Science.gov

Sample records for 1-d steady-state model

  1. Electron Density and Two-Channel Neutron Emission Measurements in Steady-State Spherical Inertial-Electrostatically Confined Plasmas, with Review of the 1-D Kinetic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the 1-D Poisson equation for EC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with non-fusing hydrogen-1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.

  2. Steady state HNG combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Louwers, J.; Gadiot, G.M.H.J.L.; Brewster, M.Q.; Son, S.F.; Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D.

    1998-04-01

    Two simplified modeling approaches are used to model the combustion of Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF, N{sub 2}H{sub 5}-C(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}). The condensed phase is treated by high activation energy asymptotics. The gas phase is treated by two limit cases: the classical high activation energy, and the recently introduced low activation energy approach. This results in simplification of the gas phase energy equation, making an (approximate) analytical solution possible. The results of both models are compared with experimental results of HNF combustion. It is shown that the low activation energy approach yields better agreement with experimental observations (e.g. regression rate and temperature sensitivity), than the high activation energy approach.

  3. Steady-state models of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2013-09-01

    In the challenge to increase photosynthetic rate per leaf area mathematical models of photosynthesis can be used to help interpret gas exchange measurements made under different environmental conditions and predict underlying photosynthetic biochemistry. To do this successfully it is important to improve the modelling of temperature dependencies of CO₂ assimilation and gain better understanding of internal CO₂ diffusion limitations. Despite these shortcomings steady-state models of photosynthesis provide simple easy to use tools for thought experiments to explore photosynthetic pathway changes such as redirecting photorespiratory CO₂, inserting bicarbonate pumps into C₃ chloroplasts or inserting C₄ photosynthesis into rice. Here a number of models derived from the C₃ model by Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry are discussed and compared.

  4. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2016-08-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  5. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2017-02-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  6. On the time to steady state: insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, L.; Willett, S.; McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.

    2013-12-01

    How fast do fluvial landscapes approach steady state after an application of tectonic or climatic perturbation? While theory and some numerical models predict that the celerity of the advective wave (knickpoint) controls the response time for perturbations, experiments and other landscape evolution models demonstrate that the time to steady state is much longer than the theoretically predicted response time. We posit that the longevity of transient features and the time to steady state are controlled by the stability of the topology and geometry of channel networks. Evolution of a channel network occurs by a combination of discrete capture events and continuous migration of water divides, processes, which are difficult to represent accurately in landscape evolution models. We therefore address the question of the time to steady state using the DAC landscape evolution model that solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC also includes an explicit capture criterion. We have tested fundamental predictions from DAC and show that modeled networks reproduce natural network characteristics such as the Hack's exponent and coefficient and the fractal dimension. We define two steady-state criteria: a topographic steady state, defined by global, pointwise steady elevation, and a topological steady state defined as the state in which no further reorganization of the drainage network takes place. Analyzing block uplift simulations, we find that the time to achieve either topographic or topological steady state exceeds by an order of magnitude the theoretical response time of the fluvial network. The longevity of the transient state is the result of the area feedback, by which, migration of a divide changes the local contributing area. This change propagates downstream as a slope adjustment, forcing further divide migrations

  7. Descriptive Linear modeling of steady-state visual evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.; Kenner, K.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to explore use of the steady state visual-evoke electrocortical response as an indicator of cognitive task loading. Application of linear descriptive modeling to steady state Visual Evoked Response (VER) data is summarized. Two aspects of linear modeling are reviewed: (1) unwrapping the phase-shift portion of the frequency response, and (2) parsimonious characterization of task-loading effects in terms of changes in model parameters. Model-based phase unwrapping appears to be most reliable in applications, such as manual control, where theoretical models are available. Linear descriptive modeling of the VER has not yet been shown to provide consistent and readily interpretable results.

  8. Nonequilibrium Steady States of a Stochastic Model System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiwei

    We study the nonequilibrium steady state of a stochastic lattice gas model, originally proposed by Katz, Lebowitz and Spohn (Phys. Rev. B 28: 1655 (1983)). Firstly, we solve the model on some small lattices exactly in order to see the general dependence of the steady state upon different parameters of the model. Nextly, we derive some analytical results for infinite lattice systems by taking some suitable limits. We then present some renormalization group results for the continuum version of the model via field theoretical techniques, the supersymmetry of the critical dynamics in zero field is also explored. Finally, we report some very recent 3-D Monte Carlo simulation results, which have been obtained by applying Multi-Spin-Coding techniques on a CDC vector supercomputer - Cyber 205 at John von Neumann Center.

  9. STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.

    2015-10-20

    In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.

  10. Cavitation modeling for steady-state CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanimann, L.; Mangani, L.; Casartelli, E.; Widmer, M.

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic turbomachines is an important phenomenon to be considered for performance predictions. Correct analysis of the cavitation onset and its effect on the flow field while diminishing the pressure level need therefore to be investigated. Even if cavitation often appears as an unsteady phenomenon, the capability to compute it in a steady state formulation for the design and assessment phase in the product development process is very useful for the engineer. In the present paper the development and corresponding application of a steady state CFD solver is presented, based on the open source toolbox OpenFOAM®. In the first part a review of different cavitation models is presented. Adopting the mixture-type cavitation approach, various models are investigated and developed in a steady state CFD RANS solver. Particular attention is given to the coupling between cavitation and turbulence models as well as on the underlying numerical procedure, especially the integration in the pressure- correction step of pressure-based solvers, which plays an important role in the stability of the procedure. The performance of the proposed model is initially assessed on simple cases available in the open literature. In a second step results for different applications are presented, ranging from airfoils to pumps.

  11. Ecological Implications of Steady State and Nonsteady State Bioaccumulation Models.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gordon; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-10-18

    Accurate predictions on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are critical for hazard and ecosystem health assessments. Aquatic systems are influenced by multiple stressors including climate change and species invasions and it is important to be able to predict variability in POP concentrations in changing environments. Current steady state bioaccumulation models simplify POP bioaccumulation dynamics, assuming that pollutant uptake and elimination processes become balanced over an organism's lifespan. These models do not consider the complexity of dynamic variables such as temperature and growth rates which are known to have the potential to regulate bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. We contrast a steady state (SS) bioaccumulation model with a dynamic nonsteady state (NSS) model and a no elimination (NE) model. We demonstrate that both the NSS and the NE models are superior at predicting both average concentrations as well as variation in POPs among individuals. This comparison demonstrates that temporal drivers, such as environmental fluctuations in temperature, growth dynamics, and modified food-web structure strongly determine contaminant concentrations and variability in a changing environment. These results support the recommendation of the future development of more dynamic, nonsteady state bioaccumulation models to predict hazard and risk assessments in the Anthropocene.

  12. Linear modeling of steady-state behavioral dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Palya, William L; Walter, Donald; Kessel, Robert; Lucke, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The observed steady-state behavioral dynamics supported by unsignaled periods of reinforcement within repeating 2,000-s trials were modeled with a linear transfer function. These experiments employed improved schedule forms and analytical methods to improve the precision of the measured transfer function, compared to previous work. The refinements include both the use of multiple reinforcement periods that improve spectral coverage and averaging of independently determined transfer functions. A linear analysis was then used to predict behavior observed for three different test schedules. The fidelity of these predictions was determined. PMID:11831782

  13. New models for fast steady state magnetic reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.; Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    A new unified family of models for incompressible, steady-state magnetic reconnection in a finite region is presented. The models are obtained by expanding in powers of the Alfven Mach number and may be used to elucidate some of the puzzling properties of numerical experiments on reconnection which are not present in the classical models. The conditions imposed on the inflow boundary of the finite region determine which member of the family occurs. Petscheklien and Sonnerup like solutions are particular members. The Sonneruplike regime is a special case of a weak slow mode expansion in the inflow region, and it separates two classes of members with reversed currents. The Petscheklike regime is a singular case of a weak fast mode expansion, and it separates the hybrid regime from a regime of slow mode compressions. Care should be taken in deciding which type of reconnection is operating in a numerical experiment. Indeed, no experiment to date has used boundary conditions appropriate for demonstrating steady state Petschek reconnection.

  14. Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, R.M.T.; Thiele, I.; Provan, G.; Nasheuer, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in E. coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis. PMID:20230840

  15. Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per

    2017-01-01

    We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to ∞}, after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'}. Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)}, has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.

  16. Modeling steady-state methanogenic degradation of phenols in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald F.

    1993-01-01

    Field and microcosm observations of methanogenic phenolic compound degradation indicate that Monod kinetics governs the substrate disappearance but overestimates the observed biomass. In this paper we present modeling results from an ongoing multidisciplinary study of methanogenic biodegradation of phenolic compounds in a sand and gravel aquifer contaminated by chemicals and wastes used in wood treatment. Field disappearance rates of four phenols match those determined in batch microcosm studies previously performed by E.M. Godsy and coworkers. The degradation process appears to be at steady-state because even after a sustained influx over several decades, the contaminants still are disappearing in transport downgradient. The existence of a steady-state degradation profile of each substrate together with a low biomass density in the aquifer indicate that the bacteria population is exhibiting no net growth. This may be due to the oligotrophic nature of the biomass population in which utilization and growth are approximately independent of concentration for most of the concentration range. Thus a constant growth rate should exist over much of the contaminated area which may in turn be balanced by an unusually high decay or maintenance rate due to hostile conditions or predation.

  17. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  18. Modelling of pulsed and steady-state DEMO scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Fable, E.; Garzotti, L.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kemp, R.; King, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stankiewicz, R.; Stępniewski, W.; Vincenzi, P.; Ward, D.; Zagórski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Scenario modelling for the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) has been carried out using a variety of simulation codes. Two DEMO concepts have been analysed: a pulsed tokamak, characterized by rather conventional physics and technology assumptions (DEMO1) and a steady-state tokamak, with moderately advanced physics and technology assumptions (DEMO2). Sensitivity to impurity concentrations, radiation, and heat transport models has been investigated. For DEMO2, the impact of current driven non-inductively by neutral beams has been studied by full Monte Carlo simulations of the fast ion distribution. The results obtained are a part of a more extensive research and development (R&D) effort carried out in the EU in order to develop a viable option for a DEMO reactor, to be adopted after ITER for fusion energy research.

  19. Transient and steady state modelling of a coupled WECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, G. K.; Tan, J. K.

    The paper presents a method for simulation of a wind turbine using a dc motor. The armature and field voltages of the dc motor are independently regulated to obtain torque-speed characteristics which correspond to those of a wind turbine at different wind speeds. The mass moment of inertia of the wind turbine is represented by adding a rotating mass to a parallel shaft which is positively coupled to the motor shaft. To verify the method of simulation, an American multiblade wind turbine is chosen, loaded by coupling to a centrifugal pump. Using the principle of conservation of energy and characteristics of both constituent units, two mathematical models are proposed: one for steady state operation and another for the transient state. The close comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results validates the proposed models and the method of simulation. The experimental method is described and the results of the experimental and theoretical investigation are presented.

  20. A steady state pressure drop model for screen channel liquid acquisition devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, J. W.; Darr, S. R.; McQuillen, J. B.; Rame, E.; Chato, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the derivation of a simplified one dimensional (1D) steady state pressure drop model for flow through a porous liquid acquisition device (LAD) inside a cryogenic propellant tank. Experimental data is also presented from cryogenic LAD tests in liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) to compare against the simplified model and to validate the model at cryogenic temperatures. The purpose of the experiments was to identify the various pressure drop contributions in the analytical model which govern LAD channel behavior during dynamic, steady state outflow. LH2 pipe flow of LAD screen samples measured the second order flow-through-screen (FTS) pressure drop, horizontal LOX LAD outflow tests determined the relative magnitude of the third order frictional and dynamic losses within the channel, while LH2 inverted vertical outflow tests determined the magnitude of the first order hydrostatic pressure loss and validity of the full 1D model. When compared to room temperature predictions, the FTS pressure drop is shown to be temperature dependent, with a significant increase in flow resistance at LH2 temperatures. Model predictions of frictional and dynamic losses down the channel compare qualitatively with LOX LADs data. Meanwhile, the 1D model predicted breakdown points track the trends in the LH2 inverted outflow experimental results, with discrepancies being due to a non-uniform injection velocity across the LAD screen not accounted for in the model.

  1. Dynamic causal models of steady-state responses

    PubMed Central

    Moran, R.J.; Stephan, K.E.; Seidenbecher, T.; Pape, H.-C.; Dolan, R.J.; Friston, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a dynamic causal model (DCM) of steady-state responses in electrophysiological data that are summarised in terms of their cross-spectral density. These spectral data-features are generated by a biologically plausible, neural-mass model of coupled electromagnetic sources; where each source comprises three sub-populations. Under linearity and stationarity assumptions, the model's biophysical parameters (e.g., post-synaptic receptor density and time constants) prescribe the cross-spectral density of responses measured directly (e.g., local field potentials) or indirectly through some lead-field (e.g., electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic data). Inversion of the ensuing DCM provides conditional probabilities on the synaptic parameters of intrinsic and extrinsic connections in the underlying neuronal network. This means we can make inferences about synaptic physiology, as well as changes induced by pharmacological or behavioural manipulations, using the cross-spectral density of invasive or non-invasive electrophysiological recordings. In this paper, we focus on the form of the model, its inversion and validation using synthetic and real data. We conclude with an illustrative application to multi-channel local field potential data acquired during a learning experiment in mice. PMID:19000769

  2. Modeling on the Steady State of Thwaites Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Rignot, E. J.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Thwaites Glacier (TWG) is the second largest ice stream in West Antarctica in terms of ice discharge, and the broadest ice stream in Antarctica (120 km wide). Observations and theory suggest that its configuration is inherently unstable in a warming climate. Satellite observations have revealed grounding line retreat, ice thinning, ice stream broadening and in more recent years ice flow acceleration. The most important part of the glacier evolution involves its grounding line dynamics and the impact of ice-ocean interactions. In a region between the grounding line and the limit of the flexure zone, some 10 km downstream, however, the glacier is not in hydrostatic equilibrium. Proper treatment of the grounding line dynamics requires full Stokes solution. Here, we model the grounding line of TWG in 2D, full Stokes, with the goal to examine whether the glacier is in a steady state configuration or not. The model treats ice sheet and ice shelf as two fluids coupled through the ice mass flux (Nowicki, 2008). Water stress is used as a constraint on the ice shelf instead of hydrostatic equilibrium. We use radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements of ice velocity and grounding line position through time, Bedmap2 and IceBridge thickness, and surface mass balance from RACMO to constrain the model. The results are used to conclude on the state of dynamic balance of the glacier. This work is funded by NASA Cryospheric Science Program.

  3. Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, Peter W.; Trester, Jeffrey J.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount.

  4. Nonequilibrium steady states in a model for prebiotic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynveen, A.; Fedorov, I.; Halley, J. W.

    2014-02-01

    Some statistical features of steady states of a Kauffman-like model for prebiotic evolution are reported from computational studies. We postulate that the interesting "lifelike" states will be characterized by a nonequilibrium distribution of species and a time variable species self-correlation function. Selecting only such states from the population of final states produced by the model yields the probability of the appearance of such states as a function of a parameter p of the model. p is defined as the probability that a possible reaction in the the artificial chemistry actually appears in the network of chemical reactions. Small p corresponds to sparse networks utilizing a small fraction of the available reactions. We find that the probability of the appearance of such lifelike states exhibits a maximum as a function of p: at large p, most final states are in chemical equilibrium and hence are excluded by our criterion. At very small p, the sparseness of the network makes the probability of formation of any nontrivial dynamic final state low, yielding a low probability of production of lifelike states in this limit as well. We also report results on the diversity of the lifelike states (as defined here) that are produced. Repeated starts of the model evolution with different random number seeds in a given reaction network lead to final lifelike states which have a greater than random likelihood of resembling one another. Thus a form of "convergence" is observed. On the other hand, in different reaction networks with the same p, lifelike final states are statistically uncorrelated. In summary, the main results are (1) there is an optimal p or "sparseness" for production of lifelike states in our model—neither very dense nor very sparse networks are optimal—and (2) for a given p or sparseness, the resulting lifelike states can be extremely different. We discuss some possible implications for studies of the origin of life.

  5. A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.

  6. Bifurcation Analysis of 1D Steady States of the Bénard Problem in the Long Wavelength Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chengzhe; Troian, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the character and stability of stationary states of the (1 + 1) D evolution equation ∂t h +h3hxxx +h2∂x γ x = 0 describing the motion of an interface h (x , t) separating a thin warm viscous film from a thin cool inviscid layer where γ = γ (h) represents the interfacial tension. The phase diagram corresponding to all positive periodic steady states (PPSS) is specified by two variables - the global extrema of the equilibrum shape and a generalized mechanical interface pressure. The analytic forms describing the PPSS shapes, the minimal period, the average height and the generalized free energy are all confirmed numerically. We find there is at most one non-trivial PPSS for specified period and volume. We also find no stable perturbed PPSS near the critical point for volume conserving perturbations of identical period. A weakly non-linear analysis about the critical point yields bifurcations of the pitchfork-type. For all non-trivial PPSS, we verify the unstable nature of the PPSS by transforming the non-normal operator (resulting from the spatially inhomogeneous PPSS) to normal form, which we then solve by finite element computations.

  7. Study of the (1 + 1) D Long Wavelength Steady States of the Bénard Problem For Ultrathin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chengzhe; Troian, Sandra

    We investigate the stationary states of the (1 + 1) D equation ht +h3hxxx +h2γx (h) x = 0 for thin films of thickness h (x , t) where x is the spatial variable and t is time. The variable γ (h) , denotes the surface tension along the gas/liquid interface of the slender bilayer confined between two substrates enforcing thermal conduction within the gap. Equilibrium solutions include flat films, droplets, trenches/ridges and positive periodic steady states (PPSS), the latter conveniently parameterized by a generalized interfacial pressure and the global extremum in shape. We derive perturbative solutions describing PPSS shapes near the stability threshold including their minimal period, average height and free energy. Weakly nonlinear analysis confirms that flat films always undergo a supercritical unstable pitch-fork bifurcation. Globally, our numerical simulations indicate at most one non-trivial PPSS per given period and volume. The free energy of droplet states is also always lower than the relevant corresponding PPSS, suggesting that initial flat films tend to redistribute mass into droplet-like configurations. By solving the linearized eigenvalue problem, we also confirm the unstable nature of PPSS solutions far from the stability threshold.

  8. Hopf and steady state bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lai; Liu, Jia; Banerjee, Malay

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we perform spatiotemporal bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model and derive explicit conditions for the existence of non-constant steady states that emerge through steady state bifurcation from related constant steady states. These explicit conditions are numerically verified in details and further compared to those conditions ensuring Turing instability. We find that (1) Turing domain is identical to the parametric domain where there exists only steady state bifurcation, which implies that Turing patterns are stable non-constant steady states, but the opposite is not necessarily true; (2) In non-Turing domain, steady state bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation act in concert to determine the emergent spatial patterns, that is, non-constant steady state emerges through steady state bifurcation but it may be unstable if the destabilising effect of Hopf bifurcation counteracts the stabilising effect of diffusion, leading to non-stationary spatial patterns; (3) Coupling diffusion into an ODE model can significantly enrich population dynamics by inducing alternative non-constant steady states (four different states are observed, two stable and two unstable), in particular when diffusion interacts with different types of bifurcation; (4) Diffusion can promote species coexistence by saving species which otherwise goes to extinction in the absence of diffusion.

  9. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. Results This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. Conclusions The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate

  10. Steady-state existence of passive vector fields under the Kraichnan model.

    PubMed

    Arponen, Heikki

    2010-03-01

    The steady-state existence problem for Kraichnan advected passive vector models is considered for isotropic and anisotropic initial values in arbitrary dimension. The models include the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, linear pressure model, and linearized Navier-Stokes (LNS) equations. In addition to reproducing the previously known results for the MHD model, we obtain the values of the Kraichnan model roughness parameter xi for which the LNS steady state exists.

  11. Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.

  12. Analytical models of steady-state plumes undergoing sequential first-order degradation.

    PubMed

    Burnell, Daniel K; Mercer, James W; Sims, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    An exact, closed-form analytical solution is derived for one-dimensional (1D), coupled, steady-state advection-dispersion equations with sequential first-order degradation of three dissolved species in groundwater. Dimensionless and mathematical analyses are used to examine the sensitivity of longitudinal dispersivity in the parent and daughter analytical solutions. The results indicate that the relative error decreases to less than 15% for the 1D advection-dominated and advection-dispersion analytical solutions of the parent and daughter when the Damköhler number of the parent decreases to less than 1 (slow degradation rate) and the Peclet number increases to greater than 6 (advection-dominated). To estimate first-order daughter product rate constants in advection-dominated zones, 1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) steady-state analytical solutions with zero longitudinal dispersivity are also derived for three first-order sequentially degrading compounds. The closed form of these exact analytical solutions has the advantage of having (1) no numerical integration or evaluation of complex-valued error function arguments, (2) computational efficiency compared to problems with long times to reach steady state, and (3) minimal effort for incorporation into spreadsheets. These multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate results for 1D steady-state, applications with longitudinal dispersion. Although BIOCHLOR is inaccurate in multidimensional applications with longitudinal dispersion, these multidimensional multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate steady-state results when the longitudinal dispersion is zero. As an application, the 1D advection-dominated analytical solution is applied to estimate field-scale rate constants of 0.81, 0.74, and 0.69/year for trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, respectively, at the Harris Palm Bay, FL, CERCLA site.

  13. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  14. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  15. Modeling Steady-State Groundwater Flow Using Microcomputer Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousey, John Russell, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how microcomputer spreadsheets are easily adapted for use in groundwater modeling. Presents spreadsheet set-ups and the results of five groundwater models. Suggests that this approach can provide a basis for demonstrations, laboratory exercises, and student projects. (ML)

  16. Comparison between a steady-state and a transient flow model and related radionuclide concentration predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedeon, M.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Radionuclide concentration predictions in aquifers play an important role in estimating impact of planned surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF), who also coordinates and leads the corresponding research. Long-term concentration predictions are based on a steady-state flow solution obtained by a cascade of multi-scale models from the catchment to the detailed (site) scale performed in MODFLOW. To test the concept and accuracy of the groundwater flow solution and conservativeness of the concentration predictions obtained therewith, a transient model, considered more realistic, was set up in a sub-domain of the intermediate scale steady-state model. Besides the modelling domain reduction, the transient model was and exact copy of the steady-state model, having the infiltration as the only time-varying parameter. The transient model was run for a twenty-year period, whereas the results were compared to the steady-state results based on infiltration value and observations averaged over the same period. The comparison of the steady-state and transient flow solutions includes the analyses of the goodness of fit, the parameter sensitivities, relative importance of the individual observations and one-percent sensitivity maps. The steady-state and transient flow solutions were subsequently translated into a site-scale transport model, used to predict the radionuclide concentrations in a hypothetical well in the aquifers. The translation of the flow solutions between the models of distinct scales was performed using the Local grid refinement method available in MODFLOW. In the site-scale models, MT3DMS transport simulations were performed to obtain respective concentration predictions in a hypothetical well, situated at 70 meters from the disposal tumuli. The equilibrium concentrations based on a constant source flux achieved using a steady-state solution were then

  17. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  18. Steady-state Analysis Model for Advanced Fuelcycle Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-12

    The model was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003—2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down the cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model are represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high—level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can modify easily the values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see the corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front—end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs. It performs Monte Carlo simulations with changing the values of all unit costs within their respective ranges (from lower to upper bounds).

  19. Steady-state solutions of a diffusive energy-balance climate model and their stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1975-01-01

    A diffusive energy-balance climate model, governed by a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation, was studied. Three positive steady-state solutions of this equation are found; they correspond to three possible climates of our planet: an interglacial (nearly identical to the present climate), a glacial, and a completely ice-covered earth. Models similar to the main one are considered, and the number of their steady states was determined. All the models have albedo continuously varying with latitude and temperature, and entirely diffusive horizontal heat transfer. The stability under small perturbations of the main model's climates was investigated. A stability criterion is derived, and its application shows that the present climate and the deep freeze are stable, whereas the model's glacial is unstable. The dependence was examined of the number of steady states and of their stability on the average solar radiation.

  20. On the stability of steady states in a granuloma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Lam, King-Yeung

    We consider a free boundary problem for a system of two semilinear parabolic equations. The system represents a simple model of granuloma, a collection of immune cells and bacteria filling a 3-dimensional domain Ω(t) which varies in time. We prove the existence of stationary spherical solutions and study their linear asymptotic stability as time increases to infinity.

  1. Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycle Schemes.

    SciTech Connect

    SARTORI, ENRICO

    2008-03-17

    Version 00 SMAFS was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003-2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model are represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high-level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can easily modify values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front-end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs.

  2. Modeled Seasonal Variations of Firn Density Induced by Steady State Surface Air Temperature Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Li; Zwally, H. Jay; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal variations of firn density in ice-sheet firn layers have been attributed to variations in deposition processes or other processes within the upper firn. A recent high-resolution (mm scale) density profile, measured along a 181 m core from Antarctica, showed small-scale density variations with a clear seasonal cycle that apparently was not-related to seasonal variations in deposition or known near-surface processes (Gerland and others 1999). A recent model of surface elevation changes (Zwally and Li, submitted) produced a seasonal variation in firn densification, and explained the seasonal surface elevation changes observed by satellite radar altimeters. In this study, we apply our 1-D time-dependent numerical model of firn densification that includes a temperature-dependent formulation of firn densification based on laboratory measurements of grain growth. The model is driven by a steady-state seasonal surface temperature and a constant accumulation rate appropriate for the measured Antarctic ice core. The modeled seasonal variations in firn density show that the layers of snow deposited during spring to mid-summer with the highest temperature history compress to the highest density, and the layers deposited during later summer to autumn with the lowest temperature history compress to the lowest density. The initial amplitude of the seasonal difference of about 0.13 reduces to about 0.09 in five years and asymptotically to 0.92 at depth, which is consistent with the core measurements.

  3. Stochastic modeling analysis of sequential first-order degradation reactions and non-Fickian transport in steady state plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnell, Daniel K.; Mercer, James W.; Faust, Charles R.

    2014-02-01

    Stochastic analyses were performed to examine sequential first-order monomolecular reactions at the microscopic scale and both Fickian and non-Fickian plume reactive transport at the macroscopic scale. An analytical solution was derived for the chemical master equation (CME) for a closed system of irreversible first-order monomolecular reactions. Taking a Lagrangian reference frame of particles migrating from a source, analyses show that the relative concentration of each species in the deterministic analytical solution for 1-D steady state plug flow with first-order sequential degradation is mathematically equivalent to the mean of a multinomial distribution of plume particles moving at constant velocity with sequential transformations described by transition probabilities of a discrete state, continuous-time Markov chain. In order to examine the coupling of reaction and transport terms in subdiffusive-reactive transport equations, a closed-form multispecies analytical solution also was derived for steady state advection, dispersion, and sequential first-order reaction. Using a 1-D continuous-time random walk (CTRW) embedded in Markov chains, computationally efficient Monte Carlo simulations of particle movement were performed to more fully examine effects of subdiffusive-reactive transport with an application to steady state, sequentially degrading multispecies plumes at a site in Palm, Bay, FL. The simulation results indicated that non-Fickian steady state plumes can resemble Fickian plumes because linear reactions truncate the waiting time between particle jumps, which removes lower velocity particles from the broad spectrum of velocities in highly heterogeneous media. Results show that fitting of Fickian models to plume concentration data can lead to inaccurate estimates of rate constants because of the wide distribution of travel times in highly heterogeneous media.

  4. User's instructions for the 41-node thermoregulatory model (steady state version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1974-01-01

    A user's guide for the steady-state thermoregulatory model is presented. The model was modified to provide conversational interaction on a remote terminal, greater flexibility for parameter estimation, increased efficiency of convergence, greater choice of output variable and more realistic equations for respiratory and skin diffusion water losses.

  5. Unified analysis of transient and steady-state electrophosphorescence using exciton and polaron dynamics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershey, Kyle W.; Holmes, Russell J.

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can suffer a significant reduction in device efficiency under high current density excitation. This steady-state efficiency roll-off is frequently modeled by including losses from exciton-exciton and exciton-polaron quenching. Despite success in modeling the steady-state efficiency roll-off, the corresponding transient electroluminescence behavior has not been modeled as effectively using the same quenching processes. In this work, both the steady-state and transient electroluminescence behavior of phosphorescent OLEDs based on tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]Iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) are successfully reproduced by considering a dynamic polaron population. Within this model, polarons are able to either form excitons or leak through the device emissive layer, reducing the overall efficiency. This formalism permits a natural and rigorous connection between exciton and polaron dynamics and device charge balance, with the charge balance cast as the efficiency of exciton formation. The full dynamics model reproduces both the rise and decay of transient electroluminescence, as well as the full dependence of the external quantum efficiency on current density. Fit parameters are independently verified using separate studies of transient and steady-state photoluminescence. The model provides a complete picture for the dynamics present during the electrical operation of phosphorescent OLEDs, while also offering a direct route to elucidate exciton formation.

  6. Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2014-09-01

    We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.

  7. Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlíčková, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Zagórski, R.; Seidl, J.; Horáček, J.

    2011-06-01

    The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention given to transient parallel transport which reveals two distinct time scales due to the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Time-dependent modelling combined with the effect of ballooning shows propagation of particles along the magnetic field line with Mach number up to M ≈ 1 and supersonic transport when plasma-neutral interactions are not present. Asymmetric heat and particle fluxes are analysed for a case with poloidally asymmetric radial outflow (ballooning) and for a radial outflow with parallel momentum (rotation). In addition, parallel damping of the density and electron temperature calculated in SOLF1D is compared with the approximative model used in the turbulence code ESEL both for steady-state and turbulent SOL. Dynamics of the parallel transport are investigated for a simple transient event simulating the propagation of particles and energy to the targets from a blob passing across the flux tube at the outboard midplane and for more complex time-dependent data provided by ESEL.

  8. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2015-04-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  9. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-01-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  10. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  11. Steady-state and dynamic models of unified power flow controller (UPFC) for power system studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nabavi-Niaki, A.; Iravani, M.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides comprehensive development procedures and final forms of mathematical models of unified power flow controller (UPFC) for steady-state, transient stability and eigenvalue studies. Based on the developed models, the impacts of control strategy, parameters and location of UPFC on power system operating conditions are discussed. The accuracy of the developed models is verified through comparing the study results with those obtained from detailed time-domain simulation using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP).

  12. Cooperative Effects in Models of Steady-State Transport across Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Terrell L.; Chen, Yi-Der

    1971-01-01

    Several different one-site, two-site, and multisite models of steady-state ion transport across a membrane are investigated. The basic features, including cooperative interactions between channels, are the same as in earlier papers in this series. In particular, the present paper represents a considerable elaboration of part III. The models might apply to artificial or possibly to biological membranes, but particular applications must await further elucidation of the molecular structure and operation of these membranes. PMID:5132496

  13. Quantitative, steady-state properties of Catania's computational model of the operant reserve.

    PubMed

    Berg, John P; McDowell, J J

    2011-05-01

    Catania (2005) found that a computational model of the operant reserve (Skinner, 1938) produced realistic behavior in initial, exploratory analyses. Although Catania's operant reserve computational model demonstrated potential to simulate varied behavioral phenomena, the model was not systematically tested. The current project replicated and extended the Catania model, clarified its capabilities through systematic testing, and determined the extent to which it produces behavior corresponding to matching theory. Significant departures from both classic and modern matching theory were found in behavior generated by the model across all conditions. The results suggest that a simple, dynamic operant model of the reflex reserve does not simulate realistic steady state behavior.

  14. Energy and momentum preserving Coulomb collision model for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of plasma steady states in toroidal fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Runov, A.M.; Kasilov, S.V.; Helander, P.

    2015-11-01

    A kinetic Monte Carlo model suited for self-consistent transport studies is proposed and tested. The Monte Carlo collision operator is based on a widely used model of Coulomb scattering by a drifting Maxwellian and a new algorithm enforcing the momentum and energy conservation laws. The difference to other approaches consists in a specific procedure of calculating the background Maxwellian parameters, which does not require ensemble averaging and, therefore, allows for the use of single-particle algorithms. This possibility is useful in transport balance (steady state) problems with a phenomenological diffusive ansatz for the turbulent transport, because it allows a direct use of variance reduction methods well suited for single particle algorithms. In addition, a method for the self-consistent calculation of the electric field is discussed. Results of testing of the new collision operator using a set of 1D examples, and preliminary results of 2D modelling in realistic tokamak geometry, are presented.

  15. Development of steady-state electrical-heating fluorescence-sensing (SEF) technique for thermal characterization of one dimensional (1D) structures by employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiang; Li, Changzheng; Yue, Yanan; Xie, Danmei; Xue, Meixin; Hu, Niansu

    2016-11-01

    A fluorescence signal has been demonstrated as an effective implement for micro/nanoscale temperature measurement which can be realized by either direct fluorescence excitation from materials or by employing nanoparticles as sensors. In this work, a steady-state electrical-heating fluorescence-sensing (SEF) technique is developed for the thermal characterization of one-dimensional (1D) materials. In this method, the sample is suspended between two electrodes and applied with steady-state Joule heating. The temperature response of the sample is monitored by collecting a simultaneous fluorescence signal from the sample itself or nanoparticles uniformly attached on it. According to the 1D heat conduction model, a linear temperature dependence of heating powers is obtained, thus the thermal conductivity of the sample can be readily determined. In this work, a standard platinum wire is selected to measure its thermal conductivity to validate this technique. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are employed as the fluorescence agent for temperature sensing. Parallel measurement by using the transient electro-thermal (TET) technique demonstrates that a small dose of GQDs has negligible influence on the intrinsic thermal property of platinum wire. This SEF technique can be applied in two ways: for samples with a fluorescence excitation capability, this method can be implemented directly; for others with weak or no fluorescence excitation, a very small portion of nanoparticles with excellent fluorescence excitation can be used for temperature probing and thermophysical property measurement.

  16. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2014-05-15

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.

  17. Steady-state temperature distribution in living tissue modeled as cylindrical shells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Closed form, analytical solutions to the problem of steady-state heat transfer in living tissue modeled as cylindrical shells are presented and discussed. These solutions are particularly useful for the study of temperature distributions in the extremities. Metabolic heat generation, conduction, and heat transported by the blood perfusing the tissue are considered in the model. The results demonstrate the important role that the blood stream plays in the transfer of heat inside living tissue. Solutions are also presented for the limiting cases of diminishing blood flow that would occur during vasoconstriction or occlusion of blood by external means.

  18. Asymptotic profiles of steady states for a diffusive SIS epidemic model with mass action infection mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yixiang; Zou, Xingfu

    2016-10-01

    Mass action and standard incidence are two major infection mechanisms in modelling spread of infectious diseases. Spatial heterogeneity plays an important role in spread of infectious diseases, and hence, motivates and advocates diffusive models for disease dynamics. By analyzing a diffusive SIS model with the standard incidence infection mechanism, some recent works [2,12] have investigated the asymptotical profiles of the endemic steady state for large and small diffusion rates, and the results show that controlling the diffusion rate of the susceptible individuals can help eradicate the infection, while controlling the diffusion rate of the infectious individuals cannot. This paper aims to reveal the difference between the two infection mechanisms in a spatially heterogeneous environment. To this end, we consider a diffusive SIS model of the same structure but with the mass action infection adopted, and explore the asymptotic profiles of the endemic steady state for small and large diffusion rates. It turns out that the new model poses some new challenges due to the nonlocal term in the equilibrium problem and the unboundedness of the nonlinear term. Our results on this new model reveal some fundamental differences between the two transmission mechanisms in such spatial models, which may provide some implications on disease modelling and controls.

  19. Modeling of Steady-State Non-Inductive ITB Discharges with Application to DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St John, H. E.; Lao, L. L.; Murakami, M.; Kinsey, J. E.

    2001-10-01

    Establishment of near steady-state high-performance discharges with internal transport barriers in the electron and ion heat and the toroidal momentum channels is investigated using the GLF23 and Weiland confinement models. A combination of neutral beam and electron cyclotron heating and current drive is used to optimally shape the current profile for near non-inductive steady-state operation. The GLF23 and Weiland confinement models have had some success in modeling DIII-D discharges and consequently represents our best choice for DIII-D AT scenario development at this time. By starting the modeling with actual high-performance DIII-D discharges, we expect to obtain experimentally realized results. The stability of our simulations is monitored with the BALOO and GATO codes and rf heating and current drive is modelled with TORAY-GA. This computationally instensive modeling approach requires concurrent computing methods in order to be used routinely. We discuss our efforts to date in producing a parallel computational transport environment.

  20. Interaction-stabilized steady states in the driven O (N ) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Anushya; Sondhi, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    We study periodically driven bosonic scalar field theories in the infinite N limit. It is well known that the free theory can undergo parametric resonance under monochromatic modulation of the mass term and thereby absorb energy indefinitely. Interactions in the infinite N limit terminate this increase for any choice of the UV cutoff and driving frequency. The steady state has nontrivial correlations and is synchronized with the drive. The O (N ) model at infinite N provides the first example of a clean interacting quantum system that does not heat to infinite temperature at any drive frequency.

  1. Prethermal Floquet Steady States and Instabilities in the Periodically Driven, Weakly Interacting Bose-Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Bukov, Marin; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Demler, Eugene

    2015-11-13

    We explore prethermal Floquet steady states and instabilities of the weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model subject to periodic driving. We develop a description of the nonequilibrium dynamics, at arbitrary drive strength and frequency, using a weak-coupling conserving approximation. We establish the regimes in which conventional (zero-momentum) and unconventional [(π,π)-momentum] condensates are stable on intermediate time scales. We find that condensate stability is enhanced by increasing the drive strength, because this decreases the bandwidth of quasiparticle excitations and thus impedes resonant absorption and heating. Our results are directly relevant to a number of current experiments with ultracold bosons.

  2. On the steady-state solutions of a nonlinear photonic lattice model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chungen E-mail: tjftp@mail.nankai.edu.cn; Ren, Qiang E-mail: tjftp@mail.nankai.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we consider the steady-state solutions of the following equation related with nonlinear photonic lattice model Δu=(Pu)/(1+|u|{sup 2}+|v|{sup 2}) +λu, Δv=(Qv)/(1+|u|{sup 2}+|v|{sup 2}) +λv, where u, v are real-value function defined on R/(τ{sub 1}Z) × R/(τ{sub 2}Z). The existence and non-existence of non-constant semi-trivial (with only one component zero) solutions are considered.

  3. Comparison of aquifer characterization approaches through steady state groundwater model validation: A controlled laboratory sandbox study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Illman, W.A.; Zhu, J.; Craig, A.J.; Yin, D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater modeling has become a vital component to water supply and contaminant transport investigations. An important component of groundwater modeling under steady state conditions is selecting a representative hydraulic conductivity (K) estimate or set of estimates which defines the K field of the studied region. Currently, there are a number of characterization approaches to obtain K at various scales and in varying degrees of detail, but there is a paucity of information in terms of which characterization approach best predicts flow through aquifers or drawdowns caused by some drawdown inducing events. The main objective of this paper is to assess K estimates obtained by various approaches by predicting drawdowns from independent cross-hole pumping tests and total flow rates through a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer from flow-through tests. Specifically, we (1) characterize a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer built in the sandbox through various techniques (permeameter analyses of core samples, single-hole, cross-hole, and flow-through testing), (2) obtain mean K fields through traditional analysis of test data by treating the medium to be homogeneous, (3) obtain heterogeneous K fields through kriging and steady state hydraulic tomography, and (4) conduct forward simulations of 16 independent pumping tests and six flowthrough tests using these homogeneous and heterogeneous K fields and comparing them to actual data. Results show that the mean K and heterogeneous K fields estimated through kriging of small-scale K data (core and single-hole tests) yield biased predictions of drawdowns and flow rates in this synthetic heterogeneous aquifer. In contrast, the heterogeneous K distribution or ?K tomogram? estimated via steady state hydraulic tomography yields excellent predictions of drawdowns of pumping tests not used in the construction of the tomogram and very good estimates of total flow rates from the flowthrough tests. These results suggest that steady state

  4. A mathematical model of liver metabolism: from steady state to dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvetti, D.; Kuceyeski, A.; Somersalo, E.

    2008-07-01

    The increase in Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders has led to an intense focus on the areas of research related to metabolism. Because the liver is essential in regulating metabolite concentrations that maintain life, it is especially important to have good knowledge of the functions within this organ. In silico mathematical models that can adequately describe metabolite concentrations, flux and transport rates in the liver in vivo can be a useful predictive tool. Fully dynamic models, which contain expressions for Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics can be utilized to investigate different metabolic states, for example exercise, fed or starved state. In this paper we describe a two compartment (blood and tissue) spatially lumped liver metabolism model. First, we use Bayesian Flux Balance Analysis (BFBA) to estimate the values of flux and transport rates at steady state, which agree closely with values from the literature. These values are then used to find a set of Michaelis-Menten parameters and initial concentrations which identify a dynamic model that can be used for exploring different metabolic states. In particular, we investigate the effect of doubling the concentration of lactate entering the system via the hepatic artery and portal vein. This change in lactate concentration forces the system to a new steady state, where glucose production is increased.

  5. Why a steady state void size distribution in irradiated UO2? A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, S.; Martin, G.; Sabathier, C.

    2016-05-01

    In UO2 pellets irradiated in standard water reactor, Xe nano-bubbles nucleate, grow, coarsen and finally reach a quasi steady state size distribution: transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations typically report a concentration around 10-4 nm-3 and a radius around 0.5 nm. This phenomenon is often considered as a consequence of radiation enhanced diffusion, precipitation of gas atoms and ballistic mixing. However, in UO2 thin foils irradiated with energetic ions at room temperature, a nano-void population whose size distribution reaches a similar steady state can be observed, although quasi no foreign atoms are implanted nor significant cation vacancy diffusion expected in conditions. Atomistic simulations performed at low temperature only address the first stage of the process, supporting the assumption of void heterogeneous nucleation: 25 keV sub-cascades directly produce defect aggregates (loops and voids) even in the absence of gas atoms and thermal diffusion. In this work a semi-empirical stochastic model is proposed to enlarge the time scale covered by simulation up to damage levels where every point in the material undergoes the superposition of a large number of sub-cascade impacts. To account for the accumulation of these impacts, simple rules inferred from the atomistic simulation results are used. The model satisfactorily reproduces the TEM observations of nano-voids size and concentration, which paves the way for the introduction of a more realistic damage term in rate theory models.

  6. A population balance model for transient and steady-state foam flow in Boise sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Kovscek, A.; Patzek, T.; Radke, C.

    1995-07-01

    An experimental and mechanistic-modeling study is reported for the transient flow of aqueous foam through 1.3-{mu}m{sup 2} (1.3-D) Boise sandstone at backpressures in excess of 5 MPa (700 psi) over a quality range from 0.80 to 0.99. Total superficial velocities range from as little as 0.42 to 2.20 m/day (1.4 ft/day to 7 ft/day). Sequential pressure taps and gamma-ray densitometry measure flow resistance and in-situ liquid saturations, respectively. We garner experimental pressure and saturation profiles in both the transient and steady states. Adoption of a mean-size foam-bubble conservation equation along with the traditional reservoir simulation equations allows mechanistic foam simulation. Since foam mobility depends heavily upon its texture, the bubble population balance is both useful and necessary as the role of foam texture must be incorporated into any model which seeks accurate prediction of flow properties. Our model employs capillary-pressure-dependent kinetic expressions for lamellae generation and coalescence and also a term for trapping of lamellae. Additionally, the effects of surfactant chemical transport are included. We find quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical saturation and pressure profiles in both the transient and steady states.

  7. Stratus: An interactive steady state mixed layer model for personal computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Thomas A.; Schubert, Wayne H.

    1990-01-01

    A steady-state, horizontally homogeneous, cloud-topped marine boundary layer model based primarily on the work of Lilly (1968) and Schubert et al., (1979) is presented. The conservative thermodynamic variables are equivalent potential temperature, theta(sub e), and total water mixing ratio, q + l. Some of the differences between this and Lilly's (1968) model are: radiation is allowed to penetrate into the boundary layer; cloud top values of longwave radiation, equivalent potential temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio are linear functions of height derived from climatological data at California coastal stations; and the closure assumption assumes a weighted average of Lilly's (1968) maximum and minimum entrainment theories. This model was programmed in FORTRAN and will run interactively on an IBM-compatible personal computer. The program allows the user to specify the geographical location, the wind speed, the sea-surface temperature, the large scale horizontal divergence, and the initial guess for cloud top height. Output includes the steady state values of cloud top and cloud base height, mixed layer equivalent potential temperature and total water mixing ratio, and the associated convective and radiative fluxes.

  8. Quasi-steady-state Model of Subsurface Ice on Mars through Obliquity Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapst, Jonathan; Wood, S.

    2010-10-01

    Stability and evolution of subsurface ice is relevant to the understanding of past and current Mars geology and climatology. The effect of subsurface water vapor reaching a diffusive steady-state is considered here. As long as deep water is present (as ancient ice, groundwater, or dehydrating minerals), water vapor will diffuse from the subsurface towards the atmosphere (i.e. the spatial location of lower vapor density) and recondense as ice as it experiences colder temperatures near the surface. This process allows the occurrence of stable subsurface ice at lower latitudes and greater depths than the near-surface ice in equilibrium with atmospheric water vapor. One aspect of our investigation is updating a previous steady-state model from Mellon and Jakosky [1993, 1995] and Mellon et al. [1997] with newer expressions for thermal conductivity and tortuosity. Also considered are the effects of latent heat (i.e. heat of vaporization and condensation) which may have a significant role in this process. Theoretical models of thermal conductivity are especially important as variation in conductivity is based on the ice content in the porous media (e.g. Martian regolith). The model is then applied to a larger scale in determining ice allocation for a hypothetical Martian hemisphere. By changing orbital parameters, such as obliquity, we can see the effects made on the location, depth, and density of ice beneath the Martian surface.

  9. Experiments and modeling of freshwater lenses in layered aquifers: Steady state interface geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, Eduardo J.; Stoeckl, Leonard; Houben, Georg J.; Vacher, H. L.; Vassolo, Sara; Dietrich, Jörg; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The interface geometry of freshwater lenses in layered aquifers was investigated by physical 2D laboratory experiments. The resulting steady-state geometries of the lenses were compared to existing analytical expressions from Dupuit-Ghyben-Herzberg (DGH) analysis of strip-island lenses for various cases of heterogeneity. Despite the vertical exaggeration of the physical models, which would seem to vitiate the assumption of vertical equipotentials, the fits with the DGH models were generally satisfactory. Observed deviations between the analytical and physical models can be attributed mainly to outflow zones along the shore line, which are not considered in the analytical models. As unconfined natural lenses have small outflow zones compared to their overall dimensions, and flow is mostly horizontal, the DGH analytical models should perform even better at full scale. Numerical models that do consider the outflow face generally gave a good fit to the physical models.

