]CF3SO3, [BMIM]Cl, [BMIM]CF3SO3, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and functioned in 10 % (v/v) these ionic liquids. BapIL was stable at pH 4.0-12.6 or in 4004 mM NaCl solution, and exhibited activity in the presence of 50 % (v/v) hydrophilic or hydrophobic organic solvents. BapIL was completely inhibited by 1 mM PMSF and partially by 5 mM EDTA. BapIL belongs to the true subtilisins according to analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence. We showed that BapIL from the ionic liquid-tolerant B. amyloliquefaciens CMW1 exhibited tolerance to ionic liquid and halo, alkaline, and organic solvents. PMID:27142029

  1. Determination of solute partition behavior with room-temperature ionic liquid based micellar gas-liquid chromatography stationary phases using the pseudophase model.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Andrew W; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2006-05-19

    The use of micelles in ionic liquid based gas-chromatography stationary phases was evaluated using equations derived for a "three-phase" model. This model allows the determination of all three partition coefficients involved in the system, and elucidates the micellar contribution to retention and selectivity. Four types of micellar-ionic liquid columns were examined in this study: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with sodium dodecylsulfate or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate with polyoxyethylene-100-stearyl ether or polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether. The partition coefficients were measured for a wide range of probe molecules capable of a variety of types and magnitudes of interactions. In general, most probe molecules preferentially partitioned to the micellar pseudophase over the bulk ionic liquid component of the stationary phase. Therefore, addition of surfactant to the stationary phase usually resulted in greater solute retention. It is also shown that the selectivity of the stationary phase is significantly altered by the presence of micelles, either by enhancing or lessening the separation. The effects of surfactant on the interaction parameters of the stationary phase are determined using the Abraham solvation parameter model. The addition of sodium dodecylsulfate and dioctyl sulfosuccinate to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride stationary phases generally increased the phase's hydrogen bond basicity and increased the level of dispersion interaction. Polyoxyethylene-100-stearyl ether and polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether surfactants, however, enhanced the pi-pi/n-pi, polarizability/dipolarity, and hydrogen bond basicity interactions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate to a greater degree than the ionic surfactants with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. However, these nonionic surfactants appeared to hinder the ability of the stationary phase to interact with solutes via dispersion forces

  2. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  4. Modeling Reduction of Uranium U(VI) under Variable Sulfate Concentrations by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Spear, John R.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics for the reduction of sulfate alone and for concurrent uranium [U(VI)] and sulfate reduction, by mixed and pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at 21 ± 3°C were studied. The mixed culture contained the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris along with a Clostridium sp. determined via 16S ribosomal DNA analysis. The pure culture was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 7757). A zero-order model best fit the data for the reduction of sulfate from 0.1 to 10 mM. A lag time occurred below cell concentrations of 0.1 mg (dry weight) of cells/ml. For the mixed culture, average values for the maximum specific reaction rate, Vmax, ranged from 2.4 ± 0.2 μmol of sulfate/mg (dry weight) of SRB · h−1) at 0.25 mM sulfate to 5.0 ± 1.1 μmol of sulfate/mg (dry weight) of SRB · h−1 at 10 mM sulfate (average cell concentration, 0.52 mg [dry weight]/ml). For the pure culture, Vmax was 1.6 ± 0.2 μmol of sulfate/mg (dry weight) of SRB · h−1 at 1 mM sulfate (0.29 mg [dry weight] of cells/ml). When both electron acceptors were present, sulfate reduction remained zero order for both cultures, while uranium reduction was first order, with rate constants of 0.071 ± 0.003 mg (dry weight) of cells/ml · min−1 for the mixed culture and 0.137 ± 0.016 mg (dry weight) of cells/ml · min−1 (U0 = 1 mM) for the D. desulfuricans culture. Both cultures exhibited a faster rate of uranium reduction in the presence of sulfate and no lag time until the onset of U reduction in contrast to U alone. This kinetics information can be used to design an SRB-dominated biotreatment scheme for the removal of U(VI) from an aqueous source. PMID:10966381

  5. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-07-18

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 μm mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 μm for DOP oil and 0.549 μm for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 μm to 3.0 μm, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  6. Comparative safety of the antifouling compound butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) to the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Ye, Rui; Xu, Ying; Gao, Zhaoming; Au, Doris W T; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential adverse effects of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), a model fish for marine ecotoxicology. The active ingredient used in the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) was employed as the positive control. Adult marine medaka (4-month-old) were exposed to various concentrations of butenolide or DCOIT for 28 days and then depurated in clean seawater for 14 days (recovery). A suite of sensitive biomarkers, including hepatic oxidative stress, neuronal signal transmission, endocrine disruption, and reproductive function, was used to measure significant biological effects induced by the chemicals. Compared to DCOIT, chronic exposure to butenolide induced a lower extent of oxidative stress in the liver of male and female medaka. Furthermore, butenolide-exposed fish could recover faster from oxidative stress than fish exposed to DCOIT. Regarding neurotransmission, DCOIT significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain of both male and female medaka, whereas this was not significant for butenolide. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2) level was elevated and testosterone (T) level was decreased in male medaka exposed to DCOIT. This greatly imbalanced sex hormones ratio (E2/T) in exposed males, indicating that DCOIT is a potent endocrine disruptive chemical. In contrast, butenolide induced only moderate effects on sex hormone levels in exposed males, which could be gradually recovered during depuration. Moreover, the endocrine disruptive effect induced by butenolide did not affect normal development of offspring. In contrast, DCOIT-exposed fish exhibited a decrease of egg production and impaired reproductive success. Overall, the above findings demonstrated that chronic exposure to butenolide induced transient, reversible biological effect on marine medaka, while DCOIT could impair reproductive success of fish, as

  7. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  8. Variations in aqueous sulfate concentrations at Panola Mountain, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.; Peters, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    Aqueous sulfate concentrations were measured in incident precipitation, canopy throughfall, stemflow, soil water, groundwater, and streamwater at three locations in a 41 ha forested watershed at Panola Mountain State Park in the Georgia Piedmont. To evaluate the variations in sulfate concentrations, sampling intensity was increased during storms by automated collection of surface water and by incremental subsampling of rainfall, throughfall, and soil solution. Canopy throughfall, stemflow, and runoff from a bedrock outcrop in the watershed headwaters were enriched in sulfate relative to incident precipitation due to washoff of dry deposition that accumulated between storms. Soil waters collected from zero-tension lysimeters at 15 cm and 50 cm below land surface also were enriched in sulfate relative to precipitation, groundwater and streamwater. Sulfate concentrations in groundwater and in streamwater at base flow varied in an annual sinusoidal pattern with winter maxima and summer minima. Stream discharge and groundwater levels varied in a similar annual pattern in phase with the sulfate concentrations. The temporal variability of sulfate concentrations at most groundwater sites was small relative to the spatial variability among groundwater sites. Streamwater sulfate concentrations during base flow were controlled by low-sulfate groundwater discharge. As flow increased, an increasing proportion of shallow, high-sulfate groundwater and soil water contributed to streamflow. The dominant control on stream sulfate concentration shifted from sulfate retention by adsorption in the mineral soil at base flow to mobilization of sulfate from the upper, organic-rich horizons of the soil at high flow. ?? 1993.

  9. Status of copper sulfate research at SNARC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate will be given. The change in Sponsorship will also be discussed. The Initial label claim will be “For the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis)...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  11. Diffusion of triglycine sulfate in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, R. L.; Reiss, D.; Silberman, E.; Morgan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of triglycine sulfate (TGS) in water was measured for several concentrations over a temperature range of 25 to 55 C. The activation energy for diffusion obtained from these measurements was 4180 cal/mol. No concentration dependence was seen. The maximum difference in D for the various ionic species present was determined by Raman spectroscopy to be about 5 percent.

