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Sample records for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate

  1. Solvent and rotational relaxation of Coumarin-153 in a micellar solution of a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate, in ethylammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Ghatak, Chiranjib; Pramanik, Rajib; Sarkar, Souravi; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated the micelle formation by room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate (bmimOs) with another RTIL, ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). In addition, the effect of micelle formation on the solvation and rotational relaxation dynamics have been observed using steady-state and picoseconds time-resolved spectroscopy. Both the solvent and rotational relaxations of Coumarin-153 are retarded in the micelle compared to that of neat EAN. The increase in average solvation time on going from neat EAN to bmimOs-EAN micelle is very small compared to the increase in solvation time on going from pure water to water containing micelle.

  2. Interaction between amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoumi, Z.; Saini, M.; Amdouni, N.; Pal, A.

    2016-09-01

    The micellization of an aqueous solution of the surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsufate (C4mim)(C8OSO3) and its interaction with an anionic polymer sodium polystyrene sulfonate, (NaPSS) were studied using conductimetry, tensiometry and fluorimetry. Surface tension profile shows a more dramatic increase in the value of surface tension of aqueous (C4mim)(C8OSO3) before the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of IL. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of this surfactant was found out from conductance measurements. The thermodynamic parameters, i.e., Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of micellization of the IL in aqueous solution have been calculated. Behavior of fluorescence probe confirms the binding interactions between SAIL and the polyelectrolyte.

  3. TX-100/water/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanan; Han, Shuaibing; Han, Buxing; Li, Ganzuo; Shen, Dong; Li, Zhonghao; Du, Jimin; Hou, Wanguo; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2005-06-21

    Both ionic liquids and water are typical green solvents. In this work, the phase behavior of the ternary system consisting of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (bmimPF6), TX-100, and water was determined at 25.0 degrees C. The water-in-bmimPF6, bicontinuous, and bmimPF6-in-water microregions of the microemulsions were identified by cyclic voltammetry method using potassium ferrocyanide K4Fe(CN)6 as the electroactive probe. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the UV-vis method were used to characterize the microemulsions. It was demonstrated that the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of the bmimPF6-in-water microemulsions is nearly independent of the water content but increases with increasing bmimPF6 content due to the swelling of the micelles by the ionic liquid. The UV-vis further confirmed the existence of water domains in the water-in-bmimPF6 microemulsions, and the salt potassium ferricyanide K3Fe(CN)6 could be dissolved in the water domains.

  4. Characterization of cellulose II nanoparticles regenerated from ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regenerated cellulose nanoparticles (RCNs) including both elongated fiber and spherical structures were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)and cotton using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride followed by high-pressure homogenization. The crystalline structure of RCNs was cellulose II in ...

  5. Acute toxicity, biochemical toxicity and genotoxicity caused by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Yuting; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Guo, Yingying

    2017-02-21

    The present study examined the potential toxicity of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) and 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF4) in the liver cells of zebrafish (Danio rerio) with different doses (20-160mg/L) on 7 and 14days. The effects of [Bmim]Cl and [Bmim]BF4 on acute toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage degree in livers of zebrafish were determined. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values after a 96-h exposure to [Bmim]Cl and [Bmim]BF4 were 632.8±67.4 and 604.6±56.2mg/L, respectively, which indicated that the substances were practically harmless. The minor discrepancy may be caused by the different anions. The ROS levels were dose-dependent, which may cause the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and the stimulation of detoxifying enzyme activity. The present study can also provide scientific support for the future selection and evaluation of ionic liquids (ILs).

  6. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM TETRACHLOROGALLATE AND ITS CATALYTIC USE IN ACETAL FORMATION UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachlorogallate, [bmim][GaCl4], prepared via microwave-assisted protocol, is found to be an active catalyst for the efficient acetalization of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  7. Asymmetric criticality of binary ionic solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tianxiang; Xu, Chen; Lv, Hekun; Liu, Shixia; Wang, Mingjie; Chen, Zhiyun; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-09-07

    The liquid-liquid coexistence curves for binary solutions {1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]) + 1-propanol} and {1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]) + 2-propanol} have been precisely measured. The values of the critical exponents β obtained from the liquid-liquid equilibrium data in the critical region confirmed the 3D-Ising universality. The isobaric heat capacities per unit volume were measured for {[C4mim][BF4] + 1-propanol (or 2-propanol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol)} in both critical and non-critical regions. The experimental results indicate a major solvophobic contribution to the criticality for the studied ionic solutions. The complete scaling theory was applied to well represent the asymmetric behavior of the diameter of the coexistence curves with the consideration of the heat capacity contribution. It was found that the contribution of the heat capacity related term in the ionic solution decreased with the increase of the permittivity of alcohol and was more important in the description of the asymmetry of the coexistence curve of the ionic solutions than that of the molecular solutions.

  8. Phase behavior and microstructure of microemulsions containing the hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Nishat; Guedeau-Boudeville, Marie-Alice; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Mourchid, Ahmed

    2009-01-08

    The phase behavior and microstructure of the ternary system water/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (bmimPF(6))/Triton X-100 was studied as a function of temperature and ionic liquid (IL) mass fraction alpha. In the present study, a hydrophobic IL instead of commonly used organic solvents such as n-alkanes is used. The fish-shaped region is distorted at low and high values of alpha, whereas it is symmetric at intermediate alpha. With increasing alpha, the extension of the three-phase region decreases regarding the surfactant concentration range, whereas it increases regarding the temperature range. For comparison the phase behavior of two ternary water/bmimPF(6)/alkyl oligoethyleneoxide (C(i)E(j)) systems has been investigated. Our results are compared with those obtained for water/n-alkane/C(i)E(j) and IL/n-alkane/C(i)E(j) systems, respectively.

  9. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2014-09-03

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  10. FE-SEM observation of swelled seaweed using hydrophilic ionic liquid; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Chisato; Shirai, Takashi; Fuji, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    The method to observe the exact morphology of swelled seaweed as an example of biological material by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with the aid of hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL); 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate is reported. Seaweed was first swelled in 3.5% NaCl solution and then treated with the IL and water mixture in 1:7 weight ratios and centrifuged to remove the excess IL solution. Thus treated seaweed maintained its morphology even at high magnification and did not show drying in the FE-SEM chamber. This observation technique might be useful for various kinds of biological materials to be observed under FE-SEM.

  11. Radiation effects on microcrystalline cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Peng, Jing; Ao, Yinyong; Li, Jiuqiang; Zhai, Maolin

    2012-11-06

    The radiation processing of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs) demands a comprehensive knowledge of radiation effects on cellulose in ILs. Herein, gamma radiation-induced degradation kinetics of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was studied by viscometry. The intrinsic viscosity of MCC in [Bmim]Cl decreased slightly with increasing dose; while chemical structure and crystalline state of cellulose has no obvious change up to 300 kGy. The radiation degradation rate constant (k) of MCC in [Bmim]Cl was 2.60×10(-7)/kGy, lower than that of solid cellulose, but higher than that in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) solvent. Furthermore, k value decreased to 1.12×10(-7)/kGy in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/[Bmim]Cl system due to the free radicals scavenging of DMSO. The radicals generated during irradiation play main role in the radiation degradation of MCC in [Bmim]Cl. This work provides a new way to control the average molecular weight of cellulose by radiation-induced degradation of cellulose in ILs.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Wasewar, Kailas L; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z

    2016-05-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM]SCN has been presented on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. The FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]SCN. Further, thermal, conductivity, moisture content, viscosity, and solubility analyses of [BMIM]SCN were carried out. The effects of time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of [BMIM]SCN on removal of dibenzothiophene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization, removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 86.5 % for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild process conditions. [BMIM]SCN could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, in the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  13. Electrical conductivity and translational diffusion in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangoro, J.; Iacob, C.; Serghei, A.; Naumov, S.; Galvosas, P.; Kärger, J.; Wespe, C.; Bordusa, F.; Stoppa, A.; Hunger, J.; Buchner, R.; Kremer, F.

    2008-06-01

    Broadband dielectric and terahertz spectroscopy (10-2-10+12 Hz) are combined with pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) to explore charge transport and translational diffusion in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid. The dielectric spectra are interpreted as superposition of high-frequency relaxation processes associated with dipolar librations and a conductivity contribution. The latter originates from hopping of charge carriers on a random spatially varying potential landscape and quantitatively fits the observed frequency and temperature dependence of the spectra. A further analysis delivers the hopping rate and enables one to deduce-using the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation-the translational diffusion coefficient of the charge carriers in quantitative agreement with PFG-NMR measurements. By that, the mobility is determined and separated from the charge carrier density; for the former, a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann and for the latter, an Arrhenius temperature dependence is obtained. There is no indication of a mode arising from the reorientation of stable ion pairs.

  14. Surfactant-free microemulsions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, propylamine nitrate, and water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Deng, Huanhuan; Fu, Yunlei; Chen, Yuquan; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wanguo

    2017-03-08

    Generally, surfactants (or amphiphiles) are believed to be necessary components of microemulsions. However, it has been demonstrated that, in the absence of traditional surfactants, microemulsions can also form from a ternary system of two immiscible fluids (i.e., oil and water phases) and an amphi-solvent, but the current understanding of such surfactant-free microemulsions (SFMEs) is very limited. Herein, we report an SFME consisting of the hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (bmimPF6), the protic IL propylamine nitrate (PAN), and water, in which bmimPF6 and PAN are used as the oil phase and the amphi-solvent, respectively. The microstructures and structural transitions of the SFME were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The SFME exhibited water-in-bmimPF6 (W/IL), bicontinuous (BC), and bmimPF6-in-water (IL/W) microstructures, depending on the composition of the ternary system, similar to the case of traditional surfactant-based microemulsions (SBMEs). The three kinds of microstructures were confirmed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on SFMEs composed of two ILs as components, especially where one is used as the amphi-solvent.

  15. Highly ordered cellulose II crystalline regenerated from cellulose hydrolyzed by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongjun; Song, Younghan; Kwak, Seung-Yeop; Kim, Hyungsup

    2016-02-10

    This research focused on the preparation of highly ordered cellulose II crystalline by cellulose hydrolysis in ionic liquid, and the influence of molecular mobility on recrystallization of cellulose. The molar mass of cellulose was controlled by hydrolysis using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl). The molecular mobility of cellulose dissolved in BmimCl was characterized by rheological properties. After characterization of cellulose solution and regeneration, change of molar mass and conversion to crystalline were monitored using gel-permeation chromatography and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molar mass of the cellulose in BmimCl was remarkably decreased with an increase in duration time, resulting in better mobility and a lower conformational constraint below critical molar mass. The decrease in molar mass surprisingly increased the crystallinity up to ∼ 85%, suggesting a recrystallization rate dependence of the mobility. The correlation between the mobility and recrystallization rate represented quit different behavior above and below a critical molar mass, which strongly demonstrated to the effect of mobility on the conversion of amorphous state to crystalline structure.

  16. Understanding the dissolution of cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate+DMAc solvent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Airong; Guo, Xin; Xu, Rui

    2015-11-01

    Cellulose solvent ([C4mim][CH3COO]/DMAc) could be obtained by adding N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][CH3COO]). The solubilities of cellulose in [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMAc solvents were determined at 25°C. The effects of molar ratio of DMAc to [C4mim][CH3COO] on cellulose solubility and the possible dissolution mechanism of cellulose in [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMAc solvent have been studied. Moreover, the regenerated cellulose from [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMAc solvent were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that, cellulose was more readily dissolved in [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMAc solvent than in a neat [C4mim][CH3COO], which mainly attributed to the increased "free" [CH3COO](-) anions and [C4mim](+) cations which result from the dissociation of [C4mim][CH3COO] by DMAc. Moreover, the regenerated cellulose from [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMAc solvent displayed good thermostability and similar molecular structure to the original cellulose.

  17. Aqueous Solutions of the Ionic Liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride Denature Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A; Heller, William T

    2009-01-01

    As we advance our understanding, ionic liquids (ILs) are finding ever broader scope within the chemical sciences including, most recently, pharmaceutical, enzymatic, and bioanalytical applications. With examples of enzymatic activity reported in both neat ILs and in IL/water mixtures, enzymes are frequently assumed to adopt a quasi-native conformation, even if little work has been carried out to date toward characterizing the conformation, dynamics, active-site perturbation, cooperativity of unfolding transitions, free energy of stabilization, or aggregation/oligomerization state of enzymes in the presence of an IL solvent component. In this study, human serum albumin and equine heart cytochrome c were characterized in aqueous solutions of the fully water-miscible IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering. At [bmim]Cl concentrations up to 25 vol.%, these two proteins were found to largely retain their higher-order structures whereas both proteins become highly denatured at the highest IL concentration studied here (i.e., 50 vol.% [bmim]Cl). The response of these proteins to [bmim]Cl is analogous to their behavior in the widely studied denaturants guanidine hydrochloride and urea which similarly lead to random coil conformations at excessive molar concentrations. Interestingly, human serum albumin dimerizes in response to [bmim]Cl, whereas cytochrome c remains predominantly in monomeric form. These results have important implications for enzymatic studies in aqueous IL media, as they suggest a facile pathway through which biocatalytic activity can be altered in these nascent and potentially green electrolyte systems.

  18. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Inverstigation of Molecular-level Behavior within Aqueous 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Abhra; Ali, Maroof; Baker, Gary A; Tetin, Sergey Y.; Ruan, Qiaoqiao; Pandey, Siddharth

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an array of molecular-level solvent featuressincluding solute-solvent/solvent-solvent interactions, dipolarity, heterogeneity, dynamics, probe accessibility, and diffusionswere investigated across the entire composition of ambient mixtures containing the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer, based on results assembled for nine different molecular probes utilized in a range of spectroscopic modes. These studies uncovered interesting and unusual solvatochromic probe behavior within this benchmark mixture. Solvatochromic absorbance probessa watersoluble betaine dye (betaine dye 33), N,N-diethyl-4-nitroaniline, and 4-nitroanilineswere employed to determine ET (a blend of dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor contributions) and the Kamlet-Taft indices * (dipolarity/polarizability), R (hydrogen bond donor acidity), and (hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) characterizing the [bmim][BF4] + phosphate buffer system. These parameters each showed a marked deviation from ideality, suggesting selective solvation of the individual probe solutes by [bmim][BF4]. Similar conclusions were derived from the responses of the fluorescent polarity-sensitive probes pyrene and pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde. Importantly, the fluorescent microfluidity probe 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane senses a microviscosity within the mixture that significantly exceeds expectations derived from simple interpolation of the behavior in the neat solvents. On the basis of results from this probe, a correlation between microviscosity and bulk viscosity was established; pronounced solvent-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions were implicit in this behavior. The greatest deviation from ideal additive behavior for the probes studied herein was consistently observed to occur in the buffer-rich regime. Nitromethane-based fluorescence quenching of pyrene within the [bmim][BF4] + phosphate buffer system showed unusual compliance with a sphere

  19. Synthesis and thermodynamic properties of a new task-specific ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Dan; Han, Chun; Fan, Hong-Tao

    2015-07-01

    Task-specific ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate ([BMI]Sal) was synthesized in two steps. In the temperature range of 298.15-353.15 K, the density and surface tension for pure ionic liquid were determined and the thermodynamic properties of the ionic liquid were discussed in terms of Glasser's theory. The standard molar entropy and lattice energy for [BMI]Sal have been estimated. In addition, the thermal expansion coefficient, α = 5.53 × 10-4 K-1, calculated by the interstice model is in extreme agreement with α (experimental) = 5.50 × 10-4 K-1.

  20. Glycine in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and trifluoroacetate ionic liquids: effect of fluorination and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Podgoršek, Ajda; Macchiagodena, Marina; Ramondo, Fabio; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Pádua, Agílio A H

    2012-05-14

    The solvation of glycine in two ionic liquids (ILs), namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C(1)C(4)Im][OAc], and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, [C(1)C(4)Im][TFA], was studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The solubility of glycine in both ILs was determined at 333.15 K to be (8.1±0.5) and (1.0±0.5) wt % in [C(1)C(4)Im][OAc] and [C(1)C(4)Im][TFA], respectively. By IR spectroscopy it was found that, when dissolved in the ILs, glycine was mainly present in its zwitterionic form. Structural and energetic aspects of the solvation of glycine in the ILs and in mixtures of ILs and water were investigated by ab initio calculations and molecular dynamic simulations. It was observed that the firstly solvation shell around glycine consisted predominantly of acetate or trifluoroacetate anions, which formed hydrogen bonds either with the carboxylic group of neutral glycine or with the protonated ammonium group of the zwitterionic form. When water is present in the solutions, hydrogen bonds between water and the anion prevail. The overall energy of the system was decomposed into its components between pairs of species. It was established that the dominant contribution to the interaction energy between glycine and the IL was due to hydrogen bonds with the anions and the statistics of hydrogen bonds were analysed.

  1. The gaseous enthalpy of formation of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide from combustion calorimetry, vapor pressure measurements, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P; Heintz, Andreas

    2007-04-04

    Ionic liquids are attracting growing interest as alternatives to conventional molecular solvents. Experimental values of vapor pressure, enthalpy of vaporization, and enthalpy of formation of ionic liquids are the key thermodynamic quantities, which are required for the validation and development of the molecular modeling and ab initio methods toward this new class of solvents. In this work, the molar enthalpy of formation of the liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 206.2 +/- 2.5 kJ.mol-1, was measured by means of combustion calorimetry. The molar enthalpy of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 157.2 +/- 1.1 kJ.mol-1, was obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured using the transpiration method. The latter method has been checked with measurements of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, where data are available from the effusion technique. The first experimental determination of the gaseous enthalpy of formation of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 363.4 +/- 2.7 kJ.mol-1, from thermochemical measurements (combustion and transpiration) is presented. Ab initio calculations of the enthalpy of formation in the gaseous phase have been performed for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide using the G3MP2 theory. Excellent agreement with experimental results has been observed. The method developed opens a new way to obtain thermodynamic properties of ionic liquids which have not been available so far.

  2. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-25

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  3. Anomalous Freezing of Nano-Confined Water in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nitrate.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Takekiyo, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Saihara, Koji; Shimizu, Akio

    2016-04-18

    Non-crystal formation of ice is investigated by simultaneous X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements upon cooling to -100 °C. At room temperature, size-tunable water confinement (≈20 Å size) in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, [C4 mim][NO3 ]) exists in a water-rich region (70-90 mol % D2 O). The confined water (water pocket) is characterized by almost monodispersive size distribution. In [C4 mim][NO3 ]-x mol % D2 O (70

  4. Comparison of autohydrolysis and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Muzna; Sun, Qining; Tao, Jingming; Wells, Jr., Tyrone; Shah, Aamer; Labbe, Nicole; Ragauskas, Arthur

    2016-11-02

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][OAc]) pretreatment (110 C for 30 min) in comparison to high severity autohydrolysis pretreatment in terms of delignification, cellulose crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. The increase in severity of autohydrolysis pretreatment had positive effect on glucan digestibility, but was limited by the crystallinity of cellulose. [C4mim][OAc] pretreated sugarcane bagasse exhibited a substantial decrease in lignin content, reduced cellulose crystallinity, and enhanced glucan and xylan digestibility. Glucan and xylan digestibility was determined as 97.4% and 98.6% from [C4mim][OAc] pretreated bagasse, and 62.1% and 57.5% from the bagasse autohydrolyzed at 205 C for 6 min, respectively. The results indicated the improved digestibility and hydrolysis rates after [C4mim][OAc] pretreatment when compared against a comparable autohydrolyzed biomass.

  5. Comparison of autohydrolysis and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    DOE PAGES

    Hashim, Muzna; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Sun, Qining; ...

    2016-11-02

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][OAc]) pretreatment (110 C for 30 min) in comparison to high severity autohydrolysis pretreatment in terms of delignification, cellulose crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. The increase in severity of autohydrolysis pretreatment had positive effect on glucan digestibility, but was limited by the crystallinity of cellulose. [C4mim][OAc] pretreated sugarcane bagasse exhibited a substantial decrease in lignin content, reduced cellulose crystallinity, and enhanced glucan and xylan digestibility. Glucan and xylan digestibility was determined as 97.4% and 98.6% from [C4mim][OAc] pretreated bagasse, and 62.1% and 57.5% frommore » the bagasse autohydrolyzed at 205 C for 6 min, respectively. The results indicated the improved digestibility and hydrolysis rates after [C4mim][OAc] pretreatment when compared against a comparable autohydrolyzed biomass.« less

  6. Photoisomerization of cyanine derivatives in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and aqueous glycerol: Influence of specific interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, K. S.; Dutt, G. B.; Mukherjee, T.

    2008-03-28

    Photoisomerization of two cyanine derivatives, 3,3{sup '}-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) and merocyanine 540 (MC 540), has been investigated in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and aqueous glycerol (93 wt % glycerol +7 wt % water) by measuring fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields. The aim of this work is to understand how the rates of photoisomerization of DODCI and MC 540 are influenced by specific solute-solvent interactions besides the viscosity of the medium. For DODCI, it has been observed that the nonradiative rate constants, which represent the rates of photoisomerization, are almost identical in the ionic liquid and aqueous glycerol at given temperature, indicating that viscosity is the sole parameter that governs the rate of photoisomerization. In contrast, the photoisomerization rate constants of MC 540 have been found to be a factor of 2 higher in aqueous glycerol compared to the ionic liquid. The observed behavior is due to the zwitterionic character of MC 540, a consequence of which, the twisted state gets stabilized by the solute-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions in aqueous glycerol, thus lowering the barrier for isomerization.

  7. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in soil on Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

    2015-03-21

    Although considered as "green" solvents, the toxic effects of ionic liquids (ILs) on organisms have been widely investigated in recent years. However, studies on the toxic effects of ILs on plants all focus on toxicity in nutrient solution. In the present paper, the toxic effects of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) on Vicia faba seedlings in soil at 0, 500, 1500, and 2500 mg kg(-1) on day 10 were studied. The present results showed that the growth of V. faba seedlings may be seriously inhibited when the IL concentrations were higher than 500 mg kg(-1). The EC50 values for shoot length, root length, and dry weight were 3886, 2483, and 3359 mg kg(-1), respectively. In addition, [C4mim]Cl caused lipid peroxidation and DNA damage at 500 mg kg(-1) and oxidative stress at 1500 mg kg(-1), which indicated that [C4mim]Cl may have genotoxicity and cytotoxicity on V. faba seedlings. Moreover, oxidative damage may be the main toxic mechanism of ILs.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3 methylimidazolium chloride as green material for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Wasewar, Kailas L

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A.; Varma, Mahesh N.; Shende, Diwakar Z.; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Wasewar, Kailas L.

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency. PMID:24307868

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane at 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lísal, Martin; Izák, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane adsorbed onto the interface of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) are performed at three n-hexane surface densities, ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 μmol/m2 at 300 K. For [bmim][Tf2N] room-temperature ionic liquid, we use a non-polarizable all-atom force field with the partial atomic charges based on ab initio calculations for the isolated ion pair. The net charges of the ions are ±0.89e, which mimics the anion to cation charge transfer and polarization effects. The OPLS-AA force field is employed for modeling of n-hexane. The surface tension is computed using the mechanical route and its value decreases with increase of the n-hexane surface density. The [bmim][Tf2N]/n-hexane interface is analyzed using the intrinsic method, and the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial, sub-interfacial, and central layers are computed. We determine the surface roughness, global and intrinsic density profiles, and orientation ordering of the molecules to describe the structure of the interface. We further compute the survival probability, normal and lateral self-diffusion coefficients, and re-orientation correlation functions to elucidate the effects of n-hexane on dynamics of the cations and anions in the layers.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane at 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide interface.

    PubMed

    Lísal, Martin; Izák, Pavel

    2013-07-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane adsorbed onto the interface of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) are performed at three n-hexane surface densities, ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 μmol/m(2) at 300 K. For [bmim][Tf2N] room-temperature ionic liquid, we use a non-polarizable all-atom force field with the partial atomic charges based on ab initio calculations for the isolated ion pair. The net charges of the ions are ±0.89e, which mimics the anion to cation charge transfer and polarization effects. The OPLS-AA force field is employed for modeling of n-hexane. The surface tension is computed using the mechanical route and its value decreases with increase of the n-hexane surface density. The [bmim][Tf2N]/n-hexane interface is analyzed using the intrinsic method, and the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial, sub-interfacial, and central layers are computed. We determine the surface roughness, global and intrinsic density profiles, and orientation ordering of the molecules to describe the structure of the interface. We further compute the survival probability, normal and lateral self-diffusion coefficients, and re-orientation correlation functions to elucidate the effects of n-hexane on dynamics of the cations and anions in the layers.

  12. Influence of the current density on the electrochemical treatment of concentrated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions on diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Marcionilio, Suzana M L de Oliveira; Alves, Gisele M; E Silva, Rachel B Góes; Marques, Pablo J Lima; Maia, Poliana D; Neto, Brenno A D; Linares, José J

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the current density treatment of a concentrated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl) solution on an electrochemical reactor with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The decrease in the total organic carbon (TOC) and the BMImCl concentration demonstrate the capability of BDD in oxidizing ionic liquids (ILs) and further mineralizing (to CO2 and NO3 (-)) more rapidly at higher current densities in spite of the reduced current efficiency of the process. Moreover, the presence of Cl(-) led to the formation of oxychlorinated anions (mostly ClO3 (-) and ClO4 (-)) and, in combination with the ammonia generated in the cathode from the nitrate reduction, chloramines, more intensely at higher current density. Finally, the analysis of the intermediates formed revealed no apparent influence of the current density on the BMImCl degradation mechanism. The current density presents therefore a complex influence on the IL treatment process that is discussed throughout this paper.

  13. Structural studies of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/ p-xylene ionic liquid microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan'an; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Hongyan; Zhao, Xueyan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Xinwei; Yu, Li

    2006-07-17

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) forms nonaqueous microemulsions with p-xylene, with the aid of the nonionic surfactant TX-100. The phase behavior of the ternary system is investigated, and three microregions of the microemulsions-ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O), bicontinuous, and oil-in-ionic liquid (O/IL)-are identified by conductivity measurements, according to percolation theory. On the basis of a phase diagram, a series of IL/O microemulsions are chosen and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The size of aggregates increases on increasing the amount of added polar component (bmimBF(4)), which is a similar phenomenon to that observed for typical water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions, suggesting the formation of IL/O microemulsions. The microstructural characteristics of the microemulsions are investigated by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the interaction between the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene (OE) units in TX-100 and the electropositive imidazolium ring may be the driving force for the solubilization of bmimBF4 into the core of the TX-100 aggregates. In addition, the micropolarity of the microemulsions is investigated by using methyl orange (MO) as a UV/Vis spectroscopic probe. A relatively constant polarity of the microemulsion droplets is obtained in the IL microemulsion. Finally, a plausible structure for the IL/O microemulsion is presented.

  14. Calorimetric determination of the enthalpy of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide synthesis: a key quantity in thermodynamics of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Paulechka, Yauheni U; Kabo, Andrey G; Blokhin, Andrey V

    2009-11-05

    The enthalpy of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C(4)mim]Br ionic liquid synthesis reaction 1-methylimidazole (liq) + 1-bromobutane (liq) --> [C(4)mim]Br (liq) was determined in a homemade small-volume isoperibol calorimeter to be Delta(r)H degrees (298) = -87.7 +/- 1.6 kJ x mol(-1). The activation energy for this reaction in a homogeneous system E(A) = 73 +/- 4 kJ x mol(-1) was found from the results of calorimetric measurements. The formation enthalpies for the crystalline and liquid [C(4)mim]Br were determined from the calorimetric data: Delta(f)H degrees (298)(cr) = -178 +/- 5 kJ x mol(-1) and Delta(f)H degrees (298)(liq) = -158 +/- 5 kJ x mol(-1). The ideal-gas formation enthalpy of this compound Delta(f)H degrees (298)(g) = 16 +/- 7 kJ x mol(-1) was calculated using the methods of quantum chemistry and statistical thermodynamics. The vaporization enthalpy of [C(4)mim]Br, Delta(vap)H degrees (298) = 174 +/- 9 kJ x mol(-1), was estimated from the experimental and calculated formation enthalpies. It was demonstrated that vapor pressure of this ionic liquid cannot be experimentally determined.

  15. Compressed CO2-enhanced solubilization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in reverse micelles of Triton X-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junchun; Zhang, Jianling; Han, Buxing; Wang, Yong; Gao, Liang

    2004-10-01

    We carried out the first study about the effect of a compressed gas on the properties of reverse micellar solutions with ionic liquid (IL) polar cores. And the properties of compressed CO2/cyclohexane/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4])/Triton X-100 (TX-100) system were investigated at 288.2, 293.2, 298.2, 308.2 K and different pressures by using phase behavior measurement, small-angle x-ray scattering, and UV-Vis techniques. The concentration of the surfactant in the solution was 0.3 mol/l (M). It was found that compressed CO2 could enhance solubilization of the IL in the reverse micelles considerably at suitable pressures, and formation of the reverse micelles could be controlled easily by pressure. Increase of CO2 pressure resulted in decrease of the micellar sizes at fixed [bmim][BF4]-to-surfactant molar ratios (w), and the size of the reverse micelles increased with the increase of w values. The polarity of the IL cores increased continuously with increasing w value.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane at 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide interface

    SciTech Connect

    Lisal, Martin; Izak, Pavel

    2013-07-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane adsorbed onto the interface of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([bmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) are performed at three n-hexane surface densities, ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 {mu}mol/m{sup 2} at 300 K. For [bmim][Tf{sub 2}N] room-temperature ionic liquid, we use a non-polarizable all-atom force field with the partial atomic charges based on ab initio calculations for the isolated ion pair. The net charges of the ions are {+-}0.89e, which mimics the anion to cation charge transfer and polarization effects. The OPLS-AA force field is employed for modeling of n-hexane. The surface tension is computed using the mechanical route and its value decreases with increase of the n-hexane surface density. The [bmim][Tf{sub 2}N]/n-hexane interface is analyzed using the intrinsic method, and the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial, sub-interfacial, and central layers are computed. We determine the surface roughness, global and intrinsic density profiles, and orientation ordering of the molecules to describe the structure of the interface. We further compute the survival probability, normal and lateral self-diffusion coefficients, and re-orientation correlation functions to elucidate the effects of n-hexane on dynamics of the cations and anions in the layers.

  17. Hydrogen bonding behaviors of binary systems containing the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and water/methanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Nan-Nan; Wang, Shuang-Long; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2011-09-29

    The hydrogen-bonding properties of binary systems consisting of a representative Brønsted acidic hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate ([Bmim][CF(3)CO(2)]) and a cosolvent, water or methanol, over the entire concentration range have been investigated by methods of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations. It has been found that the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the anion [CF(3)CO(2)](-), rather than the cation, and the cosolvent molecules are dominant at low concentration of cosolvent. The H-bond interaction site between the IL anion and water/methanol is the O atom in the -COO group, while the -CF(3) group makes a positive contribution by donating electron to the carboxylic group, forming a cooperative hydrogen-bonding system. For the cation [Bmim](+), although the C2-H is the favorable proton donor in H-bonding interactions, the water/methanol molecules form H-bonds with the alkyl C-H at low water/methanol concentration due to the stronger interaction between C2-H and [CF(3)CO(2)](-). Interestingly, we found that the interaction between methanol and the IL is stronger than that between water and the IL because the methyl group in methanol has a positive contribution to the formation of H-bonds. The following sequential order of interaction strength is established: [Bmim](+)-methanol-[CF(3)CO(2)](-) > [Bmim](+)-water-[CF(3)CO(2)](-) > [Bmim](+)-[CF(3)CO(2)](-) > [CF(3)CO(2)](-)-methanol > [CF(3)CO(2)] (-)-water > [Bmim](+)-methanol > [Bmim] (+)-water.

  18. The effect of water on the microstructure of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/benzene ionic liquid microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan'an; Li, Na; Zheng, Liqiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Quan; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2007-01-01

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) forms nonaqueous microemulsions with benzene with the aid of nonionic surfactant TX-100. The phase diagram of the ternary system was prepared, and the microstructures of the microemulsion were recognized. On the basis of the phase diagram, a series of ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsions were chosen and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), which shows a similar swelling behavior to typical water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The existence of IL pools in the IL/O microemulsion was confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis with CoCl2 and methylene blue (MB) as the absorption probes. A constant polarity of the IL pool is observed, even if small amounts of water are added to the microemulsion, thus suggesting that the water molecules are solubilized in the polar outer shell of the microemulsion, as confirmed by FTIR spectra. 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis shows that these water molecules interact with the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene (OE) units of TX-100 through hydrogen-bonding interactions, and the electronegative oxygen atoms of the water molecules attract the electropositive imidazolium rings of [bmim][BF4]. Hence, the water molecules are like a glue that stick the IL and OE units more tightly together and thus make the microemulsion system more stable. Considering the unique solubilization behavior of added water molecules, the IL/O microemulsion system may be used as a medium to prepare porous or hollow nanomaterials by hydrolysis reactions.