  10. One-dimensional steady-state stream water-quality model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Daniel P.; Jennings, Marshall E.; Miller, Jeffrey E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program, based on a one-dimensional mathematical model which predicts the stream water-quality response characteristics from waste source inputs, is described and documented. Variables predicted include dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrogen forms, total and fecal-coliform bacteria, orthophosphate-phosphorus, and various conservative substances. The model is based primarily on the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag equation. Special options of the program include the capability of handling nonpont source waste inputs and anoxic conditions. The model formulation is based on a steady-state assumption which requires constant flow rate of waste and stream discharges and associated parameters. To achieve a problem solution, each reach of a stream system is broken into a given number of subreaches, generally defined by locations of waste or tributary inflow points. All waste constituents are assumed to be completely mixed within any cross section. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. A spheroidal weathering model coupling porewater chemistry to soil thicknesses during steady-state denudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, R. C.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2006-04-01

    Spheroidal weathering, a common mechanism that initiates the transformation of bedrock to saprolite, creates concentric fractures demarcating relatively unaltered corestones and progressively more altered rindlets. In the spheroidally weathering Rio Blanco quartz diorite (Puerto Rico), diffusion of oxygen into corestones initiates oxidation of ferrous minerals and precipitation of ferric oxides. A positive Δ V of reaction results in the build-up of elastic strain energy in the rock. Formation of each fracture is postulated to occur when the strain energy in a layer equals the fracture surface energy. The rate of spheroidal weathering is thus a function of the concentration of reactants, the reaction rate, the rate of transport, and the mechanical properties of the rock. Substitution of reasonable values for the parameters involved in the model produces results consistent with the observed thickness of rindlets in the Rio Icacos bedrock (≈ 2-3 cm) and a time interval between fractures (≈ 200-300 a) based on an assumption of steady-state denudation at the measured rate of 0.01 cm/a. Averaged over times longer than this interval, the rate of advance of the bedrock-saprolite interface during spheroidal weathering (the weathering advance rate) is constant with time. Assuming that the oxygen concentration at the bedrock-saprolite interface varies with the thickness of soil/saprolite yields predictive equations for how weathering advance rate and steady-state saprolite/soil thickness depend upon atmospheric oxygen levels and upon denudation rate. The denudation and weathering advance rates at steady state are therefore related through a condition on the concentration of porewater oxygen at the base of the saprolite. In our model for spheroidal weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, fractures occur every ˜ 250 yr, ferric oxide is fully depleted over a four rindlet set in ˜ 1000 yr, and saprolitization is completed in ˜ 5000 yr in the zone containing ˜ 20

  12. A two-dimensional MHD global coronal model - Steady-state streamers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    1992-01-01

    A 2D, time-dependent, numerical, MHD model for the simulation of coronal streamers from the solar surface to 15 solar is presented. Three examples are given; for dipole, quadrupole and hexapole (Legendre polynomials P1, P2, and P3) initial field topologies. The computed properties are density, temperature, velocity, and magnetic field. The calculation is set up as an initial-boundary value problem wherein a relaxation in time produces the steady state solution. In addition to the properties of the solutions, their accuracy is discussed. Besides solutions for dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole geometries, the model use of realistic values for the density and Alfven speed while still meeting the requirement that the flow speed be super-Alfvenic at the outer boundary by extending the outer boundary to 15 solar radii.

  13. Simultaneous confidence intervals for a steady-state leaky aquifer groundwater flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, S.; Cooley, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Using the optimization method of Vecchia & Cooley (1987), nonlinear Scheffe??-type confidence intervals were calculated tor the parameters and the simulated heads of a steady-state groundwater flow model covering 450 km2 of a leaky aquifer. The nonlinear confidence intervals are compared to corresponding linear intervals. As suggested by the significant nonlinearity of the regression model, linear confidence intervals are often not accurate. The commonly made assumption that widths of linear confidence intervals always underestimate the actual (nonlinear widths was not correct for the head intervals. Results show that nonlinear effects can cause the nonlinear intervals to be offset from, and either larger or smaller than, the linear approximations. Prior information on some transmissivities helps reduce and stabilize the confidence intervals, with the most notable effects occurring for the parameters on which there is prior information and for head values in parameter zones for which there is prior information on the parameters.

  14. Steady-State Models of X-ray Emission from Massive-Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Christopher; Townsend, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    In the subset of OB stars with large-scale, organized magnetic fields, the stellar wind is forced to flow along magnetic field lines and is trapped within a magnetosphere corotating with its host star. As the wind turns on itself, shocks heat the plasma to millions of degrees and produce X-ray emission. Such magnetospheres are typically classified with the "wind magnetic confinement parameter", a simplified ratio between the magnetic energy density and the wind kinetic energy density. This parameter is often used to estimate magnetosphere properties, such as size, mass-loss rate, and spin-down time. Unfortunately, the strong magnetic fields in magnetospheres (polar strength: 100 G - 10 kG) and resulting Alfven velocities make magnetohydrodynamics simulations computationally difficult due to very small timesteps. To get around this issue, we approximate a massive-star magnetosphere as a series of one-dimensional flows along magnetic dipole field lines and develop a steady-state model from the resulting hydrodynamic equations. With this model, we derive scaling relations for the stellar mass-loss rate as a function of surface colatitude and find agreement with previous scaling results derived from simulations. These relations are further extended to include the effects of rigid-body rotation within the magnetosphere. Additionally, we develop an X-ray emission model from this steady-state analysis and compare it against both the "XADM" model for X-ray emission from massive star magnetospheres and observations of massive magnetic stars. Finally, we discuss improvements to the traditional wind magnetic confinement parameter to take into account the effect of a magnetic field on the wind kinetic energy density.

  15. The stochastic quasi-steady-state assumption: Reducing the model but not the noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Haseltine, Eric L.; Mastny, Ethan; Rawlings, James B.

    2011-04-01

    Highly reactive species at small copy numbers play an important role in many biological reaction networks. We have described previously how these species can be removed from reaction networks using stochastic quasi-steady-state singular perturbation analysis (sQSPA). In this paper we apply sQSPA to three published biological models: the pap operon regulation, a biochemical oscillator, and an intracellular viral infection. These examples demonstrate three different potential benefits of sQSPA. First, rare state probabilities can be accurately estimated from simulation. Second, the method typically results in fewer and better scaled parameters that can be more readily estimated from experiments. Finally, the simulation time can be significantly reduced without sacrificing the accuracy of the solution.

  16. Steady-state analysis of a continuum model for super-infection.

    PubMed

    Ermentrout, Bard; Hastings, Stuart

    2009-09-01

    A large system of N strains of parasite and a single host is analyzed as a function of the degree of virulence in the strains when there is super-infection between hosts (more virulent strains can infect hosts that are already infected) and within-host transition between strains that is neutral. When this small amount of local switching is allowed, steady-state solutions converge to a continuous distribution as the number of strains increases. The resulting nonlinear-nonautonomous integro-differential equation is reduced to a fourth order boundary value problem (BVP) and the existence of positive solutions is proven. The methods here and associated BVP allow for a thorough exploration of parameter space for this class of models.

  17. The multispecies modeling of the premixed, laminar steady-state ozone flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerl, J. M.; Coffee, T. P.

    1980-01-01

    Species dependent kinetic, transport and thermodynamic coefficients were employed in a one dimensional model of the premixed, laminar, steady state ozone flame. Convenient expressions for these coefficients are reported. They are based on independent measurements, no arbitrary parameters are used. The governing equations are solved using a relaxation technique and the partial differential equation package, PDECOL. Species and temperature profiles and the burning velocities are found over the range of initial ozone mole fraction of 0.25 to 1.00. The computed burning velocities are no more than 30% greater than the measurements of Streng and Grosses. Comparison with the computed results of Warnatz shows agreement within + or - 12%, even though quite different expressions for some of the kinetic coefficients were used. These differences are most obvious in the atomic oxygen and temperature profiles at an initial ozone mole fraction of unity.

  18. Modelling the soil-atmosphere exchange of POPs: Long-term steady state and diurnal fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Z.; Beckingham, B.; Maier, U.; Haberer, C.; Grathwohl, P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil-atmosphere exchange is an important transport process influencing environmental fate and transport of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This study focuses on modelling the gaseous exchange of a semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene) between soil and the atmosphere using the multicomponent reactive transport code MIN3P. MIN3P is typically applied to simulate aqueous and vapor phase subsurface transport and reaction processes. We extended the code to also include an atmospheric boundary layer where eddy diffusion and photodegradation take place. The relevant processes and parameters affecting soil-atmosphere exchange were investigated in several scenarios and at various time scales. We found that phenanthrene is well-mixed in the atmospheric boundary layer under neutral or stable atmospheric conditions due to fast eddy diffusion. Uptake of airborne phenanthrene to soils is limited by the soil properties and initially depends on diffusion in soil gas and sorption to the solids. On the long term seepage water dominates transport into deeper soil layers; biodegradation finally leads to steady-state concentration profiles in the subsurface typically achieved after a few centuries. If concentrations in the atmosphere decrease, e.g. due to environmental legislation, then soils become sources for the POPs for the first two months and function as sinks again for the POPs until new steady state concentrations are reached (after decades to centuries). MIN3P was also used to simulate diurnal soil-atmosphere exchanges of airborne pollutants due to temperature changes and photodegradation, both which cause fluctuations in atmospheric concentrations and therefore affect mass transfer between soil and the atmosphere. The model can further be applied to estimate the environmental fate of other POPs between soil and the atmosphere under different environmental pollution and climate change scenarios.

  19. A Steady-State Mass Transfer Model of Removing CPAs from Cryopreserved Blood with Hollow Fiber Modules

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Weiping; Zhou, Xiaoming; Heimfeld, Shelly; Reems, Jo-Anna; Gao, Dayong

    2010-01-01

    Hollow fiber modules are commonly used to conveniently and efficiently remove cryoprotective agents (CPAs) from cryopreserved cell suspensions. In this paper, a steady-state model coupling mass transfers across cell and hollow fiber membranes is theoretically developed to evaluate the removal of CPAs from cryopreserved blood using hollow fiber modules. This steady-state model complements the unsteady-state model which was presented in our previous study. As the steady-state model, unlike the unsteady-state model, can be used to evaluate the effect of ultrafiltration flow rates on the clearance of CPAs. The steady-state model is validated by experimental results and then is compared with the unsteady-state model. Using the steady-state model, the effects of ultrafiltration flow rates, NaCl concentrations in dialysate, blood flow rates and dialysate flow rates on CPA concentration variation and cell volume response are investigated in detail. According to the simulative results, the osmotic damage of red blood cells (RBCs) can easily be reduced by increasing ultrafiltration flow rates, increasing NaCl concentrations in dialysate, increasing blood flow rates or decreasing dialysate flow rates. PMID:20524740

  20. Non-Inductive Current Drive Modeling Extending Advanced Tokamak Operation to Steady State

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T.A.; Lodestro, L.L.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Porter, G.D.; Murakami, M.; Lao, L.L.; Lin-Lui, Y.R.; St. John, H.E.

    2000-06-06

    A critical issue for sustaining high performance, negative central shear (NCS) discharges is the ability to maintain current distributions that are maximum off axis. Sustaining such hollow current profiles in steady state requires the use of non-inductively driven current sources. On the DIII-D experiment, a combination of neutral beam current drive (NBCD) and bootstrap current have been used to create transient NCS discharges. The electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system is currently being upgraded from three gyrotrons to six to provide more than 3MW of absorbed power in long-pulse operation to help sustain the required off-axis current drive. This upgrade SuPporrs the long range goal of DIII-D to sustain high performance discharges with high values of normalized {beta}, {beta}{sub n} = {beta}/(I{sub p}/aB{sub T}), confinement enhancement factor, H, and neutron production rates while utilizing bootstrap current fraction, f{sub bs}, in excess of 50%. At these high performance levels, the likelihood of onset of MHD modes that spoil confinement indicates the need to control plasma profiles if we are to extend this operation to long pulse or steady state. To investigate the effectiveness of the EC system and to explore operating scenarios to sustain these discharges, we use time-dependent simulations of the equilibrium, transport and stability. We explore methods to directly alter the safety factor profile, q, through direct current drive or by localized electron heating to modify the bootstrap current profile. Time dependent simulations using both experimentally determined [1] and theory-based [2] energy transport models have been done. Here, we report on simulations exploring parametric dependencies of the heating, current drive, and profiles that affect our ability to sustain stable discharges.

  1. Comparison of Lagrangian and Steady State Box Model Runs With Measurement Data Obtained During GABRIEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, A.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Bozem, H.; Schiller, C.; Parchatka, U.; Martinez-Harder, M.; Kubistin, D.; Harder, H.; Williams, J.; Königstedt, R.; Ganzeveld, L.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-12-01

    Results of a comparison of different Lagrangian and steady state box model runs with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rainforest in October 2005 (Suriname) are presented and discussed. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL) CO (0-1 km a.s.l.) constrained by measured O3, methanol, acetone, isoprene, the sum of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone, NO, HCHO, H2O2, organic peroxide, OH, HO2, H2O and radiation was used to derive the horizontal gradient (~ 8 pptv/km) of this compound from the ocean to the rainforest (east to west). It is significantly smaller than those derived from the measurements (16-48 pptv/km), indicating that photochemical production from organic precursors alone cannot explain the observed strong gradient. The results were cross- checked with a steady state and a Lagrangian box model study for HCHO. It appears that HCHO is significantly overestimated by the models, which include dry deposition, but not exchange with the free troposphere (FT). Sensitivity runs show that only an unlikely combination of several modified parameters (OH minus 25%, NO minus 5 pptv, Cl minus 75%, vdep = vdep(HNO3)) comes close to the observed values. The relatively short calculated lifetime of HCHO (50-100 min) implies significant BL-FT exchange even on small timescales if heterogeneous loss of HCHO on aerosol particles is considered to be unimportant. The mixing-in from above of FT air affected by biomass burning would increase the CO and lower the HCHO mixing ratios, leading to a better agreement of models and measurements. The deposition velocity for H2O2 over ocean and rainforest is deduced from box model results constrained by HOx and radiation measurements and assuming BL-FT exchange adequate to the results for CO. The Lagrangian model is used to check if the horizontal gradient observed for organic peroxides can be reproduced assuming that their deposition velocity is smaller than that of H2O2. Finally O3 formation

  2. Steady-state fuel behavior modeling of nitride fuels in FRAPCON-EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; Karahan, Aydın; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2012-08-01

    Fuel material properties and mechanistic fission gas models in FRAPCON-EP were updated to model the steady-state behavior of high-porosity nitride fuel operating at temperatures below half of the melting point. The fuel thermal conductivity and fuel thermal expansion models were updated with correlations for UN and (U,Pu)N fuels. Hot-pressing of the as-fabricated porosity was modeled as a function of the hydrostatic pressure and creep rate. The solid fission product swelling was assumed to increase linearly with burnup. Fission gas swelling constitutive models were updated to appropriately capture the intragranular gas bubble evolution in nitride fuel. Intergranular gas swelling was neglected due to the assumed high porosity of the fuel. The fission gas release behavior was modeled by fitting the fission gas diffusion coefficient in UN to FRAPCON's default fission gas release model. This fitted gas diffusion coefficient reflects the effects of porosity, burnup, operating temperature, fission rate, and bubble sink strength. Fission gas release and fuel swelling benchmarks against irradiation data were performed. The updated code was applied to UN fuel in typical PWR geometry and operating conditions, with an extended cycle length of 24 months. The results show that swelling of the nitride fuel up to 60 MWd/kg burnup did not lead to excessive straining of the cladding. Furthermore, this study showed that a porous (>15% porosity) nitride fuel pellet could achieve a much higher margin to failure from the cladding collapse and grid-to-rod fretting.

  3. Performance of Steady-State Dispersion Models Under Low Wind-Speed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wenjun; Venkatram, Akula

    2011-03-01

    We examine the performance of two steady-state models, a numerical solution of the advection-diffusion equation and the Gaussian plume-model-based AERMOD (the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model), to predict dispersion for surface releases under low wind-speed conditions. A comparison of model estimates with observations from two tracer studies, the Prairie Grass experiment and the Idaho Falls experiment indicates that about 50% of the concentration estimates are within a factor of two of the observations, but the scatter is large: the 95% confidence interval of the ratio of the observed to estimated concentrations is about 4. The model based on the numerical solution of the diffusion equation in combination with the model of Eckman (1994, Atmos Environ 28:265-272) for horizontal spread performs better than AERMOD in explaining the observations. Accounting for meandering of the wind reduces some of the overestimation of concentrations at low wind speeds. The results deteriorate when routine one-level observations are used to construct model inputs. An empirical modification to the similarity estimate of the surface friction velocity reduces the underestimation at low wind speeds.

  4. Development of steady-state model for MSPT and detailed analyses of receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Minoru; Sonoda, Masanori; Hino, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt parabolic trough system (MSPT) uses molten salt as heat transfer fluid (HTF) instead of synthetic oil. The demonstration plant of MSPT was constructed by Chiyoda Corporation and Archimede Solar Energy in Italy in 2013. Chiyoda Corporation developed a steady-state model for predicting the theoretical behavior of the demonstration plant. The model was designed to calculate the concentrated solar power and heat loss using ray tracing of incident solar light and finite element modeling of thermal energy transferred into the medium. This report describes the verification of the model using test data on the demonstration plant, detailed analyses on the relation between flow rate and temperature difference on the metal tube of receiver and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate, for solar collector assembly (SCA) development. The model is accurate to an extent of 2.0% as systematic error and 4.2% as random error. The relationships between flow rate and temperature difference on metal tube and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate are shown.

  5. Speaker normalization using cortical strip maps: a neural model for steady-state vowel categorization.

    PubMed

    Ames, Heather; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-12-01

    Auditory signals of speech are speaker dependent, but representations of language meaning are speaker independent. The transformation from speaker-dependent to speaker-independent language representations enables speech to be learned and understood from different speakers. A neural model is presented that performs speaker normalization to generate a pitch-independent representation of speech sounds, while also preserving information about speaker identity. This speaker-invariant representation is categorized into unitized speech items, which input to sequential working memories whose distributed patterns can be categorized, or chunked, into syllable and word representations. The proposed model fits into an emerging model of auditory streaming and speech categorization. The auditory streaming and speaker normalization parts of the model both use multiple strip representations and asymmetric competitive circuits, thereby suggesting that these two circuits arose from similar neural designs. The normalized speech items are rapidly categorized and stably remembered by adaptive resonance theory circuits. Simulations use synthesized steady-state vowels from the Peterson and Barney [Peterson, G. E., and Barney, H.L., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 24, 175-184 (1952).] vowel database and achieve accuracy rates similar to those achieved by human listeners. These results are compared to behavioral data and other speaker normalization models.

  6. Steady-State Dynamics and Effective Temperature for a Model of Quantum Criticality in an Open System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, P.; Zamani, F.; Kirchner, S.

    2015-11-01

    We study the thermal and nonthermal steady-state scaling functions and the steady-state dynamics of a model of local quantum criticality. The model we consider, i.e., the pseudogap Kondo model, allows us to study the concept of effective temperatures near fully interacting as well as weak-coupling fixed points. In the vicinity of each fixed point we establish the existence of an effective temperature—different at each fixed point—such that the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem is recovered. Most notably, steady-state scaling functions in terms of the effective temperatures coincide with the equilibrium scaling functions. This result extends to higher correlation functions as is explicitly demonstrated for the Kondo singlet strength. The nonlinear charge transport is also studied and analyzed in terms of the effective temperature.

  7. Steady-State Dynamics and Effective Temperature for a Model of Quantum Criticality in an Open System.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, P; Zamani, F; Kirchner, S

    2015-11-27

    We study the thermal and nonthermal steady-state scaling functions and the steady-state dynamics of a model of local quantum criticality. The model we consider, i.e., the pseudogap Kondo model, allows us to study the concept of effective temperatures near fully interacting as well as weak-coupling fixed points. In the vicinity of each fixed point we establish the existence of an effective temperature-different at each fixed point-such that the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem is recovered. Most notably, steady-state scaling functions in terms of the effective temperatures coincide with the equilibrium scaling functions. This result extends to higher correlation functions as is explicitly demonstrated for the Kondo singlet strength. The nonlinear charge transport is also studied and analyzed in terms of the effective temperature.

  8. Modeling of steady-state convective cooling of cylindrical Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, K.; Drake, S. J.; Wetz, D. A.; Ostanek, J. K.; Miller, S. P.; Heinzel, J. M.; Jain, A.

    2014-07-01

    While Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to serve as an excellent means of energy storage, they suffer from several operational safety concerns. Temperature excursion beyond a specified limit for a Lithium-ion battery triggers a sequence of decomposition and release, which can preclude thermal runaway events and catastrophic failure. To optimize liquid or air-based convective cooling approaches, it is important to accurately model the thermal response of Lithium-ion cells to convective cooling, particularly in high-rate discharge applications where significant heat generation is expected. This paper presents closed-form analytical solutions for the steady-state temperature profile in a convectively cooled cylindrical Lithium-ion cell. These models account for the strongly anisotropic thermal conductivity of cylindrical Lithium-ion batteries due to the spirally wound electrode assembly. Model results are in excellent agreement with experimentally measured temperature rise in a thermal test cell. Results indicate that improvements in radial thermal conductivity and axial convective heat transfer coefficient may result in significant peak temperature reduction. Battery sizing optimization using the analytical model is discussed, indicating the dependence of thermal performance of the cell on its size and aspect ratio. Results presented in this paper may aid in accurate thermal design and thermal management of Lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Effects of spatial diffusion on nonequilibrium steady states in a model for prebiotic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, B. F.; Wynveen, A.; Halley, J. W.

    2016-10-01

    Effects of spatial diffusion in a Kauffman-like model for prebiotic evolution previously studied in a "well-mixed" limit are reported. The previous model was parametrized by a parameter p defined as the probability that a possible reaction in a network of reactions characterizing the artificial chemistry actually appears in the chemical network. In the model reported here, we numerically study a grid of such well-mixed reactors on a two-dimensional spatial lattice in which the model chemical constituents can hop between neighboring reactors at a rate controlled by a second parameter η . We report the frequency of appearance of three distinct types of nonequilibrium steady states, characterized as "diffusively alive locally dead" (DALD), "diffusively dead locally alive" (DDLA) and "diffusively alive locally alive" (DALA). The types are defined according to whether they are chemically equilibrated at each site, diffusively equilibrated between sites, or neither, respectively. With our parametrization of the definitions of these nonequilibrium states, many of the DALA states are growing rapidly in population due to the explosive population growth of a few sites, while their entropy remains well below its equilibrium value. Sharp temporal transitions occur as exploding sites appear. DALD states occur less commonly than the other types and also usually harbor a few explosively growing sites but transitions are less sharp than in DALA systems.

  10. Steady-state computer design model for air-to-air heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, S. K.; Rice, C. K.

    1981-12-01

    A FORTRAN-4 computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes is described. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The heat pump design model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. Documentation of how to use and/or modify the model is provided.

  11. Steady-State Creep of Rock Salt: Improved Approaches for Lab Determination and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, R.-M.; Salzer, K.; Popp, T.; Lüdeling, C.

    2015-11-01

    Actual problems in geotechnical design, e.g., of underground openings for radioactive waste repositories or high-pressure gas storages, require sophisticated constitutive models and consistent parameters for rock salt that facilitate reliable prognosis of stress-dependent deformation and associated damage. Predictions have to comprise the active mining phase with open excavations as well as the long-term development of the backfilled mine or repository. While convergence-induced damage occurs mostly in the vicinity of openings, the long-term behaviour of the backfilled system is dominated by the damage-free steady-state creep. However, because in experiments the time necessary to reach truly stationary creep rates can range from few days to years, depending mainly on temperature and stress, an innovative but simple creep testing approach is suggested to obtain more reliable results: A series of multi-step tests with loading and unloading cycles allows a more reliable estimate of stationary creep rate in a reasonable time. For modelling, we use the advanced strain-hardening approach of Günther-Salzer, which comprehensively describes all relevant deformation properties of rock salt such as creep and damage-induced rock failure within the scope of an unified creep ansatz. The capability of the combination of improved creep testing procedures and accompanied modelling is demonstrated by recalculating multi-step creep tests at different loading and temperature conditions. Thus reliable extrapolations relevant to in-situ creep rates (10^{-9} to 10^{-13} s^{-1}) become possible.

  12. Two-lane traffic-flow model with an exact steady-state solution.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    We propose a stochastic cellular-automaton model for two-lane traffic flow based on the misanthrope process in one dimension. The misanthrope process is a stochastic process allowing for an exact steady-state solution; hence, we have an exact flow-density diagram for two-lane traffic. In addition, we introduce two parameters that indicate, respectively, driver's driving-lane preference and passing-lane priority. Due to the additional parameters, the model shows a deviation of the density ratio for driving-lane use and a biased lane efficiency in flow. Then, a mean-field approach explicitly describes the asymmetric flow by the hop rates, the driving-lane preference, and the passing-lane priority. Meanwhile, the simulation results are in good agreement with an observational data, and we thus estimate these parameters. We conclude that the proposed model successfully produces two-lane traffic flow particularly with the driving-lane preference and the passing-lane priority.

  13. Non-steady-state modelling of faecal coliform removal in deep tertiary lagoons.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Brissaud, F; Fazio, A

    2002-07-01

    In Noirmoutier, a French island off the Atlantic coast, secondary effluents flow into a series of four lagoons, 1.4-2.8 m deep, and are reused for agricultural irrigation. The excess water is disposed of to the sea. The aim of this study was to provide a model capable of predicting the microbiological quality of the water pumped for irrigation or discharged to the sea. Meteorological variables, flow rates, physical-chemical characteristics and faecal coliform (FC) contents were monitored for a year and a half. The hydraulic pattern of each lagoon was assumed to be that of completely mixed reactor because of the calculated dispersion numbers and the wind mixing effect. Coliform decay was assumed to follow first order kinetics in each lagoon. Die-off coefficients were calculated in each lagoon using a non-steady-state model. The main bacterial removal mechanism was shown to be solar irradiation. Empirical equations were established to calculate die-off coefficients as a function of received solar energy and temperature. FC die-off rates were higher in the first lagoon and then decreased successively in those following. FC numbers in the different lagoons were predicted with reasonable accuracy in spite of high variation in inlet water quality. The model will facilitate the prediction of water quality under various climatic conditions and different water reuse scenarios and will help to optimise reclamation and storage facilities.

  14. High fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model effects on race vehicle performance predictions using multi-body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-07-01

    We described in this paper the development of a high fidelity vehicle aerodynamic model to fit wind tunnel test data over a wide range of vehicle orientations. We also present a comparison between the effects of this proposed model and a conventional quasi steady-state aerodynamic model on race vehicle simulation results. This is done by implementing both of these models independently in multi-body quasi steady-state simulations to determine the effects of the high fidelity aerodynamic model on race vehicle performance metrics. The quasi steady state vehicle simulation is developed with a multi-body NASCAR Truck vehicle model, and simulations are conducted for three different types of NASCAR race tracks, a short track, a one and a half mile intermediate track, and a higher speed, two mile intermediate race track. For each track simulation, the effects of the aerodynamic model on handling, maximum corner speed, and drive force metrics are analysed. The accuracy of the high-fidelity model is shown to reduce the aerodynamic model error relative to the conventional aerodynamic model, and the increased accuracy of the high fidelity aerodynamic model is found to have realisable effects on the performance metric predictions on the intermediate tracks resulting from the quasi steady-state simulation.

  15. Finite difference time domain modeling of steady state scattering from jet engines with moving turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Deirdre A.; Langdon, H. Scott; Beggs, John H.; Steich, David J.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1992-01-01

    The approach chosen to model steady state scattering from jet engines with moving turbine blades is based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The FDTD method is a numerical electromagnetic program based upon the direct solution in the time domain of Maxwell's time dependent curl equations throughout a volume. One of the strengths of this method is the ability to model objects with complicated shape and/or material composition. General time domain functions may be used as source excitations. For example, a plane wave excitation may be specified as a pulse containing many frequencies and at any incidence angle to the scatterer. A best fit to the scatterer is accomplished using cubical cells in the standard cartesian implementation of the FDTD method. The material composition of the scatterer is determined by specifying its electrical properties at each cell on the scatterer. Thus, the FDTD method is a suitable choice for problems with complex geometries evaluated at multiple frequencies. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the FDTD method.

  16. Modeling integrated photovoltaic–electrochemical devices using steady-state equivalent circuits

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Mark T.; Cox, Casandra R.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2013-01-01

    We describe a framework for efficiently coupling the power output of a series-connected string of single-band-gap solar cells to an electrochemical process that produces storable fuels. We identify the fundamental efficiency limitations that arise from using solar cells with a single band gap, an arrangement that describes the use of currently economic solar cell technologies such as Si or CdTe. Steady-state equivalent circuit analysis permits modeling of practical systems. For the water-splitting reaction, modeling defines parameters that enable a solar-to-fuels efficiency exceeding 18% using laboratory GaAs cells and 16% using all earth-abundant components, including commercial Si solar cells and Co- or Ni-based oxygen evolving catalysts. Circuit analysis also provides a predictive tool: given the performance of the separate photovoltaic and electrochemical systems, the behavior of the coupled photovoltaic–electrochemical system can be anticipated. This predictive utility is demonstrated in the case of water oxidation at the surface of a Si solar cell, using a Co–borate catalyst.

  17. An analysis of single-phase self-excited induction generators: Model development and steady-state calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ojo, O.; Bhat, I.

    1995-06-01

    The need for alternative and renewable energy sources for utility and autonomous applications especially in remote places has focused attention on the use of electric generators connected to a source of mechanical power such as wind and minihydro turbines. In particular, induction and reluctance generators have great potential. The modeling and steady-state performance of single-phase induction generators based on the principles harmonic balance is set forth in this paper. Magnetizing flux linkage saturation and flux dependent core loss resistances are included. Experimental results are provided to justify analytical approach and steady-state calculations.

  18. THE STEADY-STATE WIND MODEL FOR YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS WITH AN EXPONENTIAL STELLAR DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennadiy E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru

    2011-12-20

    A hydrodynamic model for steady-state, spherically symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with an exponential stellar density distribution is presented. Unlike in most previous calculations, the position of the singular point R{sub sp}, which separates the inner subsonic zone from the outer supersonic flow, is not associated with the star cluster edge, but calculated self-consistently. When the radiative losses of energy are negligible, the transition from the subsonic to the supersonic flow occurs always at R{sub sp} Almost-Equal-To 4R{sub c} , where R{sub c} is the characteristic scale for the stellar density distribution, irrespective of other star cluster parameters. This is not the case in the catastrophic cooling regime, when the temperature drops abruptly at a short distance from the star cluster center, and the transition from the subsonic to the supersonic regime occurs at a much smaller distance from the star cluster center. The impact from the major star cluster parameters to the wind inner structure is thoroughly discussed. Particular attention is paid to the effects which radiative cooling provides to the flow. The results of the calculations for a set of input parameters, which lead to different hydrodynamic regimes, are presented and compared to the results from non-radiative one-dimensional numerical simulations and to those from calculations with a homogeneous stellar mass distribution.

  19. Steady-State Analysis of Genetic Regulatory Networks Modelled by Probabilistic Boolean Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gluhovsky, Ilya; Hashimoto, Ronaldo F.; Dougherty, Edward R.; Zhang, Wei

    2003-01-01

    Probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs) have recently been introduced as a promising class of models of genetic regulatory networks. The dynamic behaviour of PBNs can be analysed in the context of Markov chains. A key goal is the determination of the steady-state (long-run) behaviour of a PBN by analysing the corresponding Markov chain. This allows one to compute the long-term influence of a gene on another gene or determine the long-term joint probabilistic behaviour of a few selected genes. Because matrix-based methods quickly become prohibitive for large sizes of networks, we propose the use of Monte Carlo methods. However, the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution becomes a central issue. We discuss several approaches for determining the number of iterations necessary to achieve convergence of the Markov chain corresponding to a PBN. Using a recently introduced method based on the theory of two-state Markov chains, we illustrate the approach on a sub-network designed from human glioma gene expression data and determine the joint steadystate probabilities for several groups of genes. PMID:18629023

  20. Steady-state and time resolved fluorescence analysis on tyrosine-histidine model compounds.

    PubMed

    Voicescu, Mariana; Heinrich, Martine; Hellwig, Petra

    2009-03-01

    Four model compounds, for a tyrosine-histidine covalent bonding, 2-(5-imidazolyl)-4-methylphenol (C-C bonding in ortho-position at the phenyl group); 2'-(1-imidazolyl)-4-methylphenol (C-N bonding in ortho'-position at the phenyl group); 2-(5-imidazolyl)-4-H-phenol and 2-(5-imidazolyl)-4-H-phenol, at physiological pH have been studied by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Their absorption and emission properties are presented and discussed. The photophysical properties depend on the para-substituted phenyl group as well as on C-C/C-N bonding in the Phenol-Imidazole linkage. The N position, N1-N3/N1-N4, in the imidazole group was found to be relevant. The results are discussed with relevance to the redox processes of tyrosine and to better understand the role of a tyrosine-histidine covalent linkage as found in cytochrome c oxidase.

  1. Online Use of Physically Based Plasticity Models for Steady State Cold Rolling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decroos, Koen; Seefeldt, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A procedure has been developed to incorporate computationally costly physically based crystal plasticity models to calculate texture and anisotropy for steady state forming processes online. When using these models, at every point in the deformed zone, an average and a nonlinear solution procedure for stresses and/or strains in all these grains is required. The online calculation cost is avoided by offline creating a database with texture and anisotropy data for all possible deformation modes of the process. The case studied is a cold rolling process, but can easily be extended to any type of forming process, when the deformation field is known in advance. Textures and anisotropy data are predicted using a viscoplastic self-consistent model, but the method is suitable for any kind of crystal plasticity model. Single crystal plastic parameters, such as the critical resolved shear stress, the single crystal hardening parameters, and the strain-rate sensitivity, have been calibrated based on mechanical tests by means of a direct search simplex algorithm. The online calculated deformation history is compared to the histories stored in the database and the best match is selected. The deformation history is divided in two zones, the one before the neutral point where forward shearing occurs and the one after the neutral point where backward shearing occurs. One online deformation generation and selection procedure requires 0.005 s of CPU time for a database with a division in deformation gradients fine enough to accurately cover all deformations. The method allows calculating yield surfaces at any point in space based on microstructural effects modeled by crystal plasticity, without incremental material updating and necessity to define a kinematic and isotropic hardening, which makes the method suitable for fast models to calculate rolling forces and torques online.

  2. Development of microbial-enzyme-mediated decomposition model parameters through steady-state and dynamic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M; Mayes, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model, based on the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that describes the dynamics of physically defined pools of soil organic matter (SOC). These include particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved organic matter (POC, MOC, and DOC, respectively), microbial biomass, and associated exoenzymes. The ranges and/or distributions of parameters were determined by both analytical steady-state and dynamic analyses with SOC data from the literature. We used an improved multi-objective parameter sensitivity analysis (MOPSA) to identify the most important parameters for the full model: maintenance of microbial biomass, turnover and synthesis of enzymes, and carbon use efficiency (CUE). The model predicted an increase of 2 C (baseline temperature =12 C) caused the pools of POC-Cellulose, MOC, and total SOC to increase with dynamic CUE and decrease with constant CUE, as indicated by the 50% confidence intervals. Regardless of dynamic or constant CUE, the pool sizes of POC, MOC, and total SOC varied from 8% to 8% under +2 C. The scenario analysis using a single parameter set indicates that higher temperature with dynamic CUE might result in greater net increases in both POC-Cellulose and MOC pools. Different dynamics of various SOC pools reflected the catalytic functions of specific enzymes targeting specific substrates and the interactions between microbes, enzymes, and SOC. With the feasible parameter values estimated in this study, models incorporating fundamental principles of microbial-enzyme dynamics can lead to simulation results qualitatively different from traditional models with fast/slow/passive pools.

  3. STEADY STATE MODELING OF THE MINIMUM CRITICAL CORE OF THE TRANSIENT REACTOR TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony L. Alberti; Todd S. Palmer; Javier Ortensi; Mark D. DeHart

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of next generation reactor systems and new fuel designs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for the resumption of transient testing of nuclear fuels. The DOE has decided that the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is best suited for future testing. TREAT is a thermal neutron spectrum, air-cooled, nuclear test facility that is designed to test nuclear fuels in transient scenarios. These specific scenarios range from simple temperature transients to full fuel melt accidents. DOE has expressed a desire to develop a simulation capability that will accurately model the experiments before they are irradiated at the facility. It is the aim for this capability to have an emphasis on effective and safe operation while minimizing experimental time and cost. The multi physics platform MOOSE has been selected as the framework for this project. The goals for this work are to identify the fundamental neutronics properties of TREAT and to develop an accurate steady state model for future multiphysics transient simulations. In order to minimize computational cost, the effect of spatial homogenization and angular discretization are investigated. It was found that significant anisotropy is present in TREAT assemblies and to capture this effect, explicit modeling of cooling channels and inter-element gaps is necessary. For this modeling scheme, single element calculations at 293 K gave power distributions with a root mean square difference of 0.076% from those of reference SERPENT calculations. The minimum critical core configuration with identical gap and channel treatment at 293 K resulted in a root mean square, total core, radial power distribution 2.423% different than those of reference SERPENT solutions.

  4. Elimination of Thermodynamically Infeasible Loops in Steady-State Metabolic Models

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberger, Jan; Lewis, Nathan E.; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2011-01-01

    The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) framework has been widely used to study steady-state flux solutions in genome-scale metabolic networks. One shortcoming of current COBRA methods is the possible violation of the loop law in the computed steady-state flux solutions. The loop law is analogous to Kirchhoff's second law for electric circuits, and states that at steady state there can be no net flux around a closed network cycle. Although the consequences of the loop law have been known for years, it has been computationally difficult to work with. Therefore, the resulting loop-law constraints have been overlooked. Here, we present a general mixed integer programming approach called loopless COBRA (ll-COBRA), which can be used to eliminate all steady-state flux solutions that are incompatible with the loop law. We apply this approach to improve flux predictions on three common COBRA methods: flux balance analysis, flux variability analysis, and Monte Carlo sampling of the flux space. Moreover, we demonstrate that the imposition of loop-law constraints with ll-COBRA improves the consistency of simulation results with experimental data. This method provides an additional constraint for many COBRA methods, enabling the acquisition of more realistic simulation results. PMID:21281568

  5. Validation and steady-state analysis of a power-law model of purine metabolism in man.

    PubMed Central

    Curto, R; Voit, E O; Sorribas, A; Cascante, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper introduces a model of human purine metabolism in situ. Chosen from among several alternative system descriptions, the model is formulated as a Generalized Mass Action system within Biochemical Systems Theory and validated with analyses of steady-state and dynamic characteristics. Eigenvalue and sensitivity analyses indicate that the model has a stable and robust steady-state. The model quite accurately reproduces numerous biochemical and clinical observations in healthy subjects as well as in patients with disorders of purine metabolism. These results suggest that the model can be used to assess biochemical and clinical aspects of human purine metabolism. It provides a means of exploring effects of enzyme deficiencies and is a potential tool for identifying steps of the pathway that could be the target of therapeutical intervention. Numerous quantitative comparisons with data are given. The model can be used for biomathematical exploration of relationships between enzymic deficiencies and clinically manifested diseases. PMID:9210399

  6. Einstein's steady-state cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2014-09-01

    Last year, a team of Irish scientists discovered an unpublished manuscript by Einstein in which he attempted to construct a "steady-state" model of the universe. Cormac O'Raifeartaigh describes the excitement of finding this previously unknown work.

  7. Steady-state analytical models for performance assessment of landfill composite liners.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Jiang, Yuansheng; Zhang, Chunhua; Feng, Shijin; Qiu, Zhanhong

    2015-08-01

    One-dimensional mathematical models were developed for organic contaminant transport through landfill composite liners consisting of a geomembrane (GM) and a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or a GM and a compacted clay liner (CCL). The combined effect of leakage through GM defects, diffusion in GM and the underlying soil liners, and degradation in soil liners were considered. Steady state analytical solutions were provided for the proposed mathematical models, which consider the different combinations of advection, diffusion, and degradation. The analytical solutions of the time lag for contaminant transport in the composite liners were also derived. The performance of GM/GCL and GM/CCL was analyzed. For GM/GCL, the bottom flux can be reduced by a factor of 4 when the leachate head decreases from 10 to 0.3 m. The influence of degradation can be ignored for GM/GCL. For GM/CCL, when the leachate head decreases from 10 to 0.3 m, the bottom flux decreases by a factor of 2-4. Leachate head has greater influence on bottom flux in case of larger degradation rate (e.g., half-life = 1 year) compared to the case with lower degradation rate (e.g., half-life = 10 years). As contaminant half-life in soil liner decreases from 10 to 1 year, bottom flux decreases by approximately 2.7 magnitudes of orders. It is indicated that degradation may have greater influence on time lag of composite liner than leachate head. As leachate head increases from zero to 10 m, time lag for GM/CCL can be reduced by 5-6 years. Time lag for the same composite liner can be reduced by 10-11 years as contaminant half-life decreases from 10 to 1 year. Reducing leachate head acting on composite liners and increasing the degradation capacity of the soil liner would be the effective methods to improve the performance of the composite liners. The proposed analytical solutions are relatively simple and can be used for preliminary design and performance assessment of composite liners.

  8. Modeling attainment of steady state of drug concentration in plasma by means of a Bayesian approach using MCMC methods.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Paul; Brunschwig, Hadassa; Luedin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The approach of Bayesian mixed effects modeling is an appropriate method for estimating both population-specific as well as subject-specific times to steady state. In addition to pure estimation, the approach allows to determine the time until a certain fraction of individuals of a population has reached steady state with a pre-specified certainty. In this paper a mixed effects model for the parameters of a nonlinear pharmacokinetic model is used within a Bayesian framework. Model fitting by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods as implemented in the Gibbs sampler as well as the extraction of estimates and probability statements of interest are described. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated by application to trough data from a multiple dose clinical trial.

  9. A 'random steady-state' model for the pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdi, T. S.; Hatfield, G. W.; Mjolsness, E. D.

    2010-03-01

    The multienzyme complexes, pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, involved in the central metabolism of Escherichia coli consist of multiple copies of three different enzymes, E1, E2 and E3, that cooperate to channel substrate intermediates between their active sites. The E2 components form the core of the complex, while a mixture of E1 and E3 components binds to the core. We present a random steady-state model to describe catalysis by such multienzyme complexes. At a fast time scale, the model describes the enzyme catalytic mechanisms of substrate channeling at a steady state, by polynomially approximating the analytic solution of a biochemical master equation. At a slower time scale, the structural organization of the different enzymes in the complex and their random binding/unbinding to the core is modeled using methods from equilibrium statistical mechanics. Biologically, the model describes the optimization of catalytic activity by substrate sharing over the entire enzyme complex. The resulting enzymatic models illustrate the random steady state (RSS) for modeling multienzyme complexes in metabolic pathways.

  10. Relative efficiency of four parameter-estimation methods in steady-state and transient ground-water flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Parameters in numerical ground-water flow models have been successfully estimated using nonlinear-optimization methods such as the modified Gauss-Newton (GN) method and conjugate-direction methods. This paper investigates the relative efficiency of GN and three conjugate-direction parameter-estimation methods on two-dimensional, steady-state and transient ground-water flow test cases. The steady-state test cases are included to compare the performance of the algorithm with published examples. The three conjugate-direction methods are the Fletcher-Reeves (FR) and quasi-Newton (QN) regression methods, and combination Fletcher-Reeves quasi-Newton (FR-QN). All three are combined with Newton's method of calculating step size. The numerical ground-water flow model is described by McDonald and Harbaugh.

  11. The steady state solutions of radiatively driven stellar winds for a non-Sobolev, pure absorption model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. H.; Owocki, S. P.; Castor, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    The steady state solution topology for absorption line-driven flows is investigated for the condition that the Sobolev approximation is not used to compute the line force. The solution topology near the sonic point is of the nodal type with two positive slope solutions. The shallower of these slopes applies to reasonable lower boundary conditions and realistic ion thermal speed v(th) and to the Sobolev limit of zero of the usual Castor, Abbott, and Klein model. At finite v(th), this solution consists of a family of very similar solutions converging on the sonic point. It is concluded that a non-Sobolev, absorption line-driven flow with a realistic values of v(th) has no uniquely defined steady state. To the extent that a pure absorption model of the outflow of stellar winds is applicable, radiatively driven winds should be intrinsically variable.

  12. Development of an annoyance model based upon elementary auditory sensations for steady-state aircraft interior noise containing tonal components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angerer, James R.; Mccurdy, David A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a noise annoyance model, superior to those already in use, for evaluating passenger response to sounds containing tonal components which may be heard within current and future commercial aircraft. The sound spectra investigated ranged from those being experienced by passengers on board turbofan powered aircraft now in service to those cabin noise spectra passengers may experience within advanced propeller-driven aircraft of the future. A total of 240 sounds were tested in this experiment. Sixty-six of these 240 sounds were steady state, while the other 174 varied temporally due to tonal beating. Here, the entire experiment is described, but the analysis is limited to those responses elicited by the 66 steady-state sounds.

  13. Simulation of the Etna 2001 flank eruption with a steady-state numerical model of magma ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Giuseppe; Burton, Mike; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes exhibit a wide range of eruption styles, from relatively slow effusive eruptions, generating lava flows and lava domes, to explosive eruptions, in which very large volumes of fragmented magma and volcanic gas are ejected high into the atmosphere. Magma ascent dynamics in a volcanic conduit play a key role in determining the eruptive style of a volcano. However, due to the lack of direct observations in the conduit itself, numerical models, constrained with observational data, provide invaluable tools for quantitative insights into the complex magma ascent processes. We have developed a 1D steady-state multiphase multicomponent gas-magma-solid mathematical model, consisting of a set of non-linear partial differential and constitutive equations. The governing equations used in this work are designed to model multiphase fluid with disequilibrium processes, represented through the formalism of thermodynamically compatible hyperbolic systems as a system of conservative partial differential equations with relaxation terms. This numerical model has been used to reproduce the 2001 flank eruption at mount Etna. During this eruption, seven fissures at different altitude were active, showing different eruptive styles: fire fountains, Strombolian activities and lava effusions. From a mineralogical point of view, two different lavas were erupted. The vent higher than 2600 m a.s.l. (hereafter Upper vents, UV) erupted plagioclase-rich magma with an high crystal content. On the other hand, the vents located at 2550 and 2100 m a.s.l. (hereafter Lower vents, LV) produced a plagioclase-poor magma with a lower crystal content than UV magmas. With our numerical model we have investigated both eruptive events at UV and LV. Using the estimation for volume flow rate and for crystal content we are able to constraint the conduit radius and the temperature of the magma chamber. Furthermore, our numerical results indicate that UV and LV magmas are originated from the same magma, but

  14. Brain-Computer Interfaces for 1-D and 2-D Cursor Control: Designs Using Volitional Control of the EEG Spectrum or Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Matthews, Bryan; Rosipal, Roman

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested two EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for users to control a cursor on a computer display. Our system uses an adaptive algorithm, based on kernel partial least squares classification (KPLS), to associate patterns in multichannel EEG frequency spectra with cursor controls. Our first BCI, Target Practice, is a system for one-dimensional device control, in which participants use biofeedback to learn voluntary control of their EEG spectra. Target Practice uses a KF LS classifier to map power spectra of 30-electrode EEG signals to rightward or leftward position of a moving cursor on a computer display. Three subjects learned to control motion of a cursor on a video display in multiple blocks of 60 trials over periods of up to six weeks. The best subject s average skill in correct selection of the cursor direction grew from 58% to 88% after 13 training sessions. Target Practice also implements online control of two artifact sources: a) removal of ocular artifact by linear subtraction of wavelet-smoothed vertical and horizontal EOG signals, b) control of muscle artifact by inhibition of BCI training during periods of relatively high power in the 40-64 Hz band. The second BCI, Think Pointer, is a system for two-dimensional cursor control. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are triggered by four flickering checkerboard stimuli located in narrow strips at each edge of the display. The user attends to one of the four beacons to initiate motion in the desired direction. The SSVEP signals are recorded from eight electrodes located over the occipital region. A KPLS classifier is individually calibrated to map multichannel frequency bands of the SSVEP signals to right-left or up-down motion of a cursor on a computer display. The display stops moving when the user attends to a central fixation point. As for Target Practice, Think Pointer also implements wavelet-based online removal of ocular artifact; however, in Think Pointer muscle

  15. Brain-computer interfaces for 1-D and 2-D cursor control: designs using volitional control of the EEG spectrum or steady-state visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Trejo, Leonard J; Rosipal, Roman; Matthews, Bryan

    2006-06-01

    We have developed and tested two electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for users to control a cursor on a computer display. Our system uses an adaptive algorithm, based on kernel partial least squares classification (KPLS), to associate patterns in multichannel EEG frequency spectra with cursor controls. Our first BCI, Target Practice, is a system for one-dimensional device control, in which participants use biofeedback to learn voluntary control of their EEG spectra. Target Practice uses a KPLS classifier to map power spectra of 62-electrode EEG signals to rightward or leftward position of a moving cursor on a computer display. Three subjects learned to control motion of a cursor on a video display in multiple blocks of 60 trials over periods of up to six weeks. The best subject's average skill in correct selection of the cursor direction grew from 58% to 88% after 13 training sessions. Target Practice also implements online control of two artifact sources: 1) removal of ocular artifact by linear subtraction of wavelet-smoothed vertical and horizontal electrooculograms (EOG) signals, 2) control of muscle artifact by inhibition of BCI training during periods of relatively high power in the 40-64 Hz band. The second BCI, Think Pointer, is a system for two-dimensional cursor control. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are triggered by four flickering checkerboard stimuli located in narrow strips at each edge of the display. The user attends to one of the four beacons to initiate motion in the desired direction. The SSVEP signals are recorded from 12 electrodes located over the occipital region. A KPLS classifier is individually calibrated to map multichannel frequency bands of the SSVEP signals to right-left or up-down motion of a cursor on a computer display. The display stops moving when the user attends to a central fixation point. As for Target Practice, Think Pointer also implements wavelet-based online removal of ocular

  16. Numerical models of steady-state and pulsating flows of self-ionizing gas in plasma accelerator channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brushlinskii, K. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Konovalov, V. S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper continues the series of numerical investigations of self-ionizing gas flows in plasma accelerator channels with an azimuthal magnetic field. The mathematical model is based on the equations of dynamics of a three-component continuous medium consisting of atoms, ions, and electrons; the model is supplemented with the equation of ionization and recombination kinetics within the diffusion approximation with account for photoionization and photorecombination. It also takes into account heat exchange, which in this case is caused by radiative heat conductance. Upon a short history of the issue, the proposed model, numerical methods, and results for steady-state and pulsating flows are described.

