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Sample records for 1-d-old broiler chicks

  1. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Nam, Kyoung-Woo; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that drinking oxygenated water may improve oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improving immune activity. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of oxygenated drinking water in broiler chicks and demonstrated the protective efficacy of oxygenated drinking water against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased serum lysozyme activity, peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) splenocyte ratio in broiler chicks. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, oxygenated drinking water alleviated symptoms and increased survival. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks, and increases survivability against S. Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

  2. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  3. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  4. Experimental colonization of broiler chicks with Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, S.; Lee, A.; Sorrell, T. C.

    1988-01-01

    Minimal colonization inocula for two broiler strains of Campylobacter jejuni were determined in broiler chicks aged 2-3 days and 2 weeks. Individually housed chicks were exposed to a single oral or cloacal challenge. Diarrhoeal symptoms were absent in all 380 chicks included in the study. Chick susceptibility to the two C. jejuni strains varied. Colonization was effected by less than 10(2)-10(4) colony forming units (c.f.u.) via cloacal challenge and 10(4)-10(6) c.f.u. via the oral route. Colonization inocula for 2- to 3-day and 2-week-old chicks were similar. Treatment of 1-day-old chicks with fresh adult caecal flora or an anaerobic broth culture of adult caecal flora did not inhibit colonization after challenge with low-dose C. jejuni. Susceptible chicks were colonized rapidly. C. jejuni was detected in 167 of 189 (88%) colonized chicks within 3 days of challenge and persisted during the 2-week monitoring period. Our data suggest that colonization of broiler chicks with C. jejuni is effected more easily by the cloacal than the oral route and is independent of age. PMID:3338504

  5. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Qi, G H

    2016-10-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  6. Comparison of embryo physiological parameters during incubation, chick quality, and growth performance of three lines of broiler breeders differing in genetic composition and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Jego, Y; Kamers, B; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2004-03-01

    In broiler breeder management, stringent feed restriction is practiced to reduce body size in order to improve egg production and meet broiler production demand, but this practice has raised welfare issues. The potential for the dwarfing (dw) gene to reduce feed intake and body size of breeders under ad libitum feeding or less stringent restriction while maintaining improved egg production has been reported. In this study, we compared embryo physiology, quality of chicks, and performance of broilers from eggs of dwarf breeders with those from a standard broiler breeder. Hatching eggs from 3 commercial lines of broiler breeders were compared for incubation parameters, 1-d-old chick weight, chick quality, and broiler growth to 41 d of age. The lines included a standard heavy (S) line, an experimental (E) line, and a label-type (L) line. The E and L line breeders carry the sex-linked dw gene and are being used to assess the potential for dw to reduce feed intake or lower feed restriction and improve reproductive performance in heavy female broiler parent stock. Two separate experiments were conducted. All female parent stocks were mated to Cornish males, and fertile eggs were collected. In the first experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions to determine, during final stages of incubation, corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, T3; thyroxine, T4) in embryos and hatchlings, CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), and O2 partial pressure (pO2) in air cells, heat production by eggs and 1-d-old weights. In the second experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d to compare chick quality, chick weights at 1 d of age, and broiler growth to 7 and 41 d. Average egg weights were higher for the S and L lines than the E line, but weight loss during incubation was lowest for the E line. Plasma T3 and T3/T4 ratio was similar between lines at IP, but corticosterone was higher in the S line. At hatch, T3/T4 ratio was higher in the S line compared with

  7. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Long, L.; Wu, S. G.; Yuan, F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Qi, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  8. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

  9. Apparent Metabolizable Energy Needs of Broiler Chicks Subjected to Diverse Ambient Temperature Regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early chick performance is adversely affected by inadequate ambient temperatures. Increasing AME may help alleviate poor performance with chicks subjected to low brooding temperatures. This study examined broiler chicks provided diets formulated to either 3,040 or 3,140 kcal AME/kg when subjected to...

  10. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  11. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  12. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kim, T H; Lee, S K; Chang, K H; Cho, S J; Lee, K W; An, B K

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  13. Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Despins, J L; Axtell, R C

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to broiler chicks on chick growth. Chicks readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Chicks 3 to 8 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 1,552 +/- 172 (mean +/- SD) larvae per chick per day and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 84 g) at the end of the 6 d than for chicks on starter feed during the same time. After return to starter feed for 8 d after feeding on larvae for 6 d, the chicks did not compensate for the reduced weight and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 170 g) than for chicks on starter feed for the 14 d. Chicks from age 2 through 9 d were given a choice between broiler starter feed and darkling beetle larvae. The numbers (mean +/- SD) of larvae consumed per chick per day were: 389 +/- 18, 631 +/- 14, 496 +/- 20, and 287 +/- 33, for Days 2 to 3, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, and 8 to 9, respectively. The body weight of chicks feeding on starter feed and larvae was significantly greater than the weight of chicks consuming feed only. In the presence of larvae, the mean feed consumption per chick was less than for chicks provided with only starter feed. The beetle larvae were 68% crude protein and 21% fat (DM basis) and had higher amounts of 18 amino acids than the starter feed.

  14. Early age thermal conditioning immediately reduces body temperature of broiler chicks in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    De Basilio, V; Requena, F; León, A; Vilariño, M; Picard, M

    2003-08-01

    Early age thermal conditioning (TC) durably improves resistance of broilers to heat stress and reduces body temperature (Tb). Three experiments on broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effects of TC at 5 d of age on Tb variation measured by thermometer between 4 and 7 d of age, under a tropical environment. Because manipulation of chickens to measure Tb with a thermometer may increase Tb, a preliminary experiment on 13 3-to-4-wk-old male broilers compared Tb measured by telemetry to Tb measured in the terminal colon during three successive periods at 22, 33, and 22 degrees C. During heat exposure, Tb rapidly increased by 0.9 degrees C and plateaued over 24 h. During the last period, seven of the broilers rapidly reduced Tb to a plateau lower than the initial Tb, although six broilers exhibited more variable Tb. Measurement by thermometer underestimated on average core Tb by 0.28 degrees C at 22 degrees C and by 0.57 degrees C at 33 degrees C, whereas Tb recorded by telemetry was not affected by manipulation of the chickens. TC reduced Tb 24 h later in the three experiments. Compared to unexposed control chicks (N), 12 h of TC at 40 degrees C did not significantly reduce Tb at 7 d of age, although 24 h did. TC at 38 and 40 degrees C over 24 h significantly reduced Tb variation from 4 to 7 d of age compared to N chicks, whereas 36 degrees C did not. Withdrawing feed from the chicks for 2 h prior to measurement did not significantly reduce Tb at 4 and 7 d of age, but Tb reduction due to TC was greater in fed chicks (0.28 degrees C) than in chicks without feed (0.05 degrees C). Early age thermal conditioning at 38 to 40 degrees C at 5 d of age for 24 h reduced body temperature of 7-d-old male broilers.

  15. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  16. Ingestion of a novel galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex affected growth performance and fermentative and immunological characteristics of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Dilger, R N; Iakiviak, M; Hopkins, A C; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2012-09-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against a pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively affect immune status and prevent colonization and shedding in Salmonella typhimurium-infected chicks. Using a completely randomized design, 1-d-old commercial broiler chicks (n = 240 chicks; 4 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments differing in concentration of GGMO-AX (0, 1, 2, or 4%) or containing 2% Safmannan or 2% short-chain fructooligosaccharides. Cellulose was used to make diets iso-total dietary fiber. On d 10 posthatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either phosphate-buffered saline (sham control) or Salmonella typhimurium (1 × 10(8) cfu). All birds were euthanized on d 10 postinoculation (PI) for collection of intestinal contents and select tissues. Body weight gain and feed intake of chicks were greater (P < 0.05) in infected chicks PI for all time periods, except for weight gain on d 0 to 3 PI. Gain:feed was affected (P < 0.05) by diet, with Safmannan-fed chicks having the highest G:F and 1% GGMO-AX-fed chicks having the lowest. The GGMO-AX substrate demonstrated effects similar to a prebiotic substrate as indicated by increased cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, decreased cecal pH, and increased populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp. as dietary GGMO-AX concentration increased. Excreta Salmonella typhimurium populations on d 5 and 10 PI, and ileal and cecal Salmonella typhimurium populations, tended to be affected (P < 0.10) by the main effect of diet. Messenger RNA expression of IFN-γ in the cecal tonsils was the only cytokine independently affected by infection and diet (P < 0.01). Chicks fed 2 and 4% GGMO-AX had similar expressions of IFN-γ and IL-1β, regardless of infection, suggesting that Salmonella typhimurium

  17. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are deprived of feed and water between hatching and the moment of chick pulling (d E21.5), and a patio system, in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined, and chicks have immediate posthatch feed and water access. Climate conditions in patio also differ with about 3°C lower temperature and 20% lower RH compared with conventional hatchers. At E18, fertile eggs were transferred to either a hatcher or the patio until the end of incubation. From each system, 50 newly hatched chicks were collected at 3 hatching times: at 468 h (early), 483 h (midterm), and 498 h (late) of incubation, of which 25 chicks were decapitated for analyses of physiological parameters. The other 25 chicks were returned to the hatching system for analyses after 515 h of incubation (E21.5). At hatch, weights of the heart, lungs, stomach, and intestine increased with hatching time, concurrent with a decrease in residual yolk weight, regardless of hatching system, and indicating that later hatching chicks are more matured. Weights of the heart, liver, stomach, and intestines were lower in hatcher than in patio chicks. Between hatch and E21.5, residual yolk weight decreased, whereas organ weights increased in both fasted hatcher and fed patio chicks, but at a higher rate in the latter. At E21.5, plasma glucose and triiodothyronine had increased with time after hatch in patio chicks, whereas levels were similar among hatching times and lower in hatcher chicks. Early feed and water access seems to enable early hatching chicks to compensate for their apparent disadvantage in development at hatching, whereas chicks subjected to fasting show metabolic adaptations to preserve nutrients. Chick physiology at

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky isolates recovered from broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations is critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling wi...