  12. Minnows get columnaris too; copper sulfate works!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of copper sulfate (CuSO4), when delivered in either a flow-through or static system, on the survival of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas; Fig. 1A) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; Fig. 1B) infected with Flavobacterium columnare (...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  14. Lung injury in dimethyl sulfate poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, M.; Wong, K.L.; Wong, K.F.; So, S.Y.

    1989-02-01

    Two manual laborers were exposed to dimethyl sulfate during work and sustained mucosal injury to the eyes and respiratory tract. In one of them, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurred and improved with high-dose methylprednisolone. On follow-up for 10 months, this patient developed persistent productive cough with no evidence of bronchiectasis or bronchial hyperreactivity.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  6. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  7. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C. )

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with (35S) sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  8. MEASUREMENT AND QUANTIFICATION OF SULFATES IN MINING INFLUENCED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most hard rock (mineral) mine drainages contain metals and sulfates higher than current water quality standards permit for discharge. In treating these wastes with passive systems, scientists and engineers have concentrated on using sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) and their ...

  9. Modulating inhibitors of transthyretin fibrillogenesis via sulfation: polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates as models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2015-02-25

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein's tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  10. Modulating Inhibitors of Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis via Sulfation: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sulfates as Models1

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein’s tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  11. Electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majima, Hiroshi; Peters, Ernest; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Park, Sung Kook

    1987-03-01

    The electrical conductivities of the aqueous solution system of H2SO4-MSO4 (involving ZnSO4, MgSO4, Na2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), reported by Tozawa et al., were examined in terms of a (H2O) and H+ ion concentration. The equations to compute the concentrations of various species in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions containing metal sulfates were derived for a typical example of the H2SO4-ZnSO4-MgSO4-(Na2SO4)-H2O system. It was found that the H+ ion concentrations in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions corresponding to practical zinc electrowinning solutions are very high and remain almost constant with or without the addition of metal sulfates. The addition of metal sulfates to aqueous sulfuric acid solution causes a decrease in electrical conductivity, and this phenomenon is attributed to a decrease in water activity, which reflects a decrease in the amount of free water. The relationship between conductivity and water activity at a constant H+ ion concentration is independent of the kind of sulfates added. On the other hand, any increase in H+ ion concentration results in an increase in electrical conductivity. A novel method for the prediction of electrical conductivity of acidic sulfate solution is proposed that uses the calculated data of water activity and the calculated H+ ion concentration. Also, the authors examined an extension of the Robinson-Bower equation to calculate water activity in quarternary solutions based on molarity instead of molality, and found that such calculated values are in satisfactory agreement with those determined experimentally by a transpiration method.

  12. Microbial Sulfate Reduction at Cold Seeps Based on Analysis of Carbonate Associated Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, D.; Peng, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction and coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) are the dominant biogeochemical processes occurring at cold seeps in marine settings. These processes not only support the growth of chemosynthetic communities but also promote the precipitation of authigenic carbonates. However, investigations of microbial sulfate reduction have been conducted only using porewaters or seep-related barites. The fact is that many seeps are either inactive or do not precipitate any barite minerals. Thus, little is known about the microbial sulfate reduction at these seep environments. The occurrence of authigenic carbonate has been documented at almost all cold seep sites, which provide a unique opportunity to investigate the microbial sulfate reduction using such carbonate. The presentation is focused on the concentrations and isotopic signatures of carbonate associated sulfate (CAS). The aim of the project is to determine the role of sulfate and sulfate reduction during carbonate precipitation at cold seeps. The CAS concentrations are 67-537 ppm in high-Mg calcite, 51-181 ppm in low-Mg calcite, and 116-565 in aragonite. The δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS also vary considerably, ranging from 21.9‰ to 56.2‰ (V-CDT) and from 10.1‰ to 24.8‰ (V-SMOW), respectively. On δ34SCAS versus δ18OCAS plots, both aragonite and calcite show linear trends that project down toward those of open seawater sulfate. The trends suggest that sulfate has been isotopically modified to various degrees in pore fluids before being incorporated into carbonate lattice. The much narrower δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS ranges for aragonite than for calcite suggests a much "pickier" condition for aragonite formation during early diagenesis. Our results suggest that concentration and isotopic composition of CAS in seep carbonates may be controlled by the supply of pore-water sulfate during carbonate precipitation. The reliability of CAS in carbonate of early diagenetic origin as a proxy of

  13. Sources of sulfate supporting anaerobic metabolism in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, G.A.; Breit, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Suflita, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory techniques were used to identify the biogeochemical factors affecting sulfate reduction in a shallow, unconsolidated alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. Depth profiles of 35S-sulfate reduction rates in aquifer sediments were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved sulfate. Manipulation of the sulfate concentration in samples revealed a Michaelis-Menten-like relationship with an apparent Km and Vmax of approximately 80 and 0.83 ??M SO4-2??day-1, respectively. The concentration of sulfate in the core of the leachate plume was well below 20 ??M and coincided with very low reduction rates. Thus, the concentration and availability of this anion could limit in situ sulfate-reducing activity. Three sulfate sources were identified, including iron sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and advective flux of sulfate. The relative importance of these sources varied with depth in the alluvium. The relatively high concentration of dissolved sulfate at the water table is attributed to the microbial oxidation of iron sulfides in response to fluctuations of the water table. At intermediate depths, barite dissolves in undersaturated pore water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved barium (???100 ??M) and low concentrations of sulfate. Dissolution is consistent with the surface texture of detrital barite grains in contact with leachate. Laboratory incubations of unamended and barite-amended aquifer slurries supported the field observation of increasing concentrations of barium in solution when sulfate reached low levels. At a deeper highly permeable interval just above the confining bottom layer of the aquifer, sulfate reduction rates were markedly higher than rates at intermediate depths. Sulfate is supplied to this deeper zone by advection of uncontaminated groundwater beneath the landfill. The measured rates of sulfate reduction in the aquifer also correlated with the abundance of accumulated iron sulfide

  14. The uremic toxicity of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; Schepers, Eva; Pletinck, Anneleen; Nagler, Evi V; Glorieux, Griet

    2014-09-01

    A growing number of publications supports a biologic effect of the protein-bound uremic retention solutes indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. However, the use of unrealistically high free concentrations of these compounds and/or inappropriately low albumin concentrations may blur the interpretation of these results. Here, we performed a systematic review, selecting only studies in which, depending on the albumin concentration, real or extrapolated free concentrations of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate remained in the uremic range. The 27 studies retrieved comprised in vitro and animal studies. A quality score was developed, giving 1 point for each of the following criteria: six or more experiments, confirmation by more than one experimental approach, neutralization of the biologic effect by counteractive reagents or antibodies, use of a real-life model, and use of dose-response analyses in vitro and/or animal studies. The overall average score was 3 of 5 points, with five studies scoring 5 of 5 points and six studies scoring 4 of 5 points, highlighting the superior quality of a substantial number of the retrieved studies. In the 11 highest scoring studies, most functional deteriorations were related to uremic cardiovascular disease and kidney damage. We conclude that our systematic approach allowed the retrieval of methodologically correct studies unbiased by erroneous conditions related to albumin binding. Our data seem to confirm the toxicity of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate and support their roles in vascular and renal disease progression. PMID:24812165

  15. Optical microscopy, DSC, and X-ray diffraction studies on octyl and decyl members of the homologous series 4(4'-n-alkoxybenzoyloxy)phenyl azo-4"-isoamyloxy benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Mandal, P. K.; Patel, P. R.; Dave, J. S.

    2004-09-01

    Octyl and decyl members of the homologous series 4(4'-n-Alkoxybenzoyloxy)phenyl azo-4"-isoamyloxy benzene have been studied by optical microscopy, DSC and X-ray diffraction techniques. Transition temperatures of the compounds are determined by observing texture by a polarizing microscope while transition enthalpies and entropies are determined by DSC studies. X-ray diffraction photographs of magnetically aligned samples indicate that the octyl member has cybotactic nematic phase while decyl member has cybotactic nematic and monotropic smectic A phase. X-ray photographs are analyzed to calculate intermolecular distance, apparent molecular length in nematics, layer spacing in smectics and orientational order parameters ( and ). Temperature dependence of these parameters has been discussed. Values of and are found to be consistent with Maier-Soupe theoretical values. Lengths of the molecules (L) in most extended conformation are found to be greater than the apparent molecular lengths in nematic phase which suggest that the molecules are tilted in the plane of cybotactic groups. Calculated tilt angles are found to be in between 41.8° to 43.3°.