  17. A New Method for the Solution of Models of Biological Evolution: Derivation of Exact Steady-State Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate well-known models of biological evolution and address the open problem of how construct a correct continuous analog of mutations in discrete sequence space. We deal with models where the fitness is a function of a Hamming distance from the reference sequence. The mutation-selection master equation in the discrete sequence space is replaced by a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the logarithm of relative frequencies of different sequences. The steady-state distribution, mean fitness and the variance of fitness are derived. All our results are asymptotic in the large genome limit. A variety of important biological and biochemical models can be solved by this new approach.

  18. Using bioprocess stoichiometry to build a plant-wide mass balance based steady-state WWTP model.

    PubMed

    Ekama, G A

    2009-05-01

    Steady-state models are useful for design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because they allow reactor sizes and interconnecting flows to be simply determined from explicit equations in terms of unit operation performance criteria. Once the overall WWTP scheme is established and the main system defining parameters of the individual unit operations estimated, dynamic models can be applied to the connected unit operations to refine their design and evaluate their performance under dynamic flow and load conditions. To model anaerobic digestion (AD) within plant-wide WWTP models, not only COD and nitrogen (N) but also carbon (C) fluxes entering the AD need to be defined. Current plant-wide models, like benchmark simulation model No 2 (BSM2), impose a C flux at the AD influent. In this paper, the COD and N mass balance steady-state models of activated sludge (AS) organics degradation, nitrification and denitrification (ND) and anaerobic (AD) and aerobic (AerD) digestion of wastewater sludge are extended and linked with bioprocess transformation stoichiometry to form C, H, O, N, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and charge mass balance based models so that also C (and H and O) can be tracked through the whole WWTP. By assigning a stoichiometric composition (x, y, z and a in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)) to each of the five main influent wastewater organic fractions and ammonia, these, and the products generated from them via the biological processes, are tracked through the WWTP. The model is applied to two theoretical case study WWTPs treating the same raw wastewater (WW) to the same final sludge residual biodegradable COD. It is demonstrated that much useful information can be generated with the relatively simple steady-state models to aid WWTP layout design and track the different products exiting the WWTP via the solid, liquid and gas streams, such as aerobic versus anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, N loads in recycle streams, methane production for energy recovery

  19. Steady-state phases and tunneling-induced instabilities in the driven dissipative Bose-Hubbard model.

    PubMed

    Le Boité, Alexandre; Orso, Giuliano; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2013-06-07

    We determine the steady-state phases of a driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model, describing, e.g., an array of coherently pumped nonlinear cavities with a finite photon lifetime. Within a mean-field master equation approach using exact quantum solutions for the one-site problem, we show that the system exhibits a tunneling-induced transition between monostable and bistable phases. We characterize the corresponding quantum correlations, highlighting the essential differences with respect to the equilibrium case. We also find collective excitations with a flat energy-momentum dispersion over the entire Brillouin zone that trigger modulational instabilities at specific wave vectors.

  20. Allosteric equilibrium model explains steady-state coupling of beta-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Ugur, O; Onaran, H O

    1997-05-01

    We used a simple experimental approach to clarify some contradictory predictions of the collision coupling and equilibrium models (e.g. ternary complex, two-state ternary complex or quinternary complex), which describe G-protein-mediated beta-adrenergic receptor signalling in essentially different manners. Analysis of the steady-state coupling of beta-adrenoceptors to adenylate cyclase in turkey erythrocyte membranes showed that: (1) in the absence of an agonist, Gpp(NH)p (a hydrolysis-resistant analogue of GTP) can activate adenylate cyclase very slowly; (2) this activity reaches a steady state in approx. 5 h, the extent of activity depending on the concentration of the nucleotide; (3) isoprenaline-activated steady-state adenylate cyclase can be inactivated by propranolol (a competitive antagonist that relaxes the receptor activation), in the presence of Gpp(NH)p (which provides a virtual absence of GTPase) and millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ (the rate of this inactivation is relatively fast); (4) increasing the concentration of Gpp(NH)p can saturate the steady-state activity of adenylate cyclase. The saturated enzyme activity was lower than that induced by isoprenaline under the same conditions. This additional agonist-induced activation was reversible. In the light of these results, we conclude that agonist can also activate the guanine nucleotide-saturated system in the absence of GTPase by a mechanism other than guanine nucleotide exchange. We explain these phenomena in the framework of a quinternary complex model as an agonist-induced and receptor-mediated dissociation of guanine nucleotide-saturated residual heterotrimer, the equilibrium concentration of which is not necessarily zero. These results, which suggest a continuous interaction between receptor and G-protein, can hardly be accommodated by the collision coupling model that was originally suggested for the present experimental system and then applied to many other G-protein systems. Therefore we

  1. Comparison of Steady State Evaporation Models for Toxic Chemical Spills: Development of a New Evaporation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-29

    Times, National Meteorological Center, Environmental Science Services Administration, Hillcrest Heights, MO. I Lundi, P.J. (1980) Solar Theral Engineering...each Model. Physical Data I&S ADAM K&M New Location (latitude, longitude) ... X X X. Date (month, day) x X Time of Day . . , X x Time Since Spill x...most of the physical and thermodynamic data and calculations were taken from the ADAM model data base. The saturation vapor pressure is calculated

  2. Modeling and simulation of steady state model approach for horizontal three phase separator (HTPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triwibowo, Bayu; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hisyam, Anwaruddin; Fauzan, Mohammad Fariz; Rizky, Muhammad Habib Fahd

    2017-03-01

    Main function of oil production facility is to separate oil well stream into three phases i.e. oil, gas and water. A vessel called three phase separator is used for this purpose, commonly in horizontal arrangement. In order to optimize the process, an accurate model for horizontal three phase separator (HTPS) is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool capable of simulating a wide range of fluid flows. HTPS dimensions used in this simulation were taken from one of oil and gas company in Indonesia. The CFD simulation used in this study is based on volume of fluid and k-ɛ turbulence models. Gas outlet was assumed using porous media zone model with fluid porosity 0.99. Simulation result displayed concentration and velocity distribution for each component inside HTPS. The result of concentration distribution shows that the region of fluid divided into upper region and lower region. The lower region major component were water and upper region mainly consist of gas and oil. The contour of concentration distribution indicated a good separation process with distribution of water flow rate at the outlet of water, oil, and gas respectively are 405,67; 115,65; and 172.01 lb/min

  3. Extrapolation of the DIII-D high poloidal beta scenario to ITER steady-state using transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenaghan, J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Transport modeling of a proposed ITER steady-state scenario based on DIII-D high βP discharges finds that the core confinement may be improved with either sufficient rotation or a negative central shear q-profile. The high poloidal beta scenario is characterized by a large bootstrap current fraction( 80%) which reduces the demands on the external current drive, and a large radius internal transport barrier which is associated with improved normalized confinement. Typical temperature and density profiles from the non-inductive high poloidal beta scenario on DIII-D are scaled according to 0D modeling predictions of the requirements for achieving Q=5 steady state performance in ITER with ``day one'' H&CD capabilities. Then, TGLF turbulence modeling is carried out under systematic variations of the toroidal rotation and the core q-profile. Either strong negative central magnetic shear or rotation are found to successfully provide the turbulence suppression required to maintain the temperature and density profiles. This work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  4. Combined magnetic and kinetic control of advanced tokamak steady state scenarios based on semi-empirical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, D.; Artaud, J. F.; Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Humphreys, D. A.; Liu, F.; Luce, T. C.; Park, J. M.; Prater, R.; Turco, F.; Walker, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows that semi-empirical data-driven models based on a two-time-scale approximation for the magnetic and kinetic control of advanced tokamak (AT) scenarios can be advantageously identified from simulated rather than real data, and used for control design. The method is applied to the combined control of the safety factor profile, q(x), and normalized pressure parameter, βN, using DIII-D parameters and actuators (on-axis co-current neutral beam injection (NBI) power, off-axis co-current NBI power, electron cyclotron current drive power, and ohmic coil). The approximate plasma response model was identified from simulated open-loop data obtained using a rapidly converging plasma transport code, METIS, which includes an MHD equilibrium and current diffusion solver, and combines plasma transport nonlinearity with 0D scaling laws and 1.5D ordinary differential equations. The paper discusses the results of closed-loop METIS simulations, using the near-optimal ARTAEMIS control algorithm (Moreau D et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 063020) for steady state AT operation. With feedforward plus feedback control, the steady state target q-profile and βN are satisfactorily tracked with a time scale of about 10 s, despite large disturbances applied to the feedforward powers and plasma parameters. The robustness of the control algorithm with respect to disturbances of the H&CD actuators and of plasma parameters such as the H-factor, plasma density and effective charge, is also shown.

  5. Kinetic modeling of the assembly, dynamic steady state, and contraction of the FtsZ ring in prokaryotic cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Surovtsev, Ivan V; Morgan, Jeffrey J; Lindahl, Paul A

    2008-07-04

    Cytokinesis in prokaryotes involves the assembly of a polymeric ring composed of FtsZ protein monomeric units. The Z ring forms at the division plane and is attached to the membrane. After assembly, it maintains a stable yet dynamic steady state. Once induced, the ring contracts and the membrane constricts. In this work, we present a computational deterministic biochemical model exhibiting this behavior. The model is based on biochemical features of FtsZ known from in vitro studies, and it quantitatively reproduces relevant in vitro data. An essential part of the model is a consideration of interfacial reactions involving the cytosol volume, where monomeric FtsZ is dispersed, and the membrane surface in the cell's mid-zone where the ring is assembled. This approach allows the same chemical model to simulate either in vitro or in vivo conditions by adjusting only two geometrical parameters. The model includes minimal reactions, components, and assumptions, yet is able to reproduce sought-after in vivo behavior, including the rapid assembly of the ring via FtsZ-polymerization, the formation of a dynamic steady state in which GTP hydrolysis leads to the exchange of monomeric subunits between cytoplasm and the ring, and finally the induced contraction of the ring. The model gives a quantitative estimate for coupling between the rate of GTP hydrolysis and of FtsZ subunit turnover between the assembled ring and the cytoplasmic pool as observed. Membrane constriction is chemically driven by the strong tendency of GTP-bound FtsZ to self-assembly. The model suggests a possible mechanism of membrane contraction without a motor protein. The portion of the free energy of GTP hydrolysis released in cyclization is indirectly used in this energetically unfavorable process. The model provides a limit to the mechanistic complexity required to mimic ring behavior, and it highlights the importance of parallel in vitro and in vivo modeling.

  6. Estimability of recharge through groundwater model calibration: Insights from a field-scale steady-state example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowling, Matthew J.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2016-09-01

    The ability of groundwater models to inform recharge through calibration is hampered by the correlation between recharge and aquifer parameters such as hydraulic conductivity (K), and the insufficient information content of observation datasets. These factors collectively result in non-uniqueness of parameter estimates. Previous studies that jointly estimate spatially distributed recharge and hydraulic parameters are limited to synthetic test cases and/or do not evaluate the effect of non-uniqueness. The extent to which recharge can be informed by calibration is largely unknown for practical situations, in which complexities such as parameter heterogeneities are inherent. In this study, a systematic investigation of recharge, inferred through model calibration, is undertaken using a series of numerical experiments that include varying degrees of hydraulic parameter information. The analysis involves the use of a synthetic reality, based on a regional-scale, highly parameterised, steady-state groundwater model of Uley South Basin, South Australia. Parameter identifiability is assessed to evaluate the ability of parameters to be estimated uniquely. Results show that a reasonable inference of recharge (average recharge error <10%) requires a surprisingly large number of preferred value regularisation constraints (>100 K values across the 129 km2 study area). The introduction of pumping data into the calibration reduces error in both the average recharge and its spatial variability, whereas submarine groundwater discharge (as a calibration target) reduces average recharge error only. Nonetheless, the estimation of steady-state recharge through inverse modelling may be impractical for real-world settings, limited by the need for unrealistic amounts of hydraulic parameter and groundwater level data. This study provides a useful benchmark for evaluating the extent to which field-scale groundwater models can be used to inform recharge subject to practical data

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Performance Modeling Flight Test Approach Based on Quasi Steady-State Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yechout, T. R.; Braman, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    The development, implementation and flight test evaluation of a performance modeling technique which required a limited amount of quasisteady state flight test data to predict the overall one g performance characteristics of an aircraft. The concept definition phase of the program include development of: (1) the relationship for defining aerodynamic characteristics from quasi steady state maneuvers; (2) a simplified in flight thrust and airflow prediction technique; (3) a flight test maneuvering sequence which efficiently provided definition of baseline aerodynamic and engine characteristics including power effects on lift and drag; and (4) the algorithms necessary for cruise and flight trajectory predictions. Implementation of the concept include design of the overall flight test data flow, definition of instrumentation system and ground test requirements, development and verification of all applicable software and consolidation of the overall requirements in a flight test plan.

  8. Steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Buto, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Examples of potential use of the model to investigate the groundwater system include (1) the effects of different recharge, (2) different interpretations of the extent or offset of long faults or fault zones, and (3) different conceptual models of the spatial variation of hydraulic properties. The model can also be used to examine the ultimate effects of groundwater withdrawals on a regional scale, to provide boundary conditions for local-scale models, and to guide data collection.

  9. Uncertainty quantification of fast sodium current steady-state inactivation for multi-scale models of cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Pras; Shotwell, Matthew S; Gavaghan, David J; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Gray, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps the most mature area of multi-scale systems biology is the modelling of the heart. Current models are grounded in over fifty years of research in the development of biophysically detailed models of the electrophysiology (EP) of cardiac cells, but one aspect which is inadequately addressed is the incorporation of uncertainty and physiological variability. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the identification and characterisation of the uncertainty in model parameters derived from experimental data, and the computation of the resultant uncertainty in model outputs. It is a necessary tool for establishing the credibility of computational models, and will likely be expected of EP models for future safety-critical clinical applications. The focus of this paper is formal UQ of one major sub-component of cardiac EP models, the steady-state inactivation of the fast sodium current, INa. To better capture average behaviour and quantify variability across cells, we have applied for the first time an 'individual-based' statistical methodology to assess voltage clamp data. Advantages of this approach over a more traditional 'population-averaged' approach are highlighted. The method was used to characterise variability amongst cells isolated from canine epi and endocardium, and this variability was then 'propagated forward' through a canine model to determine the resultant uncertainty in model predictions at different scales, such as of upstroke velocity and spiral wave dynamics. Statistically significant differences between epi and endocardial cells (greater half-inactivation and less steep slope of steady state inactivation curve for endo) was observed, and the forward propagation revealed a lack of robustness of the model to underlying variability, but also surprising robustness to variability at the tissue scale. Overall, the methodology can be used to: (i) better analyse voltage clamp data; (ii) characterise underlying population variability; (iii) investigate

  10. Uncertainty quantification of fast sodium current steady-state inactivation for multi-scale models of cardiac electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Shotwell, Matthew S.; Gavaghan, David J.; Cordeiro, Jonathan M.; Gray, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps the most mature area of multi-scale systems biology is the modelling of the heart. Current models are grounded in over fifty years of research in the development of biophysically detailed models of the electrophysiology (EP) of cardiac cells, but one aspect which is inadequately addressed is the incorporation of uncertainty and physiological variability. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the identification and characterisation of the uncertainty in model parameters derived from experimental data, and the computation of the resultant uncertainty in model outputs. It is a necessary tool for establishing the credibility of computational models, and will likely be expected of EP models for future safety-critical clinical applications. The focus of this paper is formal UQ of one major sub-component of cardiac EP models, the steady-state inactivation of the fast sodium current, INa. To better capture average behaviour and quantify variability across cells, we have applied for the first time an ‘individual-based’ statistical methodology to assess voltage clamp data. Advantages of this approach over a more traditional ‘population-averaged’ approach are highlighted. The method was used to characterise variability amongst cells isolated from canine epi and endocardium, and this variability was then ‘propagated forward’ through a canine model to determine the resultant uncertainty in model predictions at different scales, such as of upstroke velocity and spiral wave dynamics. Statistically significant differences between epi and endocardial cells (greater half-inactivation and less steep slope of steady state inactivation curve for endo) was observed, and the forward propagation revealed a lack of robustness of the model to underlying variability, but also surprising robustness to variability at the tissue scale. Overall, the methodology can be used to: (i) better analyse voltage clamp data; (ii) characterise underlying population variability; (iii

  11. A steady-state model for the forced convection solar cabinet dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Chirarattananon, S.; Chirarattananon, R. , Bangkok ); Chinporncharoenpong, C. )

    1988-01-01

    The insufficient knowledge base for the design and optimization of solar dryer could be the obstacle to the unrealized promise of solar drying. By applying the lumped-parameter approach in the analysis of the transfer processes and utilizing known results from drying theory, this article demonstrates a methodology for the construction of a reduced mathematical model of the forced convection solar cabinet dryer. The model comprises only the variables directly involved in the energy and mass balance relationships for the drying process. The values of the variables determine the state of the processes in the dryer, and the model is a set of relationships that determine such a state. Specializing into thin product bed with sponge pieces constituting the product, this article describes an experiment carried out to verify the model. It also presents an assessment of the model parameter value from the experimental result and a simulation procedure with a result, which positively validates the model.

  12. The Effect of Uncertainty on Optimal Control Models in the Neighbourhood of a Steady State

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2016-01-01

    For both discrete and continuous time this paper derives the Taylor approximation to the effect of uncertainty (in the simple sense of risk, not Knightian uncertainty) on expected utility and optimal behaviour in stochastic control models when the uncertainty is small enough that one can focus on only the first term that involves uncertainty. There is a close and illuminating relationship between the discrete-time and continuous-time results. The analysis makes it possible to spell out a tight connection between the behaviour of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model and the corresponding perfect foresight model. However, the quantitative analytics of the stochastic model local to a certainty model calls for a more thorough investigation of the nearby certainty model than is typically undertaken. PMID:27904440

  13. A Decision Model for Steady-State Choice in Concurrent Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Darren R.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Grace and McLean (2006) proposed a decision model for acquisition of choice in concurrent chains which assumes that after reinforcement in a terminal link, subjects make a discrimination whether the preceding reinforcer delay was short or long relative to a criterion. Their model was subsequently extended by Christensen and Grace (2008, 2009a,…

  14. Steady-State Groundwater Flow Model for Great Neck, Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Klinger, D.; Sallemi, B. M.

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive groundwater flow model for the Great Neck section of Long Island, New York. The hydrogeology of this section of Long Island is dominated by a buried erosional valley consisting of sediments comparable to the North Shore Confining Unit. This formation cross-cuts, thus is in direct hydraulic connection with the Upper Glacial, North Shore Confining Unit, Raritan Clay, and Lloyd aquifers. The Magothy aquifer is present only in remote southern sections of the model area. In addition, various lenses of coarser material from the overlying Upper Glacial aquifer are dispersed throughout the area. Data collection consisted of gathering various parameter values from existing USGS reports. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity, estimated recharge values, evapotranspiration, well locations, and water level data have all been gathered from the USGS Office located in Coram, New York. Appropriate modeling protocol was followed throughout the modeling process. The computer code utilized for solving this numerical model is Visual MODFLOW as manufactured by Waterloo Hydrogeologic. Calibration and a complete sensitivity analysis were conducted. Modeled results indicate that the groundwater flow direction is consistent with what is viewed onsite. In addition, the model is consistent in returning favorable parameter results to historical data.

  15. Model development with defined biological mechanisms for xenobiotic treatment activated sludge at steady state.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk-Min

    2015-06-01

    Activated sludge treatment of a xenobiotic organic compound, much different from treatment of biogenic organics, must be modeled with interactions involving a two-part biomass of degrader and nondegrader, which selectively or competitively grow on a two-part substrate of input xenobiotic and its biogenic metabolites. A xenobiotic treatment model was developed which incorporates kinetics of the growth of degrader and nondegrader, the line dividing metabolites into xenobiotic and biogenic, yields of degrader and nondegrader from utilization of their parts of substrates, and kinetics of degrader reversion to nondegrader due to instability of the degradative element degraders carry. Experimental activated sludge operated for treatment of a xenobiotic generated data for calibration of the model. With the input of influent xenobiotic concentration, mean cell and hydraulic residence times, and calibrated parameters, the model readily outputs concentrations of degrader, nondegrader, and effluent biogenic residue that closely match the results obtained from experiments.

  16. Mathematical model for steady state, simple ampholyte isoelectric focusing: Development, computer simulation and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palusinski, O. A.; Allgyer, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    The elimination of Ampholine from the system by establishing the pH gradient with simple ampholytes is proposed. A mathematical model was exercised at the level of the two-component system by using values for mobilities, diffusion coefficients, and dissociation constants representative of glutamic acid and histidine. The constants assumed in the calculations are reported. The predictions of the model and computer simulation of isoelectric focusing experiments are in direct importance to obtain Ampholine-free, stable pH gradients.

  17. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1993-03-08

    The balance of stable and decaying tracers was incorporated into a latitude-depth ocean circulation model which resolves the major ocean basin and is coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model. The modern distribution of radiocarbon and the analysis of artificial color tracers enabled the census of the deep water masses. We show that good agreement with the observation can be achieved if the surface forcing is modified. The same process could also account for long-term, large-scale changes of the global thermohaline circulation. Uptake rates of carbon are investigated using an inorganic carbon cycle model and performing 2 [times] CO[sub 2]-experiments. We prescribe the industrial evolution of pCO[sub 2] in the atmosphere from 1792 to 1988 and calculate the total flux of carbon into the world ocean. Results are in good agreement with two recent 3-dimensional model simulation. First results using an organic carbon cycle in this model are presented. Changes in the hydrological cycle can stabilize the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic and enable simulation of climate events resembling the Younger Dryas. By adding the balance of radiocarbon the evolution of its atmospheric concentration is studied during rapid changes of deep ocean ventilation. A resumption of ventilation creates a rapid decrease of atmospheric radiocarbon which is able to mask the natural decay.

  18. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1992-03-26

    The deep circulation model developed by Wright and Stocker has been used to represent the latitude-depth distributions of temperature, salinity, radiocarbon and color'' tracers in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Restoring temperature and salinity to observed surface data the model shows a global thermohaline circulation where deep water is formed in the North Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean. A parameter study reveals that the high-latitude surface salinity determines the composition of deep water and its flow in the global ocean. Increasing Southern Ocean surface salinity by 0.4 ppt the circulation changes from a present-day mode where North Atlantic Deep Water is one where Antarctic Bottom Water is dominant. An inorganic carbon cycle with surface carbonate chemistry is included, and gas exchange is parameterized in terms of pCO{sub 2} differences. Pre- industrial conditions are achieved by adjusting the basin-mean alkalinity. A classical 2{times}CO{sub 2} experiment yields the intrinsic time scales for carbon uptake of the ocean; they agree with those obtained from simple box models or 3-dimensional ocean general circulation models. Using the estimated industrial anthropogenic input of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere the model requires, consistent with other model studies, an additional carbon flux to match the observed increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2}. We use more realistic surface boundary conditions which reduce sensitivity to freshwater discharges into the ocean. In a glacial-to-interglacial experiment rapid transitions of the deep circulation between two different states occur in conjunction with a severe reduction of the meridional heat flux and sea surface temperature during peak melting. After the melting the conveyor belt circulation restarts.

  19. A two-dimensional MHD global coronal model - Steady-state streamers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a two-dimensional time-dependent, numerical, magnetohydrodynamic model for the determination of the physical properties of coronal streamers from the top of the transition zone (solar radius = 1) to 15 solar radii. Four examples are given: for dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole initial field topologies. The computed parameters are density, temperature, velocity, and magnetic field. In addition to the properties of the solutions, their accuracy is discussed. We use the model as the basis for a general discussion of the way boundary conditions are specified in this and similar simulations.

  20. Parameters of a Steady State Model for In-Cylinder Flow of an Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Elizabeth; Puzinauskas, Paul; Bolus, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    Flow structures in an internal combustion engine are critical to engine performance and fuel consumption. Experiments are often conducted to explore how intake port geometry can be modified to induce desired tumble and swirl flow structures within the cylinder. To make these experiments cost-effective, they are often first conducted using a model cylinder on a steady flow bench prior to, or in lieu of, performing full unsteady engine tests. This research examines how model characteristics and experimental configuration choices affect results on these steady-flow tests. The experimental set-up uses DPIV to visualize the flow and a horizontally extracting swirl meter to measure the strength of the tumble structure. The configurations and characteristics examined included model geometry, seeding particle type and location of flow induction. The symmetric geometry experiment investigates how extraction affects the flow structures inside the cylinder. Three different seeding particles were used to see how particle properties affect DPIV results. Reversing the direction of flow through the system causes set-up challenges with removing leaks and introducing seeding particles, but is safer as it directs particles away from the flow bench. Deviation of results from the different test set-ups may indicate that cylinder model experiments need to be carefully designed to ensure high quality results accurate enough for use in designing full scale engine tests. Support from NSF REU Grant #1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Identification and estimation of groundwater inflow to a brackish coastal lagoon: Field observations and numerical steady-state modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, K.; Duque, C.; Sonnenborg, T.; Engesgaard, P.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater discharge to a brackish lagoon, Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark, has been studied using a combination of hydrogeological field investigations and variable-density flow and transport modeling. Discharge is believed to occur mostly near the shoreline decreasing exponentially off-shore. The main focus has thus been on the near-shore flow processes. A conceptual model, which can help determine the dynamics controlling the interaction between the more saline lagoon water and groundwater, is being developed on the basis of different tracers. Sampling of groundwater every two months in the upper 2 m have been carried out and EC-profiles have been used to estimate changes in the width of the groundwater discharge zone. Furthermore, temperature as a tracer, and seepagemeter measurements were used to indirectly and directly estimate groundwater discharge. Field observations show that the salinity of the lagoon is highest in summer, when groundwater discharge is lowest and, vice versa, lowest when the discharge is highest (winter). This indicates that the force of saline intrusion and freshwater discharge is offset in time. The Hydrogeosphere code (HGS) was applied based on a conceptual three-layer model of hydraulic conductivity (mapped on the basis of slug tests). Steady-state modeling of the interaction between the lagoon and groundwater shows that the simulated discharge to the near-shore environment compares well with field observations (on the order of a few cm/day). Furthermore, the modeling results also are in line with the changes in the observed widths of the groundwater discharge zone. A 12 m deep EC-depth profile shows variable salinity in the top followed by increasing salinity approaching the lagoon summer salinity near the bottom of the shallow aquifer. The numerical model shows a similar trend. A sensitivity analysis on the steady-state model was conducted to observe the effects on discharge and salinity distributions by using different heterogeneity

  2. Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

  3. Output regulation of a class of unstructured models of continuous bioreactors: steady-state approaches.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Huang, M-Y

    2003-03-01

    This article deals with the output regulation of continuous bioreactors in the face of constant disturbances and inverse dynamics. Nonlinear controllers developed on the basis of approximate equilibrium manifolds can almost attenuate measurable or unmeasurable disturbances on the output. This nonlinear feed-forward/feedback control framework without any tuning parameters can be directly implemented to strictly nonlinear systems. Under dynamic actuator constraints and the availability of only output signals for use in the control law, closed-loop simulations demonstrate that the proposed control techniques are superior to a nonlinear PI control scheme based on the identified Hammerstein model.

  4. Steady state operation simulation of the Francis-99 turbine by means of advanced turbulence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, A.; Dekterev, A.; Minakov, A.; Platonov, D.; Sentyabov, A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation of the flow in hydraulic turbine based on the experimental data of the II Francis-99 workshop. The calculation domain includes the wicket gate, runner and draft tube with rotating reference frame for the runner zone. Different turbulence models such as k-ω SST, ζ-f and RSM were considered. The calculations were performed by means of in-house CFD code SigmaFlow. The numerical simulation for part load, high load and best efficiency operation points were performed.

  5. Steady-State Microscale Pumping Using the Marangoni Effect: A Model Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debar, Michael; Liepmann, Dorian

    2000-11-01

    A bubble in an infinite medium under a temperature gradient produces a net flow in the bubble’s frame of reference under certain conditions. Varying the surface tension at an interface between two fluids results in an interfacial velocity. In low Reynolds’ number flows, the interface generates a shear flow where velocity decreases as 1/r, causing a net fluid motion similar to that of a low Re dipole. A model problem (in which both the Reynolds and Peclet numbet are small) demonstrates a microscale pump powered by a thermal gradient. The Reynolds number constraint reduces the magnitude of the non-linear term in the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, while the low Peclet number implies a dominance of conduction over convection, de-coupling the two equations. An exact solution for a bubble in an infinite medium is presented and analyzed. The non-dimensional solution is examined for the case of air and water, and performance criteria are predicted. Physical limitations of the model are explored.

  6. Steady-state model of biota sediment accumulation factor for metals in two marine bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, R.V.; Mahony, J.D.; Mueller, R.

    1995-11-01

    A model of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) is developed to relate the ratio of metal concentrations in two marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mytilus edulis) to sediment metal concentration. A generalized metal BSAF can be approximated by a simple relationship that is a function of sediment to water column partitioning, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), the depuration rate, the metal assimilation efficiency from food, the bivalve feeding rate, and the growth rate. Analyses of Mussel Watch data indicate that the medium BSAF across stations varies by about three orders of magnitude from Zn, Cd, and Cu at the highest levels of BSAF = 1 to 10, while Cr has the lowest BSAF at 0.01. Total Hg is about 1.0 and Ni and Pb are approximately 0.1. Calibration of the model indicates that the food route of metal accumulation is significant for all metals but specially for Zn, Cd, Cu, and Hg where virtually all of the observed BSAF is calculated to be due to ingestion of metal from food in the overlying water. These results indicate a potential significance of the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which results in relatively high binding of metal and resulting low depuration rates.

  7. A steady state model of agricultural waste pyrolysis: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Trninić, M; Jovović, A; Stojiljković, D

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural waste is one of the main renewable energy resources available, especially in an agricultural country such as Serbia. Pyrolysis has already been considered as an attractive alternative for disposal of agricultural waste, since the technique can convert this special biomass resource into granular charcoal, non-condensable gases and pyrolysis oils, which could furnish profitable energy and chemical products owing to their high calorific value. In this regard, the development of thermochemical processes requires a good understanding of pyrolysis mechanisms. Experimental and some literature data on the pyrolysis characteristics of corn cob and several other agricultural residues under inert atmosphere were structured and analysed in order to obtain conversion behaviour patterns of agricultural residues during pyrolysis within the temperature range from 300 °C to 1000 °C. Based on experimental and literature data analysis, empirical relationships were derived, including relations between the temperature of the process and yields of charcoal, tar and gas (CO2, CO, H2 and CH4). An analytical semi-empirical model was then used as a tool to analyse the general trends of biomass pyrolysis. Although this semi-empirical model needs further refinement before application to all types of biomass, its prediction capability was in good agreement with results obtained by the literature review. The compact representation could be used in other applications, to conveniently extrapolate and interpolate these results to other temperatures and biomass types.

  8. Transient and steady state CO oxidation kinetics on nanolithographically prepared supported Pd model catalysts: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Laurin, M.; Johanek, V.; Grant, A.W.; Kasemo, B.; Libuda, J.; Freund, H.-J.

    2005-08-01

    Applying molecular-beam methods to a nanolithographically prepared planar Pd/SiO{sub 2} model catalyst, we have performed a detailed study of the kinetics of CO oxidation. The model catalyst was prepared by electron-beam lithography, allowing individual control of particle size and position. The sample was structurally characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy before and after reaction. In the kinetic experiments, the O-rich and CO-rich regimes were investigated systematically with respect to their transient and steady-state behaviors, both under bistable and monostable reaction conditions. Separate molecular beams were used in order to supply the reactants, allowing individual control over the reactant fluxes. The desorbing CO{sub 2} was detected by both angle-resolved and angle-integrated mass spectrometries. The experimental results were analyzed using different types of microkinetic models, including a detailed reaction-diffusion model, which takes into account the structural parameters of the catalyst as well as scattering of the reactants from the support. The model quantitatively reproduces the results as a function of the reactant fluxes and the surface temperature. Various kinetic effects observed are discussed in detail on the basis of the model. Specifically, it is shown that under conditions of limited oxygen mobility, the switching behavior between the kinetic regimes is largely driven by the surface mobility of CO.

  9. Steady-state inhibition model for the biodegradation of sulfonated amines in a packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Ramos-Monroy, Oswaldo; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor

    2015-05-25

    Aromatic amines are important industrial products having in their molecular structure one or more aromatic rings. These are used as precursors for the synthesis of dyes, adhesives, pesticides, rubber, fertilizers and surfactants. The aromatic amines are common constituents of industrial effluents, generated mostly by the degradation of azo dyes. Several of them are a threat to human health because they can by toxic, allergenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. The most common are benzenesulfonic amines, such as 4-ABS (4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and naphthalene sulfonic amines, such as 4-ANS (4-amino naphthalene sulfonic acid). Sometimes, the mixtures of toxic compounds are more toxic or inhibitory than the individual compounds, even for microorganisms capable of degrading them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the mixture 4-ANS plus 4-ABS by a bacterial community immobilized in fragments of volcanic stone, using a packed bed continuous reactor. In this reactor, the amines loading rates were varied from 5.5 up to 69 mg L(-1) h(-1). The removal of the amines was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand. With this information, we have studied the substrate inhibition of the removal rate of the aromatic amines during the degradation of the mixture of sulfonated aromatic amines by the immobilized microorganisms. Experimental results were fitted to parabolic, hyperbolic and linear inhibition models. The model that best characterizes the inhibition of the specific degradation rate in the biofilm reactor was a parabolic model with values of RXM=58.15±7.95 mg (10(9) cells h)(-1), Ks=0.73±0.31 mg L(-1), Sm=89.14±5.43 mg L(-1) and the exponent m=5. From the microbial community obtained, six cultivable bacterial strains were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rDNA genes. The strains belong to the genera Variovorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides and Microbacterium. This

  10. Bose-Hubbard model: Relation between driven-dissipative steady states and equilibrium quantum phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Boité, Alexandre; Orso, Giuliano; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2014-12-01

    We present analytical solutions for the mean-field master equation of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model for cavity photons, in the limit of both weak pumping and weak dissipation. Instead of pure Mott-insulator states, we find statistical mixtures with the same second-order coherence g(2 )(0 ) as a Fock state with n photons, but a mean photon number of n /2 . These mixed states occur when n pump photons have the same energy as n interacting photons inside the nonlinear cavity and survive up to a critical tunneling coupling strength, above which a crossover to a classical coherent state takes place. We also explain the origin of both antibunching and superbunching predicted by P-representation mean-field theory at higher pumping and dissipation. In particular, we show that the strongly correlated region of the associated phase diagram cannot be described within the semiclassical Gross-Pitaevskii approach.

  11. Quantum quenches in the sinh-Gordon model: steady state and one-point correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Bruno; Piroli, Lorenzo; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-06-01

    We consider quantum quenches to the sinh-Gordon integrable quantum field theory from a particular class of initial states. Our analysis includes the case of mass and interaction quenches starting from a non-interacting theory. By means of the recently developed quench action method, we fully characterize the stationary state reached at long times after the quench in terms of the corresponding rapidity distribution. We also provide exact results for the expectation values of arbitrary vertex operators in the post-quench stationary state by proposing a formula based on the analogy with the standard thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. Finally, we comment on the behavior of the post-quench stationary state under the mapping between the sinh-Gordon field theory and the one-dimensional Lieb-Liniger model.

  12. Development of a steady state creep behavior model of polycrystalline tungsten for bimodal space reactor application

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, A.; Hanan, N.A.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Gruber, E.E.

    1995-02-01

    The fuel element for one of the many reactor concepts being currently evaluated for bimodal applications in space consists of spherical fuel particles clad with tungsten or alloys of tungsten. The fuel itself consists of stabilized UO{sub 2}. One of the life limiting phenomena for the fuel element is failure of the cladding because of creep deformation. This report summarizes the information available in literature regarding the creep deformation of tungsten and its alloys and proposes a relation to be used for calculating the creep strains for elevated temperatures in the low stress region ({sigma} {le} 20 MPa). Also, results of the application of this creep relation to one of the reactor design concepts (NEBA-3) are discussed. Based on the traditional definition of creep deformation, the temperatures of 1500 K to 2900 K for tungsten and its alloys are considered to be in the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} temperature range. In this temperature range, the rate controlling mechanisms for creep deformation are believed to be non-conservative motion of screw dislocations and short circuit diffusional paths. Extensive theoretical work on creep and in particular for creep of tungsten and its alloys have been reported in the literature. These theoretical efforts have produced complex mathematical models that require detailed materials properties. These relations, however, are not presently suitable for the creep analysis because of lack of consistent material properties required for their use. Variations in material chemistry and thermomechanical pre-treatment of tungsten have significant effects on creep and the mechanical properties. Analysis of the theoretical models and limited data indicates that the following empirical relation originally proposed by M. Jacox of INEL and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, for calculating creep deformation of tungsten cladding, can be used for the downselection of preliminary bimodal reactor design concepts.

  13. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two new explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess clear advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the new solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the new analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  14. Simulation of steady state and transient cardiac muscle response experiments with a Huxley-based contraction model.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Jorge A; Lascano, Elena C

    2008-08-01

    A cardiac muscle model is presented with the purpose of representing a wide range of mechanical experiments at constant and transient Ca(2+) concentration. Modifications of a previous model were: weak and power attached crossbridge states, a troponin system involving three consecutive regulatory troponin-tropomyosin units acting together in Ca(2+) kinetics and detachment constants depending on crossbridge length. This model improved cooperativity (Hill coefficient close to 4) and the force-velocity relationship, and incorporated the representation of the four phases of muscle response to length and force steps, isotonic shortening and isosarcometric contractions, preserving previous satisfactory results. Moreover, experimentally reported effects, such as length dependence on Ca(2+) affinity, the decreased cooperativity at higher Ca(2+) concentrations, temperature effects on the stiffness-frequency relationship and the isometric internal shortening due to series elasticity, were obtained. In conclusion, the model is more comprehensive than a previous version because it is able to represent a wider variety of steady state experiments, the mechanical variables in twitches can be adequately related to intracellular Ca(2+), and all the simulations were performed with the same set of parameters.

  15. Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Jean-Bernard; Tikhomirov, Alex; Ushakova, Sofya; Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Evaluation of performance of a BLSS model, including higher plants for food production and biodegradation of human waste, in long-term operation in dynamic and steady states was performed. The model system was conceived for supplying vegetarian food and oxygen to 0.07 human. The following data were obtained in steady-state operating conditions. Average rate of wheat, chufa, radish, lettuce and Salicornia edible biomass accumulation were 8.7, 5.5, 0.6, 0.6 and metricconverterProductID2.5 g2.5 g per day respectively. Thus, to mimic the vegetarian edible biomass consumption by a human it was necessary to withdraw 17.9 g/d from total mass ex-change. Simultaneously, human mineralized exometabolites (artificial mineralized urine, AMU) in the amount of approximately 7% of a daily norm were introduced into the nutrient solu-tion for irrigation of the plants cultivated on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate). The estimated value of 5.8 g/d of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass was introduced in the soil-like substrate (SLS) to fully meet the plants need in nitrogen. The rest of wheat and Salicornia inedible biomass, 5.7 g/d, was stored. Thus in all, 23.6g of vegetarian dry matter had been stored. Assuming edible biomass is eaten up by the human, the closure coefficient of the vegetarian biomass inclusion into matter recycling amounted to 88%. The analysis of the long-term model operation showed that the main factors limiting increase of recycling processes were the following: a) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of daily human waste with daily needs of plants culti-` vated in the system. Thus, when fully satisfied with respect to nitrogen, the plants experienced a lack of macro elements such as P, Mg and Ca by more than 50%; b) Partly unbalanced mineral composition of edible biomass of the plants cultivated in the SLS with that of inedible biomass of the plants cultivated by hydroponic method on neutral substrate introduced in the SLS; c) Accumulation of

  16. Steady-state observations and theoretical modeling of critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing hemispherical surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.

    1996-03-01

    Steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB test facility to observe the two-phase boundary layer flow behavior on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel near the critical heat flux (CHF) limit and to measure the spatial variation of the local CHF along the vessel outer surface. Based upon the flow observations, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed. The model considers the existence of a micro-layer underneath an elongated vapor slug on the downward facing curved heating surface. The micro-layer is treated as a thin liquid film with numerous micro-vapor jets penetrating through it. The micro-jets have the characteristic size dictated by Helmholtz instability. Local dryout is considered to occur when the supply of fresh liquid from the two phase boundary layer to the micro-layer is not sufficient to prevent depletion of the liquid film by boiling. A boundary layer analysis, treating the two-phase motion as a separated flow, is performed to determine the liquid supply rate and thus the local critical heat flux. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel.

  17. Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauberger, G.; Piringer, M.; Petz, E.

    The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of 2D steady-state shallow water flow. Application to free surface flow model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, Vincent; Cappelaere, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the analytical properties of the solutions of the sensitivity equations for steady-state, two-dimensional shallow water flow. These analytical properties are used to provide guidelines for model calibration and validation. The sensitivity of the water depth/level and that of the longitudinal unit discharge are shown to contain redundant information. Under subcritical conditions, the sensitivities of the flow variables are shown to obey an anisotropic elliptic equation. The main directions of the contour lines for water depth and the longitudinal unit discharge sensitivity are parallel and perpendicular to the flow, while they are diagonal to the flow for the transverse unit discharge sensitivity. Moreover, the sensitivity for all three variables extends farther in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction, the anisotropy ratio being a function of the sole Froude number. For supercritical flow, the sensitivity obeys an anisotropic hyperbolic equation. These findings are confirmed by application examples on idealized and real-world simulations. The sensitivities to the geometry, friction coefficient or model boundary conditions are shown to behave in different ways, thus providing different types of information for model calibration and validation.

  19. Lindblad-driven discretized leads for nonequilibrium steady-state transport in quantum impurity models: Recovering the continuum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, F.; Goldstein, M.; Dorda, A.; Arrigoni, E.; Weichselbaum, A.; von Delft, J.

    2016-10-01

    The description of interacting quantum impurity models in steady-state nonequilibrium is an open challenge for computational many-particle methods: the numerical requirement of using a finite number of lead levels and the physical requirement of describing a truly open quantum system are seemingly incompatible. One possibility to bridge this gap is the use of Lindblad-driven discretized leads (LDDL): one couples auxiliary continuous reservoirs to the discretized lead levels and represents these additional reservoirs by Lindblad terms in the Liouville equation. For quadratic models governed by Lindbladian dynamics, we present an elementary approach for obtaining correlation functions analytically. In a second part, we use this approach to explicitly discuss the conditions under which the continuum limit of the LDDL approach recovers the correct representation of thermal reservoirs. As an analytically solvable example, the nonequilibrium resonant level model is studied in greater detail. Lastly, we present ideas towards a numerical evaluation of the suggested Lindblad equation for interacting impurities based on matrix product states. In particular, we present a reformulation of the Lindblad equation, which has the useful property that the leads can be mapped onto a chain where both the Hamiltonian dynamics and the Lindblad driving are local at the same time. Moreover, we discuss the possibility to combine the Lindblad approach with a logarithmic discretization needed for the exploration of exponentially small energy scales.

  20. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-15

    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P < 0.0001) with a concomitant increase in tidal volume from 499 ± 206 to 1,177 ± 497 ml (P < 0.001). Consequently, steady-state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P < 0.005). In patients without respiratory modulation, there were no significant changes in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and steady-state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure.

  1. Steady state thermal radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loose, J. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A radiometer is described operating in a vacuum under steady state conditions. The front element is an aluminum sheet painted on the outer side with black or other absorptive material of selected characteristics. A thermocouple is bonded to the inner side of the aluminum sheet. That is backed by highly insulative layers of glass fiber and crinkled, aluminized Mylar polyester. Those layers are backed with a sturdy, polyester sheet, and the entire lamination is laced together by nylon cords. The device is highly reliable in that it does not drift out of calibration, and is significantly inexpensive.

  2. Monitoring the Reaction Mechanism in Model Biogas Reforming by In Situ Transient and Steady-State DRIFTS Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Luis F; Garcilaso, Victoria; Centeno, Miguel A; Odriozola, José A

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the reforming of model biogas was investigated on a Rh/MgAl2 O4 catalyst. In situ transient and steady-state diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements were used to gain insight into the reaction mechanism involved in the activation of CH4 and CO2 . It was found that the reaction proceeds through of an initial pathway in which methane and CO2 are both dissociated on Rh metallic sites and additionally a bifunctional mechanism in which methane is activated on Rh sites and CO2 is activated on the basic sites of the support surface via a formate intermediate by H-assisted CO2 decomposition. Moreover, this plausible mechanism is able to explain why the observed apparent activation energy of CO2 is much lower than that of CH4 . Our results suggest that CO2 dissociation facilitates CH4 activation, because the oxygen-adsorbed species formed in the decomposition of CO2 are capable of reacting with the CHx species derived from methane decomposition.