  19. Role of solubilized water in the reverse ionic liquid microemulsion of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/TX-100/benzene.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan'an; Li, Na; Zheng, Liqiang; Bai, Xiangtao; Yu, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Mingwei; Li, Zhen

    2007-03-15

    The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) can form nonaqueous microemulsions with benzene by the aid of nonionic surfactant TX-100. The effect of water on ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsions was studied, and it was shown that the addition of small amount of water to the IL microemulsion contributed to the stability of microemulsion and thus increased the amount of solubilized bmimBF4 in the microemulsion. The conductivity measurements also showed that the attractive interactions between IL microdroplets were weakened, that is, the IL/O microemulsion becomes more stable in the present of some water. Fourier transform IR was carried out to analyze the states of the added water, and the result showed that these water molecules mainly behaved as bound water and trapped water, indicating that the water molecules are located in the palisade layers of the IL/O microemulsion. Furthermore, 1H NMR and 19F NMR spectra suggested that the added water molecules built the hydrogen binding network of imidazolium cations and H2O, BF4- anion and H2O, and at the same time the electronegative oxygen atoms of the oxyethylene units of TX-100 and water in the palisade layers, which made the palisade layers more firm and thus increased the stability of the microemulsion. The study can help in further understanding the formation mechanism of microemulsions. In addition, the characteristic solubilization behavior of the added water can provide an aqueous interface film for hydrolysis reactions and therefore may be used as an ideal medium to prepare porous or hollow nanomaterials.

  20. Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ionic liquid + organic solvent or water).

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Laskowska, M; Pobudkowska, Aneta

    2009-05-07

    (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria (SLE) for the binary systems, ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM][SCN] with an alcohol (1-octanol, 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, 1-undecanol, or 1-dodecanol) or water, and (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria (LLE) for the binary systems of [BMIM][SCN] with an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, or n-decane), benzene, an alkylbenzenes (toluene or ethylbenzene), tetrahydrofuran (THF), cycloalkanes (cyclohexane or cycloheptane), or ethers (di-n-propyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, di-n-pentyl ether, n-butylmethyl ether, tert-butylmethyl ether (MTBE), or tert-butylethyl ether (ETBE)) have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 250 to 430 K. In the case of systems IL + alkane, cycloalkane, or ether, the mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) was detected, and in the systems of IL + benzene, alkylbenzene, or THF, the mutual immiscibility with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was observed. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to determine the very small compositions of the IL in the n-hexane (about 2 x 10(-5) IL mole fraction), benzene (about 2 x 10(-3) IL mole fraction), cyclohexane (about 2 x 10(-5) IL mole fraction), and THF (about 1.2 x 10(-2) IL mole fraction). For the binary systems containing alcohol, it was noticed that with increasing chain length of an alcohol, the solubility decreases. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, the glass-transition temperature as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the IL was detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. Well-known UNIQUAC, Wilson, and NRTL equations have been used to correlate the experimental SLE data sets for alcohols and water. For the systems containing immiscibility gaps {IL + alkane

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigation of multistage extraction of 1,3-propanediol using the extraction system phosphate/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate/water.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anja; Lutze, Philip; Górak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The separation of 1,3-propanediol from fermentation broth is a challenging and energy-demanding step using conventional unit operations. One alternative process is the use of an aqueous two-phase system incorporating ionic liquids to use synergy effects of both technologies. Within this manuscript, the technical feasibility of the extraction of 1,3-propanediol using the aqueous two-phase system phosphate (salt)/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (ionic liquid)/water in a continuously operated process in pilot-scale is presented. The extraction was performed in a multistage mixer-settler unit and successfully modeled with an equilibrium-stage model and correlations to describe the liquid-liquid equilibrium of the salt/ionic liquid/water two-phase system. The developed and validated model was used for a further investigation of the influence of different process parameters in the determined operating window. Theses parameters include the number of stages, the phase ratio, the pH, and the mass fraction of the involved components. The results prove that the phosphate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate mass fraction, the phase ratio, and the number of stages have a considerable influence on the recovery of 1,3-propanediol, whereas the pH value has only a smaller impact. Those results can be used for optimization of the system as well as for targeting future research within this area.

  2. Synergistic Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate and DMSO in the SARA ATRP at Room Temperature Affording Very Fast Reactions and Polymers with Very Low Dispersity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An unusual synergistic effect between 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures is reported for the supplemental activator and reducing agent atom transfer radical polymerization (SARA ATRP) of methyl acrylate (MA) using a catalytic system composed by sodium dithionate (Na2S2O4) and CuBr2/Me6TREN (Me6TREN: tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine) at room temperature. To the best of our knowledge, the use of ionic liquids (IL) has never been reported for the SARA ATRP. The kinetic data obtained for a broad range of target molecular weights revealed very fast polymerization rates, low dispersity values (Đ < 1.05) and well-defined chain-end functionalities. PMID:25068078

  3. States of water located in the continuous organic phase of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/Triton X-100/triethylamine reverse microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Cao, Quan; Gao, Yanan; Zhang, Jin; Zheng, Liqiang; Bai, Xiangtao; Dong, Bin; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Mingwei; Yu, Li

    2007-10-22

    We demonstrate a novel ionic liquid (IL) microemulsion, consisting of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) and nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 prepared in triethylamine which is used either as an organic solvent or a Lewis base. The effects of small amounts of added water on the microstructure of the IL microemulsion are investigated by various techniques. UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis and FTIR spectra indicate that these water molecules are not solubilized into the IL pools of the microemulsions. 1H NMR spectra further show that the added water binds with triethylamine to form a surrounding OH- base environment. Some of OH- ions enter the palisade layers of the IL microemulsions and a continuous base interface is created. The unique solubilization behavior of water reveals that it is possible to use the triethylamine microemulsions as a template to prepare metal hydroxides as well as metal oxides in the microemulsions, which is not possible when using traditional microemulsions.

  4. Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hui; O'Hare, Bernie; Dong, Jing; Arzhantsev, Sergei; Baker, Gary A; Wishart, James F.; Benesi, Alan; Maroncelli, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of phase-transition temperatures, densities, refractive indices, surface tensions, solvatochromic polarities based on absorption of Nile Red, 19F chemical shifts of the Tf2N- anion, temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and cation diffusion coefficients are reported. Correlations among the measured quantities as well as the use of surface tension and molar volume for estimating Hildebrand solubility parameters of ionic liquids are also discussed.

  5. Application of the Bahe's pseudolattice-theory to water-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF(4)) mixtures at 298.15K Part I. Autoprotolysis constants.

    PubMed

    Bou Malham, I; Letellier, P; Turmine, M

    2007-04-15

    The autoprotolysis constants (K(s)) of water - 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF(4)) mixtures were determined at 298K over the composition range of 0 to 77.43vol.% bmimBF(4) using potentiometric method with a glass electrode. A slight increase in the autoprotolysis constant was observed when the salt was added to the water. The value of the ionic product of the medium then decreases as the bmimBF(4) content increases from about 20vol.%. The acid-base properties of these media were perfectly described by Bahe's approaches that were completed by Varela et al. concerning structured electrolyte solutions with large short-range interactions.

  6. Syntheses and crystal structures of two ionic liquids with halogen-bonding groups: 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Tomohiro; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    We have prepared and characterized two novel Lewis acidic ionic liquids, 4,5-dibromo- and 4,5-diiodo-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonates, using differential scanning calorimetry and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The effect of the halogen species on the phase transition behaviour and the cation-anion interacting geometry was investigated. The minor difference in chemical structure strongly affects the melting point, glass transition temperature and crystal structure because of the different halogen-bonding strength and linearity between C-Br⋯O and C-I⋯O. Both the salts melt above room temperature, but the fused salts show glass-forming property and poor crystallizability.

  7. A novel, sensitive, reusable and low potential acetylcholinesterase biosensor for chlorpyrifos based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/multiwalled carbon nanotubes gel.

    PubMed

    Zamfir, Lucian-Gabriel; Rotariu, Lucian; Bala, Camelia

    2011-04-15

    A novel, low potential and highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor was developed based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/multiwalled carbon nanotube composite gel thiocholine sensor. Composite gel promoted electron transfer reaction at a lower potential (+50 mV) and catalyzed electrochemical oxidation of thiocholine with high sensitivity. AChE was immobilized in sol-gel matrix that provides a good support for enzyme without any inhibition effect from the ionic liquid. The amount of immobilized enzyme and incubation time with chlorpyrifos were optimized. Chlorpyrifos could be determined in the range of 10(-8)-10(-6)M with a detection limit of 4 nM. Fast and efficient enzyme reactivation was obtained at low obidoxime concentration (0.1mM). Moreover, the biosensor exhibited a good stability and reproducibility and could be use for multiple determinations of pesticide with no loss of the enzyme activity.

  8. Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Ankur; SenGupta, Sumana; Kumar, Awadhesh; Choudhury, Sipra; Naik, Prakash D.

    2016-08-01

    The structure and orientation of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [PF3(C2F5)3], commonly known as [bmim][fap], have been investigated at the air-[bmim][fap] and air-water interfaces, employing vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. The VSFG spectra in the CH stretch region suggest presence of the [bmim] cation at the interfaces. Studies reveal that the butyl chain protrudes out into air, and the imidazolium ring lies almost planar to the interface. The CH stretch intensities get enhanced at the air-water interface, mainly because of polar orientation of imidazolium cation induced by interfacial water molecules. The OH stretch intensities are also enhanced at the air-water interface due to polar orientation of interfacial water molecules induced by [bmim][fap]. The Brewster angle microscopy suggests self aggregation of [bmim][fap] in the presence of water, and the aggregation becomes extensive showing dense surface domains with time. However, the surface pressure is almost unaffected due to aggregation.

  9. How the cation 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium impacts the interaction between the entrapped water and the reverse micelle interface created with an ionic liquid-like surfactant.

    PubMed

    Lépori, Cristian M O; Correa, N Mariano; Silber, Juana J; Falcone, R Darío

    2016-01-21

    The behavior of the interfacial water entrapped in reverse micelles (RMs) formed by the ionic liquid-like surfactant 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (bmim-AOT) dissolved in benzene (or chlorobenzene) was investigated using noninvasive techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), static light scattering (SLS), FT-IR and (1)H NMR. The DLS and SLS results reveal the formation of discrete spherical and non-interacting water droplets stabilized by the bmim-AOT surfactant. Moreover, since the droplet size increases as the W0 (W0 = [water]/[surfactant]) value increases, water interacts with the RM interface. From FT-IR and (1)H NMR data, a weaker water-surfactant interaction in bmim-AOT RMs in comparison with the RMs created by sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (Na-AOT) is detected. Consequently, there are less water molecules interacting with the interface in bmim-AOT RMs, and their hydrogen bond network is not completely disrupted as they are in Na-AOT RMs. The results show how the nature of the new cation impacts the interaction between the entrapped water and the RM interface, modifying the interfacial water structure in comparison with the results known for Na-AOT.

  10. Electrochemical and Thermodynamic Properties of Ln(III) (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Nd) in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; He, Ling; Qin, Song; Tao, Guo-Hong; Huang, Ming; Lv, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior and thermodynamic properties of Ln(III) (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Nd) were studied in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid (BmimBr) at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode in the range of 293–338 K. The electrode reaction of Eu(III) was found to be quasi-reversible by the cyclic voltammetry, the reactions of the other three lanthanide ions were regarded as irreversible systems. An increase of the current intensity was obtained with the temperature increase. At 293 K, the cathodic peak potentials of −0.893 V (Eu(III)), −0.596 V (Sm(III)), −0.637 V (Dy(III)) and −0.641 V (Nd(III)) were found, respectively, to be assigned to the reduction of Ln(III) to Ln(II). The diffusion coefficients (Do), the transfer coefficients (α) of Ln(III) (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy, Nd) and the charge transfer rate constants (ks) of Eu(III) were estimated. The apparent standard potential (E0*) and the thermodynamic properties of the reduction of Eu(III) to Eu(II) were also investigated. PMID:24752584

  11. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wenyan; Lin, Peng; Liu, Sili; Xie, Qingji; Ke, Shanming; Zeng, Xierong

    2017-01-01

    Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF4] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF4]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d-limonene, and dl-limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis. PMID:28117697

  12. Decrease of droplet size of the reverse microemulsion 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/Triton X-100/cyclohexane by addition of water.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanan; Hilfert, Liane; Voigt, Andreas; Sundmacher, Kai

    2008-03-27

    In the present contribution, results concerning the role of small amounts of water in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4)-in-cyclohexane ionic liquid (IL) reverse microemulsions are reported. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that the size of microemulsion droplets decreased remarkably with increasing water content although water is often used as a polar component to swell reverse microemulsions. It was thus deduced that the number of microemulsion droplets was increased which was confirmed by conductivity measurements. The states of dissolved water were investigated by Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showing that water molecules mainly act as bound water. 1H NMR along with two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments (ROESY) further revealed that water molecules were mainly located in the periphery of the polar core of the microemulsion droplets and behave like a chock being inserted in the palisade layer of the droplet. This increased the curvature of the surfactant film at the IL/cyclohexane interface and thus led to the decrease of the microemulsion droplet size. The order of surfactant molecules arranged in the interface film was increased and thus induced a loss of entropy. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that an enthalpy increase compensates for the loss of entropy during the process of microstructural transition.

  13. Physicochemical properties, structure, and conformations of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mim]NTf2 ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Blokhin, Andrey V; Paulechka, Yauheni U; Strechan, Aliaksei A; Kabo, Gennady J

    2008-04-10

    Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim]NTf2) ionic liquid have been studied by adiabatic calorimetry in the temperature range of 5 to 370 K. This compound has been found to form crystal, liquid, and glass. The temperature and enthalpy of fusion for [C(4)mim]NTf(2) have been determined to be T(fus) = 270.22 +/- 0.02 K and Delta(fus)H = 23.78 +/- 0.04 kJ.mol(-1), respectively. The heat capacity of crystalline [C(4)mim]NTf(2) in the T range of 205 to 255 K may vary by a few percent, subject to the procedure of the crystal preparation. The glass transition temperature for [C(4)mim]NTf(2) has been found to be T(g) = 181.5 +/- 0.1 K. On the basis of the results of DFT quantum chemical calculations, the experimental vibrational spectra, and the available literature data, thermodynamic properties of [C(4)mim]NTf(2) in the ideal-gas state have been calculated by the statistical thermodynamic methods. The entropy values for the gaseous compound obtained from the experimental data and the calculations are in satisfactory agreement.

  14. Simultaneous separation of basic and acidic proteins using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ion liquid as dynamic coating and background electrolyte in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoping; Wei, Weiping; Su, Qingmei; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2008-06-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids (1B-3MI-TFB ILs) were employed as a coating material and BGE in CE for simultaneous separation of basic and acidic proteins such as lysozyme, cytochrome C, ribonuclease A, albumin, and alpha-lactalbumin. 1B-3MI-TFB ILs effectively reversed the surface charges on the capillary inner surface, preventing the adsorption of positively charged proteins onto the silica surface, as well as associated with proteins, thus benefiting the separation efficiencies and reproducibility. Consequently, simultaneous baseline separation of five proteins was achieved within 14 min by using 10 mM of 1B-3MI-TFB ILs as dynamic coating and the only running electrolyte at the voltage of +20 kV. The proposed coating technique is simple, less time-consuming, reproducible, and also stable enough for proteins separation without the need of additives. Symmetrical peaks with efficiencies up to 670,000 plates/m were obtained. Recoveries of proteins with RSD (for migration times) of 0.23-0.42% (run-to-run) and 2.5-3.8% (day-to-day) were achieved, respectively. The applicability of the proposed method in proteins separation was evaluated by the separation of egg white samples.

  15. Hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose to glucose catalyzed by cellulase-containing liposomes in an aqueous solution of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Tanimura, Kazuhiko; Tokunaga, Kazuki; Kamimura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    The liposome containing cellulase from Trichoderma viride was prepared under the condition that an appreciable amount of cellulase was incorporated in lipid membranes. The liposomal cellulase and free enzyme were examined in their hydrolytic activities to insoluble cellulose powder CC31 in the acetate buffer solution (pH 4.8) of 15 w/w% [Bmim][Cl] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride). The mean diameter and size distribution of cellulase-containing liposome were practically unchanged under the above condition. The free cellulase was deactivated more rapidly than the liposomal cellulase in catalyzing the hydrolysis of 2.0 g/l CC31 at 45°C in the presence of [Bmim][Cl] for 48 h. The activities of liposomal and free cellulase to cellobiose as soluble substrate were less susceptible to [Bmim][Cl] than their cellulolytic activities to CC31, meaning that β-glucosidase is relatively stable among the three enzyme components of cellulase. The rate of glucose production could be appreciably improved by the pretreatment of CC31 with [Bmim][Cl] alone at 120°C for 30 min followed by the liposomal cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the substrate at 45°C at the [Bmim][Cl] concentration of 15 w/w%.

  16. Mechanical exfoliation of graphite in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) providing graphene nanoplatelets that exhibit enhanced electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, William Ignatius; Lubarsky, Gennady; Li, Meixian; Papakonstantinou, Pagona

    2014-12-01

    A novel production method for graphene nanoplatelets (GPs) with enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour is presented. GPs show improvement in their oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysis after prolonging the grinding of graphite in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Nitrogen doping of the GPs has inferred a further increase in ORR. The ORR onset potential, cathodic current magnitude and electron transfer efficiency have all improved as a direct consequence of increasing the graphite grinding duration from 30 min to 4 h. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed a decrease in the GP diameter and height as the grinding increases. Raman spectroscopy indicates a higher level of defects present after prolonging the graphite grinding in BMIM-PF6, most likely a result of the increased edge plane exposure. This increased edge plane appears to promote a higher level of nitrogen incorporation as the graphite grinding duration increases, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The stability of the cathodic current assessed by chronoamperometry analysis is higher for the GP and nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelet (N-GP) samples than the platinum on carbon black (Pt/C). This study presents a novel process for the production of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets, constituting a strategy for the up-scaled production of electrocatalysts.

  17. Amplified electrochemical sensor employing CuO/SWCNTs and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate for selective analysis of sulfisoxazole in the presence of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Amini, Fatemeh; Akbari, Ahmad; Shojaei, Moein

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, CuO nanoparticle decorated on single wall carbon nanotubes (CuO/SWCNTs) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation method and used for modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE) in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (1-B-3-MIHFP) liquid as binder. The novel voltammetric sensor was used as first electrochemical sensor for determination of sulfisoxazole (SFX). CuO/SWCNTs nanocomposite characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) methods. Voltammetric methods such as cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry (SWV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry were performed to assess the electrochemical performance of CuO/SWCNTs/1-B-3-MIHFP/CPE towards SFX in aqueous solution. The voltammetric obtained data confirm the significant enhancement of oxidation current and reduction overvoltage for electro-oxidation of SFX at a surface of CuO/SWCNTs/1-B-3-MIHFP/CPE. The square wave voltammetric response shows the linear increment of oxidation signals with an increase in the concentration of SFX in the range of 0.08-650μM with limit of detection 0.04μM. Using CuO/SWCNTs/1-B-3-MIHFP/CPE the SFX and folic acid peaks are separated ca. 0.72 and 0.895V, respectively; hence SFX can be detected in the presence of folic acid. Finally, the CuO/SWCNTs/1-B-3-MIHFP/CPE was used as high sensitive tools for analysis of SFX and folic acid in real samples.

  18. Conductivity and spectroscopic investigation of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solution in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Pizio, Benjamin S; Vaden, Timothy D

    2012-06-07

    Protic ionic liquids (PILs) are promising alternatives to water for swelling Nafion as a fuel cell proton exchange membrane (PEM). PILs can significantly improve the high-temperature performance of a PEM. The proton dissociation and solvation mechanisms in a PIL, which are keys to understanding the proton transportation and conductivity, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we used FTIR, Raman, and electronic spectroscopy with computational simulation techniques to explore the spectroscopic properties of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (HTFSI) solutions in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMITFSI) ionic liquid at concentrations from ∼0.1 to as high as ∼1.0 M. Solution conductivities were measured at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to ∼65 °C. The solution structure and properties depend on the concentration of HTFSI. At lower concentration, around 0.1 M, the HTFSI solution has higher conductivity than pure BMITFSI. However, the conductivity decreases when the concentration increases from 0.1 to 1.0 M. Temperature-dependent conductivities followed the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation at all concentrations. Conductivity and spectroscopy results elucidate the complicated ionization and solvation mechanism of HTFSI in BMITFSI solutions. Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the complete ionization of HTFSI to generate solvated H(+) at low concentrations. FTIR, Raman, and electronic spectroscopic results as well as DFT computational simulation indicated that when the concentration is as high as 1.0 M, a significant amount of TFSI(-) is protonated, most likely at the imide nitrogen.

  19. Characterization of the influence of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on the structure and thermal stability of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Heller, William T; O'Neill, Hugh M; Zhang, Qiu; Baker, Gary A

    2010-11-04

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding a vast array of applications as novel solvents for a wide variety of processes that include enzymatic chemistry, particularly as more biocompatible ILs are designed and discovered. While it is assumed that a native or near-native structure is required for enzymatic activity, there is some evidence that ILs alter protein structure and oligomerization states in a manner than can negatively impact function. The IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, is a well-studied, water-miscible member of the popular 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium IL family. To improve our understanding of the impact of water-miscible ILs on proteins, we have characterized the structure and oligomerization state of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in aqueous solutions containing 25 and 50 vol % [bmim]Cl using a combination of optical spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Measurements were also performed as a function of temperature to provide insight into the effect of the IL on the thermal stability of GFP. While GFP exists as a dimer in water, the presence of 25 vol % [bmim]Cl causes GFP to transition to a monomeric state. The SANS data indicate that GFP is a great deal less compact in 50 vol % [bmim]Cl than in neat water, indicative of unfolding from the native structure. The oligomerization state of the protein in IL-containing aqueous solution changes from a dimer to a monomer in response to the IL, but does not change as a function of temperature in the IL-containing solution. The SANS and spectroscopic results also demonstrate that the addition of [bmim]Cl to the solution decreases the thermal stability of GFP, allowing the protein to unfold at lower temperatures than in aqueous solution.

  20. Electrochemical and spectral properties of ferrocene (Fc) in ionic liquid: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium triflimide, [BMIM][NTf(2)]. Concentration effects.

    PubMed

    Vorotyntsev, Mikhail A; Zinovyeva, Veronika A; Konev, Dmitry V; Picquet, Michel; Gaillon, Laurent; Rizzi, Cecile

    2009-01-29

    Several earlier studies of the electrochemical oxidation of ferrocene (Fc) in room-temperature ionic liquids revealed an essentially nonlinear dependence of the oxidation current on the Fc concentration in its relatively dilute solutions, with its formally calculated diffusion coefficient strongly increasing with the concentration. Since no plausible mechanism leading to this very unusual finding had been proposed, our study of Fc solutions in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium triflimide, [BMIM][NTf(2)], was performed to verify whether the above observation originated from an incorrect determination of the dissolved Fc concentration. Our observations have demonstrated that reliable control of the Fc concentration in solution is complicated by factors such as the low amount of Fc used to prepare small-volume solutions or the great difficulty to dissolve completely a solid powder in a solvent with an extremely high viscosity. An unexpected additional complication is related to a sufficiently high volatility of Fc which manifests itself even at room temperature and especially at elevated temperatures or/and in the course of vacuum treatment of its solutions or its solid powder. Parallel measurements of electrochemical responses and UV-visible spectra for several series of Fc solutions of various concentrations (prepared with the use of different procedures) have shown a perfect parallelism between the peak current and the intensity of the absorption band in the range of 360-550 nm, leading us to the conclusion of a linear relationship between the oxidation current and the molecularly dissolved Fc concentration. The relations of these measured characteristics with the estimated Fc concentration in these solutions have demonstrated a much greater dispersion (attributed to the difficulty of a precise measurement of the latter) but without a significant deviation from the linearity in general. This finding has allowed us to estimate the diffusion coefficient of this species: D

  1. Ultrasound-promoted catalyst-free one-pot four component synthesis of 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-triones in neutral ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide.

    PubMed

    Shekouhy, Mohsen; Hasaninejad, Alireza

    2012-03-01

    A catalyst-free one-pot four component methodology for the synthesis of 2H-indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazine-triones under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [Bmim]Br, as a neutral reaction medium is described. A broad range of structurally diverse aldehydes (aromatic aldehydes bearing electron withdrawing and/or electron releasing groups as well as heteroaromatic aldehydes) were applied successfully, and corresponding products were obtained in good to excellent yields without any byproduct.

  2. The effect of different interfaces and confinement on the structure of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide entrapped in cationic and anionic reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Darío D; Correa, N Mariano; Silber, Juana J; Falcone, R Darío

    2012-03-14

    The behavior of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf(2)N]) entrapped in two reverse micelles (RMs) formed in an aromatic solvent as dispersant pseudophase: [bmim][Tf(2)N]/benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride (BHDC)/chlorobenzene and [bmim][Tf(2)N]/sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT)/chlorobenzene, was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. DLS results reveal the formation of RMs containing [bmim][Tf(2)N] as a polar component since the droplet size values increase as the W(s) (W(s) = [[bmim][Tf(2)N

  3. New solvents designed on the basis of the molecular-microscopic properties of binary mixtures of the type (protic molecular solvent + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquid).

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Graciela G; Mancini, Pedro M; Bravo, M Virginia; Adam, Claudia G

    2010-09-16

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the microscopic feature of solvent systems resulting from the basis of binary mixtures formed by a protic molecular solvent (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, and 2-ethoxyethanol) and a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim)-based ionic liquid (IL) cosolvent composed of different anions (tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, chloride, and bromide). At the same time, a complementary aim is to evaluate the incidence of anion type on the solvation pattern. The empirical solvatochromic parameters E(T)(N), π*, β, and α were determined from the UV-vis solvatochromic shifts of adequate probes. The behavior of the solvent systems was analyzed according to their deviation from ideality. E(T)(N) polarity and π* dipolarity/polarizability exhibit positive deviation from ideal behavior in all binary mixtures at the explored compositions. Moreover, E(T)(N) and α parameters display synergetic effects in some binary mixtures composed of tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate anions. The influence of anion nature on the response patterns is clearly manifested in the basicity β and acidity α of the media. This is connected with the degree and type of interaction between the anions and the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation. The ion-pair character of the ionic liquids affects their interactions with a solute or a molecular solvent. The application of an appropriate preferential solvation model allowed us to obtain valuable information about solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions of the selected ionic liquid mixtures. It is possible to identify relevant mixtures paying particular attention to the most remarkable microscopic properties, the acidity and the basicity, in order to propose "new solvents". Thus, the solvating feature can be tailored selecting the molecular and/or the ionic component at a particular composition. A simplified combined nearly ideal binary solvent/Redlich-Kister (CNIBS/R-K) equation is

  4. (BMI)3LnCl6 crystals as models for the coordination environment of LnCl3 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic-liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Han, Yulun; Lin, Cuikun; Meng, Qingguo; Dai, Fengrong; Sykes, Andrew G; Berry, Mary T; May, P Stanley

    2014-06-02

    A series of (BMI)3LnCl6 (Ln = Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) crystals was prepared from solutions of LnCl3 dissolved in the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMICl). Crystals with Ln = 5% Sm + 95% Gd and with Ln = 5% Dy + 95% Gd were also grown to assess the importance of cross-relaxation in the Sm and Dy samples. The crystals are isostructural, with monoclinic space group P21/c and four formula units per unit cell. The first coordination sphere of Ln(3+) consists of six Cl(-) anions forming a slightly distorted octahedral LnCl6(3-) center. The second coordination sphere is composed of nine BMI(+) cations. The emission spectra and luminescence lifetimes of both (BMI)3LnCl6 crystals and LnCl3 in BMICl solution were measured. The spectroscopic similarities suggest that crystalline (BMI)3LnCl6 provides a good model of the Ln(3+) coordination environment in BMICl solution.

  5. Dynamics of solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 in room-temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate confined in Brij-35 micelles: a picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Chakrabarty, Debdeep; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2005-12-15

    The dynamics of solvent and rotational relaxation of Coumarin 153 (C-153) in ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and in the ionic liquid confined in Brij-35 micellar aggregates have been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observed slower dynamics in the presence of micellar aggregates as compared to the pure IL. However, the slowing down in the solvation time on going from neat IL to IL-confined micelles is much smaller compared to that on going from water to water-confined micellar aggregates. The increase in solvation and rotational time in micelles is attributed to the increase in viscosity of the medium. The slow component is assumed to be dependent on the viscosity of the solution and involves large-scale rearrangement of the anions and cations while fast component is assumed to originate from the initial response of the anions during excitation. The slow component increases due to the increase in the viscosity of the medium and increase in fast component is probably due to the hydrogen bonding between the anions and polar headgroup of the surfactant. The dynamics of solvent relaxation was affected to a small extent due to the micelle formation.

  6. Electrochemical reduction of aromatic ketones in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in the presence of carbon dioxide: the influence of the ketone substituent and the ionic liquid anion on bulk electrolysis product distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Feng; Horne, Mike; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-07-15

    Electrochemical reduction of aromatic ketones, including acetophenone, benzophenone and 4-phenylbenzophenone, has been undertaken in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids containing tetrafluoroborate ([BF4](-)), trifluoromethanesulfonate ([TfO](-)) and tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([FAP](-)) anions in the presence of carbon dioxide in order to investigate the ketone substituent effect and the influence of the acidic proton on the imidazolium cation (C2-H) on bulk electrolysis product distribution. For acetophenone, the minor products were dimers (<10%) in all ionic liquids, which are the result of acetophenone radical anion coupling. For benzophenone and 4-phenylbenzophenone, no dimers were formed due to steric hindrance. In these cases, even though carboxylic acids were obtained, the main products generated were alcohols (>50%) derived from proton coupled electron transfer reactions involving the electrogenerated radical anions and C2-H. In the cases of both acetophenone and benzophenone, the product distribution is essentially independent of the ionic liquid anion. By contrast, 4-phenylbenzophenone shows a product distribution that is dependent on the ionic liquid anion. Higher yields of carboxylic acids (∼40%) are obtained with [TfO](-) and [FAP](-) anions because in these ionic liquids the C2-H is less acidic, making the formation of alcohol less favourable. In comparison with benzophenone, a higher yield of carboxylic acid (>30% versus ∼15%) was obtained with 4-phenylbenzophenone in all ionic liquids due to the weaker basicity of 4-phenylbenzophenone radical anion.

  7. Interaction of ionic liquid with water in ternary microemulsions (Triton X-100/water/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) probed by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 151.

    PubMed

    Seth, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Anjan; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2006-08-29

    The interaction of ionic liquid with water in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])/Triton X-100 (TX-100)/H2O ternary microemulsions, i.e., "[bmim][PF6]-in-water" microregions of the microemulsions, has been studied by the dynamics of solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 151 (C-151). The variation of the time constants of solvent relaxation of C-153 is very small with an increase in the [bmim][PF6]/TX-100 ratio (R). The rotational relaxation time of C-153 also remains unchanged in all micremulsions of different R values. The invariance of solvation and rotational relaxation times of C-153 indicates that the position of C-153 remains unaltered with an increase in R and probably the probe is located at the interfacial region of [bmim][PF6] and TX-100 in the microemulsions. On the other hand, in the case of C-151, with an increase in R the fast component of the solvation time gradually increases and the slow component gradually decreases, although the change in solvation time is small in comparison to that of microemulsions containing common polar solvents such as water, methanol, acetonitrile, etc. The rotational relaxation time of C-151 increases with an increase in R. This indicates that with an increase in the [bmim][PF6] content the number of C-151 molecules in the core of the microemulsions gradually increases. In general, the solvent relaxation time is retarded in this room temperature ionic liquid/water-containing microemulsion compared to that of a neat solvent, although retardation is very small compared to that of the solvent relaxation time of the conventional solvent in the core of the microemulsions.

  8. Solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 and coumarin-480 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) modified sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vishal Govind; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-02-01

    Understanding ion transport dynamics, structure of surfactant aggregates in ionic liquids or ionic liquid/water solutions are quite interesting and potentially important due to widespread applications of surfactant-based systems. In this manuscript we have investigated the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4) addition on solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin-153 (C-153) and coumarin-480 (C-480) in aqueous solution of sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (NaAOT) using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface and the role of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+ in the modification of the interfacial geometry were probed by the analysis of decay parameters and the rotational relaxation parameters. Since the addition of the NaAOT in water-bmimBF4 mixture above critical micellar concentration (48 mM, obtained from observing pyrene fluorescence) causes strong adsorption of the ionic liquid particularly the cation bmim+, the average solvation time, particularly the slow component increases significantly. More importantly we have found the probe dependent solvation dynamics due to the different location of the probe molecules, C-153 and C-480. C-153 being hydrophobic in nature resides in the stern layer and the adsorption of the bmim+ at the interface modifies stern layer more effectively. So we have observed more pronounced change in solvation dynamics in case of C-153 compared to that in case of C-480. The fluorescence anisotropy decays of the probe molecules were found to be biexponential in nature. The anisotropy decay was interpreted by using a model which consists of the wobbling (rotational) and translational diffusion of the dye coupled with the rotational motion of the micelle as a whole.