  19. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P < 0.05) but did not reduce cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in either experiment (P > 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  20. Peripheral Insulin Doesn't Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  1. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  2. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur. PMID:27047021

  3. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P < 0.01) feed intake, BW gain, and deteriorated (P < 0.05) feed conversion values compared with those kept in the thermoneutral house. Dietary supplementation with CrMet increased (P < 0.01) feed intake and improved (P < 0.01) weight gain and feed efficiency. There were significant Cr level × temperature interactions, so that inclusion of CrMet into the diets was more effective in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P < 0.01) cutaneous hypersensivity response to phytohemagglutinin-P injection at 30 d of age, and dietary supplementation of 500 μg Cr/kg induced (P < 0.05) this response, with the greater impacts in heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P < 0.01) Cr × temperature interaction. Antibody responses against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were diminished (P < 0.01) in heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P < 0.05) antibody responses to different immunostimulants, and this effect was more pronounced in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the proportion of helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes and increased cytotoxic (CD8+) T lymphocytes, resulting in a decreased (P < 0.01) CD4+ to CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood

  4. Effects of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Dawson, K A; Ford, M J; Paul, M

    2011-08-01

    1. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc (Zn) on the performance and tibia Zn status of broiler chicks. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks fed on the control or the diet supplemented with 12?mg of Zn as sulphate had lower feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content than other treatment groups. Chicks given 12 and 24 mg of organic Zn in starter and grower phases, respectively, had the same performance and tibia Zn content as those fed 40 mg of Zn as sulphate and the same performance but higher tibia Zn content than those given 12 mg of Zn as organic over the 42 d. 3. In Experiment 2, chicks given 24 mg organic Zn had greater weight gain than chicks fed on the other treatment diets in the starter period. Chicks fed on the control diet had lower tibia Zn content than chicks fed other treatment diets. Chicks given 80 mg Zn as sulphate had higher tibia Zn content than chicks fed the other treatment diets except those given 40 mg of Zn as sulphate. 4. The results from these trials indicate that feeding lower concentration of Zn as organic form may better promote the growth performance of broiler chicks.

  5. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  6. Responses of broiler chicks to dietary copra cake of high lipid content.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, S; Machin, D H; Parr, W H; Bainton, J

    1987-12-01

    1. Broiler chicks fed on a diet containing 500 g/kg expeller copra cake of high residual oil content not only retained less dry matter and gained less weight than those fed on a control diet with no copra, they also experienced difficulty in achieving similar food intakes. 2. Chicks given the 500 g/kg copra ration initially displayed an excited behaviour pattern, which may have developed out of frustration as they could neither derive adequate nourishment from their food nor increase food intakes sufficiently to allow them to achieve their genetic potential for growth. 3. Chicks however showed considerable adaptation in that efficiency of food utilisation and intakes were increased gradually; the latter appeared to be partly regulated by an increased intake of water that was associated with copra feeding. The surface area of the intestines was also increased in order to facilitate the absorption of nutrients, and greater proportions of the nutrients absorbed were converted into body weight. 4. There were no significant differences in 7-week body weights of chicks fed the control, 125 g/kg and 250 g/kg copra diets. Although weight gains at the 500 g/kg inclusion rate were lower, the carcases of these chicks had less abdominal fat and were consequently leaner.

  7. Effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates on aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Phillips, T D; Clement, B A

    1993-04-01

    In three experiments, three different hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates (HSCAS) were incorporated into chick diets (.5%) containing either 0 or 5.0 (Experiments 1 and 2) or 0 or 2.5 (Experiment 3) mg/kg aflatoxin (AF). Male broiler chicks consumed their respective diets and water ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. When compared with controls, body weights in chicks receiving 5.0 mg AF/kg were reduced by 214 g in Experiment 1 and 220 g in Experiment 2. The addition of .5% of the HSCAS compounds significantly diminished the growth inhibitory effects caused by AF by 39 to 68% in Experiment 1, by 46 to 88% in Experiment 2, and by 38 to 90% in Experiment 3. The increases in relative organ weights and the decreases in serum biochemical values caused by AF were significantly diminished to differing degrees by all three of the HSCAS compounds. These data demonstrate that these specific HSCAS compounds can be protective against the effects of AF in young growing broilers and further emphasizes the fact that all silicate-type sorbents are not equal in their ability to protect against aflatoxicosis. It also seems possible to specially process compounds to increase their efficacy for protection against the toxicity of AF.

  8. Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights. Part 1: growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of light sources and light intensity on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices of heavy broilers (> 3.0 kg) in 4 trials with 2 replications per trial. A total of 960 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks (30 males/30 females/room) were randomly ...

  9. Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sarada Prasanna; Kaur, Daljeet; Sethi, A. P. S.; Sharma, A.; Chandra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Yucca schidigera extract has been successfully used as feed additives in the poultry industry. It enhances the growth and productivity in broiler production. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze the effect of Y. schidigera extract in growth, carcass quality and behavior along with its economical utility in broiler rearing. Materials and Methods: Total, 120 numbers of day-old broiler chicks of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into Yucca supplemented treatment and control group, each having 60 birds in three replications of 20 numbers. The feeding management and rearing conditions were similar for all the groups as per the standard except the Yucca supplementation in the treatment group @ 125 mg/kg of feed. The parameters with respect to growth, carcass, behavior, and litter content were recorded as per standard procedures. Results: The Yucca supplementation can effectively enhance growth of 173 g in 6th week by utilizing lesser feed intake than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. Eviscerated weight of 58.50% for the treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than 54.10% in the control group. The breast meat yield of Yucca group (32.23%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than control (30.33%). More frequency of agonistic behavioral expressions was noticed in the control group than the treatment group. A profit of 43.68% was received by usage of Yucca supplementation in the diet on live weight basis. Numerically, lower percentage of moisture was present in Yucca treated group than the control. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Yucca supplementation has an important role in augmenting broiler‘s growth performance, efficiency to utilize feed, protein and energy, and survivability. Hence, use of Yucca powder in broiler ration could be beneficial to maintain the litter quality, which directly enhances the

  10. Antiparasitic effect of wild rue (Peganum harmala L.) against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tanweer, A Jabbar; Chand, N; Saddique, U; Bailey, C A; Khan, R U

    2014-08-01

    Organic farming of poultry has increased in recent years as the prophylactic use of antibiotics has come into disfavor. This study was conducted to explore the antiparasitic effect of a methanolic extract of Peganum harmala in broilers challenged with coccidiosis. For this purpose, 200 1-week-old broiler chicks were divided into five treatments: negative control (basal diet, Ph-0/NC), positive control (basal diet with coccidiosis challenge, Ph-0/C), and three groups challenged with coccidiosis and supplemented with P. harmala at the rate of 200 mg L(-1) (Ph-200), 250 mg L(-1) (Ph-250), and 300 mg L(-1) (Ph-300) drinking water. Each group had three replicates of ten chicks each. Challenge with standard dose of the larvae of coccidiosis and supplementation of P. harmala were initiated on day 14 until 35 days of age. As expected, the results revealed that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were depressed significantly in Ph-0 group with significant mortality percentage. Weight gain, total body weight, and FCR increased linearly with increasing dose of P. harmala with the exception of feed intake. The growth and feed efficiency of Ph-0/NC was better in Ph-0/NC compared to that in Ph-0/C and comparable to that in P. harmala-treated birds. Similarly, mean ooccytes per gram (OPG) decreased linearly (P < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared to that in Ph-0/C. Histological evidences showed that cecal lesion and leucocyte infiltration decreased markedly in supplemented groups of P. harmala specifically the Ph-300 group compared to those in Ph-0/C. From the present experiment, we concluded the anticoccidial effect of P. harmala in broiler chicks.

  11. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linear<0.05). Nevertheless, BW corrected for egg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired

  12. Broiler chick and laying hen tolerance to sodium hypochlorite in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Damron, B L; Flunker, L K

    1993-09-01

    Two broiler and two laying hen experiments were conducted to establish threshold levels for sodium hypochlorite use in poultry drinking water. Both broiler experiments were of 21-days duration, and the first and second hen experiments ran for 8 and 4 wk, respectively. A 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution was used to provide chloride levels of 0, 10, 100, or 500 ppm in the first broiler study and 0, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, or 450 ppm in the second study. Comparable sodium levels from sodium bicarbonate were additional treatments in the first broiler experiment. The initial hen study had drinking water treatments of 0, 50, or 100 ppm chloride whereas in the second study, treatments varied from 0 to 70 ppm chloride at 10-ppm intervals. In chick experiments, water intake was reduced by 100 ppm chloride and body weight by 300 ppm. Hen experiments demonstrated the adverse effect level to be 40 ppm for water consumption and 60 ppm for egg production when the application was to pullets producing eggs at a high rate in warm weather. Water consumption of older hens in cooler weather was adversely affected by 50 ppm chloride, but egg production, egg weight, or daily feed intake was not reduced by 100 ppm.

  13. Effect of energy on the performance of broiler chicks fed various levels of monensin.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B; Harms, R H

    1988-03-01

    A total of 768 female broiler chicks in two experiments was fed diets containing 0, 100, or 120 mg monensin/kg of diet with and without added animal fat, in a 2 X 3 factorial design. Chicks were grown in electrically heated battery brooders and supplied feed and water ad libitum for 21 days. Animal fat fed at 6.8% of the diet consistently improved body weight, daily feed intake, and feed conversion regardless of monensin level. Monensin at 100 and 120 mg/kg of diet, in general, decreased these performance criteria progressively. Daily monensin intake was related to the concentration of monensin in the diet. Intake per unit of body weight was increased by reducing fat or increasing monensin.

  14. The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gross lesions were scored and intestinal digesta pH and viscosity were measured. C. perfringens was counted in the caecum. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed that the cold stress in challenged birds significantly increased the incidence and the severity of necrotic enteritis lesions (Ρ ≤ 0.05), while causing no lesions in unchallenged birds. Moreover, the cold stress caused a significant increase (Ρ ≤ 0.05) in the pH and C. perfringens counts in the caeca. The study provides evidence that cold stress increased the susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and thus should be regarded as a physical environmental stressor that could significantly affect the welfare, health and intestinal ecosystem of broiler chicks. PMID:26642742

  15. Colonization of day-of-hatch broiler chicks with antimicrobial resistant strains of salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen linked to poultry and poultry products. However, limited research regarding the in vivo interactions of non-host adapted Salmonella serotypes in broiler chicks is available. In order to evaluate the effect of two serotypes on colonization, 600 day-of-hatch ...

  16. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure. PMID:26957625

  17. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on the surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of broiler chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mashhadani, E.H.; Beck, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    The surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of 7-week-old broiler chicks were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain a more accurate understanding of structural changes due to atmospheric ammonia (NH/sub 3/). In the first experiment, four broilers were randomly assigned to each of four chambers, and exposed to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 7 days. Chickens exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ exhibited a large number of mucus-secreting cells that were not seen in the other treatments. Ciliary loss from the tracheal epithelium was not a consistent finding in either the exposed or the control groups. There was no evidence of goblet cell disappearance due to ammonia treatment. In the second experiment, four broilers were randomly allocated to each of four chambers and exposed to 0, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 4 days. There was an increase in the thickness of the atrial walls and a shrinking of air capillaries with increasing NH/sub 3/ concentration; in birds exposed to 75 and 100 ppm NH/sub 3/, wall thickness was one to two times greater than in the control birds. There were no observable differences in gross appearance of lungs and tracheas between control and exposed groups except for hemorrhagic spots on one of the lungs exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/.