  3. Implementation of steady state approximation for modelling of reaction kinetic of UV catalysed hydrogen peroxide oxidation of starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Retnowati, Diah Susetyo; Ratnawati, Budiyati, Catarina Sri

    2015-12-01

    With regard to its low viscosity, high stability, clarity, film forming and binding properties, oxidised starch has been widely used in various applications specifically in the food, paper, textile, laundry finishing and binding materials industries. A number of methods have been used to produce oxidised starch through reactions with various oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, air oxygen, ozone, bromine, chromic acid, permanganate, nitrogen dioxide and hypochlorite. Unfortunately, most of previous works reported in the literatures were focused on the study of reaction mechanism and physicochemical properties characterization of the oxidised starches produced without investigation of the reaction kinetics of the oxidation process. This work aimed to develop a simple kinetic model for UV catalysed hydrogen peroxide oxidation of starch through implementation of steady state approximation for the radical reaction rates. The model was then verified using experimental data available in the literature. The model verification revealed that the proposed model shows its good agreement with the experimental data as indicated by an average absolute relative error of only 2.45%. The model also confirmed that carboxyl groups are oxidised further by hydroxyl radical. The carbonyl production rate was found to follow first order reaction with respect to carbonyl concentration. Similarly, carboxyl production rate also followed first order reaction with respect to carbonyl concentration. The apparent reaction rate constant for carbonyl formation and oxidation were 6.24 × 104 s-1 and 1.01 × 104 M-1.s-1, respectively. While apparent reaction rate constant for carboxyl oxidation was 4.86 × 104 M-1.s-1.

  4. Impact of Pin-by-Pin Thermal-Hydraulic Feedback Modeling on Steady-State Core Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Akio; Ikeno, Tsutomu

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of a pin-by-pin thermal-hydraulic feedback treatment on the core characteristics at a steady-state condition is investigated using a three-dimensional fine-mesh core calculation code. Currently, advanced nodal codes treat the inside of an assembly as homogeneous, and the temperature distribution inside a node is usually ignored. Namely, the fuel temperature is estimated from the assembly average power density, and the moderator temperature is calculated from the nodewise closed-channel model. However, the validity of a flat temperature distribution inside a node has not yet been investigated, because a three-dimensional pin-by-pin whole-core calculation must be done for comparison. A three-dimensional pin-by-pin nodal-transport code for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core analysis, SCOPE2, was used in this study since it can directly treat the pin-by-pin feedback effect. A whole-core subchannel analysis code was developed to enhance the thermal-hydraulic capability of SCOPE2. The pin-by-pin feedback models for fuel and moderator temperature were established, and their impact on the core characteristics was investigated in a 3 x 3 multiassembly and the whole PWR core geometries. The calculations showed that modeling of the pin-by-pin temperature distribution revealed a negligible effect on core reactivity and only a slight impact on the radial peaking factor. The difference in the radial peaking factor that is exposed by the pin-by-pin temperature modeling is less than 0.005 in the test calculations.

  5. Testing density-dependent groundwater models: Two-dimensional steady state unstable convection in infinite, finite and inclined porous layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weatherill, D.; Simmons, C.T.; Voss, C.I.; Robinson, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    This study proposes the use of several problems of unstable steady state convection with variable fluid density in a porous layer of infinite horizontal extent as two-dimensional (2-D) test cases for density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport simulators. Unlike existing density-dependent model benchmarks, these problems have well-defined stability criteria that are determined analytically. These analytical stability indicators can be compared with numerical model results to test the ability of a code to accurately simulate buoyancy driven flow and diffusion. The basic analytical solution is for a horizontally infinite fluid-filled porous layer in which fluid density decreases with depth. The proposed test problems include unstable convection in an infinite horizontal box, in a finite horizontal box, and in an infinite inclined box. A dimensionless Rayleigh number incorporating properties of the fluid and the porous media determines the stability of the layer in each case. Testing the ability of numerical codes to match both the critical Rayleigh number at which convection occurs and the wavelength of convection cells is an addition to the benchmark problems currently in use. The proposed test problems are modelled in 2-D using the SUTRA [SUTRA-A model for saturated-unsaturated variable-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, 02-4231, 2002. 250 p] density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport code. For the case of an infinite horizontal box, SUTRA results show a distinct change from stable to unstable behaviour around the theoretical critical Rayleigh number of 4??2 and the simulated wavelength of unstable convection agrees with that predicted by the analytical solution. The effects of finite layer aspect ratio and inclination on stability indicators are also tested and numerical results are in excellent agreement with theoretical stability criteria and with

  6. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CLpro cysteine protease: development of an ion-pair model for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Solowiej, James; Thomson, James A; Ryan, Kevin; Luo, Chun; He, Mingying; Lou, Jihong; Murray, Brion W

    2008-02-26

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was a worldwide epidemic caused by a coronavirus that has a cysteine protease (3CLpro) essential to its life cycle. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic methods were used with highly active 3CLpro to characterize the reaction mechanism. We show that 3CLpro has mechanistic features common and disparate to the archetypical proteases papain and chymotrypsin. The kinetic mechanism for 3CLpro-mediated ester hydrolysis, including the individual rate constants, is consistent with a simple double displacement mechanism. The pre-steady-state burst rate was independent of ester substrate concentration indicating a high commitment to catalysis. When homologous peptidic amide and ester substrates were compared, a series of interesting observations emerged. Despite a 2000-fold difference in nonenzymatic reactivity, highly related amide and ester substrates were found to have similar kinetic parameters in both the steady-state and pre-steady-state. Steady-state solvent isotope effect (SIE) studies showed an inverse SIE for the amide but not ester substrates. Evaluation of the SIE in the pre-steady-state revealed normal SIEs for both amide and ester burst rates. Proton inventory (PI) studies on amide peptide hydrolysis were consistent with two proton-transfer reactions in the transition state while the ester data was consistent with a single proton-transfer reaction. Finally, the pH-inactivation profile of 3CLpro with iodoacetamide is indicative of an ion-pair mechanism. Taken together, the data are consistent with a 3CLpro mechanism that utilizes an "electrostatic" trigger to initiate the acylation reaction, a cysteine-histidine catalytic dyad ion pair, an enzyme-facilitated release of P1, and a general base-catalyzed deacylation reaction.

  7. Numerical Modeling of One-Dimensional Steady-State Flow and Contaminant Transport in a Horizontally Heterogeneous Unconfined Aquifer with an Uneven Base

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algorithms and a short description of the D1_Flow program for numerical modeling of one-dimensional steady-state flow in horizontally heterogeneous aquifers with uneven sloping bases are presented. The algorithms are based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximations. The program per...

  8. Auditory steady state responses and cochlear implants: Modeling the artifact-response mixture in the perspective of denoising

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Faten; Attina, Virginie; Duroc, Yvan; Veuillet, Evelyne; Truy, Eric; Thai-Van, Hung

    2017-01-01

    Auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in cochlear implant (CI) patients are contaminated by the spread of a continuous CI electrical stimulation artifact. The aim of this work was to model the electrophysiological mixture of the CI artifact and the corresponding evoked potentials on scalp electrodes in order to evaluate the performance of denoising algorithms in eliminating the CI artifact in a controlled environment. The basis of the proposed computational framework is a neural mass model representing the nodes of the auditory pathways. Six main contributors to auditory evoked potentials from the cochlear level and up to the auditory cortex were taken into consideration. The simulated dynamics were then projected into a 3-layer realistic head model. 32-channel scalp recordings of the CI artifact-response were then generated by solving the electromagnetic forward problem. As an application, the framework’s simulated 32-channel datasets were used to compare the performance of 4 commonly used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms: infomax, extended infomax, jade and fastICA in eliminating the CI artifact. As expected, two major components were detectable in the simulated datasets, a low frequency component at the modulation frequency and a pulsatile high frequency component related to the stimulation frequency. The first can be attributed to the phase-locked ASSR and the second to the stimulation artifact. Among the ICA algorithms tested, simulations showed that infomax was the most efficient and reliable in denoising the CI artifact-response mixture. Denoising algorithms can induce undesirable deformation of the signal of interest in real CI patient recordings. The proposed framework is a valuable tool for evaluating these algorithms in a controllable environment ahead of experimental or clinical applications. PMID:28350887

  9. Two-dimensional, steady-state model of ground-water flow, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada-California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model of ground-water flow beneath the Nevada Test Site and vicinity has been developed using inverse techniques. The area is underlain by clastic and carbonate rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age and by volcanic rocks and alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age that have been juxtaposed by normal and strike-slip faulting. Aquifers are composed of carbonate and volcanic rocks and alluvium. Characteristics of the flow system are determined by distribution of low-conductivity rocks (barriers); by recharge originating in the Spring Mountains, Pahranagat, Timpahute, and Sheep Ranges, and in Pahute Mesa; and by underflow beneath Pahute Mesa from Gold Flat and Kawich Valley. Discharge areas (Ash Meadows, Oasis Valley, Alkali Flat, and Furnace Creek Ranch) are upgradient from barriers. Sensitivities of simulated hydraulic heads and fluxes to variations in model parameters were calculated to guide field studies and to help estimate errors in predictions from transport modeling. Hydraulic heads and fluxes are very sensitive to variations in the greater magnitude recharge/discharge terms. Transmissivity at a location may not be the most important transmissivity for determining flux there. Transmissivities and geometries of large barriers that impede flow from Pahute Mesa have major effects on fluxes elsewhere; as their transmissivities are decreased, flux beneath western Jackass Flats and Yucca Mountains is increased as water is diverted around the barriers. Fortymile Canyon is underlain by highly transmissive rocks that cause potentiometric contours to vee upgradient; increasing their transmissivity increases flow through them, and decreases it beneath Yucca Mountain. (USGS)

  10. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mode...

  11. New steady-state models for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation waters: Analytical solutions and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  12. Testing steady states carbon stocks of Yasso07 and ROMUL models against soil inventory data in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, Aleksi; Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sievänen, Risto; Mäkipää, Raisa; Tamminen, Pekka; Salemaa, Maija; Komarov, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Soil carbon pool is a significant storage of carbon. Unfortunately, the significance of different drivers of this pool is still unknown. In order to predict future feedbacks of soils to climate change at global level, Earth system model (ESMs) are needed. These ESMs have been tested against soil carbon inventories in order to judge whether models can be used for future prediction. Unfortunately results have been poor, and e.g. Guenet et al. 2013 presents a test where soil carbon stocks by ORCHIDEE models are plotted at plot level against measurements without any correlation. Similarly, Todd-Brown et al. (2013) concludes that most ESMs are not able reproduce measured soil carbon stocks at grid level. Here we estimated litter input from trees and understorey vegetation to soil, based national forest inventory 9 data. Both, biomass estimates for trees and for understorey vegetation were smoothed with ordinary kriging methods and thereafter litter input was modeled by dominant tree species. Also regional litter input from natural mortality and harvesting residues were added to the input. Thereafter we applied Yasso07 (Tuomi et al. 2011) and ROMUL (Chertov et al. 2001) soil models to estimate steady-state carbon stocks for mineral soils of Finland on a 10*10 km2 grid. We run Yasso07 model with annual time step and using parameters based on Scandinavian data (Rantakari et al. 2012) and also with parameters based on global data set (Tuomi et al. 2011). ROMUL model was applied with and without soil water holding capacity information. Results were compared against Biosoil measurements of soil carbon stocks (n=521). We found out that the best match between model estimates and measurements by latitudinal bands (n=43) were by ROMUL model with soil water holding capacity, with RMSE of 9.9 Mg C. Second best match was with Yasso07 with Scandinavian parameters, with RMSE of 15.3 Mg C. Results of this study highlight two things, it is essential to run dynamic soil models with time

  13. Experimental Investigation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine During Steady-State Operation at Off-Design Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergan, Carl; Goyal, Rahul; Cervantes, Michel J.; Dahlhaug, Ole G.

    2016-11-01

    Francis-99 is a set of workshops aiming to determine the state of the art of high head Francis turbine simulations (flow and structure) under steady and transient operating conditions as well as promote their development and knowledge dissemination openly. The first workshop (Trondheim, 2014) focused on steady state conditions. Some concerns were raised regarding uncertainty in the measurements, mainly that there was no clear vortex rope at the Part Load (PL) condition, and that the flow exhibited relatively large asymmetry. The present paper addresses these concerns in order to ensure the quality of the data presented in further workshops. To answer some of these questions, a new set of measurements were performed on the Francis- 99 model at Waterpower Laboratory at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). In addition to PL, two other operating conditions were considered, for further use in transient measurements, Best Efficiency (BEP) and High Load (HL). The experiments were carried out at a head of 12 m, with a runner rotational speed of 333 revolutions per minute (rpm). The guide vane opening angle were 6.72°, 9.84° and 12.43° for PL, BEP and HL, respectively. The part load condition has been changed from the first workshop, to ensure a fully developed Rotating Vortex Rope (RVR). The velocity and pressure measurements were carried out in the draft tube cone using 2D PIV and six pressure sensors, respectively. The new PL condition shows a fully developed rotating vortex rope (RVR) in both the frequency analysis and in the phase resolved data. In addition, the measurements confirm an asymmetric flow leaving the runner, as was a concern in the first Francis-99 workshop. This asymmetry was detected at both design and off-design conditions, with a stronger effect during off design.

  14. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    larger urban park in Vilnius, Vinguis Parkas. The studied area is located near the Neris River and occupies an area of approximately 162 hectares. Inside the park a total of 95 randomly points were selected to measure soil steady infiltration, between April and September of 2016. At each sampling point, 4 infiltration measurements were carried out using a cylinder infiltrometer with 15 cm higher and a diameter of 7 cm (Cerda, 1996). Each experiment has the duration of 1 hour and the measurements of the infiltrated water were carried out 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes (Cerda, 1996). The steady state infiltration value of each sampling point corresponds to the average value of the 4 measurements. In each point, the 4 measurements were separated by 5 meters to take in account the spatial variability (Neris et al., 2013). In total 380 infiltration tests were carried out (95x4). Previous to data modelling, data normality was assessed using the shapiro wilk-test and homogeneity of the variances, using Levene test, respectively. The original data was not normally distributed and, only respected the Gaussian distribution and heteroscedasticity after a logarithmic transformation. Data modelling was carried out using transformed data. The accuracy of steady-state soil infiltration spatial distribution was carried out testing several interpolation methods, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial methods, with the power of 1 and 2 Radial Basis Functions - Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Geostatistical methods as, Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK) (Pereira et al., 2015). Methods performance was assessed calculating the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) from the errors obtained from cross-validation. The results showed that on average steady state

  15. An Introduction to System-Level, Steady-State and Transient Modeling and Optimization of High-Power-Density Thermoelectric Generator Devices Made of Segmented Thermoelectric Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, D. T.

    2011-05-01

    High-power-density, segmented, thermoelectric (TE) elements have been intimately integrated into heat exchangers, eliminating many of the loss mechanisms of conventional TE assemblies, including the ceramic electrical isolation layer. Numerical models comprising simultaneously solved, nonlinear, energy balance equations have been created to simulate these novel architectures. Both steady-state and transient models have been created in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The models predict data from experiments in various configurations and applications over a broad range of temperature, flow, and current conditions for power produced, efficiency, and a variety of other important outputs. Using the validated models, devices and systems are optimized using advanced multiparameter optimization techniques. Devices optimized for particular steady-state operating conditions can then be dynamically simulated in a transient operating model. The transient model can simulate a variety of operating conditions including automotive and truck drive cycles.

  16. Inconsistencies in steady state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential μ, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. These quantities are determined via zero-flux conditions of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. For the models considered here, the fluxes are given in terms of certain stationary average densities, eliminating the need to perturb the system by actually exchanging particles; μ and Te are thereby obtained via open-circuit measurements, using a virtual reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas, both μ and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that the zeroth law is violated, and determine the size of the violations numerically. Our results highlight a fundamental inconsistency in the extension of thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Research supported by CNPq, Brazil.

  17. Modeling the steady-state ISV (in situ vitrification) process: A 3-D finite element analysis of coupled thermal-electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Langerman, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    Steady-state modeling considerations for simulating the in situ vitrification (ISV) process are documented based upon the finite element numerical approach. Recommendations regarding boundary condition specifications and mesh discretization are presented. The effects of several parameters on the ISV process response are calculated and the results discussed. The parameters investigated include: (1) electrode depth, (2) ambient temperature, (3) supplied current, (4) electrical conductivity, (5) electrode separation, and (6) soil/waste characterization. 13 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  18. S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Downum, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code.

  19. Steady-state solutions of cell volume in a cardiac myocyte model elaborated for membrane excitation, ion homeostasis and Ca2+ dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chae Young; Noma, Akinori

    2012-08-21

    The cell volume continuously changes in response to varying physiological conditions, and mechanisms underlying volume regulation have been investigated in both experimental and theoretical studies. Here, general formulations concerning cell volume change are presented in the context of developing a comprehensive cell model which takes Ca(2+) dynamics into account. Explicit formulas for charge conservation and steady-state volumes of the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are derived in terms of membrane potential, amount of ions, Ca(2+)-bound buffer molecules, and initial cellular conditions. The formulations were applied to a ventricular myocyte model which has plasma-membrane Ca(2+) currents with dynamic gating mechanisms, Ca(2+)-buffering reactions with diffusive and non-diffusive buffer proteins, and Ca(2+) uptake into or release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) accompanied by compensatory cationic or anionic currents through the SR membrane. Time-dependent volume changes in cardiac myocytes induced by varying extracellular osmolarity or by action potential generation were successfully simulated by the novel formulations. Through application of bifurcation analysis, the existence and uniqueness of steady-state solutions of the cell volume were validated, and contributions of individual ion channels and transporters to the steady-state volume were systematically analyzed. The new formulas are consistent with previous fundamental theory derived from simple models of minimum compositions. The new formulations may be useful for examination of the relationship between cell function and volume change in other cell types.

  20. Metabolism of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger: model definition, steady-state analysis and constrained optimization of citric acid production rate.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vasquez, F; González-Alcón, C; Torres, N V

    2000-10-05

    In an attempt to provide a rational basis for the optimization of citric acid production by A. niger, we developed a mathematical model of the metabolism of this filamentous fungus when in conditions of citric acid accumulation. The present model is based in a previous one, but extended with the inclusion of new metabolic processes and updated with currently available kinetic data. Among the different alternatives to represent the system behavior we have chosen the S-system representation within power-law formalism. This type of representation allows us to verify not only the ability of the model to exhibit a stable steady state of the integrated system but also the robustness and quality of the representation. The model analysis is shown to be self-consistent, with a stable steady state, and in good agreement with experimental evidence. Moreover, the model representation is sufficiently robust, as indicated by sensitivity and steady-state and dynamic analyses. From the steady-state results we concluded that the range of accuracy of the S-system representation is wide enough to model realistic deviations from the nominal steady state. The dynamic analysis indicated a reasonable response time, which provided further indication that the model is adequate. The extensive assessment of the reliability and quality of the model put us in a position to address questions of optimization of the system with respect to increased citrate production. We carried out the constrained optimization of A. niger metabolism with the goal of predicting an enzyme activity profile yielding the maximum rate of citrate production, while, at the same time, keeping all enzyme activities within predetermined, physiologically acceptable ranges. The optimization is based on a method described and tested elsewhere that utilizes the fact that the S-system representation of a metabolic system becomes linear at steady state, which allows application of linear programming techniques. Our results show

  1. Steady-state modelling of hydroxyl radical concentrations at Mace Head during the EASE '97 campaign, May 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Nicholas H.; Harrison, Roy M.; Monks, Paul S.; Salisbury, Gavin

    Two different steady-state methods are applied to calculate OH radical concentrations based on the rates of known source and sink processes. The first method, which calculates only OH radical concentrations from measured data including HO 2 gives good correlation with measured OH concentrations but overpredicts by 30%. The second method applied calculates OH, HO 2 and RO 2 radical concentrations simultaneously. This second method overestimates the measured concentrations of OH by almost 3 times. This apparent overprediction may be a result of calculated concentrations of HO 2 which appear too high and may be indicative of a gap in our understanding of the relevant peroxy radical chemistry or a result of the limited peroxy radical chemistry assumed by the method.

  2. Network inference in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, Simon L.; Nguyen, H. Chau; Berg, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Nonequilibrium systems lack an explicit characterization of their steady state like the Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. This has drastic consequences for the inference of the parameters of a model when its dynamics lacks detailed balance. Such nonequilibrium systems occur naturally in applications like neural networks and gene regulatory networks. Here, we focus on the paradigmatic asymmetric Ising model and show that we can learn its parameters from independent samples of the nonequilibrium steady state. We present both an exact inference algorithm and a computationally more efficient, approximate algorithm for weak interactions based on a systematic expansion around mean-field theory. Obtaining expressions for magnetizations and two- and three-point spin correlations, we establish that these observables are sufficient to infer the model parameters. Further, we discuss the symmetries characterizing the different orders of the expansion around the mean field and show how different types of dynamics can be distinguished on the basis of samples from the nonequilibrium steady state.

  3. Three-dimensional model simulation of steady-state ground-water flow in the Albuquerque-Belen Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernodle, J.M.; Scott, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Southwest Alluvial Basins study, model was constructed to simulate the alluvial aquifer system underlying the Albuquerque-Belen Basin. The model was used to simulate the steady-state flow condition assumed to have existed prior to 1960. Until this time there apparently were no long-term groundwater level changes of a significant magnitude outside the immediate vicinity of Albuquerque. Therefore, the construction of a steady-state flow model of the aquifer system based on reported hydrologic data predating 1960 was justified. During construction of the steady-state model, simulated hydraulic conductivity values were adjusted, within acceptable physical limits, until a best fit between measured or reported and computed heads at 34 control wells was achieved. The modeled area was divided into six sub-areas, or zones, within each of which hydraulic conductivity was assumed to be uniform. The model consisted of six layers for each of which simulated transmissivity was proportional to the layer thickness. Adjustments to simulated hydraulic conductivity values in the different zones resulted in final values that ranged from a low of 0.25 ft/day in the west to 50 ft/day in the eastern part of the basin. The error of the simulation, defined as the absolute difference between the computed and the measured or reported water level at the corresponding point in the physical system being modeled, ranged from 0.6 ft to 36 ft, with an average of 14.6 ft for the 34 control wells. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Validation of a quick modeling program generating clearance estimates at steady state for routine therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    el Battah, A; Beglia, S; Alric, R

    1995-08-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of chronic treatments is justified for several reasons, including relative over- or underdosage due to variable individual elimination, pharmacokinetic interactions in drug combinations, and noncompliance. In all these circumstances, the prescribing physician is interested in having an estimation of the patient's clearance of the drug, even from one measurement. We compare a validated bayesian program, USC*Pack of Jelliffe, found difficult to use in daily routine, with a "home-made" program. The latter, which is capable of taking data from a clinical database, will generate a graphic simulation of daily plasma drug concentrations together with an estimation of steady-state clearance more rapidly than does USC*Pack. Both programs were run with only one measured plasma level. The patients were 83 children or young adults treated with phenobarbital (PB), carbamazepine (CBZ), and/or Valproic acid (VPA) who were resistant to monotherapy and who were to be sampled two to four times between doses. Drugs were routinely assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Despite the rough character of Phacile (numeric integration and adjustment of only two of three parameters, without an acknowledged minimization algorithm), the results are comparable to those obtained with USC*Pack for estimating clearance and predicting plasma drug concentrations. Phacile algorithm, although simple, has proven of interest in routine TDM and as an introduction for medical students to the bayesian approach of population pharmacokinetics.

  5. Steady-state computer model of the water-table aquifer in the Mullica River basin, the Pine Barrens, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, A.W.; Tilley, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady-state model of the water-table aquifer of the Mullica River basin was made to evaluate the flow system and data required to simulate it. The Mullica River basin covers 570 sq mi and is drained by numerous shallow streams. The water-table aquifer consists of sand and gravel intermixed with clay and silt. The computer model is based on a finite-difference method with stream-seepage equations coupled to the groundwater equation. The model was applied to the approximately steady-state conditions of March 1979. Initial estimates of streambed hydraulic conductance and aquifer hydraulic conductivity were adjusted until model water level matched measured water level within 5 ft for 41 of 42 wells. Also, model streamflow was within 20 percent of measured streamflow at 12 of 15 sites. The 5,000-ft grid spacing should be adequate for a future predictive model. The natural flow system is adequately simulated by a two-dimensional model. (USGS)

  6. Steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport, Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Daniel J.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The steady-state and transient flow models cover an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the 890 square miles of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Model results can be used in numerical simulations to evaluate the movement of contaminants in the aquifer. Saturated flow in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer was simulated using the MODFLOW-2000 groundwater flow model. Steady-state flow was simulated to represent conditions in 1980 with average streamflow infiltration from 1966-80 for the Big Lost River, the major variable inflow to the system. The transient flow model simulates groundwater flow between 1980 and 1995, a period that included a 5-year wet cycle (1982-86) followed by an 8-year dry cycle (1987-94). Specified flows into or out of the active model grid define the conditions on all boundaries except the southwest (outflow) boundary, which is simulated with head-dependent flow. In the transient flow model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress, and was variable in time and location. The models were calibrated by adjusting aquifer hydraulic properties to match simulated and observed heads or head differences using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. Various summary, regression, and inferential statistics, in addition to comparisons of model properties and simulated head to measured properties and head, were used to evaluate the model calibration. Model parameters estimated for the steady-state calibration included hydraulic conductivity for seven of nine hydrogeologic zones and a global value of vertical anisotropy. Parameters

  7. Steady state volcanism - Evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.

    1982-01-01

    Cumulative volcano volume curves are presented as evidence for steady-state behavior at certain volcanoes and to develop a model of steady-state volcanism. A minimum criteria of five eruptions over a year was chosen to characterize a steady-state volcano. The subsequent model features a constant head of magmatic pressure from a reservoir supplied from depth, a sawtooth curve produced by the magma arrivals or discharge from the subvolcanic reservoir, large volume eruptions with long repose periods, and conditions of nonsupply of magma. The behavior of Mts. Etna, Nyamuragira, and Kilauea are described and show continuous levels of plasma output resulting in cumulative volume increases. Further discussion is made of steady-state andesitic and dacitic volcanism, long term patterns of the steady state, and magma storage, and the lack of a sufficient number of steady-state volcanoes in the world is taken as evidence that further data is required for a comprehensive model.

  8. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA) models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Results Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC) models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Conclusions Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task. PMID:21867520

  9. SILVA: EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Montat, D.; Fauquet, P.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Aiming to improve its knowledge of CFB boilers, EDF has initiated a R and D program including: laboratory work on mock-ups, numerical modelling and on-site tests in CFB power plants. One of the objectives of this program is the development of a comprehensive steady-state 1D model of the solid circulation loop, named SILVA, for plant operation and design evaluation purposes. This paper describes its mathematical and physical modelling. Promising validation of the model on cold mock-up and industrial CFB is presented.

  10. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design point is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported.

  11. Accessibility and Reproducibility of Stable High-qmin Steady-State Scenarios by q-profile+βN Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, E.; Wehner, W.; Holcomb, C. T.; Victor, B.; Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    The capability of combined q-profile and βN control to enable access to and repeatability of steady-state scenarios for qmin > 1.4 discharges has been assessed in DIII-D experiments. To steer the plasma to the desired state, model predictive control (MPC) of both the q-profile and βN numerically solves successive optimization problems in real time over a receding time horizon by exploiting efficient quadratic programming techniques. A key advantage of this control approach is that it allows for explicit incorporation of state/input constraints to prevent the controller from driving the plasma outside of stability/performance limits and obtain, as closely as possible, steady state conditions. The enabler of this feedback-control approach is a control-oriented model capturing the dominant physics of the q-profile and βN responses to the available actuators. Experiments suggest that control-oriented model-based scenario planning in combination with MPC can play a crucial role in exploring stability limits of scenarios of interest. Supported by the US DOE under DE-SC0010661.

  12. Controls/CFD Interdisciplinary Research Software Generates Low-Order Linear Models for Control Design From Steady-State CFD Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing analytical methods and software tools to create a bridge between the controls and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) disciplines. Traditionally, control design engineers have used coarse nonlinear simulations to generate information for the design of new propulsion system controls. However, such traditional methods are not adequate for modeling the propulsion systems of complex, high-speed vehicles like the High Speed Civil Transport. To properly model the relevant flow physics of high-speed propulsion systems, one must use simulations based on CFD methods. Such CFD simulations have become useful tools for engineers that are designing propulsion system components. The analysis techniques and software being developed as part of this effort are an attempt to evolve CFD into a useful tool for control design as well. One major aspect of this research is the generation of linear models from steady-state CFD results. CFD simulations, often used during the design of high-speed inlets, yield high resolution operating point data. Under a NASA grant, the University of Akron has developed analytical techniques and software tools that use these data to generate linear models for control design. The resulting linear models have the same number of states as the original CFD simulation, so they are still very large and computationally cumbersome. Model reduction techniques have been successfully applied to reduce these large linear models by several orders of magnitude without significantly changing the dynamic response. The result is an accurate, easy to use, low-order linear model that takes less time to generate than those generated by traditional means. The development of methods for generating low-order linear models from steady-state CFD is most complete at the one-dimensional level, where software is available to generate models with different kinds of input and output variables. One-dimensional methods have been extended

  13. Magnetization Transfer Imaging of Rat Brain under Non-steady-state Conditions. Contrast Prediction Using a Binary Spin-Bath Model and a Super-Lorentzian Lineshape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesson, Bruno; Thiaudière, Eric; Delalande, Christophe; Chateil, Jean-Francois; Moonen, Chrit T. W.; Canioni, Paul

    1998-02-01

    Magnetization transfer contrast imaging using turbo spin echo and continuous wave off-resonance irradiation was carried out on rat brainin vivoat 4.7 T. By systematically varying the off-resonance irradiation power and the offset-frequency, the signal intensities obtained under steady-state for both transverse and longitudinal magnetization were successfully analyzed with a simple binary spin-bath model taking into account a free water compartment and a pool of protons with restricted motions bearing a super-Lorentzian lineshape. Due to important RF power deposition, such experimental conditions are not practical for routine imaging on humans. An extension of the model was derived to describe the system for shorter off-resonance pulse duration, i.e., when the longitudinal magnetization of the free protons has not reached a steady-state. Data sets obtained for three regions of interest, namely thecorpus callosum,the basal ganglia, and the temporal lobe, were correctly interpreted for off-resonance pulse durations varying from 0.3 to 3 s. The parameter sets obtained from the calculations made it possible to predict the contrast between the different regions as a function of the pulse power, the offset frequency, and pulse duration. Such an approach could be extended to contrast prediction for human brain at 1.5 T.

  14. The Oak Ridge Heat Pump Models: I. A Steady-State Computer Design Model of Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.K. Rice, C.K.

    1999-12-10

    The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN-IV computer program to predict the steady-state performance of conventional, vapor compression, electrically-driven, air-to-air heat pumps in both heating and cooling modes. This model is intended to serve as an analytical design tool for use by heat pump manufacturers, consulting engineers, research institutions, and universities in studies directed toward the improvement of heat pump performance. The Heat Pump Design Model allows the user to specify: system operating conditions, compressor characteristics, refrigerant flow control devices, fin-and-tube heat exchanger parameters, fan and indoor duct characteristics, and any of ten refrigerants. The model will compute: system capacity and COP (or EER), compressor and fan motor power consumptions, coil outlet air dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, air- and refrigerant-side pressure drops, a summary of the refrigerant-side states throughout the cycle, and overall compressor efficiencies and heat exchanger effectiveness. This report provides thorough documentation of how to use and/or modify the model. This is a revision of an earlier report containing miscellaneous corrections and information on availability and distribution of the model--including an interactive version.

  15. Description of a steady-state cooling plant model developed for use in evaluating optimal control of ice thermal energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.J.; Potter, R.A. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    A steady-state cooling plant model was developed for use in evaluating optimal control of ice thermal energy storage systems. The plant model calculates the power consumption of the chiller, cooling tower, pumps, and fans under an infinitely variable range of operating conditions. Given the external parameters (cooling load, ambient conditions, state-of-charge, and return air temperature) and the controls (discharge rate and temperature setpoints), the model implicitly calculates total power consumption. When embedded in the plant optimization routine, the setpoints that meet the load at minimal instantaneous power consumption can be found. Further, when this optimization is embedded in the optimal control routine, the sequence of charge/discharge rates that yield minimal operating cost over the entire simulation period can be found.

  16. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  17. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  18. Assessment of Gravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) geoid model using GPS levelling over Sabah and Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A. H.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Pa'suya, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    The GOCE satellite mission has significantly contributed to various applications such as solid earth physics, oceanography and geodesy. Some substantial applications of geodesy are to improve the gravity field knowledge and the precise geoid modelling towards realising global height unification. This paper aims to evaluate GOCE geoid model based on the recent GOCE Global Geopotential Model (GGM), as well as EGM2008, using GPS levelling data over East Malaysia, i.e. Sabah and Sarawak. The satellite GGMs selected in this study are the GOCE GGM models which include GOCE04S, TIM_R5 and SPW_R4, and the EGM2008 model. To assess these models, the geoid heights from these GGMs are compared to the local geometric geoid height. The GGM geoid heights was derived using EGMLAB1 software and the geometric geoid height was computed by available GPS levelling information obtained from the Department Survey and Mapping Malaysia. Generally, the GOCE models performed better than EGM2008 over East Malaysia and the best fit GOCE model for this region is the TIM_R5 model. The TIM_R5 GOCE model demonstrated the lowest R.M.S. of ± 16.5 cm over Sarawak, comparatively. For further improvement, this model should be combined with the local gravity data for optimum geoid modelling over East Malaysia.

  19. STWAVE: Steady-State Spectral Wave Model User’s Manual for STWAVE, Version 6.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    formats; and made it Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) compliant, which allows for easier coupling to other models. STWAVE now runs in serial mode...extra namelist. ....................... 29  Table 18. Model parameters: Spatial water level adjustment – const_surge extra namelist. ............. 29...kilometers, nearshore waves are highly influenced by bathy- metric features, currents, and fluctuating water levels, and may vary on the scale of

  20. Modifications to the steady-state 41-node thermoregulatory model including validation of the respiratory and diffusional water loss equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.

  1. The respiratory DC/macrophage network at steady-state and upon influenza infection in the swine biomedical model.

    PubMed

    Maisonnasse, P; Bouguyon, E; Piton, G; Ezquerra, A; Urien, C; Deloizy, C; Bourge, M; Leplat, J-J; Simon, G; Chevalier, C; Vincent-Naulleau, S; Crisci, E; Montoya, M; Schwartz-Cornil, I; Bertho, N

    2016-07-01

    Human and mouse respiratory tracts show anatomical and physiological differences, which will benefit from alternative experimental models for studying many respiratory diseases. Pig has been recognized as a valuable biomedical model, in particular for lung transplantation or pathologies such as cystic fibrosis and influenza infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the porcine respiratory immune system. Here we segregated and studied six populations of pig lung dendritic cells (DCs)/macrophages (Mθs) as follows: conventional DCs (cDC) 1 and cDC2, inflammatory monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), monocyte-derived Mθs, and interstitial and alveolar Mθs. The three DC subsets present migratory and naive T-cell stimulation capacities. As observed in human and mice, porcine cDC1 and cDC2 were able to induce T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 responses, respectively. Interestingly, porcine moDCs increased in the lung upon influenza infection, as observed in the mouse model. Pig cDC2 shared some characteristics observed in human but not in mice, such as the expression of FCɛRIα and Langerin, and an intra-epithelial localization. This work, by unraveling the extended similarities of the porcine and human lung DC/Mθ networks, highlights the relevance of pig, both as an exploratory model of DC/Mθ functions and as a model for human inflammatory lung pathologies.

  2. The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C

    2016-10-07

    The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of steady-state momentum and mass transport in a bioreactor for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kenneth A; Saini, Sunil; Wick, Timothy M

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to quantify momentum and mass transport under conditions of tissue growth will aid bioreactor design for development of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs. Fluent CFD models are used to calculate flow fields, shear stresses, and oxygen profiles around nonporous constructs simulating cartilage development in our concentric cylinder bioreactor. The shear stress distribution ranges from 1.5 to 12 dyn/cm(2) across the construct surfaces exposed to fluid flow and varies little with the relative number or placement of constructs in the bioreactor. Approximately 80% of the construct surface exposed to flow experiences shear stresses between 1.5 and 4 dyn/cm(2), validating the assumption that the concentric cylinder bioreactor provides a relatively homogeneous hydrodynamic environment for construct growth. Species mass transport modeling for oxygen demonstrates that fluid-phase oxygen transport to constructs is uniform. Some O(2) depletion near the down stream edge of constructs is noted with minimum pO(2) values near the constructs of 35 mmHg (23% O(2) saturation). These values are above oxygen concentrations in cartilage in vivo, suggesting that bioreactor oxygen concentrations likely do not affect chondrocyte growth. Scale-up studies demonstrate the utility and flexibility of CFD models to design and characterize bioreactors for growth of tissue-engineered cartilage.

  4. Numerical modeling of inelastic structures at loading of steady state rolling. Thermo-mechanical asphalt pavement computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, Ines; Hartung, Felix; Kaliske, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In order to gain a deeper knowledge of the interactions in the coupled tire-pavement-system, e.g. for the future design of durable pavement structures, the paper presents recent results of research in the field of theoretical-numerical asphalt pavement modeling at material and structural level, whereby the focus is on a realistic and numerically efficient computation of pavements under rolling tire load by using the finite element method based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. Inelastic material descriptions are included into the ALE frame efficiently by a recently developed unsplit history update procedure. New is also the implementation of a viscoelastic cohesive zone model into the ALE pavement formulation to describe the interaction of the single pavement layers. The viscoelastic cohesive zone model is further extended to account for the normal pressure dependent shear behavior of the bonding layer. Another novelty is that thermo-mechanical effects are taken into account by a coupling of the mechanical ALE pavement computation to a transient thermal computation of the pavement cross-section to obtain the varying temperature distributions of the pavement due to climatic impact. Then, each ALE pavement simulation considers the temperature dependent asphalt material model that includes elastic, viscous and plastic behavior at finite strains and the temperature dependent viscoelastic cohesive zone formulation. The temperature dependent material parameters of the asphalt layers and the interfacial layers are fitted to experimental data. Results of coupled tire-pavement computations are presented to demonstrate potential fields of application.

  5. A framework for modeling non-steady-state concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds indoors ― II. Interactions with particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a method for dynamic modeling of the interactions of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) with airborne and settled particulate matter in the indoor environment. This method is fully compatible with the other components within the framework. Despite the unc...

  6. Computing and interpreting specific production rates in a chemostat in steady state according to the Luedeking-Piret model.

    PubMed

    Thierie, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The Luedeking-Piret model is an empirical relationship which is very widely used in cell cultures to evaluate specific production rates of some products (metabolites or others). It constitutes a very common method of calculation as much in fundamental as in applied research and especially for designing and optimizing industrial processes in very varied fields. However, this model appears to be frequently deficient and has to be greatly adapted, practically, one might say, for each individual case. Obviously, this is a very great drawback, requiring a great deal of time spent on it and one that greatly lessens the 'universality' of the model. This work reveals that it is possible to give the initial Luedeking-Piret model a much more general scope. The used method revealed metabolic switches that have never been suspected until now. Confirmation of the method would certainly give a precious general tool both to optimize production processes and to increase understanding of some physiological states of cells in chemostat.

  7. PUMA - a new mathematical model for the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in mixer-settler extraction, partitioning, and stripping contactors using the Purex process

    SciTech Connect

    Geldard, J.F.

    1986-11-01

    The mathematical basis for a computer code PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) is described. The code simulates steady-state concentration profiles of solvent extraction contactors used in the Purex process, directly without first generating the transient behavior. The computational times are reduced, with no loss of accuracy, by about tenfold over those required by codes that generate the steady-state profiles via transient state conditions. Previously developed codes that simulate the steady-state conditions directly are not applicable to partitioning contactors, whereas PUMA is applicable to all contactors in the Purex process. Since most difficulties are encountered with partitioning contactors when simulating steady-state profiles via transient state conditions, it is with these contactors that the greatest saving in computer times is achieved.

  8. Francis-99 turbine numerical flow simulation of steady state operation using RANS and RANS/LES turbulence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, A.; Platonov, D.; Sentyabov, A.; Gavrilov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of flow in a laboratory model of a Francis hydroturbine at three regimes, using two eddy-viscosity- (EVM) and a Reynolds stress (RSM) RANS models (realizable k-ɛ, k-ω SST, LRR) and detached-eddy-simulations (DES), as well as large-eddy simulations (LES). Comparison of calculation results with the experimental data was carried out. Unlike the linear EVMs, the RSM, DES, and LES reproduced well the mean velocity components, and pressure pulsations in the diffusor draft tube. Despite relatively coarse meshes and insufficient resolution of the near-wall region, LES, DES also reproduced well the intrinsic flow unsteadiness and the dominant flow structures and the associated pressure pulsations in the draft tube.

  9. Calibration of a 1D/1D urban flood model using 1D/2D model results in the absence of field data.

    PubMed

    Leandro, J; Djordjević, S; Chen, A S; Savić, D A; Stanić, M

    2011-01-01

    Recently increased flood events have been prompting researchers to improve existing coupled flood-models such as one-dimensional (1D)/1D and 1D/two-dimensional (2D) models. While 1D/1D models simulate sewer and surface networks using a one-dimensional approach, 1D/2D models represent the surface network by a two-dimensional surface grid. However their application raises two issues to urban flood modellers: (1) stormwater systems planning/emergency or risk analysis demands for fast models, and the 1D/2D computational time is prohibitive, (2) and the recognized lack of field data (e.g. Hunter et al. (2008)) causes difficulties for the calibration/validation of 1D/1D models. In this paper we propose to overcome these issues by calibrating a 1D/1D model with the results of a 1D/2D model. The flood-inundation results show that: (1) 1D/2D results can be used to calibrate faster 1D/1D models, (2) the 1D/1D model is able to map the 1D/2D flood maximum extent well, and the flooding limits satisfactorily in each time-step, (3) the 1D/1D model major differences are the instantaneous flow propagation and overestimation of the flood-depths within surface-ponds, (4) the agreement in the volume surcharged by both models is a necessary condition for the 1D surface-network validation and (5) the agreement of the manholes discharge shapes measures the fitness of the calibrated 1D surface-network.

  10. A successive-steady-state approach to integrated surface-subsurface modelling for runoff generation on the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, W. M.; Bogaart, P. W.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2012-04-01

    In groundwater dominated lowland catchments the larger part of precipitation on drained agricultural fields recharges the groundwater or reaches surface waters through subsurface drains. However, shallow subsoil structure deterioration due to sealing or compaction, shallow groundwater tables and long and intense precipitation events facilitate ponding of water at the soil surface. During a rainfall event, the ponded area on the field expands and surface runoff reaches the field boundaries when one or more series of ponds form continuous flow paths to the channels and ditches surrounding the field. To understand catchment discharge characteristics it is important to quantify the relative contributions of different flow routes in a catchment. Also, as surface runoff is the main contributor of pesticides and one of the main contributors of phosphorus to surface-water bodies, it plays an important role with regard to the contamination, the eutrophication, and the implications for ecological functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In order to further quantify the relations between groundwater conditions, infiltration rates, and ponding and surface runoff, we developed a computer model that incorporates the saturated, unsaturated zones and a heterogeneous surface topography. The simplifications underlying the model are: The surface microtopography is static, therefore the configuration of ponds and their spill points to other ponds can be determined before the actual model simulation and stored in a database. The unsaturated zone is in hydrostatic equilibrium, therefore there is a unique relationship between the volume of water stored in a soil column and the elevation of the groundwater table. By using the total subsubsurface storage volume as state variable, problems usually associated with saturated-unsaturated zone interactions are bypassed, while still allowing for correct computation of both groundwater flow, and unsaturated zone effects on surface infiltration and thus

  11. Orographically Forced Planetary Waves in the Northern Hemisphere Winter: Steady State Model with Wave-Coupled Lower Boundary Formulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shyh-Chin; Trenberth, Kevin E.

    1988-02-01

    A planetary wave model has been developed in which the orographic forcing at the lower boundary arising from the kinematically induced vertical motion is due to the total flow impinging on the mountains rather than just the zonal mean basic state component of the flow over the mountains used in previous models. Consequently, the effects of the vertical motions produced by the eddies at the lower boundary are included and are found to be as large, if not larger, than the zonal mean component. The model remains linear mathematically, but all the planetary waves become coupled through the lower boundary condition (LBC) and the model wave equations have to be solved for simultaneously. A contrast is drawn between the wave-coupled solutions and the solutions using the traditional lower boundary formulation in which the planetary waves are decoupled.The model is symmetric about the equator and uses the linear balance set of equations on the sphere, with full spherical geometry and spherical harmonic function representation, truncated to include four zonal modes and up to mode 15 in the meridional direction. There are 11 levels in the vertical with the highest computational level at 5 mb. The model is linearized about a realistic observed January zonal-mean basic state and forced by the Northern Hemisphere orography and a wintertime calculated diabatic heating. In this paper, diabatic heating effects are not included and only the impact of the new LBC is examined in detail.The wave-coupled LBC has significant impact on the forced planetary waves and consequently on the Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The most noticeable responses of the planetary waves at the boundary when the wave-coupled LBC is used are in the vicinity of the Himalayas. The boundary eddies set up perturbation easterlies that locally offset the imposed zonal mean westerlies by forcing the flow to go around the mountains. Thus the wave-coupled LBC allows the total flow at the lower boundary to circumvent the

  12. Investigations on the Interactions of 5-Fluorouracil with Herring Sperm DNA: Steady State/Time Resolved and Molecular Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Karthikeyan, Subramani; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the interaction of 5-Fluorouracil with herring sperm DNA is reported using spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. This binding study of 5-FU with hs-DNA is of paramount importance in understanding chemico-biological interactions for drug design, pharmacy and biochemistry without altering the original structure. The challenge of the study was to find the exact binding mode of the drug 5-Fluorouracil with hs-DNA. From the absorption studies, a hyperchromic effect was observed for the herring sperm DNA in the presence of 5-Fluorouracil and a binding constant of 6.153 × 103 M-1 for 5-Fluorouracil reveals the existence of weak interaction between the 5-Fluorouracil and herring sperm DNA. Ethidium bromide loaded herring sperm DNA showed a quenching in the fluorescence intensity after the addition of 5-Fluorouracil. The binding constants for 5-Fluorouracil stranded DNA and competitive bindings of 5-FU interacting with DNA-EB systems were examined by fluorescence spectra. The Stern-Volmer plots and fluorescence lifetime results confirm the static quenching nature of the drug-DNA complex. The binding constant Kb was 2.5 × 104 L mol-1 and the number of binding sites are 1.17. The 5-FU on DNA system was calculated using double logarithmic plot. From the Forster nonradiative energy transfer study it has been found that the distance of 5-FU from DNA was 4.24 nm. In addition to the spectroscopic results, the molecular modeling studies also revealed the major groove binding as well as the partial intercalation mode of binding between the 5-Fluorouracil and herring sperm DNA. The binding energy and major groove binding as -6.04 kcal mol-1 and -6.31 kcal mol-1 were calculated from the modeling studies. All the testimonies manifested that binding modes between 5-Fluorouracil and DNA were evidenced to be groove binding and in partial intercalative mode.