  16. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  2. Sulfation of tyrosine residues in coagulation factor V

    SciTech Connect

    Hortin, G.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Sulfation of human coagulation factor V was investigated by biosynthetically labeling the products of HepG2 cells with ({sup 35}S)sulfate. There was abundant incorporation of the sulfate label into a product identified as factor V by immunoprecipitation, lability to proteases, affinity for the lectin jacalin, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two or more sites in factor V incorporated sulfate as indicated by labeling of different peptide chains of factor Va. The 150-Kd activation fragment of factor Va incorporated the greatest amounts of sulfate. This fragment of factor Va was bound selectively by jacalin-agarose, reflecting its content of O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of an alkaline hydrolysate of sulfate-labeled factor Va by anion-exchange chromatography showed that the sulfate occurred partly in tyrosine sulfate residues and partly in alkaline-labile linkages. Sulfate groups are potentially important structural and functional elements in factor V, and labeling with (35S)sulfate provides a useful approach for examining the biosynthesis and processing of this protein. The hypothesis is advanced that sites of sulfation in factor V and several other plasma proteins contribute to the affinity and specificity of thrombin for these molecules, just as it does for the interaction of thrombin with the potent inhibitor hirudin from leeches.

  3. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  4. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 043264...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1044c... § 524.1044c Gentamicin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 3 milligrams of gentamicin. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000061 and 025463...

  9. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  10. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 or 100 milligrams gentamicin sulfate. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000010, 000061, 000856,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  14. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  10. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  11. Water absorbance and thermal properties of sulfated wheat gluten films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten films of varying thicknesses formed at 30C to 70C were treated with cold sulfuric acid to produce sulfated gluten films. Chemical, thermal, thermal stability, and water uptake properties were characterized for neat and sulfated films. The sulfated gluten films were able ...

  12. 21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62... § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications. It is sterile and each milliliter of aqueous...

  13. 21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62... § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications. It is sterile and each milliliter of aqueous...

  14. 21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62... § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications. It is sterile and each milliliter of aqueous...

  15. STATISTICAL METHOD FOR DETECTION OF A TREND IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily atmospheric concentrations of sulfate collected in northeastern Pennsylvania are regressed against meteorological factors, ozone, and time in order to determine if a significant trend in sulfate can be detected. he data used in this analysis were collected during the Sulfat...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  18. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  3. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  6. Translocation of Sulfate in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) 1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ivan K.; Lang, A. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Sulfate translocation in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) was investigated. More than 90% of the sulfate entering the shoot system was recoverable in one or two developing trifoliate leaves. In young plants, the first trifoliate leaf contained between 10 to 20 times as much sulfate as the primary leaves, even though both types of leaf had similar rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. We conclude that most of the sulfate entering mature leaves is rapidly loaded into the phloem and translocated to sinks elsewhere in the plant. This loading was inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and selenate. At sulfate concentrations below 0.1 millimolar, more than 95% of the sulfate entering primary leaves was exported. At higher concentrations the rate of export increased but so did the amount of sulfate remaining in the leaves. Removal of the first trifoliate leaf increased two-fold the transport of sulfate to the apex, indicating that these are competing sinks for sulfate translocated from the primary leaves. The small amount of sulfate transported into the mesophyll cells of primary leaves is a result of feedback regulation by the intracellular sulfate pool, not a consequence of their metabolic inactivity. For example, treatment of plants with 2 millimolar aminotriazole caused a 700 nanomoles per gram fresh weight increase in the glutathione content of primary leaves, but had no effect on sulfate aquisition. PMID:16665991

  7. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 250 milligrams of amikacin (as the sulfate). (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 and 059130 in §...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c Section 520.1044c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c Section 520.1044c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble...

  10. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the...

  11. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  12. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  14. 21 CFR 522.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.62... § 522.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications. It is sterile and each milliliter of aqueous...

  15. Regulation of Sulfate Transport in Filamentous Fungi 1

    PubMed Central

    Bradfield, Gretchen; Somerfield, Paula; Meyn, Tina; Holby, Marilyn; Babcock, Donald; Bradley, Dorothy; Segel, Irwin H.

    1970-01-01

    Inorganic sulfate enters the mycelia of Aspergillus nidulans, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium notatum by a temperature-, energy-, pH-, ionic strength-, and concentration-dependent transport system (“permease”). Transport is unidirectional. In the presence of excess external sulfate, ATP sulfurylase-negative mutants will accumulate inorganic sulfate intracellularly to a level of about 0.04 m. The intracellular sulfate can be retained against a concentration gradient. Retention is not energy-dependent, nor is there any exchange between intracellular (accumulated) and extracellular sulfate. The sulfate permease is under metabolic control. Sulfur starvation of high methionine-grown mycelia results in about a 1000-fold increase in the specific sulfate transport activity at low external sulfate concentrations. l-Methionine is a metabolic repressor of the sulfate permease, while intracellular sulfate and possibly l-cysteine (or a derivative of l-cysteine) are feedback inhibitors. Sulfate transport follows hyperbolic saturation kinetics with a Michaelis constant (Km) value of 6 × 10−5 to 10−4m and a Vmax (for maximally sulfurstarved mycelia) of about 5 micromoles per gram per minute. Refeeding sulfur-starved mycelia with sulfate or cysteine results in about a 10-fold decrease in the Vmax value with no marked change in the Km. Azide and dinitrophenol also reduce the Vmax. PMID:16657536

  16. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  4. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  5. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R; Bebout, Brad M; Habicht, Kirsten S; Webb, Samuel M; Stahl, David A

    2007-08-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation. PMID:17575000

  6. Metabolic labeling of lutropin with [35S]sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Hortin, G; Natowicz, M; Pierce, J; Baenziger, J; Parsons, T; Boime, I

    1981-01-01

    Chemical analyses have previously detected sulfate linked to the oligosaccharides of lutropin isolated from bovine and human pituitaries. To determine whether lutropin could be metabolically labeled with sulfate, isolated bovine and rat pituitaries were incubated with [35S]sulfate. In both species, two major labeled products were immunoprecipitated with antisera specific to lutropin subunits. Incorporation into the subunits occurred posttranslationally since it was not blocked by cycloheximide, which did, however, block the incorporation of radiolabeled methionine. Metabolic labeling with [35S]sulfate provides a valuable approach for examining the biosynthetic processing of lutropin and the physiological role of sulfate in this hormone. Images PMID:6950389

  7. Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin☆

    PubMed Central

    Fruhmann, Philipp; Skrinjar, Philipp; Weber, Julia; Mikula, Hannes; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Adam, Gerhard; Rosenberg, Erwin; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins. PMID:25170180

  8. Fluorous-assisted chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chao; Dickinson, Demetria M; Li, Lingyun; Masuko, Sayaka; Suflita, Matt; Schultz, Victor; Nelson, Shawn D; Bhaskar, Ujjwal; Liu, Jian; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-04-18

    The chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharide (1) and hexasaccharide (2) with a fluorous tag attached at the reducing end is reported. The fluorous tert-butyl dicarbonate ((F)Boc) tag did not interfere with enzymatic recognition for both elongation and specific sulfation, and flash purification was performed by standard fluorous solid-phase extraction (FSPE). Based on an (F)Boc attached disaccharide as acceptor, a series of partial N-sulfated, 6-O-sulfated heparan sulfate oligosaccharides were successfully synthesized employing fluorous techniques. PMID:24697306