  18. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry

  19. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability. PMID:26950872

  20. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Woyengo, T. A.; Emiola, I. A.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability. PMID:26950872

  1. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

  2. Impact of galactose, lactose, and Grobiotic-B70 on growth performance and energy utilization when fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M W; Persia, M; Parsons, C M

    2003-10-01

    Three chick assays were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary galactose (GAL), lactose (LAC), and Grobiotic-B70, a LAC fermentation product, on growth performance, toxicity, and energy utilization when fed to commercial broiler chicks. One-day-old male commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to treatments in each assay. In all assays, a 22% CP corn-soybean meal-dextrose basal diet containing a growth-promoting antibiotic (Bacitracin methylene disalicylate) was fed. In assay 1, GAL was added at 2, 4, 6, 10, or 15%. In assay 2, Grobiotic-B70 was added at 5%. In assay 3, GAL, LAC, and Grobiotic-B70 were each added at 2, 4, and 6%. All additions were made in place of dextrose, and diets were fed from 0 to 20 or 21 d of age. In assay 1, the 15% GAL treatment resulted in high mortality (27%) by d 3 and was terminated. The 10% GAL treatment also resulted in increased mortality, most of which occurred during the 7-to-14-d period. Inclusion of 2 and 4% GAL resulted in an improvement (P < 0.05) in growth compared to the basal diet. Inclusion of 2, 4, 6, and 10% GAL resulted in a significant linear decrease in MEn (r2 = 0.85). In chick assay 2, 5% Grobiotic-B70 increased growth during the first 2 wk. In chick assay 3, 6% Grobiotic increased weight gain (P < 0.05) from 0 to 14 d, and addition of 2 or 4% GAL, 2 or 4% LAC, and 4 or 6% Grobiotic-B70 increased weight gain (P < 0.08) from 0 to 21 d. Our results indicate that levels of 10 to 15% GAL are toxic. In contrast, low levels of GAL and Grobiotic-B70, and possibly LAC, may increase growth of commercial broiler chicks.

  3. Cecal volatile fatty acids and broiler chick susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium colonization as affected by aflatoxins and T-2 toxin.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Bailey, R H; Byrd, J A; Young, C R; Corrier, D E; Stanker, L H; Rottinghaust, G E

    2001-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted using day-of-hatch, mixed-sex broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of aflatoxins and T-2 toxin on cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the susceptibility to Salmonella colonization. All chicks in these experiments were challenged orally with 10(4) cfu of Salmonella typhimurium (ST) on Day 3. In Experiments 1 and 2, chicks were fed diets containing 0, 2.5, or 7.5 mg aflatoxins/kg of diet and were allowed to develop their microflora naturally. In Experiment 3, all chicks were orally gavaged on the day of hatch with a competitive exclusion (CE) culture (PREEMPT) and were fed diets containing 0, 2.5, or 7.5 mg T-2 toxin/kg. In Experiment 4, the chicks were fed diets containing 0, 7.5, or 15.0 mg T-2 toxin/kg and one-half of the chicks were orally gavaged on the day of hatch with the CE culture. In Experiments 1 and 2, with the exception of increased total VFA at 5 d in chicks fed the 7.5 mg T-2 aflatoxins/kg diet, there were no treatment effects on cecal propionic acid, total VFA, or incidence or severity of ST colonization. In Experiment 3, the only alteration in concentration of cecal propionic acid or total VFA was a significant reduction in total VFA at 5 d in chicks fed the 2.5 mg T-2 toxin/kg diet. No significant treatment differences were observed for numbers of Salmonella cecal culture-positive chicks or for numbers of ST in the cecal contents. In Experiment 4, with minor exceptions, the chicks treated with the CE culture had higher cecal concentrations of propionic acid and were less susceptible to Salmonella colonization than the non-CE-treated chicks. In the non-CE-treated chicks, T-2 toxin had no effect on any of the parameters, and 85 to 90% of the chicks were Salmonella cecal culture-positive. In the CE-treated chicks, there was a decrease in propionic acid concentration at 3 and 11 d and an increase in susceptibility to Salmonella colonization of the chicks fed the 15.0 mg T-2 toxin/kg diet. These results indicate that

  4. Performance of male broiler chicks exposed to heat from infrared or microwave sources

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; Amyot, E.; McMillan, I.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    In eight trials, 240 male broiler birds, initially 7 days old, were randomly allocated to three treatments. Treatments were: continuous infrared (CI), intermittent infrared (II; 4 min on, 2 min off, 10 cycles/h), and intermittent microwaves (IM; 2 min on, 4 min off, 10 cycles/h). At the conclusion of the 14-day experimental period the 21-day-old birds were killed. Although there were significant differences (P less than or equal to .05) in mean gain over the 2-wk treatment period between trials, no differences (P greater than .05) were attributed to treatments. There were, however, significant differences in feed:gain ratios between trials and between treatments. Feed:gain ratios of birds kept under CI and II treatments did not differ significantly (P greater than .05). However, feed:gain ratios, 1.61 +/- .04 and 1.57 +/- .04 for CI and II, respectively, differed significantly (P less than or equal to .05) from that of the IM treatment (1.76 +/- .04). The protein content of chicks under II was significantly (P less than or equal to .05) lower than that of birds under IM. There were no differences (P greater than .05) in fat, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content of chicks among treatments.

  5. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  6. Effect of dietary aluminum sulfate on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A S; Cantor, A H; Johnson, T H; Yokel, R A

    1990-06-01

    The effect of dietary aluminum sulfate on Ca and P metabolism was studied using 1-day-old male broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, practical diets providing .90% Ca plus .45% available P (Pav), .90% Ca plus .78% Pav, 1.80% Ca plus .45% Pav, or 1.80% Ca plus .90% Pav were fed with 0 or .392% A1 as aluminum sulfate for 21 days. The control diet (.90% Ca plus .45% Pav) without added A1 was fed to all chicks during Days 22 to 49. In general, A1 significantly (P less than .05) decreased BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, plasma inorganic P (Pi), tibia breaking strength, tibia weight, percentage of tibia ash, and plasma Zn, measured at Day 21. Elevating Pav increased BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, tibia weight and plasma Zn, and decreased plasma total Ca in the presence of .392% A1 plus 1.80% Ca. Plasma Pi, tibia breaking strength, and percentage of tibia ash were increased by raising dietary Pav in the presence of .392% A1 with either level of Ca. Negative effects of dietary A1 on feed intake and BW persisted through Day 49. In Experiment 2, a control diet (.90% Ca, .45% Pav) was fed for ad libitum access either alone or supplemented with .2% A1 as aluminum sulfate or with an equivalent amount of sulfate provided by potassium sulfate. The control diet was also pair-fed to chicks given .2% A1. Dietary A1 significantly depressed weight gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and plasma Pi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effect of wild mint (Mentha longifolia) infusion on the over all performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Durrani, F R; Sultan, A; Marri, Muhammad Latif; Chand, N; Durrani, Z

    2007-04-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of wild mint (Mentha Ingifolia) on the overall performance of broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar in July 2005. Three levels of fresh wild mint infusion at the rate of 50, 40 and 30 mL L(-1) of fresh drinking water were provided to chicks in groups A, B and C, respectively and group D was kept as control, each group was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate, reared for 35 days, in an open sided house in cages of the same size. No vaccination was practiced. Data were recorded daily for feed intake, water intake and for weight gain on weekly basis. Feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage, percent mortality, weight of different body organs (breast, thigh and leg), giblets (liver, heart and gizzard), intestine and economics for each group was calculated at the end of experimental period. It was found that group B receiving 40 mL L(-1) of wild mint infusion in drinking water had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on mean body weight gain, feed intake, water intake, feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of different body organs (breast, thigh and leg). Significant (p < 0.05) differences were also found in mortality, highest mortality was observed in group D (10%) as compared with groups A, B and C, however there was no significant effect on giblets (liver, heart, gizzard), intestine and weight of abdominal fat. Mean feed cost and gross return was significantly (p < 0.05) effected for group B. Feed cost was lower and gross return was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for group B than other treated groups and control.

  8. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  9. Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Eyng, C.; Murakami, A. E.; Santos, T. C.; Silveira, T. G. V.; Pedroso, R. B.; Lourenço, D. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control – macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and

  10. Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Eyng, C; Murakami, A E; Santos, T C; Silveira, T G V; Pedroso, R B; Lourenço, D A L

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control - macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and

  11. Influence of chick hatch time and access to feed on broiler muscle development.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; Velleman, S G; Cowieson, A J; Singh, M; Muir, W I

    2016-06-01

    The effect of hatch time and the timing of access to feed on growth rate and breast muscle development was assessed in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Chicks were removed from the incubator upon hatching, and classified as early (EH), midterm (MH), or late (LH) hatchers, based on the duration of their incubation. Feed and water were available either immediately at hatch, or 24 h after the conclusion of the hatch period. Hatchling body weight was uniform regardless of hatch time. Subsequently, bodyweight was increased in EH compared to LH birds following immediate access to feed, until 7 d in female, and 14 d in male birds. Relative breast weight was increased until 28 d in birds with immediate access to feed, and also EH and MH birds regardless of access to feed. Pectoralis major muscle morphology and expression of the myogenic regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1 (MYOD1) and myogenin, and the proteoglycans syndecan-4, glypican-1, and decorin were measured. Myogenin and glypican-1 stimulate satellite cell (SC) differentiation. Glypican-1 expression was unaffected by treatment. A late increase in myogenin expression was observed in MH birds with delayed access to feed, and all LH birds. Syndecan-4 and MYOD1, expressed in proliferating SC, and decorin, which stimulates satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, were variably upregulated in the first wk posthatch in the same birds. These data suggest SC were activated and proliferating, but had reduced differentiation in later hatching and feed deprived birds. Conversely, EH birds with immediate access to feed had maximal myofiber width at 7 d, while fiber width was increased in birds with immediate access to feed compared to those with delayed access to feed through 40 d of age. These results demonstrate that delaying chick access to feed for 24 h upon removal from the incubator will impair muscle growth. Additionally, hatch time influences muscle development, with accelerated muscle growth in EH and