  13. Excitation dynamics in Phycoerythrin 545: modeling of steady-state spectra and transient absorption with modified Redfield theory.

    PubMed

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Doust, Alexander B; Curutchet, Carles; Scholes, Gregory D; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2010-07-21

    We model the spectra and excitation dynamics in the phycobiliprotein antenna complex PE545 isolated from the unicellular photosynthetic cryptophyte algae Rhodomonas CS24. The excitonic couplings between the eight bilins are calculated using the CIS/6-31G method. The site energies are extracted from a simultaneous fit of the absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and excitation anisotropy spectra together with the transient absorption kinetics using the modified Redfield approach. Quantitative fit of the data enables us to assign the eight exciton components of the spectra and build up the energy transfer picture including pathways and timescales of energy relaxation, thus allowing a visualization of excitation dynamics within the complex.

  14. Gas evolution in eruptive conduits: Combining insights from high temperature and pressure decompression experiments with steady-state flow modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangan, M.; Mastin, L.; Sisson, T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we examine the consequences of bubble nucleation mechanism on eruptive degassing of rhyolite magma. We use the results of published high temperature and pressure decompression experiments as input to a modified version of CONFLOW, the numerical model of Mastin and Ghiorso [(2000) U.S.G.S. Open-File Rep. 00-209, 53 pp.] and Mastin [(2002) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 3, 10.1029/2001GC000192] for steady, two-phase flow in vertical conduits. Synthesis of the available experimental data shows that heterogeneous nucleation is triggered at ??P 120-150 MPa, and leads to disequilibrium degassing at extreme H2O supersaturation. In this latter case, nucleation is an ongoing process controlled by changing supersaturation conditions. Exponential bubble size distributions are often produced with number densities of 106-109 bubbles/cm3. Our numerical analysis adopts an end-member approach that specifically compares equilibrium degassing with delayed, disequilibrium degassing characteristic of homogeneously-nucleating systems. The disequilibrium simulations show that delaying nucleation until ??P =150 MPa restricts degassing to within ???1500 m of the surface. Fragmentation occurs at similar porosity in both the disequilibrium and equilibrium modes (???80 vol%), but at the distinct depths of ???500 m and ???2300 m, respectively. The vesiculation delay leads to higher pressures at equivalent depths in the conduit, and the mass flux and exit pressure are each higher by a factor of ???2.0. Residual water contents in the melt reaching the vent are between 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, roughly twice that of the equilibrium model. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel model for smectic liquid crystals: Elastic anisotropy and response to a steady-state flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püschel-Schlotthauer, Sergej; Meiwes Turrión, Victor; Stieger, Tillmann; Grotjahn, Robin; Hall, Carol K.; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    By means of a combination of equilibrium Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics we investigate the ordered, uniaxial phases (i.e., nematic and smectic A) of a model liquid crystal. We characterize equilibrium behavior through their diffusive behavior and elastic properties. As one approaches the equilibrium isotropic-nematic phase transition, diffusion becomes anisotropic in that self-diffusion D⊥ in the direction orthogonal to a molecule's long axis is more hindered than self-diffusion D∥ in the direction parallel to that axis. Close to nematic-smectic A phase transition the opposite is true, D∥ < D⊥. The Frank elastic constants K1, K2, and K3 for the respective splay, twist, and bend deformations of the director field n ̂ are no longer equal and exhibit a temperature dependence observed experimentally for cyanobiphenyls. Under nonequilibrium conditions, a pressure gradient applied to the smectic A phase generates Poiseuille-like or plug flow depending on whether the convective velocity is parallel or orthogonal to the plane of smectic layers. We find that in Poiseuille-like flow the viscosity of the smectic A phase is higher than in plug flow. This can be rationalized via the velocity-field component in the direction of the flow. In a sufficiently strong flow these smectic layers are not destroyed but significantly bent.

  16. Controls on mixing-dependent denitrification in hyporheic zones induced by riverbed dunes: A steady state modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Erich T.; Young, Katie I.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2014-11-01

    The hyporheic zone is known to attenuate contaminants originating from surface water, yet the ability of the hyporheic zone to attenuate contaminants in upwelling groundwater plumes as they exit to surface water is less understood. We used MODFLOW and SEAM3D to simulate hyporheic flow cells induced by riverbed dunes and upwelling groundwater together with mixing-dependent denitrification of an upwelling nitrate (NO3-) plume. Our base case modeled labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) advecting from surface water, and DO and NO3- advecting from groundwater, typical of certain agricultural areas. We conducted sensitivity analyses that showed mixing-dependent denitrification in the hyporheic zone increased with increasing hydraulic conductivity (K), decreasing lower boundary flux, and increasing DOC in surface water or NO3- in groundwater. Surface water DOC, groundwater NO3-, and K were the most sensitive parameters affecting mixing-dependent denitrification. Nonmixing-dependent denitrification also occurred when there was surface water NO3-, and its magnitude was often greater than mixing-dependent denitrification. Nevertheless, mixing-dependent reactions provide functions that nonmixing-dependent reactions cannot, with potential for hyporheic zones to attenuate upwelling NO3- plumes, depending on geomorphic, hydraulic, and biogeochemical conditions. Stream and river restoration efforts may be able to increase mixing-dependent reactions by promoting natural processes that promote bedform creation and augment labile carbon sources.

  17. Parameter variation effects on temperature elevation in a steady-state, one-dimensional thermal model for millimeter wave exposure of one- and three-layer human tissue.

    PubMed

    Kanezaki, Akio; Hirata, Akimasa; Watanabe, Soichi; Shirai, Hiroshi

    2010-08-21

    The present study describes theoretical parametric analysis of the steady-state temperature elevation in one-dimensional three-layer (skin, fat and muscle) and one-layer (skin only) models due to millimeter-wave exposure. The motivation of this fundamental investigation is that some variability of warmth sensation in the human skin has been reported. An analytical solution for a bioheat equation was derived by using the Laplace transform for the one-dimensional human models. Approximate expressions were obtained to investigate the dependence of temperature elevation on different thermal and tissue thickness parameters. It was shown that the temperature elevation on the body surface decreases monotonically with the blood perfusion rate, heat conductivity and heat transfer from the body to air. Also revealed were the conditions where maximum and minimum surface temperature elevations were observed for different thermal and tissue thickness parameters. The surface temperature elevation in the three-layer model is 1.3-2.8 times greater than that in the one-layer model. The main reason for this difference is attributed to the adiabatic nature of the fat layer. By considering the variation range of thermal and tissue thickness parameters which causes the maximum and minimum temperature elevations, the dominant parameter influencing the surface temperature elevation was found to be the heat transfer coefficient between the body surface and air.

  18. Material Balance Based Modeling of BLSS with Matlab/Simulink. The MEliSSA Loop Case in Steady-State Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poughon, L.; Farges-Haddani, B.; Gros, J. B.; Du, C. G.

    Solving material balances in Biological Life Support Systems BLSS affords mass flow rates and chemical elements C H O N S P etc in all parts of these very intricate and complex systems this helps defining and optimizing the performance of the entire recycling loop in terms of closedness and necessary flow inputs The complete MELiSSA loop was modeled using MatLab Simulink and a mass balance simulator for the loop was released In order to build the complete MELiSSA loop material balance simulator with Matlab Simulink it was necessary 1- To establish steady-state models on the basis of mass-balances and elements-balances for each compartment and each subsystem of the loop for biological processes in the MELiSSA compartments within the loop stoichiometric equations including biomass were derived 2- To develop for each compartments and subsystems the associated Matlab Simulink S-blocks in which models are included 3- To assemble the different S-blocks of the loop flowchart giving as a result the flow rates in the entire recycling loop The simulation parameters are easily managed using the graphical dialog boxes The simulator is used to test the behavior of the loop in different operating conditions typically by varying the composition of the food produced in the loop

  19. Dermal absorption of semivolatile organic compounds from the gas phase: Sensitivity of exposure assessment by steady state modeling to key parameters.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Maud; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Ramalho, Olivier; Blanchard, Olivier; Mercier, Fabien; Mandin, Corinne; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2017-02-26

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of dermal exposure for some semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) present in the gas phase of indoor air. Though models for estimating dermal intake from gaseous SVOCs exist, their predictions can be subject to variations in input parameters, which can lead to large variation in exposure estimations. In this sensitivity analysis for a steady state model, we aimed to assess these variations and their determinants using probabilistic Monte Carlo sampling for 8 SVOCs from different chemical families: phthalates, bisphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphorus (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), synthetic musks, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs). Indoor SVOC concentrations were found to be the most influential parameters. Both Henry's law constant (H) and octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) uncertainty also had significant influence. While exposure media properties such as volume fraction of organic matter in the particle phase (fom-part), particle density (ρpart), concentration ([TSP]) and transport coefficient (ɣd) had a slight influence for some compounds, human parameters such as body weight (W), body surface area (A) and daily exposure (t) make a marginal or null contribution to the variance of dermal intake for a given age group. Inclusion of a parameter sensitivity analysis appears essential to reporting uncertainties in dermal exposure assessment.

  20. 3D numerical modelling of the steady-state thermal regime constrained by surface heat flow data: a Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, B.; Moresi, L. N.; Cruden, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty of the lithospheric thermal regime greatly increases with depth. Measurements of temperature gradient and crustal rheology are concentrated in the upper crust, whereas the majority of the lithospheric measurements are approximated using empirical depth-dependent functions. We have applied a Monte Carlo approach to test the variation of crustal heat flow with temperature-dependent conductivity and the redistribution of heat-producing elements. The dense population of precision heat flow data in Victoria, Southeast Australia offers the ideal environment to test the variation of heat flow. A stochastically consistent anomalous zone of impossibly high Moho temperatures in the 3D model (> 900°C) correlates well with a zone of low teleseismic velocity and high electrical conductivity. This indicates that transient heat transfer has perturbed the thermal gradient and therefore a steady-state approach to 3D modelling is inappropriate in this zone. A spatial correlation between recent intraplate volcanic eruption points (< 5 Ma) and elevated Moho temperatures is a potential origin for additional latent heat in the crust.

  1. Noninvasive functional liver blood flow measurement: comparison between bolus dose and steady-state clearance of sorbitol in a small-rodent model.

    PubMed

    van der Hoven, Ben; van Pelt, Hans; Swart, Eleonore L; Bonthuis, Fred; Tilanus, Huug W; Bakker, Jan; Gommers, Diederik

    2010-02-01

    Plasma clearance of D-sorbitol, a nontoxic polyol, occurs predominantly in the liver and has been used to measure functional liver blood flow after bolus and steady- state intravenous administration. However, it is not known which of these two administration methods is superior. Therefore, plasma D-sorbitol clearance was studied in an animal model both after a bolus dose and under steady-state (SS) conditions and compared directly with liver blood flow, under normal conditions, and after the induction of endotoxin (LPS) sepsis. Adult male Wistar rats (526 +/- 38 g body wt; n = 27) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Hemodynamics, hepatic arterial flow, and portal venous flow were measured. Two groups were studied, namely healthy animals that served as controls and a sepsis group that received 5 mg/kg LPS intravenously (Escherichia coli O127:B8). Each animal received either a SS infusion (0.1 mg/100 g body wt per min) or a bolus (3 mg/100 g body wt) of a 5% D-sorbitol solution intravenously in a randomized order. After the initial measurements and a 60-min pause time in between (T(1/2,sorbitol) = 9 min), a crossover was done. The hepatic clearance of D-sorbitol in the control group showed a good correlation between bolus and SS (Spearman's r = 0.7681, P = 0.0004), and both techniques correlated well with total liver blood flow (TLBF) (r = 0.7239, P = 0.0023 and r = 0.7226, P = 0.0023, respectively). Also in the sepsis group there was a good correlation between bolus and SS sorbitol clearance (r = 0.6655, P = 0.0182). In the sepsis group, only the SS clearance correlated with TLBF (r = 0.6434, P = 0.024). In conclusion, in normal and under septic conditions, hepatic clearance of D-sorbitol either by bolus or a SS infusion is comparable. In healthy animals, this also correlated well with TLBF but not in septic conditions. However, this is expected because of the changes in the liver microcirculation, shunting, and decreased hepatocyte function in sepsis.

  2. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  3. A finite-element model for simulation of two-dimensional steady-state ground-water flow in confined aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program based on the Galerkin finite-element method was developed to simulate two-dimensional steady-state ground-water flow in either isotropic or anisotropic confined aquifers. The program may also be used for unconfined aquifers of constant saturated thickness. Constant head, constant flux, and head-dependent flux boundary conditions can be specified in order to approximate a variety of natural conditions, such as a river or lake boundary, and pumping well. The computer program was developed for the preliminary simulation of ground-water flow in the Edwards-Trinity Regional aquifer system as part of the Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis Program. Results of the program compare well to analytical solutions and simulations .from published finite-difference models. A concise discussion of the Galerkin method is presented along with a description of the program. Provided in the Supplemental Data section are a listing of the computer program, definitions of selected program variables, and several examples of data input and output used in verifying the accuracy of the program.

  4. A steady state model of particulate organic carbon flux below the mixed layer and application to the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Grant, Stanley B.

    2001-12-01

    The downward flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) through the ocean is controlled by a complex coupling of physical and biological processes. Here we analyze the equation that describes steady state coagulation, fragmentation, sedimentation, and grazing of POC below the mixed layer. The analysis yields a set of conditions under which vertical flux of POC is uncoupled from coagulation and fragmentation. When these conditions are satisfied, the model predicts that the flux of POC decays exponentially with depth down to 200-500 m, below which the flux is constant. From the magnitude of the terminal flux an estimate for the in situ clearance rate (volume swept clear of prey per grazer per unit time) for the grazer community can be obtained. This in situ clearance rate is estimated for five oceanic field sites using data collected during the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and the resulting values compare favorably to previously published laboratory estimates. These results suggest that, in some cases, bacterial mineralization may not be needed to explain the decline in POC flux in the mesopelagic zone of the ocean.

  5. Electron Density and Two-Channel Neutron Emission Measurements in Steady-State Spherical Inertial-Electrostatically Confined Plasmas, with Review of the One-Dimensional Kinetic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Hrbud, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Electron density measurements have been made in steady-state plasmas in a spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge using microwave interferometry. Plasma cores interior to two cathodes, having diameters of 15 and 23 cm, respectively, were probed over a transverse range of 10 cm with a spatial resolution of about 1.4 cm for buffer gas pressures from 0.2 to 6 Pa in argon and deuterium. The transverse profiles are generally flat, in some cases with eccentric symmetric minima, and give mean densities of from approx. = 0.4 to 7 x 10(exp 10)/cu cm, the density generally increasing with the neutral gas pressure. Numerical solutions of the one-dimensional Poisson equation for IEC plasmas are reviewed and energy distribution functions are identified which give flat transverse profiles. These functions are used with the plasma approximation to obtain solutions which also give densities consistent with the measurements, and a double potential well solution is obtained which has minima qualitatively similar to those observed. Explicit consideration is given to the compatibility of the solutions interior and exterior to the cathode, and to grid transparency. Deuterium fusion neutron emission rates were also measured and found to be isotropic, to within the measurement error, over two simultaneous directions. Anisotropy was observed in residual emissions during operation with nonfusing hydrogen- 1. The deuterium rates are consistent with predictions from the model.

  6. The Enlisted Steady State-Simulation (ESS-SIM) Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    The Enlisted Steady State-Simulation ( ESS -SIM) Tool David M. Rodney • Peggy A. Golfin • Molly F. McIntosh DIM-2014-U-007587-Final July 2014 This...situation. We built and made use of a simulation model, ESS -Sim (Enlisted Steady- State Simulation), to obtain insights into attainable levels of...fleet manning and estimate the impact of policy changes on fleet man- ning. This information memorandum describes this model. Model overview We built ESS

  7. A Mixing-Cell Model for Assessment of Contaminant Transport in the Unsaturated Zone Under Steady-State and Transient Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur S. Rood

    2004-11-01

    A one-dimensional model for water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone under steady-state or transient flow conditions was developed from the principles of the mixing-cell model. The unsaturated zone is discretized into a series of independent mixing cells. Each cell may have unique hydrologic, lithologic, and sorptive properties. Ordinary differential equations (ODE) describe the material (water and solute) balance within each cell. Water flow equations are derived from the continuity equation assuming that unit-gradient conditions exist at all times in each cell. Pressure gradients are considered implicitly through model discretization. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture contents are determined by the material-specific moisture characteristic curves. Solute transport processes included explicit treatment of advective processes, first-order chain decay, and linear sorption reactions. Dispersion is addressed through implicit and explicit dispersion. Implicit dispersion is an inherent feature of all mixing cell models and originates from the formulation of the problem in terms of mass balance around fully mixed volume elements. Expressions are provided that relate implicit dispersion to the physical dispersion of the system. The system of ODEs was solved using a forth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm coupled with adaptive step size control. Computer run times for transient flow and solute transport were typically several seconds on a 2-GHz Intel Pentium IV® desktop computer. The model was benchmarked against analytical solutions and finite-element approximations to the partial differential equations (PDE) describing unsaturated flow and transport. Differences between the maximum solute flux estimated by the mixing-cell model and the PDE models were typically less than 2%.

  8. Irreversible processes at nonequilibrium steady states

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ronald Forrest

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that a Liapunov criterion exists for the stability of nonequilibrium steady states. This criterion is based upon the fluctuation-dissipation relation, as was first pointed out by Keizer. At steady states, the Liapunov function is constructed from the covariance matrix for the thermodynamic variables. Unlike the situation around equilibrium, at steady states the covariance matrix and the “excess entropy” matrix are not equivalent. The excess entropy, which serves as the Liapunov function around equilibrium, does not work in this capacity at steady states. Keizer's Liapunov function must be viewed as the first correct candidate for a proper Liapunov function for steady states. PMID:16592649

  9. An Operational Definition of the Steady State in Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Briggs-Haldane assumption is used as the basis for the development of a kinetic model for enzyme catalysis. An alternative definition of the steady state and examples of realistic mechanisms are provided. (KR)

  10. Environmental toxicological fate prediction of diverse organic chemicals based on steady-state compartmental chemical mass ratio using quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) models.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Subrata; Roy, Kunal

    2013-07-01

    Four quantitative prediction models for steady-state compartmental chemical mass concentrations (Wn,g) were obtained from structural information, physiochemical properties, degradation rate and transport coefficients of 455 diverse organic chemicals using chemometric tools in a quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) study. The mass ratio assessment of environmentally prevalent organic chemicals may be helpful to predict their toxicological fate in the ecosystems. Four sets of mass ratios [(1) log(Wair) from water emissions (water to air compartment), (2) log(Wair) from air emissions (within different zones of the air compartment), (3) log(Wwater) from water emissions (within different zones of the water compartment) and (4) log(Wwater) from air emissions (air to water compartment)] have been used. The developed models using genetic function approximation followed by multiple linear regression (GFA-MLR) and subsequent partial least squares (PLS) treatment identify only four descriptors for log(Wair) from water emission, six descriptors for log(Wair) from air emission, five descriptors for log(Wwater) from water emission and seven descriptors for log(Wwater) from air emission for predicting efficiently a large number of test set chemicals (ntest=182). The conclusive models suggest that descriptors such as partition coefficients (Kaw, Kow and Ksw), degradation parameters (Ksoil,Kwater and Kair), vapor pressure (Pv), diffusivity (Dwater), spatial descriptors (Jurs-WNSA-1, Jurs-WNSA-2, Jurs-WPSA-3, Jurs-FNSA-3 and Density), thermodynamic descriptors (MolRef and AlogP98), electrotopological state indices (S_dsN, S_ssNH and S_dsCH) are important for predicting the chemical mass ratios. The developed models may be applicable in toxicological fate prediction of diverse chemicals in the ecosystems.

  11. Steady state stresses in ribbon parachute canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, W. L.; Wu, K. Y.; Muramoto, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of the steady state stresses in model ribbon parachute canopies is presented. The distribution of circumferential stress was measured in the horizontal ribbons of two parachutes using Omega sensors. Canopy pressure distributions and overall drag were also measured. Testing was conducted in the University of Minnesota Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at dynamic pressures ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 inches of water. The stresses in the parachute canopies were calculated using the parachute structural analysis code, CANO. It was found that the general shape of the measured and calculated stress distributions was fairly similar; however, the measured stresses were somewhat less than the calculated stresses.

  12. STEADY-STATE SOLUTIONS TO PBPK MODELS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS TO RISK ASSESSMENT I: ROUTE-TO-ROUTE EXTRAPOLATION OF VOLATILE CHEMICALS - AUTHORS' RESPONSE TO LETTER BY DR. KENNETH BOGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dear Editor: We are disappointed that Dr. Bogen felt our paper(1) “adds little new” to previously published work utilizing steady state solutions to PBPK models. Moreover, it was not our intention to be either “dismissive” or “misleading” in our admittedly brief citation of the...

  13. Statistical steady state in turbulent droplet condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Christoph; Bec, Jérémie; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by systems in which droplets grow and shrink in a turbulence-driven supersaturation field, we investigate the problem of turbulent condensation in a general manner. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the turbulent fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. Based on that, we propose a Lagrangian stochastic model for condensation and evaporation of small droplets in turbulent flows. It consists of a set of stochastic integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along the droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution. These results reconcile those of earlier numerical studies, once these various regimes are considered.

  14. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  15. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  16. Steady-state and non-steady state operation of counter-current chromatography devices.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Ignatova, Svetlana N; Sutherland, Ian A; Hewitson, Peter; Zakhodjaeva, Yulya A; Erastov, Andrey A

    2013-11-01

    Different variants of separation processes based on steady-state (continuous sample loading) and non-steady state (batch) operating modes of CCC columns have been analyzed and compared. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the modified equilibrium cell model, which takes into account both mechanisms of band broadening - interphase mass transfer and axial mixing. A full theoretical treatment of the intermittent counter-current chromatography with short sample loading time is performed. Analytical expressions are presented allowing the simulation of the intermittent counter-current chromatography separations for various experimental conditions. Chromatographic and extraction separations have been compared and advantages and disadvantages of the two methods have been evaluated. Further technical development of the CCC machines to implement counter-current extraction separations is considered.

  17. Open boundary conditions for the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmarais, J. L.; Kuerten, J. G. M.

    2014-04-01

    New techniques are developed for solving multi-phase flows in unbounded domains using the Diffuse Interface Model in 1-D. They extend two open boundary conditions originally designed for the Navier-Stokes equations. The non-dimensional formulation of the DIM generalizes the approach to any fluid. The equations support a steady state whose analytical approximation close to the critical point depends only on temperature. This feature enables the use of detectors at the boundaries switching between conventional boundary conditions in bulk phases and a multi-phase strategy in interfacial regions. Moreover, the latter takes advantage of the steady state approximation to minimize the interface-boundary interactions. The techniques are applied to fluids experiencing a phase transition and where the interface between the phases travels through one of the boundaries. When the interface crossing the boundary is fully developed, the technique greatly improves results relative to cases where conventional boundary conditions can be used. Limitations appear when the interface crossing the boundary is not a stable equilibrium between the two phases: the terms responsible for creating the true balance between the phases perturb the interior solution. Both boundary conditions present good numerical stability properties: the error remains bounded when the initial conditions or the far field values are perturbed. For the PML, the influence of its main parameters on the global error is investigated to make a compromise between computational costs and maximum error. The approach can be extended to multiple spatial dimensions.

  18. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along one-dimensional frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundsen, David Skâlid; Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasistatic velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a one-dimensional (1D) spring-block model of an extended frictional interface for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons-Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates steady-state rupture fronts and we give an approximate expression for this effect. We demonstrate that the 1D results are qualitatively valid in 2D. Our results provide insights into the qualitative role of various key parameters of a frictional interface on its rupture dynamics. They will be useful to better understand the many systems in which spring-block models have proved adequate, from friction to granular matter and earthquake dynamics.

  19. Method of single expression: an exact solution for wavelength scale 1D photonic structure computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, Hovik V.; Knyazyan, Tamara M.

    2003-12-01

    The principles of the method of single expression (MSE) for boundary problems solution in classical electrodynamics are presented. In the MSE the solution of the Helmholtz's equation is presented in the special form of a single expression describing resultant amplitude and phase distributions in the medium. This form of solution presenation permits to pass over the restrictions of the superposition principle and to solve both linear and nonlinear problems with ths same ease. In the MSE the Helmholtz's equation is reformulated to the set of first order differential equations and the boundary problem is solved numerically. No approximations are implied either in Helmholtz's equation or in boundary conditions. Using the MSE steady-state boundary problems are modeled for wavelength scale multilayer and modulated 1D photonic structures including amplification and nonuniformity evoked by intense electromagnetic field.

  20. Multiple steady states in coupled flow tank reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Kottalam, J.; Hatlee, Michael D.; Ross, John

    1992-05-01

    Coupling between continuous-flow, stirred tank reactors (CSTR's), each having multiple steady states, can produce new steady states with different concentrations of the chemical species in each of the coupled tanks. In this work, we identify a kinetic potential ψ that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors, when the reaction mechanism permits a single-variable description of the states of the individual tanks; examples include the iodate-arsenous acid reaction, a cubic model suggested by Noyes, and two quintic models. Stable steady states correspond to minima of ψ, and unstable steady states to maxima or saddle points; marginally stable states typically correspond to saddle-node points. We illustrate the variation in ψ due to changes in the rate constant for external material intake (k0) and for exchange between tanks (kx). For fixed k0 values, we analyze the changes in numbers and types of steady states as kx increases from zero. We show that steady states disappear by pairwise coalescence; we also show that new steady states may appear with increasing kx, when the reaction mechanism is sufficiently complex. For fixed initial conditions, the steady state ultimately reached in a mixing experiment may depend on the exchange rate constant as a function of time, kx(t) : Adiabatic mixing is obtained in the limit of slow changes in kx(t) and instantaneous mixing in the limit as kx(t)→∞ while t remains small. Analyses based on the potential ψ predict the outcome of mixing experiments for arbitrary kx(t). We show by explicit counterexamples that a prior theory developed by Noyes does not correctly predict the instability points or the transitions between steady states of coupled tanks, to be expected in mixing experiments. We further show that the outcome of such experiments is not connected to the relative stability of steady states in individual tank reactors. We find that coupling may effectively stabilize the tanks. We provide

  1. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  2. Partitioning a Steady State Sediment Budget to Represent Long tailed Distributions of Contaminant Residence Times: A Modeling Approach for Routing Tracers Through Alluvial Storage Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Ackerman, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    the next FP reservoir with a lower inundation frequency (we modify the Malmon (2002) model to account for these fluxes). Deposition rates are the product of area and accumulation rates. Erosion rates are then determined that conserve the mass in each reservoir through time. The existing area and elevation range for each FP reservoir is assumed to remain in morphological steady state, which requires that the area eroded from a particular reservoir is replaced by an equal area transferring in, due to deposition, from a lower elevation reservoir. These functions are constrained by measurements of FP area and mass, the total exchange rate for the FP from the sediment budget, and conservation of mass within each FP sub-reservoir. Our revised model successfully fits Hg concentration histories in the FGCM, reproduces contemporary loading of mercury from bank erosion, and provides reasonable estimates of Hg concentration in the water column. Thus, alluvial sediment storage reservoirs should not be assumed to be well-mixed, and sediment budgets cannot be used to route contaminants through river valleys without accounting for the long-tailed distribution of residence times that may occur in these environments.

  3. Application of a non-steady-state orbit-following Monte-Carlo code to neutron modeling in the MAST spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, K.; Shinohara, K.; Oikawa, T.; Tsutsui, H.; McClements, K. G.; Akers, R. J.; Liu, Y. Q.; Suzuki, M.; Ide, S.; Kusama, Y.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2016-11-01

    As part of the verification and validation of a newly developed non-steady-state orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, application studies of time dependent neutron rates have been made for a specific shot in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) using 3D fields representing vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) and toroidal field (TF) ripples. The time evolution of density, temperature and rotation rate in the application of the code to MAST are taken directly from experiment. The calculation results approximately agree with the experimental data. It is also found that a full orbit-following scheme is essential to reproduce the neutron rates in MAST.

  4. Non-Markovianity-assisted steady state entanglement.

    PubMed

    Huelga, Susana F; Rivas, Ángel; Plenio, Martin B

    2012-04-20

    We analyze the steady state entanglement generated in a coherently coupled dimer system subject to dephasing noise as a function of the degree of Markovianity of the evolution. By keeping fixed the effective noise strength while varying the memory time of the environment, we demonstrate that non-Markovianity is an essential, quantifiable resource that may support the formation of steady state entanglement whereas purely Markovian dynamics governed by Lindblad master equations lead to separable steady states. This result illustrates possible mechanisms leading to long-lived entanglement in purely decohering, possibly local, environments. We present a feasible experimental demonstration of this noise assisted phenomenon using a system of trapped ions.

  5. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  6. A simplified approach to estimating the maximal lactate steady state.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A C; Woulfe, T; Welsh, R; Foster, C

    1994-01-01

    The exercise intensity associated with an elevated but stable blood lactate (HLa) concentration during constant load work (the maximal steady state, MSS) has received attention as a candidate for the "optimal" exercise intensity for endurance training. Identification of MSS ordinarily demands direct measurement of HLa or respiratory metabolism. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of heart rate (HR) to identify MSS during steady state exercise, similar to that used in conventional exercise prescription. Trained runners (n = 9) and cyclists (n = 12) performed incremental and steady state exercise. MSS was defined as the highest intensity in which blood lactate concentration increased < 1.0 mM from minutes 10 to 30. The next higher intensity workbout completed was defined as > MSS. HR models related to the presence or absence of steady state conditions were developed from the upper 95% confidence interval of MSS and the lower 95% confidence interval of > MSS. Cross validation of the model to predict MSS was performed using 21 running and 45 cycling exercise bouts in a separate group. Using the MSS upper 95% confidence interval model 84% and 76% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Using the > MSS lower 95% confidence interval model, 76% and 81% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Prediction errors tended to incorrectly predict non-steady state conditions when steady state had occurred (16/26) (62%). We conclude that use of these simple HR models may predict MSS with sufficient accuracy to be useful when direct HLa measurement is not available.

  7. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells.

  8. Roles of steady-state and dynamic models for regulation of hydrophobic chemicals in aquatic systems: A case study of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and PCB-180 in three diverse ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeshin; Mackay, Donald; Powell, David E

    2017-02-12

    We seek to contribute to the improved regulatory use of mass balance models to complement environmental monitoring data by applying the steady-state Quantitative Water Air Sediment Interactive model (QWASI) and a novel unsteady-state QWASI model. A steady-state model can yield not only a useful simulation of chemical fate under near steady-state conditions, but it can provide insights into the likely influences of increasing or decreasing emission rates, temperature changes, and unexpectedly high sensitivities to model parameters that may require additional investigation. We compared the consistency of insights from both types of model, in the expectation that while the dynamic model provides a closer simulation of actual conditions, for many purposes a simple, less computationally demanding, more transparent and less expensive model may be adequate for many regulatory purposes. We investigated the response times of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and PCB-180 concentrations in water and sediment under three emission scenarios in three different aquatic systems, namely Lake Ontario, Oslofjord, and Lake Pepin. D5 was predicted to be removed largely by hydrolysis and volatilization in Lake Ontario and Oslofjord whereas it is subject to removal by advective loss in Lake Pepin. The half-times of D5 water concentration to a stepwise reduction in emission were <60 days in all three water bodies. In contrast, the predicted half-times were 0.53, 1.4, and 2.9 years in Lake Pepin, Oslofjord, and Lake Ontario, respectively. We also explored how uncertainties in input parameters propagate into uncertainties of concentrations in water and sediments possibly necessitating more accurate values.

  9. Vessel size index measurements in a rat model of glioma: comparison of the dynamic (Gd) and steady-state (iron-oxide) susceptibility contrast MRI approaches.

    PubMed

    Pannetier, Nicolas; Lemasson, Benjamin; Christen, Thomas; Tachrount, Mohamed; Troprès, Irène; Farion, Régine; Segebarth, Christoph; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L

    2012-02-01

    Vessel size index (VSI), a parameter related to the distribution of vessel diameters, may be estimated using two MRI approaches: (i) dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI following the injection of a bolus of Gd-chelate. This technique is routinely applied in the clinic to assess intracranial tissue perfusion in patients; (ii) steady-state susceptibility contrast with USPIO contrast agents, which is considered here as the standard method. Such agents are not available for human yet and the steady-state approach is currently limited to animal studies. The aim is to compare VSI estimates obtained with these two approaches on rats bearing C6 glioma (n = 7). In a first session, VSI was estimated from two consecutive injections of Gd-Chelate (Gd(1) and Gd(2)). In a second session (4 hours later), VSI was estimated using USPIO. Our findings indicate that both approaches yield comparable VSI estimates both in contralateral (VSI{USPIO} = 7.5 ± 2.0 µm, VSI{Gd(1)} = 6.5 ± 0.7 µm) and in brain tumour tissues (VSI{USPIO} = 19.4 ± 7.1 µm, VSI{Gd(1)} = 16.6 ± 4.5 µm). We also observed that, in the presence of BBB leakage (as it occurs typically in brain tumours), applying a preload of Gd-chelate improves the VSI estimate with the DSC approach both in contralateral (VSI{Gd(2)} = 7.1 ± 0.4 µm) and in brain tumour tissues (VSI{Gd(2)} = 18.5 ± 4.3 µm) but is not mandatory. VSI estimates do not appear to be sensitive to T(1) changes related to Gd extravasation. These results suggest that robust VSI estimates may be obtained in patients at 3 T or higher magnetic fields with the DSC approach.

  10. Morphodynamics: Rivers beyond steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M.; Ferguson, R. I.

    2015-04-01

    The morphology of an alluvial river channel affects the movement of water and sediment along it, but in the longer run is shaped by those processes. This interplay has mostly been investigated empirically within the paradigm of Newtonian mechanics. In rivers, this has created an emphasis on equilibrium configurations with simple morphology and uniform steady flow. But transient adjustment, whether between equilibrium states or indefinitely, is to be expected in a world in which hydrology, sediment supply, and base level are not fixed. More fundamentally, water flows and all the phenomena that accompany them are inherently unsteady, and flows in natural channels are characteristically nonuniform. The morphodynamics of alluvial river channels is the striking consequence. In this paper, we develop the essential connection between the episodic nature of bed material transport and the production of river morphology, emphasizing the fundamental problems of sediment transport, the role of bar evolution in determining channel form, the role of riparian vegetation, and the wide range of time scales for change. As the key integrative exercise, we emphasize the importance of physics-based modeling of morphodynamics. We note consequences that can be of benefit to society if properly understood. These include the possibility to better be able to model how varying flows drive morphodynamic change, to understand the influence of the sediments themselves on morphodynamics, and to recognize the inherent necessity for rivers that transport bed material to deform laterally. We acknowledge pioneering contributions in WRR and elsewhere that have introduced some of these themes.

  11. Refined Deformation Model for Metal-Composite Plates of Regular Layered Structure in Bending Under Conditions of Steady-State Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of the mechanical behavior of metal-composite plates of regular layered structure in bending under conditions of steady-state creep of all phase materials is formulated. Equations describing, with various degrees of accuracy, the stress and viscous creep states of such plates with account of their weakened resistance to transverse shears are obtained. The relations of the classical Kirkhoff theory, the nonclassical Reissner theory results, and the second variant of Timoshenko theory result as special cases of these equations. For asymmetrically loaded annular plates with one edge clamped and statically loaded other one, a simplified variant of the refined theory, whose complexity in practical realization is comparable to that of the Reissner theory, is developed. The bending deformations of such annular plates at different levels of thermal actions are calculated. It is shown that, with increasing temperature, the accuracy of calculations within the framework of the traditional theories decreases sharply and neither of them provides an accuracy for the calculated compliance of the structure even within 20%.

  12. Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described.

  13. Quasi 1D Modeling of Mixed Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Woolwine, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of the 2-dimensional bifurcated mixed compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes computational fluid dynamics for both the supersonic and subsonic diffusers. The oblique shocks are modeled utilizing compressible flow equations. This model also implements variable geometry required to control the normal shock position. The model is flexible and can also be utilized to simulate other mixed compression supersonic inlet designs. The model was validated both in time and in the frequency domain against the legacy LArge Perturbation INlet code, which has been previously verified using test data. This legacy code written in FORTRAN is quite extensive and complex in terms of the amount of software and number of subroutines. Further, the legacy code is not suitable for closed loop feedback controls design, and the simulation environment is not amenable to systems integration. Therefore, a solution is to develop an innovative, more simplified, mixed compression inlet model with the same steady state and dynamic performance as the legacy code that also can be used for controls design. The new nonlinear dynamic model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. This environment allows easier development of linear models for controls design for shock positioning. The new model is also well suited for integration with a propulsion system model to study inlet/propulsion system performance, and integration with an aero-servo-elastic system model to study integrated vehicle ride quality, vehicle stability, and efficiency.

  14. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  15. Steady state response of unsymmetrically laminated plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Kenji; Kawashima, Katsuya; Sakata, Toshiyuki

    1995-11-01

    A numerical approach for analyzing the forced vibration problem of a symmetrically laminated FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) composite plate was proposed by the authors. In the present paper, this approach is modified for application to an unsymmetrically laminated FRP composite plate. Numerical calculations are carried out for the clamped antisymmetrically laminated rectangular and elliptical plates which are a kind of unsymmetrically laminated plate. Then,, the effects of the lamina material and the fiber orientation angle on the steady state response are discussed. Furthermore, it is investigated that what structural damping factor is most influenced on the steady state response of an antisymmetrically laminated plate.

  16. The Politics of the Steady State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Charles

    1978-01-01

    A steady state society has limits pertaining to population size, non-renewable resources, and production which emits heat or substances into soil, water, or the atmosphere. Respecting these limits means renouncing exponential quantitative growth and accepting a universally available consumption standard. (SW)

  17. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOEpatents

    Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.

    1985-02-20

    The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.

  18. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOEpatents

    Janos, Alan C.; Jardin, Stephen C.; Yamada, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.

  19. Steady-State and Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis Cysteine Ligase (MshC)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Luxenburger, Andreas; Painter, Gavin F.; Blanchard, John S

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and many other members of the Actinomycetes family produce mycothiol, i.e., 1-D-myo-inosityl-2-(N-acetyl-L-cysteinyl)amido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside (MSH or AcCys-GlcN-Ins), to act against oxidative and antibiotic stress. The biosynthesis of MSH is essential for cell growth, and has been proposed to proceed via a biosynthetic pathway involving four key enzymes, MshA-D. The MSH biosynthetic enzymes present potential targets for inhibitor design. With this as a long-term goal, we have carried out a kinetic and mechanistic characterization, using steady state and pre-steady state approaches, of the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis MshC. MshC catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of GlcN-Ins and cysteine to form Cys-GlcN-Ins. Initial velocity and inhibition studies show that the steady state kinetic mechanism of MshC is a Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong mechanism, with ATP binding followed by cysteine binding, release of PPi, binding of GlcN-Ins, followed by the release of Cys-GlcN-Ins and AMP. The steady state kinetic parameters were determined to be: kcat equal to 3.15 s−1, and Km values of 1.8, 0.1, and 0.16 mM for ATP, cysteine, and GlcN-Ins, respectively. A stable bisubstrate analog, 5′-O-[N-(L-cysteinyl)sulfamonyl]adenosine, exhibits competitive inhibition versus ATP and non-competitive inhibition versus cysteine, with an inhibition constant of ~306 nM versus ATP. Single-turnover reactions of the first and second half reactions were determined using rapid quench techniques, giving rates of ~9.4 s−1 and ~5.2 s−1, respectively, consistent with the cysteinyl adenylate being a kinetically competent intermediate in the reaction by MshC. PMID:17848100

  20. Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C. E.; Park, J. M.; Yi, Sumin; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A. C. C.; Kim, J. Y.

    2009-11-01

    We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; βN above 3, H98(y, 2) up to 2.0, fBS up to 0.76 and fNI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of qmin is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work. Finally

  1. Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Y S; Kessel, C. E.; Park, Jin Myung; Yi, Sumin; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A C C; Kim, J Y

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; beta(N) above 3, H-98(y, 2) up to 2.0, f(BS) up to 0.76 and f(NI) equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q(min) is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work

  2. 1-D transient numerical model of a regenerator in a novel sub Kelvin Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Miller, Franklin K.

    2016-03-01

    A sub Kelvin Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigerator (AMRR) is being developed at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This AMRR consists of two circulators, two regenerators, one superleak, one cold heat exchanger, and two warm heat exchangers. The circulators are novel non-moving part pumps that reciprocate a superfluid mixture of 4He-3He in the system. Heat from the mixture is removed within the two regenerators of this tandem system. An accurate model of the regenerators in this AMRR is necessary in order to predict the performance of these components, which in turn helps predicting the overall performance of the AMRR system. This work presents modeling methodology along with results from a 1-D transient numerical model of the regenerators of an AMRR capable of removing 2.5 mW at 850 mK at cyclic steady state.

  3. Steady state volcanism: Evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Wadge, G.

    1982-05-10

    Some volcanoes erupt magma at average rates which are constant over periods of many years, even through this magma may appear in a complex series of eruptions. This constancy of output is tested by construction of a curve of cumulative volume of erupted magma, which is linear for steady state volcanism, and whose gradient defines the steady state rate Q/sub s/s. The assumption is made that Q/sub s/s is the rate at which magma is supplied to these polygenetic volcanoes. Five general types of eruptive behavior can be distinguished from the cumulative volume studied. These types are interpreted in terms of a simple model of batches of magma rising buoyantly through the crust and interacting with a small-capacity subvolcanic magma reservoir. Recognition of previous steady state behavior at a volcano may enable the cumulative volume curve to be used empirically as a constraint on the timing and volume of the next eruption. The steady state model thus has a limited predictive capability. With the exception of Kilauea (O/sub s/s = 4m/sup 3/ s/sup -1/) all the identified steady state volcanoes have values of Q/sub s/s of a few tenths of one cubic meter per second. These rates are consistent with the minimum flux rates required by theoretical cooling models of batches of magma traversing the crust. The similarity of these Q/sub s/s values of volcanoes (producing basalt, andesite, and dacite magmas) in very different tectonic settings suggests that the common factors of crustal buoyancy forces and the geotherm-controlled cooling rates control the dynamics of magma supply through the crust. Long-term dormancy at active volcanoes may be a manifestation of the steady accumulation of magma in large crustal reservoirs, a process that complements the intermittent periods of steady state output at the surface. This possibility has several implications, the most important of which is that it provides a constraint on the supply rate of new magma to the bases of plutons.

  4. 40 CFR 85.2230 - Steady state test dynamometer-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady state test dynamometer-EPA 91. 85.2230 Section 85.2230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2230 Steady state test dynamometer—EPA 91. (a) Special calendar and model...

  5. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  6. Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.E.; Fan, W.C.P.; Bratton, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions.

  7. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  8. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  9. Theory of Steady-State Superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghui

    In this thesis, I describe the theoretical development of the superradiant laser, or laser in the extreme bad-cavity regime. In this regime, the cavity decay rate is much greater than the atomic dynamics. The atoms emit photons into the cavity mode superradiantly in steady state. We develop group-theoretic methods that enable us to exactly solve mesoscopic systems with hundreds of atoms. We demonstrate the synchronization of atomic dipoles in steady-state superradiance. With this synchronized system, we propose conditional Ramsey spectroscopy which allows us to observe Ramsey fringes indefinitely, even in the presence of atomic decoherence. Furthermore, we explore manifestations of synchronization in the quantum realm with two superradiant atomic ensembles. We show that two such ensembles exhibit a dynamical phase transition from two disparate oscillators to quantum phase-locked dynamics. Finally, we study the mechanical eect of the light-atom interaction in the steady-state superradiance. We find efficient many-body cooling of atoms. The work described in this thesis lays the theoretical foundation for the superradiant laser and for a potential future of active optical frequency standards.

  10. Multiple steady states for characteristic initial value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.; Abarbanel, S.; Gottlieb, D.

    1984-01-01

    The time dependent, isentropic, quasi-one-dimensional equations of gas dynamics and other model equations are considered under the constraint of characteristic boundary conditions. Analysis of the time evolution shows how different initial data may lead to different steady states and how seemingly anamolous behavior of the solution may be resolved. Numerical experimentation using time consistent explicit algorithms verifies the conclusions of the analysis. The use of implicit schemes with very large time steps leads to erroneous results.

  11. Transition of unsteady flows of evaporation to steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Almeida, Amah

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the half-space problem of evaporation and condensation in the scope of discrete kinetic theory. Exact solutions are found to the boundary value problem and the initial boundary value problems of the flow in the half space for a discrete velocity model. The results are used to analyze the transition of the unsteady solutions towards steady states. To cite this article: A. d'Almeida, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  12. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).

  13. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  14. Turnover of messenger RNA: Polysome statistics beyond the steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleriani, A.; Ignatova, Z.; Nagar, A.; Lipowsky, R.

    2010-03-01

    The interplay between turnover or degradation and ribosome loading of messenger RNA (mRNA) is studied theoretically using a stochastic model that is motivated by recent experimental results. Random mRNA degradation affects the statistics of polysomes, i.e., the statistics of the number of ribosomes per mRNA as extracted from cells. Since ribosome loading of newly created mRNA chains requires some time to reach steady state, a fraction of the extracted mRNA/ribosome complexes does not represent steady state conditions. As a consequence, the mean ribosome density obtained from the extracted complexes is found to be inversely proportional to the mRNA length. On the other hand, the ribosome density profile shows an exponential decrease along the mRNA for prokaryotes and becomes uniform in eukaryotic cells.

  15. Adaptive control of unknown unstable steady states of dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Pyragas, K; Pyragas, V; Kiss, I Z; Hudson, J L

    2004-08-01

    A simple adaptive controller based on a low-pass filter to stabilize unstable steady states of dynamical systems is considered. The controller is reference-free; it does not require knowledge of the location of the fixed point in the phase space. A topological limitation similar to that of the delayed feedback controller is discussed. We show that the saddle-type steady states cannot be stabilized by using the conventional low-pass filter. The limitation can be overcome by using an unstable low-pass filter. The use of the controller is demonstrated for several physical models, including the pendulum driven by a constant torque, the Lorenz system, and an electrochemical oscillator. Linear and nonlinear analyses of the models are performed and the problem of the basins of attraction of the stabilized steady states is discussed. The robustness of the controller is demonstrated in experiments and numerical simulations with an electrochemical oscillator, the dissolution of nickel in sulfuric acid; a comparison of the effect of using direct and indirect variables in the control is made. With the use of the controller, all unstable phase-space objects are successfully reconstructed experimentally.

  16. Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis

    2017-03-01

    Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.

  17. Steady- and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate controls on atmospheric CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two contrasting hypotheses have recently been proposed for the past long-term relation between atmospheric CO2 and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle. One approach (Berner, 1990) suggests that CO2 levels have varied in a manner that has maintained chemical weathering and carbonate sedimentation at a steady state with respect to tectonically controlled decarbonation reactions. A second approach (Raymo et al., 1988), applied specificlly to the late Cenozoic, suggests a decrease in CO2 caused by an uplift-induced increase in chemical weathering, without regard to the rate of decarbonation. According to the steady-state (first) hypothesis, increased weathering and carbonate sedimentation are generally associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, whereas the uplift (second) hypothesis implies decreasing CO2 under the same conditions. An ocean-atmosphere-sediment model has been used to assess the response of atmospheric CO2 and carbonate sedimentation to global perturbations in chemical weathering and decarbonation reactions. Although this assessment is theoretical and cannot yet be related to the geologic record, the model simulations compare steady-state and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate cycle response. The e-fold response time of the 'CO2-weathering' feedback mechanism is between 300 and 400 ka. The response of carbonate sedimentation is much more rapid. These response times provide a measure of the strength of steady-state assumptions, and imply that certain systematic relations are sustained throughout steady-state and non-steady-state scenarios for the carbonate-silicate cycle. The simulations suggest that feedbacks can maintain the system near a steady state, but that non-steady-state effects may contribute to long-term trends. The steady-state and uplift hypotheses are not necessarily incompatible over time scales of a few million years. ?? 1991.