  9. Electrospray of 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Dicyanamide Under Variable Flow Rate Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-27

    between the cone and jet structure known as the neck . The second zone occurs at the jet breakup region located at the jet tip. Along with small ions...Droplets Extractor Ion Emission Zones Neck Fig. 1 Taylor cone structure and ion emission zones of a capillary emitter. Table 1 Physical properties of...varies as a ring of the integrated current hemisphere. Each ring has the circumference at the given angle on the hemisphere and a width of 0.85 mm

  10. ALPHA-AMYLASE ACTIVITY IN VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF THE IONIC LIQUID, 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM CHLORIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is an extremely abundant, economical and versatile industrial commodity. Many industrial uses of starch depend on hydrolyzing the polymer for the conversion of glucose and maltodextrins. Starch hydrolysis is frequently achieved by utilizing alpha-amylase, which is an endo-acting enzyme that...

  11. Accurate measurements of thermodynamic properties of solutes in ionic liquids using inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2006-01-13

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of 29 organic compounds in two room temperature ionic liquids were determined using inverse gas chromatography. The measurements were carried out at different temperatures between 323.15 and 343.15K. To establish the influence of concurrent retention mechanisms on the accuracy of activity coefficients at infinite dilution for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate, phase loading studies of the net retention volume per gram of packing as a function of the percent phase loading were used. It is shown that most of the solutes are retained largely by partition with a small contribution from adsorption on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and that the n-alkanes are retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate.

  12. Dielectric relaxation and solvation dynamics in a prototypical ionic liquid + dipolar protic liquid mixture: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate + water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Xing; Liang, Min; Hunger, Johannes; Buchner, Richard; Maroncelli, Mark

    2013-12-12

    Dielectric and solvation data on mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazilium tetrafluoroborate ([Im41][BF4]) + water are reported and used to examine the utility of dielectric solvation models. Dielectric permittivity and loss spectra (25 °C) were recorded over the frequency range 200 MHz to 89 GHz at 17 compositions and fit to a 4-Debye form. Dynamic Stokes shift measurements on the solute coumarin 153 (C153), made by combining fluorescence upconversion (80 fs resolution) and time-correlated single photon counting data (20 ns range), were used to determine the solvation response at 7 compositions (20.5 °C). All properties measured here were found to depend upon mixture composition in a simple continuous manner, especially when viewed in terms of volume fraction. Solvation response functions predicted by a simple dielectric continuum model are similar to but ∼7-fold faster than the spectral response functions measured with C153. The solvation data are in better agreement with the recently published predictions of a semimolecular model of Biswas and co-workers [J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 4011], but these latter predictions are systematically slow by a factor of ∼3.

  13. Adsorption of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid by functional carbon microspheres from hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xinhua; Li, Luyang; Tan, Tengfei; Chen, Wenting; Smith, Richard L

    2013-03-19

    Functional carbonaceous material (FCM) loaded with carboxylic groups was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose in the presence of acrylic acid. The resulting FCM was used as adsorbent for recovery of a water-soluble ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]). The FCM consisted of microspheres (100-150 nm) and had a low surface area (ca. 20 m(2)/g), but exhibited adsorption capacity comparable to that of commercial activated carbon which can be attributed to the presence of high content of polar oxygenated groups (-OH, -C═O, -COOH) as revealed by spectral analyses. Sorption of [BMIM][Cl] onto FCM adsorbent could be well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Thermodynamic and adsorption isothermal analyses revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, exothermic, and could be described by the Freundlich adsorption model. The FCM adsorbent could be regenerated effectively and recycled for at least three times without loss of adsorption capacity. The results of this work provide a facile method for production of functional carbonaceous materials from renewable resources that can be used for treatment of aqueous streams containing small concentrations of ionic liquid, [BMIM][Cl].

  14. CRYSTAL POLYMORPHISM IN 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM HALIDES: SUPPORTING IONIC LIQUID FORMATION THROUGH INHIBITION OF CRYSTALLIZATION. (R828257)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cyanamide (bmim [dca]) as a solvent and catalyst for acylation of maltodextrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have found a novel method to prepare maltodextrin stearate with DS upto 0.60 in 90% yields from maltodextrin in IL bmim[dca] reacted with vinyl stearate or stearic acid. In this work we have demonstrated that IL could simultaneously act as a solvent and as a catalyst for reaction of maltodextrin...

  16. Phase behavior and physicochemical properties of sodium octyl sulfate/n-decane/1-hexanol/aqueous AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Tadao; Ogino, Keizo )

    1992-03-01

    The phase behavior and physicochemical properties of sodium octyl sulfate/n-decane/1-hexanol/aqueous AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion have been studied as a function of salinity to develop an experimental investigation for better understanding of the microstructure of a middle-phase microemulsion. The system exhibits a Winsor-type phase transition (Winsor I [leftrightarrow] Winsor III [leftrightarrow] Winsor II) with increasing salinity. Over an appreciable salinity (from 0.50% to 9.2%), the formation of Winsor III, composed of a middle-phase microemulsion in equilibrium with the excess water and oil phases, was observed. It has been observed that as the salinity is increased, the phase volume of the middle-phase microemulsion undergoes a drastic decrease at a specific brine concentration (3.8%). Furthermore, the physicochemical properties such as water content, electrical conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and solubilization of 1-hexanol in the AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion all show abrupt changes at this salinity. The drastic change in the phase volume and physicochemical properties at the specific salinity of 3.8% may be attributed to a phase inversion of the AlCl[sub 3] middle-phase microemulsion from oil-rich to water-rich continuous phase with increasing AlCl[sub 3] concentration, which is quite a different behavior from that observed for monovalent and divalent salt systems. Specifically, it may be assumed that a fluctuating structure of bicontinuous type and a liquid crystal structure overcome the droplet structure in the phase equilibrium at a certain salinity during the increase in the trivalent salt concentration. 25 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Thermodynamic, Dynamic, and Structural Properties of Ionic Liquids Comprised of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Cation and Nitrate, Azide, or Dicyanamide Anions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-28

    Voth used a coarse-grained model to investigate spatial heterogeneities in alkyl imidazolium based ILs with NO3 anion.xxii These simulations showed... imidazolium -based cations and N3 anion have been reported in the literature. II. Simulation details. Subsequently to the publication of the original...by examining atomistic intermolecular pair distribution functions. Specifically, in Figure 3 we show g(r) between hydrogens on imidazolium ring (Hi

  18. Ultraviolet Photoionization Efficiency of the Vaporized Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tricyanomethanide: Direct Detection of the Intact Ion Pair (Post Print)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-21

    Lovelock , K. R. J.; Satterly, C. J.; Villar-Garcia, I. J. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2007, 9, 982−990. (11) Strasser, D.; Goulay, F.; Kelkar, M. S.; Maginn, E...J.; Leone, S. R. J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 3191−3915. (12) Lovelock , K. R. J.; Deyko, A.; Corfield, J.-A.; Gooden, P. N.; Licence, P.; Jones, R. G

  19. Extraction and characterization of lignin from oil palm biomass via ionic liquid dissolution and non-toxic aluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydrate precipitation processes.

    PubMed

    Mohtar, S S; Tengku Malim Busu, T N Z; Md Noor, A M; Shaari, N; Yusoff, N A; Bustam Khalil, M A; Abdul Mutalib, M I; Mat, H B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to extract and characterize lignin from oil palm biomass (OPB) by dissolution in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]), followed by the lignin extraction through the CO2 gas purging prior to addition of aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate (AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O). The lignin yield, Y(L) (%wt.) was found to be dependent of the types of OPB observed for all precipitation methods used. The lignin recovery, RL (%wt.) obtained from CO2-AlK(SO4)2 · 12H2O precipitation was, however dependent on the types of OPB, which contradicted to that of the acidified H2SO4 and HCl solutions of pH 0.7 and 2 precipitations. Only about 54% of lignin was recovered from the OPB. The FTIR results indicate that the monodispersed lignin was successfully extracted from the OPT, OPF and OPEFB having a molecular weight (MW) of 1331, 1263 and 1473 g/mol, and degradation temperature of 215, 207.5 and 272 °C, respectively.

  20. Ultrafast Multi-Dimensional Infrared Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy of Molecular Dynamics on Surfaces and in Bulk Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    trifluoromethanesulfonyl ) imide (alkyl = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl) room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). The two fluorescent probe molecules display...principally orientational relaxation, caused by the addition of lithium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide to the ionic liquid 1-butyl 3-methylimidazolium... bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide . The lithium salt concentration was found to affect the dynamics on multiple time scales and discontinuities in

  1. Ultrafast Multi-Dimentional Infrared Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy of Molecular Dynamics on Surfaces and in Bulk Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    trifluoromethanesulfonyl ) imide (alkyl = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl) room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). The two fluorescent probe molecules display...principally orientational relaxation, caused by the addition of lithium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide to the ionic liquid 1-butyl 3-methylimidazolium... bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide . The lithium salt concentration was found to affect the dynamics on multiple time scales and discontinuities in

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Casey; Bidinger, Jeff; Hivnor, Chad; Hoover, Aaron; Henning, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Cyanoacrylates are widely used as topical skin adhesives in emergency departments, clinics, and operating rooms. We report 4 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) following postsurgical closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. These patients were challenged with a novel method of use testing to confirm sensitivity to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. The popularity of skin adhesives makes this emerging allergen worthy of examination. It is possible that cyanoacrylate allergy currently is underrecognized.

  3. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  8. The Sunscreen Octyl Methoxycinnamate Binds to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrell, Johannes; Vohra, Shikhar; Nordlund, T. M.

    2000-03-01

    Sunscreens are designed to prevent skin cancer by absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun before it gets to the DNA in skin cells. The purpose of this work is to determine whether or not octyl methoxycinnamate, an active ingredient in many sunscreens, will bind to DNA. If so, the sunscreen could transfer the energy it absorbed from the sun to the DNA and cause damage. To determine this, we prepared samples with varying concentrations of cinnamate added to herring sperm DNA, sonicating the mixture to disperse the hydrophobic sunscreen into solution. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of the mixtures showed (i) much more sunscreen was dispersed into solution when DNA was present, and (ii) the spectra of both DNA and sunscreen differed from those of the separate solutions. We conclude that the octyl methoxycinnamate can indeed bind to DNA in aqueous solution. Energy transfer experiments from DNA to sunscreen and from sunscreen to 2-aminopurine- (a fluorescent DNA base) labeled DNA will be presented.

  9. On the interfacial behavior of ionic liquids: surface tensions and contact angles.

    PubMed

    Restolho, José; Mata, José L; Saramago, Benilde

    2009-12-01

    In this work the liquid/vapour and the solid/liquid interfaces of a series of ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethyl sulfate, [EMPy][EtSO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, [EMIM][EtSO4], 1-ethanol-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C2OHMIM][BF4], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4], and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [OMIM][BF4], were investigated. The surface tension was measured in a wide temperature range, (298-453) K. The contact angles were determined on substrates of different polarities. Both on the polar (glass) and the non-polar substrates ((poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) and poly-(ethylene)), the liquids with maximum and minimum surface tensions lead, respectively, to the highest and the lowest contact angles. The dispersive, gamma(L)(d), and non-dispersive, gamma(L)(nd), components of the liquid surface tension, gamma(L), were calculated from the contact angles on the non-polar substrates using the Fowkes approach. The polarity fraction, gamma(L)(nd)/gamma(L), was compared with the polarity parameter, k, obtained from the fitting of the surface tension vs. temperature data to the Eötvös equation. Good agreement was found for the extreme cases: [OMIM][BF4] exhibits the lowest polarity and [BMIM][BF4], the highest. When compared with the polarity fractions of standard liquids considered as "polar" liquids, the ionic liquids studied may be considered as moderately polar.

  10. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  11. Determination of butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, benzophenone-3, octyl dimethyl PABA and octyl methoxycinnamate in lipsticks.

    PubMed

    Salvador, A; de la Ossa, M D; Chisvert, A

    2003-06-01

    The complex composition of lipstick formulations usually needs the use of organic solvents for sample dissolution. A treatment based on dissolution of cosmetic samples in ethanol-water (70 : 30, v/v) by use of ultrasonic irradiation is proposed. A C(18) stationary phase and an isocratic mobile phase of ethanol:water:acetic acid (70 : 29.5 : 0.5, v/v/v) with a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) and an injection volume of 20 microL is proposed for the high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of four UV-filters, and detection was carried out at 309 nm. The limit of the chromatographic detection was 7.0 microg mL(-1) for butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, 1.5 microg mL(-1) for benzophenone-3, 1.4 microg mL(-1) for octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (octyl dimethyl PABA) and 2.7 microg mL(-1) for octyl methoxycinnamate. The relative standard deviations of the results were between 1.8 and 2.4%. The results were comparable to those obtained by a procedure based on the use of tetrahydrofuran. The method can be considered as a green analytical procedure because it only requires the use of small quantities of ethanol.

  12. An experiment regarding crystallization of soluble proteins in the presence of beta-octyl glucoside.

    PubMed

    McPherson, A; Koszelak, S; Axelrod, H; Day, J; Williams, R; Robinson, L; McGrath, M; Cascio, D

    1986-02-05

    Twenty-one soluble proteins, five tRNAs, and three protein-nucleic acid complexes were studied in a systematic manner with regard to their crystallization behavior from polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate solutions in the presence of 0 to 1.5% beta-octyl glucoside. Our observations suggest that this neutral detergent does influence in a very positive way the growth characteristics of the macromolecules included in this experiment. In general, more reproducible and rapid growth was noted with an increased number of large individual crystals at the expense of microcrystals. In several cases, new crystal forms were discovered. Selected x-ray diffraction analyses imply that crystals grown in the presence of beta-octyl glucoside diffract as well or better than those grown in its absence. In addition, a screen of two proteins grown in the presence of 14 different common detergents suggested that a general detergent effect may be beneficial for the growth of crystals of biological macromolecules.

  13. Understanding chemical reactions of CO{sub 2} and its isoelectronic molecules with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by changing the nature of the cation: The case of CS{sub 2} in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabaço, M. Isabel; Besnard, Marcel; Danten, Yann; Chávez, Fabián Vaca; Pinaud, Noël; Sebastião, Pedro J.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-06-28

    NMR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) shows that carbon disulfide reacts spontaneously with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate ([BmPyrro][Ac]) in the liquid phase. It is found that the acetate anions play an important role in conditioning chemical reactions with CS{sub 2} leading, via coupled complex reactions, to the degradation of this molecule to form thioacetate anion (CH{sub 3}COS{sup −}), CO{sub 2}, OCS, and trithiocarbonate (CS{sub 3}{sup 2−}). In marked contrast, the cation does not lead to the formation of any adducts allowing to conclude that, at most, its role consists in assisting indirectly these reactions. The choice of the [BmPyrro]{sup +} cation in the present study allows disentangling the role of the anion and the cation in the reactions. As a consequence, the ensemble of results already reported on CS{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (1), OCS-[Bmim][Ac] (2), and CO{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (3) systems can be consistently rationalized. It is argued that in system (1) both anion and cation play a role. The CS{sub 2} reacts with the acetate anion leading to the formation of CH{sub 3}COS{sup −}, CO{sub 2}, and OCS. After these reactions have proceeded the nascent CO{sub 2} and OCS interact with the cation to form imidazolium-carboxylate ([Bmim] CO{sub 2}) and imidazolium-thiocarboxylate ([Bmim] COS). The same scenario also applies to system (2). In contrast, in the CO{sub 2}-[Bmim] [Ac] system a concerted cooperative process between the cation, the anion, and the CO{sub 2} molecule takes place. A carbene issued from the cation reacts to form the [Bmim] CO{sub 2}, whereas the proton released by the ring interacts with the anion to produce acetic acid. In all these systems, the formation of adduct resulting from the reaction between the solute molecule and the carbene species originating from the cation is expected. However, this species was only observed in systems (2) and (3). The absence of such an adduct in system (1) has been theoretically investigated using DFT calculations. The values of the energetic barrier of the reactions show that the formation of [Bmim] CS{sub 2} is unfavoured and that the anion offers a competitive reactive channel via an oxygen-sulphur exchange mechanism with the solute in systems (1) and (2)

  14. Understanding chemical reactions of CO2 and its isoelectronic molecules with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by changing the nature of the cation: the case of CS2 in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Cabaço, M Isabel; Besnard, Marcel; Chávez, Fabián Vaca; Pinaud, Noël; Sebastião, Pedro J; Coutinho, João A P; Danten, Yann

    2014-06-28

    NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N) shows that carbon disulfide reacts spontaneously with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate ([BmPyrro][Ac]) in the liquid phase. It is found that the acetate anions play an important role in conditioning chemical reactions with CS2 leading, via coupled complex reactions, to the degradation of this molecule to form thioacetate anion (CH3COS(-)), CO2, OCS, and trithiocarbonate (CS3 (2-)). In marked contrast, the cation does not lead to the formation of any adducts allowing to conclude that, at most, its role consists in assisting indirectly these reactions. The choice of the [BmPyrro](+) cation in the present study allows disentangling the role of the anion and the cation in the reactions. As a consequence, the ensemble of results already reported on CS2-[Bmim][Ac] (1), OCS-[Bmim][Ac] (2), and CO2-[Bmim][Ac] (3) systems can be consistently rationalized. It is argued that in system (1) both anion and cation play a role. The CS2 reacts with the acetate anion leading to the formation of CH3COS(-), CO2, and OCS. After these reactions have proceeded the nascent CO2 and OCS interact with the cation to form imidazolium-carboxylate ([Bmim] CO2) and imidazolium-thiocarboxylate ([Bmim] COS). The same scenario also applies to system (2). In contrast, in the CO2-[Bmim] [Ac] system a concerted cooperative process between the cation, the anion, and the CO2 molecule takes place. A carbene issued from the cation reacts to form the [Bmim] CO2, whereas the proton released by the ring interacts with the anion to produce acetic acid. In all these systems, the formation of adduct resulting from the reaction between the solute molecule and the carbene species originating from the cation is expected. However, this species was only observed in systems (2) and (3). The absence of such an adduct in system (1) has been theoretically investigated using DFT calculations. The values of the energetic barrier of the reactions show that the formation of [Bmim] CS2 is unfavoured and that the anion offers a competitive reactive channel via an oxygen-sulphur exchange mechanism with the solute in systems (1) and (2).

  15. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  18. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2-Amino- ... Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina. Glucosamine Hydrochloride ...

  19. Use of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate in cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Magee, William P; Ajkay, Nicolas; Githae, Bernard; Rosenblum, Richard S

    2003-01-01

    Octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) is a synthetic tissue adhesive recently approved for skin closure. This study was designed to assess its effectiveness for use in clefts lip repairs. Sixty-four patients with unilateral, bilateral, or midline cleft lip defects were repaired. The ages at repair ranged from 4 days to 19 months, with an average of 46.5 days. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 3 years. No complications were found. Several advantages were observed: shorter operative time, formation of a protective barrier, simplified incision care, no need for suture removal, and improved scar outcome. This study supports octyl-2-cyanoacrylate as an alternative to skin sutures in primary cleft lip repair.

  20. Octyl-2-Cyanoacrylate adhesive for rapid nail plate restoration.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G; Lutz, D A

    2000-09-01

    Following nail bed repair, returning the nail plate as a conforming stent or splint is a common technique. Especially when split, the nail plate fragments can very readily be pieced together and bonded to the nail bed using the tissue adhesive Octyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. This new formulation can expedite this maneuver, and has shown no signs of histotoxicity or adverse effect on nail plate regeneration.

  1. Octyl 2-cyanoacrylate for repair of peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Piñeros-Fernández, Angela; Rodeheaver, Pamela F; Rodeheaver, George T

    2005-08-01

    The repair of peripheral nerves with sutures is time consuming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and functional outcome of repairing nerves with octyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive. The right peroneal nerve of 64 male, Lewis rats was sectioned and repaired. The rats were randomized into 3 experimental groups: A (n = 27), using only octyl 2-cyanoacrylate; B (n = 27), using 4, 10-0 nylon sutures; and C (n = 10), a sham operation. The recovery of nerve function was quantified through walking-track analyses; group A showed faster return of nerve function than B, especially at 15 days (P < 0.017). Histologic analysis showed a greater axonal regeneration in group A versus group B and no indication of tissue toxicity in group A. No dehiscence occurred during the 6-month study. Use of adhesive shortened the anastomosis time from 12 minutes to 4 minutes. These results indicate that the use of octyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive for nerve anastomoses is safe and effective and may have benefits compared with the use of sutures.

  2. Direct synthesis of silver nanoparticles in ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Cíntia M.; Bizeto, Marcos A.; Camilo, Fernanda F.

    2016-05-01

    Ionic liquids have structural organization at nanoscale that can trigger the spontaneous ordering of structures in nanoscopic range. Due to this characteristic, several metal nanoparticles have been prepared in this media. In this paper, we describe the direct preparation of silver nanoparticles in the following imidazolium ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1,2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and in citrate tetrabutylammonium, that is an ionic liquid that acts as solvent and reducing agent at the same time. We also evaluated the morphology of the nanoparticles and the stability of the dispersions. Spherical silver nanoparticles with surface Plasmon bands in the range of 400-430 nm were produced in all the ionic liquids, with the only exception for the 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide that produced a black precipitate. The best results were obtained by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquids. The former resulted in concentrated spherical silver nanoparticles dispersion (ca. 1.0 mM of Ag) with diameters ranging from 6 to 12 nm and by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the dispersions they became stable for at least 1 month. The citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquid produced even more concentrated dispersion of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 2 to 6 nm. These dispersions were quite stable without the need of PVP, since the Plasmon band in the electronic absorption spectra remained unaltered for months after the preparation. The citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquid offers a slow kinetic for the silver nanoparticle formation as the citrate is a milder reducing agent than borohydride.

  3. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  4. Primary and revision cleft lip repairs using octyl-2-cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Joshua M; Paige, Keith T

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of our retrospective review is to examine our method and outcomes for the application of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate for the repair of primary and revision cleft lips in both pediatric and adult patients. Records and photographs were reviewed and analyzed for patient age, type of cleft, revision or primary repair, complications, length of follow-up, and aesthetic outcomes. Eighteen patients, both children and adults, who underwent cleft lip repairs using tissue adhesive performed by a single surgeon between 1999 and 2003 were included. Twelve patients underwent primary repair and 6 patients underwent revision repair. Repairs were performed using the Millard rotation advancement technique and the Mohler variant. The lateral advancement flap was kept long and redundant in its transverse dimension to create a pressure fit everting the skin edges with minimal sutures to set up the closure for application of the tissue adhesive. Seventeen of eighteen patients had excellent cosmetic outcomes. One patient had minor necrosis of the tip of the advancement flap. No allergic reactions, wound infections, or dehiscences occurred. The use of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate for the skin closure of primary and revision cleft lip repairs in both children and adults results in excellent cosmetic outcomes. Employing our pressure-fit technique for skin eversion prior to application of the tissue adhesive may be advantageous. The lack of suture removal in the pediatric population and decreased operative time are additional benefits.

  5. Evaluation of antifungal properties of octyl gallate and its synergy with cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fu-Lan; Chang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using octyl gallate alone or with organic biocides as a preservative against wood decay fungi. Antifungal activities of three antioxidants, propyl gallate, octyl gallate and butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT) were tested against four wood decay fungi, Lenzites betulina, Trametes versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Laetiporus sulphureus. Octyl gallate was found to be the only active compound with IC50 values of 0.47, 0.16, 0.24 and 0.04 mM against L. betulina, T. versicolor, G. trabeum and L. sulphureus, respectively. A synergistic effect was also found when octyl gallate was combined with cinnamaldehyde. Results obtained herein demonstrated that octyl gallate by itself exhibited an excellent antifungal property and enhanced protection was further observed by combining it with cinnamaldehyde.

  6. Vapor phase adsorption of organic compounds on octyl silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchina, T. M.; Shoniya, N. K.; Tayakina, O. Ya.; Fadeev, A. Y.

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the modification of silica by octyltrichlorosilane with the formation of an oligomeric grafted layer (sample C8(II)) and additional silanization (sample C8(III)) on the thermodynamic adsorption characteristics (TACs) of different classes of organic compounds was investigated by gas chromatography. It was shown that the modification leads to decreased adsorption values for most of the investigated compounds (with the exception of alkanes, for which TACs on sample C8(II) approach the values observed on the initial support, due probably to additional interactions with silanol groups formed in modifying the surface with octyltrichlorosilane). It was established that blocking these silanol groups during additional silanization with trimethylsilane resulted in inert surfaces whose adsorption properties with respect to many compounds (including some capable of participating in strong specific interactions) approaches to the properties of octyl-silica with a close-packed grafted monolayer.

  7. Anomalous χ for Polydisperse Polystyrene-b-Poly(octyl acrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jumi; Ahn, Hyungju; Ryu, Du Yeol; Shin, Kwanwoo; Cho, Junhan

    2012-02-01

    We have performed small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on a disordered block copolymer from deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and self-adhesive poly(octyl acrylate) (POA) in order to elicit the effective Flory-Huggins χ, which carries the essence of the copolymer phase behavior. The sample for the measurement was prepared by blending two polydisperse dPS-b-POAs of different molecular weights for the purpose of adjusting the average size to a proper value. The SANS profiles for the copolymer were fitted to Leibler's scattering function for a polydisperse copolymer system described by Schulz-Zimm distribution. It was shown that the resultant χ as a function of inverse temperature has a strong entropic contribution and a weak enthalpic contribution. By adopting a simple analysis for specific interactions, it was found that the entropically dominated χ for dPS-b-POA arises from the steric hindrance of long alkyl side groups of POA.

  8. Expanded applications for octyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a tissue adhesive.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    2001-02-01

    The commercial introduction of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a medical-grade tissue adhesive was intended to be a rapid, painless, suture-free method for closure of simple lacerations and surgical wounds. The efficiency and therefore potential economic advantage of this material has led to further investigations of other possible indications. This glue has now been used in more than 100 different occasions for "off-label" applications including nailbed repair, skin graft fixation, temporary otoplasty, wound sealant, and other forms of wound closure. Complications are virtually nonexistent, and there has been no evidence of histotoxicity. The role of this material as an important reconstructive tool has not yet been delineated completely, but it appears to have no contraindications if used sensibly.

  9. Octyl gallate: An antioxidant demonstrating selective and sensitive fluorescent property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yongkui; Li, Hui

    2017-03-15

    Octyl gallate (OG) is an internationally recognized antioxidant that demonstrates selective and sensitive fluorescent property. The fluorescence of OG can be selectively enhanced in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The specific structures of HSA and BSA provided the basic conditions for fluorescence enhancement. OG yielded approximately 49- and 11-fold increments in emission intensity in the presence of HSA and BSA at a molar ratio of 1:1, respectively. The lifetimes of HSA and BSA correspondingly decreased. A Förster resonance energy transfer phenomenon occurred during interaction between OG and HSA or BSA. Our in-depth investigation of OG-HSA interaction showed that formation of a stable complex was an important prerequisite to efficiently enhance the fluorescence of OG. The selective and sensitive fluorescent property of OG can possibly be used to determine OG concentration via the standard addition method, which must be performed under certain conditions.

  10. Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-09-15

    This paper reports synthesis of some ionic liquids based on cations 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium and anions dicyanamide [N(CN)2]-, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf2N]-, bis(pentafluoroethylsulfonyl)imide [BETI]-, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]-, nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]-, tetrafluoroborate [BF4]-, trifluorophenylborate [BF3Ph]- or hexafluoroarsenate [AsF6]-. Melting points, decomposition temperatures, densities, mutual solubilities with water, and viscosities have been measured. Unlike similar ionic liquids containing imidazolium cations, pyridinium ionic liquids studied here are nearly immiscible in water. Viscosities are similar and water content is slightly lower than those for ionic liquids containing imidazolium cations.

  11. Aqueous photolysis of the organic ultraviolet filter chemical octyl methoxycinnamate.

    PubMed

    MacManus-Spencer, Laura A; Tse, Monica L; Klein, Jacob L; Kracunas, Alison E

    2011-05-01

    Organic UV filter chemicals are the active ingredients in personal care products designed to protect the skin from UV radiation, and hundreds of tons are estimated to be produced annually. Despite their entrance into the aquatic environment by both direct and indirect routes and their detection in surface waters and fish, little is known about their environmental fate. UV filter chemicals are designed to be photostable, but some undergo transformation upon exposure to UV light. Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), a commonly used UV filter chemical, degrades rapidly by direct photolysis; previous studies have focused on its photoisomerization, and a few investigators have reported the formation of cyclodimers. Here, we present the kinetics and quantum efficiency of the direct photolysis of OMC and confirm that dimerization occurs as a result of direct photolysis in aqueous solution. Likely identities of the dimers are offered based on comparison to reported results for other cinnamate derivatives. We have identified additional products of direct photolysis that have not been previously reported and investigated their photostability, as well as the mechanism of product formation. There is also some evidence of indirect photolysis in the presence of dissolved natural organic matter.

  12. Novel applications of Dermabond (2-octyl -cyanoacrylate) in cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Omer; Rahman, M S; Hadjianastassiou, V G; Kokotsakis, John; Vitali, Malinovski; Cherian, Ashok; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2007-01-01

    Dermabond (Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ, USA) is a cyanoacrylate adhesive normally indicated for skin wound closure. This study describes the emergency use of this adhesive to control bleeding close to coronary anastomoses in exceptional cases. Dermabond was used in 17 patients who underwent cardiac surgery during an eight-month period, where other haemostatic interventions were unsuitable. It was applied for haemorrhage in 15 patients and control air leaks in two of the patients. Haemostasis was successful with Dermabond alone in 11 patients; the remaining four required additional interventions. It effectively controlled haemorrhage from ventricular pacing wires, vascular sling holes, peri-anastomotic bleeding, and epicardial tears. The adhesive was not placed directly on any graft because of embolic risk. In the two patients with visible air leaks, it was successfully used. No patient events were recorded as a result of haemorrhage and no reported toxicity. Dermabond may be indicated in circumstances in which haemostasis with traditional methods has failed or is inappropriate. A need for further high-quality objective research exists on the effectiveness and long-term safety of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate in cardiac surgery.

  13. Structure and properties of an under-sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by a rat hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line was shown to synthesize heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Unlike cultured hepatocytes, the hepatoma cells did not deposit these proteoglycans into an extracellular matrix, and most of the newly synthesized heparan sulfate proteoglycans were secreted into the culture medium. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans were also found associated with the cell surface. These proteoglycans could be solubilized by mild trypsin or detergent treatment of the cells but could not be displaced from the cells by incubation with heparin. The detergent-solubilized heparan sulfate proteoglycan had a hydrophobic segment that enabled it to bind to octyl- Sepharose. This segment could conceivably anchor the molecule in the lipid interior of the plasma membrane. The size of the hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans was similar to that of proteoglycans isolated from rat liver microsomes or from primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel indicated that the hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a lower average charge density than the rat liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The lower charge density of the hepatoma heparan sulfate can be largely attributed to a reduced number of N-sulfated glucosamine units in the polysaccharide chain compared with that of rat liver heparan sulfate. Hepatoma heparan sulfate proteoglycans purified from the culture medium had a considerably lower affinity for fibronectin-Sepharose compared with that of rat liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, the hepatoma proteoglycan did not bind to the neoplastic cells, whereas heparan sulfate from normal rat liver bound to the hepatoma cells in a time-dependent reaction. The possible consequences of the reduced sulfation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan produced by the hepatoma cells are discussed in terms of the postulated roles of heparan sulfate in the regulation of cell growth and extracellular matrix formation. PMID

  14. Reversible Immobilization of Lipases on Heterofunctional Octyl-Amino Agarose Beads Prevents Enzyme Desorption.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Nazzoly; Albuquerque, Tiago L; Bartolome-Cabrero, Rocio; Fernandez-Lopez, Laura; Torres, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Claudia; Dos Santos, Jose C S; Barbosa, Oveimar; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2016-05-16

    Two different heterofunctional octyl-amino supports have been prepared using ethylenediamine and hexylendiamine (OCEDA and OCHDA) and utilized to immobilize five lipases (lipases A (CALA) and B (CALB) from Candida antarctica, lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL), from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and from Candida rugosa (CRL) and the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra (LU). Using pH 5 and 50 mM sodium acetate, the immobilizations proceeded via interfacial activation on the octyl layer, after some ionic bridges were established. These supports did not release enzyme when incubated at Triton X-100 concentrations that released all enzyme molecules from the octyl support. The octyl support produced significant enzyme hyperactivation, except for CALB. However, the activities of the immobilized enzymes were usually slightly higher using the new supports than the octyl ones. Thermal and solvent stabilities of LU and TLL were significantly improved compared to the OC counterparts, while in the other enzymes the stability decreased in most cases (depending on the pH value). As a general rule, OCEDA had lower negative effects on the stability of the immobilized enzymes than OCHDA and while in solvent inactivation the enzyme molecules remained attached to the support using the new supports and were released using monofunctional octyl supports, in thermal inactivations this only occurred in certain cases.

  15. Surface tension of room temperature ionic liquids measured by dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Osada, R; Hoshino, T; Okada, K; Ohmasa, Y; Yao, M

    2009-05-14

    Using dynamic light scattering techniques, we obtained the surface tension sigma, surface excess entropy S(sigma), surface excess enthalpy H(sigma), and viscosity eta for the following seven room temperature ionic liquids in a wide temperature range from 30 to around 140 degrees C: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate. We have found that sigma increases systematically with decreasing the anion size and the alkyl side chain length. On the other hand, S(sigma) and eta increase with decreasing the anion size but decrease with decreasing the alkyl chain length. H(sigma) seems to decrease with increasing the anion size, but it has no clear dependence on the alkyl chain length. We discuss the bulk and surface properties, referring to the Coulomb interactions and van der Waals interactions.