  12. Immunoprophylactic effects of administering honeybee (Apis melifera) venom spray against Salmonella gallinarum in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Park, Seong-Beom; Hyun, Pung-Mi; Park, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-10-01

    Antibiotics continue to be used as growth promoters in the poultry industry. Honeybee (Apis melifera) venom (HBV) possesses a number of beneficial biological activities, particularly for regulating the immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunoprophylactic effects of HBV against Salmonella Gallinarum in broiler chicks as an initial step towards developing eco-friendly alternatives to reduce antibiotic use. HBV was administered using a spray technique. HBV improved body weight gain, particularly in the presence of infection. Moreover, HBV enhanced antibody production activity against formalin-killed S. Gallinarum. The CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio, relative mRNA expression levels of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ, and serum lysozyme activity also increased following HBV administration before the infection period as well as during infection. HBV reinforced bacterial clearance and increased survivability against S. Gallinarum. Corresponding pathological analyses demonstrated that the HBV-sprayed group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with those in the control group. It was presumed that the prophylactic effects of HBV against S. Gallinarum were associated with its non-specific immune response stimulating activity. Thus, HBV may provide an alternative to reduce antibiotic use in the poultry industry. PMID:23719751

  13. Efficacy of feeding glucosinolate-extracted crambe meal to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kloss, P; Jeffrey, E; Wallig, M; Tumbleson, M; Parsons, C; Johnson, L; Reuber, M

    1994-10-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products (nitriles) have long been implicated as toxic factors when feeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) meals and crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meals to poultry. Accordingly, various methods have been developed to remove these compounds from the meals to enhance their value as feed supplements. Glucosinolates and nitriles were extracted from commercially processed, defatted crambe meal by washing with water or various solvent-water mixtures: 50% isopropanol, 50% acetone, or 50% ethanol. In addition, crambe seed was extruded and extracted in the laboratory with isopropanol or hexane. Water washing of commercially defatted meal proved to be the most effective method of extraction, removing 95% of the glucosinolates and nitriles. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 10% of the diet for 14 d. Weight gain decreased (P < .05) in most groups; however a greater decrease (P < .01) was observed in birds fed meals with high glucosinolate content. Feed intake also decreased (P < .05) in most groups; consequently, feed efficiencies were similar for all groups. No changes in serum chemistries, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, or tissue lesions were associated with glucosinolate or nitrile intake. A relationship (P < .05, r = .74) was found between weight gain and glucosinolate intake. No correlation was found between feed intake and meal glucosinolate or nitrile concentrations.

  14. Immunoprophylactic effects of administering honeybee (Apis melifera) venom spray against Salmonella gallinarum in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Park, Seong-Beom; Hyun, Pung-Mi; Park, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-10-01

    Antibiotics continue to be used as growth promoters in the poultry industry. Honeybee (Apis melifera) venom (HBV) possesses a number of beneficial biological activities, particularly for regulating the immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunoprophylactic effects of HBV against Salmonella Gallinarum in broiler chicks as an initial step towards developing eco-friendly alternatives to reduce antibiotic use. HBV was administered using a spray technique. HBV improved body weight gain, particularly in the presence of infection. Moreover, HBV enhanced antibody production activity against formalin-killed S. Gallinarum. The CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio, relative mRNA expression levels of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ, and serum lysozyme activity also increased following HBV administration before the infection period as well as during infection. HBV reinforced bacterial clearance and increased survivability against S. Gallinarum. Corresponding pathological analyses demonstrated that the HBV-sprayed group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with those in the control group. It was presumed that the prophylactic effects of HBV against S. Gallinarum were associated with its non-specific immune response stimulating activity. Thus, HBV may provide an alternative to reduce antibiotic use in the poultry industry.

  15. Immunoprophylactic Effects of Administering Honeybee (Apis melifera) Venom Spray against Salmonella Gallinarum in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, Bock-Gie; LEE, Jin-A; PARK, Seong-Beom; HYUN, Pung-Mi; PARK, Jin-Kyu; SUH, Guk-Hyun; LEE, Bong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibiotics continue to be used as growth promoters in the poultry industry. Honeybee (Apis melifera) venom (HBV) possesses a number of beneficial biological activities, particularly for regulating the immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunoprophylactic effects of HBV against Salmonella Gallinarum in broiler chicks as an initial step towards developing eco-friendly alternatives to reduce antibiotic use. HBV was administered using a spray technique. HBV improved body weight gain, particularly in the presence of infection. Moreover, HBV enhanced antibody production activity against formalin-killed S. Gallinarum. The CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio, relative mRNA expression levels of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ, and serum lysozyme activity also increased following HBV administration before the infection period as well as during infection. HBV reinforced bacterial clearance and increased survivability against S. Gallinarum. Corresponding pathological analyses demonstrated that the HBV-sprayed group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with those in the control group. It was presumed that the prophylactic effects of HBV against S. Gallinarum were associated with its non-specific immune response stimulating activity. Thus, HBV may provide an alternative to reduce antibiotic use in the poultry industry. PMID:23719751

  16. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Ohh, Mi-hyang; Kim, Seongjin; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-mahn

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions. PMID:26954210

  17. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  18. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.

  19. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. PMID:26316341

  20. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks.

  1. Effect of cecal cultures lyophilized in skim milk or reagent 20 on Salmonella colonization in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hollister, A G; Corrier, D E; Nisbet, D J; Beier, R C; DeLoach, J R

    1994-09-01

    Mixed cultures of cecal bacteria that were grown under continuous flow anaerobic conditions were prepared as lyophilized powder in skim milk or Reagent 20 (R-20; a mixture containing sucrose and bovine serum albumin fraction V) and compared with broth cultures for reduction of Salmonella typhimurium enteric colonization. Day old broiler chicks were provided a standard corn-soybean diet with: 1) no culture, (control); 2) broth culture administered by crop gavage; 3) broth culture added to the drinking water; 4) culture lyophilized in skim milk and added to drinking water; 5) culture lyophilized in skim milk in gelatin capsules and force-fed; 6) culture lyophilized in R-20 and added to drinking water; and 7) culture lyophilized in R-20 in gelatin capsules and force-fed. All groups were challenged on Day 3 with 10(4) cfu of S. typhimurium per chick. Culture by crop gavage, culture in the drinking water, skim milk powder in capsules, and R-20 powder in the water and in capsules significantly (P < .05) reduced mean Salmonella colony-forming units in cecal contents by 3.21 to 5.26 log10 units at 10 d of age. Likewise, the number of cecal-culture-positive chicks in the same groups was significantly less than controls with reductions of 27 to 67%. The numbers of Salmonella per gram of cecal contents and the percentage of cecal-culture-positive chicks in the skim milk powder in the drinking water group were not different from control chicks in one of two experiments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7800640

  2. Metabolizable energy and standardized ileal digestible amino acid contents of expeller-extracted canola meal fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible amino acid (AA) and AMEn contents of expeller-extracted canola meal (EECM) fed to broiler chicks. One hundred forty-four broiler chicks were divided into 24 groups of 6 birds balanced for BW and fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups per diet) from d 14 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet formulated to meet NRC nutrient requirements, the basal diet with energy- and AA-yielding ingredients replaced by 30% of either solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) or EECM, and a low-protein casein-cornstarch-based diet. The SECM, which is commonly used in formulating poultry diets, was fed for comparison with EECM, whereas the casein-cornstarch-based diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous AA losses for determining standardized ileal digestibility of AA. All 4 diets contained titanium oxide (0.3%) as an indigestible marker, and nutrient digestibility and retention were determined by the substitution method. From d 19 to 21, excreta samples were collected for AMEn determination. On d 21, the birds were killed by cervical dislocation, and contents of the whole ileum were obtained for determination of AA digestibility. Expeller-extracted canola meal had greater (P<0.05) standardized ileal digestible contents of Gly, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, and Glu and tended to have greater (P<0.10) standardized ileal digestible contents of Ile, Lys, Phe, Ala, and Tyr than SECM. Compared with SECM, EECM had greater (P<0.001) AMEn (2,694 vs. 1,801 kcal/kg). The results show that the EECM evaluated in the current study had greater standardized ileal digestible AA and AMEn contents than SECM, and hence, it may be a better source of protein and energy for broiler chicks than SECM. The standardized ileal digestible AA and AMEn values of EECM used in the current study could be used when formulating broiler chicken diets using the same to minimize the N excretion and feeding cost.

  3. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  4. Vicine and convicine in common vetch (Vicia sativa) seeds enhance beta-cyanoalanine toxicity in male broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Darwish, A H; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2002-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding raw and water-soaked vetch seeds to male broiler chicks on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters. Intact and ground vetch seeds were soaked in water (1:5) at room temperature for 24 hours (study 1), and (1:10) at 40 degrees C for 24, 48, and 72 hours, with water change every 12 hours (study 2). In study 1, untreated vetch contained, on dry matter basis, 0.530%, 0.731%, and 0.081% total beta-cyanoalanine (BCA), vicine, and convicine, respectively. Toxins were not appreciably reduced in soaked intact and ground vetch. Diets containing untreated, soaked intact, and soaked ground vetch, each at 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%, were fed to 7-day-old male broilers until onset of neurotoxicity symptoms. Survival time was not only decreased by BCA level but also by those of vicine and convicine (p <.05). In study 2, 60% of untreated or treated vetch seeds were incorporated in chick diets. Although untreated vetch used in this study contained 32% less BCA but 8% and 81% more vicine and convicine, respectively, yet, the chicks on 60% untreated vetch showed toxicity symptoms earlier than those of study 1. Soaking ground vetch for 48 hours or more reduced BCA and totally removed vicine and convicine. Consequently, birds on 60% ground vetch soaked for 48 and 72 hours survived through the starter period and had mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and organ weights comparable to those of control at 4 days post trial. The results indicated that "high levels" of vicine or convicine or both might have shortened the birds' survival time by enhancing the neurotoxicity induced by "lower levels" of BCA.

  5. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  6. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p < 0.01) than broilers fed the higher phosphorus level. Bone strength was higher (p < 0.01) for broilers fed diets based on low-phytate pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  7. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  8. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  9. Studies on the toxic effects of crambe meal and two of its constituents, 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) and epi-progoitrin, in broiler chick diets.