  18. Intensity fluctuations in steady-state superradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.

    2010-06-15

    Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow optical transitions enable superradiance in steady state. The emitted light promises to have an unprecedented stability with a linewidth as narrow as a few millihertz. In order to evaluate the potential usefulness of this light source as an ultrastable oscillator in clock and precision metrology applications, it is crucial to understand the noise properties of this device. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the intensity fluctuations by means of Monte Carlo simulations and semiclassical approximations. We find that the light exhibits bunching below threshold, is to a good approximation coherent in the superradiant regime, and is chaotic above the second threshold.

  19. Gravitational steady states of solar coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Linda E.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2017-02-01

    Coronal loops on the surface of the sun appear to consist of curved, plasma-confining magnetic flux tubes or "ropes," anchored at both ends in the photosphere. Toroidal loops carrying current are inherently unstable to expansion in the major radius due to toroidal-curvature-induced imbalances in the magnetic and plasma pressures. An ideal MHD analysis of a simple isolated loop with density and pressure higher than the surrounding corona, based on the theory of magnetically confined toroidal plasmas, shows that the radial force balance depends on the loop internal structure and varies over parameter space. It provides a unified picture of simple loop steady states in terms of the plasma beta βo, the inverse aspect ratio ɛ =a /Ro , and the MHD gravitational parameter G ̂≡g a /vA2 , all at the top of the loop, where g is the acceleration due to gravity, a the average minor radius, and vA the shear Alfvén velocity. In the high and low beta tokamak orderings, βo=2 noT /(Bo2/2 μo)˜ɛ1 and ɛ2 , that fit many loops, the solar gravity can sustain nonaxisymmetric steady states at G ̂˜ɛ βo that represent the maximum stable height. At smaller G ̂≤ɛ2βo , the loop is axisymmetric to leading order and stabilized primarily by the two fixed loop ends. Very low beta, nearly force-free, steady states with βo˜ɛ3 may also exist, with or without gravity, depending on higher order effects. The thin coronal loops commonly observed in solar active regions have ɛ ≃0.02 and fit the high beta steady states. G ̂ increases with loop height. Fatter loops in active regions that form along magnetic neutral lines and may lead to solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections have ɛ ≃0.1 -0.2 and may fit the low beta ordering. Larger loops tend to have G ̂>ɛ βo and be unstable to radial expansion because the exponential hydrostatic reduction in the density at the loop-top reduces the gravitational force -ρG ̂ R ̂ below the level that balances expansion, in agreement with

  20. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Kovarik, Vincent J.; Prelec, Krsto

    1990-01-01

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.

  1. Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of the classical Heisenberg spin chain connected to Langevin heat reservoirs with arbitrary temperature profiles. Gradients of external magnetic fields are shown to localize spin waves in a Wannier-Zeemann fashion, while magnon interactions renormalize the spectral temperature. Our generic results are applicable to other thermodynamic systems such as Newtonian liquids, elastic solids, and Josephson junctions.

  2. A framework for modeling non-steady-state concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds indoors ― I: Emissions from diffusional sources and sorption by interior surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past two decades, more than 20 mass transfer models have been developed for the sources, sinks, and barriers for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) in the indoor environment. While these models have greatly improved our understanding of VOC and ...

  3. Analysis of the adsorption process and of desiccant cooling systems: a pseudo- steady-state model for coupled heat and mass transfer. [DESSIM, DESSIM2, DESSIM4

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    A computer model to simulate the adiabatic adsorption/desorption process is documented. Developed to predict the performance of desiccant cooling systems, the model has been validated through comparison with experimental data for single-blow adsorption and desorption. A literature review on adsorption analysis, detailed discussions of the adsorption process, and an initial assessment of the potential for performance improvement through advanced component development are included.

  4. An Intuitive Approach to Steady-State Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, Ronald T.; Hansen, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to provide an intuitive understanding of steady state kinetics. Discusses the meaning of steady state and uses free energy profiles to illustrate and follow complex kinetic and thermodynamic relationships. Provides examples with explanations. (MVL)

  5. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean. Final report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Broecker, W.S.

    1998-05-17

    The authors have completed the studies using the inorganic carbon cycle in the zonally averaged ocean circulation model to calculate anthropogenic uptake of CO{sub 2} and bomb radiocarbon. While the results are in broad agreement with previous studies, the authors have learned that horizontal mixing processes due to gyre circulation are important for transient tracer experiments over a few decades. Using the inorganic carbon cycle model the authors have started to look at the distributions of {delta}{sup 13}C in the ocean. The model is able to reproduce faithfully the air-sea fractionation of {delta}{sup 13}C. The effect of changing sea surface temperature in the middle and low latitudes of the world ocean on {rho}CO{sub 2}{sup atm} is studied in this model and compared to the organic carbon cycle model of the Hamburg group. They find significant differences in sensitivity and are in the process of investigating possible reasons. Incorporation of the organic component is still ongoing. In the present version the surface concentrations of phosphate are still too high indicating strong upwelling.

  6. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean. Progress report, June 1, 1991--February 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1993-03-08

    The balance of stable and decaying tracers was incorporated into a latitude-depth ocean circulation model which resolves the major ocean basin and is coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model. The modern distribution of radiocarbon and the analysis of artificial color tracers enabled the census of the deep water masses. We show that good agreement with the observation can be achieved if the surface forcing is modified. The same process could also account for long-term, large-scale changes of the global thermohaline circulation. Uptake rates of carbon are investigated using an inorganic carbon cycle model and performing 2 {times} CO{sub 2}-experiments. We prescribe the industrial evolution of pCO{sub 2} in the atmosphere from 1792 to 1988 and calculate the total flux of carbon into the world ocean. Results are in good agreement with two recent 3-dimensional model simulation. First results using an organic carbon cycle in this model are presented. Changes in the hydrological cycle can stabilize the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic and enable simulation of climate events resembling the Younger Dryas. By adding the balance of radiocarbon the evolution of its atmospheric concentration is studied during rapid changes of deep ocean ventilation. A resumption of ventilation creates a rapid decrease of atmospheric radiocarbon which is able to mask the natural decay.

  7. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean. Progress report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1994-04-30

    We have completed the studies using the inorganic carbon cycle in the zonally averaged ocean circulation model to calculate anthropogenic uptake of CO, and bomb radiocarbon. While our results are in broad agreement with previous studies, we have learned that horizontal mixing processes due to gyre circulation are important for transient tracer experiments over a few decades. These findings are in press. Using the inorganic carbon cycle model we have started to look at the distributions of {delta}{sup 13}C in the ocean. The model is able to reproduce faithfully the air-sea fractionation of {delta}{sup 13}C. The effect of changing sea surface temperature in the middle and low latitudes of the world ocean on pCO{sub 2{sup atm}} is studied in this model and compared to the organic carbon cycle model of the Hamburg group. We find significant differences in sensitivity and are in the process of investigating possible reasons. Incorporation of the organic component is still ongoing. In the present version the surface concentrations of phosphate are still too high indicating strong upwelling.

  8. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean. Progress report, June 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1992-03-26

    The deep circulation model developed by Wright and Stocker has been used to represent the latitude-depth distributions of temperature, salinity, radiocarbon and ``color`` tracers in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Restoring temperature and salinity to observed surface data the model shows a global thermohaline circulation where deep water is formed in the North Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean. A parameter study reveals that the high-latitude surface salinity determines the composition of deep water and its flow in the global ocean. Increasing Southern Ocean surface salinity by 0.4 ppt the circulation changes from a present-day mode where North Atlantic Deep Water is one where Antarctic Bottom Water is dominant. An inorganic carbon cycle with surface carbonate chemistry is included, and gas exchange is parameterized in terms of pCO{sub 2} differences. Pre- industrial conditions are achieved by adjusting the basin-mean alkalinity. A classical 2{times}CO{sub 2} experiment yields the intrinsic time scales for carbon uptake of the ocean; they agree with those obtained from simple box models or 3-dimensional ocean general circulation models. Using the estimated industrial anthropogenic input of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere the model requires, consistent with other model studies, an additional carbon flux to match the observed increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2}. We use more realistic surface boundary conditions which reduce sensitivity to freshwater discharges into the ocean. In a glacial-to-interglacial experiment rapid transitions of the deep circulation between two different states occur in conjunction with a severe reduction of the meridional heat flux and sea surface temperature during peak melting. After the melting the conveyor belt circulation restarts.

  9. Plastic Models Designed to Produce Large Height-to-Length Ratio Steady-State Planar and Axisymmetric (Radial) Viscous Liquid Laminar Flow Gravity Currents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanck, Harvey F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…

  10. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Clear Creek, Monroe County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, J.G.; Girardi, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Clear Creek, Monroe County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility is the only point-source waste load affecting the modeled reach of Clear Creek. A new waste-water-treatment facility under construction at Dillman Road (river mile 13.78) will replace the Winston Thomas wastewater-treatment facility (river mile 16.96) in 1980. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The model indicates that ammonia-nitrogen toxicity is the most significant factor affecting the stream water quality during summer and winter low flows. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration of the wastewater effluent exceeds the maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 milligrams per liter for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 milligrams per liter for winter months (November through March) required for Indiana streams. Nitrification, benthic-oxygen demand, and algal respiration were the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during the model calibration. Nitrification should not significantly affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Clear Creek during summer low flows when the ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards are met. (USGS)

  11. Nonlocal order parameters for the 1D Hubbard model.

    PubMed

    Montorsi, Arianna; Roncaglia, Marco

    2012-12-07

    We characterize the Mott-insulator and Luther-Emery phases of the 1D Hubbard model through correlators that measure the parity of spin and charge strings along the chain. These nonlocal quantities order in the corresponding gapped phases and vanish at the critical point U(c)=0, thus configuring as hidden order parameters. The Mott insulator consists of bound doublon-holon pairs, which in the Luther-Emery phase turn into electron pairs with opposite spins, both unbinding at U(c). The behavior of the parity correlators is captured by an effective free spinless fermion model.

  12. Nonlocal Order Parameters for the 1D Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montorsi, Arianna; Roncaglia, Marco

    2012-12-01

    We characterize the Mott-insulator and Luther-Emery phases of the 1D Hubbard model through correlators that measure the parity of spin and charge strings along the chain. These nonlocal quantities order in the corresponding gapped phases and vanish at the critical point Uc=0, thus configuring as hidden order parameters. The Mott insulator consists of bound doublon-holon pairs, which in the Luther-Emery phase turn into electron pairs with opposite spins, both unbinding at Uc. The behavior of the parity correlators is captured by an effective free spinless fermion model.

  13. 3D Numerical Models of the Effect of Diking on the Faulting Pattern at Incipient Continental Rifts and Steady-State Spreading Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Choi, E.; Buck, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    The offset of faults and related topographic relief varies hugely at both continental rifts and mid-ocean ridges (MORs). In some areas fault offset is measured in 10s of meters while in places marked by core complexes it is measured in 10s of kilometers. Variation in the magma supply is thought to control much of these differences. Magma supply is most usefully described by the ratio (M) between rates of lithospheric extension accommodated by magmatic dike intrusion and that occurring via faulting. 2D models with different values of M successfully explain much of the observed cross-sectional structure seen at rifts and ridges. However, magma supply varies along the axis of extension and the interactions between the tectonics and magmatism are inevitably three-dimensional. We investigate the consequences of this along-axis variation in diking in terms of faulting patterns and the associated structures using a 3D parallel geodynamic modeling code, SNAC. Many observed 3D structural features are reproduced: e.g., abyssal hill, oceanic core complex (OCC), inward fault jump, mass wasting, hourglass-shaped median valley, corrugation and mullion structure. An estimated average value of M = 0.65 is suggested as a boundary value for separating abyssal hills and OCCs formation. Previous inconsistency in the M range for OCC formation between 2D model results (M = 0.3˜0.5) and field observations (M < 0.3 or M > 0.5) is reconciled by the along-ridge coupling between different faulting regimes. We also propose asynchronous faulting-induced tensile failure as a new possibility for explaining corrugations seen on the surface of core complexes. For continental rifts, we will describe a suite of 2D and 3D model calculations with a range of initial lithospheric structures and values of M. In one set of the 2D models we limit the extensional tectonic force and show how this affects the maximum topographic relief produced across the rift. We are also interested in comparing models in

  14. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand and the headwater concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand, nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration of East Fork White River downstream from the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility. The effect of effluent from the facility on the water quality of East Fork White River was minimal. The model also indicates that, with a benthic-oxygen demand of approximately 0.65 gram per square meter per day, the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity during summer low flows. Regardless of the quality of the Columbus wastewater effluent, the minimum 24-hour average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams, would not be met. Ammonia toxicity is not a limiting water-quality criterion during summer and winter low flows. During winter low flows, the current carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard. (USGS)

  15. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Silver Creek, Clark and Floyd counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Silver Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Effluents from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are the only point-source waste loads that significantly affect the water quality in the modeled segment of Silver Creek. Model simulations indicate that nitrification is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Silver Creek during summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow in Silver Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Present ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of effluent from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities will violate current Indiana water-quality standards for ammonia toxicity and dissolved oxygen during summer and winter low flows. The current biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are not sufficient to maintain an average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that Silver Creek cannot assimilate additional waste loadings and meet current Indiana water-quality standards. (Kosco-USGS)

  17. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Sand Creek, Decatur County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Sand Creek near Greensburg, Ind., was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The only point-source waste load affecting Sand Creek in the vicinity of Greensburg is the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility. Non-point, unrecorded waste loads seemed to be significant during three water-quality surveys done by the Indiana State Board of Health. Natural streamflow in Sand Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero so no benefit from dilution is provided. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not meet Indiana water-quality standards during summer and winter low flows. To meet the water-quality standard the wastewater-effluent would be limited to a maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mg/l for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 mg/l for winter months (November through March). Model simulations indicate that benthic-oxygen demand, nitrification, and the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the wastewater effluent are the most significant factors affecting the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration during summer low flows. The model predicts that with a benthic-oxygen demand of 1.5 grams per square meter per day at 20C the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity. Present carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand loads from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l) during winter low flows. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. Distant downstream steady-state flow studies of a mechanical heart valve: PIV study of secondary flow in a model aortic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, Brandon R.; Popma, Christopher J.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Each year, hundreds of thousands of aortic and mitral heart valves are replaced with prosthetic valves. In efforts to develop a valve that does not require lifelong anticoagulation therapy, previous experimental research has been devoted to analyzing the hemodynamics of various heart valve designs, limited to the flow up to only 2 diameters downstream of the valve. Two-component, two-dimensional (2C-2D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used in this study to examine secondary flow velocity fields in a curved tube modeling an aorta at five locations (0-, 45-, 90-, 135-, 180-degrees). A bileaflet valve, opened to 30-, 45-, and 59-degrees, and one (no-valve) baseline condition were examined under three steady flow inflows (Re = 218, 429, 634). In particular, variations in the two-dimensional turbulent shear stresses at each cross sectional plane were analyzed. The results suggest that bileaflet valves in the aortic model produce significant turbulence and vorticity up to 5.5 downstream diameters, i.e. up to the 90-degrees location. Expanding this research towards aortic heart valve hemodynamics highlights a need for additional studies extending beyond the typical few diameters downstream to fully characterize valvular function. Supported by the NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  19. A Monte Carlo-based model for steady-state diffuse reflectance spectrometry in human skin: estimation of carbon monoxide concentration in livor mortis.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, M; Walther, R; Roths, T; Honerkamp, J

    2005-11-01

    In terms of physics, the skin can be regarded as an optically turbid medium in which the light is mainly scattered by the collagen fibers, mitochondria and cell nuclei, whereas the absorption is determined by the content of reduced hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, bilirubin, and melanin. When the measuring geometry and the illumination spectrum are known, the optical characteristics of the skin can be approximately described by the diffusion and absorption coefficients. These values define the diffusion and absorption probability per unit distance traveled for each wavelength. Based on these parameters, a mathematical skin model was developed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations. By implementing the absorption coefficient of carbon monoxide hemoglobin (CO-Hb) into the skin model, the authors wanted to investigate whether this method is suitable to determine the CO-Hb concentration from spectral reflectance curves of livores. The investigations performed on 28 deaths from CO poisoning so far showed that this is generally possible. In almost all cases, the actual CO-Hb values could be estimated correctly by using the Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for South Fork, Wildcat Creek, Clinton County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in South Fork Wildcat Creek was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. The Indiana State Board of Health 's projected ammonia-nitrogen concentration for the Frankfort wastewater-treatment facility will violate the instream total ammonia-nitrogen standard of 2.5 mg/l and 4.0 mg/l during summer and winter low flows, respectively. The model indicates that nitrification and algal respiration were significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen dynamics of South Fork Wildcat Creek during two water-quality surveys. Stream water quality during the two water-quality surveys was degraded by the discharge of wastewater receiving only primary treatment. Benthic deposits resulting from this wastewater discharge seem to exert a considerable oxygen demand. The discharge of partially treated wastewater should be eliminated when a new wastewater-treatment facility becomes operational in mid-1979. Therefore, benthic-oxygen demand due to benthic deposits should become negligible at that time.

  1. Dispersive Tidal Plume Modeling of Brine Discharge from Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination System, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI using Finite Segment Steady-state Response Matrix (SSRM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Shahvari, A.

    2011-12-01

    This characterization and modeling study of dispersive tidal plume of brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system is a part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) for a new reverse osmosis system in the Coral Bay, St. John, USVI (US Virgin Island). Main foci are on developing the tidal longitudinal (perpendicular to the shoreline) and lateral (parallel to the shoreline) dispersion coefficients and subsequently characterize dispersion and mixing characterization of the negatively buoyant brine discharge plume from the proposed reverse osmosis plant to evaluate the level of salinity variations in the nearshore mixing plume in regard to existing coral reef ecosystem. An in situ dye study was conducted by a marine biologist for this purpose to estimate brine discharge plume dispersion coefficients under oscillatory tidal transport and fate flux for current and proposed plant configuration. Additional tidal and surface runoff hydrologic data, bathymetric data and brine discharge characteristics in the vicinity of the brine discharge location are reflected in this study. With estimated dispersion coefficients, eighteen brine discharge scenarios were evaluated to model anticipated dispersive characteristics under varying operational conditions and ambient tidal current conditions for average measured salinity of 33.27 PSU in loco as well as a standard 35 PSU for typical nearshore water salinity variations. Modeling results indicated that the dispersive tidal plume of design brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system at a discharge of 150,000 gpd would raise salinity no higher than 0.0123 PSU in receiving nearshore estuarine water (Maximum concentration at the segment 3 = 33.2822 PSU at Δt = 12 hrs and 24 hrs in diurnal tidal cycle under when the brine discharge with Base+25% concentration, 81.25 PSU at brine discharge rate of 0.0066 m3/sec, and with a minimum direct overland flow efflux at 0.003 m3/sec - this is a "worst-case" operating

  2. Evaluating 1d Seismic Models of the Lunar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Thorne, M. S.; Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    A four station seismic network was established on the Moon from 1969 to 1977 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). A total of nine 1D seismic velocity models were generated using a variety of different techniques. In spite of the fact that these models were generated from the same data set, significant differences exist between them. We evaluate these models by comparing predicted travel-times to published catalogs of lunar events. We generate synthetic waveform predictions for 1D lunar models using a modified version of the Green's Function of the Earth by Minor Integration (GEMINI) technique. Our results demonstrate that the mean square errors between predicted and measured P-wave travel times are smaller than those for S-wave travel times in all cases. Moreover, models fit travel times for artificial and meteoroid impacts better than for shallow and deep moonquakes. Overall, models presented by Nakamura [Nakamura, 1983] and Garcia et al. [Garcia et al., 2011] predicted the observed travel times better than all other models and were comparable in their explanation of travel-times. Nevertheless, significant waveform differences exist between these models. In particular, the seismic velocity structure of the lunar crust and regolith strongly affect the waveform characteristics predicted by these models. Further complexity is added by possible mantle discontinuity structure that exists in a subset of these models. We show synthetic waveform predictions for these models demonstrating the role that crustal structure has in generating long duration seismic coda inherent in the lunar waveforms.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Two-Phase Flow at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Quasi-Steady State and Thermal Decline of the Vent Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Lowell, R. P.; Lewis, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Main Endeavour Field (MEF) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge consists of a large number of chimney structures occupying an area approximately 400 m x 150 m along the ridge axis. For nearly a decade, the MEF exhibited quasi-steady north-south trending spatial gradients of both temperature and salinity. We have constructed 2-D across-axis numerical models of two-phase flow using the code FISHES to investigate possible causes for this variation. We considered the effect of bottom boundary temperature and both a homogeneous permeability structure and a geometry incorporating a more-permeable layer 2A. From these model results we argue that such a trend is more likely to be the result of heterogeneous permeability structure of the shallow oceanic crust than a result of bottom boundary temperature variations. After a magmatic event in 1999, this trend was disrupted; and thermal data using the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) indicates that there has been a significant decline in the heat output from a value of approximately 450 MW in 2000 to approximately 300 MW in 2004. In the southern part of the vent field, vent salinities have also increased from values well below those of seawater to values close to seawater. We therefore extend our investigation to include the effect of a temporally-decaying basal heat flow, which may result from cooling, crystallizing magma chamber, on the system. Our aim is to determine whether such a phenomenon could cause the observed rapid decline of heat flow and changes in vent salinity at the MEF. We find that the thermal inertia in the system is such that changes in basal heat flow would be difficult to detect in the given time frame, if magma replenishment ceased following the 1999 magmatic event. The time delay between changes in bottom conditions and the observed decay in observed heat output suggests that the 1999 event represented a small replenishment event and that the AMC may have begun cooling some time before that. Moreover, because

  4. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for West Fork Blue River, Washington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, James G.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Girardi, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer model calibrated to observe stream conditions was used to evaluate water quality in West Fork Blue River, Washington County, IN. Instream dissolved-oxygen concentration averaged 96.5% of saturation at selected sites on West Fork Blue River during two 24-hour summer surveys. This high dissolved-oxygen concentration reflects small carbonaceous and nitrogenous waste loads; adequate dilution of waste by the stream; and natural reaeration. Nonpoint source waste loads accounted for an average of 53.2% of the total carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand and 90.2% of the nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand. Waste-load assimilation was studiedfor critical summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow for these conditions was zero, so no benefit from dilution was provided. The projected stream reaeration capacity was not sufficient to maintain the minimum daily dissolved-oxygen concentration (5 milligrams per liter) in the stream with current waste-discharge restrictions. During winter low flow, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved-oxygen concentration, was the limiting water-quality criterion downstream from the Salem wastewater-treatment facility. (USGS)

  5. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Little Laughery Creek triutary and Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin Counties, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero. Headwater flow upstream from the wastewater-treatment facilities consists solely of process cooling water from an industrial discharger. This flow is usually less than 0.5 cubic foot per second. Consequently, benefits from dilution are minimal. As a result, current and projected ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the municipal discharges will result in in-stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the Indiana ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (maximum stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 2.5 and 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer and winter low flows, respectively). Benthic-oxygen demand is probably the most significant factor affecting Little Laughery Creek and is probably responsible for the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration being less than the Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) during two water-quality surveys. After municipal dischargers complete advanced waste-treatment facilities, benthic-oxygen demand should be less significant in the stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. (USGS)

  6. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Wabash River, Huntington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in the Wabash River in Huntington County, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditons, summer and winter low flows. The major point-source waste load affecting the Wabash River in Huntington County is the Huntington wastewater-treatment facility. The most significnt factor potentially affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration during summer low flows is nitrification. However, nitrification should not be a limiting factor on the allowable nitrogenous and carbonaceous waste loads for the Huntington wastewater-treatment facility during summer low flows if the ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standard for Indiana streams is met. The disolved-oxygen standard for Indiana stream, an average of 5.0 milligrams per liter, should be met during summer and winter low flows if the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System 's 5-day, carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demands of a monthly average concentration of 30 milligrams per liter and a maximum weekly average of 45 milligrams per liter are not exceeded. 

  7. Benchmarking of thermal hydraulic loop models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES), phase-I: Isothermal steady state forced convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Batta, A.; Casamassima, V.; Cheng, X.; Choi, Yong Joon; Hwang, Il Soon; Lim, Jun; Meloni, P.; Nitti, F. S.; Dedul, V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Komlev, O.; Jaeger, W.; Sedov, A.; Kim, Ji Hak; Puspitarini, D.

    2011-08-01

    As highly promising coolant for new generation nuclear reactors, liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic has been extensively worldwide investigated. With high expectation about this advanced coolant, a multi-national systematic study on LBE was proposed in 2007, which covers benchmarking of thermal hydraulic prediction models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES). This international collaboration has been organized by OECD/NEA, and nine organizations - ENEA, ERSE, GIDROPRESS, IAEA, IPPE, KIT/IKET, KIT/INR, NUTRECK, and RRC KI - contribute their efforts to LACANES benchmarking. To produce experimental data for LACANES benchmarking, thermal-hydraulic tests were conducted by using a 12-m tall LBE integral test facility, named as Heavy Eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of Operability and Safety of PEACER (HELIOS) which has been constructed in 2005 at the Seoul National University in the Republic of Korea. LACANES benchmark campaigns consist of a forced convection (phase-I) and a natural circulation (phase-II). In the forced convection case, the predictions of pressure losses based on handbook correlations and that obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics code simulation were compared with the measured data for various components of the HELIOS test facility. Based on comparative analyses of the predictions and the measured data, recommendations for the prediction methods of a pressure loss in LACANES were obtained. In this paper, results for the forced convection case (phase-I) of LACANES benchmarking are described.

  8. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Duck Creek, Madison, Tipton, and Hamilton counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Duck Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The major point-source waste load affecting Duck Creek is the Elwood wastewater-treatment facility. Natural streamflow during the low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Natural reaeration at the low-flow condition (approximately 3 cubic feet per second), also low, is estimated to be less than 1 per day (base e at 20 Celsius). Consequently, the wasteload assimilative capacity of the stream is low. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, projected by the Indiana State Board of Health, will result in stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the State ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (2.5 milligrams per liter from April to October and 4.0 milligrams per liter from November through March). The projected effluent ammonia-nitrogen load will also result in the present Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) not being met. Benthic-oxygen demand may also affect stream water quality. During the summer low-flow, a benthic-oxygen demand of only 0.6 gram per square meter per day would utilize all the streams 's available assimilative capacity. (USGS)

  9. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model for use with a steady-state numerical ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; D'Agnese, Frank A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy and other Federal, State, and local agencies, is evaluating the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The ground-water flow system covers an area of about 100,000 square kilometers from latitude 35? to 38?15' North to longitude 115? to 118? West, with the flow system proper comprising about 45,000 square kilometers. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is one of the larger flow systems within the Southwestern United States and includes in its boundaries the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and much of Death Valley. Part of this study includes the construction of a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model to serve as the foundation for the development of a steady-state regional ground-water flow model. The digital framework model provides a computer-based description of the geometry and composition of the hydrogeologic units that control regional flow. The framework model of the region was constructed by merging two previous framework models constructed for the Yucca Mountain Project and the Environmental Restoration Program Underground Test Area studies at the Nevada Test Site. The hydrologic characteristics of the region result from a currently arid climate and complex geology. Interbasinal regional ground-water flow occurs through a thick carbonate-rock sequence of Paleozoic age, a locally thick volcanic-rock sequence of Tertiary age, and basin-fill alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Throughout the system, deep and shallow ground-water flow may be controlled by extensive and pervasive regional and local faults and fractures. The framework model was constructed using data from several sources to define the geometry of the regional hydrogeologic units. These data sources include (1) a 1:250,000-scale hydrogeologic-map compilation of the region; (2) regional-scale geologic cross sections; (3) borehole information, and (4

  10. Steady-state grain growth in UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Galinari, C.M.; Lameiras, F.S.

    1998-06-05

    The authors have observed steady-state grain growth in sintered UO{sub 2} pellets of nuclear purity at 2,003 K under H{sub 2}. The behavior of the grain size distribution at different instants is consistent with the grain growth model proposed by one of the authors. The total number of grains was estimated using the Saltykov`s method, and the evolution is in accordance with the model proposed by Rhines and Craig. The parabolic growth law was observed for the mean intercept length with n = 0.4.

  11. Impact of Mars Water Ice Clouds and Thermal Aerosol Enforcement to the Shortscale Climate Dynamics: Evidence from 1-D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, A. V.; Clancy, R. T.; Wilson, R. J.; Richardson, M.; Wolff, M.; Woods, S.

    1997-07-01

    Ground-based observations of Mars atmospheric temperatures, water, and aerosols have suggested that water ice clouds may regulate vertical distribution of dust and, hence, the global radiation balance, with strong seasonal forcing (Clancy et al., 1996). Under specific Martian conditions, condensation of atmospheric water occurs on the dust as Aitken cores, without external sources, dust is efficiently confined below the saturation level of water vapor. This in turn forces the thermal regime and the saturation conditions, particularly around the aphelion northern summer (Clancy et al., 1996). This effect is studied with two 1-D models, a time marching simulation (time step is 4 min), and reduced local steady-state model. Both models treat aerosol particle microphysics, turbulent transport and thermal enforcement interactively, including radiation transfer consistent with derived aerosol vertical and size distributions. Simulations show that in the aphelion season, when clouds are formed below or near 10 km, strong nonlinearity of cloud thermal feedback results in nonuniqueness of a steady-state solution with water vapor saturation level varying by as high as 5-7 km. Such model behavior appears related to observations of rapid variations of a global-average, lower atmosphere temperature over the planet in northern summer (Clancy, 1997). The stability of thermal equilibrium state is controlled by water vapor abundance and the strength of the dust source at the surface. Time marching simulations provide access to the dynamics of seasonal global dust storm relaxation that may play an important role in interannual climate variations on Mars. References: Clancy, R.T., A.W. Grossman, M.J. Wolff, P.B. James, Y.N. Billawala, B.J. Sandor, S.W. Lee, and D.J. Rudy. Water vapor saturation at low altitudes around Mars aphelion: A key to Mars climate? Icarus, 122, 36-62, 1996.

  12. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-04-10

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  13. Two-dimensional steady-state model of ground-water flow, Nevada test site and vicinity Nevada-California: State of Nevada, agency for nuclear projects/nuclear waste project office

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, R.K.

    1986-10-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state, finite-element model of the ground-water flow system of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity in Nye and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California, was developed using parameter-estimation techniques. The model simulates flow in an area underlain by clastic and carbonate rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age, and volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Normal Basin-and-Range faulting and both right- and left-lateral strike-slip faults have caused the juxtaposition of rocks of differing hydraulic conductivities. Characteristics of the flow system are principally determined by locations of low-hydraulic-conductivity rocks (barriers); by amounts of recharge originating in the Spring Mountains, Pahranaget, Timpahute, and Sheep Ranges, and in Pahute Mesa; and by amount in flow into the study area from Gold Flat and Kawich Valley. Discharge areas (Ash Meadows, Oasis Valley, Alkali Flat, and Furnace Creek Ranch) are upgradient from barriers. Analyses of sensitivity of hydraulic head with respect to model-parameter variations indicate that the flux terms having the greatest impact on model output are recharge on Pahute Mesa, underflow from Cold Flat and Kawich Valley, and discharge at Ash Meadows. The most important transmissivity terms are those for rocks underlying the Amargosa Desert (exclusive of Amargosa Flat area), the Eleana Formation along the west side of Yucca Flat, and the Precambrian and Cambrian clastic rocks underlying the Groom Range.

  14. Constitutive modeling and control of 1D smart composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Jonathan P.; Ostrowski, James P.; Ponte-Castaneda, Pedro

    1998-07-01

    Homogenization techniques for determining effective properties of composite materials may provide advantages for control of stiffness and strain in systems using hysteretic smart actuators embedded in a soft matrix. In this paper, a homogenized model of a 1D composite structure comprised of shape memory alloys and a rubber-like matrix is presented. With proportional and proportional/integral feedback, using current as the input state and global strain as an error state, implementation scenarios include the use of tractions on the boundaries and a nonlinear constitutive law for the matrix. The result is a simple model which captures the nonlinear behavior of the smart composite material system and is amenable to experiments with various control paradigms. The success of this approach in the context of the 1D model suggests that the homogenization method may prove useful in investigating control of more general smart structures. Applications of such materials could include active rehabilitation aids, e.g. wrist braces, as well as swimming/undulating robots, or adaptive molds for manufacturing processes.

  15. Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi

    2015-12-31

    We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.

  16. Non-steady-state aerosol filtration in nanostructured fibrous media.

    PubMed

    Przekop, Rafal; Gradoń, Leon

    2011-06-28

    The filtration of aerosol particles using composites of nano- and microsized fibrous structures is a promising method for the effective separation of nanoparticles from gases. A multi-scale physical system describing the flow pattern and particle deposition at a non-steady-state condition requires an advanced method of modelling. The combination of lattice Boltzmann and Brownian dynamics was used for analysis of the particle deposition pattern in a fibrous system. The dendritic structures of deposits for neutral and charged fibres and particles are present. The efficiency of deposition, deposit morphology, porosity and fractal dimension were calculated for a selected operational condition of the process.

  17. A steady-state-kinetic model for formaldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver. A mechanism involving NAD+ and the hemimercaptal adduct of glutathione and formaldehyde as substrates and free glutathione as an allosteric activator of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Uotila, L; Mannervik, B

    1979-01-01

    The steady-state kinetics of formaldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver have been explored. Non-linearities were obtained in v-versus-v[S] plots. It was necessary and sufficient to consider two reactants of the equilibrium mixture of formaldehyde, glutathione and their hemimercaptal adduct for a complete description of the kinetics. A random sequential reaction scheme is proposed in which adduct and beta-NAD+ are the substrates. In addition, glutathione can bind to an allosteric regulatory site and only the glutathione-containing enzyme is considered productive. Various alternative reaction models were examined but no simple alterative was superior to the model chosen. The discrimination was largely based on results of non-linear regression analysis. Several S-substituted glutathione derivatives were tested as activators or inhibitors of the enzyme, but all were without effect. Thio-NAD+, nicotinamide--hypoxanthine dinucleotide and 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide could substitute for beta-NAD+ as the nucleotide substrate. alpha-NAD+ and ADP-ribose were competitive inhibitors with respect to beta-NAD+ and non-competitive with glutathione and the adduct. When used simultaneously, the inhibitors were linear competitive versus each other, indicating a single nucleotide-binding site or, if more than one, non-co-operative binding sites. PMID:220952

  18. Combinatorial approach to exactly solve the 1D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Swarnadeep

    2017-01-01

    The Ising model is a well known statistical model which can be solved exactly by various methods. The most familiar one is the transfer matrix method. Sometimes it can be difficult to approach the open boundary case rather than periodic boundary ones in higher dimensions. But physically it is more intuitive to study the open boundary case, as it gives a closer view of the real system. We have introduced a new method called the pairing method to determine the exact partition function for the simplest case, a 1D Ising lattice. This method simplifies the problem's complexities and reduces it to a pure combinatorial problem. The study also reveals that it is possible to apply this pairing method in the case of a 2D square lattice. The obtained results agree perfectly with the values in the literature and this new approach provides an algorithmic insight to deal with such problems.

  19. A closed-loop control scheme for steering steady states of glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathway.

    PubMed

    Panja, Surajit; Patra, Sourav; Mukherjee, Anirban; Basu, Madhumita; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Dutta, Pranab K

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical networks normally operate in the neighborhood of one of its multiple steady states. It may reach from one steady state to other within a finite time span. In this paper, a closed-loop control scheme is proposed to steer states of the glycolysis and glycogenolysis (GG) pathway from one of its steady states to other. The GG pathway is modeled in the synergism and saturation system formalism, known as S-system. This S-system model is linearized into the controllable Brunovsky canonical form using a feedback linearization technique. For closed-loop control, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) and the linear-quadratic gaussian (LQG) regulator are invoked to design a controller for tracking prespecified steady states. In the feedback linearization technique, a global diffeomorphism function is proposed that facilitates in achieving the regulation requirement. The robustness of the regulated GG pathway is studied considering input perturbation and with measurement noise.

  20. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  1. Steady state multiplicity of two-step biological conversion systems with general kinetics.

    PubMed

    Volcke, E I P; Sbarciog, M; Noldus, E J L; De Baets, B; Loccufier, M

    2010-12-01

    This study analyses the steady state behaviour of biological conversion systems with general kinetics, in which two consecutive reactions are carried out by two groups of micro-organisms. The model considered is a realistic description of wastewater treatment processes. A step-wise procedure is followed to reveal the mechanisms affecting the occurrence of steady states in terms of the process input variables. It is clearly demonstrated how taking into account inhibition effects by simply including additional inhibition terms to the kinetic expressions, a common practice, influences the model's long term behaviour. The overall steady state behaviour of the model has been summarized in easy-to-interpret operating diagrams, depicting the occurrence of steady states in terms of the reactor dilution rate and the influent substrate concentration, with well-defined boundaries between distinct operating regions. This knowledge is crucial for modelers as steady state multiplicity--in the sense that more than one steady state can be reached depending on the initial conditions--may remain undetected during simulation. The obtained results may also serve for experimental design and for model validation based on experimental findings.

  2. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  3. Steady-state ab initio laser theory for N-level lasers.

    PubMed

    Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Ge, Li; Stone, A Douglas

    2012-01-02

    We show that Steady-state Ab initio Laser Theory (SALT) can be applied to find the stationary multimode lasing properties of an N-level laser. This is achieved by mapping the N-level rate equations to an effective two-level model of the type solved by the SALT algorithm. This mapping yields excellent agreement with more computationally demanding N-level time domain solutions for the steady state.

  4. Lanczos diagonalizations of the 1-D Peierls-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, E.Y.; Campbell, D.K.; Gammel, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In studies of interacting electrons in reduced dimensions'' one is trapped between the Scylla of exponential growth of the number of states in any exact many-body basis and the Charybdis of the failure of mean-field theories to capture adequately the effects of interactions. In the present article we focus on one technique -- the Lanczos method -- which, at least in the case of the 1-D Peierls-Hubbard model, appears to allow us to sail the narrow channel between these two hazards. In contrast to Quantum Monte Carlo methods, which circumvent the exponential growth of states by statistical techniques and importance sampling, the Lanczos approach attacks this problem head-on by diagonalizing the full Hamiltonian. Given the restrictions of present computers, this approach is thus limited to studying finite clusters of roughly 12--14 sites. Fortunately, in one dimension, such clusters are usually sufficient for extracting many of the properties of the infinite system provided that one makes full use of the ability to vary the boundary conditions. In this article we shall apply the Lanczos methodology and novel phase randomization'' techniques to study the 1-D Peierls-Hubbard model, with particular emphasis on the optical absorption properties, including the spectrum of absorptions as a function of photon energy. Despite the discreteness of the eigenstates in our finite clusters, we are able to obtain optical spectra that, in cases where independent tests can be made, agree well with the known exact results for the infinite system. Thus we feel that this combination of techniques represents an important and viable means of studying many interesting novel materials involving strongly correlated electrons. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Cavitation Influence in 1D Part-load Vortex Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörfler, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    Residual swirl in the draft tube of Francis turbines may cause annoying low- frequency pulsation of pressure and power output, in particular during part-load operation. A 1D analytical model for these dynamic phenomena would enable simulation by some conventional method for computing hydraulic transients. The proper structure of such a model has implications for the prediction of prototype behaviour based on laboratory tests. The source of excitation as well as the dynamic transmission behaviour of the draft tube flow may both be described either by lumped or distributed parameters. The distributed version contains more information and, due to limited possibilities of identification, some data must be estimated. The distributed cavitation compliance is an example for this dilemma. In recent publications, the customary assumption of a constant wave speed has produced dubious results. The paper presents a more realistic model for distributed compressibility. The measured influence of the Thoma number is applied with the local cavitation factor. This concept is less sensitive to modelling errors and explains both the Thoma and Froude number influence. The possible effect of the normally unknown non-condensable gas content in the vortex cavity is shortly commented. Its measurement in future tests is recommended. It is also recommended to check the available analytical vortex models for possible dispersion effects.

  6. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-01-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464

  7. Inconsistencies in steady-state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential μ, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. μ and Te are determined via coexistence, i.e., zero flux of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas both μ and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that in this case the zeroth law is violated for Metropolis exchange rates, and determine the size of the violations numerically. The zeroth law appears to be violated for generic exchange rates. Remarkably, the system-reservoir coupling proposed by Sasa and Tasaki [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 125 (2006), 10.1007/s10955-005-9021-7] is free of inconsistencies, and the zeroth law holds. This is because the rate depends only on the state of the donor system, and is independent of that of the acceptor.

  8. Maximal lactate steady state in Judo

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques; Pithon-Curi, Tania; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Oliveira, João; Perez, Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) measured during a new single judo specific incremental test (JSIT) for aerobic demand evaluation. Methods: to test the validity of the new test, the JSIT was compared with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS), which is the gold standard procedure for aerobic demand measuring. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7cm; fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo to assess the RCT and performed on 30-minute MLSS test, where both tests were performed mimicking the UchiKomi drills. Results: the intensity at RCT measured on JSIT was not significantly different compared to MLSS (p=0.40). In addition, it was observed high and significant correlation between MLSS and RCT (r=0.90, p=0.002), as well as a high agreement. Conclusions: RCT measured during JSIT is a valid procedure to measure the aerobic demand, respecting the ecological validity of Judo. PMID:25332923

  9. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    PubMed

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model for use with a steady-state numerical ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.

    2002-04-26

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy and other Federal, State, and local agencies, is evaluating the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The ground-water flow system covers and area of about 100,000 square kilometers from latitude 35 degrees to 38 degrees 15 minutes North to longitude 115 degrees to 118 degrees West, with the flow system proper comprising about 45,000 square kilometers. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is one of the larger flow systems within the Southwestern United States and includes in its boundaries the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and much of Death Valley. Part of this study includes the construction of a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model to serve as the foundation for the development of a steady-state regional ground-water flow model. The digital framework model provides a computer-based description of the geometry and composition of the hydro geologic units that control regional flow. The framework model of the region was constructed by merging two previous framework models constructed for the Yucca Mountain Project and the Environmental Restoration Program Underground Test Area studies at the Nevada Test Site. The hydrologic characteristics of the region result from a currently arid climate and complex geology. Interbasinal regional ground-water flow occurs through a thick carbonate-rock sequence of Paleozoic age, a locally thick volcanic-rock sequence of Tertiary age, and basin-fill alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Throughout the system, deep and shallow ground-water flow may be controlled by extensive and pervasive regional and local faults and fractures. The framework model was constructed using data from several sources to define the geometry of the regional hydrogeologic units. These data sources include (1) a 1:250,000-scale hydrogeologic-map compilation of the region; (2) regional-scale geologic cross

  11. 1-D Modeling of Massive Particle Injection (MPI) in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Parks, P. B.; Izzo, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    A 1-D Fast Current Quench (FCQ) model is developed to study current evolution and runaway electron suppression under massive density increase. The model consists of coupled toroidal electric field and energy equations, and it is solved numerically for DIII-D and ITER operating conditions. Simulation results suggest that fast shutdown by D2 liquid jet/pellet injection is in principle achievable for the desired plasma cooling time (˜15 ms for DIII-D and ˜50 ms for ITER) under ˜150x or higher densification. The current density and pressure profile are practically unaltered during the initial phase of jet propagation when dilution cooling dominates. With subsequent radiation cooling, the densified discharge enters the strongly collisional regime where Pfirsch-Schluter thermal diffusion can inhibit current contraction on the magnetic axis. Often the 1/1 kink instability, addressed by Kadomtsev's magnetic reconnection model, can be prevented. Our results are compared with NIMROD simulations in which the plasma is suddenly densified by ˜100x and experiences instantaneous dilution cooling, allowing for use of actual (lower) Lundquist numbers.

  12. Zonal Flow Growth Rates: Modulational Instability vs Statistical Steady States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krommes, J. A.; Kolesnikov, R. A.

    2002-11-01

    The nonlinear growth rate of zonal flows has been the subject of various investigations. The calculations can be grouped into two major classes: those based on modulational instability of a fixed pump wave;(L. Chen et al., Phys. Plasmas 7), 3129 (2000); P. N. Guzdar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 015001 (2001); C. N. Lashmore-Davies et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5121 (2001). and those employing statistical formalism to describe a self-consistent, energy-conserving steady state.(J. A. Krommes and C.--B. Kim, Phys. Rev. E 62), 8508 (2000), and references therein. The results from these two approaches do not necessarily agree either in their dependence on parameters like the plasma pressure β, on the threshold for instability, or even, in some cases, on the sign. The reasons for such disagreements are isolated, and it is shown to what extent the steady-state statistical approach can be reconciled with a generic modulational instability calculation. Generalizations of the statistical formalism to the multifield systems appropriate for finite β are described. Specific calculations based on model systems are used to illustrate the general arguments.

  13. Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdniakov, S.; Lykhina, N.

    2010-03-01

    Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions Diffusive groundwater recharge is a vertical water flux through the water table, i.e. through the boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones. This flux features temporal and spatial changes due to variations in the climatic conditions, landscape the state of vegetation, and the spatial variability of vadoze zone characteristics. In a changing climate the non-steady state series of climatic characteristics will affect on the groundwater recharge.. A well-tested approach to calculating water flux through the vadoze zone is the application of Richard’s equations for a heterogeneous one-domain porosity continuum with specially formulated atmospheric boundary conditions at the ground surface. In this approach the climatic parameters are reflected in upper boundary conditions, while the recharge series is the flux through the low boundary. In this work developed by authors code Surfbal that simulates water cycle at surface of topsoil to take into account the various condition of precipitation transformation at the surface in different seasons under different vegetation cover including snow accumulation in winter and melting in spring is used to generate upper boundary condition at surface of topsoil for world-wide known Hydrus-1D code (Simunek et al, 2008). To estimate the proposal climate change effect we performed Surfbal and Hydrus simulation using the steady state climatic condition and transient condition due to global warming on example of Moscow region, Russia. The following scenario of climate change in 21 century in Moscow region was selected: the annual temperature will increase on 4C during 100 year and annual precipitation will increase on 10% (Solomon et al, 2007). Within the year the maximum increasing of temperature and precipitation falls on winter time, while in middle of summer temperature will remain almost the same as observed now and monthly

  14. Modeling shear band interaction in 1D torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda; Hanina, Erez

    2017-01-01

    When two shear bands are being formed at close distance from each other they interact, and further development of one of them may be quenched down. As a result there should be a minimum distance between shear bands. In the literature there are at least three analytical models for this minimum distance. Predictions of these models do not generally agree with each other and with test results. Recently we developed a 1D numerical scheme to predict the formation of shear bands in a torsion test of a thin walled pipe. We validated our code by reproducing results of the pioneering experiments of Marchand and Duffy, and then used it to investigate the mechanics of shear localization and shear band formation. We describe our shear band code in a separate publication, and here we use it only as a tool to investigate the interaction between two neighboring shear bands during the process of their formation. We trigger the formation of shear bands by specifying two perturbations of the initial strength. We vary the perturbations in terms of their amplitude and/or their width. Usually, the stronger perturbation triggers a faster developing shear band, which then prevails and quenches the development of the other shear band. We change the distance between the two shear bands and find, that up to a certain distance one of the shear bands becomes fully developed, and the other stays only partially developed. Beyond this distance the two shear bands are both fully developed. Finally, we check the influence of certain material and loading parameters on the interaction between the two shear bands, and compare the results to predictions of the analytical models from the literature.