  9. Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhole, Rajaram

    Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime

  10. A Revised Isotope Fractionation Model for Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction is related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of the bacteria. The magnitude of fractionation is dependent on the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. One of the most intriguing questions in sulfur isotope geochemistry stems from the observation that in natural environments, sulfides are commonly depleted in 34S by -45\\permil to -70\\permil relative to sulfate whereas maximum sulfur isotope difference between produced sulfides and sulfate of around -46\\permil have been obtained in laboratory cultures. A maximum fractionation of 47\\permil was also predicted by the model of sulfate reduction introduced by Rees (1973). The Rees model is commonly accepted but since its introduction, new information about sulfate reduction and isotope fractionation processes has become available in the literature that demands an update of some of its assumptions. We present a improved model for bacterial sulfate reduction which includes revised fractionation factors for the sulfite-sulfide step, a multi-step reduction of sulfite to sulfide including reverse flows and an exchange flux of sulfide between the cell and ambient water. With this model we show that, contrary to the model of Rees (1973), isotope fractionations well in excess of -47\\permil are possible. Therefore, some of the large sulfur isotope fractionations observed in nature may be explained without the need of alternate pathways involving the oxidative sulfur cycle as proposed by Canfield and Thamdrup (1994). In particular, we speculate that large fractionations should occur under hypersulfidic conditions and substrate limitation. We obviously do not disregard the involvement of processes related to the oxidative cycle of sulfur in near-surface environments, but our model suggests that this is not a prerequisite condition to obtain large isotope fractionations. References: Canfield D. E. and

  11. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  12. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  13. Partition coefficient of a surfactant between aggregates and solution: application to the micelle-vesicle transition of egg phosphatidylcholine and octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

    PubMed Central

    Paternostre, M; Meyer, O; Grabielle-Madelmont, C; Lesieur, S; Ghanam, M; Ollivon, M

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of the solubilization of egg phosphatidylcholine containing 10% (M/M) of egg phosphatidic acid unilamellar vesicles by the nonionic detergent, octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, has been investigated at both molecular and supramolecular levels by using fluorescence and turbidity measurements. In the lamellar region of the transition, the solubilization process has been shown to be first a function of the initial size before reaching an equilibrium aggregation state at the end of this region (the onset of the micellization process). The analysis during the solubilization process of the evolution of both the fluorescence energy transfer between N-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (NBD-PE) and N-(lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl)-phosphatidylethanolamine (Rho-PE) and the fluorescence of 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminoaphtalene (Laurdan) has allowed us to determine the evolution of the detergent partitioning between the aqueous and the lipidic phases, i.e., the evolution of the molar fraction of OG in the aggregates (XOG/Lip) with its monomeric detergent concentration in equilibrium ([OG]H2O), throughout the vesicle-to-micelle transition without isolating the aqueous medium from the aggregates. The curve described by XOG/Lip versus [OG]H2O shows that the partition coefficient of OG is changing throughout the solubilization process. From this curve, which tends to a value of 1/(critical micellar concentration), five different domains have been delimited: two in the lamellar part of the transition (for 0 < [OG]H2O < 15.6 mM), one in the micellization part, and finally two in the pure micellar region (for 16.5 < [OG]H2O < 21 mM). The first domain in the lamellar part of the transition is characterized by a continuous variation of the partition coefficient. In the second domain, a linear relation relates XOG/Lip and [OG]H2O, indicating the existence of a biphasic domain for which the detergent presents a constant partition coefficient of 18

  14. Separation and Determination of Four Tanshinones in Danshen and Related Medicinal Plants by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Using Ionic Liquids as Modifier.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiliang; Wei, Jinchao; Xiang, Cheng; Zhang, Mi; Li, Baocai; Wan, Jianbo; Su, Huanxing; Li, Peng

    2016-09-01

    A simple and fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using ionic liquids as modifier was established for simultaneous determination of four hydrophobic tanshinones, including dihydrotanshinone I ( 1: ), cryptotanshinone ( 2: ), tanshinone I ( 3: ) and tanshinone IIA ( 4: ), in Danshen and related medicinal plants. In normal MEKC using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant and organic solvents as additives, the four tanshinones, especially cryptotanshinone and tanshinone I, could not be well separated. Fortunately, further addition of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF4) resulted in a baseline separation of these four analytes. After an optimization study, 10 mM borax-10 mM SDS-10 mM [bmim]BF4 containing 15% acetonitrile (v/v) at pH 9.6 was adopted as the running buffer to complete the separation within 16 min at the voltage of 25 kV, temperature of 25°C and detection wavelength of 254 nm. The relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area were in the range of 0.62-2.21 and 1.33-3.90%, respectively, indicating the good repeatability of the developed method. This method was extensively validated by evaluating the linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9992), limits of detection (0.75-1.11 μg mL(-1)), limits of quantification (2.26-3.32 μg mL(-1)) and recovery (96.11-103.74%). Under the optimum conditions, samples of Danshen and related medicinal plants were well analyzed with high separation efficiency. PMID:27139739

  15. Ionic Liquid-Induced Unprecedented Size Enhancement of Aggregates within Aqueous Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Rewa; Baker, Gary A; Behera, Kamalakanta; Mohanty, Pravakar; Kurur, Narayanan; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of aqueous micellar solutions may change in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs). Micelles help to increase the aqueous solubility of ILs. The average size of the micellar aggregates within aqueous sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to increase in a sudden and drastic fashion as the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) is added. Similar addition of [bmim][PF6] to aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) results in only a slow gradual increase in average aggregate size. While addition of the IL [bmim][BF4] also gives rise to sudden aggregate size enhancement within aqueous SDBS, the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4]), and inorganic salts NaPF6 and NaBF4, only gradually increase the assembly size upon their addition. Bulk dynamic viscosity, microviscosity, dipolarity (indicated by the fluorescent reporter pyrene), zeta potential, and electrical conductance measurements were taken to gain insight into this unusual size enhancement. It is proposed that bmim cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups at the micellar surface at all [bmim][PF6] concentrations in aqueous SDS; in aqueous SDBS, beyond a critical IL concentration, bmim becomes involved in cation- interaction with the phenyl moiety of SDBS within micellar aggregates with the butyl group aligned along the alkyl chain of the surfactant. This relocation of bmim results in an unprecedented size increase in micellar aggregates. Aromaticity of the IL cation alongside the presence of sufficiently aliphatic (butyl or longer) alkyl chains on the IL appear to be essential for this dramatic critical expansion in self-assembly dimensions within aqueous SDBS.

  16. Structure and molecular dynamics of sodium dodecylsulfate micelles modified with hydrophilic short-chain imidazolium salts in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hsien; Hou, Sheng-Shu

    2016-07-15

    This study uses pyrene solubilization and NMR experiments to investigate the effects of two hydrophilic short-chain ionic liquids (ILs), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EmimBF4) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BmimBF4) on the micellization of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in the aqueous phase. The results of the pyrene solubilization experiments indicate that the added short-chain ILs not only promote the micellization of SDS but also modify micelle properties. For NMR studies, the present study focuses on (1) the compositions and spatial arrangements of component molecules and (2) the molecular dynamics of DS(-) in the Rmim-modified SDS micelle. Using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR measurements, the composition of the Rmim-modified SDS micelle was calculated by the diffusion data and was found to be correlated with the [SDS]. Two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (2D NOESY) experiments confirm that the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation (Rmim(+)) is located inside the Rmim-modified SDS micelle. Corresponding to the microstructure of the Rmim-modified SDS micelle, in terms of (1)H T1 relaxation, the fast motion of SDS α-CH2 and β-CH2 segments are markedly restricted by the attached Rmim(+) to the sulfate group of DS(-), whereas the central carbons and the terminal CH3 group of DS(-) are only slightly affected. The chemical shift analysis indicates that the surface of the Rmim-modified SDS micelle is dehydrated by the absorbed Rmim(+) and becomes more hydrophobic than that of the pure SDS micelle. Insertion of Rmim(+) into the Rmim-modified SDS micelle appears to be driven through the hydrophobic interaction, and it is shown to combine with SDS molecules to constitute the hydrophobic part of the Rmim-modified SDS micelle. PMID:27107206