  16. Surface tension of room temperature ionic liquids measured by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, R.; Hoshino, T.; Okada, K.; Ohmasa, Y.; Yao, M.

    2009-05-01

    Using dynamic light scattering techniques, we obtained the surface tension σ, surface excess entropy S(σ), surface excess enthalpy H(σ), and viscosity η for the following seven room temperature ionic liquids in a wide temperature range from 30 to around 140 °C: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate. We have found that σ increases systematically with decreasing the anion size and the alkyl side chain length. On the other hand, S(σ) and η increase with decreasing the anion size but decrease with decreasing the alkyl chain length. H(σ) seems to decrease with increasing the anion size, but it has no clear dependence on the alkyl chain length. We discuss the bulk and surface properties, referring to the Coulomb interactions and van der Waals interactions.

  17. Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene from model oil using ionic liquids as extracting agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Atikah, N.; Chong, F. K.; Shaharun, Maizatul S.

    2012-09-01

    The oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from model oil (in n-dodecane) was carried out using ionic liquid as the extractant and catalyst, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in combination with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) as the oxidant. The ionic liquids used were 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulphate ([Bmim][OcSO4]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]). The effect of the amounts of H2O2 on oxidative desulphurization of model oil was first investigated without the usage of ionic liquids at room temperature. The results indicate that greater amount of H2O2 give higher desulfurization and the maximum desulfurization in this study, i.e. 34 %, was occurred when the molar ratio of H2O2 to sulfur was 5:1. With the usage of ionic liquid and the molar ratio of 5:1 (H2O2:sulfur), the efficiency of DBT removal from model oil was increased significantly in terms of percent removal and removal time. Ionic liquid of [Bmim][OcSO4] performed better than [Bmim][Ac] with 72 % DBT removal. When molar ratio of H2O2 to sulphur was 5:1, volume ratio of ionic liquid to model oil was 1:1 and mixing time was 60 min at room temperature. The results indicate the potential of ionic liquids as the extractant and catalyst for oxidative desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels.

  18. Use of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate for skin closure in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, D M; O'Grady, K; Desai, D; Bagal, A

    1998-11-01

    Octyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a long carbon chain cyanoacrylate derivative that is stronger and more pliable than its shorter chain derivatives. One hundred and eleven patients underwent elective surgical procedures by the same surgeon using either octyl-2-cyanoacrylate or sutures for skin closure at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Most patients underwent excision of benign skin lesions with a mean wound size of 112 mm3. Patients were randomized into either control (vertical mattress suture closure) or test groups (closure with octyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Surgical judgment was used to determine which wounds in each group required application of subcutaneous sutures to relieve tension and aid in skin edge eversion. Generally, full-thickness (through dermis) wounds larger than 1 cm3 required the use of subcutaneous sutures. The time required to close the epidermis with suture (mean, 3 minutes and 47 seconds) was about four times that of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (mean, 55 seconds). Wounds were evaluated at 5 to 7 days for infection, wound dehiscence, or tissue reaction, and at 90 days using the modified Hollander wound evaluation scale. At 1 year, photographs of the wounds were evaluated by two facial plastic surgeons that graded the cosmetic outcome using a previously validated visual analog scale. There were no instances of wound dehiscence, hematoma, or infection in either group. Results of wound evaluation at 90 days determined by the modified Hollander scal revealed equivalent cosmetic results in both groups. Results of the visual analog scale ratings showed scores of 21.7 +/- 16.3 for the 49 patients treated with octyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 29.2 +/- 17.7 for the 51 control patients treated with sutures. The lower visual analog scale score represented a superior cosmetic outcome at 1 year with the octyl-2-cyanoacrylate as compared with sutures. This difference is statistically significant at p = 0.03. Additionally, patient satisfaction was very high in the group treated

  19. Kinetics of the hydroxyethylation of n-octyl alcohol in the presence of the macrocyclic ether dibenzo-18-crown-6

    SciTech Connect

    Gus'kov, A.K.; Zolotarskii, V.A.; Makarov, M.G.; Shvets, V.F.

    1988-02-01

    A study has been made of the kinetics of the reaction of ethylene oxide with n-octyl alcohol catalyzed by potassium octylate in the presence of the macrocyclic ether dibenzo-18-crown-6. A kinetic model has been proposed, which satisfactorily represents the effect of dibenzo-18-crown-6 on the rate of hydroxyethylation over a wide range of molar ratios of dibenzo-18-crown-6:potassium octylate and initial alcohol concentrations.

  20. Desorption of Lipases Immobilized on Octyl-Agarose Beads and Coated with Ionic Polymers after Thermal Inactivation. Stronger Adsorption of Polymers/Unfolded Protein Composites.

    PubMed

    Virgen-Ortíz, Jose J; Pedrero, Sara G; Fernandez-Lopez, Laura; Lopez-Carrobles, Nerea; Gorines, Beatriz C; Otero, Cristina; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2017-01-05

    Lipases from Candida antarctica (isoform B) and Rhizomucor miehei (CALB and RML) have been immobilized on octyl-agarose (OC) and further coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) and dextran sulfate (DS). The enzymes just immobilized on OC supports could be easily released from the support using 2% SDS at pH 7, both intact or after thermal inactivation (in fact, after inactivation most enzyme molecules were already desorbed). The coating with PEI and DS greatly reduced the enzyme release during thermal inactivation and improved enzyme stability. However, using OC-CALB/RML-PEI-DS, the full release of the immobilized enzyme to reuse the support required more drastic conditions: a pH value of 3, a buffer concentration over 2 M, and temperatures above 45 °C. However, even these conditions were not able to fully release the thermally inactivated enzyme molecules from the support, being necessary to increase the buffer concentration to 4 M sodium phosphate and decrease the pH to 2.5. The formation of unfolded protein/polymers composites seems to be responsible for this strong interaction between the octyl and some anionic groups of OC supports. The support could be reused five cycles using these conditions with similar loading capacity of the support and stability of the immobilized enzyme.

  1. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of octyl methoxycinnamate liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Varjão Mota, Aline de Carvalho; Faria de Freitas, Zaida Maria; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; Ribeiro, Vanessa Lira; Silva, Ronald Santos; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation causes damage to human skin, and photoprotection is the main way to prevent these harmful effects. The development of sunscreen formulations containing nanosystems is of great interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of the many potential benefits. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) liposomal nanosystem (liposome/OMC) to obtain a sunscreen formulation with improved safety and efficacy by retaining OMC for longer on the stratum corneum. Methods The liposome/OMC nanostructure obtained was tested for enzymatic hydrolysis with lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and biodistribution with liposomes labeled with technetium-99m. The liposome/OMC formulation was then incorporated in a gel formulation and tested for ocular irritation using the hen’s egg test-chorio-allantoic membrane (HET-CAM) assay, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor, in vitro release profile, skin biometrics, and in vivo tape stripping. Results The liposome/OMC nanosystem was not hydrolyzed from R. miehei by lipase. In the biodistribution assay, the liposome/OMC formulation labeled with technetium-99m had mainly deposited in the skin, while for OMC the main organ was the liver, showing that the liposome had higher affinity for the skin than OMC. The liposome/OMC formulation was classified as nonirritating in the HET-CAM test, indicating good histocompatibility. The formulation containing liposome/OMC had a higher in vivo solar photoprotection factor, but did not show increased water resistance. Inclusion in liposomes was able to slow down the release of OMC from the formulation, with a lower steady-state flux (3.9 ± 0.33 μg/cm2/hour) compared with the conventional formulation (6.3 ± 1.21 μg/cm2/hour). The stripping method showed increased uptake of OMC in the stratum corneum, giving an amount of 22.64 ± 7.55 μg/cm2 of OMC, which was higher than the amount found for the conventional formulation (14.57 ± 2.30 μg/cm2

  2. Spectroscopy and computational studies on the interaction of octyl, dodecyl, and hexadecyl derivatives of anionic and cationic surfactants with adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Ajloo, Davood; Mahmoodabadi, Najmeh; Ghadamgahi, Maryam; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2016-07-01

    Effects of sodium (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl) sulfate and their cationic analogous on the structure of adenosine deaminase (ADA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulation and docking calculation. Root-mean-square derivations, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area, and radial distribution function were obtained. The results showed that anionic and cationic surfactants reduce protein stability. Cationic surfactants have more effect on the ADA structure in comparison with anionic surfactants. More concentration and longer surfactants are parallel to higher denaturation. Furthermore, aggregation in the presence of anionic surfactants is more than cationic surfactants. Docking data showed that longer surfactants have more interaction energy and smaller ones bound to the active site.

  3. The Highly Selective and Near-Quantitative Conversion of Glucose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Eminov, Sanan; Brandt, Agnieszka; Wilton-Ely, James D. E. T.

    2016-01-01

    A number of ionic liquids have been shown to be excellent solvents for lignocellulosic biomass processing, and some of these are particularly effective in the production of the versatile chemical building block 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). In this study, the production of HMF from the simple sugar glucose in ionic liquid media is discussed. Several aspects of the selective catalytic formation of HMF from glucose have been elucidated using metal halide salts in two distinct ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate as well as mixtures of these, revealing key features for accelerating the desired reaction and suppressing byproduct formation. The choice of ionic liquid anion is revealed to be of particular importance, with low HMF yields in the case of hydrogen sulfate-based salts, which are reported to be effective for HMF production from fructose. The most successful system investigated in this study led to almost quantitative conversion of glucose to HMF (90% in only 30 minutes using 7 mol% catalyst loading at 120°C) in a system which is selective for the desired product, has low energy intensity and is environmentally benign. PMID:27711238

  4. 40 CFR 180.367 - n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific... is removed or covered prior to such use, except for bagged food in warehouse storage which need not be removed or covered prior to applications of formulations containing N-octyl...

  5. 40 CFR 180.367 - n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific... is removed or covered prior to such use, except for bagged food in warehouse storage which need not be removed or covered prior to applications of formulations containing N-octyl...

  6. 40 CFR 180.367 - n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific... is removed or covered prior to such use, except for bagged food in warehouse storage which need not be removed or covered prior to applications of formulations containing N-octyl...

  7. 40 CFR 180.367 - n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific... is removed or covered prior to such use, except for bagged food in warehouse storage which need not be removed or covered prior to applications of formulations containing N-octyl...

  8. Selective oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone in the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Zhou, Teng; Chen, Lifang; Ye, Yinmei; Qi, Zhiwen; Freund, Hannsjörg; Sundmacher, Kai

    2011-09-07

    Ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was found to effectively intensify cyclohexanol oxidation and resulted in 100% conversion of cyclohexanol with 100% selectivity to cyclohexanone using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and WO(3) as a catalyst. The effect of the IL as a solvent is discussed with the support of COSMO-RS theory.

  9. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  10. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Barium Sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  12. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis.

  14. Synthesis of Octyl-β-Glucoside Catalyzed by Almond β-Glucosidase in Unconventional Reaction Media

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary The reaction system for octyl-β-glucoside synthesis catalysed by the almond-β-glucosidase has been characterised. The monophasic octanol saturated with different amounts of water served as a reaction medium. Both the glucose and the activated substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside were examined as glycon donors. The reverse hydrolysis and the transglycosylation were both used as reaction models for this enzymatically catalysed alkyl-β-glucoside synthesis. The rate of synthesis of octyl-β-glucoside (vS), the rate of hydrolysis, i.e. the glucose formation (vH) and the predicted yield (Y) were determined. The effect of water activity on the synthetic and hydrolytic activity of the enzyme was investigated. Both the rate of synthesis and the rate of hydrolysis increased with the increase of the water activity in the reaction system, showing their maximum values at the water activity close to the saturation level. Thus, the maximum ratio of vS/vH=0.165 was achieved at the water activity of 0.94. The predicted yields were 0.5, 0.75 and 14.19% and were lower than the actually achieved yields of 19.45, 38 and 36.40% at the water activities of 0.75, 0.84 and 0.94, respectively. The yield of octyl-β-glucoside in the reverse hydrolysis was only 15.2%, i.e. 3.25 times lower than the yield obtained in the transglycosylation reaction with the water activity of 0.94. The solubility of glucose in pure octanol was only 1.5 mmol/L at the saturation level of 12 mmol/L in the presence of 10 mmol/L of p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside, and it increased to 15.5 mmol/L in the presence of octyl-β-glucoside. PMID:27904411

  15. Cellular, histomorphologic, and clinical characteristics of a new octyl-2-cyanoacrylate skin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Axel; Pabyk, Alfred; Honig, Johannes Franz; Verheggen, Raphaela; Merten, Hans-Albert

    2005-01-01

    Short-chained cyanoacrylates have been used for many years for topical skin closure. Toxic effects in cell culture of a new long-chained octyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive are compared with those of short-chained ethyl-2- and butyl-2-cyanoacrylates. Two cellular tests were used: the agar overlay test and the MTT test. An in vitro test using copper plates coated with the three types of cyanoacrylates serves for evaluating the stability of polymerized skin adhesives. Bilateral neck skin incisions in Goettingen miniature pigs were glued on one side with Dermabond. On the other side, conventional sutures were applied. After the pigs were killed, the resulting skin samples were tested for the tensile strength of their wound stability. Samples of pig dermis were exemplarily and histomorphologically characterized. A clinical examination after submandibular lymph node dissection should examine the application in humans. Cell culture tests were used to show the toxic effects of the three cyanoacrylates. In a copper test, octyl-2-cyanoacrylate was more stabile than ethyl- and butyl-cyanoacrylates. Breaking strength was 30% lower 28 days after operation with the new product than with sutures. In electron microscopy, octyl-2-cyanoacrylate showed no disadvantages with regard to tissue regeneration and no histotoxicity. For plastic surgery, this new topical skin adhesive is a real alternative with attractive results, as compared with conventional suture.

  16. Incorporation of the sunscreen agent, octyl methoxycinnamate in a cellulosic fabric grafted with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Santo; Tursilli, Rosanna; Bianchi, Anna; Nostro, Pierandrea Lo; Bocci, Eugenio; Ridi, Francesca; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-02-03

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incorporation of the sunscreen agent, octyl methoxycinnamate into cyclodextrin cavities covalently bound to cloth fibres. Tencel, a cellulosic fabric, was grafted with beta-cyclodextrin molecules through reaction with monochlorotriazinyl-beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CDMCT). The finished and untreated textiles were soaked in water-methanol mixtures containing 2% (v/v) of sunscreen agent and subsequently subjected to several washing cycles. The unmodified and modified fabrics were characterized by UV spectrophotometry and thermogravimetric analysis. The level of octyl methoxycinnamate entrapped in the Tencel tissue was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and was found to be much higher (0.0203%, w/w) for the textile functionalised with beta-CDMCT compared to the unmodified fabric (0.0025%, w/w). In addition, spectrophotometric assessment of UV transmission through the fabric samples using the Transpore test showed that the in vitro sun protection factor of the textile support was markedly enhanced (3.2-fold increase) by impregnation with octyl methoxycinnamate of the beta-CDMCT grafted textile. Hence, even after repeated washings, the beta-CD finished fabric exhibits higher sunscreen agent retention and photoprotective properties than the unmodified textile material.

  17. Photophysics of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) in ionic liquid micelle and binary mixtures of ionic liquids: effect of confinement and viscosity on photoisomerization rate.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Surajit; Mandal, Sarthak; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2012-08-09

    The dynamics of photoisomerization of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) has been investigated inside micellar environment formed by a surfactant-like ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate ([C(4)mim][C(8)SO(4)]) and also in binary mixture of another ionic liquid, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propyl ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide, ([N(3111)][Tf(2)N]) with methanol, acetonitrile, and n-propanol by using steady-state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The entrapment of DODCI into the [C(4)mim][C(8)SO(4)] micellar environment led to the enhanced fluorescence intensity along with ~13 nm red shift in the emission maxima. A sharp increase in the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ) and the lifetime (τ(f)) near the critical micelle concentration (cmc) range is observed followed by saturation at higher concentration. As a result of partitioning of the probe molecules in the micellar phase from water, the nonradiative rate constant (k(nr)) of DODCI decreases 2.7 times than in water. The retardation of isomerization rate is due to high microviscosity of the micellar system compared to bulk water. In order to understand how the rate of isomerization depends on polarity as well as viscosity, we have measured isomerization rate in neat [N(3111)][Tf(2)N] and its mixtures with polar solvents, like methanol, acetonitrile, and n-propanol. The addition of methanol and n-propanol increases the polarity, but viscosity of the medium decreases. The nonradiative rate constant that represents the rate of photoisomerization decreases with the addition of the polar solvent in [N(3111)][Tf(2)N]. Complete analysis of all the experimental results indicate that viscosity is the sole parameter that regulates the rate of photoisomerization. Temperature-dependent k(nr) are used to determine the activation energy (E(a)) in 100 mM [C(4)mim][C(8)SO(4)] solution and neat [N(3111)][Tf(2)N] system.

  18. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  19. Co-electroosmotic capillary electrophoresis of basic proteins with 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids as non-covalent coating agents of the fused-silica capillary and additives of the electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Danilo; Nicoletti, Isabella; Bonn, Günther K

    2009-06-01

    The paper reports the results of a study carried out to evaluate the use of three 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids as non-covalent coating agents for bare fused-silica capillaries and additives of the electrolyte solutions (BGE) for CE of basic proteins in the co-EOF separation mode. The three ionic liquids are differentiated from each other by the length of the alkyl group on the imidazolium cation, consisting of either an ethyl, butyl or octyl substituent, whereas tetrafluoroborate is the common anionic component of the ionic liquids. Coating the capillary with the ionic liquid resulted in improved peak shape and protein separation, while the EOF was maintained cathodic. This indicates that each ionic liquid is effective at masking the protein interaction sites on the inner surface of the capillary, also when its adsorption onto the capillary wall has not completely neutralized all the negative charges arising from the ionization of the silanol groups and the ionic liquid is not incorporated into the BGE employed for separation. Using the coated capillaries with BGE containing the ionic liquid employed for the coating, at concentration low enough to maintaining the EOF cathodic, both peak shape and protein separation varied to different extents, based on the particular ionic liquid used and its concentration. Fast and efficient separation of the model basic protein mixture in co-electroosmotic CE is obtained with the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate coated capillary and 100 mM acetate buffer (pH 4.0) containing 4.4 mM 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as the BGE.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  1. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  3. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  4. Freezing and melting behavior of an octyl β-D-glucoside-water binary system--inhibitory effect of octyl β-D-glucoside on ice crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Asakura, Kouichi; Osanai, Shuichi

    2012-12-21

    Phase transition behavior of lyotropic liquid crystals of an octyl β-D-glucoside (OG)-water binary system during ice freezing and melting was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Not the thermotropic, but the lyotropic phase transition due to the change of OG concentration during ice freezing and melting was observed. The concentration-temperature phase diagram of the binary system was constructed. Melting temperature of ice, T(m), lyotropic phase transition temperature, T(tr), and glass transition temperatures of unfrozen phases in the absence and presence of ice, T(g) and T(g)', were shown in the phase diagram. The phase diagram indicated that the OG aqueous system was concentrated to ca. 90-92 wt% by ice freezing and exhibited glass transition at T(g)'. An observation of the concentration-gradient specimen by the cryo-POM showed the evidence of the inhibitory effects of OG on nucleation and growth of ice crystals in the extremely high OG concentration system in which the lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed. This study provided the importance of the influence of concentration change by ice freezing on the behaviour of the sugar-based surfactant-water system under low temperature conditions.

  5. Adsorption and self-assembly of octyl hydroxamic acid at a fluorite surface as revealed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuming; Liu, Jin; Miller, Jan D

    2008-09-15

    In the study described here, the surface structure of a self-assembly octyl hydroxamic acid at a calcium fluoride (CaF(2)) surface is evaluated using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS). Of particular significance are the results that show octyl hydroxamic acid adsorbs at the fluorite surface from octanol solution and has more ordering and molecular conformation than the octyl hydroxamic acid adsorbed from solution. At the fluorite/0.1 M octyl hydroxamic acid octanol solution interface a bilayer-like structure consisting of an octyl hydroxamic acid layer in contact with fluorite and a tilted alcohol layer was observed by SFVS. The alcohol molecules are oriented with respect to the hydroxamic acid monolayer with the OH groups directed towards the bulk alcohol phase and the terminal CH(3) group oriented to face the alkyl chains of the hydroxamic acid monolayer.

  6. Immobilization of Lipases on Heterofunctional Octyl-Glyoxyl Agarose Supports: Improved Stability and Prevention of the Enzyme Desorption.

    PubMed

    Rueda, N; Dos Santos, J C S; Torres, R; Ortiz, C; Barbosa, O; Fernandez-Lafuente, R

    2016-01-01

    Lipases are among the most widely used enzymes in industry. Here, a novel method is described to rationally design the support matrix to retain the enzyme on the support matrix without leaching and also activate the enzyme for full activity retention. Lipases are interesting biocatalysts because they show the so-called interfacial activation, a mechanism of action that has been used to immobilize lipases on hydrophobic supports such as octyl-agarose. Thus, adsorption of lipases on hydrophobic surfaces is very useful for one step purification, immobilization, hyperactivation, and stabilization of most lipases. However, lipase molecules may be released from the support under certain conditions (high temperature, organic solvents), as there are no covalent links between the enzyme and the support matrix. A heterofunctional support has been proposed in this study to overcome this problem, such as the heterofunctional glyoxyl-octyl agarose beads. It couples the numerous advantages of the octyl-agarose support to covalent immobilization and creates the possibility of using the biocatalyst under any experimental conditions without risk of enzyme desorption and leaching. This modified support may be easily prepared from the commercially available octyl-agarose. Preparation of this useful support and enzyme immobilization on it via covalent linking is described here. The conditions are described to increase the possibility of achieving at least one covalent attachment between each enzyme molecule and the support matrix.

  7. Use of a skin adhesive (octyl-2-cyanoacrylate) and the optimum reinforcing combination for suturing wounds.

    PubMed

    Chigira, Miho; Akimoto, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    The adhesion strength of a skin adhesive, octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Dermabond), was measured under various conditions using porcine skin. The combined use of a skin adhesive and a skin closure tape (n = 5) was significantly stronger than a single application of skin adhesive (n = 5) (p < 0.01). We have tentatively named the wound closure in which a skin adhesive and reinforcement material were combined the Reinforcing Combination Method. To obtain optimum conditions, further studies were done for sequence of application, type of reinforcement material, a number of layers, and width of the suture. The optimum condition for the reinforcement combination was established by applying one layer of skin adhesive over a skin closure tape, over one layer of skin adhesive, with a suture width of 4 cm. This reinforcement combination might be useful in clinical practice.

  8. Conformations in di-octyl substituted polyfluorene: a combined theoretical and experimental Raman scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, C.; Arif, M.; Guha, S.

    2007-03-01

    The structural properties of polyfluorenes (PF) are extremely sensitive to the choice of functionalizing side chains. Di- octyl substituted PF (PF8) adopts metastable structures that depend upon the thermal history and choice of solvents used in film forming conditions. We present a detailed study of the changes in the backbone and side chain morphology in PF8, induced by the various crystallographic phases, using Raman scattering techniques. The vibrational frequencies and intensities of fluorene oligomers are calculated using hybrid density-functional theory with a 3-21G* basis set. The alkyl side chains are modeled as limiting conformations: all anti, anti-gauche-gauche, and end gauche representations. The calculated vibrational spectra of single chain oligomers in conjunction with our experimental results demonstrate the β phase, which is known to originate in regions of enhanced chain planarity, as a direct consequence of the alkyl side chain conformation.

  9. The Assembling of Poly (3-Octyl-Thiophene) on CVD Grown Single Layer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanqiu; Yang, Ling; Guo, Zongxia; Lei, Shengbin

    2015-01-01

    The interface between organic semiconductor and graphene electrode, especially the structure of the first few molecular layers at the interface, is crucial for the device properties such as the charge transport in organic field effect transistors. In this work, we have used scanning tunneling microscopy to investigate the poly (3-octyl-thiophene) (P3OT)-graphene interface. Our results reveal the dynamic assembling of P3OT on single layer graphene. As on other substrates the epitaxial effect plays a role in determining the orientation of the P3OT assembling, however, the inter-thiophene distance along the backbone is consistent with that optimized in vaccum, no compression was observed. Adsorption of P3OT on ripples is weaker due to local curvature, which has been verified both by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory simulation. Scanning tunneling microscopy also reveals that P3OT tends to form hairpin folds when meets a ripple. PMID:26634648

  10. Effect of monosaccharides and ethyleneglycol on the interaction between Escherichia coli bacteria and Octyl-Sepharose.

    PubMed

    Ohman, L; Magnusson, K E; Stendahl, O

    1985-04-01

    Combined effects of monosaccharides and reduced surface tension of the medium were studied in relation to the hydrophobic binding of Escherichia coli bacteria, with and without mannose-specific structures. Hydrophobic binding was analyzed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Octyl-Sepharose. The results showed that ethyleneglycol, as well as mannose, reduced the hydrophobic interaction of the bacteria with mannose-specific structures. This effect was potentiated by combining ethyleneglycol and mannose. No other monosaccharides tested (galactose and fucose) had any effect on the hydrophobic interaction of bacteria with mannose-specific structures. These results further strengthen the hypothesis that the mannose-specific interaction of Escherichia coli bacteria is, at least in part, mediated by hydrophobic forces.

  11. Evaluating the use of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate in unilateral cleft lip repair

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Vijaylaxmy; Dayashankara Rao, J. K.; Arya, Varun; Sharma, Shalender; Singh, Sushil; Luthra, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Facial cosmetic results are one of the most concerning issues for the parents who get their children operated for cleft lip. Moreover, the postoperative care of the surgical site, the discomfort associated with the suture removal, and additional visit for suture removal are other reasons which encourages one to use any new technologies that may replace the need for suture placement. In this study, we used octyl-2-cyanoacrylate, a tissue adhesive which offers a viable alternative to traditional techniques without compromising optimal wound closure. Objective: To perform a comprehensive comparison of the outcomes from the use of Dermabond in patients undergoing primary repair of congenital cleft lip ± palate anomalies. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients, in the age group of 3–18 months were treated surgically for unilateral cleft lip deformity using Millard rotation-advancement flap. Pre- and post-operative photographs of the patients were taken at 1 week, 2 week, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively and were evaluated using Vancouver scar scale which was given by Sullivan in 1990. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Increased vascularity (hyperemia) was seen in the 1st and 2nd week in 35% and 30% patients, respectively which gradually reduced to normal in subsequent follow-ups. The scar was flat in 85% of patients in 1st week, and the number decreased to 10% at the end of 1 year. No wound dehiscence was found in any patients. Statistical analysis showed that among all the follow-ups, only the difference between the first and second follow-ups. Comparison of the results of 1 week with all other follow-ups yielded no significant results. Conclusion: Octyl-2-cyanoacrylate can be used for cleft lip closure effectively. The procedure is relatively painless and quick. Added to this are benefits of protection from wound infection since the material is bacteriostatic. PMID:28356686

  12. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    MedlinePlus

    Ferrous sulfate provides the iron needed by the body to produce red blood cells. It is used to ... Ferrous sulfate comes as regular, coated, and extended-release (long-acting) tablets; regular and extended-release capsules; and ...

  13. The effect of surfactant-assisted ultrasound-ionic liquid pretreatment on the structure and fermentable sugar production of a water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Han, Ye-Ju; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Xi-Mei; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Jing-Yong; Peng, Yen-Ping; Liao, Yu-Ling; Potprommanee, Laddawan

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the disruption of water hyacinth (WH) in an ultrasound-ionic liquid (US-IL) pretreatment assisted by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) was used to dissolve the WH. The optimum concentration of SDS for the highest production of reducing sugar was also determined. Compared to the US-IL pretreatment, the production of reducing sugars, cellulose conversion and delignification were increased by 72.23%, 58.74% and 21.01%, respectively, upon addition of 0.5% SDS. Moreover, the enhancement of SDS in the US-IL pretreatment was confirmed by the analysis of structural features, which demonstrated that the SDS increased the removal of lignin and decreased the cellulose crystallinity.

  14. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies.

  15. A prospective comparison of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate and suture in standardized facial wounds.

    PubMed

    Handschel, J G K; Depprich, R A; Dirksen, D; Runte, C; Zimmermann, A; Kübler, N R

    2006-04-01

    Regarding the cosmetic results of wound closure using tissue adhesives as opposed to sutured wounds, most published studies are performed on children and with non-standardized lacerations, which makes it difficult to transfer the results to facial incisional wounds in adults. There are also conflicting conclusions about the cosmetic results. The purpose of this randomized prospective study was to compare the cosmetic outcomes of wound closure with sutures and octyl-2-cyanoacrylate in standardized facial wounds in adults. To compare very similar facial wounds, the infraorbital cut (lower eyelid incision) was used in 45 patients. The assessment was performed by patients and surgeons blind to the data. Phase-shifting profilometry was used to measure the profile of the scars. No early complications were observed in any group. The wound depth in the tissue adhesive group was significantly greater than in the suture group. There were no differences in the overall cosmetic results among all patients in the two groups. Interestingly, in the younger patients the result of the sutured wounds was superior to that of the adhesive-treated patients. The Dermabond skin adhesive provides a means of closure of facial surgical wounds without early complications, but adjustment of the edges of the wound and the cosmetic result in younger patients are less successful than with thin sutures.

  16. Solid lipid microparticles containing the sunscreen agent, octyl-dimethylaminobenzoate: effect of the vehicle.

    PubMed

    Tursilli, Rosanna; Piel, Géraldine; Delattre, Luc; Scalia, Santo

    2007-06-01

    Solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) loaded with the sunscreen agent, octyl-dimethylaminobenzoate (ODAB), were prepared in order to achieve enhanced sunscreen photostability. The microparticles were produced by the melt dispersion technique using glyceryl behenate as lipidic material and poloxamer 188 as the emulsifier. The obtained SLMs showed proper features in terms of morphology, size distribution (1.67-15.81 microm) and ODAB loading (16.15+/-0.11%, w/w). The sunscreen release from the SLMs was slower than its dissolution rate and the photodecomposition of ODAB was markedly decreased (>51.3%) by encapsulation into the lipid microparticles. The efficacy of the SLM carrier system was also evaluated after their introduction in model topical formulations (i.e., hydrogel and oil-in-water emulsion). Further in vitro release measurements, performed using Franz diffusion cells with polycarbonate membranes, indicated that the retention capacity of the microparticles was lost after their incorporation into the emulsion, whereas it was retained in the hydrogel. Moreover, the SLMs achieved a reduction of the sunscreen photodegradation in the hydrogel vehicle (the ODAB loss decreased from 87.4% to 59.1%), whereas no significant photoprotective effect was observed in the emulsion. Therefore, the efficacy of the ODAB-loaded SLMs was markedly affected by the vehicle.

  17. Mechanical and cytotoxicity testing of acrylic bone cement embedded with microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Evans, Gregory A.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The water-reactive tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was microencapsulated in polyurethane shells and incorporated into Palacos R bone cement. The tensile and compressive properties of the composite material were investigated in accordance with commercial standards, and fracture toughness of the capsule-embedded bone cement was measured using the tapered double-cantilever beam geometry. Viability and proliferation of MG63 human osteosarcoma cells after culture with extracts from Palacos R bone cement, capsule-embedded Palacos R bone cement, and OCA were also analyzed. Incorporating up to 5 wt % capsules had little effect on the compressive and tensile properties of the composite, but greater than 5 wt % capsules reduced these values below commercial standards. Fracture toughness was increased by 13% through the incorporation of 3 wt % capsules and eventually decreased below the toughness of the capsule-free controls at capsule contents of 15 wt % and higher. The effect on cell proliferation and viability in response to extracts prepared from capsule-embedded and commercial bone cements were not significantly different from each other, whereas extracts from OCA were moderately toxic to cells. Overall, the addition of lower wt % of OCA-containing microcapsules to commercial bone cement was found to moderately increase static mechanical properties without increasing the toxicity of the material. PMID:23913367

  18. Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and 1-Octyl-2-pyrrolidinone Modified Ionic Microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Beitz, T.; Kötz, J.; Wolf, G.; Kleinpeter, E.; Friberg, S. E.

    2001-08-15

    The influence of the nonionic polymer poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) in comparison to the surfactant 1-octyl-2-pyrrolidinone (OP) on the phase behavior of the system SDS/pentanol/xylene/water was studied. In both modified systems a strong increase in the water solubilization capacity was found, accompanied by a change in the spontaneous curvature toward zero. In the polymer-modified system an isotropic phase channel is formed with increasing polymer content that connects the L1 and the L2 phase. The lamellar liquid crystalline phase is destabilized in both cases. In the L1 phase the adsorption of PVP at the surface of the microemulsion droplets and the formation of a cluster-like structure is proven by several methods like (13)C NMR T(1) relaxation time measurments, zeta potential measurements, and rheology. In the L2 phase a modification of the interface of the inverse droplets is detected by a shift in the percolation boundary (conductivity) and (13)C NMR T(1) relaxation measurements. The formation of a cluster-like structure can be assumed on the basis of our rheological measurements. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Bing; Sun, Yong; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Peng, Han; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-04-25

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O), has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu) and Cat D inhibitor (pepA) inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p < 0.05) in lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome.