  15. Petri nets for steady state analysis of metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  16. Steady state analysis of metabolic pathways using Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2003-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  17. Defining Features of Steady-State Timbres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to define steady -state features of timbre for a group of well-trained musicians. Experiment 1 evaluated whether or not pairs of three critical dimensions of timbre--spectral slope (6 or 12 dB/octave), formant structure (/a/ or /i/ vowel), and inharmonicity of partials (harmonic or inharmonic)--were processed in a separable or integral fashion. Accuracy and speed for classification of values along one dimension were examined under different conditions of variability along a second dimension (fixed, correlated, or orthogonal). Spectral slope and formant structure were integral, with classification speed for the target dimension depending upon variability along the orthogonal dimension. In contrast, evidence of asymmetric separability was obtained for inharmonicity. Classification speed for slope and formant structure did not depend on inharmonicity, whereas RT for the target dimension of inharmonicity was strongly influenced by variability along either slope or formant structure. Since the results of Experiment 1 provided a basis for manipulating spectral slope and formant structure as a single feature, these dimensions were correlated in Experiment 2. Subjects searched for targets containing potential features of timbre within arrays of 1-4 inharmonic distractor pitches. Distractors were homogeneous with respect to the dimensions of timbre. When targets had /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes, search time increased nonlinearly with array size in a manner consistent with the parallel processing of items, and thus feature search. Feature search was not obtained for targets with /i/ formants and steep slopes. Thus, the feature was coded as the presence or absence of /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes. A search task using heterogeneous distractor values along slope/formant structure was used in Experiment 3 to evaluate whether or not the feature of timbre and pitch were automatically conjoined (integral). Search times for

  18. An Efficient Steady-State Analysis Method for Large Boolean Networks with High Maximum Node Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Changki; Hwang, Jeewon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shin, Insik

    2015-01-01

    Boolean networks have been widely used to model biological processes lacking detailed kinetic information. Despite their simplicity, Boolean network dynamics can still capture some important features of biological systems such as stable cell phenotypes represented by steady states. For small models, steady states can be determined through exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. As the number of nodes increases, however, the state space grows exponentially thus making it difficult to find steady states. Over the last several decades, many studies have addressed how to handle such a state space explosion. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to a satisfiability solving algorithm due to its potential scalability to handle large networks. Meanwhile, there still lies a problem in the case of large models with high maximum node connectivity where the satisfiability solving algorithm is known to be computationally intractable. To address the problem, this paper presents a new partitioning-based method that breaks down a given network into smaller subnetworks. Steady states of each subnetworks are identified by independently applying the satisfiability solving algorithm. Then, they are combined to construct the steady states of the overall network. To efficiently apply the satisfiability solving algorithm to each subnetwork, it is crucial to find the best partition of the network. In this paper, we propose a method that divides each subnetwork to be smallest in size and lowest in maximum node connectivity. This minimizes the total cost of finding all steady states in entire subnetworks. The proposed algorithm is compared with others for steady states identification through a number of simulations on both published small models and randomly generated large models with differing maximum node connectivities. The simulation results show that our method can scale up to several hundreds of nodes even for Boolean networks with high maximum node connectivity. The

  19. An Efficient Steady-State Analysis Method for Large Boolean Networks with High Maximum Node Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Changki; Hwang, Jeewon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shin, Insik

    2015-01-01

    Boolean networks have been widely used to model biological processes lacking detailed kinetic information. Despite their simplicity, Boolean network dynamics can still capture some important features of biological systems such as stable cell phenotypes represented by steady states. For small models, steady states can be determined through exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. As the number of nodes increases, however, the state space grows exponentially thus making it difficult to find steady states. Over the last several decades, many studies have addressed how to handle such a state space explosion. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to a satisfiability solving algorithm due to its potential scalability to handle large networks. Meanwhile, there still lies a problem in the case of large models with high maximum node connectivity where the satisfiability solving algorithm is known to be computationally intractable. To address the problem, this paper presents a new partitioning-based method that breaks down a given network into smaller subnetworks. Steady states of each subnetworks are identified by independently applying the satisfiability solving algorithm. Then, they are combined to construct the steady states of the overall network. To efficiently apply the satisfiability solving algorithm to each subnetwork, it is crucial to find the best partition of the network. In this paper, we propose a method that divides each subnetwork to be smallest in size and lowest in maximum node connectivity. This minimizes the total cost of finding all steady states in entire subnetworks. The proposed algorithm is compared with others for steady states identification through a number of simulations on both published small models and randomly generated large models with differing maximum node connectivities. The simulation results show that our method can scale up to several hundreds of nodes even for Boolean networks with high maximum node connectivity. The

  20. Steady state, erosional continuity, and the topography of landscapes developed in layered rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perne, Matija; Covington, Matthew D.; Thaler, Evan A.; Myre, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of topographic steady state has substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. In topographic steady state, erosion rates are equal everywhere, and steepness adjusts to enable equal erosion rates in rocks of different strengths. This conceptual model makes an implicit assumption of vertical contacts between different rock types. Here we hypothesize that landscapes in layered rocks will be driven toward a state of erosional continuity, where retreat rates on either side of a contact are equal in a direction parallel to the contact rather than in the vertical direction. For vertical contacts, erosional continuity is the same as topographic steady state, whereas for horizontal contacts it is equivalent to equal rates of horizontal retreat on either side of a rock contact. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we show that erosional continuity predicts the form of flux steady-state landscapes that develop in simulations with horizontally layered rocks. For stream power erosion, the nature of continuity steady state depends on the exponent, n, in the erosion model. For n = 1, the landscape cannot maintain continuity. For cases where n ≠ 1, continuity is maintained, and steepness is a function of erodibility that is predicted by the theory. The landscape in continuity steady state can be quite different from that predicted by topographic steady state. For n < 1 continuity predicts that channels incising subhorizontal layers will be steeper in the weaker rock layers. For subhorizontal layered rocks with different erodibilities, continuity also predicts larger slope contrasts than in topographic steady state. Therefore, the relationship between steepness and erodibility within a sequence of layered rocks is a function of contact dip. For the subhorizontal limit, the history of layers exposed at base level also influences the steepness-erodibility relationship. If uplift rate

  1. Steady state asymmetric planetary electrical induction. [by solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, B. L.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the steady state electric and magnetic fields induced by the motional electric field of the solar wind in the atmosphere or interior of a planet that is asymmetrically surrounded by solar wind plasma. The electrically conducting ionosphere or interior must be in direct electrical contact with the solar wind over the day side of the planet. The conducting region of the planet is modeled by a sphere or a spherical shell of arbitrarily stratified electrical conductivity. A monoconducting cylindrical cavity is assumed to extend downstream on the night side of the planet. The solar wind is assumed to be highly conducting so that the induced fields are confined to the planet and cavity. Induced currents close as sheet currents at the solar wind-cavity and solar wind-planet interfaces. Numerical evaluations of the analytic formulas are carried out for a uniformly conducting spherical model.

  2. Quantitative investigation of the brain-to-cerebrospinal fluid unbound drug concentration ratio under steady-state conditions in rats using a pharmacokinetic model and scaling factors for active efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Hiroshi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Eiichi; Ushiki, Junko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2014-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic model was constructed to explain the difference in brain- and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-plasma and brain-to-CSF unbound drug concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain, Kp,uu,CSF, and Kp,uu,CSF/brain, respectively) of drugs under steady-state conditions in rats. The passive permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), PS1, was predicted by two methods using log(D/molecular weight(0.5)) for PS1(1) or the partition coefficient in octanol/water at pH 7.4 (LogD), topologic van der Waals polar surface area, and van der Waals surface area of the basic atoms for PS1(2). The coefficients of each parameter were determined using previously reported in situ rat BBB permeability. Active transport of drugs by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) measured in P-gp- and Bcrp-overexpressing cells was extrapolated to in vivo by introducing scaling factors. Brain- and CSF-to-plasma unbound concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF, respectively) of 19 compounds, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates (daidzein, dantrolene, flavopiridol, genistein, loperamide, quinidine, and verapamil), were simultaneously fitted to the equations in a three-compartment model comprising blood, brain, and CSF compartments. The calculated Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF of 17 compounds were within a factor of three of experimental values. Kp,uu,CSF values of genistein and loperamide were outliers of the prediction, and Kp,uu,brain of dantrolene also became an outlier when PS1(2) was used. Kp,uu,CSF/brain of the 19 compounds was within a factor of three of experimental values. In conclusion, the Kp,uu,CSF/brain of drugs, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates, could be successfully explained by a kinetic model using scaling factors combined with in vitro evaluation of P-gp and Bcrp activities.

  3. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  4. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.

    PubMed

    Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S

    2015-12-09

    In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade.

  5. Multiplicity of steady states in a bioreactor during the production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum.

    PubMed

    Silva, J P; Almeida, Y B; Pinheiro, I O; Knoelchelmann, A; Silva, J M F

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, the production of compounds from microorganisms has increased significantly. Glycerol as a source of substrate appears to have great potential, due to its large supply because of the increase in biodiesel production. This paper will discuss the multiplicity of steady states for the production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by Clostridium butyricum, employing a model that takes into account inhibition by fermentation products. The theoretical study of bifurcation enabled us to make a qualitative adjustment to the various experimental steady states, using the theoretical steady states obtained from the AUTO2007 program. The theoretical model parameters were varied to fit qualitatively the values of the experimental steady states. In addition, this work is a qualitative study, using experimental steady states that can be used as an initial study for more advanced work on optimizing the production of 1,3-propanediol.

  6. A Note on Equations for Steady-State Optimal Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.

    2010-06-15

    Based on the optimality principle (that the global energy expenditure rate is at its minimum for a given landscape under steady state conditions) and calculus of variations, we have derived a group of partial differential equations for describing steady-state optimal landscapes without explicitly distinguishing between hillslopes and channel networks. Other than building on the well-established Mining's equation, this work does not rely on any empirical relationships (such as those relating hydraulic parameters to local slopes). Using additional constraints, we also theoretically demonstrate that steady-state water depth is a power function of local slope, which is consistent with field data.

  7. Steady-state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaler, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of a linear time-invariant multivariable system is presented. This criterion consists of a set of inequalities which, when satisfied, will cause the steady states of a system to be decoupled. Stability analysis and a new design technique for such systems are given. A new and simple connection between single-loop and multivariable cases is found. These results are then applied to the compensation design for NASA STOL C-8A aircraft. Both steady-state decoupling and stability are justified through computer simulations.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. For model years through 2009, manufacturers may use the mode order described in this section or in § 86.1362-2007. Starting in model year 2010 manufacturers must use the mode order described in this section with the following exception: for model...

  9. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  10. Electronic transport characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2015-09-28

    Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.

  11. Understanding time scales of diffusive fluxes and the implication for steady state and steady shape conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazaei, Farhad; Simpson, Matthew J.; Clement, T. Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion equation is one of the most commonly used models for describing environmental problems involving heat, solute, and water transport. A diffusive system can be either transient or steady state. When a system is transient, the dependent variable (e.g., temperature, concentration, or hydraulic head) varies with time; whereas at steady state, the temporal variations are negligible. Here we consider an intermediate state, called steady shape, corresponding to the situation where temporal variations in diffusive fluxes are negligible but the dependent variable may remain transient. We present a general theoretical framework for identifying steady shape conditions and propose a novel method for evaluating the time scale needed for a diffusive system to approach both steady shape and steady state conditions.

  12. Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai-Sutherland chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-05-01

    We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai-Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang-Baxter integrability structure.

  13. Mass-Radius Spirals for Steady State Families of the Vlasov-Poisson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramming, Tobias; Rein, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    We consider spherically symmetric steady states of the Vlasov-Poisson system, which describe equilibrium configurations of galaxies or globular clusters. If the microscopic equation of state, i.e., the dependence of the steady state on the particle energy (and angular momentum) is fixed, a one-parameter family of such states is obtained. In the polytropic case the mass of the state along such a one-parameter family is a monotone function of its radius. We prove that for the King, Woolley-Dickens, and related models this mass-radius relation takes the form of a spiral.

  14. Critical Concavity of a Drainage Basin for Steady-State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal profiles of natural streams are known to show concave forms. Saying A as drainage area, channel gradient S can be expressed as the power-law, S≈A-θ (Flint, 1974), which is one of the scale-invariant features of drainage basin. According to literature, θ of most natural streams falls into a narrow range (0.4 < θ < 0.7) (Tucker and Whipple, 2002). It leads to fundamental questions: 'Why does θ falls into such narrow range?' and 'How is this related with other power-law scaling relationships reported in natural drainage basins?' To answer above questions, we analytically derive θ for a steady-state drainage basin following Lane's equilibrium (Lane, 1955) throughout the corridor and named this specific case as the 'critical concavity'. In the derivation, sediment transport capacity is estimated by unit stream power model (Yang, 1976), yielding a power function of upstream area. Stability of channel at a local point occurs when incoming flux equals outgoing flux at the point. Therefore, given the drainage at steady-state where all channel beds are stable, the exponent of the power function should be zero. From this, we can determine the critical concavity. Considering ranges of variables associated in this derivation, critical concavity cannot be resolved as a single definite value, rather a range of critical concavity is suggested. This range well agrees with the widely reported range of θ (0.4 < θ < 0.7) in natural streams. In this theoretical study, inter-relationships between power-laws such as hydraulic geometry (Leopold and Maddock, 1953), dominant discharge-drainage area (Knighton et al., 1999), and concavity, are coupled into the power-law framework of stream power sediment transport model. This allows us to explore close relationships between their power-law exponents: their relative roles and sensitivity. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Flint, J. J., 1974, Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude

  15. Radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings: experimental validation of a 1-D model.

    PubMed

    Ferry, C; Richon, P; Beneito, A; Robé, M C

    2001-01-01

    TRACI, a model based on the physical mechanisms governing the migration of radon in unsaturated soils, has been developed to evaluate the radon flux density at the surface of uranium mill tailings. To check the validity of the TRACI model and the effectiveness of cover layers, an in situ study was launched in 1997 with the French uranium mining company, COGEMA. The study consisted of continuous measurements of moisture content, suction, radon concentration at various depths inside a UMT cover, and flux density at its surface. An initial analysis has shown that radon concentration and flux density, as calculated with a steady-state diffusion model using monthly averaged moisture contents, are in good agreement with measured monthly averaged concentrations and flux densities.

  16. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  17. Fault Wear by Damage Evolution During Steady-State Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Sagy, Amir; Boneh, Yuval; Reches, Ze'ev

    2014-11-01

    Slip along faults generates wear products such as gouge layers and cataclasite zones that range in thickness from sub-millimeter to tens of meters. The properties of these zones apparently control fault strength and slip stability. Here we present a new model of wear in a three-body configuration that utilizes the damage rheology approach and considers the process as a microfracturing or damage front propagating from the gouge zone into the solid rock. The derivations for steady-state conditions lead to a scaling relation for the damage front velocity considered as the wear-rate. The model predicts that the wear-rate is a function of the shear-stress and may vanish when the shear-stress drops below the microfracturing strength of the fault host rock. The simulated results successfully fit the measured friction and wear during shear experiments along faults made of carbonate and tonalite. The model is also valid for relatively large confining pressures, small damage-induced change of the bulk modulus and significant degradation of the shear modulus, which are assumed for seismogenic zones of earthquake faults. The presented formulation indicates that wear dynamics in brittle materials in general and in natural faults in particular can be understood by the concept of a "propagating damage front" and the evolution of a third-body layer.

  18. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; Mitachi, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fuel flow. The model consists of two-group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, transport equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors and energy conservation equations for fuel salt and the graphite moderator. The following results are obtained: (1) in the rated operation condition, the peaks of the neutron fluxes slightly move toward the bottom from the center of the reactor and the delayed neutron precursors are significantly carried by the fuel salt flow, and (2) the extension of residence time in the external-loop system and the rise of the fuel inflow temperature show weak negative reactivity effects, which decrease the neutron multiplication factor of the small MSR system.

  19. Oxygen isotope signatures of transpired water vapor: the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Piayda, Arndt; Werner, Christiane

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen isotope signature of water is a powerful tracer of water movement from plants to the global scale. However, little is known about the short-term variability of oxygen isotopes leaving the ecosystem via transpiration, as high-frequency measurements are lacking. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a gas-exchange chamber directly estimating branch-level fluxes in order to evaluate the short-term variability of the isotopic composition of transpiration (δE ) and to investigate the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions in cork-oak trees (Quercus suber) during distinct Mediterranean seasons. The measured δ(18) O of transpiration (δE ) deviated from isotopic steady state throughout most of the day even when leaf water at the evaporating sites was near isotopic steady state. High agreement was found between estimated and modeled δE values assuming non-steady-state enrichment of leaf water. Isoforcing, that is, the influence of the transpirational δ(18) O flux on atmospheric values, deviated from steady-state calculations but daily means were similar between steady state and non-steady state. However, strong daytime isoforcing on the atmosphere implies that short-term variations in δE are likely to have consequences for large-scale applications, for example, partitioning of ecosystem fluxes or satellite-based applications.

  20. Steady State Pyrolysis and Ablation Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    and cracking of pyrolysable materials), black box models are used, based on wind tunnel and plasma jet experiments. In particular, interactions between...outgassing species coming from the in-depth decomposition of the organic resin (in the case of pyrolysable materials), carbon species coming from...multiplicity of physical phenomena involved and their potential non-linearities. Pyrolyse and ablation are efficient processes for aerothermal heat

  1. Moon meteoritic seismic hum: Steady state prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lognonne, P.; Feuvre, M.L.; Johnson, C.L.; Weber, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    We use three different statistical models describing the frequency of meteoroid impacts on Earth to estimate the seismic background noise due to impacts on the lunar surface. Because of diffraction, seismic events on the Moon are typically characterized by long codas, lasting 1 h or more. We find that the small but frequent impacts generate seismic signals whose codas overlap in time, resulting in a permanent seismic noise that we term the "lunar hum" by analogy with the Earth's continuous seismic background seismic hum. We find that the Apollo era impact detection rates and amplitudes are well explained by a model that parameterizes (1) the net seismic impulse due to the impactor and resulting ejecta and (2) the effects of diffraction and attenuation. The formulation permits the calculation of a composite waveform at any point on the Moon due to simulated impacts at any epicentral distance. The root-mean-square amplitude of this waveform yields a background noise level that is about 100 times lower than the resolution of the Apollo long-period seismometers. At 2 s periods, this noise level is more than 1000 times lower than the low noise model prediction for Earth's microseismic noise. Sufficiently sensitive seismometers will allow the future detection of several impacts per day at body wave frequencies. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Multiple steady states in atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    The equations describing the distributions and concentrations of trace species are nonlinear and may thus possess more than one solution. This paper develops methods for searching for multiple physical solutions to chemical continuity equations and applies these to subsets of equations describing tropospheric chemistry. The calculations are carried out with a box model and use two basic strategies. The first strategy is a 'search' method. This involves fixing model parameters at specified values, choosing a wide range of initial guesses at a solution, and using a Newton-Raphson technique to determine if different initial points converge to different solutions. The second strategy involves a set of techniques known as homotopy methods. These do not require an initial guess, are globally convergent, and are guaranteed, in principle, to find all solutions of the continuity equations. The first method is efficient but essentially 'hit or miss' in the sense that it cannot guarantee that all solutions which may exist will be found. The second method is computationally burdensome but can, in principle, determine all the solutions of a photochemical system. Multiple solutions have been found for models that contain a basic complement of photochemical reactions involving O(x), HO(x), NO(x), and CH4. In the present calculations, transitions occur between stable branches of a multiple solution set as a control parameter is varied. These transitions are manifestations of hysteresis phenomena in the photochemical system and may be triggered by increasing the NO flux or decreasing the CH4 flux from current mean tropospheric levels.

  3. Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; SooHoo, J.B.; Kiefer, D.A.

    1980-09-01

    Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using /sup 15/N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which /sup 15/N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea.

  4. Three-dimensional visualization of axial velocity profiles downstream of six different mechanical aortic valve prostheses, measured with a hot-film anemometer in a steady state flow model.

    PubMed

    Hasenkam, J M; Westphal, D; Reul, H; Gormsen, J; Giersiepen, M; Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H; Paulsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Hot-film anemometry was used for in vitro steady-state measurements downstream of six mechanical aortic valve prostheses at flow rates 10, 20 and 30 l.min-1. Three-dimensional visualizations of velocity profiles at two downstream levels were made with the valves rotated 0 and 60 degrees in relation to the sinuses of valsalvae. The velocity fields downstream of the disc valves were generally skew with increasing velocity gradients and laminar shear stresses with increasing flow rates. Furthermore, increased skewness of the velocity profiles was noticed when the major orifices of the disc valves were towards the commissure than when approaching a sinus of valsalvae. The velocity profiles downstream of the ball valve were generally flat but with considerably more disturbed flow, consistent with the findings in turbulent flow.

  5. Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.

  6. Computer program simplifies transient and steady-state temperature prediction for complex body shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giebler, K. N.

    1966-01-01

    Computer program evaluates heat transfer modes and calculates either the transient or steady-state temperature distributions throughout an object of complex shape when heat sources are applied to specified points on the object. It uses an electrothermal model to simulate the conductance, heat capacity, and temperature potential of the object.

  7. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  8. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  9. The Cost Structure of Higher Education: Implications for Governmental Policy in Steady State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyell, Edward H.

    The historical pattern of resource allocation in American higher education as exemplified by public colleges in Colorado was examined. The reliance upon average cost information in making resource allocation decisions was critiqued for the special problems that arise from student enrollment decline or steady state. A model of resource allocation…

  10. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures specified in § 86.1363-2007 through the 2009 model year. (a) Start sampling at the beginning of the first mode and continue sampling until the end of the last mode. Calculate emissions as described... meets the applicable steady-state emission standards: RMC mode Time in mode (seconds) Enginespeed...

  12. 1-D Radiative-Convective Model for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a one dimensional radiative-convective model to study the thermal structure of terrestrial exoplanetary atmospheres. The radiative transfer and equilibrium chemistry in our model is based on similar methodologies in models used for studying Extrasolar Giant Planets (Fortney et al. 2005b.) We validated our model in the optically thin and thick limits, and compared our pressure-temperature profiles against the analytical solutions of Robinson & Catling (2012). For extrasolar terrestrial planets with pure hydrogen atmospheres, we evaluated the effects of H2-H2 collision induced absorption and identified the purely roto-translational band in our modeled spectra. We also examined how enhanced atmospheric metallicities affect the temperature structure, chemistry, and spectra of terrestrial exoplanets. For a terrestrial extrasolar planet whose atmospheric compostion is 100 times solar orbiting a sun-like star at 2 AU, our model resulted in a reducing atmosphere with H2O, CH4, and NH3 as the dominant greenhouse gases.

  13. Validation of 1-D transport and sawtooth models for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.W.; Turner, M.F.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors describe progress on validating a number of local transport models by comparing their predictions with relevant experimental data from a range of tokamaks in the ITER profile database. This database, the testing procedure and results are discussed. In addition a model for sawtooth oscillations is used to investigate their effect in an ITER plasma with alpha-particles.

  14. An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.

    1995-08-01

    A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model.

  15. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  16. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  17. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    PubMed Central

    Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267

  18. Steady-state and transient results on insulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA, ASTM C 1114) was used to determine the thermal conductivity (k), specific heat (C), and thermal diffusivity ({alpha}) of selected building materials from 24 to 50{degree}C. Steady-state and transient measurements yielded data on four types of material: gypsum wall board containing 0, 15, and 30 wt % wax; calcium silicate insulations with densities ({rho}) of 307, 444, and 605 kg/m{sup 3}; three wood products: southern yellow pine flooring (575 kg/m{sup 3}), Douglas fir plywood (501 kg/m{sup 3}), and white spruce flooring (452 kg/m{sup 3}); and two cellular plastic foams: extruded polystyrene (30 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with HCFC-142b and polyisocyanurate rigid board (30.2 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with CFC-11. The extruded polystyrene was measured several times after production (25 days, 45 days, 74 days, 131 days, and 227 days). The UTHA is an absolute technique that yields k with an uncertainty of less than {plus minus}2% as determined by modeling, by determinate error analyses, and by use of Standard Reference Materials SRM-1450b and SRM-1451. 37 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Baker, Karl W.; Marks, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis heat pipe code was developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.

  20. Steady-state compartmentalization of lipid membranes by active proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sabra, M C; Mouritsen, O G

    1998-01-01

    Using a simple microscopic model of lipid-protein interactions, based on the hydrophobic matching principle, we study some generic aspects of lipid-membrane compartmentalization controlled by a dispersion of active integral membrane proteins. The activity of the proteins is simulated by conformational excitations governed by an external drive, and the deexcitation is controlled by interaction of the protein with its lipid surroundings. In response to the flux of energy into the proteins from the environment and the subsequent dissipation of energy into the lipid bilayer, the lipid-protein assembly reorganizes into a steady-state structure with a typical length scale determined by the strength of the external drive. In the specific case of a mixed dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the gel-fluid coexistence region, it is shown explicitly by computer simulation that the activity of an integral membrane protein can lead to a compartmentalization of the lipid-bilayer membrane. The compartmentalization is related to the dynamical process of phase separation and lipid domain formation. PMID:9533687

  1. Classical quasi-steady state reduction-A mathematical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2017-04-01

    We discuss parameter dependent polynomial ordinary differential equations that model chemical reaction networks. By classical quasi-steady state (QSS) reduction we understand the following familiar (heuristically motivated) mathematical procedure: Set the rate of change for certain (a priori chosen) variables equal to zero and use the resulting algebraic equations to obtain a system of smaller dimension for the remaining variables. This procedure will generally be valid only for certain parameter ranges. We start by showing that the reduction is accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is what we call a QSS parameter value, and that the reduction is approximately accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is close to a QSS parameter value. The QSS parameter values can be characterized by polynomial equations and inequations, hence parameter ranges for which QSS reduction is valid are accessible in an algorithmic manner. A defining characteristic of a QSS parameter value is that the algebraic variety defined by the QSS relations is invariant for the differential equation. A closer investigation of the associated systems shows the existence of further invariant sets; here singular perturbations enter the picture in a natural manner. We compare QSS reduction and singular perturbation reduction, and show that, while they do not agree in general, they do, up to lowest order in a small parameter, for a quite large and relevant class of examples. This observation, in turn, allows the computation of QSS reductions even in cases where an explicit resolution of the polynomial equations is not possible.

  2. Structural simplification of chemical reaction networks in partial steady states.

    PubMed

    Madelaine, Guillaume; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim; Tonello, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the structural simplification of chemical reaction networks with partial steady state semantics assuming that the concentrations of some but not all species are constant. We present a simplification rule that can eliminate intermediate species that are in partial steady state, while preserving the dynamics of all other species. Our simplification rule can be applied to general reaction networks with some but few restrictions on the possible kinetic laws. We can also simplify reaction networks subject to conservation laws. We prove that our simplification rule is correct when applied to a module of a reaction network, as long as the partial steady state is assumed with respect to the complete network. Michaelis-Menten's simplification rule for enzymatic reactions falls out as a special case. We have implemented an algorithm that applies our simplification rules repeatedly and applied it to reaction networks from systems biology.

  3. Poissonian steady states: from stationary densities to stationary intensities.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    Markov dynamics are the most elemental and omnipresent form of stochastic dynamics in the sciences, with applications ranging from physics to chemistry, from biology to evolution, and from economics to finance. Markov dynamics can be either stationary or nonstationary. Stationary Markov dynamics represent statistical steady states and are quantified by stationary densities. In this paper, we generalize the notion of steady state to the case of general Markov dynamics. Considering an ensemble of independent motions governed by common Markov dynamics, we establish that the entire ensemble attains Poissonian steady states which are quantified by stationary Poissonian intensities and which hold valid also in the case of nonstationary Markov dynamics. The methodology is applied to a host of Markov dynamics, including Brownian motion, birth-death processes, random walks, geometric random walks, renewal processes, growth-collapse dynamics, decay-surge dynamics, Ito diffusions, and Langevin dynamics.

  4. Kinetic and Stochastic Models of 1D yeast ``prions"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeasts have proteins, which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast ``prions" are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein (1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics along with our own stochastic approach (2). Both models assume reconformation only upon aggregation, and include aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates.

  5. A hybrid multigrid technique for computing steady-state solutions to supersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Li and Sanders have introduced a class of finite difference schemes to approximate generally discontinuous solutions to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These equations have the form together with relevant boundary conditions. When modelling hypersonic spacecraft reentry, the differential equations above are frequently given by the compressible Euler equations coupled with a nonequilibrium chemistry model. For these applications, steady state solutions are often sought. Many tens (to hundreds) of super computer hours can be devoted to a single three space dimensional simulation. The primary difficulty is the inability to rapidly and reliably capture the steady state. In these notes, we demonstrate that a particular variant from the schemes presented can be combined with a particular multigrid approach to capture steady state solutions to the compressible Euler equations in one space dimension. We show that the rate of convergence to steady state coming from this multigrid implementation is vastly superior to the traditional approach of artificial time relaxation. Moreover, we demonstrate virtual grid independence. That is, the rate of convergence does not depend on the degree of spatial grid refinement.

  6. Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv

    2004-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).

  7. Steady-state error of a system with fuzzy controller.

    PubMed

    Butkiewicz, B S

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of control error of a fuzzy system with feedback. The system consists of a plant, linear or nonlinear, fuzzy controller, and feedback loop. As controller we use both PD and PI fuzzy type controllers. We apply different t-norm and co-norm: logic, algebraic, Yager, Hamacher, bounded, drastic, etc. in the process of fuzzy reasoning. Triangular shape of membership functions is supposed, but we generalize the results obtained. Steady-state error of a system is calculated. We have obtained very interesting results. The steady-state error is identical for pairs of triangular t- and co-norms.

  8. Mapping current fluctuations of stochastic pumps to nonequilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotskoff, Grant M.

    2017-03-01

    We show that current fluctuations in a stochastic pump can be robustly mapped to fluctuations in a corresponding time-independent nonequilibrium steady state. We thus refine a recently proposed mapping so that it ensures equivalence of not only the averages, but also optimal representation of fluctuations in currents and density. Our mapping leads to a natural decomposition of the entropy production in stochastic pumps similar to the "housekeeping" heat. As a consequence of the decomposition of entropy production, the current fluctuations in weakly perturbed stochastic pumps are shown to satisfy a universal bound determined by the steady state entropy production.

  9. Pre-steady-state kinetics for hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose by cellobiohydrolase Cel7A.

    PubMed

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Elmerdahl, Jens; Praestgaard, Eigil; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2012-05-25

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme complex, processive hydrolysis, and dissociation, respectively. These kinetic parameters elucidate limiting factors in the cellulolytic process. We concluded, for example, that Cel7A cleaves about four glycosidic bonds/s during processive hydrolysis. However, the results suggest that stalling the processive movement and low off-rates result in a specific activity at pseudo-steady state that is 10-25-fold lower. It follows that the dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex (half-time of ~30 s) is rate-limiting for the investigated system. We suggest that this approach can be useful in attempts to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems.

  10. DYNGEN: A program for calculating steady-state and transient performance of turbojet and turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Daniele, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The DYNGEN, a digital computer program for analyzing the steady state and transient performance of turbojet and turbofan engines, is described. The DYNGEN is based on earlier computer codes (SMOTE, GENENG, and GENENG 2) which are capable of calculating the steady state performance of turbojet and turbofan engines at design and off-design operating conditions. The DYNGEN has the combined capabilities of GENENG and GENENG 2 for calculating steady state performance; to these the further capability for calculating transient performance was added. The DYNGEN can be used to analyze one- and two-spool turbojet engines or two- and three-spool turbofan engines without modification to the basic program. A modified Euler method is used by DYNGEN to solve the differential equations which model the dynamics of the engine. This new method frees the programmer from having to minimize the number of equations which require iterative solution. As a result, some of the approximations normally used in transient engine simulations can be eliminated. This tends to produce better agreement when answers are compared with those from purely steady state simulations. The modified Euler method also permits the user to specify large time steps (about 0.10 sec) to be used in the solution of the differential equations. This saves computer execution time when long transients are run. Examples of the use of the program are included, and program results are compared with those from an existing hybrid-computer simulation of a two-spool turbofan.

  11. Effects of grazing flow on the steady-state flow resistance and acoustic impedance of thin porous-faced liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of grazing flow on the steady state flow resistance and acoustic impedance of seven Feltmetal and three Rigimesh thin porous faced liners were studied. The steady-state flow resistance of the ten specimens was measured using standard fluid mechanical experimental techniques. The acoustic impedance was measured using the two microphone method. The principal findings of the study are that the effects of grazing flow were measured and found to be small; small differences were measured between steady-state and acoustic resistance, and a semi-empirical model was derived that correlated the steady-state resistance data of the seven Feltmetal liners and the face sheet reactance of both the Feltmetal and Rigimesh liners.

  12. Pre-Steady-State Decoding of the Bicoid Morphogen Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Sven; Sandler, Oded; Sberro, Hila; Shnider, Sara; Schejter, Eyal; Shilo, Ben-Zion; Barkai, Naama

    2007-01-01

    Morphogen gradients are established by the localized production and subsequent diffusion of signaling molecules. It is generally assumed that cell fates are induced only after morphogen profiles have reached their steady state. Yet, patterning processes during early development occur rapidly, and tissue patterning may precede the convergence of the gradient to its steady state. Here we consider the implications of pre-steady-state decoding of the Bicoid morphogen gradient for patterning of the anterior–posterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Quantitative analysis of the shift in the expression domains of several Bicoid targets (gap genes) upon alteration of bcd dosage, as well as a temporal analysis of a reporter for Bicoid activity, suggest that a transient decoding mechanism is employed in this setting. We show that decoding the pre-steady-state morphogen profile can reduce patterning errors caused by fluctuations in the rate of morphogen production. This can explain the surprisingly small shifts in gap and pair-rule gene expression domains observed in response to alterations in bcd dosage. PMID:17298180

  13. Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luss, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes steady-state multiplicity in chemical reactors, focusing on the use of two mathematical tools, namely, the catastrophe theory and the singularity theory with a distinguished parameter. These tools can be used to determine the maximum number of possible solutions and the different types of bifurcation diagrams. (JN)

  14. Pressure updating methods for the steady-state fluid equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiterman, A.; Turkel, E.; Vatsa, V.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the steady state equations for a compressible fluid. Since we wish to solve for a range of speeds we must consider the equations in conservation form. For transonic speeds these equations are of mixed type. Hence, the usual approach is to add time derivatives to the steady state equations and then march these equations in time. One then adds a time derivative of the density to the continuity equation, a derivative of the momentum to the momentum equation and a derivative of the total energy to the energy equation. This choice is dictated by the time consistent equations. However, since we are only interested in the steady state this is not necessary. Thus we shall consider the possibility of adding a time derivative of the pressure to the continuity equation and similar modifications for the energy equation. This can then be generalized to adding combinations of time derivatives to each equation since these vanish in the steady state. When using acceleration techniques such as residual smoothing, multigrid, etc. these are applied to the pressure rather than the density. Hence, the code duplicates the behavior of the incompressible equations for low speeds.

  15. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  16. Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion SR in Juvenile Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Rudolph, George R.; Axelson, David A.; Gilchrist, Richard; Nuss, Sharon; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of bupropion sustained release (SR) and their potential developmental differences in youths. Method: Eleven boys and eight girls aged 11 to 17 years old were prescribed bupropion SR monotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 16) and/or depressive disorders (n =…

  17. The concave river long profile: a morphodynamic steady state?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, A.

    2011-12-01

    By definition, a morphodynamic steady state is governed by a spatially constant sediment transport rate. As the sediment transport rate is a function of shear stress associated with skin friction, the morphodynamic steady state has been considered to be governed by a spatially constant bed slope. For this reason, the typical concave river long profile has been considered to be a quasi-steady state. The river's steady state has been considered to be one with a spatially constant bed slope, with tributaries inducing a stepwise decrease in bed slope in streamwise direction. Yet, for the sediment transport rate to be spatially constant, it rather is the product of water surface slope and water depth associated with skin friction that needs to be constant. This implies that physical mechanisms that induce streamwise variation in the sediment transport rate can be compensated by a streamwise variation in bed slope so as to guarantee a spatially constant sediment transport rate. Following the river course, such physical mechanisms can be bedrock exposure, partial transport, and a spatially lagging bedform growth. At locations where tributaries increase the water discharge, the above mechanisms cause the river bed profile to be upward concave over a significant reach. At bifucations or at locations where river widening prevails, the river bed profile is upward convex.

  18. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  19. Equilibrium Binding and Steady-State Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, H. Brian

    1984-01-01

    Points out that equilibrium binding and steady-state enzyme kinetics have a great deal in common and that related equations and error analysis can be cast in identical forms. Emphasizes that if one type of problem solution is taught, the other is also taught. Various methods of data analysis are evaluated. (JM)

  20. Identification of enzyme inhibitory mechanisms from steady-state kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fange, David; Lovmar, Martin; Pavlov, Michael Y; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2011-09-01

    Enzyme inhibitors are used in many areas of the life sciences, ranging from basic research to the combat of disease in the clinic. Inhibitors are traditionally characterized by how they affect the steady-state kinetics of enzymes, commonly analyzed on the assumption that enzyme-bound and free substrate molecules are in equilibrium. This assumption, implying that an enzyme-bound substrate molecule has near zero probability to form a product rather than dissociate, is valid only for very inefficient enzymes. When it is relaxed, more complex but also more information-rich steady-state kinetics emerges. Although solutions to the general steady-state kinetics problem exist, they are opaque and have been of limited help to experimentalists. Here we reformulate the steady-state kinetics of enzyme inhibition in terms of new parameters. These allow for assessment of ambiguities of interpretation due to kinetic scheme degeneracy and provide an intuitively simple way to analyze experimental data. We illustrate the method by concrete examples of how to assess scheme degeneracy and obtain experimental estimates of all available rate and equilibrium constants. We suggest simple, complementary experiments that can remove ambiguities and greatly enhance the accuracy of parameter estimation.

  1. Steady States of the Parametric Rotator and Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzas, Antonio O.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the…

  2. Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt

    SciTech Connect

    Scoffield, Don

    2015-03-01

    This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.

  3. Density Functional Theory for Steady-State Nonequilibrium Molecular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuanglong; Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    We present a density functional theory (DFT) for steady-state nonequilibrium quantum systems such as molecular junctions under a finite bias. Based on the steady-state nonequilibrium statistics that maps nonequilibrium to an effective equilibrium, we show that ground-state DFT (GS-DFT) is not applicable in this case and two densities, the total electron density and the density of current-carrying electrons, are needed to uniquely determine the properties of the corresponding nonequilibrium system. A self-consistent mean-field approach based on two densities is then derived. The theory is implemented into SIESTA computational package and applied to study nonequilibrium electronic/transport properties of a realistic carbon-nanotube (CNT)/Benzene junction. Results obtained from our steady-state DFT (SS-DFT) are compared with those of conventional GS-DFT based transport calculations. We show that SS-DFT yields energetically more stable nonequilibrium steady state, predicts significantly lower electric current, and is able to produce correct electronic structures in local equilibrium under a limiting case. PMID:26472080

  4. Steady-State Squeezing in the Micromaser Cavity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, N.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the radiation field in the presently operated micromaser cavity may be squeezed when pumped with polarized atoms. The squeezing is in the steady state field corresponding to the action similar to that of the conventional micromaser, with the effect of cavity dissipation during entire t(sub c) = tau + t(sub cav).

  5. GaAs solar cell photoresponse modeling using PC-1D V2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, D. A.; Olsen, L. C.; Dunham, G.; Addis, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Photoresponse data of high efficiency GaAs solar cells were analyzed using PC-1D V2.1. The approach required to use PC-1D for photoresponse data analysis, and the physical insights gained from performing the analysis are discussed. In particular, the effect of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heteroface quality was modeled. Photoresponse or spectral quantum efficiency is an important tool in characterizing material quality and predicting cell performance. The strength of the photoresponse measurement lies in the ability to precisely fit the experimental data with a physical model. PC-1D provides a flexible platform for calculations based on these physical models.

  6. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  7. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical.

  8. Experimental Realization of Nearly Steady-State Toroidal Electron Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneking, M. R.

    2008-11-01

    Non-neutral plasmas are routinely confined in the uniform magnetic field of a Penning-Malmberg trap for arbitrarily long times and approach thermal equilibrium. Theory predicts that dynamically stable and therefore long-lived equilibria exist for non-neutral plasmas confined in the curved, non-uniform field of a toroidal trap, but that ultimately thermal equilibrium states do not exist. On long timescales, the poloidal ExB rotation through the non-uniform toroidal magnetic field leads to magnetic pumping transport. A new experiment has, for the first time, demonstrated the existence of a stable, long-lived (i.e. nearly steady-state) toroidal equilibrium for pure electron plasmas and is poised to observe the magnetic pumping transport mechanism. Electron plasmas with densities of order 10^6 cm-3 are trapped in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II for several seconds. LNT II is a high aspect ratio (Ro/a 10), partially toroidal trap (a 270^o arc with Bo=670 G). The m=1 diocotron mode is launched and detected using isolated segments of a fully-sectored conducting boundary and its frequency is used to determine the total trapped charge as a function of time. The observed confinement time ( 3 s) approaches the theoretical limit ( 6 s) set by the magnetic pumping transport mechanism of Crooks and O'Neil. We also present equilibrium modeling and numerical simulation of the toroidal m=1 mode constrained by experimental data. Future work includes the identification of the dominant transport mechanisms via confinement scaling experiments and measurement of the m=2 mode frequency, and development of a strategy for making a transition to fully toroidal confinement. J.P. Marler and M.R. Stoneking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008). S.M. Crooks and T.M. O'Neil, Phys Plamas 3, 2533 (1996).

  9. Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.

  10. There are no steady state processes in compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dysthe, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Compaction of sediments is normally thought to start with grain sliding and cataclastic grain crushing. Then the ductile dissolution-precipitation creep processes take over. Modeling of this process normally neglects all collective rearrangement processes and regard simple packings of grains that slowly deform by steady state pressure solution creep. From simple geometrical reasoning we know, however that imperfect packings of plastic grains must undergo rearrangement during compaction. Such rearrangement will drastically alter the microscopic, or "primitive processes" of compaction. Recent research has questioned the fundamental mechanisms ("primitive processes") of dissolution-precipitation creep. Do grain contacts heal or dissolve? Why is there asymmetric dissolution? Does pressure solution creep in single contacts ever reach steady state? Can transient free face dissolution feed back on pressure solution creep in the contacts? The emerging radical change in our understanding of dissolution-precipitation creep as a dynamic, transient process is driven by new experiments and reevaluation of the fundamental theory. The same change in viewpoint is necessary on all time and length scales. I will present experiments [1-8] and simulations [9-11] of complex compaction behaviour [1], transient primitive processes of pressure solution creep in the contacts [2-4], free face dissolution [5] and crack healing [6]. I will also show that macroscopic observation of compaction shows smooth, universal behaviour [7]. Microscopic observation of compaction shows transient collective behaviour at all scales. Evidence points in the direction that compaction is dominated by transient processes with interacting instabilities. The interaction causes intermittency or switching between processes. A new, more complex theory of compaction is necessary to explain how the cooperative microscopic phenomena contribute to the simple, universal, macroscopic behaviour. 1. Uri, L., et. al., in

  11. Steady states and global dynamics of electrical activity in the cerebral cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Wright, J. J.; Bourke, P. D.

    1998-09-01

    Steady states and global dynamics of electrical activity in the cerebral cortex are investigated within the framework of a recent continuum model. It is shown that for a particular physiologically realistic class of models, at most three steady states can occur, two of which are stable. The global dynamics of spatially uniform activity states is studied and it is shown that in a physiologically realistic class of models, the adiabatic dynamics is governed by a second-order differential equation equivalent to that for the motion of a Newtonian particle in a potential in the presence of friction. This result is used to derive a simplified dynamical equation in the friction-dominated limit. Solutions of these equations are compared with those of the full global dynamics equations and it is found that they are adequate for time scales longer than approximately 100 ms provided dendritic integration times are less than approximately 10 ms.

  12. Transient and steady-state dark current mechanisms in amorphous selenium avalanche radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, M. Z.; Imam, Safayat-Al

    2013-04-15

    A theoretical model for describing bias-dependent transient and steady-state behaviors of dark current in amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche detector structures has been developed. The analytical model considers bulk thermal generation current from mid-gap sates, transient carrier depletion, and carrier injection from the electrodes incorporating avalanche multiplication. The proposed physics-based dark current model is compared with the published experimental results on three potential a-Se avalanche detector structures. The steady-state dark current is the minimum for the structures that have effective blocking layers for both holes and electrons. The transient decay time to reach a plateau decreases considerably with increasing electric field.

  13. A Statistical Approach to Thermal Management of Data Centers Under Steady State and System Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Haaland, Ben; Min, Wanli; Qian, Peter Z. G.; Amemiya, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Temperature control for a large data center is both important and expensive. On the one hand, many of the components produce a great deal of heat, and on the other hand, many of the components require temperatures below a fairly low threshold for reliable operation. A statistical framework is proposed within which the behavior of a large cooling system can be modeled and forecast under both steady state and perturbations. This framework is based upon an extension of multivariate Gaussian autoregressive hidden Markov models (HMMs). The estimated parameters of the fitted model provide useful summaries of the overall behavior of and relationships within the cooling system. Predictions under system perturbations are useful for assessing potential changes and improvements to be made to the system. Many data centers have far more cooling capacity than necessary under sensible circumstances, thus resulting in energy inefficiencies. Using this model, predictions for system behavior after a particular component of the cooling system is shut down or reduced in cooling power can be generated. Steady-state predictions are also useful for facility monitors. System traces outside control boundaries flag a change in behavior to examine. The proposed model is fit to data from a group of air conditioners within an enterprise data center from the IT industry. The fitted model is examined, and a particular unit is found to be underutilized. Predictions generated for the system under the removal of that unit appear very reasonable. Steady-state system behavior also is predicted well. PMID:22076026

  14. Steady-State Cycle Deck Launcher Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDrei, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    One of the objectives of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to reduce the time and cost of generating aerothermal numerical representations of engines, called customer decks. These customer decks, which are delivered to airframe companies by various U.S. engine companies, numerically characterize an engine's performance as defined by the particular U.S. airframe manufacturer. Until recently, all numerical models were provided with a Fortran-compatible interface in compliance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) document AS681F, and data communication was performed via a standard, labeled common structure in compliance with AS681F. Recently, the SAE committee began to develop a new standard: AS681G. AS681G addresses multiple language requirements for customer decks along with alternative data communication techniques. Along with the SAE committee, the NPSS Steady-State Cycle Deck project team developed a standard Application Program Interface (API) supported by a graphical user interface. This work will result in Aerospace Recommended Practice 4868 (ARP4868). The Steady-State Cycle Deck work was validated against the Energy Efficient Engine customer deck, which is publicly available. The Energy Efficient Engine wrapper was used not only to validate ARP4868 but also to demonstrate how to wrap an existing customer deck. The graphical user interface for the Steady-State Cycle Deck facilitates the use of the new standard and makes it easier to design and analyze a customer deck. This software was developed following I. Jacobson's Object-Oriented Design methodology and is implemented in C++. The AS681G standard will establish a common generic interface for U.S. engine companies and airframe manufacturers. This will lead to more accurate cycle models, quicker model generation, and faster validation leading to specifications. The standard will facilitate cooperative work between

  15. Extending Molecular Theory to Steady-State Diffusing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    FRINK,LAURA J. D.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.