  17. Elucidating Interactions and Conductivity of Newly Synthesised Low Bandgap Polymer with Protic and Aprotic Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Pankaj; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, Sun Woo; Kim, Joong I. L.; Lee, Sang Woo; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the conductivity and interaction studies of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) with the newly synthesised low bandgap polymer (Poly(2-heptadecyl-4-vinylthieno[3,4-d]thiazole) (PHVTT)). Use of low bandgap polymers is the most suitable way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiations for solar cells. But, still there is lack of most efficient low bandgap polymer. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesised a new low bandgap polymer and investigated its interaction with the ILs to enhance its conductivity. ILs may undergo almost unlimited structural variations; these structural variations have attracted extensive attention in polymer studies. The aim of present work is to illustrate the state of art progress of implementing the interaction of ILs (protic and aprotic ILs) with newly synthesised low bandgap polymer. In addition to this, our UV-Vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy results have revealed that all studied ILs (tributylmethylammonium methyl sulfate ([N1444][MeSO4] from ammonium family) and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl from imidazolium family) have potential to interact with polymer. Our semi empirical calculation with help of Hyperchem 7 shows that protic IL ([Mim]Cl) interacts strongly with the low bandgap polymer through the H-bonding. Further, protic ILs shows enhanced conductivity than aprotic ILs in association with low bandgap polymer. This study provides the combined effect of low bandgap polymer and ILs that may generate many theoretical and experimental opportunities. PMID:23874829

  18. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and... supplements as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter and as a processing aid as defined in §...

  19. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  20. Engineering sulfotransferases to modify heparan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ding; Moon, Andrea F.; Song, Danyin; Pedersen, Lars C.; Liu, Jian

    2008-03-19

    The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves an array of specialized sulfotransferases. Here, we present a study aimed at engineering the substrate specificity of different HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms. Based on the crystal structures, we identified a pair of amino acid residues responsible for selecting the substrates. Mutations of these residues altered the substrate specificities. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring the specificity of sulfotransferases to modify HS with desired functions.

  1. Catecholestrogen sulfation: possible role in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Araba A; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2002-03-29

    A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that estrogens can be carcinogens as a result of their conversion to genotoxins after biotransformation to form the catecholestrogens (CEs) 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2). CEs can then undergo further metabolism to form quinones that interact with DNA to form either stable or depurinating adducts. These events could potentially be interrupted by the sulfate conjugation of both the parent estrogens and/or the CEs. We set out to determine whether CEs can serve as substrates for sulfate conjugation, and-if so-which of the growing family of human sulfotransferase (SULT) isoforms are capable of catalyzing those reactions. We determined apparent K(m) values for 10 recombinant human SULT isoforms, as well as the three most common allozymes for SULT1A1 and SULT1A2, with 2-OHE1, 2-OHE2, 4-OHE1, and 4-OHE2, and with the endogenous estrogens, estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), as substrates. With the exception of SULT1B1, SULT1C1, and SULT4A1, all of the human SULTs studied catalyzed the sulfate conjugation of CEs. SULT1E1 had the lowest apparent K(m) values, 0.31, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.22 microM for 4-OHE1, 4-OHE2, 2-OHE1, and 2-OHE2, respectively. These results demonstrate that SULTs can catalyze the sulfate conjugation of CEs, and they raise the possibility that individual variation in this pathway for estrogen and CE metabolism as a result of common genetic polymorphisms could represent a risk factor for estrogen-dependent carcinogenesis. PMID:11906176

  2. Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

  3. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin...

  4. Surface water sulfate dynamics in the northern Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongqing; Waldon, Michael G; Meselhe, Ehab A; Arceneaux, Jeanne C; Chen, Chunfang; Harwell, Matthew C

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate contamination has been identified as a serious environmental issue in the Everglades ecosystem. However, it has received less attention compared to P enrichment. Sulfate enters the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a remnant of the historic Everglades, in pumped stormwater discharges with a mean concentration of approximately 50 mg L(-1), and marsh interior concentrations at times fall below a detection limit of 0.1 mg L(-1). In this research, we developed a sulfate mass balance model to examine the response of surface water sulfate in the Refuge to changes in sulfate loading and hydrological processes. Meanwhile, sulfate removal resulting from microbial sulfate reduction in the underlying sediments of the marsh was estimated from the apparent settling coefficients incorporated in the model. The model has been calibrated and validated using long-term monitoring data (1995-2006). Statistical analysis indicated that our model is capable of capturing the spatial and temporal variations in surface water sulfate concentrations across the Refuge. This modeling work emphasizes the fact that sulfate from canal discharge is impacting even the interior portions of the Refuge, supporting work by other researchers. In addition, model simulations suggest a condition of sulfate in excess of requirement for microbial sulfate reduction in the Refuge. PMID:19244495

  5. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  6. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sean A; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei; Jones, CarriAyne; Kim, Sang-Tae; Zerkle, Aubrey L; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Fowle, David A; Adkins, Jess F; Sessions, Alex L; Farquhar, James; Canfield, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of δ(34)S values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans. PMID:25378621

  7. Effective Synthesis of Sulfate Metabolites of Chlorinated Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Li, Xueshu; Duffel, Michael W.; Parkin, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenols are an important class of persistent environmental contaminants and have been implicated in a range of adverse health effects, including cancer. They are readily conjugated and excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and sulfates in the urine of humans and other species. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of ten chlorophenol sulfates by sulfation of the corresponding chlorophenols with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE) chlorosulfate using N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as base. Deprotection of the chlorophenol diesters with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the respective chlorophenol sulfate ammonium salts in good yield. The molecular structure of three TCE-protected chlorophenol sulfate diesters and one chlorophenol sulfate monoester were confirmed by X-ray crystal structure analysis. The chlorophenol sulfates were stable for several months if stored at −20 °C and, thus, are useful for future toxicological, environmental and human biomonitoring studies. PMID:23906814

  8. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  9. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Sean A.; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei; Jones, CarriAyne; Kim, Sang-Tae; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Fowle, David A.; Adkins, Jess F.; Sessions, Alex L.; Farquhar, James; Canfield, Donald E.

    2014-11-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of δ34S values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 103 to 104 years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans.

  10. Compartmentalization and Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation Pathways in Plants.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, A-S; Takahashi, H

    2016-01-01

    Plants utilize sulfate to synthesize primary and secondary sulfur-containing metabolites required for growth and survival in the environment. Sulfate is taken up into roots from the soil and distributed to various organs through the functions of membrane-bound sulfate transporters, while it is utilized as the primary substrate for synthesizing sulfur-containing metabolites in the sulfate assimilation pathways. Transporters and enzymes for the assimilative conversion of sulfate are regulated in highly organized manners depending on changes in sulfate supply from the environment and demand for biosynthesis of reduced sulfur compounds in the plant systems. Over the past few decades, the effect of sulfur nutrition on gene expression of sulfate transporters and assimilatory enzymes has been extensively studied with the aim of understanding the full landscape of regulatory networks. PMID:27572125

  11. Structure-antioxidant relationships of sulfated galactomannan from guar gum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Junlong; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Baotang; Yao, Jian; Wang, Yunpu

    2010-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides exerted potential biological property which was relative to degree of sulfation (DS), M(w), substitution position and chain conformation. In the present study, commercial guar gum was purified and its sulfated derivates with different DS and M(w) were synthesized. FT-IR and 13C NMR analysis indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in sulfated samples compared with other positions. In the sulfation reaction, a sharp decrease in M(w) was observed. The d(f) values from 1.92 to 2.85 indicated that the -SO3H groups led to the relatively expanded conformation of sulfated polysaccharides. Antioxidant assays showed that sulfated polysaccharides had better antioxidant activities. The data obtained in in vitro models indicated that high DS and low M(w) showed the best antioxidant capacities. PMID:19836415

  12. Removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate from protein samples prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Puchades, M; Westman, A; Blennow, K; Davidsson, P