  20. Stabilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) Immobilized on Octyl Agarose by Treatment with Polyethyleneimine (PEI).

    PubMed

    Peirce, Sara; Tacias-Pascacio, Veymar G; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Virgen-Ortíz, José J; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2016-06-08

    Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) was immobilized on octyl agarose (OC) and physically modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) in order to confer a strong ion exchange character to the enzyme and thus enable the immobilization of other enzymes on its surface. The enzyme activity was fully maintained during the coating and the thermal stability was marginally improved. The enzyme release from the support by incubation in the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 was more difficult after the PEI-coating, suggesting that some intermolecular physical crosslinking had occurred, making this desorption more difficult. Thermal stability was marginally improved, but the stability of the OCCALB-PEI was significantly better than that of OCCALB during inactivation in mixtures of aqueous buffer and organic cosolvents. SDS-PAGE analysis of the inactivated biocatalyst showed the OCCALB released some enzyme to the medium during inactivation, and this was partially prevented by coating with PEI. This effect was obtained without preventing the possibility of reuse of the support by incubation in 2% ionic detergents. That way, this modified CALB not only has a strong anion exchange nature, while maintaining the activity, but it also shows improved stability under diverse reaction conditions without affecting the reversibility of the immobilization.

  1. Sulfation pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-11-25

    Plants take up sulfur in the form of sulfate. Sulfate is activated to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and reduced to sulfite and then to sulfide when it is assimilated into amino acid cysteine. Alternatively, APS is phosphorylated to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), and sulfate from PAPS is transferred onto diverse metabolites in its oxidized form. Traditionally, these pathways are referred to as primary and secondary sulfate metabolism, respectively. However, the synthesis of PAPS is essential for plants and even its reduced provision leads to dwarfism. Here the current knowledge of enzymes involved in sulfation pathways of plants will be summarized, the similarities and differences between different kingdoms will be highlighted, and major open questions in the research of plant sulfation will be formulated.

  2. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  3. Tryptophan octyl ester in detergent micelles of dodecylmaltoside: fluorescence properties and quenching by brominated detergent analogs.

    PubMed Central

    de Foresta, B; Gallay, J; Sopkova, J; Champeil, P; Vincent, M

    1999-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of tryptophan octyl ester (TOE), a hydrophobic model of Trp in proteins, were investigated in various mixed micelles of dodecylmaltoside (DM) and 7,8-dibromododecyl beta-maltoside (BrDM) or 10,11-dibromoundecanoyl beta-maltoside (BrUM). This study focuses on the mechanism via which these brominated detergents quench the fluorescence of TOE in a micellar system. The experiments were performed at a pH at which TOE is uncharged and almost completely bound to detergent micelles. TOE binding was monitored by its enhanced fluorescence in pure DM micelles or its quenched fluorescence in pure BrUM or BrDM micelles. In DM/BrUM and DM/BrDM mixed micelles, the fluorescence intensity of TOE decreased, as a nonlinear function of the molar fraction of brominated detergent, to almost zero in pure brominated detergent. The indole moiety of TOE is therefore highly accessible to the bromine atoms located on the detergent alkyl chain because quenching by bromines occurs by direct contact with the fluorophore. TOE is simultaneously poorly accessible to iodide (I(-)), a water-soluble collisional quencher. TOE time-resolved fluorescence intensity decay is heterogeneous in pure DM micelles, with four lifetimes (from 0.2 to 4.4 ns) at the maximum emission wavelength. Such heterogeneity may arise from dipolar relaxation processes in a motionally restricted medium, as suggested by the time-dependent (nanoseconds) red shift (11 nm) of the TOE emission spectrum, and from the existence of various TOE conformations. Time-resolved quenching experiments for TOE in mixed micelles showed that the excited-state lifetime values decreased only slightly with increases in the proportion of BrDM or BrUM. In contrast, the relative amplitude of the component with the longest lifetime decreased significantly relative to that of the short-lived species. This is consistent with a mainly static mechanism for the quenching of TOE by brominated detergents. Molecular modeling of TOE

  4. Anhydrous octyl-glucoside phase transition from lamellar to isotropic induced by electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Rauzah; Sugimura, Akihiko; Nguan, Hock-Seng; Rahman, Matiur; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2017-02-28

    A static deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)HNMR) technique (magnetic field, B = 7.05 T) was employed to monitor the thermotropic lamellar phase of the anhydrous 1:1 mixture sample of octyl-b-D-glucoside (βOG) and that of partially deuterium labelled at the alpha position on the chain, i.e.,βOG-d2 In the absence of an electric field, the (2)H NMR spectrum of the mixture gives a typical quadrupolar doublet representing the aligned lamellar phase. Upon heating to beyond the clearing temperature at 112 °C, this splitting converts to a single line expected for an isotropic phase. Simultaneous application of magnetic and electric fields (E = 0.4 MV/m) at 85 °C in the lamellar phase, whose direction was set to be parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field, resulted in the change of the doublet into a single line and this recovers to the initial doublet with time for both experimental geometries. This implies E- and B-field-induced phase transitions from the lamellar to an isotropic phase and a recovery to the lamellar phase again with time. Moreover, these phase transformations are accompanied by a transient current. A similar observation was made in a computational study when an electric field was applied to a water cluster system. Increasing the field strength distorts the water cluster and weakens its hydrogen bonds leading to a structural breakdown beyond a threshold field-strength. Therefore, we suggest the observed field-induced transition is likely due to a structure change of the βOG lamellar assembly caused by the field effect and not due to Joule heating.

  5. Anhydrous octyl-glucoside phase transition from lamellar to isotropic induced by electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Rauzah; Sugimura, Akihiko; Nguan, Hock-Seng; Rahman, Matiur; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    A static deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (2HNMR) technique (magnetic field, B = 7.05 T) was employed to monitor the thermotropic lamellar phase of the anhydrous 1:1 mixture sample of octyl-b-D-glucoside (βOG) and that of partially deuterium labelled at the alpha position on the chain, i.e.,βOG-d2 In the absence of an electric field, the 2H NMR spectrum of the mixture gives a typical quadrupolar doublet representing the aligned lamellar phase. Upon heating to beyond the clearing temperature at 112 °C, this splitting converts to a single line expected for an isotropic phase. Simultaneous application of magnetic and electric fields (E = 0.4 MV/m) at 85 °C in the lamellar phase, whose direction was set to be parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field, resulted in the change of the doublet into a single line and this recovers to the initial doublet with time for both experimental geometries. This implies E- and B-field-induced phase transitions from the lamellar to an isotropic phase and a recovery to the lamellar phase again with time. Moreover, these phase transformations are accompanied by a transient current. A similar observation was made in a computational study when an electric field was applied to a water cluster system. Increasing the field strength distorts the water cluster and weakens its hydrogen bonds leading to a structural breakdown beyond a threshold field-strength. Therefore, we suggest the observed field-induced transition is likely due to a structure change of the βOG lamellar assembly caused by the field effect and not due to Joule heating.

  6. Ionization, partitioning, and dynamics of tryptophan octyl ester: implications for membrane-bound tryptophan residues.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, A; Mukherjee, S; Rukmini, R; Rawat, S S; Sudha, S

    1997-01-01

    The presence of tryptophan residues as intrinsic fluorophores in most proteins makes them an obvious choice for fluorescence spectroscopic analyses of such proteins. Membrane proteins have been reported to have a significantly higher tryptophan content than soluble proteins. The role of tryptophan residues in the structure and function of membrane proteins has attracted a lot of attention. Tryptophan residues in membrane proteins and peptides are believed to be distributed asymmetrically toward the interfacial region. Tryptophan octyl ester (TOE) is an important model for membrane-bound tryptophan residues. We have characterized this molecule as a fluorescent membrane probe in terms of its ionization, partitioning, and motional characteristics in unilamellar vesicles of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine. The ionization property of this molecule in model membranes has been studied by utilizing its pH-dependent fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of pH-dependent fluorescence intensity and emission maximum shows that deprotonation of the alpha-amino group of TOE occurs with an apparent pKa of approximately 7.5 in the membrane. The fluorescence lifetime of membrane-bound TOE also shows pH dependence. The fluorescence lifetimes of TOE have been interpreted by using the rotamer model for the fluorescence decay of tryptophan. Membrane/water partition coefficients of TOE were measured in both its protonated and deprotonated forms. No appreciable difference was found in its partitioning behavior with ionization. Analysis of fluorescence polarization of TOE as a function of pH showed that there is a decrease in polarization with increasing pH, implying more rotational freedom on deprotonation. This is further supported by pH-dependent red edge excitation shift and the apparent rotational correlation time of membrane-bound TOE. TOE should prove useful in monitoring the organization and dynamics of tryptophan residues incorporated into membranes. PMID:9251800

  7. Mobility of Ions in the Nematic Phase of 4-n-Octyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl (8CB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Atsushi; Naemura, Shohei

    2002-02-01

    The relationship between the mobility of ions and viscosity is discussed for the nematic phase of 4-n-octyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl (8CB). The Miesowicz viscosity coefficient η2 exhibits a divergence at the nematic-smectic phase transition; nevertheless, normal behavior of the temperature dependence is observed for the mobility of ions. Although the Walden rule is not valid for the entire temperature range in the nematic phase, it is presumed that there is no significant difference in the ionic radius between the nematic and isotropic phases.

  8. A kinetic study on the Novozyme 435-catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids with octanol to produce octyl esters.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Avisha; Mitra, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Octyl esters can serve as an important class of biolubricant components replacing their mineral oil counterparts. The purpose of the current work was to investigate the enzymatic esterification reaction of free fatty acids (FFA, from waste cooking oil) with octanol in a solvent-free system using a commercial lipase Novozyme 435. It was found that the esterificaton reaction followed the Ping-pong bi-bi kinetics with no inhibition by substrates or products within the studied concentration range. The maximum reaction rate was estimated to be 0.041 mol L(-1) g(-1) h(-1) . Additionally, the stability of Novozyme 435 in the current reaction system was studied by determining its activity and final conversion of FFA to esters after 12 successive utilizations. Novozyme 435 exhibited almost 100% enzyme activity up to 7 cycles of reaction and gradually decreased (by 5%) thereafter. The kinetic parameters evaluated from the study shall assist in the design of reactors for large-scale production of octyl esters from a cheap biomass source. The enzyme reusability data can further facilitate mass production by curtailing the cost of expensive enzyme consumption.

  9. Novel microemulsions: ionic liquid-in-ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Siqing; Zhang, Jianling; Zhang, Zhaofu; Han, Buxing

    2007-06-28

    The hydrophobic IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF(6)]) can be dispersed in hydrophilic IL propylammonium formate (PAF) with the aid of surfactant AOT, and [bmim][PF(6)]-in-PAF microemulsions are formed.

  10. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  11. Composites containing confined n-octyl-cyanobiphenyl: monomer and dimer species in the surface layer by in situ FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frunza, Ligia; Frunza, Stefan; Poterasu, Marian; Beica, Traian; Kosslick, Hendrik; Stoenescu, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Confinement of 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) to nanoporous molecular sieves with hexagonal structure of cylindrical pores (4.6nm diameter) is studied. Thermogravimetric investigations have indicated that the pores are completely filled. Several surface species inside the pores and onto the external surface of the grains were demonstrated by differential thermal analysis and by in situ infrared spectroscopy. Arguments are given that bulk-like monomer and dimer species along with hydrogen bonded ones might coexist in the so-called surface layer, but their population varies drastically as function of the temperature. In addition, chemical changes of the confined liquid crystal are quite possible inside these nanopores, at temperatures lower than for the bulk.

  12. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  13. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  14. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  15. Crystal structure of tris-(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lukianova, Tamara J; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N(+)·HSO4 (-)·SO4 (2-), each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen bonds.

  16. Phase Transitions of Triflate-Based Ionic Liquids under High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2015-11-05

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to study phase transitions of ionic liquids based on the triflate anion, [TfO](-), as a function of pressure or temperature. Raman spectra of ionic liquids containing the cations 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C4C1Im](+), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium, [C8C1Im](+), 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium, [C4C1C1Im](+), and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, [C4C1Pyr](+), were compared. Vibrational frequencies and binding energy of ionic pairs were calculated by quantum chemistry methods. The ionic liquids [C4C1Im][TfO] and [C4C1Pyr][TfO] crystallize at 1.0 GPa when the pressure is increased in steps of ∼ 0.2 GPa from the atmospheric pressure, whereas [C8C1Im][TfO] and [C4C1C1Im][TfO] do not crystallize up to 2.3 GPa of applied pressure. The low-frequency range of the Raman spectrum of [C4C1Im][TfO] indicates that the system undergoes glass transition, rather than crystallization, when the pressure applied on the liquid has been increased above 2.0 GPa in a single step. Strong hysteresis of spectral features (frequency shift and bandwidth) of the high-pressure crystalline phase when the pressure was released stepwise back to the atmospheric pressure has been found .

  17. [Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids on the acute toxicity and weight of earthworm].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruo-Nan; Fan, Jun-Jie; Tu, Hong-Zhi; Tang, Ling-Yan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Dong-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Standard contact filter paper test of OECD and artificial soil test were used to study the acute lethal effect of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids, 1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl), 1-hexyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Hmim] Cl), and 1-octyl- 3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim] Cl) on earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and the weight of the earthworms was measured after subtle exposure. The 24 h-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl using the contact filter paper method were 109.60, 50.38 and 7.94 microg x cm(-2), respectively. The 48 h-LC50 values were 98.52, 39.14 and 3.61 microg x cm(-2), respectively. Using the artificial soil method, the 7 d-LC50 values of [Bmim] Cl, [Hmim] Cl and [Omim] Cl were 447.78, 245.56 and 180.51 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and the 14 d-LC50 values were 288.42, 179.75, 150.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There were differences in poisoning symptoms of the three ionic liquids on earthworms. The growth of Eisenia fetida was inhibited and declined with increasing ionic liquid concentration. The toxicity of ionic liquids on Eisenia fetida increased with the length of carbon chain.

  18. Ionic liquid biodegradability depends on specific wastewater microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Aiello, Steven W; Buehler, Barbara K; Jones, Stuart E; Szymczyna, Blair R; Walker, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    Complete biodegradation of a newly-synthesized chemical in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) eliminates the potential for novel environmental pollutants. However, differences within- and between-WWTP microbial communities may alter expectations for biodegradation. WWTP communities can also serve as a source of unique consortia that, when enriched, can metabolize chemicals that tend to resist degradation, but are otherwise promising green alternatives. We tested the biodegradability of three ionic liquids (ILs): 1-octyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (OMP), 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (BMP) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM). We performed tests using communities from two WWTPs at three time points. Site-specific and temporal variation both influenced community composition, which impacted the success of OMP biodegradability. Neither BMP nor BMIM degraded in any test, suggesting that these ILs are unlikely to be removed by traditional treatment. Following standard biodegradation assays, we enriched for three consortia that were capable of quickly degrading OMP, BMP and BMIM. Our results indicate WWTPs are not functionally redundant with regard to biodegradation of specific ionic liquids. However, consortia can be enriched to degrade chemicals that fail biodegradability assays. This information can be used to prepare pre-treatment procedures and prevent environmental release of novel pollutants.

  19. Development of Bitter Taste Sensor Using Ionic-Liquid/Polymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutagawa, Nobuyuki; Toida, Jinichi; Amano, Yoshihiko; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi; Arikawa, Yukihiko

    A taste sensor is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes as transducers which convert taste information to electric signal. Thus, the role of membranes is very important to detect various taste components. In this paper, we developed novel membranes which specifically respond to quinine that is typical bitter substances. These membranes were composed of hydrophobic ionic liquid such as N, N, N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate, a plasticizer, 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether and a polymer, polyvinyl chloride. In addition to quinine, they also showed response to both several kinds of alkaloids such as caffeine and strychnine, and non-alkaloid such as phenylthiocarbamide. The order of these responses was equal to that of the tongue glossopharyngeal nerve of flog. Furthermore, there were the other alkaloids which response to these membranes. Especially in these alkaloids, they showed high response to denatonium benzoate and berberin chloride which have a strong bitter taste.

  20. Investigation of the interaction of pepsin with ionic liquids by using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunchang; Zhang, Sheli; Wang, Qiang; Li, Junhai; Fan, Haotian; Shan, Dongkai

    2013-06-01

    The molecular mechanism of the interaction between pepsin and two typical ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8mim]Cl), was investigated with fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopy at a pH value of 1.6. The results suggest that ILs could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin, probably via a dynamic quenching mechanism. The fluorescence quenching constants were determined by employing the classic Stern-Volmer equation. The constant values are very small, indicating that only a very weak interaction between ILs and pepsin exists. The Gibbs free-energy change, enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) during the interaction of pepsin and ILs were estimated. Positive values of ΔH and ΔS indicate that the interaction between ILs and pepsin is mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction. Synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrate that the addition of ILs (0-0.20 mol L(-1) for each IL) does not bring apparent changes to the microenvironments of tyrosine and tryptophan residues. Activity experiments show that the activity of pepsin is concentration dependent; higher concentrations of ILs (>0.22 mol L(-1) for [C8mim]Cl and >0.30 mol L(-1) for [C4mim]Cl) cause the remarkable reduction of enzyme activity. The presence of ILs also does not improve the thermal stability of pepsin.

  1. Photochemical synthesis of silver particles using water-in-ionic liquid microemulsions in high-pressure CO2.

    PubMed

    Harada, Masafumi; Kawasaki, Chika; Saijo, Kenji; Demizu, Masashi; Kimura, Yoshifumi

    2010-03-15

    Silver particles (Ag particles) were synthesized by the photoreduction of silver perchlorate (AgClO(4)) in water-in-ionic liquid (IL) microemulsions consisting of nonionic surfactant Tween 20, water, and ionic liquids, [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF(4)]) or 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIm][BF(4)])], mixed with a high-pressure (25 MPa) CO(2). The time evolution of the Ag particle formation by photoreduction was investigated by UV-Vis, cryo-TEM, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. In the particle formation process, aggregation and precipitation of Ag particles were suppressed under high-pressure CO(2). The average diameters of the metallic Ag particles prepared in water-in-[BMIm][BF(4)] and water-in-[OMIm][BF(4)] microemulsions were estimated from TEM to be 3.2 and 3.7 nm, respectively. SAXS analysis shows that the average diameters of the water droplets, which consisted of ionic precursors of AgClO(4) and Ag particles (or Ag aggregates), were estimated to be about 30-40 nm. In the process of Ag particle formation, the water droplet size under high-pressure CO(2) is more effectively regulated than that under ambient air, thereby preventing Ag particles from aggregating and precipitating.

  2. Photochemical synthesis of silver particles in Tween 20/water/ionic liquid microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Harada, Masafumi; Kimura, Yoshifumi; Saijo, Kenji; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Isoda, Seiji

    2009-11-15

    Metal particles of silver (Ag) were synthesized by the photoreduction of silver perchlorate (AgClO(4)) in water-in-ionic liquid (ILs) microemulsions consisting of Tween 20, water and ionic liquids. The ILs were tetrafluoroborate anions associated with the cations 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF(4)]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIm][BF(4)]). The time evolution of Ag particle formation by photoreduction using UV-irradiation was investigated by UV-Vis, cryo-TEM, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The average diameter of the metallic Ag particles prepared in the water-in-[BMIm][BF(4)] and water-in-[OMIm][BF(4)] microemulsions was estimated from TEM to be 8.9 and 4.9nm, respectively, which was consistent with that obtained from the SAXS analysis. Using Guinier plots in a low q-range (<0.16nm(-1)), we demonstrate that the average diameter of the water droplets that consisted of aggregates of ionic precursors of AgClO(4) before reduction and Ag particles after reduction, in the microemulsions, was estimated to be about 20-40nm. The diameter of the water droplets increased as a function of photoreduction time because of the formation of Ag particles and their aggregates. EXAFS analysis indicated that Ag(+) ions were completely reduced to Ag(0) atoms during the photoreduction, followed by the formation of larger Ag particles.

  3. Nonaqueous CE using contactless conductivity detection and ionic liquids as BGEs in ACN.

    PubMed

    Borissova, Maria; Gorbatsova, Jelena; Ebber, Arkadi; Kaljurand, Mihkel; Koel, Mihkel; Vaher, Merike

    2007-10-01

    N,N'-Alkylmethylimidazolium cations have been separated in NACE when one of the N,N'-dialkylimidazolium salts (ionic liquids (ILs)) was used as an electrolyte additive to the organic solvent separation medium. The separated species were 1-methyl-, 1-ethyl-, 1-butyl-, 1-octyl-, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium and N-butyl-3-methylpyridinium cations and BGE composed of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [BMIm][FAcO] (A6; B2) diluted in ACN. It was demonstrated that contactless conductivity detection (CCD) may be applied to monitoring the separation process in nonaqueous separation media, allowing to use the UV light-absorbing imidazolium-based electrolyte additives. There could be marked three concentration regions of added ILs; at first ionic strength of BGE below 1-2 mM, and then the actual electrophoretic mobility of analytes rises from 0. At concentrations above 1-2 mM, the added IL facilitated separation. In concentration region of 1-20 mM, the actual electrophoretic mobility of analyzed imidazolium cations was increasing with decrease in separation medium ionic strength. At higher concentrations of BGE (above 30 mM), the conductivity of the separation media became too high for this detector. Some organic dyes were also successfully separated and detected by contactless conductivity detector in a 20 mM A6 separation electrolyte in ACN.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigations of ionic liquid-aqueous flow in microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Tsaoulidis, Dimitrios; Angeli, Panagiota

    2015-11-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of plug flow of an ionic liquid-aqueous two-phase system in a microchannel were studied experimentally and numerically. A mixture of 0.2M N-octyl(plenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxide (CMOP)- 1.2 M Tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) in room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amide ([C4min][NTf2]), and a nitric acid solution of 1M were chosen. These fluids are relevant Eu(III) separation by extraction from nitric acid solutions. The two liquid phases were introduced into microchannels of 0.2 and 0.5mm internal diameter through a T-junction inlet. The flow pattern was visualized during plug formation at the inlet section and further downstream by means by bright field planar micro-Particle Image Velocimetry. Key features of plug flow, such as plug velocity, film thickness, plug length and recirculation intensity were measured under various experimental conditions. To gain further understanding of the 3-D flow field, Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations approach were also conducted.

  5. Effects of ionic liquid as additive and the pH of the mobile phase on the retention factors of amino benzoic acids in RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Polyakova, Y; Row, K H

    2007-01-01

    As an organic salt, ionic liquids are widely used as new solvent media. In this paper, three positional isomers, such as o-amino benzoic acid, m-amino benzoic acid, and p-amino benzoic acid are separated with four different ionic liquids as additives to the mobile phase using reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino benzoic acids are biologically active substances; the p-isomer is present in a group of water-soluble vitamins and is widely known as a sunscreen agent. The ionic liquids used are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate. The effects of the length of the alkyl group on the imidazolium ring and its counterion, the concentrations of the ionic liquid, and the effect of the pH of the mobile phase on the retention factor of the amino benzoic acid isomers are studied. Separation with the ionic liquid in the eluent was better than the separation without the ionic liquid. The pH mainly affected the retention and elution order of the solutes in RP-HPLC.

  6. [Membrane protective properties of diastereomers of methylpheophorbide a 13(2)-n-n-octyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-isobornyl-5-methylbenzyl)amide].

    PubMed

    Buravlev, E V; Belykh, D V; Chukicheva, I Iu; Tarabukina, I S; Shevchenko, O G; Kutchin, A V

    2013-01-01

    Two diastereomers of methylpheophorbide a 13(2)-N-n-octyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-isobornyl-5-methylbenzyl)amide were obtained from (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of 2-isobornyl-4-methylphenol. Evaluation of membrane protective and antioxidant activity of individual diastereomers on the model of H2O2-induced hemolysis of blood erythrocytes showed that the stereochemistry of isobornyl substituent in the synthesized conjugates has no effect on their biological activity.

  7. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  8. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karla L; Clegg, Daniel O

    2011-02-01

    Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, components of normal cartilage that are marketed as dietary supplements in the United States, have been evaluated for their potential role in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Due to claims of efficacy, increased prevalence of osteoarthritis, and a lack of other effective therapies, there has been substantial interest in using these dietary supplements as therapeutic agents for osteoarthritis. Though pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data are limited, use of these supplements has been evaluated for management of osteoarthritis symptoms and modification of disease progression. Relevant clinical trial efficacy and safety data are reviewed and summarized.

  9. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  10. Effect of bromide on the transformation and genotoxicity of octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid during chlorination.

    PubMed

    Chai, Qiwan; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2017-02-15

    Octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (ODPABA), one of the most commonly used organic UV filters, can undergo considerable transformation in water when entering into the disinfection process. The impacts of bromide on degradation kinetics, formation and speciation of transformation products, regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) as well as genotoxicity changes during ODPABA chlorination were investigated in this study. Results indicated that the reaction of ODPABA with chlorine followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics. Adding bromide noticeably enhanced the degradation rate of ODPABA, but reduced the impact of chlorine dose. Four halogenated transformation products (Cl-ODPABA, Br-ODPABA, Cl-Br-ODPABA and Br2-ODPABA) were detected by LC-MS/MS. Mono-halogenated products were stable during 24-h chlorination, while di-halogenated products constantly increased. The total yields of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were both low, but predominated by bromine substitution at high levels of bromide. In addition, SOS/umu tests showed that genotoxicity was generated after ODPABA chlorination, which was increased at least 1.5 times in the presence of bromine. Whereas, no significant genotoxicity variation was observed following bromide concentration change.

  11. Long-term effects of di-octyl phthalate on the expression of immune-related genes in Tegillarca granosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Li, Ye; Dai, Juan; Su, Xiurong; Li, Chenghua; Shen, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Di-octyl phthalate (DOP) is widely used as a plasticizer in the plastics industry. As a result, DOP is often found in marine water ecosystems where many species are exposed to it. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of long-term (14 d) DOP exposure (2.6, 7.8, or 31.2 mg/L) on the expression of immunerelated genes in Tegillarca granosa. The expression of small heat shock protein (sHSPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) were highest in clams exposed to 31.2 mg/L DOP on days 7 and 14. The relative expression of Tg-ferritin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and metallothionein (MT) increased initially then decreased as the concentration of DOP increased. The hemoglobin of T. granosa (Tg-HbI) exhibited two distinct expression patterns at two time points. Our results suggest that the immune response of T. granosa against DOP pollution varies depending on the dose. Additionally, we identified some immune-related genes that are promising candidates for biomarkers of DOP.

  12. All-polymer photovoltaic devices of poly(3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) polymerization.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Thomas W; Woo, Claire H; Kavulak, David F J; Thompson, Barry C; Fréchet, Jean M J

    2009-10-14

    The synthesis of poly[3-(4-n-octyl)-phenylthiophene] (POPT) from Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) is reported. GRIM POPT is found to have favorable electronic, optical, and processing properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-charge limited current and field effect transistor measurements for POPT yielded hole mobilities of 1 x 10(-4) cm(2)/(V s) and 0.05 cm(2)/(V s), respectively. Spincasting GRIM POPT from chlorobenzene yields a thin film with a 1.8 eV band gap, and PC(61)BM:POPT bulk heterojection devices provide a peak performance of 3.1%. Additionally, an efficiency of 2.0% is achieved in an all-polymer, bilayer OPV using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (CNPPV) as an acceptor. This state-of-the-art all-polymer device is analyzed in comparison to the analogous poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/CNPPV device. Counter to expectations based on more favorable energy level alignment, greater active layer light absorption, and similar hole mobility, P3HT/CNPPV devices perform less well than POPT/CNPPV devices with a peak efficiency of 0.93%.

  13. The targeted behavior of folate-decorated N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan evaluated by NIR system in mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongyan; Deng, Dawei; Chen, Haiyan; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2010-11-01

    The development of more selective delivery systems for cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy is one of the most important goals of current anticancer research. The purpose of this study is to construct and evaluate the folate-decorated, self-assembled nanoparticles as candidates to deliver near infrared fluorescent dyes into tumors and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the tumor targeting with folate-decorated, self-assembled nanoparticles. Folate-decorated N-succinyl-N'-octyl chitosan (folate-SOC) were synthesized. The chemical modification chitosan could self-assemble into stable micelles in aqueous medium. Micelle size determined by size analysis was around 140 nm in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, PH 7.4). Folate-SOC could maintain their structure for up to 15 days in PBS. Near infrared dye ICG-Der-01 as a mode drug was loaded in the micelles, and the entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were investigated. The targeted behavior of folate-SOC was evaluated by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo on different groups of denuded mice, with A549 or Bel-7402 tumors. The optical imaging results indicated that folated-decorated SOC showed an excellent tumor specificity in Bel-7402 tumor-bearing mice, and weak tumor specificity in A549 tumor bearing mice. We believe that this work can provide insight for the engineering of nanoparticles and be extended to cancer therapy and diagnosis so as to deliver multiple therapeutic agents and imaging probes at high local concentrations.

  14. In situ Determination of Fluoride in Groundwater Using N-Octyl Acetamide with Iron(III)-Thiocyanate Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, R.; Tapadia, K.; Sharma, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the nanodrop spectrophotometric determination of fluoride (F-) in a ground water sample using the organic reagent N-octylacetamide (N-OAA) with iron(III)-thiocyanate complex. The iron(III)-thiocyanate complex was extracted with a chloroform solution of amide (N-phenylacetamide, N-alkylacetamide, alkyl = butyl, phenyl, hexyl, and octyl group). This method is based upon the bleaching effect of fluoride on the red-colored extracted complex of iron(III)-thiocyanate-OAA in chloroform. The absorbance of the extract was measured pre and post F- addition at λmax = 470 nm against the reagent blank. The limit of detection and %RSD of F- was 38 μg/L and ±1.6%. The designed work followed Beer's law between 0.5 to 10 μg/mL with slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient values of -0.1101, 1.116, and -0.997, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the present investigation was extended for the determination of F- in a groundwater sample, and the results obtained were compared with those from another reported method.

  15. Chronic toxicity of di-n-butyl and di-n-octyl phthalate to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Whitmore, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicities of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were assessed by measuring the effect of exposure to these compounds on the fecundity of Daphnia magna and on the hatching and survival of the early life stages of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. For D. magna, exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP or 1.0 mg/L DOP caused a significant reduction in reproduction. Doses of 0.56 mg/L DBP or 0.32 mg/L DOP had no significant effect in decreasing reproduction. Survival of fathead minnow embryos was decreased by exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP; none of the embryos exposed to this dose hatched successfully. Hatching and larval survival were affected by exposure to 1.0 mg/L DBP, but not to 0.56 mg/L. Exposure to DOP did not affect survival of either early embryos or larvae of the fathead minnow at doses up to 10 mg/L (the highest dose tested). Hatching of the embryos was significantly decreased at 10 mg/L, but not at 3.2 mg/L DOP. 26 references, 4 figures, 11 tables.

  16. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using mesoporous silica synthesized from 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekka, Basanti; Nayak, Soumitra Ranjan; Dash, Priyabrat; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2016-04-01

    In this research, mesoporous silica was synthesized via a modified sol-gel route using 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and was employed to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Subsequently, this material was characterized and identified by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermosgravimetric analysis (TGA). Unique properties such as high surface area and pore diameter, in addition to highly reactive atoms and presence of various functional groups make the mesoporous silica possible for efficient removal of malachite green (MG). In batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for quantitative removal of MG by mesoporous silica was attained by varying different variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time, and pH. Optimum values were set as pH of 8.0, 0.5 g of adsorbent at contact time of 120 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model at all amount of adsorbent, while maximum adsorption capacity was 5.981 mg g-1 for 0.5 g mesoporous silica synthesized in IL.