    PubMed

    Kloss, P; Jeffery, E; Tumbleson, M; Zhang, Y; Parsons, C; Wallig, M

    1996-12-01

    1. Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion rate for crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meal in broiler chick diets, and to determine the mechanism for adverse effects by investigating its constituents; 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) and 3-butenyl glucosinolate (epi-progoitrin, E-PG). 2. Crambe meals were prepared to differ in E-PG (19, 36 and 40 g/kg) and CHB contents (0.1, 0.7 and 1.9 g/kg), and with either active or inactive thioglucosidase. 3. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 50 or 100 g/kg of the diet for 12 or 13 d. In separate studies, isolated E-PG or CHB were mixed into the diet or administered by gavage to 7-d-old broiler chicks in amounts equivalent to 50 or 100 g/kg crambe meal diets for 10 and 12 d, respectively. 4. Weight gain decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed on the high glucosinolate crambe diets or isolated E-PG. Food consumption decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed on the diet containing the high E-PG meal with active enzyme. 5. Mild liver lesions and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase were found in chicks fed on the diet containing the high glucosinolate meal with active enzyme. Other organs, including thyroids, were normal. 6. Commercially-processed crambe meal appeared safe at an inclusion rate of 50 or 100 g/kg diet, but could not be recommended at this point for long term feeding.

  10. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    de Barros Moreira Filho, Alexandre Lemos; de Oliveira, Celso José Bruno; de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Givisiez, Patricia Emília Naves

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  11. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  12. Effect of dietary levels of decorticated cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) supplemented with molasses on broiler chicks performance and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Musa, Muamer M; Elamin, Khalid M; Ati, Khadiga A Abdel; Elagib, Hind A A; Musa, Ahmed M

    2012-11-01

    Manny legumes are used extensively as animal feed. This study was conducted to look at the effects of decorticated cow pea seeds based diets supplemented with molasses on broiler performance and carcass traits. A total of 240 unsexed one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used .The birds were randomly divided into six equal groups (treatments) and each group consisted of 8 (replicates). Six experimental diets (starter and finisher) were formulated to be approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The cow pea was included at three levels (0, 10 and 20%) with two levels of molasses at (0, 3%). Decorticated cowpea and raw cowpea contain 25.86 vs. 24.78% crude protein, 1.41 vs. 0.91% ether extract, 3.36 vs. 3.33% ash and 2.64 vs. 3.46% crude fiber on dry matter basis. Methionine content was high in decorticated cowpea (0.40%) compared with raw cowpea (0.35%), the vice versa hold true for lysine, 1.74 in raw seeds vs. 1.62% in decorticated seeds. Decorticated cowpea seed at 10 or 20% without molasses significantly (p<0.05) improved final body weight (1999.50-2051.32 g vs. 1986.32 in the control group). Whereas, the molasses addition at 3% significantly decreased final body weight (1838.42-1900.79 g vs. 1986.32 in the control group) and total feed intake (3150.75- 3300.75 vs. 3318.00 +/- 26.45 g in the control group). The inclusion of 20% cowpea with 3% molasses significantly improved feed conversion ratio in 20 cow pea with 3% molasses It is concluded that cow pea seeds is a good source of protein that can be used in broiler feeds safely to give satisfactory results.

  13. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  14. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  15. Aluminium sulphate exposure increases oxidative stress and suppresses brain development in Ross broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Emin Oğuzhan; Enli, Yaşar; Şahin, Barbaros; Gönen, Cafer; Turgut, Günfer

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Aluminium (Al) is known to have neurotoxic effects that can result in oxidative damage to a range of cellular biomolecules. These effects appear to be of significance in the developmental stages of the brain. We therefore investigated the oxidative and histopathological damage induced by Al during growth and development of the chick brain. Material/Methods We used a chick embryonic development model, with Al treatment of 500 μg Al sulphate in 0.1 ml saline injected into the egg air chambers at the beginning of their incubation period. The effects on chick-brain growth and development were then assessed at term (day 21). Determination of malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were used as relevant biological measures for increased oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and biochemical oxidative damage, respectively. Furthermore, we also monitored neuronal degeneration as estimated stereologically using the Cavalieri brain volume estimation tool. Results This Al treatment showed significantly increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels, as indicators of increased biochemical oxidative damage. This was accompanied by significantly decreased brain volume, as a measure of neuronal degeneration during brain development in this chick embryonic development model. Conclusions Exposure to Al during chick embryonic development results in increased oxidative stress in the brain that is accompanied by neuronal degeneration. PMID:22367119

  16. Re-esterified palm oils, compared to native palm oil, do not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia or growth performance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Tres, A; Bayés-García, L; Parella, T; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2014-08-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within acylglycerol molecules and the effect of acylglycerol composition on FA apparent absorption, and their possible consequences on the evolution of postprandial lipemia and growth performance in broiler chicks. Seventy-two 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 18 cages. The three treatments used were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 6 wt% of native palm oil (N-TAG), re-esterified palm oil (E-TAG), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (E-MDAG). Chemical esterification raised the fraction of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position from 9.63 mol% in N-TAG oil to 17.9 mol% in E-TAG oil. Furthermore, E-MDAG oil presented a high proportion of mono- (23.1 wt%) and diacylglycerols (51.2 wt%), with FA mainly located at the sn-1,3 positions, which resulted in a lower gross-energy content and an increased solid-fat index at the chicken's body temperature. However, re-esterified palm oils did not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia, or growth performance, compared to native palm oil, so they can be used as alternative fat sources in broiler chick diets.

  17. Short preincubations during egg storage increase hatchability and chick quality in long-stored broiler eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated the efficacy of the SPIDES (short pre-incubations during egg storage) regimen in restoration of hatchability of broiler eggs during 21-day cool storage. Prolonged cool storage reduced hatchability of stored eggs from 92% to 71%. Alternatively, the SPIDES treatment, which consi...

  18. Influence of the sense of taste on broiler chick feed consumption.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Millar, R I

    1989-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of five flavored diets on feed consumption, weight gain, and feed efficiency of broiler cockerels. Isocaloric diets were flavored with .06% saccharin, 6% citric acid, 5% salt, .10% quinine, or .13% aspartame. In Experiment 1, 1-wk-old broiler cockerels were fed an unflavored control diet ad libitum from a divided feed tray for 3 wk. Sides of the feed tray were rotated daily, every other day, or not at all, to determine the effect of position on preference. In Experiment 2, 1-day-old broiler cockerels were offered a choice between an unflavored control diet and a flavored diet, in an ad libitum feeding arrangement, for 3 wk. In Experiment 3, 1-day-old broiler cockerels were offered a choice between two flavored diets fed ad libitum for 3 wk. Daily rotation of the feed tray eliminated preferences due to position. When each side of the feed tray contained the same unflavored diet and was rotated daily, there were no significant differences in feed consumption, weight gain, or feed efficiency. In Experiment 2, there were significant differences in feed consumption between the control diet and all flavored diets except aspartame. The birds offered saccharin, citric acid, salt, and quinine ate significantly less of these diets than of the unflavored control diet. In Experiment 3, the birds detected the differences in flavor and consumed the feed in a specific order of preference: aspartame, saccharin, citric acid, salt, quinine.

  19. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to coccidiosis in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that threonine (Thr) deficiency would exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdraw combined with coccidiosis, because of its high obligatory requirement by the gut. In this study, two dietary Thr treatments (0.49 and 0.90%) were fed to chicks from 1-21 d of age. At 13 d ...

  20. Influence of rapeseed meal on productivity and health of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Janjecić, Z; Grbesa, D; Muzic, S; Curić, S; Rupić, V; Liker, B; Dikić, Marija; Antunović, B; Zupanić, D

    2002-01-01

    Research was focussed on investigating the influence of different quantities (0, 10, 20 and 30%) of rapeseed meal (RM), 00-cultivar Silvia on production results, as well as on the morphological and pathohistological changes in the internal organs of chicks during the course of the experiment, measured on the 21st and 42nd days of the 42-day experiment. The experiment involved 120 chicks divided into four groups: a control group (C) and three experimental groups (E1-3). It was found that chicks in Groups C, E1 and E2 realised significantly (P < 0.05) higher gains than those in Group E3, both after the test period and at the end of the experiment. No significant differences with regard to feed conversion were found between groups of chicks. Throughout the experiment chicks in Groups E1-3 were found to have a significantly (P < 0.05) heavier liver. Compared to Groups E1-3, Group C chicks had a significantly (P < 0.05) heavier gizzard after 21 days, but following the finisher diet Group E3 had a significantly (P < 0.05) lighter gizzard. Compared with birds in Group C, those in Groups E2-3 had significantly heavier (P < 0.05) unevacuated intestines when fed the starter diet, and those in Groups E1-2 showed a similar result when fed the finisher diet. Chicks in Group E3 had a significantly lower grill weight than those in Groups C, E1 and E2, both in the first half of the experiment and at the end. The starter diet did not result in any differences in the quantity of abdominal fat among groups, but following the finisher diet Groups E2-3 showed significantly less abdominal fat in comparison to Groups C and E1 (P < 0.05). Group C showed a significantly higher carcass yield than Groups E1-3 (P < 0.05) in the first half of the experiment and at the end. Groups E1-3 manifested a slight to medium hypertrophy of thyroid epithelial tissue as well as slight thymus hypertrophy and slight atrophy of the cloacal bursa follicles.