    1999-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used for protein solubilization and for separation of proteins by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). However, SDS interferes with other techniques used for characterization of proteins, such as mass spectrometry (MS) and amino acid sequencing. In this paper, we have compared three procedures to remove SDS from proteins, including chloroform/methanol/water extraction (C/M/W), cold acetone extraction and desalting columns, in order to find a rapid and reproducible procedure that provides sufficient reduction of SDS and high recovery rates for proteins prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). A 1000-fold reduction of SDS concentration and a protein recovery at approximately 50% were obtained with the C/M/W procedure. The cold acetone procedure gave a 100-fold reduction of SDS and a protein recovery of approximately 80%. By using desalting columns, the removal of SDS was 100-fold, with a protein recovery of nearly 50%. Both the C/M/W and the cold acetone methods provided sufficient reduction of SDS, high recovery rates of protein and allowed the acquisition of MALDI spectra. The use of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside in the protein sample preparation enhanced the MALDI signal for protein samples containing more than 2 10(-4)% SDS, after the C/M/W extraction. Following the cold acetone procedure, the use of n-octylglucoside was found to be necessary in order to obtain spectra, but they were of lower quality than those obtained with the C/M/W method, probably due to higher residual amounts of SDS. PMID:10209872

  13. Modified syntheses of dopamine-4-sulfate, epinephrine-3-sulfate, and norepinephrine-3-sulfate: determination of the position of the sulfate group by 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lernhardt, U; Strobel, G; Schell, H; Werle, E; Weicker, H

    1988-08-01

    With respect to the growing interest in sulfoconjugated catecholamines (CAS), reliable syntheses of those substances including high purification and unequivocal identification are required. For the syntheses of the 3-O-sulfates of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), modifications of the methods of Stolz (12) and Arakawa et al. (1) were performed. Noradrenalone and adrenalone were prepared according to the method of Stolz (12) and sulfated by reaction with pyridine-sulfurtrioxide complex in dry pyridine at 60 degrees C. After reduction of these ketosulfates by sodium borohydride in dry pyridine, NE-3-O-S and EPI-3-O-S were obtained respectively. We synthesized dopamine-4-O-sulfate (DA-4-O-S) by reaction of DA hydrochloride with pyridine-sulfurtrioxide complex in dry dimethylformamide at 20 degrees C (Harbeson et al., 1983). The highly purified products (DA-4-O-S, NE-3-O-S, EPI-3-O-S) were characterized by their melting points (mp), infrared spectra (IR), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), elemental analysis, and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). PMID:3182167

  14. Sequence determination of synthesized chondroitin sulfate dodecasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Watanabe, Hideto; Sugiura, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The polysaccharide is modified with sulfate groups at different positions by a variety of sulfotransferases. CS chains exhibit various biological and pathological functions by interacting with cytokines and growth factors and regulating their signal transduction. The fine structure of the CS chain defines its specific biological roles. However, structural analysis of CS has been restricted to disaccharide analysis, hampering the understanding of the structure-function relationship of CS chains. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized CS dodecasaccharides having various sulfate modifications using a bioreactor system of bacterial chondroitin polymerase mutants and various CS sulfotransferases. We developed a sequencing method for CS chains using the CS dodecasaccharides. The method consists of (i) labeling a reducing end with 2-aminopyridine (PA), (ii) partial digestion of CS with testicular hyaluronidase, followed by separation of PA-conjugated oligosaccharides with different chain lengths, (iii) limited digestion of these oligosaccharides with chondroitin lyase AC II into disaccharides, followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, (iv) CS disaccharide analysis using a dual-fluorescence HPLC system (reversed-phase ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography), and (v) estimation of the composition by calculating individual disaccharide ratios. This CS chain sequencing allows characterization of CS-modifying enzymes and provides a useful tool toward understanding the structure-function relationship of CS chains. PMID:26791444

  15. Chondroitin Sulfate Promotes Activation of Cathepsin K*

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Peter A.; Huang, Lingyi; Zhuo, Ya; Lu, Jun; Bahnck, Carolyn; Stachel, Shawn J.; Carroll, Steve S.; Duong, Le T.

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK), a major lysosomal collagenase produced by osteoclasts, plays an important role in bone resorption. Evidence exists that the collagenase activity of CatK is promoted by chondroitin sulfate (CS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan. This study examines the role of CS in facilitating CatK activation. We have demonstrated that chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4-S) promotes autoprocessing of the pro-domain of CatK at pH ≤ 5, leading to a fully matured enzyme with collagenase and peptidase activities. We present evidence to demonstrate this autoactivation process is a trans-activation event that is efficiently inhibited by both the covalent cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and the reversible selective CatK inhibitor L-006,235. During bone resorption, CatK and C4-S are co-localized at the ruffled border between osteoclast bone interface, supporting the proposal that CatK activation is accomplished through the combined action of the acidic environment together with the presence of a high concentration of C4-S. Formation of a multimeric complex between C4-S and pro-CatK has been speculated to accelerate CatK autoactivation and promote efficient collagen degradation. Together, these results demonstrate that CS plays an important role in contributing to the enhanced efficiency of CatK collagenase activity in vivo. PMID:24958728

  16. Sulfation and Cation Effects on the Conformational Properties of the Glycan Backbone of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Faller, Christina E.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic “backbone” has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high resolution, high precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All ten disaccharides (β1-3 vs. β1-4 linkage x five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA –COO− moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to –COO− can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to –COO− results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing

  17. Sulfation and cation effects on the conformational properties of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Faller, Christina E; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-05-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic "backbone" has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high-resolution, high-precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All 10 disaccharides (β1-3 vs β1-4 linkage × five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA -COO(-) moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to -COO(-) can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to -COO(-) results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing information

  18. Sulfate metabolism in Tuber borchii: characterization of a putative sulfate transporter and the homocysteine synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Zeppa, Sabrina; Marchionni, C; Saltarelli, R; Guidi, C; Ceccaroli, P; Pierleoni, R; Zambonelli, A; Stocchi, V

    2010-04-01

    The homocysteine synthase (tbhos) and putative sulfate transporter (tbsul1) genes have been characterized in order to understand the sulfate metabolism and regulation in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. The analyses of tbsul1 and tbhos nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of the typical domains shown in homologous proteins. Sulfate starvation condition upregulates both genes. The real-time PCR assay of tbsul1 revealed that gene expression was about threefold higher in mycelia grown under sulfate starvation for 2 days than in the mycelial control and in the same starvation condition, the sulfate uptake increased. Real-time PCR and enzymatic assays showed regulation of tbhos when sulfur sources were lacking, suggesting that a transcriptional regulation of this gene rather than a post-transcriptional one occurred. Furthermore, the tbsul1 and tbhos expression patterns were evaluated during the truffle life cycle, revealing an over-expression in the mature ascomata for both genes. In the ectomycorrhizal tissue, only tbhos was upregulated suggesting its substantial role in T. borchii cysteine synthesis. The regulation of tbsul1 and tbhos occurs primarily at the transcriptional level both during vegetative and fruiting phases and these genes could be directly involved in VOCs production. PMID:20039042

  19. FTIR studies on the acidity of sulfated zirconia prepared by thermolysis of zirconium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Platero, E.E.; Mentruit, M.P.; Arean, C.O.; Zecchina, A.