    1999-10-22

    Predicting the properties of nonequilibrium systems from molecular simulations is a growing area of interest. One important class of problems involves steady state diffusion. To study these cases, a grand canonical molecular dynamics approach has been developed by Heffelfinger and van Swol [J. Chem. Phys., 101, 5274 (1994)]. With this method, the flux of particles, the chemical potential gradients, and density gradients can all be measured in the simulation. In this paper, we present a complementary approach that couples a nonlocal density functional theory (DFT) with a transport equation describing steady-state flux of the particles. We compare transport-DFT predictions to GCMD results for a variety of ideal (color diffusion), and nonideal (uphill diffusion and convective transport) systems. In all cases excellent agreement between transport-DFT and GCMD calculations is obtained with diffusion coefficients that are invariant with respect to density and external fields.

  16. Multiplying steady-state culture in multi-reactor system.

    PubMed

    Erm, Sten; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-11-01

    Cultivation of microorganisms in batch experiments is fast and economical but the conditions therein change constantly, rendering quantitative data interpretation difficult. By using chemostat with controlled environmental conditions the physiological state of microorganisms is fixed; however, the unavoidable stabilization phase makes continuous methods resource consuming. Material can be spared by using micro scale devices, which however have limited analysis and process control capabilities. Described herein are a method and a system combining the high throughput of batch with the controlled environment of continuous cultivations. Microorganisms were prepared in one bioreactor followed by culture distribution into a network of bioreactors and continuation of independent steady state experiments therein. Accelerostat cultivation with statistical analysis of growth parameters demonstrated non-compromised physiological state following distribution, thus the method effectively multiplied steady state culture of microorganisms. The theoretical efficiency of the system was evaluated in inhibitory compound analysis using repeated chemostat to chemostat transfers.

  17. Optimal Control of Transitions between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    PubMed Central

    Zulkowski, Patrick R.; Sivak, David A.; DeWeese, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines. PMID:24386112

  18. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.

  19. A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths. PMID:25335512

  20. A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi

    2014-10-22

    Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.

  1. Harmonic coupling of steady-state visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Krusienski, Dean J; Allison, Brendan Z

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are oscillating components of the electroencephalogram (EEG) that are detected over the occipital areas, having frequencies corresponding to visual stimulus frequencies. SSVEPs have been demonstrated to be reliable control signals for operating a brain-computer interface (BCI). This study uses offline analyses to investigate the characteristics of SSVEP harmonic amplitude and phase coupling and the impact of using this information to construct a matched filter for continuously tracking the signal.

  2. Analytic Steady-State Accuracy of a Spacecraft Attitude Estimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2000-01-01

    This paper extends Farrenkopf's analysis of a single-axis spacecraft attitude estimator using gyro and angle sensor data to include the angle output white noise of a rate-integrating gyro. Analytic expressions are derived for the steady-state pre-update and post-update angle and drift bias variances and for the state update equations. It is shown that only part of the state update resulting from the angle sensor measurement is propagated to future times.

  3. The approach to steady state using homogeneous and Cartesian coordinates.

    PubMed

    Gochberg, D F; Ding, Z

    2013-01-01

    Repeating an arbitrary sequence of RF pulses and magnetic field gradients will eventually lead to a steady-state condition in any magnetic resonance system. While numerical methods can quantify this trajectory, analytic analysis provides significantly more insight and a means for faster calculation. Recently, an analytic analysis using homogeneous coordinates was published. The current work further develops this line of thought and compares the relative merits of using a homogeneous or a Cartesian coordinate system.

  4. Intense steady state neutron source. The CNR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.; Moon, R.M.; Gambill, W.R.; Moon, R.M.; Primm, R.T. III; West, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Center for Neutron Research (CNR) has been proposed in response to the needs - neutron flux, spectrum, and experimental facilities - that have been identified through workshops, studies, and discussions by the neutron-scattering, isotope, and materials irradiation research communities. The CNR is a major new experimental facility consisting of a reactor-based steady state neutron source of unprecedented flux, together with extensive facilities and instruments for neutron scattering, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other areas of research.

  5. MUTATION RATES OF BACTERIA IN STEADY STATE POPULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Maurice S.

    1955-01-01

    The breeder and the chemostat have been used to measure mutation rates for two mutations under a variety of steady state growth conditions. These rates have been found to be higher in complex medium than in minimal (F) medium. The effects of changes in nutritional conditions on these high rates have been described. In addition, the mutation rates at short generation times, in complex medium, have been shown to decrease with increasing generation time. PMID:13271726

  6. Steady state equivalence among autocatalytic peroxidase-oxidase reactions.

    PubMed

    Méndez-González, José; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-12-14

    Peroxidase-oxidase is an enzymatic reaction that can exhibit dynamical scenarios such as bistability, sustained oscillations, and Shilnikov chaos. In this work, we apply the chemical reaction network theory approach to find kinetic constants such that the associated mass action kinetics ordinary differential equations induced by three four dimensional structurally different enzymatic reaction systems can support the same steady states for several chemical species despite differences in their chemical nature.

  7. Steady state equivalence among autocatalytic peroxidase-oxidase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-González, José; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Peroxidase-oxidase is an enzymatic reaction that can exhibit dynamical scenarios such as bistability, sustained oscillations, and Shilnikov chaos. In this work, we apply the chemical reaction network theory approach to find kinetic constants such that the associated mass action kinetics ordinary differential equations induced by three four dimensional structurally different enzymatic reaction systems can support the same steady states for several chemical species despite differences in their chemical nature.

  8. A correspondence principle for steady-state wave problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerr, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    A correspondence principle was developed for treating the steady state propagation of waves from sources moving along a plane surface or interface. This new principle allows one to obtain, in a unified manner, explicit solutions for any source velocity. To illustrate the correspondence principle in a particular case, the problem of a load moving at an arbitrary constant velocity along the surface of an elastic half-space is considered.

  9. Multiple Color Stimulus Induced Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    MULTIPLE COLOR STIMULUS INDUCED STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS M. Cheng, X. Gao, S. Gao, D. Xu Institute of Biomedical Engineering...characteristics of high SNR and effectiveness in short-term identification of evoked responses. In most of the SSVEP experiments, single high...frequency stimuli are used. To characterize the complex rhythms in SSVEP, a new multiple color stimulus pattern is proposed in this paper. FFT and

  10. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.

    2010-03-15

    Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements.

  11. Dynamics of the current filament formation and its steady-state characteristics in chalcogenide based PCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoslovskiy, Nikita; Tsendin, Konstantin

    2017-03-01

    In the phase-change memory (PCM) crystallization occurs in the high-current filament which forms during switching to the conductive state. In the present paper we conduct a numerical modeling of the current filament formation dynamics in thin chalcogenide films using an electronic-thermal model based on negative-U centers tunnel ionization and Joule heating. The key role of inhomogeneities in the filament formation process is shown. Steady-state filament parameters were obtained from the analysis of the stationary heat conduction equation. The filament formation dynamics and the steady-state filament radius and temperature could be controlled by material parameters and contact resistance. Consequently it is possible to control the size of the region wherein crystallization occurs. A good agreement with numerous experimental data leads to the conclusion that thermal effects play a significant role in CGS conduction and high-current filament formation while switching.

  12. Composing Problem Solvers for Simulation Experimentation: A Case Study on Steady State Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Leye, Stefan; Ewald, Roland; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation experiments involve various sub-tasks, e.g., parameter optimization, simulation execution, or output data analysis. Many algorithms can be applied to such tasks, but their performance depends on the given problem. Steady state estimation in systems biology is a typical example for this: several estimators have been proposed, each with its own (dis-)advantages. Experimenters, therefore, must choose from the available options, even though they may not be aware of the consequences. To support those users, we propose a general scheme to aggregate such algorithms to so-called synthetic problem solvers, which exploit algorithm differences to improve overall performance. Our approach subsumes various aggregation mechanisms, supports automatic configuration from training data (e.g., via ensemble learning or portfolio selection), and extends the plugin system of the open source modeling and simulation framework James II. We show the benefits of our approach by applying it to steady state estimation for cell-biological models. PMID:24705453

  13. Addressable nanoelectrode membrane arrays: fabrication and steady-state behavior.

    PubMed

    Zoski, Cynthia G; Yang, Nianjun; He, Peixin; Berdondini, Luca; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-02-15

    An addressable nanoelectrode membrane array (ANEMA) based on a Au-filled track-etched polycarbonate membrane was fabricated. The Au-filled membrane was secured to a lithographically fabricated addressable ultramicroelectrode (UME) array patterned with 25 regularly spaced (100 microm center to center spacing), 10 microm diameter recessed Pt UMEs to create 25 microregions of 10 microm diameter nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) on the membrane. The steady-state voltammetric behavior of 1.0 mM Ru(NH(3))(6)Cl(3) and 1.0 mM ferrocene methanol in 0.1 M KCl on each of the micro NEEs resulted in sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms which were reproducible across the ANEMA. This reproducibility of the steady-state current was attributed to the overlapping hemispherical diffusion layers at the Au-filled nanopores of each 10 microm diameter NEE of a ANEMA. The track-etched polycarbonate membranes were filled using a gold electroless deposition procedure into the 30 nm diameter pores in the membrane. Electrical connection between the Au-filled template array and the lithographic UME platform array was achieved by potentiostatic electrodeposition of Cu from an acidic copper solution into each of the 25 recessed Pt UMEs on the UME array platform. A multiplexer unit capable of addressing 64 individual micro NEEs on an ANEMA is described. ANEMAs have advantages of high reproducibility, facile fabrication, multitime reuse of lithographically fabricated UME arrays, and purely steady-state behavior.

  14. Numerical computation of steady-state acoustic disturbances in flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Myers, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    Two time domain methods for computing two dimensional steady-state acoustic disturbances propagating through internal subsonic viscous flow fields in the presence of variable area are investigated. The first method solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the combined steady and acoustic field together and subtracts the steady flow to obtain the acoustic field. The second method solves a system of perturbation equations to obtain the acoustic disturbances, making use of a separate steady flow computation as input to the system. In each case the periodic steady-state acoustic fluctuations are obtained numerically on a supercomputer using a second order unsplit explicit MacCormack predictor-corrector method. Results show that the first method is not very effective for computing acoustic disturbances of even moderate amplitude. It appears that more accurate steady flow algorithms are required for this method to succeed. On the other hand, linear and nonlinear acoustic disturbances extracted from the perturbation approach are shown to exhibit expected behavior for the problems considered. It is also found that inflow boundary conditions for an equivalent uniform duct can be successfully applied to a nonuniform duct to obtain steady-state acoustic disturbances.

  15. Nonequilibrium Steady State Thermodynamics and Fluctuations for Stochastic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tooru; Cohen, E. G. D.

    2008-02-01

    We use the work done on and the heat removed from a system to maintain it in a nonequilibrium steady state for a thermodynamic-like description of such a system as well as of its fluctuations. Based on an extended Onsager-Machlup theory for nonequilibrium steady states we indicate two ambiguities, not present in an equilibrium state, in defining such work and heat: one due to a non-uniqueness of time-reversal procedures and another due to multiple possibilities to separate heat into work and an energy difference in nonequilibrium steady states. As a consequence, for such systems, the work and heat satisfy multiple versions of the first and second laws of thermodynamics as well as of their fluctuation theorems. Unique laws and relations appear only to be obtainable for concretely defined systems, using physical arguments to choose the relevant physical quantities. This is illustrated on a number of systems, including a Brownian particle in an electric field, a driven torsion pendulum, electric circuits and an energy transfer driven by a temperature difference.

  16. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis. PMID:28378760

  17. Non-steady-state transport of superthermal electrons in the plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Nagy, Andrew F.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical solutions to the time-dependent kinetic equation, which describes the transport of superthermal electrons in the splasmasphere between the two conjugate ionospheres, are presented. The model calculates the distribution function as a function of time, field-aligned distance, energy, and pitch-angle. The processes of refilling, depleting, and establishing steady-state conditions of superthermal electrons in the plasmasphere are discussed.

  18. Estimating equations for biomarker based exposure estimation under non-steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Bartell, Scott M; Johnson, Wesley O

    2011-06-13

    Unrealistic steady-state assumptions are often used to estimate toxicant exposure rates from biomarkers. A biomarker may instead be modeled as a weighted sum of historical time-varying exposures. Estimating equations are derived for a zero-inflated gamma distribution for daily exposures with a known exposure frequency. Simulation studies suggest that the estimating equations can provide accurate estimates of exposure magnitude at any reasonable sample size, and reasonable estimates of the exposure variance at larger sample sizes.

  19. A steady-state Kalman filter for assimilating data from a single polar orbiting satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banfield, Don; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Keppenne, Christian L.

    1995-01-01

    A steady-state scheme for data assimilation in the context of a single, short period (relative to a day), sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting satellite is examined. If the satellite takes observations continuously, the gains, which are the weights for blending observations and predictions together, are steady in time. For a linear system forced by random noise, the optimal steady-state gains (Wiener gains) are equivalent to those of a Kalman filter. Computing the Kalman gains increases the computational cost of the model by a large factor, but computing the Wiener gains does not. The latter are computed by iteration using prior estimates of the gains to assimilate simulated observations of one run of the model, termed 'truth' into another run termed 'prediction'. At each stage, the prediction errors form the basis for the next estimate of the gains. Steady state is achieved after three or four iterations. Further simplification is achieved by making the gains depend on longitudinal distance from the observation point, not on absolute longitude. For a single-layer primitive equation model, the scheme works well even if only the mass field is observed but not the velocity field. Although the scheme was developed for Mars Observer, it should be applicable to data retrieved from Earth atmosphere satellites, for example, UARS.

  20. Stochastic quasi-steady state approximations for asymptotic solutions of the chemical master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Alarcón, Tomás

    2014-05-14

    In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.

  1. Stochastic quasi-steady state approximations for asymptotic solutions of the chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Tomás

    2014-05-14

    In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.

  2. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Scott

    2000-08-01

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  3. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David Scott

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry-something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  4. A Computational Approach to Steady State Correspondence of Regular and Generalized Mass Action Systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    It has been recently observed that the dynamical properties of mass action systems arising from many models of biochemical reaction networks can be characterized by considering the corresponding properties of a related generalized mass action system. The correspondence process known as network translation in particular has been shown to be useful in characterizing a system's steady states. In this paper, we further develop the theory of network translation with particular focus on a subclass of translations known as improper translations. For these translations, we derive conditions on the network topology of the translated network which are sufficient to guarantee the original and translated systems share the same steady states. We then present a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm capable of determining whether a mass action system can be corresponded to a generalized system through the process of network translation.

  5. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  6. Steady-State Dynamic Behavior of a Flexible Rotor With Auxiliary Support From a Clearance Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Huajun; Flowers, George T.; Feng, Li; Lawrence, Charles T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the steady-state responses of a rotor system supported by auxiliary bearings in which there is a clearance between the rotor and the inner race of the bearing. A simulation model based upon the rotor of a production jet engine is developed and its steady-state behavior is explored over a wide range of operating conditions for various parametric configurations. Specifically, the influence of rotor imbalance, clearance, support stiffness and damping is studied. Bifurcation diagrams are used as a tool to examine the dynamic behavior of this system as a function of the afore mentioned parameters. The harmonic balance method is also employed for synchronous response cases. The observed dynamical responses is discussed and some insights into the behavior of such systems are presented.

  7. Steady-state mechanical squeezing in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We study the physical properties of double-cavity optomechanical system in which the mechanical resonator interacts with one of the coupled cavities and another cavity is used as an auxiliary cavity. The model can be expected to achieve the strong optomechanical coupling strength and overcome the optomechanical cavity decay, simultaneously. Through the coherent auxiliary cavity interferences, the steady-state squeezing of mechanical resonator can be generated in highly unresolved sideband regime. The validity of the scheme is assessed by numerical simulation and theoretical analysis of the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature. The scheme provides a platform for the mechanical squeezing beyond the resolved sideband limit and solves the restricted experimental bounds at present. PMID:27917939

  8. Steady-state bumpless transfer under controller uncertainty using the state/output feedback topology

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.; Lee, A.H.; Bentsman, J.; Taft, C.W.

    2006-01-15

    Linear quadratic (LQ) bumpless transfer design introduced recently by Turner and Walker gives a very convenient and straightforward computational procedure for the steady-state bumpless transfer operator synthesis. It is, however, found to be incapable of providing convergence of the output of the offline controller to that of the online controller in several industrial applications, producing bumps in the plant output in the wake of controller transfer. An examination of this phenomenon reveals that the applications in question are characterized by a significant mismatch, further referred to as controller uncertainty, between the dynamics of the implemented controllers and their models used in the transfer operator computation. To address this problem, while retaining the convenience of the Turner and Walker design, a novel state/output feedback bumpless transfer topology is introduced that employs the nominal state of the offline controller and, through the use of an additional controller/model mismatch compensator, also the offline controller output. A corresponding steady-state bumpless transfer design procedure along with the supporting theory is developed for a large class of systems. Due to these features, it is demonstrated to solve a long-standing problem of high-quality steady-state bumpless transfer from the industry standard low-order nonlinear multiloop PID-based controllers to the modern multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) robust controllers in the megawatt/throttle pressure control of a typical coal-fired boiler/turbine unit.

  9. Effects of aging in catastrophe on the steady state and dynamics of a microtubule population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemseena, V.; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    Several independent observations have suggested that the catastrophe transition in microtubules is not a first-order process, as is usually assumed. Recent in vitro observations by Gardner et al. [M. K. Gardner et al., Cell 147, 1092 (2011), 10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.037] showed that microtubule catastrophe takes place via multiple steps and the frequency increases with the age of the filament. Here we investigate, via numerical simulations and mathematical calculations, some of the consequences of the age dependence of catastrophe on the dynamics of microtubules as a function of the aging rate, for two different models of aging: exponential growth, but saturating asymptotically, and purely linear growth. The boundary demarcating the steady-state and non-steady-state regimes in the dynamics is derived analytically in both cases. Numerical simulations, supported by analytical calculations in the linear model, show that aging leads to nonexponential length distributions in steady state. More importantly, oscillations ensue in microtubule length and velocity. The regularity of oscillations, as characterized by the negative dip in the autocorrelation function, is reduced by increasing the frequency of rescue events. Our study shows that the age dependence of catastrophe could function as an intrinsic mechanism to generate oscillatory dynamics in a microtubule population, distinct from hitherto identified ones.

  10. Potentialities of steady-state and transient thermography in breast tumour depth detection: A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period.

  11. Posaconazole Plasma Concentrations on Days Three to Five Predict Steady-State Levels

    PubMed Central

    Prattes, Jürgen; Duettmann, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Low posaconazole plasma concentrations (PPCs) have been associated with breakthrough invasive fungal infections. We assessed the correlation between pre-steady-state PPCs (obtained between days 3 and 5) and PPCs obtained during steady state in 48 patients with underlying hematological malignancies receiving posaconazole oral-solution prophylaxis. Pre-steady-state PPCs correlated significantly with PPCs obtained at steady state (Spearman r = 0.754; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of pre-steady-state PPCs revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.884 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.790 to 0.977) for predicting satisfactory PPCs at steady state. PMID:27324763

  12. Steady states of solar coronal loops as nonaxisymmetric toroidal flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Linda; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Consistent MHD steady states for coronal loops on the surface of the sun, modeled as magnetic flux ropes, are derived for the first time, based on the equilibrium and stability of toroidal magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Coronal loops, like magnetic tori, are unstable to expansion in major radius. The solar gravity and plasma beta, previously ignored, are crucual parameters in the steady state. For loops with a predominantly axisymmetric magnetic axis, three analytical steady states exist in terms of beta and the normalized solar gravity parameter Ĝ = ga /vA2 , where g is the acceleration due to gravity, ordered in inverse aspect ratio: high beta (β ɛ) and small gravity Ĝ ɛ3 , which resembles a nearly axisymmetric high-beta tokamak, and high beta with larger Ĝ ɛ2 , and low beta (β ɛ2) with Ĝ ɛ3 , which are more strongly nonaxisymmetric. Comparison with observations shows that the two high beta states bracket the range of thin coronal loops in solar active regions ɛ 0.02 and Ĝ orders the loops by height. The low beta solution may describe certain thicker loops ɛ 0.1 that grow to solar flares or Coronal Mass Ejections. Work partially supported by the U.S. DOE OFES under Award DE-SC-0007883.

  13. Steady-state protein focusing in carrier ampholyte based isoelectric focusing: Part I-Analytical solution.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaesool; Yoo, Kisoo; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-03-01

    The determination of an analytical solution to find the steady-state protein concentration distribution in IEF is very challenging due to the nonlinear coupling between mass and charge conservation equations. In this study, approximate analytical solutions are obtained for steady-state protein distribution in carrier ampholyte based IEF. Similar to the work of Svensson, the final concentration profile for proteins is assumed to be Gaussian, but appropriate expressions are presented in order to obtain the effective electric field and pH gradient in the focused protein band region. Analytical results are found from iterative solutions of a system of coupled algebraic equations using only several iterations for IEF separation of three plasma proteins: albumin, cardiac troponin I, and hemoglobin. The analytical results are compared with numerically predicted results for IEF, showing excellent agreement. Analytically obtained electric field and ionic conductivity distributions show significant deviation from their nominal values, which is essential in finding the protein focusing behavior at isoelectric points. These analytical solutions can be used to determine steady-state protein concentration distribution for experiment design of IEF considering any number of proteins and ampholytes. Moreover, the model presented herein can be used to find the conductivity, electric field, and pH field.

  14. Exploration of trade-offs between steady-state and dynamic properties in signaling cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radivojevic, A.; Chachuat, B.; Bonvin, D.; Hatzimanikatis, V.

    2012-08-01

    In the intracellular signaling networks that regulate important cell processes, the base pattern comprises the cycle of reversible phosphorylation of a protein, catalyzed by kinases and opposing phosphatases. Mathematical modeling and analysis have been used for gaining a better understanding of their functions and to capture the rules governing system behavior. Since biochemical parameters in signaling pathways are not easily accessible experimentally, it is necessary to explore possibilities for both steady-state and dynamic responses in these systems. While a number of studies have focused on analyzing these properties separately, it is necessary to take into account both of these responses simultaneously in order to be able to interpret a broader range of phenotypes. This paper investigates the trade-offs between optimal characteristics of both steady-state and dynamic responses. Following an inverse sensitivity analysis approach, we use systematic optimization methods to find the biochemical and biophysical parameters that simultaneously achieve optimal steady-state and dynamic performance. Remarkably, we find that even a single covalent modification cycle can simultaneously and robustly achieve high ultrasensitivity, high amplification and rapid signal transduction. We also find that the response rise and decay times can be modulated independently by varying the activating- and deactivating-enzyme-to-interconvertible-protein ratios.

  15. The orbital PDF: general inference of the gravitational potential from steady-state tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-02-01

    We develop two general methods to infer the gravitational potential of a system using steady-state tracers, i.e. tracers with a time-independent phase-space distribution. Combined with the phase-space continuity equation, the time independence implies a universal orbital probability density function (oPDF) dP(λ|orbit) ∝ dt, where λ is the coordinate of the particle along the orbit. The oPDF is equivalent to Jeans theorem, and is the key physical ingredient behind most dynamical modelling of steady-state tracers. In the case of a spherical potential, we develop a likelihood estimator that fits analytical potentials to the system and a non-parametric method (`phase-mark') that reconstructs the potential profile, both assuming only the oPDF. The methods involve no extra assumptions about the tracer distribution function and can be applied to tracers with any arbitrary distribution of orbits, with possible extension to non-spherical potentials. The methods are tested on Monte Carlo samples of steady-state tracers in dark matter haloes to show that they are unbiased as well as efficient. A fully documented C/PYTHON code implementing our method is freely available at a GitHub repository linked from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/#oPDF.

  16. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  17. Stabilizing unstable steady states using multiple delay feedback control.

    PubMed

    Ahlborn, Alexander; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2004-12-31

    Feedback control with different and independent delay times is introduced and shown to be an efficient method for stabilizing fixed points (equilibria) of dynamical systems. In comparison to other delay based chaos control methods multiple delay feedback control is superior for controlling steady states and works also for relatively large delay times (sometimes unavoidable in experiments due to system dead times). To demonstrate this approach for stabilizing unstable fixed points we present numerical simulations of Chua's circuit and a successful experimental application for stabilizing a chaotic frequency doubled Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

  18. Nonequilibrium steady-state circulation and heat dissipation functional.

    PubMed

    Qian, H

    2001-08-01

    A nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS), different from an equilibrium, is sustained by circular balance rather than detailed balance. The circular fluxes are driven by energy input and heat dissipation, accompanied by a positive entropy production. Based on a Master equation formalism for NESS, we show the circulation is intimately related to the recently studied Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry of heat dissipation functional, which in turn suggests a Boltzmann's formulalike relation between rate constants and energy in NESS. Expanding this unifying view on NESS to diffusion is discussed.

  19. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xilin

    2017-01-01

    A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK) methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature. PMID:28203268

  20. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.

  1. Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.

  2. System studies for quasi-steady-state advanced physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-11-01

    Parametric studies were conducted using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak Systems Code to investigate the impact of veriation in physics parameters and technology limits on the performance and cost of a low q/sub psi/, high beta, quasi-steady-state tokamak for the purpose of fusion engineering experimentation. The features and characteristics chosen from each study were embodied into a single Advanced Physics Tokamak design for which a self-consistent set of parameters was generated and a value of capital cost was estimated.

  3. Steady State Creep of Zirconium at High and Intermediate Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, R.S.; Hayes, T.A.

    2000-04-08

    Creep of zirconium and zirconium alloys has been labeled ''anomalous.'' Researchers often report that zirconium and its alloys never reach true steady state creep and have stress exponents that continuously change with stress and temperature. Many varied interpretations have been offered explaining the creep behavior of zirconium. Some have suggested that creep is diffusion controlled, while others maintain that creep is dislocation glide controlled. Cumulative zirconium creep data will be presented based on an extensive literature review. An interpretation of results will be presented and compared to previous interpretations.

  4. Steady-State Solution of a Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkehabadi, Reza; Chandra, Suresh; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh

    1997-01-01

    A fluid-structure interaction code, ENSAERO, has been used to compute the aerodynamic loads on a swept-tapered wing. The code has the capability of using Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. Both options have been used and compared in the present paper. In the calculation of the steady-state solution, we are interested in knowing how the flexibility of the wing influences the lift coefficients. If the results of a flexible wing are not affected by the flexibility of the wing significantly, one could consider the wing to be rigid and reduce the problem from fluid-structure interaction to a fluid problem.

  5. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Morrison, Stan; Morris, Sarah; Tigar, Aaron; Dam, William; Dayvault, Jalena

    2016-04-26

    Motivation for Study: Natural flushing of contaminants at various U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites is not proceeding as quickly as predicted (plume persistence) Objectives: Help determine natural flushing rates using column tests. Use 1D reactive transport modeling to better understand the major processes that are creating plume persistence Approach: Core samples from under a former mill tailings area Tailings have been removed. Column leaching using lab-prepared water similar to nearby Gunnison River water. 1D reactive transport modeling to evaluate processes

  6. Analysis of steady-state salt-water upconing with application at Truro well field, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Frimpter, M.H.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Goodman, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Sharp interface methods have been used successfully to describe the physics of upconing. A finite-element model is developed to simulate a sharp interface for determination of the steady-state position of the interface and maximum permissible well discharges. The model developed is compared to previous published electric-analog model results of Bennett and others (1968). -from Authors

  7. A versatile compact model for ballistic 1D transistor: GNRFET and CNTFET comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frégonèse, Sébastien; Maneux, Cristell; Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a versatile compact model dedicated to 1D transistors in order to predict the ultimate performances of nano-device-based circuits. We have developed a thermionic charge model based on the non-parabolic-energy-dispersion-relation NPEDR. The model is valid for both CNTFET and GNRFET. Model results are compared with GNRFET NEGF simulations. Then, GNRFET and CNTFET performances are analysed through two circuit demonstrators such as a ring oscillator circuit and 6T RAM.

  8. Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.

    1984-04-01

    A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation.

  9. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  10. Steady-state mushy layers: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppin, S.; Aussillous, P.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Grae Worster, M.

    2006-11-01

    A new facility has been developed to investigate mushy layers formed during the steady directional solidification of transparent aqueous solutions in a quasi-two-dimensional system. Experiments have been conducted on NaCl--H20 solutions by translating a Hele-Shaw cell at prescribed rates between fixed heat exchangers providing a temperature gradient of approximately 1,^0C/mm. Ice formed the primary solid phase and the dense residual fluid ponded within the mushy layer at the base of the system. Mathematical predictions of the steady-state temperature profile and mushy layer thickness as functions of freezing rate are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Experiments have also been performed on aqueous NH4Cl solutions, with the salt forming the primary solid phase, yielding buoyancy-driven convection in the mushy layer and the development of chimneys. The lifetime of the chimneys increased with decreasing freezing rate; however, no steady-state chimneys have been observed. Rather, a convecting chimney appears to deplete the surrounding solution and is eventually extinguished. At freezing rates larger than about 5.5,μm/s a uniform mushy layer develops with no chimneys. However, at rates larger than about 5,μm/s a second mode of behaviour is observed in which the mushy layer is thin and there is significant supercooling and nucleation above it. There is hysteresis between the two modes.

  11. Steady-state wear and friction in boundary lubrication studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A friction and wear study was made at 20 C to obtain improved reproducibility and reliability in boundary lubrication testing. Ester-base and C-ether-base fluids were used to lubricate a pure iron rider in sliding contact with a rotating M-50 steel disk in a friction and wear apparatus. Conditions included loads of 1/2 and 1 kg and sliding velocities of 3.6 to 18.2 m/min in a dry air atmosphere and stepwise time intervals from 1 to 250 min for wear measurements. The wear rate results were compared with those from previous studies where a single 25 min test period was used. Satisfactory test conditions for studying friction and wear in boundary lubrication for this apparatus were found to be 1 kg load; sliding velocities of 7.1 to 9.1 m/min (50 rpm disk speed); and use of a time stepwise test procedure. Highly reproducible steady-state wear rates and steady-state friction coefficients were determined under boundary conditions. Wear rates and coefficients of friction were constant following initially high values during run-in periods.

  12. Tracking Control for an Overactuated Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle with Steady State Constraints (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    choice of a steady state control is completely independent from the choice of a stabilizing control law. This separation is key for the methods we will...develop for steady state optimization in later sections. Combining the steady state with the stabilizing control , we can express the control law as u...for stabilizing control and optimization methods for steady state control, both unconstrained and constrained, we were able to produce promising results

  13. 40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Torque(percent) 2 3 1a Steady-state 170 Warm Idle 0 1b Transition 20 Linear Transition Linear Transition. 2a Steady-state 173 A 100 2b Transition 20 Linear Transition Linear Transition. 3a Steady-state 219 B 50 3b Transition 20 B Linear Transition. 4a Steady-state 217 B 75 4b Transition 20 Linear...

  14. History independence of steady state in simultaneous two-phase flow through two-dimensional porous media.

    PubMed

    Erpelding, Marion; Sinha, Santanu; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From measurements of global pressure evolution, histograms of saturation, and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.

  15. Steady-state response of a charcoal bed to radon in flowing air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    Previously we have developed a mathematical model of radon adsorption in active air with water vapor on small U.S. Environmental Protection Agency charcoal canisters that are used for environmental measurements of radon. The purpose of this paper is to extend this mathematical model to describe the adsorption of radon by large charcoal beds with radon-laden air flowing through them. The resulting model equations are solved analytically to predict the steady-state adsorption of radon by such beds. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Determination of the steady-state behavior of immobilized. beta. -galactosidase utilizing an integral reactor scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.C.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Amundson, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the steady-state behavior of immobilized ..beta..-galactosidase by integral reactor techniques has yielded a model which allows one to predict reactor performance under normal operating conditions. Values of the mechanistic rate constants for enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose were determined as a function of temperature by fitting the reactor model to experimental lactose conversion profiles. Use of this model along with the activity decay characteristics of the immobilized enzyme which have been presented in a previous publication could prove to be a useful tool in determining appropriate operating strategies for industrial applications of the immobilized enzyme catalyst. 18 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Accuracy of 1D microvascular flow models in the limit of low Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Pindera, Maciej Z; Ding, Hui; Athavale, Mahesh M; Chen, Zhijian

    2009-05-01

    We describe results of numerical simulations of steady flows in tubes with branch bifurcations using fully 3D and reduced 1D geometries. The intent is to delineate the range of validity of reduced models used for simulations of flows in microcapillary networks, as a function of the flow Reynolds number Re. Results from model problems indicate that for Re less than 1 and possibly as high as 10, vasculatures may be represented by strictly 1D Poiseuille flow geometries with flow variation in the axial dimensions only. In that range flow rate predictions in the different branches generated by 1D and 3D models differ by a constant factor, independent of Re. When the cross-sectional areas of the branches are constant these differences are generally small and appear to stem from an uncertainty of how the individual branch lengths are defined. This uncertainty can be accounted for by a simple geometrical correction. For non-constant cross-sections the differences can be much more significant. If additional corrections for the presence of branch junctions and flow area variations are not taken into account in 1D models of complex vasculatures, the resultant flow predictions should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Interfacing the NRL 1-D High Vertical Resolution Aerosol Model with COAMPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    TERM GOALS Identify, understand and quantify all the physical processes that govern the aerosols in the marine environment and develop a...size and composition distributions are required. Many of the aerosol source, sink and transformation processes are highly dependent on meteorological...parameters such as wind speed, humidity profile, clouds, precipitation scavenging, etc. The NRL 1-D aerosol- processes model includes all these

  19. HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...

  20. Steady State Transportation Cooling in Porous Media Under Local, Non-Thermal Equilibrium Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Alvaro Che

    2002-01-01

    An analytical solution to the steady-state fluid temperature for 1-D (one dimensional) transpiration cooling has been derived. Transpiration cooling has potential use in the aerospace industry for protection against high heating environments for re-entry vehicles. Literature for analytical treatments of transpiration cooling has been largely confined to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the porous matrix and fluid. In the present analysis, the fundamental fluid and matrix equations are coupled through a volumetric heat transfer coefficient and investigated in non-thermal equilibrium. The effects of varying the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix and the heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results are also compared to existing experimental data.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...%. 1bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 2aSteady-state 166 63% 25%. 2bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 3aSteady-state 570 91% 75%. 3bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 4aSteady-state 175 80% 50%. 1 Speed terms are defined...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...%. 1bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 2aSteady-state 166 63% 25%. 2bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 3aSteady-state 570 91% 75%. 3bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 4aSteady-state 175 80% 50%. 1 Speed terms are defined...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...%. 1bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 2aSteady-state 166 63% 25%. 2bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 3aSteady-state 570 91% 75%. 3bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 4aSteady-state 175 80% 50%. 1 Speed terms are defined...

  4. Spatial variability of steady-state infiltration into a two-layer soil system on burned hillslopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4-51.2 mm h-1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2-4 h). Steady state was reached in 7-26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h-1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h-1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration rate were fit to the measurements of rainfall rate and steady-state discharge to provided estimates of the spatial average (19.2-22.2 mm h-1) and the coefficient of variation (0.11-0.40) of infiltration rates, overland flow contributing area (74-90% of the plot area), and infiltration threshold (19.0-26 mm h-1). Tensiometer measurements indicated a downward moving pressure wave and suggest that infiltration-excess overland flow is the runoff process on these burned hillslope with a two-layer system. Moreover, the results indicate that the ash layer is wettable, may restrict water flow into the underlying layer, and increase the infiltration threshold; whereas, the underlying mineral soil, though coarser, limits the infiltration rate. These results of the spatial variability of steady-state infiltration can be used to develop physically-based rainfall-runoff models for burned areas with a two-layer soil system. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Development of Steady-State Diffusion Gradients for the Cultivation of Degradative Microbial Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Wolfaardt, G. M.; Lawrence, J. R.; Hendry, M. J.; Robarts, R. D.; Caldwell, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    A diffusion gradient plate was constructed and evaluated for its potential use in the isolation of degradative microbial consortia from natural habitats. In this model, a steady-state concentration gradient of diclofop methyl, established by diffusion through an agarose gel, provided the carbon for microbial growth. Colonization of the gel surface was observed with epifluorescence and scanning confocal laser microscopy to determine microbial responses to the diclofop gradient. A detectable gradient developed over a narrow band (<10 mm). Consequently, quantitative analyses of the microbial response to the gradient were difficult to obtain. A two-dimensional, finite-element numerical transport model for advective-diffusive transport was used to simulate concentration and flux profiles in the physical model. The simulated profiles were correlated with the measured concentration gradient (R2 = 0.89) and the cell numbers on the gel surface (R2 = 0.85). The numerical model was subsequently used to redesign the physical model. The detectable concentration gradient in the modified physical model extended over the length of the gel (38 mm). The simulated profile again showed a good correlation with the measured profile (R2 = 0.96) and the microbial responses to the concentration gradient (R2 = 0.99). It was concluded that these gradients provide the steady-state environments needed to sustain steady-state consortia. They also provide a physical pathway for the development of degradative biofilms from low to high concentrations of toxicants and simulate conditions under which low concentrations of toxicant are supplied at a constant flux over long periods of time, such as the conditions that could occur in natural environments. Images PMID:16349007

  6. A Universal Scaling Law Determines Time Reversibility and Steady State of Substitutions under Selection

    PubMed Central

    Manhart, Michael; Haldane, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic loci evolve through a series of substitutions on a fitness landscape. Understanding how mutation, selection, and genetic drift drive this process, and uncovering the structure of the fitness landscape from genomic data are two major goals of evolutionary theory. Population genetics models of the substitution process have traditionally focused on the weak-selection regime, which is accurately described by diffusion theory. Predictions in this regime can be considered universal in the sense that many population models exhibit equivalent behavior in the diffusion limit. However, a growing number of experimental studies suggest that strong selection plays a key role in some systems, and thus there is a need to understand universal properties of models without a priori assumptions about selection strength. Here we study time reversibility in a general substitution model of a monomorphic haploid population. We show that for any time-reversible population model, such as the Moran process, substitution rates obey an exact scaling law. For several other irreversible models, such as the simple Wright-Fisher process and its extensions, the scaling law is accurate up to selection strengths that are well outside the diffusion regime. Time reversibility gives rise to a power-law expression for the steady-state distribution of populations on an arbitrary fitness landscape. The steady-state behavior is dominated by weak selection and is thus adequately described by the diffusion approximation, which guarantees universality of the steady-state formula and its applicability to the problem of reconstructing fitness landscapes from DNA or protein sequence data. PMID:22838027

  7. Steady States and Dynamics of 2-D Nematic Polymers Driven by an Imposed Weak Shear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    f (0)(θ,T0,T1) is a quasi-steady state if it is independent of T0. In particu- lar , the phase angle α in (4.3) is independent of T0. However, as we...posedness for the dumbbell model of polymeric fluids, Comm. Math. Phys., 248, 409-427, 2004. [11] I. Fatkullin and V. Slastikov, A note on the Onsager ...model of nematic phase transitions, Commun. Math. Sci., 3, 21-26, 2005. [12] I. Fatkullin and V. Slastikov, Critical points of the Onsager functional

  8. Optomechanical self-oscillations in an anharmonic potential: engineering a nonclassical steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Manuel; Bruder, Christoph; Lörch, Niels

    2016-09-01

    We study self-oscillations of an optomechanical system, where coherent mechanical oscillations are induced by a driven optical or microwave cavity, for the case of an anharmonic mechanical oscillator potential. A semiclassical analytical model is developed to characterize the limit cycle for large mechanical amplitudes corresponding to a weak nonlinearity. As a result, we predict conditions to achieve subpoissonian phonon statistics in the steady state, indicating classically forbidden behavior. We compare with numerical simulations and find very good agreement. Our model is quite general and can be applied to other physical systems such as trapped ions or superconducting circuits.

  9. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models

  10. [Auditory steady-state responses--the state of art].

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Anna; Gryczyński, Maciej; Pajor, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) is quite a new method of electrophysiological threshold estimation with no clinical standards. It was the aim of this study to review practical and theoretical thesis of ASSR and mention recent recommendations and achievements of this technique. The most common application of ASSR is diagnosis of hearing loss in children together with ABR test. In this paper we mentioned information about influence of physiological factors (age, sex, state of arousal, handedness) and type of recording technique (electrodes placement, air and bone stimulation, occlusion effect, amplitude and frequency stimulation, multiple or single frequency stimulation, dichotic and monotic recording technique and type of hearing loss) on ASSR. We conclude that putting ASSR in clinical use as an standardized method it is necessary to do research with numerous groups of patients using the same equipment and parameters of tests.

  11. Characterization of a class of stellarator steady states

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzner, Harold

    2011-01-15

    A stellarator steady state is obtained for a specific class of magnetic fields by a formal expansion in the small Larmor radius parameters of the coupled ion-electron Fokker-Planck equations. A system of relatively simple ordinary differential equations is given to determine the plasma profile functions, the number density, the temperature, and the electrostatic potential. A particular low collisionality ordering is used. The magnetic field is assumed to have stellarator symmetry of N periods in the toroidal direction and is approximated by a closed magnetic line configuration with rotational transform N/R. The magnetic field is nearly quasisymmetric. The chosen magnetic field also includes a small additional component leading to a configuration without closed lines or closed flux surfaces. The theoretical logic behind this choice of magnetic fields is also presented.

  12. Steady-state magma discharge at Etna 1971-81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.; Guest, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Throughout the past decade Mount Etna has been in almost continuous activity and even during periods of repose incandescent lava has often been visible in at least one of the summit vents. Using observations by Italian, British and French volcanological teams, the volumes of lava produced by each eruption from 1971 to July 1981 have been estimated. The computed output of magma for this period approximates to a rate of 0.7 cu m/s. This is compared with the output rate estimates for Etna's historic past. The steady-state nature of the output during the past decade has implications for the interpretation of the volcano's internal plumbing and the petrology of its lavas, and the assumption that this state will be maintained allows a discussion of the timing and magnitude of future eruptions.

  13. Extending the definition of entropy to nonequilibrium steady states

    PubMed Central

    Ruelle, David P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a finite classical system subjected to nongradient forces ξ and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover–Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume that the microscopic dynamics is sufficiently chaotic (Gallavotti–Cohen chaotic hypothesis) and that there is a natural nonequilibrium steady-state ρξ. When ξ is replaced by ξ + δξ, one can compute the change δρ of ρξ (linear response) and define an entropy change δS based on energy considerations. When ξ is varied around a loop, the total change of S need not vanish: Outside of equilibrium the entropy has curvature. However, at equilibrium (i.e., if ξ is a gradient) we show that the curvature is zero, and that the entropy S(ξ + δξ) near equilibrium is well defined to second order in δξ. PMID:12629215

  14. Extending the definition of entropy to nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Ruelle, David P

    2003-03-18

    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a finite classical system subjected to nongradient forces xi and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover-Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume that the microscopic dynamics is sufficiently chaotic (Gallavotti-Cohen chaotic hypothesis) and that there is a natural nonequilibrium steady-state rho(xi). When xi is replaced by xi + deltaxi, one can compute the change deltarho of rho(xi) (linear response) and define an entropy change deltaS based on energy considerations. When xi is varied around a loop, the total change of S need not vanish: Outside of equilibrium the entropy has curvature. However, at equilibrium (i.e., if xi is a gradient) we show that the curvature is zero, and that the entropy S(xi + deltaxi) near equilibrium is well defined to second order in deltaxi.

  15. Steady-state mushy layers: experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppin, S. S. L.; Aussillous, P.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Grae Worster, M.

    A new facility has been developed to investigate the directional solidification of transparent aqueous solutions forming mushy layers in a quasi-two-dimensional system. Experiments have been conducted on NaCl H_{2}O solutions by translating a Hele-Shaw cell at prescribed rates between fixed heat exchangers providing a temperature gradient of approximately 1 (°) C mm(-1) . The mush liquid interface remained planar at all freezing velocities larger than 8 umum s(-1) , while steepling occurred at lower velocities. No significant undercooling of the mush liquid interface was detected at freezing velocities up to 12 umum s(-1) . Mathematical predictions of the steady-state temperature profile and mushy-layer thickness as functions of freezing rate are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  16. Entropy Production and Non-Equilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    The long-term issue of entropy production in transport phenomena is solved by separating the symmetry of the non-equilibrium density matrix ρ(t) in the von Neumann equation, as ρ(t) = ρs(t) + ρa(t) with the symmetric part ρs(t) and antisymmetric part ρa(t). The irreversible entropy production (dS/dt)irr is given in M. Suzuki, Physica A 390(2011)1904 by (dS/dt)irr = Tr( {H}(dρ s{(t)/dt))}/T for the Hamiltonian {H} of the relevant system. The general formulation of the extended von Neumann equation with energy supply and heat extraction is reviewed from the author's paper (M. S.,Physica A391(2012)1074). irreversibility; entropy production; transport phenomena; electric conduction; thermal conduction; linear response; Kubo formula; steady state; non-equilibrium density matrix; energy supply; symmetry-separated von Neumann equation; unboundedness.

  17. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; De Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bykov, I.; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-02-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions—direct lift-up, sliding, rolling—are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  18. Steady-state plasma transition in the Venus ionosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-De-tejada, H.; Intriligator, D. S.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of an extended analysis of the plasma and electric field data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) are presented. The persistent presence of a plasma transition embedded in the flanks of the Venus ionosheath between the bow shock and the ionopause is reported. This transition is identified by the repeated presence of characteristic bursts in the 30 kHz channel of the electric field detector of the PVO. The observed electric field signals coincide with the onset of different plasma conditions in the inner ionosheath where more rarified plasma fluxes are measured. The repeated identification of this intermediate ionosheath transition in the PVO data indicates that it is present as a steady state feature of the Venus plasma environment. The distribution of PVO orbits in which the transition is observed suggests that it is more favorably detected in the vicinity of and downstream from the terminator.

  19. Locating CVBEM collocation points for steady state heat transfer problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method or CVBEM provides a highly accurate means of developing numerical solutions to steady state two-dimensional heat transfer problems. The numerical approach exactly solves the Laplace equation and satisfies the boundary conditions at specified points on the boundary by means of collocation. The accuracy of the approximation depends upon the nodal point distribution specified by the numerical analyst. In order to develop subsequent, refined approximation functions, four techniques for selecting additional collocation points are presented. The techniques are compared as to the governing theory, representation of the error of approximation on the problem boundary, the computational costs, and the ease of use by the numerical analyst. ?? 1985.

  20. A Steady-state Trio for Bretherton Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhao; Liu, Zeng; Cui, Jifeng

    2016-12-01

    To investigate if steady-state resonant solution exist for any system of weakly interacting waves in a dispersive medium, a trio is considered in the Bretherton equation based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Time-independent spectrum was found when all components were travelling in the same direction. Within the trio, the amplitude of longer component is larger than that of shorter one. As the difference of wave number between components in trio increases or the nonlinearity of whole system increases, the amplitudes of all components tends to increase simultaneously. These findings are helpful to enrich and deepen our understanding about resonant solutions in any dispersive medium, especially for a two-dimensional scenario.