  17. Extended fatigue life of a catalyst-free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Alice B.W.; Matthys, Oriane B.; Craig, Stephen L.; Reichert, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, and fatigue lifetime were investigated in accordance with ASTM and ISO standards for the testing of PMMA bone cement. The bending strength of bone cement specimens decreased with increasing wt% capsules content for capsules without or with OCA, with specimens of < 5 wt% capsule content showing minimal effect. In contrast, bone cement bending modulus was insensitive to capsule content. Load controlled fatigue testing was performed in air at room temperature on capsule free bone cement (0 wt%), bone cement with 5 wt% OCA-free capsules (5 wt% No OCA), and 5 wt% OCA-containing capsules (5 wt% OCA). Specimens were tested at a frequency of 5 Hz at maximum stresses of 90%, 80%, 70% and 50% of each specimen's bending strength until failure. The 5 wt% OCA exhibited significant self-healing at 70% and 50% of its reference strength (p < 0.05). Fatigue testing of all three specimen types in air at 22 MPa (50% of reference strength of the 5 wt% OCA specimens) showed that the cycles to failure of OCA-containing specimens was increased by two-fold compared to the OCA-free and capsule-free specimens. This study represents the first demonstration of dynamic, catalyst-free self-healing in a biomaterial formulation. PMID:24825796

  18. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of silver nanoparticles in water using ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sha; Sun, Yuanjing; Chao, Jingbo; Cheng, Liping; Chen, Yun; Liu, Jingfu

    2016-03-01

    Using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractant and methanol as the dispersion solvent, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed to extract silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from environmental water samples. Parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency such as IL concentration, pH and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest extraction efficiency for AgNPs was above 90% with an enrichment factor of >90. The extracted AgNPs in the IL phase were identified by transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion, with a detection limit of 0.01μg/L. The spiked recovery of AgNPs was 84.4% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.8% (n=6) at a spiked level of 5μg/L, and 89.7% with a RSD of 2.2% (n=6) at a spiked level of 300μg/L, respectively. Commonly existed environmental ions had a very limited influence on the extraction efficiency. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of AgNPs in river water, lake water, and the influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, with recoveries in the range of 71.0%-90.9% at spiking levels of 0.11-4.7μg/L.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, Fe... pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate... as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS... treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS... treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  3. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. )

    1990-12-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

  4. Dodecyl and octyl esters of fluorescein as protonophores and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria at submicromolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shchepinova, Maria M; Denisov, Stepan S; Kotova, Elena A; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Knorre, Dmitry A; Korshunova, Galina A; Tashlitsky, Vadim N; Severin, Fedor F; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2014-01-01

    In our search for fluorescent uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, three esters of fluorescein, n-butyl-, n-octyl-, and n-dodecyl-oxycarbonyl-fluorescein (C4-FL, C8-FL, C12-FL) were synthesized and characterized. With increasing liposomal lipid content, the long-chain alkyl derivatives of fluorescein (C8-FL, C12-FL and commercially available C18-FL), but not C4-FL and unsubstituted fluorescein, exhibited an increase in fluorescence polarization reflecting the dye binding to liposomes. C12-FL induced proton permeability in lipid membranes, while C4-FL was inactive. In contrast to C4-FL and C18-FL, C12-FL and C8-FL increased the respiration rate and decreased the membrane potential of isolated rat liver mitochondria with half-maximal effective concentrations of 700nM and 300nM, respectively. The effect of Cn-FL on the respiration correlated with that on proton permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, as measured by induction of mitochondria swelling in the potassium acetate medium. Binding of C8-FL to mitochondria depended on their energization, which was apparently associated with pH gradient generation across the inner mitochondrial membrane in the presence of a respiratory substrate. In wild-type yeast cells, C12-FL localized predominantly in plasma membrane, whereas in AD1-8 mutants lacking MDR pumps, it stained cytoplasmic organelles with some preference for mitochondria. Fluorescent uncouplers can be useful as a tool for determining their localization in a cell or distribution between different tissues in a living animal by fluorescent microscopy.

  5. Dissimilar mechanisms of cytochrome c release induced by octyl glucoside-activated BAX and by BAX activated with truncated BID.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsyregma; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Antonsson, Bruno; Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we compared alkali-resistant BAX insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane, mitochondrial remodeling, mitochondrial membrane potential changes, and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release from isolated brain mitochondria triggered by recombinant BAX oligomerized with 1% octyl glucoside (BAX(oligo)) and by a combination of monomeric BAX (BAX(mono)) and caspase 8-cleaved C-terminal fragment of recombinant BID (truncated BID, t(c)BID). We also examined whether the effects induced by BAX(oligo) or by BAX(mono) activated with t(c)BID depended on induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. The results obtained in this study revealed that t(c)BID plus BAX(mono) produced BAX insertion and Cyt c release without overt changes in mitochondrial morphology. On the contrary, treatment of mitochondria with BAX(oligo) resulted in BAX insertion and Cyt c release, which were accompanied by gross distortion of mitochondrial morphology. The effects of BAX(oligo) could be at least partially suppressed by mitochondrial depolarization. The effects of t(c)BID plus BAX(mono) were insensitive to depolarization. BAX(oligo) produced similar BAX insertion, mitochondrial remodeling, and Cyt c release in KCl- and in N-methyl-D-glucamine-based incubation media indicating a non-essential role for K+ influx into mitochondria in these processes. A combination of cyclosporin A and ADP, inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition, attenuated Cyt c release, mitochondrial remodeling, and depolarization induced by BAX(oligo), but failed to influence the effects produced by t(c)BID plus BAX(mono). Thus, our results suggest a significant difference in the mechanisms of the outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and Cyt c release induced by detergent-oligomerized BAX(oligo) and by BAX activated with t(c)BID.

  6. Biochemical and genetic toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yingying; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Yang, Jinhui

    2016-02-01

    Ionic liquids also known as "green solvents," are used in many fields. However, the dispersion of ionic liquids in soil systems is likely to cause damage to soil organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8 mim]Cl) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). For this purpose, earthworms were exposed to different concentrations of [C8 mim]Cl (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg artificial soil) and sampled at 7 d, 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d. The results indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could cause an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms, even at the lowest concentration (5 mg/kg). Compared with the controls, during the [C8 mim]Cl exposure period, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased and then increased, whereas the activities of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased. These changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GST indicated that [C8 mim]Cl could induce oxidative damage in earthworms. The malondialdehyde content was increased by high levels of [C8 mim]Cl at 14 d and 28 d, indicating that [C8 mim]Cl could lead to lipid peroxidation in earthworms. In addition, the degree of DNA damage significantly increased with increasing [C8 mim]Cl concentrations and exposure time. The present study shows that [C8 mim]Cl caused biochemical and genetic toxicity in earthworms.

  7. Characterization of Microemulsion Systems Formed by a Mixed 1,3-Dioxolane Ethoxylate / Octyl Glucoside Surfactant System

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhatib, Mayson H; Hayes, Douglas G; Urban, Volker S

    2009-01-01

    The phase behavior of microemulsion systems containing water (or 1.0 wt% NaCl{sub aq}), isooctane, and the binary surfactant system consisting of n-octyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}, and the acid-cleavable alkyl ethoxylate, 4-CH{sub 3}O (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 7.2}, 2-(CH{sub 2}){sub 12}CH{sub 3}, 2-(CH{sub 2})CH{sub 3}, 1,3-dioxolane, or 'cyclic ketal' ('CK-2,13'), was determined. Large temperature-insensitive one, two, and three-phase microemulsion-phase regions were obtained when equal masses of the two surfactants were employed, suggesting that C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} reduces the temperature sensitivity of CK-2,13's ethoxylate group. Addition of C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} to CK-2,13 greatly improves the latter's low efficiency, evidenced by the formation of a three-phase microemulsion system for surfactant concentrations at low fractions of total surfactants for systems with equal mass ratios of water to oil and CK-2,13 to C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}. Analysis of the phase diagrams also suggests that CK-2,13 and C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} impart hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, respectively, to the surfactant mixture, and that addition of salt further increases the hydrophilicity of C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}, presumably because of the salting-in of the latter. Analysis of small-angle neutron scattering data revealed that the mixed surfactant system formed spherical oil-in-water microemulsions, and that increasing the CK-2,13 fraction among the surfactants reduced the critical microemulsion concentration but slightly increased the nanodroplet size.

  8. Degradable copolymer based on amphiphilic N-octyl-N-quatenary chitosan and low-molecular weight polyethylenimine for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengchu; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Wenhui; Xu, Xiaolin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Gao, Shen; Liu, Kehai

    2012-01-01

    Background Chitosan shows particularly high biocompatibility and fairly low cytotoxicity. However, chitosan is insoluble at physiological pH. Moreover, it lacks charge, so shows poor transfection. In order to develop a new type of gene vector with high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity, amphiphilic chitosan was synthesized and linked with low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI). Methods We first synthesized amphiphilic chitosan – N-octyl-N-quatenary chitosan (OTMCS), then prepared degradable PEI derivates by cross-linking low-molecular weight PEI with amphiphilic chitosan to produce a new polymeric gene vector (OTMCS–PEI). The new gene vector was characterized by various physicochemical methods. We also determined its cytotoxicity and gene transfecton efficiency in vitro and in vivo. Results The vector showed controlled degradation. It was very stable and showed excellent buffering capacity. The particle sizes of the OTMCS–PEI/DNA complexes were around 150–200 nm with proper zeta potentials from 10 mV to 30 mV. The polymer could protect plasmid DNA from being digested by DNase I at a concentration of 2.25 U DNase I/μg DNA. Furthermore, they were resistant to dissociation induced by 50% fetal bovine serum and 1100 μg/mL sodium heparin. OTMCS–PEI revealed lower cytotoxicity, even at higher doses. Compared with PEI 25 KDa, the OTMCS–PEI/DNA complexes also showed higher transfection efficiency in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion OTMCS–PEI was a potential candidate as a safe and efficient gene vector for gene therapy. PMID:23071395

  9. A kinetic study of the photodynamic effect on tryptophan methyl ester and tryptophan octyl ester in DOPC vesicles.

    PubMed

    Posadaz, Ariana; Correa, N Mariano; Biasutti, M Alicia; García, Norman A

    2010-01-01

    The photodynamic effect on tryptophan methyl ester (trpME) and tryptophan octyl ester (trpOE), using the O(2)((1)Delta(g))-photosensitizers Rose Bengal (RB) and Perinaphthenone (PN) has been studied in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of the phospholipid 1,2-di-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) by stationary photolysis and time-resolved methods. This work reports on the influence of both the site (O(2)((1)Delta(g))) generation and the location of the tryptophan derivatives (trpD), on the photo-oxidation process in a compartmentalized system. The apparent rate constant values for chemical quenching of O(2)((1)Delta(g)) by trpOE (k(r,app)), was higher in vesicles than in water. Also, the ratio between apparent reactive and overall rate constant values for the deactivation of O(2)((1)Delta(g)) (k(r,app)/k(t,app)), increases in vesicles as compared with water, when the oxidative species is generated in the lipidic region or at the interface. Nevertheless, this quotient is lower than the corresponding value in water when O(2)((1)Delta(g)) is generated in the aqueous pseudophase. For trpME, the k(r,app)/k(t,app)values in vesicles and in water are quite similar, confirming the fact that trpME is located in the water pseudophase. Results are discussed in terms of relative protection against O(2)((1)Delta(g)) attack in a microheterogeneous medium as compared with water.

  10. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Gryp, Tessa; Vanholder, Raymond; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Glorieux, Griet

    2017-01-01

    If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic) effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden. PMID:28146081

  11. Residual keratan sulfate in chondroitin sulfate formulations for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H; Piquet, Adriana A; Pereira, Mariana S; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2012-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a biomedical glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mostly used as a dietary supplement. We undertook analysis on some formulations of chondroitin sulfates available for oral administration. The analysis was based on agarose-gel electrophoresis, strong anion-exchange chromatography, digestibility with specific GAG lyases, uronic acid content, NMR spectroscopy, and size-exclusion chromatography. Keratan sulfate was detected in batches from shark cartilage, averaging ∼16% of the total GAG. Keratan sulfate is an inert material, and hazardous effects due to its presence in these formulations are unlikely to occur. However, its unexpected high percentage compromises the desired amounts of the real ingredient specified on the label claims, and forewarns the pharmacopeias to update their monographs. The techniques they recommended, especially cellulose acetate electrophoresis, are inefficient in detecting keratan sulfate in chondroitin sulfate formulations. In addition, this finding also alerts the manufacturers for improved isolation procedures as well as the supervisory agencies for better audits. Analysis based on strong anion-exchange chromatography is shown to be more reliable than the methods presently suggested by standard pharmacopeias.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  13. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya; Zayed, Abla . E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  14. In defense of magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John P; Lewis, David F; Morrison, John C; Garite, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium sulfate has been used by obstetricians for more than 25 years to treat preterm labor. Magnesium sulfate is effective in delaying delivery for at least 48 hours in patients with preterm labor when used in higher dosages. There do not seem to be any harmful effects of the drug on the fetus, and indeed there is a neuroprotective effect in reducing the incidence of cerebral palsy in premature newborns weighing less than 1,500 g.

  15. Toxic effects of ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate on soil enzyme activity and soil microbial community diversity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Su, Benying; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Chong; Shao, Yuting

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) were considered as "green" solvents and have been used widely because of their excellent properties. But ILs are not as "green" as has been suggested, and the toxic effects of ILs on organisms have been shown in recent years. In the present study, the toxic effects of the IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) on soil enzyme activity and soil microbial communities at three different concentrations (1.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg) and a control treatment over 40 days of incubation time (sampled on days 10, 20, 30 and 40) were examined under laboratory conditions. The concentrations of [Omim]BF4 in soils were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results indicated that [Omim]BF4 were maintained stable in the soil during the exposure period. However, the enzyme activity results showed that urease activity was stimulated on day 20 and then decreased after 30 days of incubation. The activity of β-glucosidase was stimulated after 20 days of incubation in both treatment groups. Moreover, both dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase were inhibited at a high level (10.0mg/kg) only on day 20. The analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the soil microbial community structures were altered by [Omim]BF4 and that the soil microbial diversity and evenness of high levels (5.0mg/kg and 10.0mg/kg) treatments were decreased. Moreover, the dominant structure of the microbial communities was not changed by [Omim]BF4. Furthermore, the abundance of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was examined using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that the copy numbers of the amoA-gene were decreased by [Omim]BF4 with the 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg treatments. Based on the experiment, we concluded that high levels (5.0 and 10.0mg/kg) of [Omim]BF4 could have significantly toxic effects on soil

  16. Universal charge quenching and stability of proteins in 1-methyl-3-alkyl (hexyl/octyl) imidazolium chloride ionic liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B

    2012-09-13

    This study reports pH dependent stability of protein dispersions of five common proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin (IgG), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), and gelatin-B (Gel-B), all having isoelectric pH, pI ≈ 5, in room temperature ionic liquid solutions of 1-methyl-3-alkyl (hexyl/octyl) imidazolium chloride (concentration 0-0.2% w/v). Molecular hydrophobicity index, (H-index = hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) of these molecules spanned the range 0.43-0.87. Electrophoretic characteristics, surface tension data and hydrodynamic size information revealed that IL solutions provide dispersion stability owing to specific protein-IL binding which did not alter their pI values though their surface charge was considerably screened. Change in maximum (ζ(max)) and minimum (ζ(min)) zeta potential values observed at pH ~3 (maximum protonated state) and pH ~8 (maximum deprotonated state) could be described universally as function of IL concentration, c as Δζ(x) = [1 - exp(-ac)] where Δζ(x) is either |(ζ(max) - ζ(w))|/ζ(w) or |(ζ(min) - ζ(w))|/ζ(w), and ζ(w) is the corresponding value in water. Tensiometry data showed two major stages of protein-IL interactions: (i) for c < cmc of IL, the IL molecules selectively bind with imidazolium cation through electrostatic forces forming protein-IL (complex) and (ii) for c> cmc free IL-aggregates begin to form. Similarly, we can define Δγ(x) as either |(γ(max) - γ(w))|/γ(w) at pH 3 or |(γ(min) - γ(w))|/γ(w) at pH 8. Both Δζ(x) and Δγ(x) showed linear dependence with c, Δγ(min, max) (or Δζ(min, max)) = (1 - K(γ) (or K(ζ)) H-index), where the slopes K(ζ) and K(γ) defined intermolecular interactions. Hydrodynamic radii data revealed protein stabilization, circular dichroism spectra implied retention of secondary structures, and Raman spectra confirmed a marginal increase in water structure. Results concluded that selective binding of IL molecules to protein surface in

  17. The polar headgroup of the detergent governs the accessibility to water of tryptophan octyl ester in host micelles.

    PubMed

    Tortech, L; Jaxel, C; Vincent, M; Gallay, J; de Foresta, B

    2001-09-03

    Many attempts have been made to rationalize the use of detergents for membrane protein studies [J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 4907]. The barrier properties of the detergent headgroup may be one parameter critically involved in protein protection. In this paper, we analyzed these properties using a model system, by comparing the accessibility of tryptophan octyl ester (TOE) to water-soluble collisional quenchers (iodide and acrylamide) in three detergent micelles. The detergents used differed only in the chemical nature of their polar headgroups, zwitterionic for dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) and nonionic for octa(ethylene glycol) dodecyl monoether (C(12)E(8)) and dodecylmaltoside (DM). In all cases, in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, the binding of 5 microM TOE was complete in the presence of a slight excess of detergent micelles over TOE molecules, resulting in a significant blue shift and greater intensity of TOE fluorescence emission. The resulting quantum yield of bound TOE was between 0.08 (in DPC) and 0.12 (in DM) with an emission maximum (lambda(max)) of approximately 335 nm whatever the detergent micelle. Time-resolved fluorescence intensity decays of TOE at lambda(max) were heterogeneous in all micelles (3-4 lifetime populations), with mean lifetimes of 1.7 ns in DPC, and 2 ns in both C(12)E(8) and DM. TOE fluorescence quenching by iodide, in detergent micelles, yielded linear Stern-Volmer plots characteristic of a dynamic quenching process. The accessibility of TOE to this ion was the greatest with C(12)E(8), followed by DPC and finally DM (Stern-Volmer quenching constants K(sv) of 2 to 5.5 M(-1)). In contrast, the accessibility of TOE to acrylamide was greatest with DPC, followed by C(12)E(8) and finally DM (K(sv)=2.7-7.1 M(-1)). TOE also presents less rotational mobility in DM than in the other two detergents, as shown from anisotropy decay measurements. These results, together with previous TOE quenching measurements with brominated detergents [Biophys. J. 77

  18. Synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside catalyzed by Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying Pichia pastoris in an aqueous/organic two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Guo, DongHeng; Xu, YanShan; Kang, YaJun; Han, ShuangYan; Zheng, SuiPing

    2016-04-01

    We explored the ability of a Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst (Pp-DCBGL) system to synthesize alkyl β-D-glucosides. The primary investigation centered on the synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl-glu, OG). OG could be synthesized through reverse hydrolysis reaction with very low efficiency. Then, OG was synthesized between BG and octanol by a transglycosylation reaction. In a 2-ml reaction system, OG was synthesized with a conversion rate of 51.1% in 3h when 5 mg/ml BG was utilized as the glucosyl donor under optimized conditions. And, even after being reused four times, the Pp-DCBGL was relatively stable. Additionally, a 500-ml-scale reaction system was conducted in a 2-L stirred reactor with a conversion rate of 47.5% in 1.5 h. Moreover, the conversion rate did not decrease after the whole-cell catalyst was reused two times. In conclusion, Pp-DCBGL has high reaction efficiency and operational stability, which is a powerful biocatalyst available for industrial synthesis.

  19. Safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in the management of patients with gastric and duodenal varices who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, James; Trotter, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Options are limited for patients who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Cyanoacrylate injections have been reported to be efficacious in previous case series. The aim of this retrospective study was to report our single-center experience with the safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients who were not TIPS candidates. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 16 patients who underwent a total of 18 esophagogastroduodenoscopies for acute gastric or duodenal variceal bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices; 14 patients had cirrhosis with an average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, and 2 patients had noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Primary endpoints of the study included early and delayed rebleeding rate, complications, and death or liver transplantation. The rebleeding rate (early or delayed) was 7%, and no complications were found. One death was reported (unrelated to the procedure). In conclusion, 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective alternative for non-TIPS candidates who present with acute gastric variceal bleeding given its low rebleeding and complication rate. PMID:27695164

  20. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  1. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS

  2. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates.

  3. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  4. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections.

  5. Phase Behavior of N2O and CO2 in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids [bmim][Tf2N], [bmim][BF4], [bmim][N(CN)2], [bmim][Ac], [eam][NO3], and [bmim][SCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiflett, Mark B.; Niehaus, Anne Marie S.; Elliott, Beth A.; Yokozeki, A.

    2012-03-01

    The gas solubility of nitrous oxide (N2O) in room-temperature ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate, and ethylammonium nitrate has been measured at isothermal conditions from about (283 to 348)K using a gravimetric microbalance. The observed pressure-temperature composition ( PTx) data have been analyzed by use of a generic Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state (EOS) model, which has been successfully applied in our previous works. The interaction parameters have been determined using our measured vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements have been made and validate EOS model predictions which suggest that these systems demonstrate Type III and Type V phase behavior, according to the classification of van Konynenburg and Scott. The global phase behavior of N2O has also been compared with both the measured data from this study and literature data for carbon dioxide (CO2) in each ionic liquid and Henry's law constants are compared at room temperature (298.15 K).

  6. Enzymatic Transesterification of Kraft Lignin with Long Acyl Chains in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Hulin, Lise; Husson, Eric; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Stevanovic, Tatjana; Sarazin, Catherine

    2015-09-09

    Valorization of lignin is essential for the economic viability of the biorefinery concept. For example, the enhancement of lignin hydrophobicity by chemical esterification is known to improve its miscibility in apolar polyolefin matrices, thereby helping the production of bio-based composites. To this end and due to its many reactive hydroxyl groups, lignin is a challenging macromolecular substrate for biocatalyzed esterification in non-conventional media. The present work describes for the first time the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Kraft lignin in ionic liquids (ILs). Three lipases, three 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ILs and ethyl oleate as long chain acyl donor were selected. Best results were obtained with a hydrophilic/hydrophobic binary IL system (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro- phosphate, 1/1 v/v) and the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) that afforded a promising transesterification yield (ca. 30%). Similar performances were achieved by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as a coating agent for CALB rather than as a co-solvent in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate thus limiting the use of hydrophobic IL. Structural characterization of lignin oleate was performed by spectroscopic studies (FTIR and ¹H-NMR). The synthesized lignin oleate exhibited interesting thermal and textural properties, different from those of the original Kraft lignin.

  7. Heparan sulfate structure: methods to study N-sulfation and NDST action.

    PubMed

    Dagälv, Anders; Lundequist, Anders; Filipek-Górniok, Beata; Dierker, Tabea; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellén, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important modulators of cellular processes where the negatively charged polysaccharide chains interact with target proteins. The sulfation pattern of the heparan sulfate chains will determine the proteins that will bind and the affinity of the interactions. The N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST) enzymes are of key importance during heparan sulfate biosynthesis when the sulfation pattern is determined. In this chapter, metabolic labeling of heparan sulfate with [(35)S]sulfate or [(3)H]glucosamine in cell cultures is described, in addition to characterization of polysaccharide chain length and degree of N-sulfation. Methods to measure NDST enzyme activity are also presented.

  8. Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

    2014-03-01

    The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that δ34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ⩽4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ⩽200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with δ13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  9. Wastewater treatment using ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of industrial wastewater with coagulants is used extensively in the thorough removal of emulsified tars and oils. The central plant laboratory at the Zhdanov Coke Works conducted investigations of the treatment of wastewater, subsequently used for quenching coke, with ferrous sulfate. Laboratory tests and subsequent industrial tests demonstrated the efficiency of the method. In order to further intensify the wastewater treatment process we conducted laboratory tests with the addition of certain quantities of other coagulation reagents, for example polyacrylamide (PAA) and caustic soda, in addition to the ferrous sulfate. The combined use of polyacrylamide and ferrous sulfate permits instant coagulation of the sludge and very rapid (5 to 10 min) clarification of the water. In addition, in this case the degree of purification of the water is less dependent on the initial concentration of impurities. The purification is also improved when caustic soda is added, raising the pH. From the data it is apparent that an identical degree of purification of the water may be achieved either by increasing the consumption of ferrous sulfate, or by adding PAA or NaOH. During industrial tests of the purification of wastewater with ferrous sulfate, we also investigated the resulting sludge. The use of ferrous sulfate causes a significant increase in its quantity (by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8) and in its oil content (by a factor of 2 to 2.5). The water content in the sludge decreases. The sludge (in the quantity of 0.6% of the charge) may be added to the coking charge.

  10. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  11. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  12. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  13. Characterization of sulfated quercetin and epicatechin metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Montserrat; González-Manzano, Susana; Surco-Laos, Felipe; González-Paramas, Ana; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2012-04-11

    Different monosulfates of quercetin and epicatechin with metabolic interest were obtained by hemisynthesis and characterized regarding their chromatographic behavior and absorption and mass spectra. Three of these compounds were further isolated, and their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance using one- and two-dimensional techniques (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). The calculation of the proton and carbon shifts caused by sulfation allowed for the assignment of the position of the sulfate group in the flavonoids, so that the compounds were identified as quercetin-3'-O-sulfate, quercetin 4'-O-sulfate, and epicatechin 4'-O-sulfate. It was found that sulfation at position 3' induced a large upfield shift in the carbon bearing the sulfate group and downfield displacements of the adjacent carbons, whereas no significant upfield or downfield shifts were observed with respect to the parent flavonoid when sulfation was produced at position 4'.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and....1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7758-99-8) usually... sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5 H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  3. Third phase formation in the extraction of Nd(III) by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (O{Phi}CMPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, A.; Brahmmananda Rao, C.V.S.; Sabharwal, K.N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Third phase formation in the extraction of Nd(III) by 0.2 M Octyl(Phenyl)-N,N-Diisobutyl Carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (O{Phi}CMPO) in n-dodecane has been studied with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) as modifiers to provide a comparison between these two modifier systems. The effect of concentration of TAP as modifier for the extraction of Nd(III) by 0.2 M O{Phi}CMPO has been studied. The extraction of Nd(III) by TAP/n-dodecane in the absence of O{Phi}CMPO has also been studied and the results are reported here.

  4. Biologically relevant lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in mixtures of n-octyl β-D-glucoside and water. Determination of the phase diagram by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karukstis, Kerry K; Duim, Whitney C; Van Hecke, Gerald R; Hara, Nagiko

    2012-03-29

    When mixed with water, n-octyl β-D-glucoside forms self-assembled nanostructures, several of which are liquid crystalline and all of which depend on the water/glucoside ratio and temperature. For practical use of these phases, a detailed understanding of the conditions under which they exist (i.e., the isobaric phase diagram) is required. We use the fluorescence of the dye molecule prodan as a new approach to probe the phases formed in these mixtures. The prodan fluorescence signal depends on the polarity of its environment and thus the phase(s) in which the dye exists. Visual inspection of the total fluorescence signal can qualitatively determine the phases present, including coexisting phases. Temperature-induced phase changes are also detected from variations observed in the prodan fluorescence spectrum. The sensitivity of this new technique allows the single- and multiple-phase regions to be mapped carefully for the first time.

  5. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No... gypsum, occurs naturally and exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No... gypsum, occurs naturally and exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No... gypsum, occurs naturally and exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-20-2)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. Low sulfate seawater mitigates barite scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Simm, I.

    1996-12-09

    Low-sulfate seawater (LSSW) technology provides operational and economic benefits for desulfating seawater to control barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) and strontium sulfate (SrSO{sub 4}) scale. This concluding article in a three part series describes, from a scale control perspective, the membrane technology deployed in the North Sea Brae fields.

  16. Bovine serum albumin-sodium alkyl sulfates bioconjugates as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Benkő, M; Varga, N; Sebők, D; Bohus, G; Juhász, Á; Dékány, I

    2015-06-01

    Precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by anionic surfactants with alkyl chains of increasing lengths (octyl, decyl, dodecyl sulfates) was studied at room temperature, at pH 3.0, in isotonic sodium chloride solution. The particle size of albumin, the zeta potential, the surface charge and fluorescent properties of BSA-surfactant composites were investigated concerning addition of increasing amount of surfactant. The thermal stability of the systems was monitored by calorimetric analysis (DSC). The formation of the well-ordered structure in the self-assembly process in liquid phase was studied by XRD measurement. The structure of the precipitated BSA-surfactant nanocomposites was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Finally, ibuprofen (IBU) molecules were enclosed in BSA-surfactant bioconjugate systems and the release properties of the drug were investigated. It has been found out that, as a consequence to the increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chains of the surfactant, the structure and the fluorescent properties of the aggregates formed can be controlled due to the increase in the hydrophobicity of BSA-surfactant composites. The bioconjugates are well applicable as carrier to realize controlled release of drug molecules.

  17. Separation and determination of lignans from seeds of Schisandra species by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography using ionic liquid as modifier.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kan; Qi, Shengda; Cheng, Yuqiao; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-06-17

    In this paper, a micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) method using ionic liquid as modifier for the quantification of the active components of lignans found in the medicinal herbs Schisandra species was developed for the first time. Preliminary investigations employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant did not lead to the necessary resolution of the studied compounds, the addition of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4) to the SDS micellar system resulted in the complete separation of all the compounds. The effects on the separation by several parameters such as BMIM-BF4 and SDS concentration, applied voltage, background electrolyte pH and concentration, were evaluated. Under the optimal conditions (5 mM borate-5 mM phosphate buffer in the presence of 20 mM SDS and 10 mM BMIM-BF4, pH 9.2, applied voltage 25 kV and detection at 254 nm), the method successfully applied to the determination of lignans in extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. and Schisandra henryi C.B. Clarke in less than 13 min. The separation mechanism was also discussed.

  18. Role of the surfactant structure in the behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids within aqueous micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Kumar, Vinod; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-04-06

    The behavior of an ionic liquid (IL) within aqueous micellar solutions is governed by its unique property to act as both an electrolyte and a cosolvent. The influence of the surfactant structure on the properties of aqueous micellar solutions of zwitterionic SB-12, nonionic Brij-35 and TX-100, and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of the "hydrophobic" IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF(6)]) is assessed along with the possibility of forming oil-in-water microemulsions in which the IL acts as the "oil" phase. The solubility of [bmim][PF(6)] within aqueous micellar solutions increases with increasing surfactant concentration. In contrast to anionic SDS, the zwitterionic and nonionic surfactant solutions solubilize more [bmim][PF(6)] at higher concentrations and the average aggregate size remains almost unchanged. The formation of IL-in-water microemulsions when the concentration of [bmim][PF(6)] is above its aqueous solubility is suggested for nonionic Brij-35 and TX-100 aqueous surfactant solutions.

  19. Solvent effects on the polar network of ionic liquid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Carlos E. S.; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N.

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) with common molecular solvents. Four types of systems were considered: (i) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide plus benzene, hexafluorobenzene or 1,2-difluorobenzene mixtures; (ii) choline-based ILs plus ether mixtures (iii) choline-based ILs plus n-alkanol mixtures; and (iv) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate aqueous mixtures. The results produced a wealth of structural and aggregation information that highlight the resilience of the polar network of the ILs (formed by clusters of alternating ions and counter-ions) to the addition of different types of molecular solvent. The analysis of the MD data also shows that the intricate balance between different types of interaction (electrostatic, van der Waals, H-bond-like) between the different species present in the mixtures has a profound effect on the morphology of the mixtures at a mesoscopic scale. In the case of the IL aqueous solutions, the present results suggest an alternative interpretation for very recently published x-ray and neutron diffraction data on similar systems.

  20. SO₃H-functionalized acidic ionic liquids as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Wenwen; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2013-01-30

    The conversion of cellulose into valuable chemicals to deal with the depletion of fossil fuel has got much attention. Completing the hydrolysis of cellulose under mild conditions is the key step. In this study, six kinds of SO(3)H-functionalized acidic ionic liquids were used as acid catalyst to promote the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). All of them were efficient for the hydrolysis of cellulose, with the maximum total reducing sugars (TRS) yields over 83% at 100 °C. Acidic ionic liquids with analogous structures showed similar catalytic activities. Triethyl-(3-sulfo-propyl)-ammonium hydrogen sulfate (IL-5 in this study) was the optimum ionic liquid for cellulose hydrolysis, with the maximum TRS yield at 100 °C up to 99% when the dosage used was 0.2g. In addition, the water in [BMIM]Cl had negative effect on cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore, controlling the content of water in a comparatively low level is quite necessary.

  1. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  2. Understanding lignin treatment in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Li, Kunlan; Wei, Ligang; Ma, Yingchong; Shao, Guolin; Zhao, Deyang; Wan, Wenying; Song, Lili

    2015-11-01

    The treatment of enzymatically hydrolyzed lignin (EHL) in dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL)-water mixtures (50-100wt% IL content) was investigated at 150°C for 3h. pH, IL type, and IL content were found to greatly influence the degradation of lignin and the structure of regenerated lignin. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfonate-water mixtures with low pH facilitated lignin depolymerization but destroyed the regenerated lignin substructure. Regenerated lignin with low molecular weight and narrow polydispersity index (2.2-7.7) was obtained using a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-based system. Water addition inhibited lignin depolymerization at 50-100wt% IL content, except for 70wt% 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-water mixture. Compared with pure IL treatment, obvious differences were observed in the breakdown of inter-unit linkages and ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl units in regenerated lignin with IL-water treatment.

  3. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  4. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  5. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  6. Toxicology of ammonium sulfate in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.; Mattox, J.K.; Cohen, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Despite the relatively low toxicity of ammonium sulfate in experimental animals, it cannot be concluded that increased sulfuric acid production is harmless to human health. Many other pollutants are present in ambient air with possible synergistic effects. Sulfuric acid undoubtedly reacts to produce other sulfates in ambient air which are often much more toxic. For example zinc sulfate and zinc ammonium sulfate are much more irritating to the lung than ammonium sulfate. In order to assess with more certainty the health effects of increased sulfuric acid production, it will be necessary to determine accurately that proportion inhaled as free sulfuric acid compared with ammonium sulfate as well as the proportion and kinds of other sulfates present in the atmosphere.

  7. Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-05-15

    The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 μg/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 μg/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups.