    1996-09-01

    Sulfated zirconia having a BET surface area of 90 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and a temperature-resistant mesoporous texture was prepared by thermolysis (at 1000 K) of zirconium sulfate. Infrared studies of surface sulfates, CO adsorption at 77 K, and room temperature adsorption of pyridine showed close similarity to sulfated zirconias prepared by impregnation of doping from the gas phase. Four main families of Lewis acid centers were found, which gave CO adducts characterized by stretching frequencies of 2212, 2202, 2196, and 2188 cm{sup -1}. Interaction of CO (at liquid nitrogen temperature) with surface hydroxyls (in partially hydroxylated samples) was found to shift the O-H stretching frequency from 3650 to 3510 cm{sup -1}, due to formation of hydrogen-bonded OH{center_dot}{center_dot}CO complexes. This downward shift, {Delta}{nu}{sub OH} = 140 cm{sup -1}, is significantly larger than the corresponding value for pure zirconia ({Delta}{nu}{sub OH} = 90 cm{sup -1}), which strongly suggests enhancement of the Bronsted acidity. Samples showing the acidic OH group at 3650 cm{sup -1} were found to contain also disulfate groups and traces of molecular water. Surface hydroxyls is sulfated zirconia still appear, however, to be weaker Bronsted acid sites than are bridging OH groups in zeolites. 49 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effects of sulfated and non-sulfated β-glucan extracted from Agaricus brasiliensis in breast adenocarcinoma cells - MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, Adrivanio; Tempesta Oliveira, Marcelo; Semprebon, Simone Cristine; Niwa, Andressa Megumi; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2015-11-01

    The β-glucans (β-G) are polysaccharides produced by various organisms, and sulfation of β-G renders them more soluble. With the objective to assess the effects of sulfated and non-sulfated β-G extracted from Agaricus brasiliensis in MCF-7 cells, assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and mRNA expression. The sulfated and non-sulfated β-G showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity at concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/mL, by the MTT assay. However, only cytotoxicity was observed after 24 h by the Red Neutral test for sulfated β-G, with no genotoxicity for either β-G in comet assay. Proliferation was decreased only at 72 h at a concentration of 100 μg/mL of sulfated β-G. Treatment with 5 μg/mL of sulfated β-G for 6 h reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and stress signaling genes, cell cycle arrest, damage and cell migration. The 5 μg/mL of non-sulfated β-G for 6 h reduced the expression of the stress response gene and signaling damage. These results indicate that the cytotoxicity in the MTT is not cell death, and that, in general, sulfated β-G have greater cytotoxicity compared to non-sulfated β-G. PMID:25970150

  1. Simultaneous determination of the UV-filters benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate, homosalate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor and 3-benzylidene camphor in human placental tissue by LC-MS/MS. Assessment of their in vitro endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Molina-Molina, J M; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Real, M; Sáenz, J M; Fernández, M F; Olea, N

    2013-10-01

    UV-filters are widely used in many personal care products and cosmetics. Recent studies indicate that some organic UV-filters can accumulate in biota and act as endocrine disruptors, but there are few studies on the occurrence and fate of these compounds in humans. In the present work, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the presence of six UV-filters in current use (benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate, homosalate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, and 3-benzylidene camphor) in human placental tissue is proposed. The method involves the extraction of the analytes from the samples using ethyl acetate, followed by a clean-up step using centrifugation prior to their quantification by LC-MS/MS using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface. Bisphenol A-d16 was used as surrogate for the determination of benzyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octyl salicylate and homosalate in negative mode and benzophenone-d10, was used as surrogate for the determination of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor and 3-benzylidene camphor in positive mode. The found limits of detection ranged from 0.4 to 0.6ngg(-1) and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.3 to 2.0ngg(-1), while variability was under 13.7%. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 97% to 104%. Moreover, the interactions of these compounds with the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) and androgen receptor (hAR), using two in vitro bioassays based on reporter gene expression and cell proliferation assessment, were also investigated. All tested compounds, except benzyl salicylate and octyl salicylate, showed estrogenic activity in the E-Screen bioassay whereas only homosalate and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor were potent hAR antagonists. Although free salicylate derivatives and free camphor derivatives were not detected in the human placenta samples analyzed, the observed estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of some of these

  2. Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Mikami, Tadahisa; Uyama, Toru; Mizuguchi, Souhei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Recent glycobiology studies have suggested fundamental biological functions for chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which are widely distributed as glycosaminoglycan sidechains of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix and at cell surfaces. They have been implicated in the signaling functions of various heparin-binding growth factors and chemokines, and play critical roles in the development of the central nervous system. They also function as receptors for various pathogens. These functions are closely associated with the sulfation patterns of the glycosaminoglycan chains. Surprisingly, nonsulfated chondroitin is indispensable in the morphogenesis and cell division of Caenorhabditis elegans, as revealed by RNA interference experiments of the recently cloned chondroitin synthase gene and by the analysis of mutants of squashed vulva genes. PMID:14568617

  3. Heritability and Clinical Determinants of Serum Indoxyl Sulfate and p-Cresyl Sulfate, Candidate Biomarkers of the Human Microbiome Enterotype

    PubMed Central

    Viaene, Liesbeth; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jin, Yu; Liu, Yanping; Gu, Yumei; Meijers, Björn; Claes, Kathleen; Staessen, Jan; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Background Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. Objective and Design Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study). Results Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4–4.3) and 13.0 (7.4–21.5) μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17) and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18) concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. Limitations Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. Conclusions The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites. PMID:24850265

  4. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. PMID:27178902

  5. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-05-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  6. Diversity of Sulfur Isotope Fractionations by Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes†

    PubMed Central

    Detmers, Jan; Brüchert, Volker; Habicht, Kirsten S.; Kuever, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2.0 to 42.0‰. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation. Sulfate reducers that oxidized the carbon source completely to CO2 showed greater fractionations than sulfate reducers that released acetate as the final product of carbon oxidation. Different metabolic pathways and variable regulation of sulfate transport across the cell membrane all potentially affect isotope fractionation. Previous models that explained fractionation only in terms of sulfate reduction rates appear to be oversimplified. The species-specific physiology of each sulfate reducer thus needs to be taken into account to understand the regulation of sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction. PMID:11157259

  7. Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2013-01-01

    4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently utilized in phytoremediation. Results showed poplar plants could metabolize PCB3 into PCB3 sulfates during 25 day exposures. Three sulfate metabolites, including 2′-PCB3 sulfate, 3′-PCB3 sulfate and 4′-PCB3 sulfate, were identified in poplar roots and their concentrations increased in the roots from day 10 to day 25. The major products were 2′-PCB3 sulfate and 4′-PCB3 sulfate. However, the concentrations of PCB3 sulfates were much lower than those of OH-PCB3s in the roots, suggesting the sequential transformation of these hydroxylated PCB3 metabolites into PCB3 sulfates in whole poplars. In addition, 2′-PCB3 sulfate or 4′-PCB3 sulfate was also found in the bottom wood samples indicating some translocation or metabolism in woody tissue. Results suggested that OH-PCB3s were the substrates of sulfotransferases which catalyzed the formation of PCB3 sulfates in the metabolic pathway of PCB3. PMID:23215248

  8. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot

  9. Proteoglycan sulfation in cartilage and cell cultures from patients with sulfate transporter chondrodysplasias: relationship to clinical severity and indications on the role of intracellular sulfate production.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Kaitila, I; Wilcox, W R; Rimoin, D L; Steinmann, B; Cetta, G; Superti-Furga, A

    1998-10-01

    Mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST) gene have been associated with a family of chondrodysplasias that includes diastrophic dysplasia (DTD), atelosteogenesis type 2 (AO2) and the lethal condition achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG1B). There is a correlation between the nature of the mutations and the clinical phenotype, but our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder, which involves defective sulfation of cartilage proteoglycans, is far from complete. To evaluate the degree of proteoglycan undersulfation in vivo, we have extracted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans from cartilage of twelve patients with sulfate transporter chondrodysplasias and analyzed their disaccharide composition by HPLC after digestion with chondroitinase ABC. The amount of non-sulfated disaccharide was elevated in patients' samples (controls, 5.5%+/-2.8 (n=10); patients, 11% to 77%), the highest amount being present in ACG1B patients, indicating that undersulfation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans occurs in cartilage in vivo and is correlated with the clinical severity. To investigate further the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the translation of genotype to phenotype, we have studied fibroblast cultures of patients with DTD, AO2 and ACG1B, and controls, by double-labelling with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine. The incorporation of extracellular sulfate, estimated by the 35S/3H ratio in proteoglycans, was reduced in all patients' cells, with ACG1B cells showing the lowest values. However, disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans showed that these were normally sul fated or only moderately undersulfated; marked undersulfation was observed only after addition of the artificial glycosaminoglycan-chain initiator, beta-D-xyloside, to the culture medium. These results suggest that, while utilization of extracellular sulfate is impaired, fibroblasts can replenish their intracellular sulfate pool by oxidizing sulfur

  10. The crystal chemistry of four thorium sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Amanda J.; Sigmon, Ginger E.; Moore-Shay, Laura; Wei, Rebecca; Dawes, Colleen; Szymanowski, Jennifer; Burns, Peter C.