  1. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Viveros, A; Chamorro, S; Pizarro, M; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2011-03-01

    Grapes have high amounts of phenolic compounds, which can modulate the gut activity as well as modify the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract. The microbiological activity of avoparcin, grape pomace concentrate, and grape seed extract was evaluated in an in vitro study. An in vivo experiment was also conducted to study the effect of the inclusion of grape pomace concentrate and grape seed extract in the diet of broiler chicks on performance, intestinal microflora (by cultured and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology), and gut morphology at 21 d of age. Dietary treatments included an antibiotic-free diet (CON), a positive control (AVP; 50 mg/kg of avoparcin), and antibiotic-free diets containing grape pomace concentrate (GPC; 60 g/kg) or grape seed extract (GSE; 7.2 g/kg). Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the GSE diet, which showed decreased weight gain. In the ileal content, birds fed CON and GSE diets had the highest populations of Lactobacillus. Compared with the CON diet, the AVP, GPC, and GSE diets increased the populations of Enterococcus and decreased the counts of Clostridium in the ileal content. In the cecal digesta, birds fed GPC and GSE diets had higher populations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Clostridium than birds in any other treatment group. Animals fed GPC and GSE diets showed a higher biodiversity degree than those fed control diets. The frequency of detection of several potential phenol-degrading bacteria as well as unidentified and uncultured organisms was increased in animals fed GPC and GSE diets. Birds fed the CON diet had longer villi and deeper crypt depth than birds in any other treatment group. The highest villi height:crypt depth ratio corresponded to birds fed GPC and AVP diets and the lowest to those fed CON and GSE diets. In conclusion, dietary polyphenol-rich grape products modify the gut morphology and intestinal

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation with fermented ginkgo leaves on antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Sun, Z Y; Cao, F L; Ahmad, H; Yang, X H; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2015-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with three types of fermented Ginkgo-leaves (FGL) on growth, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks. 2. A total of 300 d-old broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replications of 10 birds each. Birds were fed on basal diets (Control) or basal diets supplemented with 0.5% FGL with Candida utilis (CF group), Aspergillus niger (AF group) or their combined fermentation (CAF group), respectively, for a 42 d feeding trial. 3. AF and CAF supplementation improved body weight gain (BWG) (22-42 d) and feed conversion ratio (22-42 d and 1-42 d). Concentrations of serum α-tocopherol in CAF group, as well as hepatic α-tocopherol in the three FGL groups were increased, while hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were greatly decreased in group AF and CAF. Chickens in AF and CAF groups had decreased hepatic protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as jejunal and ileal protein carbonyls. The total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and glutathione (GSH) of both jejunum and ileum of the CAF group were higher than the other groups. 4. Duodenal and jejunal villous height of birds fed on the AF and CAF diets were increased, while jejunal crypt depth (CD) was decreased. Furthermore, birds fed on AF and CAF supplemented diets had increased ileal lactobacilli populations. Decreased ileal and caecal Escherichia coli and Salmonellas populations was found for the birds fed on CAF supplemented diets. 5. The present study may indicate that the improved feed efficiency and intestinal functions in the group supplemented with AF and CAF are directly connected with the improved antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbial ecology.

  3. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  4. Vaccination of commercial broiler chicks against avian metapneumovirus infection: a comparison of drinking-water, spray and oculo-oral delivery methods.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Kannan; Bufton, Andrew; Pearson, Andrew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard C

    2010-05-21

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine was administered by spray, drinking water or oculo-oral methods to separate groups of broiler chicks under field conditions. Following this, the chicks were immediately transferred to separate rooms in an experimental isolation house, monitored and challenged with virulent subtype B aMPV. No clinical signs were recorded following the vaccination methods. In the oculo-oral vaccinated chicks, 40-60% of the birds were vaccine virus positive by RT-PCR. In addition, in comparison to other groups, statistically higher levels of aMPV ELISA antibodies were detected. After spray vaccination, the number of chicks positive for the vaccine virus increased gradually from 10% at one week to 30% by 3 weeks post vaccination. Following drinking water vaccination, 30% of chicks were aMPV positive at 1 week but negative by 3 weeks post vaccination. In both, spray and drinking water vaccinated groups, no ELISA antibodies were detected, but when challenged all chicks were protected against disease. At 5 days post challenge, 100% of chicks in the unvaccinated and those vaccinated by spray or drinking water routes but only 20% of the oculo-oral-vaccinated chicks were aMPV positive by RT-PCR. At 10 days post challenge, 10% of chicks in each group were aMPV RT-PCR positive. On challenge, all vaccinated chicks were protected against disease. It appears that when aMPV vaccine is accurately applied to chicks by spray or drinking water routes, both are capable of giving protection against clinical disease equal to that induced in those chicks vaccinated individually by the oculo-oral route.

  5. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  6. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  7. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  8. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  9. [The effect of betain on biology and morphology of developmental stages of Eimeria acervulina in broiler chicks experimentally infected].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Niang, Tania Marcia S; Gomes, Augusto V da C; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2006-01-01

    Purposing to investigate the betaine effect on biology and morphology of developmental stages of Eimeria acervulina, 420 broiler chicks Cobb were experimentally inoculated with 2 x 10(5) sporulated oocysts and housed in battery cages in a block design with five treatments and six replicates each, including a positive control, a group treated with salinomycin and growth promoter plus three levels of betaine as additive in the feed at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15%. Measurements of oocysts, sporocysts and endogenous stages were performed as morphological parameters, while pre patent and patent periods and sporulation time were taken as biological parameters. Morphology was also associated with the mathematical constant Phi (1.618) to evaluate possible relationship. Betaine was able to cause modifications in both biology and morphology of oocysts and sporocysts, whereas it was weakly able to affect developmental stages based on trophozoites and macrogamonts measurements. According to the measures of sporocysts E. acervulina development was closely related to Phi. PMID:17196124

  10. Effect of concurrent feeding of furazolidone and sodium chloride upon some clinical, pathological and cardiac morphometric parameters in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Islam, N; Khan, M Z; Zaman, Q; Muhammad, G

    1995-04-01

    Broiler chicks in different groups were fed furazolidone (0, 400 and 800 mg/kg feed) and sodium chloride (500 and 1510 mg/kg feed) separately and concurrently from 1 to 30 days of age. Furazolidone (Fz) induced ascites, leg weakness, convulsions, depression and mortality was exacerbated by concurrent feeding of 1510 mg NaCl. Hemorrhages in the liver, swollen kidneys, pallor of the kidneys and cystic testes were present in all birds fed furazolidone either alone or in combination with NaCl. However, at microscopic level, necrotic changes were observed in the liver and kidneys of birds fed NaCl only. Fz-induced cardiac ventricular dilatation and thinning of walls were more severe when 400 mg Fz was fed concurrently with 1510 mg NaCl but feeding of 800 mg Fz with the same level of NaCl resulted in partial amelioration of cardiac changes. It is suggested that high dietary NaCl may exacerbate and alter the clinical and morphological picture of Fz toxicosis.

  11. The influence of BPC 157 on nitric oxide agonist and antagonist induced lesions in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Grabarevic, Z; Tisljar, M; Artukovic, B; Bratulic, M; Dzaja, P; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P; Peric, J; Geres, D; Kos, J

    1997-01-01

    We describe the effects of nitric oxide (NO) agonists and antagonists and the influence of a novel organoprotective pentadecapeptide BPC 157, on the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome and tissue lesions in chicks. Acute toxicity, which includes single dose application of saline (1 mL intraperitoneally (i.p.)), BPC 157 (10 micrograms/kg bw), L-NAME (NO antagonist, doses 50, 100, 150 mg/kg bw) and L-arginine (NO agonist/100 mg/kg bw with their combination L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine) was investigated. In this experiment pathohistological examination of the spleen, heart, liver and lungs and hematological analysis was conducted. In the chronic toxicity experiment, the animals were treated daily for 5 weeks with L-NAME (10 mg/kg bw), L-arginine (100 mg/kg bw), BPC 157 (10 micrograms/kg bw) and their combinations (L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine) i.p. Seven animals from each group, including controls (saline 1 mL i.p.) were killed every week. Application of L-NAME caused pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in the treated chicks, which was prevented by the simultaneous application of L-arginine and BPC 157. Pathohistological examination of both acute and chronic toxicity revealed that L-NAME caused severe tissue damage (myocardial and hepatic cell necrosis, necrosis of the lymphoid cells in the spleen) while L-arginine provoked predominantly congestion, edema and hemorrhages in all organs. The effect of L-NAME was successfully inhibited by the application of L-arginine and BPC 157 but the latter substance did not cause any tissue or organ damage. Hematological analysis shows significant hemoglobin and leukocyte number decrease in the L-NAME-treated groups of chicks. PMID:9403788

  12. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  13. Effects of phenyllactic acid on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, relative organ weight, blood characteristics, and meat quality of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Lee, J H; Yoo, J S; Cho, J H; Kim, H J; Kim, I H

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with phenyllactic acid (PLA) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, relative organ weight, blood characteristics, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 500 male broilers (BW = 46.3 g) were randomly allotted into 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet + 44 mg/kg of avilamycin (ANT), 3) basal diet + 0.2% PLA (PLA0.2), 4) basal diet + 0.4% PLA (PLA0.4), 5) basal diet + 0.2% PLA + 44 mg/kg of avilamycin (PA). Chicks fed PLA had lower feed intake (FI) from d 0 to 7 (P < 0.05) than those fed CON and ANT. From d 21 to 35, BW gain was greater in ANT, PLA0.4, and PA diets than CON and PLA0.2 diets (P < 0.05), whereas the FI was lowest in the PLA0.4 diet. Feed efficiency was depressed (P < 0.05) by the antibiotics and PLA supplementation during d 0 to 7, whereas it was improved (P < 0.05) in the PLA and ANT diets during d 21 to 35, with the best value in PLA0.4.The population of Escherichia coli in the large intestine was lower in the ANT, PLA0.4, and PA groups than the CON and PLA0.2 groups (P < 0.05). The relative weights of gizzard, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, breast, and abdominal fat were unaffected by any of the dietary supplementations. Treatment of PLA led to an increase (P < 0.05) in the concentrations of white blood cells and lymphocyte percentage. The yellowness of breast muscle decreased by ANT, PLA0.4, and PA treatment. In conclusion, PLA can improve growth performance when it is supplemented in finisher diet (d 21 to 35), whereas it can depress BW gain and FI in earlier days (d 0 to 7). In addition, PLA can also decrease the number of E. coli in the large intestine and improve the number of immune-related blood cells.

  14. Effects of probiotics and maternal vaccination on Salmonella enteritidis infection in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Avila, L A F; Nascimento, V P; Salle, C T P; Moraes, H L S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of probiotics and maternal vaccination with an inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine on day-old chicks challenged with SE were evaluated. A 2 X 3 factorial arrangement was used (with or without probiotics; breeders nonvaccinated, vaccinated intramuscularly, or vaccinated intraperitoneally). Three trials were conducted in isolation cabinets and SE challenge was different between trials. The number of SE organisms per chick and the time interval between housing and introduction of seeder birds (hereafter called challenge) were 1.6 X 10(8) and 1 hr (Trial I), 1.8 X 10(6) and 12 hr (Trial II), and 1.2 X 10(4) and 24 hr (Trial III). SE recovery was assessed in ceca and liver at 3, 5, and 7 days postchallenge, and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) in ceca was evaluated at 5 and 7 days postchallenge. The number of SE (log CFU) in the ceca reduced 0.56 log (from 7.59 to 7.03) and 1.45 log (7.62 to 6.17) because of the treatment with probiotics in Trials II and III, respectively. The greater reduction in Trial III indicates the importance of the early use of probiotics on the prevention of SE infection. Treatment with probiotics resulted in a smaller number of SE-positive livers after 5 days postchallenge on Trial III. Although there was no significant effect of maternal vaccination on the number of SE CFU in the ceca, a significant effect of maternal vaccination on the SE CFU was observed in the liver, but not in the ceca at 5 days after challenge. PMID:17274302

  15. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  16. Effects of different levels of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed powder and extract on serum biochemical parameters, microbiota, and immunity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds.