  8. Monohydrated Sulfates in Aurorae Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Aurorae Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0653 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT) on June 10, 2007, near 7.5 degrees south latitude, 327.25 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Aurorae Chaos lies east of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Its western edge extends toward Capri and Eos Chasmata, while its eastern edge connects with Aureum Chaos. Some 750 kilometers (466 miles) wide, Aurorae Chaos is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice or water was released.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area featuring several knobs of erosion-resistant material at one end of what appears to be a large teardrop shaped plateau. Similar plateaus occur throughout the interior of Valles Marineris, and they are formed of younger, typically layered rocks that post-date formation of the canyon system. Many of the deposits contain sulfate-rich layers, hinting at ancient saltwater.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals a swath of light-colored material draped over the knobs. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 5 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the monohydrated sulfate-containing deposits drape over the knobs and also an outcrop in lower-elevation parts of the

  9. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: a rare modification in search of a function.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Bryan E; Xu, Ding; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2014-04-01

    Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, oligomerization or conformational activation. Binding depends on the pattern of sulfation and arrangement of uronic acid epimers along the chains. Sulfation at the C3 position of glucosamine is a relatively rare, yet biologically significant modification, initially described as a key determinant for binding and activation of antithrombin and later for infection by type I herpes simplex virus. In mammals, a family of seven heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases installs sulfate groups at this position and constitutes the largest group of sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate formation. However, to date very few proteins or biological systems have been described that are influenced by 3-O-sulfation. This review describes our current understanding of the prevalence and structure of 3-O-sulfation sites, expression and substrate specificity of the 3-O-sulfotransferase family and the emerging roles of 3-O-sulfation in biology.

  10. PAPST1 regulates sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in epithelial MDCK II cells.

    PubMed

    Dick, Gunnar; Akslen-Hoel, Linn Kristin; Grøndahl, Frøy; Kjos, Ingrid; Maccarana, Marco; Prydz, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) sulfation depends on activated nucleotide sulfate, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Transporters in the Golgi membrane translocate PAPS from the cytoplasm into the organelle lumen where PG sulfation occurs. Silencing of PAPS transporter (PAPST) 1 in epithelial MDCK cells reduced PAPS uptake into Golgi vesicles. Surprisingly, at the same time sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) was stimulated. The effect was pathway specific in polarized epithelial cells. Basolaterally secreted proteoglycans (PGs) displayed an altered HS sulfation pattern and increased growth factor binding capacity. In contrast, the sulfation pattern of apically secreted PGs was unchanged while the secretion was reduced. Regulation of PAPST1 allows epithelial cells to prioritize between PG sulfation in the apical and basolateral secretory routes at the level of the Golgi apparatus. This provides sulfation patterns that ensure PG functions at the extracellular level, such as growth factor binding.

  11. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  12. Classification of chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine 6 sulfate using chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Foot, M; Mulholland, M

    2005-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate are natural products that are becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of arthritis. They belong to a class of compounds known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They are available over the counter as nutritional supplements. However, increasing use has led to increasing scrutiny of the quality of products on the market. There is also interest in the pharmacological properties of these compounds. To facilitate this, there is a need for better qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis. This paper describes methods for achieving the qualitative identification of chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, glucosamine hydrochloride or glucosamine sulfate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with a variety of chemometric methods successfully classified these compounds. Using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) samples were classified as either chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, glucosamine hydrochloride or glucosamine sulfate. This work also examined the discriminating ability of different sections of the spectrum. It was found that for the classification of these compounds that using the finger print region of the spectrum (below 2000 cm(-1)) gave the best discrimination.

  13. Ca2+-mediated association of human serum amyloid P component with heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, H

    1987-02-05

    The serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a precursor glycoprotein of amyloid P component found in all types of amyloid deposits. The binding of human SAP to heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate was studied using Sepharose-immobilized SAP. The apparent dissociation constants of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate for immobilized-SAP were estimated to be approximately 2 X 10(-7) M in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2 at neutral pH and physiological ionic strength. Both the binding affinity of SAP for these glycosaminoglycans and the numbers of binding sites of SAP depended on calcium concentration. Cadmium partially substituted for calcium as an activator of glycosaminoglycan binding to SAP. No binding occurs in the absence of added metal, or in the presence of barium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and strontium. The calcium-dependent binding of [3H]heparan sulfate and [3H]dermatan sulfate to SAP was strongly inhibited by heparan sulfate, heparin, and dermatan sulfate. Chondroitin 6-sulfate was a moderate inhibitor, whereas hyaluronic acid, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and keratan sulfate were not potent inhibitors. The calcium-dependent binding of amyloid P component to heparan sulfate and/or dermatan sulfate may be a cause of the coexistence of the particular glycoprotein and these glycosaminoglycans in amyloid tissues.

  14. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P.

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  15. Grafting Sulfated Zirconia on Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Lee, Kwan Young; Choi, Saemin; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Peden, Charles HF

    2007-06-01

    Sulfated zirconia has received considerable attention as a potential solid acid catalyst in recent years. In this paper, the preparation and properties of acid catalysts obtained by grafting ziconia with atomic precision on MCM-41 mesoporous silica were studied. TEM and potential titration characterizations revealed that ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage can be obtained using this grafting technique. Sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 exhibits improved thermal stability than that of bulk sulfated zirconia, as evidenced by temperature programmed characterizations and XRD analysis. Temperature programmed reaction of isopropanol was used to evaluate the acidity of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41. It was found that the acid strength of sulfated ZrO2/MCM-41 with monolayer coverage is weaker than bulk sulfated zirconia but stronger than SiO2-Al2O3, a common strong acid catalyst.

  16. Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-30

    Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions.

  17. Study examines sulfate-reducing bacteria activity

    SciTech Connect

    McElhiney, J.E.; Hardy, J.A.; Rizk, T.Y.; Stott, J.F.D.; Eden, R.D.

    1996-12-09

    Low-sulfate seawater injection can reduce the potential of an oil reservoir turning sour because of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) convert sulfate ions in seawater used in waterflooding into sulfide with the concomitant oxidation of a carbon source. A recent study at Capcis investigated the efficiency of SRB under various conditions of sulfate limitation. This study was conducted in a flowing bioreactor at 2,000 psia with different temperature zones (mesophilic 35 C and thermophilic 60--80 C). The study mixed microfloral populations derived from real North Sea-produced fluids, and included an active population of marine methanogenic bacteria present to provide competition for the available carbon sources. In general, results showed that SRB continue to convert sulfate to sulfide in stoichiometric quantities without regard to absolute concentrations. The paper discusses the results and recommends nanofiltration of seawater for ``sweet`` reservoirs.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9 or... naturally and exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder. The anhydrous form...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food... GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9 or CaSO4·2H2O, CAS... exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder. The anhydrous form is prepared...

  20. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by neutralization of magnesium oxide, hydroxide,...

  2. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  3. Is N-sulfation just a gateway modification during heparan sulfate biosynthesis?

    PubMed

    Raman, Karthik; Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2011-11-04

    Several biologically important growth factor-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions are regulated by HS sulfation patterns. However, the biogenesis of these combinatorial sulfation patterns is largely unknown. N-Deacetylase/N-sulfotrasferase (NDST) converts N-acetyl-d-glucosamine residues to N-sulfo-d-glucosamine residues. This enzyme is suggested to be a gateway enzyme because N-sulfation dictates the final HS sulfation pattern. It is known that O-sulfation blocks C5-epimerase, which acts immediately after NDST action. However, it is still unknown whether O-sulfation inhibits NDST action in a similar manner. In this article we radically change conventional assumptions regarding HS biosynthesis by providing in vitro evidence that N-sulfation is not necessarily just a gateway modification during HS biosynthesis.

  4. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies. [Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO/sub 3/ acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D(IB)CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables.

  5. TRU decontamination of high-level Purex waste by solvent extraction using a mixed octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide/TBP/NPH (TRUEX) solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Diamond, H.; Kaplan, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Schulz, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process was tested on a simulated high-level dissolved sludge waste (DSW). A batch counter-current extraction mode was used for seven extraction and three scrub stages. One additional extraction stage and two scrub stages and all strip stages were performed by batch extraction. The TRUEX solvent consisted of 0.20 M octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide-1.4 M TBP in Conoco (C/sub 12/-C/sub 14/). The feed solution was 1.0 M in HNO/sub 3/, 0.3 M in H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and contained mixed (stable) fission products, U, Np, Pu, and Am, and a number of inert constituents, e.g., Fe and Al. The test showed that the process is capable of reducing the TRU concentration in the DSW by a factor of 4 x 10/sup 4/ (to <100 nCi/g of disposed form) and reducing the quantity of TRU waste by two orders of magnitude.

  6. Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants for recovering transuranic elements from irradiated nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Gelis, Artem V.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2009-10-14

    Advanced concepts for closing the nuclear fuel cycle include separating Am and Cm from other fuel components. Separating these elements from the lanthanide elements at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge. We describe here a chemical system in which a neutral extractant--octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO)--is combined with an acidic extractant--bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP)--to form a single process solvent (with dodecane as the diluent) for separating Am and Cm from the other components of irradiated nuclear fuel. Continuous variation experiments in which the relative CMPO and HDEHP concentrations are varied indicate a synergistic relationship between the two extractants in the extraction of Am from buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solutions. A solvent mixture consisting or 0.1 M CMPO + 1 M HDEHP in dodecane offers acceptable extraction efficiency for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 1 M HNO3 while maintaining good lanthanide/actinide separation factors in the stripping regime (buffered DTPA solutions with pH 3.5 to 4). Using citrate buffer instead of lactate buffer results in improved lanthanide/actinide separation factors.

  7. Site-specific mutagenesis induced by single O6-alkylguanines (O6-n-propyl, O6-n-butyl, O6-n-octyl) in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, P M; Kliem, H C; Gottfried-Anacker, J; Wiessler, M; Schmeiser, H H

    1993-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of a series of longer chain O6-n-alkylguanine residues (O6-n-propyl, O6-n-butyl, O6-n-octyl) has been analyzed using a plasmid molecule (pUC 9) in which single O6-alkylguanines were positioned in the unique Pstl recognition site by shot gun ligation (Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 3305-3316 (1985)) of overlapping synthetic oligonucleotides. After transfection of these vectors into E. coli cells having normal DNA repair systems, progeny plasmids were produced, of which 2.6%, 2.8% and 4.3% were mutated in their Pstl site when containing O6-n-propylguanine, O6-n-butylguanine, O6-n-octylguanine, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of mutant plasmid genomes revealed that O6-n-propylguanine and O6-n-butylguanine induced exclusively G-->A transitions located specifically at the preselected site. O6-n-octylguanine induced apart from G-->A transitions (70%) also targeted G-->T transversions (30%). These results indicate that the mutation frequency of longer chain O6-alkylguanines can be substantial in cells with normal repair systems and that the mutation pattern depends on the nature of the alkyl group. Images PMID:8367292

  8. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822... Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in food in accordance... of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate . (2) It has a minimum...

  9. Predicting the partitioning of biological compounds between room-temperature ionic liquids and water by means of the solvation-parameter model.

    PubMed

    Padró, Juan M; Ponzinibbio, Agustín; Mesa, Leidy B Agudelo; Reta, Mario

    2011-03-01

    The partition coefficients, P(IL/w), for different probe molecules as well as for compounds of biological interest between the room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM][PF(6)], 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [HMIM][PF(6)], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [OMIM][BF(4)] and water were accurately measured. [BMIM][PF(6)] and [OMIM][BF(4)] were synthesized by adapting a procedure from the literature to a simpler, single-vessel and faster methodology, with a much lesser consumption of organic solvent. We employed the solvation-parameter model to elucidate the general chemical interactions involved in RTIL/water partitioning. With this purpose, we have selected different solute descriptor parameters that measure polarity, polarizability, hydrogen-bond-donor and hydrogen-bond-acceptor interactions, and cavity formation for a set of specifically selected probe molecules (the training set). The obtained multiparametric equations were used to predict the partition coefficients for compounds not present in the training set (the test set), most being of biological interest. Partial solubility of the ionic liquid in water (and water into the ionic liquid) was taken into account to explain the obtained results. This fact has not been deeply considered up to date. Solute descriptors were obtained from the literature, when available, or else calculated through commercial software. An excellent agreement between calculated and experimental log P(IL/w) values was obtained, which demonstrated that the resulting multiparametric equations are robust and allow predicting partitioning for any organic molecule in the biphasic systems studied.

  10. Solvation of uranyl-CMPO complexes in dry vs. humid forms of the [BMI][PF6] ionic liquid. A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Chaumont, Alain; Wipff, Georges

    2006-01-28

    The solvation of the [UO(2)(NO(3))(CMPO)](+) and [UO(2)(NO(3))(2)(CMPO)(2)] complexes (CMPO = octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylmethylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide) is investigated by molecular dynamics in the "dry" and "humid" forms of a room temperature ionic liquid (IL) based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMI(+)) cation and the hexafluorophosphate (PF(6)(-)) anion. The simulations reveal the importance of the solvent anions in "dry" conditions and of water molecules in the "humid" solvent. For the [UO(2)(NO(3))(CMPO)](+) complex, the monodentate vs. bidentate coordination modes of CMPO are compared, and the first solvation shell of uranyl is completed by 1-3 PF(6)(-) anions in the dry IL and by 2-3 water molecules in the humid IL, leading to a total coordination number close to 5. The energy analysis shows that interactions with the IL stabilize the [UO(2)(NO(3))(bi)(CMPO)(mono)](+) form (with bidentate nitrate and monodentate CMPO) in the dry IL and the [UO(2)(NO(3))(mono)(CMPO)(mono)](+) form (with monodentate nitrate and CMPO) in the humid IL. The extracted compound characterized by EXAFS is thus proposed to be the [UO(2)(NO(3))(mono)(CMPO)(mono)(H(2)O)(3)](+) species. Furthermore we compare the [UO(2)(NO(3))(2)(CMPO)(2)] complex in its associated and dissociated forms ([UO(2)(NO(3))(mono)(CMPO)(mono)](+) + CMPO + NO(3)(-)) and discuss the results in the context of uranyl extraction by CMPO to ionic liquids.

  11. Molecular modeling of imidazolium-based [Tf2N-] ionic liquids: microscopic structure, thermodynamic and dynamic properties, and segmental dynamics.

    PubMed

    Logotheti, Georgia-Evangelia; Ramos, Javier; Economou, Ioannis G

    2009-05-21

    The microscopic structure, thermodynamic properties, local segmental dynamics, and self-diffusion coefficients of three ionic liquids (ILs) with a common anion, namely, the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([Tf2N-]), and imidazolium-based cations that differ in the alkyl tail length, namely, the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim+]), the 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C6mim+]), and the 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8mim+]), are calculated over the temperature range of 298.15-333.15 K and pressure range of 0.1-60 MPa. Quantum calculations based on density functional theory are performed on isolated ion pairs, and minimum energy conformers are identified. Electronic density results are used to estimate the electrostatic potential of a molecular force field that is used subsequently for long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk ILs. Thermodynamic properties calculated from MD are shown to be in excellent agreement for the bulk density and good agreement for derivative properties when compared to experimental data. The new force field is an improvement over earlier ones for the same ILs. The microscopic structure as expressed through the radial distribution function is thoroughly calculated, and it is shown that the bulk structure characteristics are very similar to those obtained from the quantum calculations on isolated ion pairs. The segmental dynamics expressed in terms of bond and torsion angle decorrelation is shown to assume a broad range of characteristic times. Molecular segments in the alkyl tail of the cations are significantly faster than segments in the vicinity of the imidazolium ring. Finally, the new force field predicts accurately the self-diffusion coefficients of the cations and the anions over the entire temperature range examined, thus confirming its validity for a broad range of physical properties.

  12. Ionic liquid-assisted separation and determination of selenium species in food and beverage samples by liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Castro Grijalba, Alexander; Fiorentini, Emiliano F; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2017-03-31

    Different ionic liquids (ILs) were assayed as mobile phase modifiers for the separation and determination of selenite [Se(IV)], selenate [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMeSeCys) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (RP-HPLC-HG-AFS). The use of several ILs: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C6mim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and tributyl(methyl)phosphonium methylsulphate was evaluated. Also, the effect of pH, buffer type and IL concentration on the separation of Se species was studied. Complete separation was attained within 12min using a C8 column and a gradient performed with a mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) [C6mim]Cl at pH 6.0. The proposed method allows the separation of inorganic and organic Se species in a single chromatographic run, adding further benefits over already reported methods based on RP-HPLC. In addition, the influence of ILs on the AFS signals of each Se species was evaluated and a multivariate methodology was used for optimization of AFS sensitivity. The limits of detection were 0.92, 0.86, 1.41 and 1.19μgL(-1) for Se(IV), Se(VI), SeMet and SeMeSeCys, respectively. The method was successfully applied for speciation analysis of Se in complex samples, such as wine, beer, yeast and garlic.

  13. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a)...

  17. Sulfate adsorption in Michigan forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acidic atmospheric deposition raised concerns over adverse cation leaching effects on Michigan forest soils with low cation exchange capacities. Leaching effects of acid deposition depend on mobility of sulfate in the soil. Little was known, however, concerning the ability of these soils to adsorb sulfate. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of representative Michigan forest soils to adsorb sulfate, to relate sulfate adsorption to soil properties, and to develop equations to predict sulfate adsorption in similar forest soils. Frigid zone soil series studied were Grayling (Typic Udipsamments), Rubicon (Entic Haplorthods), Kalkaska (Typic Haplorthods), and Montcalm (Eutric Glossoboralfs). Mesic zone series studied were Spinks (Psammentic Hapludals) and Oshtemo (Typic Hapludalfs). Six randomly located pedons of each series were sampled. Sulfate adsorption was determined by shaking 10 gram soil samples for 24 hours in 50 mL 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/ solution containing 10 mg SO/sub 4/-S L/sup -1/. Solution filtrates were turbidimetrically analyzed for SO/sub 4/-S and adsorption was calculated from reduction in SO/sub 4/-S concentration. Bw, Bs, and Bh horizons of frigid zone soils and E and Bt horizons of mesic zone soils had the highest sulfate adsorbing abilities. No significant differences were found between series in total sulfate adsorptive capacity.

  18. Sulfate-free photomask cleaning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzai, Shingo; Takagi, Noriaki; Kamiyama, Tomoaki; Kawaguchi, Naotoshi; Ishijima, Mikio; Watanabe, Toshimitsu; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Kuwajima, Tsuneaki; Nakatsu, Makito; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi

    2006-05-01

    To eliminate ammonium sulfate haze caused from sulfuric acid residue on the mask surface, we have been working for resist stripping and cleaning without the use of sulfuric acid process. This paper describes sulfate-free photomask cleaning technology by improving ozone cleaning process.

  19. Sulfate reduction in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    Sulfate reduction rates calculated from about 200 DSDP pore water sulfate profiles have been contoured and plotted on a map covering most areas of the world ocean. Rates show a remarkable spatial consistency, with high rates observed near the continental margins, becoming progressively lower toward the central ocean basins. Relatively elevated rates are also found in the eastern equatorial Pacific, a site of upwelling and correspondingly high rates of primary organic production. Overall, the distribution of sulfate reduction in pelagic sediments looks very similar to the distribution of primary organic carbon production. When rates are directly compared, however, the correlation between sulfate reduction and primary production is only moderately strong. Perhaps the most important influence on sulfate reduction is sediment deposition rate and the control this has over the fraction of the sedimentary organic carbon flux that becomes available for sulfate reduction. The slower the rate of sediment deposition the more time for oxic respiration and the less organic carbon that escapes to the zone of sulfate reduction. To predict most accurately sulfate reduction rates, however, the variables of primary production, water depth, and sediment deposition rate must all be integrated.

  20. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  1. Wettability studies of morphine sulfate powders.

    PubMed

    Prestidge, C A; Tsatouhas, G

    2000-04-05

    A capillary penetration technique was used to determine the wettability of morphine sulfate powders by a range of wetting and partially wetting liquids. Wetting rates were found to be dependent on both the properties of the wetting liquid and the morphine sulfate batch. A number of liquids were established as perfectly wetting, and the critical surface tension for morphine sulfate wetting was estimated to be approximately 40 mN m(-1). Effective capillary radii for packed beds of morphine sulfate powders were determined in the range 0.3-0.6 microm; these are compared with particle size, shape and surface area data. From the Washburn approach, the advancing water-particle contact angles for the different morphine sulfate samples were determined to be in the range 57-79 degrees, with errors less than +/-3 degrees. Sessile drop measurements on the same samples were unable to determine reproducible equilibrium contact angles and could not differentiate between the batches. The role of surface chemistry, crystal morphology and crystal structure in controlling morphine sulfate powder wettability was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. Contact angles were shown to correlate with both the aspect ratio of the morphine sulfate crystals and the nitrogen-to-oxygen surface atomic concentration ratio, determined by SEM and XPS, respectively. The relative exposure of different crystal faces is considered to play an important role in controlling the wettability of morphine sulfate powders.

  2. Sulfate removal from waste chemicals by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Cláudia Telles; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Lenzi, Ervim

    2009-01-01

    Chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent has proven to be a viable alternative to the oxidative destruction of organic pollutants in mixed waste chemicals, but the sulfate concentration in the treated liquor was still above the acceptable limits for effluent discharge. In this paper, the feasibility of sulfate removal from complex laboratory wastewaters using barium and calcium precipitation was investigated. The process was applied to different wastewater cases (two composite samples generated in different periods) in order to study the effect of the wastewater composition on the sulfate precipitation. The experiments were performed with raw and oxidized wastewater samples, and carried out according to the following steps: (1) evaluate the pH effect upon sulfate precipitation on raw wastewaters at pH range of 2-8; (2) conduct sulfate precipitation experiments on raw and oxidized wastewaters; and (3) characterize the precipitate yielded. At a concentration of 80 g L(-1), barium precipitation achieved a sulfate removal up to 61.4% while calcium precipitation provided over 99% sulfate removal in raw and oxidized wastewaters and for both samples. Calcium precipitation was chosen to be performed after Fenton's oxidation; hence this process configuration favors the production of higher quality precipitates. The results showed that, when dried at 105 degrees C, the precipitate is composed of hemidrate and anhydrous calcium sulfate ( approximately 99.8%) and trace metals ( approximately 0.2%: Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Ag, Mg, K, Na), what makes it suitable for reuse in innumerous processes.

  3. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  4. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

  5. Primary mesenchyme cell migration requires a chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Lane, M C; Solursh, M

    1991-02-01

    Primary mesenchyme cell migration in the sea urchin embryo is inhibited by sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous beta-D-xylosides, two treatments known to disrupt proteoglycan synthesis. We show that in the developing sea urchin, exogenous xyloside affects the synthesis by the primary mesenchyme cells of a very large, cell surface chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan. This proteoglycan is present in a partially purified fraction that restores migratory ability to defective cells in vitro. The integrity of this chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan appears essential for primary mesenchyme cell migration since treatment of actively migrating cells with chondroitinase ABC reversibly inhibited their migration in vitro.

  6. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  7. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  8. Revisiting the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Bradley, A S; Leavitt, W D; Johnston, D T

    2011-09-01

    Sulfur isotopes in the geological record integrate a combination of biological and diagenetic influences, but a key control on the ratio of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary materials is the magnitude of isotope fractionation imparted during dissimilatory sulfate reduction. This fractionation is controlled by the flux of sulfur through the network of chemical reactions involved in sulfate reduction and by the isotope effect associated with each of these chemical reactions. Despite its importance, the network of reactions constituting sulfate reduction is not fully understood, with two principle networks underpinning most isotope models. In this study, we build on biochemical data and recently solved crystal structures of enzymes to propose a revised network topology for the flow of sulfur through the sulfate reduction metabolism. This network is highly branched and under certain conditions produces results consistent with the observations that motivated previous sulfate reduction models. Our revised network suggests that there are two main paths to sulfide production: one that involves the production of thionate intermediates, and one that does not. We suggest that a key factor in determining sulfur isotope fractionation associated with sulfate reduction is the ratio of the rate at which electrons are supplied to subunits of Dsr vs. the rate of sulfite delivery to the active site of Dsr. This reaction network may help geochemists to better understand the relationship between the physiology of sulfate reduction and the isotopic record it produces.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of anionic amphiphilic model conetworks of 2-butyl-1-octyl-methacrylate and methacrylic acid: effects of polymer composition and architecture.

    PubMed

    Kali, Gergely; Georgiou, Theoni K; Iván, Béla; Patrickios, Costas S; Loizou, Elena; Thomann, Yi; Tiller, Joerg C

    2007-10-09

    Seven amphiphilic conetworks of methacrylic acid (MAA) and a new hydrophobic monomer, 2-butyl-1-octyl-methacrylate (BOMA), were synthesized using group transfer polymerization. The MAA units were introduced via the polymerization of tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate (THPMA) followed by the removal of the protecting tetrahydropyranyl group by acid hydrolysis after network formation. Both THPMA and BOMA were in-house synthesized. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was used as the cross-linker. Six of the conetworks were model conetworks, containing copolymer chains between cross-links of precise molecular weight and composition. The prepared conetwork series covered a wide range of compositions and architectures. In particular, the MAA content was varied from 67 to 94 mol %, and three different conetwork architectures were constructed: ABA triblock copolymer-based, statistical copolymer-based, and randomly cross-linked. The linear conetwork precursors were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and 1H NMR spectroscopy in terms of their molecular weight and composition, both of which were found to be close to the theoretically calculated values. The degrees of swelling (DS) of all the amphiphilic conetworks were measured in water and in THF over the whole range of ionization of the MAA units. The DSs in water increased with the degree of ionization (DI) and the content of the hydrophilic MAA units in the conetwork, while the DSs in THF increased with the degree of polymerization of the chains between the cross-links and by reducing the DI of the MAA units. Finally, the nanophase behavior of the conetworks was probed using small-angle neutron scattering and atomic force microscopy.

  10. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza de Bustamante Monteiro, Mariana Sato; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Volpato, Nadia Maria; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has led to the increasing use of sunscreens, thus, the development of safe and effective antisolar preparations is important. The inclusion of sunscreen molecules in different release systems, like liposomes (lipo) and cyclodextrins (CD) is therefore required. Methods The in vivo sun protection factor (SPF), water resistance, and in vitro transdermal penetration test of octyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) in different dispersions, such as OMC encapsulated in liposomes (lipo/OMC), OMC encapsulated in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD/OMC), OMC encapsulated in both release systems (lipo/OMC and β-CD/OMC), and an OMC-free formulation were determined. Results Although the formulation containing only the lipo/OMC system revealed high value of in vivo SPF (11.0 ± 1.3) and water resistance (SPF = 10.3 ± 2.2), the formulation containing both release systems (lipo/OMC + β-cyclodextrin/OMC) showed the best result in the in vivo SPF test (11.6 ± 1.6). In the penetration test, the formulation containing the lipo/OMC system had better performance, since a high amount of OMC in the epidermis (18.04 ± 1.17 μg) and a low amount of OMC in the dermis (9.4 ± 2.36 μg) were observed. These results suggest that liposomes interact with the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting retention of OMC in this layer. Conclusion According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption. PMID:22787399

  11. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  12. Volcanic sulfate aerosol formation in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Erwan; Bekki, Slimane; Ninin, Charlotte; Bindeman, Ilya

    2014-11-01

    The isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate provides insights into the atmospheric chemical processing of volcanic plumes. First, mass-independent isotopic anomalies quantified by Δ17O and to a lesser extent Δ33S and Δ36S in sulfate depend on the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms that generate sulfate aerosols. Second, the isotopic composition of sulfate (δ34S and δ18O) could be an indicator of fractionation (distillation/condensation) processes occurring in volcanic plumes. Here we present analyses of O- and S isotopic compositions of volcanic sulfate absorbed on very fresh volcanic ash from nine moderate historical eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of our volcanic sulfate samples, which are thought to have been generated in the troposphere or in the tropopause region, do not exhibit any significant mass-independent fractionation (MIF) isotopic anomalies, apart from those from an eruption of a Mexican volcano. Coupled to simple chemistry model calculations representative of the background atmosphere, our data set suggests that although H2O2 (a MIF-carrying oxidant) is thought to be by far the most efficient sulfur oxidant in the background atmosphere, it is probably quickly consumed in large dense tropospheric volcanic plumes. We estimate that in the troposphere, at least, more than 90% of volcanic secondary sulfate is not generated by MIF processes. Volcanic S-bearing gases, mostly SO2, appear to be oxidized through channels that do not generate significant isotopically mass-independent sulfate, possibly via OH in the gas phase and/or transition metal ion catalysis in the aqueous phase. It is also likely that some of the sulfates sampled were not entirely produced by atmospheric oxidation processes but came out directly from volcanoes without any MIF anomalies.

  13. Di-sulfated Keratan Sulfate as a Novel Biomarker for Mucopolysaccharidosis II, IVA, and IVB.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tomatsu, Shunji; Mason, Robert W; Yasuda, Eriko; Mackenzie, William G; Hossain, Jobayer; Shibata, Yuniko; Montaño, Adriana M; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA. The mean levels of both forms of KS in the plasma/serum from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB were elevated compared with that in age-matched controls. Di-sulfated KS provided more significant difference between MPS IVA and the age-matched controls than mono-sulfated KS. The ratio of di-sulfated KS to total KS in plasma/serum increased with age in control subjects and patients with MPS II but was age independent in MPS IVA patients. Consequently, this ratio can discriminate younger MPS IVA patients from controls. Levels of mono- and di-sulfated KS in urine of MPS IVA and IVB patients were all higher than age-matched controls for all ages studied.In conclusion, the level of di-sulfated KS and its ratio to total KS can distinguish control subjects from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB, indicating that di-sulfated KS may be a novel biomarker for these disorders.

  14. Using Terrestrial Sulfate Efflorescences as an Analogue of Hydrated Sulfate Formation in Valles Marineris on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. C.; Szynkiewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrated sulfate minerals provide conclusive evidence that a hydrologic cycle was once active on the surface of Mars. Two classes of hydrated sulfate minerals have been detected by robotic instruments on Mars: monohydrated sulfate minerals comprised of kieserite and gypsum, and various polyhydrated sulfates with Fe-Ca-Na-Mg-rich compositions. These minerals are found in various locations on Mars, including large surface exposures in valley settings of Valles Marineris. However, the sulfate sources and formation mechanisms of these minerals are not yet well understood.Recently, it has been suggested that the sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris might have formed in a manner similar to sulfate efflorescences found in dry environments on Earth. In this study, we use sulfate effloresences from the Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico as a terrestrial analogue to assess major factors that might have led to deposition of sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris. In different seasons indicative of dry and wet conditions, we collected field photographs and sediment samples for chemical and stable isotopic analyses (sulfur content, δ34S) to determine major sources of sulfate ions for efflorescences and to assess how the seasonal changes in surface/groundwater activity affect their formation. Preliminary sulfur isotope results suggest that oxidation of bedrock sulfides (0.01-0.05 wt. S %) is a major source of sulfate ion for efflorescences formation because their δ34S varied in negative range (-28 to -20‰) similar to sulfides (average -32‰). Using field photographs collected in Oct 2006, Feb and Nov 2012, May 2013, Mar and Oct 2014, we infer that the highest surface accumulation of sulfate efflorescences in the studied analog site was observed after summer monsoon seasons when more water was available for surface and subsurface transport of solutes from chemical weathering. Conversely, spring snow melt led to enhanced dissolution of sulfate efflorescences.

  15. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-07-15

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

  16. Simultaneous sulfate reduction and copper removal by a PVA-immobilized sulfate reducing bacterial culture.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiu-Feng; Jhuo, Yu-Sheng; Kumar, Mathava; Ma, Ying-Shih; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2010-06-01

    The effect of a sulfate reducing bacteria immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on simultaneous sulfate reduction and copper removal was investigated. Batch experiments were designed using central composite design (CCD) with two parameters, i.e. the copper concentration (10-100mg/L), and the quantity of immobilized SRB in culture solution (19-235 mg of VSS/L). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to model the experimental data, and to identify optimal conditions for the maximum sulfate reduction and copper removal. Under optimum condition, i.e. approximately 138.5mg VSS/L of sulfate reducing bacteria immobilized in PVA, and approximately 51.5mg/L of copper, the maximum sulfate reduction rate was 1.57 d(-1) as based on the first-order kinetic equation. The data demonstrate that immobilizing sulfate reducing bacteria in PVA can enhance copper removal and the resistance of the bacteria towards copper toxicity.

  17. Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

  18. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  19. Synthetic heparan sulfate dodecasaccharides reveal single sulfation site interconverts CXCL8 and CXCL12 chemokine biology.

    PubMed

    Jayson, Gordon C; Hansen, Steen U; Miller, Gavin J; Cole, Claire L; Rushton, Graham; Avizienyte, Egle; Gardiner, John M

    2015-09-18

    The multigram-scale synthesis of a sulfation-site programmed heparin-like dodecasaccharide is described. Evaluation alongside dodecasaccharides lacking this single glucosamine O6-sulfation, or having per-O6-sulfation, shows that site-specific modification of the terminal glucosamine dramatically interconverts regulation of in vitro and in vivo biology mediated by the two important chemokines, CXCL12 (SDF1α) or CXCL8 (IL-8).