    2011-07-15

    Four thorium sulfate compounds have been synthesized and characterized. [Th(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS1) crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/m, a=7.2488(4), b=12.1798(7), c=8.0625(5) A, {beta}=98.245(1){sup o}; Na{sub 10}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 9}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (ThS2), Pna2{sub 1}, a=17.842(2), b=6.9317(8), c=27.550(3) A; Na{sub 2}[Th{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}].H{sub 2}O (ThS3), C2/c, a=16.639(2), b=9.081(1), c=25.078(3) A, {beta}= 95.322(2){sup o}; [Th{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (ThS4), Pnma, a=18.2127(9), b=11.1669(5), c=14.4705(7) A. In all cases the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms corresponding to SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. The structural unit of ThS1 is an isolated cluster consisting of a single Th polyhedron with two monodentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedra and seven H{sub 2}O groups. A double-wide Th sulfate chain is the basis of ThS2. The structures of ThS3 and ThS4 are frameworks of Th polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra, and each contains channels that extend through the framework. One of the Th cations in ThS3 is coordinated by a bidentate SO{sub 4} tetrahedron, and ThS4 is unusual in the presence of a pair of Th cations that share a polyhedral face. - Graphical abstract: The structures of four hydrous thorium sulfates are reported that have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. Highlights: > Four hydrous thorium sulfates have structural units consisting of finite clusters, chains, and frameworks. > In each the Th cations are coordinated by nine O atoms from SO{sub 4} tetrahedra, OH groups, and H{sub 2}O groups. > The details of the linkages of ThO{sub 9} polyhedra and sulfate tetrahedra vary considerably in these structures.

  11. Interaction of n-octyl β,D-glucopyranoside with giant magnetic-fluid-loaded phosphatidylcholine vesicles: direct visualization of membrane curvature fluctuations as a function of surfactant partitioning between water and lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Christine; Guemghar, Dihya; Cabuil, Valérie; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2010-10-01

    The present study deals with the morphological modifications of giant dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles (DOPC GUVs) induced by the nonionic surfactant n-octyl β,D-glucopyranoside at sublytic levels, i.e., in the first steps of the vesicle-to-micelle transition process, when surfactant inserts into the vesicle bilayer without disruption. Experimental conditions were perfected to exactly control the surfactant bilayer composition of the vesicles, in line with former work focused on the mechanical properties of the membrane of magnetic-fluid-loaded DOPC GUVs submitted to a magnetic field. The purpose here was to systematically examine, in the absence of any external mechanical constraint, the dynamics of giant vesicle shape and membrane deformations as a function of surfactant partitioning between the aqueous phase and the lipid membrane, beforehand established by turbidity measurements from small unilamellar vesicles. PMID:20825201

  12. Synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose ether sulfates.

    PubMed

    Rohowsky, Juta; Heise, Katja; Fischer, Steffen; Hettrich, Kay

    2016-05-20

    The synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose sulfate derivatives was reported. Various cellulose ethers were prepared in a homogeneous reaction with common sulfating agents. The received product possess different properties in dependence on the reaction conditions like sulfating agent, solvent, reaction time and reaction temperature. The cellulose ether sulfates are all soluble in water, they rheological behavior could be determined by viscosity measurements and the determination of the sulfur content by elemental analysis lead to a resulting degree of substitution ascribed to sulfate groups (DSSul) of the product. A wide range of products from DSSul 0.1 to DSSul 2.7 will be obtained. Furthermore the cellulose sulfate ethers could be characterized by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26917374

  13. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  14. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-08-02

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.

  15. Review on biomedical and bioengineering applications of cellulose sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qilei; Lin, Dongqiang; Yao, Shanjing

    2015-11-01

    Polysaccharide sulfates are naturally existing chemicals that show important biological activities in living organisms. Cellulose sulfate is a semi-synthesized polysaccharide sulfate with a relatively simple chain structure and unique biological properties and its biological applications have been explored in research and clinical trials. With the advance of cellulose derivatization and characterization, cellulose sulfate molecules with tailored structures have been developed to fulfill individual requirements. This review aims to provide a summary of recent development of cellulose sulfate in biomedical applications. Its synthesis pathways were discussed with structure-property relationship elucidated. The application of cellulose sulfate in drug delivery and microbe/cell immobilization were summarized with emphasis given on its polyelectrolyte complex formation processes. PMID:26256354

  16. Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  17. Chromate sensitization and elicitation from cement with iron sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Gruvberger, B; Hradil, E

    1990-01-01

    For some years, iron sulfate has been added to cement manufactured in the Scandinavian countries to prevent sensitization to and elicitation from chromate in cement. Allergic contact dermatitis from chromate is reported here in 3 workers with hand dermatitis and exposure to cement containing iron sulfate. Although iron sulfate had been added to the cement, high chromate concentrations were found in many samples of cement to which these workers were exposed. PMID:1969204

  18. A fluorescence enhancement-based sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Tse; Liao, De-Jhong; Chen, Shau-Jiun; Hu, Ching-Han; Wu, An-Tai

    2012-04-01

    Sugar-aza-crown ether-based cavitand 1 can act as a selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for hydrogen sulfate ion in methanol among a series of tested anions. Spectroscopic studies, particularly NMR spectroscopy, revealed that the C-H hydrogen bonding between 1,2,3-triazole ring of cavitand 1 and hydrogen sulfate ion is crucial for the high selectivity of the receptor for hydrogen sulfate. PMID:22363932

  19. The character of single particle sulfate in Baltimore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Derek A.; Tolocka, Michael P.; Johnston, Murray V.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2004-10-01

    A major component of PM2.5 in urban aerosol in the eastern United States is sulfate. The eastern US is heavily influenced by regional sources (e.g. coal combustion in the Ohio River Valley) and also by local sources. From March to December 2002, the Baltimore aerosol was characterized with the real-time single-particle mass spectrometer RSMS III. RSMS III is capable of simultaneous positive/negative ion detection of size selected particles between 45 and 1250 nm in diameter. The negative ion detection ability allows sulfate to be monitored. Particles were first sorted into two groups based on the negative ion spectra: (1) those with sulfate detected and (2) those with no sulfate detected. The two groups were further sub-divided by ART 2-a analysis of the positive ion spectra to determine which particle compositions are most/least likely to contain detectable sulfate. A separate analysis was also performed on the positive ion spectra to determine the presence/absence of specific metals in the group of particles with and without sulfate. The correlation of positive and negative ion spectra in this manner allows particle types that are strongly associated with sulfate to be distinguished from those which are not. Particle types strongly correlated with sulfate are nitrate, organic carbon/nitrate (OCAN) and vanadium. Particle types weakly associated with sulfate include carbon and potassium/sodium. Many particles contain both sulfate and nitrate, which suggests that they are acid neutralized. While laser ablation mass spectrometry has inherent limitations for particulate sulfate detection, the results presented here suggest that sulfate detection by this method is a reasonable indicator of particle source and atmospheric transformation.

  20. HIGH-TEMPERATURE, SHORT-TIME SULFATION OF CALCIUM- BASED SORBENTS. 1. THEORETICAL SULFATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model for the sulfation of CaO is developed around the overlapping grain concept. The potential influence of high mass-transfer rates from simultaneous calcination of CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 is incorporated in the mass-transfer coefficient for SO2 diffusion to the partic...