  17. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets. PMID:26031004

  18. Effects of different levels of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed powder and extract on serum biochemical parameters, microbiota, and immunity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  19. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count.

  20. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523

  1. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry. PMID:26799658

  2. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry. PMID:26799658

  3. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  4. Broiler chicks with slow-feathering (K) or rapid-feathering (k+) genes: Effects of environmental stressors on physiological adaptive indicators up to 56 h posthatch.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H; Manafi, M

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the physiological responses of slow-feathering (K) and rapid-feathering (k(+)) genes in neonate broiler chicks subjected to posthatch fasting (PHF). In the first experiment, 300 Ross 308 chicks were denied access to feed and water for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 h posthatch. In the second experiment, 625 Ross 308 chicks were subjected to PHF for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. In experiment 1, the weight loss rate increased over 56 h PHF and did not differ between fast- and slow-feathering chicks up to 28 h posthatch but was greater (P < 0.05) in fast-feathering birds from 28 to 56 h posthatch. The fast-feathering genotypes demonstrated greater serum K levels following 7, 21, and 56 h (P < 0.05) and serum uric acid (UA) levels after 7, 21, 28, 49, and 56 h PHF (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, weight loss increased linearly with no difference between fast- and slow-feathering chicks through 36 h PHF but increased in fast-feathering birds when PHF continued for 48 h. Neonatal fasting periods of 12 to 48 h decreased breast and thigh percentage (P < 0.01), with no difference between feathering genotypes. The fast-feathering genotypes showed greater serum HDL levels at 24 h (P < 0.05) and greater serum UA concentration following 12, 36, and 48 h PHF (P < 0.05). The mean frequency of jumping (P < 0.01) and active wakefulness (P > 0.01) was increased as PHF continued from 12 to 48 h across genotypes. At 48 h, the fast-feathering chicks showed greater frequency of escape attempts from the test field (P < 0.01). It was concluded that slow-feathering chicks are more capable of withstanding PHF periods lasting more than 28 h. This is important to consider when day-old chicks are transported for extended periods without access to feed.

  5. Effect of various fiber types and choice feeding of fiber on performance, gut development, humoral immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abasali

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fibrous materials with one single diet or by choice feeding on performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 240-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to one of 4 treatments, comprising 5 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: a basal diet (control) or 30 g/kg sugar beet pulp (SBP), 30 g/kg rice hull (RH), or 30 g/kg equal combination of them (SBP/RH) added to the basal diet. Results showed SBP and SBP/RH impaired daily weight gain (DWG) in the growing period compared with control (P < 0.05). Additionally, chickens that received SBP had deteriorated FCR across the entire rearing period (P < 0.05). In comparison to control and SBP, supplementing SBP/RH significantly increased antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV; P < 0.05) at 23 d of age. Furthermore, SBP reduced duodenal and ileal villus height compared with control at 21 d of age. In experiment 2, a total of 240 chicks were allotted to 4 experimental treatments of feeding: 1) control; or choice feeding between 2) control and SBP (C-SBP); 3) control and RH (C-RH); 4) control and SBP/RH (C- SBP/RH). Results indicated that chicks had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. RH was consumed lower than C-SBP/RH and C-SBP in starter and growing periods, respectively (P < 0.05). Chickens choice fed RH and SBP/RH had greater daily feed intake than control across 14 to 28 d of age (P < 0.05). However, DWG reduced in all fiber fed birds (P < 0.05) and resulted in impaired FCR in broilers of the C-SBP group (P < 0.05). In addition, choice feeding of SBP/RH increased antibody titer against NDV as compared with control and SBP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, fiber inclusion in both experiments impaired growth performance but an equal combination of fiber improved immunity. In addition, broilers had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. PMID

  6. Effect of various fiber types and choice feeding of fiber on performance, gut development, humoral immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abasali

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fibrous materials with one single diet or by choice feeding on performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 240-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to one of 4 treatments, comprising 5 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: a basal diet (control) or 30 g/kg sugar beet pulp (SBP), 30 g/kg rice hull (RH), or 30 g/kg equal combination of them (SBP/RH) added to the basal diet. Results showed SBP and SBP/RH impaired daily weight gain (DWG) in the growing period compared with control (P < 0.05). Additionally, chickens that received SBP had deteriorated FCR across the entire rearing period (P < 0.05). In comparison to control and SBP, supplementing SBP/RH significantly increased antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV; P < 0.05) at 23 d of age. Furthermore, SBP reduced duodenal and ileal villus height compared with control at 21 d of age. In experiment 2, a total of 240 chicks were allotted to 4 experimental treatments of feeding: 1) control; or choice feeding between 2) control and SBP (C-SBP); 3) control and RH (C-RH); 4) control and SBP/RH (C- SBP/RH). Results indicated that chicks had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. RH was consumed lower than C-SBP/RH and C-SBP in starter and growing periods, respectively (P < 0.05). Chickens choice fed RH and SBP/RH had greater daily feed intake than control across 14 to 28 d of age (P < 0.05). However, DWG reduced in all fiber fed birds (P < 0.05) and resulted in impaired FCR in broilers of the C-SBP group (P < 0.05). In addition, choice feeding of SBP/RH increased antibody titer against NDV as compared with control and SBP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, fiber inclusion in both experiments impaired growth performance but an equal combination of fiber improved immunity. In addition, broilers had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber.

  7. Effect of different concentrations of ginger root powder and its essential oil on growth performance, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Habibi, R; Sadeghi, Gh; Karimi, A

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) feed supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks under conditions of heat stress (32 ± 2ºC for 8 h per d). 2. A total of 336 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly assigned to one of 6 dietary groups representing: basal diet with no supplement as control, basal diet containing 100 mg/kg vitamin E as positive control, basal diets containing either 7.5 or 15 g/kg of ginger root powder, and diets containing 75 or 150 mg/kg of ginger essential oil. 3. The results indicated that at 22 d of age, the group receiving 7.5 g/kg of ginger root powder experienced significantly increased body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) compared to the control group. There were no significant difference among the diet groups regarding BW, BWG, feed intake (FI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42 and 49 d of age. 4. The inclusion of powder and essential oil of ginger in broiler diets did not affect carcass characteristics and blood parameters of the chickens. However, in the group receiving 150 mg/kg ginger essential oil, the total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activity in liver increased compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver also decreased in the groups receiving ginger powder and essential oil compared to that in the control group. There were no significant difference between experimental groups regarding glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), TSOD and catalase (CAT) enzymes in red blood cells. All dietary groups increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased MDA concentration in serum compared to the control group. 5. The results of this study suggest that ginger powder and essential oils may be a suitable replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Results also suggest that ginger powder might be better than extracted essential oil for improving

  8. Effect of different concentrations of ginger root powder and its essential oil on growth performance, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Habibi, R; Sadeghi, Gh; Karimi, A

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) feed supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks under conditions of heat stress (32 ± 2ºC for 8 h per d). 2. A total of 336 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly assigned to one of 6 dietary groups representing: basal diet with no supplement as control, basal diet containing 100 mg/kg vitamin E as positive control, basal diets containing either 7.5 or 15 g/kg of ginger root powder, and diets containing 75 or 150 mg/kg of ginger essential oil. 3. The results indicated that at 22 d of age, the group receiving 7.5 g/kg of ginger root powder experienced significantly increased body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) compared to the control group. There were no significant difference among the diet groups regarding BW, BWG, feed intake (FI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42 and 49 d of age. 4. The inclusion of powder and essential oil of ginger in broiler diets did not affect carcass characteristics and blood parameters of the chickens. However, in the group receiving 150 mg/kg ginger essential oil, the total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activity in liver increased compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver also decreased in the groups receiving ginger powder and essential oil compared to that in the control group. There were no significant difference between experimental groups regarding glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), TSOD and catalase (CAT) enzymes in red blood cells. All dietary groups increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased MDA concentration in serum compared to the control group. 5. The results of this study suggest that ginger powder and essential oils may be a suitable replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Results also suggest that ginger powder might be better than extracted essential oil for improving

  9. Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to ameliorate the adverse effects of 0.5 to 2 mg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg in broiler chicks. The study consisted of 8 dietary treatments, including 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with or without HSCAS (0.5%) fed to 8 replicate cages per diet (6 males chicks per cage) from 0 to 21 d of age. Cumulative feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.0001), and G:F (P = 0.004) of birds fed the 2 mg of AFB1/kg of diet were significantly lower in comparison with birds fed 0 to 1 mg of AFB1/kg. Relative liver weight was increased in the 2 mg of AFB1/kg group (P < 0.0001). Dietary HSCAS improved cumulative BW gain (main effect P = 0.06), particularly from 14 to 21 d of age (P = 0.037). Dietary HSCAS also reversed the increase in relative liver weight for birds fed AFB1 (P = 0.019). Dietary AFB1 negatively affected major serum parameters (albumin, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase), whereas supplementation with HSCAS partially alleviated the affected serum biochemistry. In addition, serum complement activity and liver gene expression were negatively affected by 2 mg of AFB1/kg. The HSCAS supplement increased the liver expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with HSCAS can effectively improve BW gain and partially ameliorate aflatoxicosis for broiler chicks fed AFB1-contaminated feeds.

  10. Effects of dietary substitution of zinc-methionine for inorganic zinc sources on growth performance, tissue zinc accumulation and some blood parameters in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of zinc-methionine (ZnMet) as a replacement for conventional inorganic zinc sources on performance, tissue zinc accumulation and some plasma indices in broiler chicks. A total of 450-day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five pen replicates of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments consisted of two basal diets supplemented with 40 mg/kg added Zn as feed-grade Zn sulphate or Zn oxide in which, Zn was replaced with that supplied from ZnMet complex by 25, 50, 75 or 100%. At 42 days of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were bled to measure plasma metabolites; then, the chicks were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics. Results showed that dietary treatments affected (p < 0.05) feed intake during the starter period, and chicks on Zn oxide diets consumed more feed than sulphate counterparts. Furthermore, dietary substitution of inorganic Zn sources by ZnMet caused improvements (p < 0.01) in body weight gain during all experimental periods. Dietary supplementation of ZnMet improved feed conversion efficiency during 1-21 and 1-42, but not in 21-42 days of age. Complete replacement of inorganic Zn by that supplied from ZnMet caused an increase (p < 0.05) in relative liver weight. Similarly, dietary inclusion of ZnMet increased breast meat and carcass yields and reduced abdominal fat percentage (p < 0.05). Incremental levels of ZnMet increased (p < 0.05) zinc concentrations in liver and thymus, and the highest zinc accumulations were seen in 100% ZnMet-supplemented birds. Interestingly, introduction of ZnMet into the diets partially in place of inorganic sources resulted in decreases (p < 0.01) in plasma uric acid and triglycerides concentrations. The present findings indicated that dietary ZnMet inclusion in replacement of inorganic sources in addition to improving growth performance, reduced plasma uric acid and triglycerides concentrations, consequently

  11. Effect of TEX-OE(®) treatment on the development of heat shock proteins in commercial broiler chicks and the impact on performance indicators in the grow-out period.