  20. Modification of catalase by chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Tischenko, E G

    1997-10-01

    Catalase was chemically modified by sodium chondroitin sulfate using the benzoquinone binding method. Thus, 40-42% of the catalase preparation was modified. Treatment of catalase and superoxide dismutase with benzoquinone-activated chondroitin sulfate results in a bienzymic conjugate with electrophoretically heterogenous composition. The yield of the products and their residual catalytic activity indicate that the method can be used for the preparation of modified catalase and the bienzymic conjugate to study their efficiency in vivo.

  1. The role of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G S

    1998-02-01

    Successful treatment of osteoarthritis must effectively control pain, and should slow down or reverse progression of the disease. Biochemical and pharmacological data combined with animal and human studies demonstrate glucosamine sulfate is capable of satisfying these criteria. Glucosamine sulfate's primary biological role in halting or reversing joint degeneration appears to be directly due to its ability to act as an essential substrate for, and to stimulate the biosynthesis of, the glycosaminoglycans and the hyaluronic acid backbone needed for the formation of proteoglycans found in the structural matrix of joints. Chondroitin sulfates, whether they are absorbed intact or broken into their constituent components, similarly provide additional substrates for the formation of a healthy joint matrix. Evidence also supports the oral administration of chondroitin sulfates for joint disease, both as an agent to slowly reduce symptoms and to reduce the need for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The combined use of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease has become an extremely popular supplementation protocol in arthritic conditions of the joints. Although glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates are often administered together, there is no information available to demonstrate the combination produces better results than glucosamine sulfate alone.

  2. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  3. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... colibacillosis: Gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 25 mg of gentamicin per gallon of drinking water to provide 0.5 mg per pound of body weight per day; (ii) For swine dysentery: Gentamicin sulfate equivalent to 50 mg... sulfate powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of powder contains gentamicin sulfate equivalent to: (1)...

  5. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate... following specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium...

  6. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is prepared by sulfation... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfated butyl oleate. 172.270 Section 172.270...

  7. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfated butyl oleate. 172.270 Section 172.270... by sulfation, using concentrated sulfuric acid, of a mixture of butyl esters produced...

  8. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  9. Biomass Processing using Ionic Liquids for Jet Fuel Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-09

    model compounds) phase diagrams, and Thrust 3: Examination of the activity of cellulase enzymes in ILs for the conversion of cellulose to glucose...1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, do not result in any significant variation in β-glucosidase cellulase enzyme activity—this is important since

  10. Ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Eastoe, Julian; Gold, Sarah; Rogers, Sarah E; Paul, Alison; Welton, Tom; Heenan, Richard K; Grillo, Isabelle

    2005-05-25

    Phase stability and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that surfactant-stabilized nanodomains of a typical ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF4]) may be dispersed by the nonionic surfactant Triton-X100 in cyclohexane. Analyses of these SANS data are consistent with the formation of ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion droplets.

  11. A Sustainable Approach to the Stereoselective Synthesis of Diazaheptacyclic Cage Systems Based on a Multicomponent Strategy in an Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, Raju; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Arumugam, Natarajan; Altaf, Mohammad; Menéndez, José Carlos; Kumar, Raju Ranjith; Osman, Hasnah

    2016-01-29

    The microwave-assisted three-component reactions of 3,5-bis(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones, acenaphthenequinone and cyclic α-amino acids in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, occurred through a domino sequence affording structurally intriguing diazaheptacyclic cage-like compounds in excellent yields.

  12. Ionic Liquid as a Solvent and Catalyst for Acylation of Maltodextrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catalyst-free esterification of maltodextrin was carried out in ionic liquid. Stearate esters of maltodextrin were obtained in various degree of substitution (DS) when vinyl stearate or stearic acid was heated with maltodextrin in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cyanamide (bmim[dca]). Re...

  13. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  14. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate regulates early branching events in the developing mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Bush, Kevin T; Crawford, Brett E; Garner, Omai B; Nigam, Kabir B; Esko, Jeffrey D; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2012-12-07

    Branching morphogenesis, a fundamental process in the development of epithelial organs (e.g. breast, kidney, lung, salivary gland, prostate, pancreas), is in part dependent on sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Proper sulfation is mediated by biosynthetic enzymes, including exostosin-2 (Ext2), N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases and heparan sulfate O-sulfotransferases. Recent conditional knockouts indicate that whereas primary branching is dependent on heparan sulfate, other stages are dependent upon selective addition of N-sulfate and/or 2-O sulfation (Crawford, B .E., Garner, O. B., Bishop, J. R., Zhang, D. Y., Bush, K. T., Nigam, S. K., and Esko, J. D. (2010) PLoS One 5, e10691; Garner, O .B., Bush, K. T., Nigam, S .K., Yamaguchi, Y., Xu, D., Esko, J. D., and Nigam, S. K. (2011) Dev. Biol. 355, 394-403). Here, we analyzed the effect of deleting both Ndst2 and Ndst1. Whereas deletion of Ndst1 has no major effect on primary or secondary branching, deletion of Ndst2 appears to result in a mild increase in branching. When both genes were deleted, ductal growth was variably diminished (likely due to variable Cre-recombinase activity), but an overabundance of branched structures was evident irrespective of the extent of gland growth or postnatal age. "Hyperbranching" is an unusual phenotype. The effects on N-sulfation and growth factor binding were confirmed biochemically. The results indicate that N-sulfation or a factor requiring N-sulfation regulates primary and secondary branching events in the developing mammary gland. Together with previous work, the data indicate that different stages of ductal branching and lobuloalveolar formation are regulated by distinct sets of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes in an appropriate growth factor context.

  15. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  16. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  17. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  18. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  19. Comparative safety of the antifouling compound butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) to the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Ye, Rui; Xu, Ying; Gao, Zhaoming; Au, Doris W T; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential adverse effects of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), a model fish for marine ecotoxicology. The active ingredient used in the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) was employed as the positive control. Adult marine medaka (4-month-old) were exposed to various concentrations of butenolide or DCOIT for 28 days and then depurated in clean seawater for 14 days (recovery). A suite of sensitive biomarkers, including hepatic oxidative stress, neuronal signal transmission, endocrine disruption, and reproductive function, was used to measure significant biological effects induced by the chemicals. Compared to DCOIT, chronic exposure to butenolide induced a lower extent of oxidative stress in the liver of male and female medaka. Furthermore, butenolide-exposed fish could recover faster from oxidative stress than fish exposed to DCOIT. Regarding neurotransmission, DCOIT significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain of both male and female medaka, whereas this was not significant for butenolide. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2) level was elevated and testosterone (T) level was decreased in male medaka exposed to DCOIT. This greatly imbalanced sex hormones ratio (E2/T) in exposed males, indicating that DCOIT is a potent endocrine disruptive chemical. In contrast, butenolide induced only moderate effects on sex hormone levels in exposed males, which could be gradually recovered during depuration. Moreover, the endocrine disruptive effect induced by butenolide did not affect normal development of offspring. In contrast, DCOIT-exposed fish exhibited a decrease of egg production and impaired reproductive success. Overall, the above findings demonstrated that chronic exposure to butenolide induced transient, reversible biological effect on marine medaka, while DCOIT could impair reproductive success of fish, as

  20. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-07-18

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 μm mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 μm for DOP oil and 0.549 μm for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 μm to 3.0 μm, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  1. The asymmetrical effects of some ionized n-octyl derivatives on the sodium current of the giant axon of Loligo forbesi.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J R; Haydon, D A; Hendry, B M

    1984-01-01

    The effects of octyltrimethylammonium ions (OTMA+), octyl sulphate ions (OS-) and octanoic acid (OA) on the sodium current of the voltage-clamped squid giant axon have been investigated using intracellular and extracellular application of the test substances. OTMA+ applied externally at concentrations of 0.8-5.0 mM produces a small reversible increase in the peak inward sodium current in both intact and CsF-perfused axons. Intracellular application of OTMA+ at 0.8 mM to CsF-perfused axons causes a reversible 50% suppression of peak inward sodium current. The inhibition of peak inward current by internal OTMA+ arises largely from a shift of the steady-state activation parameter (m infinity) in the depolarizing direction along the voltage axis. There is little use dependence of the current suppression by OTMA+ OA applied either internally or externally is more effective at suppressing peak inward sodium current at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.4. At pH 6.0 external application of 5 mM-OA to perfused axons causes approximately 60% suppression. This is associated with a depolarizing shift of m infinity of about 13 mV and a hyperpolarizing shift of the steady-state inactivation (h infinity) curve of about 4 mV. The effects of internal and external OA are broadly similar except that the h infinity shift is not seen with internal application. OS- at concentrations above 2.0 mM produces complete irreversible loss of sodium current. At 2.0 mM, OS- produces 10% current suppression and a small depolarizing shift of the m infinity curve. Internal and external applications of OS- differ little except that external OS- causes a 25% increase in the time constant of activation (tau m). The possible origins of these effects are discussed. It is proposed that the shift of m infinity caused by internal OTMA+ is due to a diminution of the lipid dipole potential at the internal surface of the membrane caused by OTMA+ adsorption. This effect could also account for the m infinity shift caused by

  2. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  3. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

  4. Sulfated polysaccharides and immune response: promoter or inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Wu, X Z; Wen, Z Y

    2008-06-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides, which frequently connect to core protein, are expressed not only on cell surface but also throughout the extracellular matrix. Besides providing structural integrity of cells, sulfated polysaccharides interact with a variety of sulfated polysaccharides-binding proteins, such as growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and proteases. Sulfated polysaccharides play two-edged roles, inhibitor and promoter, in immune response. Some sulfated polysaccharides act as the immunosuppressor by blocking inflammatory signal transduction induced by proinflammatory cytokines, suppressing the activation of complement and inhibiting the process that leukocytes adhere to and pass through endothelium. On the contrary, the interaction between immune cells and sulfated polysaccharides produced by bacteria, endothelial cells and immune cells initiate the occurrence of immune response. It promotes the processes of recognizing and arresting antigen, migrating transendothelium, moving into and out of immune organ and enhancing the proliferation of lymphocyte. The structure of sulfated polysaccharides, such as molecular weight and sulfated sites heterogeneity, especially the degree of disaccharide sulfation, position of the sulfate moiety and organization of sulfated domains, may play critical role in their controversial effects. As a consequence, the interaction between sulfated polysaccharides and sulfated polysaccharide-binding proteins may be changed by modifying the structure of sulfated polysaccharides chains. The administration of drug targeting sulfated polysaccharide-protein interaction may be useful in treating inflammatory related diseases.

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a... nonsusceptible to the antibiotics incorporated in the drug. (4) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  6. Radioiodination of Aryl-Alkyl Cyclic Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), 124I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes 124I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel 124I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [124I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

  7. Artifactual Sulfation of Silver-stained Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Marlene; Marcantonio, Maria; Lehmann, Sylvia G.; Courcelles, Mathieu; Meloche, Sylvain; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Sulfation and phosphorylation are post-translational modifications imparting an isobaric 80-Da addition on the side chain of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. These two post-translational modifications are often difficult to distinguish because of their similar MS fragmentation patterns. Targeted MS identification of these modifications in specific proteins commonly relies on their prior separation using gel electrophoresis and silver staining. In the present investigation, we report a potential pitfall in the interpretation of these modifications from silver-stained gels due to artifactual sulfation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues by sodium thiosulfate, a commonly used reagent that catalyzes the formation of metallic silver deposits onto proteins. Detailed MS analyses of gel-separated protein standards and Escherichia coli cell extracts indicated that several serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues were sulfated using silver staining protocols but not following Coomassie Blue staining. Sodium thiosulfate was identified as the reagent leading to this unexpected side reaction, and the degree of sulfation was correlated with increasing concentrations of thiosulfate up to 0.02%, which is typically used for silver staining. The significance of this artifact is discussed in the broader context of sulfation and phosphorylation site identification from in vivo and in vitro experiments. PMID:18936056

  8. Acetate production from oil under sulfate-reducing conditions in bioreactors injected with sulfate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Callbeck, Cameron M; Agrawal, Akhil; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2013-08-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266-269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields.

  9. Heparin-like properties of sulfated alginates with defined sequences and sulfation degrees.

    PubMed

    Arlov, Øystein; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Sundan, Anders; Espevik, Terje; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund

    2014-07-14

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans have a vast range of protein interactions relevant to the development of new biomaterials and pharmaceuticals, but their characterization and application is complicated mainly due to a high structural variability and the relative difficulty to isolate large quantities of structurally homogeneous samples. Functional and versatile analogues of heparin/heparan sulfate can potentially be created from sulfated alginates, which offer structure customizability through targeted enzymatic epimerization and precise tuning of the sulfation degree. Alginates are linear polysaccharides consisting of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G), derived from brown algae and certain bacteria. The M/G ratio and distribution of blocks are critical parameters for the physical properties of alginates and can be modified in vitro using mannuronic-C5-epimerases to introduce sequence patterns not found in nature. Alginates with homogeneous sequences (poly-M, poly-MG, and poly-G) and similar molecular weights were chemically sulfated and structurally characterized by the use of NMR and elemental analysis. These sulfated alginates were shown to bind and displace HGF from the surface of myeloma cells in a manner similar to heparin. We observed dependence on the sulfation degree (DS) as well as variation in efficacy based on the alginate monosaccharide sequence, relating to relative flexibility and charge density in the polysaccharide chains. Co-incubation with human plasma showed complement compatibility of the alginates and lowering of soluble terminal complement complex levels by sulfated alginates. The sulfated polyalternating (poly-MG) alginate proved to be the most reproducible in terms of precise sulfation degrees and showed the greatest relative degree of complement inhibition and HGF interaction, maintaining high activity at low DS values.

  10. The heparanome--the enigma of encoding and decoding heparan sulfate sulfation.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, William C; Kalus, Ina; Padva, Michael; Baldwin, Rebecca J; Merry, Catherine L R; Dierks, Thomas

    2007-04-30

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cell surface carbohydrate polymer modified with sulfate moieties whose highly ordered composition is central to directing specific cell signaling events. The ability of the cell to generate these information rich glycans with such specificity has opened up a new field of "heparanomics" which seeks to understand the systems involved in generating these cell type and developmental stage specific HS sulfation patterns. Unlike other instances where biological information is encrypted as linear sequences in molecules such as DNA, HS sulfation patterns are generated through a non-template driven process. Thus, deciphering the sulfation code and the dynamic nature of its generation has posed a new challenge to system biologists. The recent discovery of two sulfatases, Sulf1 and Sulf2, with the unique ability to edit sulfation patterns at the cell surface, has opened up a new dimension as to how we understand the regulation of HS sulfation patterning and pattern-dependent cell signaling events. This review will focus on the functional relationship between HS sulfation patterning and biological processes. Special attention will be given to Sulf1 and Sulf2 and how these key editing enzymes might act in concert with the HS biosynthetic enzymes to generate and regulate specific HS sulfation patterns in vivo. We will further explore the use of knock out mice as biological models for understanding the dynamic systems involved in generating HS sulfation patterns and their biological relevance. A brief overview of new technologies and innovations summarizes advances in the systems biology field for understanding non-template molecular networks and their influence on the "heparanome".

  11. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  12. Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Microbiology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfate reducing bacteria, the first nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria demonstrated to contain c type cytochromes, perform electron transfer coupled to phosphorylation. A new bioenergetic scheme for the formation of a proton gradient for growth of Desulfovibrio on organic substrates and sulfate involving vectors electron transfer and consistent with the cellular localization of enzymes and electron transfer components was proposed. Hydrogen is produced in the cytoplasm from organic substrates and, as a permease molecule diffuses rapidly across the cytoplasmic membrane, it is oxidized to protons and electrons by the periplasmic hydrogenase. The electrons only are transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cytoplasm where they are used to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The protons are used for transport or to drive a reversible ATPOSE. The net effect is the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane with the intervention of a proton pump. This type of H2 cycling is relevant to the bioenergetics of other types of anaerobic microorganisms.

  13. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  14. Membranes solve North Sea waterflood sulfate problems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Lomax, I.; Plummer, M.

    1996-11-25

    To prevent barium sulfate scale from forming in the North Sea Brae field producing wells, Marathon Oil Co. UK Ltd. is successfully employing thin-film composite (nanofiltration) membranes for removing sulfate from injected seawater. In the early 1980s, FilmTec Corp., a Dow Chemical Co. subsidiary, first developed these composite membranes, which now are in their third generation. Marathon Oil Co. holds the patent for the specific nanofiltration membrane process for mitigating scale formation and deleterious reservoir effects. This first article in a three-part series describes membrane technology. The remaining articles detail specific membrane performance characteristics and field experiences in the Brae fields.

  15. Determination of solute partition behavior with room-temperature ionic liquid based micellar gas-liquid chromatography stationary phases using the pseudophase model.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Andrew W; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2006-05-19

    The use of micelles in ionic liquid based gas-chromatography stationary phases was evaluated using equations derived for a "three-phase" model. This model allows the determination of all three partition coefficients involved in the system, and elucidates the micellar contribution to retention and selectivity. Four types of micellar-ionic liquid columns were examined in this study: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with sodium dodecylsulfate or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate with polyoxyethylene-100-stearyl ether or polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether. The partition coefficients were measured for a wide range of probe molecules capable of a variety of types and magnitudes of interactions. In general, most probe molecules preferentially partitioned to the micellar pseudophase over the bulk ionic liquid component of the stationary phase. Therefore, addition of surfactant to the stationary phase usually resulted in greater solute retention. It is also shown that the selectivity of the stationary phase is significantly altered by the presence of micelles, either by enhancing or lessening the separation. The effects of surfactant on the interaction parameters of the stationary phase are determined using the Abraham solvation parameter model. The addition of sodium dodecylsulfate and dioctyl sulfosuccinate to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride stationary phases generally increased the phase's hydrogen bond basicity and increased the level of dispersion interaction. Polyoxyethylene-100-stearyl ether and polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether surfactants, however, enhanced the pi-pi/n-pi, polarizability/dipolarity, and hydrogen bond basicity interactions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate to a greater degree than the ionic surfactants with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. However, these nonionic surfactants appeared to hinder the ability of the stationary phase to interact with solutes via dispersion forces

  16. Properties of an ionic liquid-tolerant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1 and its extracellular protease.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Atsushi; Senoo, Humiya; Ikeda, Yasuyuki; Kaida, Hideaki; Matsuhara, Chiaki; Kishimoto, Noriaki

    2016-07-01

    An ionic liquid-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CMW1, was isolated from a Japanese fermented soybean paste. Strain CMW1 grew in the presence of 10 % (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), a commonly used ionic liquid. Additionally, strain CMW1 grew adequately in the presence of the hydrophilic ionic liquids 10 % (v/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM]CF3SO3) or 2.5 % (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([BMIM]CF3SO3). Strain CMW1 produced an extracellular protease (BapIL) in the culture medium. BapIL was stable in the presence of 80 % (v/v) ionic liquids, [EMIM]CF3SO3, [BMIM]Cl, [BMIM]CF3SO3, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and functioned in 10 % (v/v) these ionic liquids. BapIL was stable at pH 4.0-12.6 or in 4004 mM NaCl solution, and exhibited activity in the presence of 50 % (v/v) hydrophilic or hydrophobic organic solvents. BapIL was completely inhibited by 1 mM PMSF and partially by 5 mM EDTA. BapIL belongs to the true subtilisins according to analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence. We showed that BapIL from the ionic liquid-tolerant B. amyloliquefaciens CMW1 exhibited tolerance to ionic liquid and halo, alkaline, and organic solvents.

  17. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  18. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  19. Selective sulfation of carrageenans and the influence of sulfate regiochemistry on anticoagulant properties.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Cristiano A; Noseda, Miguel D; Cipriani, Thales R; Gonçalves, Alan G; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Ducatti, Diogo R B

    2013-01-16

    Sulfated polysaccharides are recognized for their broad range of biological activities, including anticoagulant properties. The positions occupied by the sulfate groups are often related to the level of the inherent biological activity. Herein the naturally sulfated galactans, kappa-, iota- and theta-carrageenan, were additionally sulfated by regioselective means. The anticoagulant activity of the resulting samples was then studied using the aPTT in vitro assay. The influence of sulfate regiochemistry on the anticoagulant activity was evaluated. From kappa-carrageenan three rare polysaccharides were synthesized, one of them involved a synthetic route with an amphiphilic polysaccharide intermediate containing pivaloyl groups. Iota- and theta-carrageenan were utilized in a selective C6 sulfation at β-D-Galp units to produce different structures comprising trisulfated diads. All the samples were characterized by NMR (1D and 2D). The resulting aPPT measurements suggested that sulfation at C2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-D-Galp and C6 of β-D-Galp increased the anticoagulant activity.

  20. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present.

  1. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  3. Sulfates and phyllosilicates in Aureum Chaos, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowe, M.; Wendt, L.; McGuire, P. C.; Neukum, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many Martian regions show a hydrated mineralogy indicating that aqueous processes played a major role in the planet's past. This study combines short wave infrared data, imagery and elevation data to identify these minerals in an equatorial chaotic terrain region and to find out their stratigraphy and geological context. Local Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) display three stratigraphic units: The lowest unit shows massive and also layered, monohydrated sulfate (MHS, best matching kieserite; 20-650 m thick), intercalated hydroxylated ferric sulfates (HFS, best matching jarosite) and ferric oxides. The overlying polyhydrated sulfate (PHS) is commonly layered (20-40 m thick), smooth to heavily fractured, partially with ferric oxides. Spectrally neutral, distinctly layered, bumpy cap rock (40-300 m thick) forms the top. Units are spectrally and morphologically similar to deposits of Aram Chaos (PHS, MHS, ferric oxides; texture of ILD and cap rock) and Juventae Chasma (HFS). Here, the phyllosilicate nontronite is found attributed to chaotic terrain as a light-toned fractured exposure but also within dark, smooth mantling. Coexisting sulfates and phyllosilicates demonstrate geochemical variations in the aqueous environment. Conversions between sulfates and iron oxides are considered, since we might be looking at alteration products instead of the parent rock material. Here, PHS occurs along mantling edges and flat surfaces of MHS without showing textural differences; making it a potential alteration product of MHS (e.g. due to surface exposure). Since the facies and timing of sulfate formation remain undefined, two different formation models are considered: contemporaneous ILD and PHS deposition with diagenetic sulfate conversion due to overburden (into MHS, iron oxides) later on; and groundwater evaporation. The first is less likely since a (sharp) PHS-MHS boundary is required that would indicate a diagenetic formation. The second is more consistent with our

  4. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  4. Lung injury in dimethyl sulfate poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, M.; Wong, K.L.; Wong, K.F.; So, S.Y.

    1989-02-01

    Two manual laborers were exposed to dimethyl sulfate during work and sustained mucosal injury to the eyes and respiratory tract. In one of them, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurred and improved with high-dose methylprednisolone. On follow-up for 10 months, this patient developed persistent productive cough with no evidence of bronchiectasis or bronchial hyperreactivity.

  5. Hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dawei; Li, Chunlin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Jianmin; Ye, Xingnan; Li, Ling; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Hu, Zhongyang

    2014-01-01

    The hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer and a nephelometer. AAS particles do not exhibit a deliquescence phenomenon and show a monotonic increase in diameter as the relative humidity (RH) ascends. Hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) for 40, 100 and 150 nm alkylaminium sulfate particles do not show an apparent Kelvin effect when RH is less than 45%, whereas GFs of the salt aerosols increase with initial particle size when RH is higher than 45%. Calculation using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule suggests that hygroscopic growth of triethylaminium sulfate-ammonium sulfate mixtures is non-deliquescent, occurring at very low RH, implying that the displacement of ammonia by amine will significantly enhance the hygroscopicity of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols. In addition, light extinction of AAS particles is a combined effect of both scattering and absorption under dry conditions, but is dominated by scattering under wet conditions.

  6. Minnows get columnaris too; copper sulfate works!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of copper sulfate (CuSO4), when delivered in either a flow-through or static system, on the survival of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas; Fig. 1A) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; Fig. 1B) infected with Flavobacterium columnare (...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  8. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  9. Status of copper sulfate research at SNARC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate will be given. The change in Sponsorship will also be discussed. The Initial label claim will be “For the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis)...

  10. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams...

  11. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams...

  12. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams...

  13. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams...

  14. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams...

  15. Diffusion of triglycine sulfate in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, R. L.; Reiss, D.; Silberman, E.; Morgan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of triglycine sulfate (TGS) in water was measured for several concentrations over a temperature range of 25 to 55 C. The activation energy for diffusion obtained from these measurements was 4180 cal/mol. No concentration dependence was seen. The maximum difference in D for the various ionic species present was determined by Raman spectroscopy to be about 5 percent.

  16. MEASUREMENT AND QUANTIFICATION OF SULFATES IN MINING INFLUENCED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most hard rock (mineral) mine drainages contain metals and sulfates higher than current water quality standards permit for discharge. In treating these wastes with passive systems, scientists and engineers have concentrated on using sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) and their ...

  17. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C. )

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with (35S) sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  18. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ecarot-Charrier, B; Bouchard, F; Delloye, C

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  19. Microbial Sulfate Reduction at Cold Seeps Based on Analysis of Carbonate Associated Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, D.; Peng, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction and coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) are the dominant biogeochemical processes occurring at cold seeps in marine settings. These processes not only support the growth of chemosynthetic communities but also promote the precipitation of authigenic carbonates. However, investigations of microbial sulfate reduction have been conducted only using porewaters or seep-related barites. The fact is that many seeps are either inactive or do not precipitate any barite minerals. Thus, little is known about the microbial sulfate reduction at these seep environments. The occurrence of authigenic carbonate has been documented at almost all cold seep sites, which provide a unique opportunity to investigate the microbial sulfate reduction using such carbonate. The presentation is focused on the concentrations and isotopic signatures of carbonate associated sulfate (CAS). The aim of the project is to determine the role of sulfate and sulfate reduction during carbonate precipitation at cold seeps. The CAS concentrations are 67-537 ppm in high-Mg calcite, 51-181 ppm in low-Mg calcite, and 116-565 in aragonite. The δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS also vary considerably, ranging from 21.9‰ to 56.2‰ (V-CDT) and from 10.1‰ to 24.8‰ (V-SMOW), respectively. On δ34SCAS versus δ18OCAS plots, both aragonite and calcite show linear trends that project down toward those of open seawater sulfate. The trends suggest that sulfate has been isotopically modified to various degrees in pore fluids before being incorporated into carbonate lattice. The much narrower δ34SCAS and δ18OCAS ranges for aragonite than for calcite suggests a much "pickier" condition for aragonite formation during early diagenesis. Our results suggest that concentration and isotopic composition of CAS in seep carbonates may be controlled by the supply of pore-water sulfate during carbonate precipitation. The reliability of CAS in carbonate of early diagenetic origin as a proxy of

  20. Sources of sulfate supporting anaerobic metabolism in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, G.A.; Breit, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Suflita, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory techniques were used to identify the biogeochemical factors affecting sulfate reduction in a shallow, unconsolidated alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. Depth profiles of 35S-sulfate reduction rates in aquifer sediments were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved sulfate. Manipulation of the sulfate concentration in samples revealed a Michaelis-Menten-like relationship with an apparent Km and Vmax of approximately 80 and 0.83 ??M SO4-2??day-1, respectively. The concentration of sulfate in the core of the leachate plume was well below 20 ??M and coincided with very low reduction rates. Thus, the concentration and availability of this anion could limit in situ sulfate-reducing activity. Three sulfate sources were identified, including iron sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and advective flux of sulfate. The relative importance of these sources varied with depth in the alluvium. The relatively high concentration of dissolved sulfate at the water table is attributed to the microbial oxidation of iron sulfides in response to fluctuations of the water table. At intermediate depths, barite dissolves in undersaturated pore water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved barium (???100 ??M) and low concentrations of sulfate. Dissolution is consistent with the surface texture of detrital barite grains in contact with leachate. Laboratory incubations of unamended and barite-amended aquifer slurries supported the field observation of increasing concentrations of barium in solution when sulfate reached low levels. At a deeper highly permeable interval just above the confining bottom layer of the aquifer, sulfate reduction rates were markedly higher than rates at intermediate depths. Sulfate is supplied to this deeper zone by advection of uncontaminated groundwater beneath the landfill. The measured rates of sulfate reduction in the aquifer also correlated with the abundance of accumulated iron sulfide

  1. Discovery of a heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation specific peeling reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert-Jan; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-06

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases mentioned above. By contrast, multiple distinct isoforms of 3-O-sulfotranserases exist in mammals (up to seven isoenzymes). Here we describe a novel peeling reaction that specifically degrades HS chains with 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing-end. When HS/heparin is enzymatically depolymerized for compositional analysis, 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing ends appears to be susceptible to degradation under mildly basic conditions. We propose a 3-O-desulfation initiated peeling reaction mechanism based on the intermediate and side-reaction products observed. Our discovery calls for the re-evaluation of the natural abundance and functions of HS 3-O-sulfation by taking into consideration the negative impact of this novel peeling reaction.

  2. The uremic toxicity of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; Schepers, Eva; Pletinck, Anneleen; Nagler, Evi V; Glorieux, Griet

    2014-09-01

    A growing number of publications supports a biologic effect of the protein-bound uremic retention solutes indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. However, the use of unrealistically high free concentrations of these compounds and/or inappropriately low albumin concentrations may blur the interpretation of these results. Here, we performed a systematic review, selecting only studies in which, depending on the albumin concentration, real or extrapolated free concentrations of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate remained in the uremic range. The 27 studies retrieved comprised in vitro and animal studies. A quality score was developed, giving 1 point for each of the following criteria: six or more experiments, confirmation by more than one experimental approach, neutralization of the biologic effect by counteractive reagents or antibodies, use of a real-life model, and use of dose-response analyses in vitro and/or animal studies. The overall average score was 3 of 5 points, with five studies scoring 5 of 5 points and six studies scoring 4 of 5 points, highlighting the superior quality of a substantial number of the retrieved studies. In the 11 highest scoring studies, most functional deteriorations were related to uremic cardiovascular disease and kidney damage. We conclude that our systematic approach allowed the retrieval of methodologically correct studies unbiased by erroneous conditions related to albumin binding. Our data seem to confirm the toxicity of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate and support their roles in vascular and renal disease progression.

  3. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  11. Absorption of sulfur dioxide from gases by ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, B.J.; Zambrano, A.R.

    1980-12-09

    This application is directed to the use of ferrous sulfate for absorption of sulfur from gases containing the same. The invention is predicated on the reaction of the sulfur oxides with ferrous sulfate in the presence of oxygen to form principally ferric sulfate.

  12. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc methionine sulfate. 172.399 Section 172.399... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine... conditions: (a) The additive is the product of the reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  18. Water absorbance and thermal properties of sulfated wheat gluten films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten films of varying thicknesses formed at 30C to 70C were treated with cold sulfuric acid to produce sulfated gluten films. Chemical, thermal, thermal stability, and water uptake properties were characterized for neat and sulfated films. The sulfated gluten films were able ...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection veterinary contains either 50 or 200 milligrams of kanamycin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c)...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection veterinary contains either 50 or 200 milligrams of kanamycin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c)...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection veterinary contains either 50 or 200 milligrams of kanamycin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c)...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection veterinary contains either 50 or 200 milligrams of kanamycin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  1. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  2. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  11. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate....

  16. Nanocrystalline cellulose with various contents of sulfate groups.

    PubMed

    Voronova, M I; Surov, O V; Zakharov, A G

    2013-10-15

    Properties of films derived from aqueous nanocrystalline cellulose dispersions by water evaporation depend on concentration of sulfate groups. Namely type of thermodestruction and surface morphology change as a function of contents of sulfate groups. Surface roughness increases and water adsorption enhances with increasing sulfate groups content particularly at high relative pressure.

  17. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  18. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  19. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  20. Electrical conductivity of seven binary systems containing 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium alkyl sulfate ionic liquids with water or ethanol at four temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rilo, E; Vila, J; García-Garabal, S; Varela, L M; Cabeza, O

    2013-02-07

    We present experimental measurements of specific electrical (or ionic) conductivity of seven binary systems of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium alkyl sulfate (EMIM-C(n)S) with water or ethanol. Electrical conductivity was measured at 298.15 K in all ranges of concentrations and selected mixtures also at 288.15, 308.15, and 318.15 K. The alkyl chains of the anions used are ethyl (EMIM-ES), butyl (EMIM-BS), hexyl (EMIM-HS), and, only for mixtures with ethanol, octyl (EMIM-OS). Let us note that the four ionic liquids (ILs) measured are miscible in water and ethanol at those temperatures and atmospheric pressure in all ranges of concentrations, but EMIM-OS jellifies for a given range of concentration with water. We compare the measured data in terms of the alkyl chain length and solvent nature. Data are compared with previously scarce results for these same systems and also for other aqueous and ethanol mixtures with ILs. In addition, we verify that our data fit the universal theoretical expression with no fitting parameters given by the pseudolattice-based Bahe-Varela model, except for IL concentrated mixtures. To fit well all ranges of concentrations, we add to the original equation two phenomenological terms with one fitting parameter each. Finally, we calculate the molar conductivity and fit it successfully with an expression derived from Onsager theory.