    PubMed

    Parker, C D; Prins, C; Saliba, C; Gutierrez, G; Serrar, M

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins, shown to protect organisms against physical and physiological stress. TEX-OE(®) is a patented total extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica, which has been demonstrated to accelerate the development of HSPs in several animal species. One-day-old commercial broiler chicks were treated with TEX-OE(®); HSP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a large commercial field trial investigated key performance indicators (KPIs) in treated versus untreated controls chicks. TEX-OE(®) significantly increased HSP concentrations in treated chicks versus controls. Final cumulative mortality, liveweight and percentage factory-rejects were better than in controls. The accelerated HSP response may enable chicks to cope with early stressors, which is reflected in improved KPIs. PMID:25181283

  12. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets.

  13. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses.

  14. Comparative effects of in ovo versus subcutaneous administration of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time on the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Barbosa, T M; Cummings, T S; Dickson, J; Womack, S K

    2016-09-01

    Effects of method of administration [moa; in ovo (i.o.) or s.c.] of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time (pht) on early post-hatch male broiler chick quality was investigated. Sixty-five Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were randomly set in each of 15 replicate trays (blocks) belonging to each of 4 pre-assigned moa and pht treatment combinations (3,900 total eggs) in a single stage Jamesway incubator. Eggs that were i.o.-vaccinated received injections at 18 d of incubation and male chicks from eggs that were not i.o.-injected were vaccinated by s.c. injection at hatch. The i.o. injections (50 μL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg injector and the s.c. injections (200 μL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic s.c. injector. Male chicks from each moa group also were subjected to either a 4 or 18 h pht. At hatch and placement total and yolk-free BW; body length; body mass index; yolk sac weight; yolk-free body and yolk sac weights as percentages of total BW; and yolk-free body and yolk moisture concentrations were determined. Chick BW also was determined at 7 d of age. Hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected by i.o. injection. However, at hatch, body length was increased and body mass index was decreased in response to i.o. injection. No main effect of moa or an interactive effect with pht was observed for the above variables at placement. However, body length was longer and body mass was lower in the 18 h than in the 4 h pht chicks. Placement yolk sac and body weights, and the 7 d BW of 18 h pht chicks was also lower than that of 4 h pht chicks. In conclusion, prolonging pht for 14 h adversely affected early chick quality, whereas i.o. injection did not negatively affect the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks whether or not they were held for 4 or 18 h prior to placement.

  15. Comparative effects of in ovo versus subcutaneous administration of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time on the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Barbosa, T M; Cummings, T S; Dickson, J; Womack, S K

    2016-09-01

    Effects of method of administration [moa; in ovo (i.o.) or s.c.] of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time (pht) on early post-hatch male broiler chick quality was investigated. Sixty-five Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were randomly set in each of 15 replicate trays (blocks) belonging to each of 4 pre-assigned moa and pht treatment combinations (3,900 total eggs) in a single stage Jamesway incubator. Eggs that were i.o.-vaccinated received injections at 18 d of incubation and male chicks from eggs that were not i.o.-injected were vaccinated by s.c. injection at hatch. The i.o. injections (50 μL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg injector and the s.c. injections (200 μL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic s.c. injector. Male chicks from each moa group also were subjected to either a 4 or 18 h pht. At hatch and placement total and yolk-free BW; body length; body mass index; yolk sac weight; yolk-free body and yolk sac weights as percentages of total BW; and yolk-free body and yolk moisture concentrations were determined. Chick BW also was determined at 7 d of age. Hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected by i.o. injection. However, at hatch, body length was increased and body mass index was decreased in response to i.o. injection. No main effect of moa or an interactive effect with pht was observed for the above variables at placement. However, body length was longer and body mass was lower in the 18 h than in the 4 h pht chicks. Placement yolk sac and body weights, and the 7 d BW of 18 h pht chicks was also lower than that of 4 h pht chicks. In conclusion, prolonging pht for 14 h adversely affected early chick quality, whereas i.o. injection did not negatively affect the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks whether or not they were held for 4 or 18 h prior to placement. PMID:27143771

  16. Methionine improves the performance and breast muscle growth of broilers with lower hatching weight by altering the expression of genes associated with the insulin-like growth factor-I signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Wu, Ping; Chen, Yueping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-01-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the responses of broilers with different hatching weights (HW) to dietary methionine (Met). A total of 192 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48·3 (sem 0·1) g and light: 41·7 (sem 0·1) g) were allocated to a 2 (HW) × 2 (Met) factorial arrangement with six replicates of eight chicks. Control starter (1-21 d) and finisher (22-42 d) diets contained 0·50 and 0·43 % Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high-Met treatment were 0·60 and 0·53 %. Light chicks had poorer (P< 0·05) growth performance and breast muscle weight and lower (P< 0·05) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration and mRNA level in breast muscle than heavy chicks when both were fed the control diets. High-Met diets improved performance and promoted breast muscle growth and IGF-I concentration in light chicks (P< 0·05). Increased IGF-I and target of rapamycin (TOR) mRNA levels as well as decreased eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), atrogin-1 and forkhead box O 4 (FOXO4) mRNA levels were induced by high-Met diets in light chicks (P< 0·05). In conclusion, the Met requirement of broilers might depend on their HW and Met levels used in the control diets in the present study were adequate for heavy chicks but inadequate for light chicks, resulting in poorer performance and breast muscle growth, which were improved by increasing dietary Met supply presumably through alterations in IGF-I synthesis and gene expression of the TOR/4EBP1 and FOXO4/atrogin-1 pathway.

  17. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the expression of hepatic genes associated with biotransformation, antioxidant, and immune systems in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Yarru, L P; Settivari, R S; Gowda, N K S; Antoniou, E; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin, an antioxidant found in turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder (TMP), to ameliorate changes in gene expression in the livers of broiler chicks fed aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Four pen replicates of 5 chicks each were assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments, which included the following: A) basal diet containing no AFB(1) or TMP (control), B) basal diet supplemented with TMP (0.5%) that supplied 74 mg/kg of curcumin, C) basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg of AFB(1)/kg of diet, and D) basal diet supplemented with TMP that supplied 74 mg/kg of curcumin and 1.0 mg of AFB(1)/kg of diet. Aflatoxin reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake and BW gain and increased (P < 0.05) relative liver weight. Addition of TMP to the AFB(1) diet ameliorated (P < 0.05) the negative effects of AFB(1) on growth performance and liver weight. At the end of the 3-wk treatment period, livers were collected (6 per treatment) to evaluate changes in the expression of genes involved in antioxidant function [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST)], biotransformation [epoxide hydrolase (EH), cytochrome P450 1A1 and 2H1 (CYP1A1 and CYP2H1)], and the immune system [interleukins 6 and 2 (IL-6 and IL-2)]. Changes in gene expression were determined using the quantitative real-time PCR technique. There was no statistical difference in gene expression among the 4 treatment groups for CAT and IL-2 genes. Decreased expression of SOD, GST, and EH genes due to AFB(1) was alleviated by inclusion of TMP in the diet. Increased expression of IL-6, CYP1A1 and CYP2H1 genes due to AFB(1) was also alleviated by TMP. The current study demonstrates partial protective effects of TMP on changes in expression of antioxidant, biotransformation, and immune system genes in livers of chicks fed AFB(1). Practical application of the research is supplementation of TMP in diets to prevent or reduce the

  18. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior res...

  19. Supplemental effect of probiotic Bacillus subtilis B2A on productivity, organ weight, intestinal Salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality of growing broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kim, I H

    2014-08-01

    One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were used to investigate the additive effect during growth of Bacillus subtilis B2A derived from soil samples on productivity, organ weight, intestinal Salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality. Five hundred seventy-six birds (46 ± 0.5 g) were fed 3 different levels of B. subtilis B2A (1.1 × 10(4), 1.0 × 10(5), and 1.0 × 10(6) cfu), in a basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, for 28 d. In the current study, feed intake and feed conversion during 1 to 28 d showed significant improvement as dietary B. subtilis B2A increased from 1.1 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu (linear, P < 0.05). All blood parameters, such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations, were not influenced by B. subtilis B2A added into the diet; however, the weights of the bursa of Fabricius were significantly increased linearly in B. subtilis B2A-fed groups (P < 0.05). Bacillus subtilis B2A supplementation was associated with reduced intestinal Salmonella burden (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Breast meat pH and color were not affected by B. subtilis B2A, but 1 d drip loss was decreased (linear, P < 0.05). Our observations suggest that B. subtilis B2A benefits productivity and reduces Salmonella in broilers.

  20. Efficacy of a novel prebiotic and a commercial probiotic in reducing mortality and production losses due to cold stress and Escherichia coli challenge of broiler chicks 1.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; El-Gohary, F A; Zhou, Z Y; Shini, S

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics consisting of resistant starch may alter intestinal ecology, thus modulating inflammation and increasing intestinal health through increased cecal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Probiotics may directly alter the intestinal microbiome, resulting in the same effects. We hypothesize that adding prebiotics and probiotics to feed may protect the gut of young chicks under stress. Studies 1, 2, and 3 evaluated treatments in a cold stress (CS) and Escherichia coli (EC) oral challenge to 430 day-old broiler chicks for 3 wk. In study 1, prebiotics were administered as 15% of the diet during the first week only and consisted of the following: Hi-Maize resistant starch (HM), potato starch (PS), or raw potato (RP). In studies 2 and 3, the PS treatment was identical to study 1, and an additional probiotic treatment (PRO) was administered in feed and water. In study 1, PS protected BW during the first week and decreased the mortality of CS/EC-challenged birds during the first week and wk 3, while RP decreased the mortality of warm-brooded birds challenged with EC during the first week. In study 2, PS decreased and PRO increased the main effect mean (MEM) of the first week BW. PS and PRO numerically decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 23 and 29 points, respectively, in CS/EC-challenged birds with no effects on mortality. In study 3, PS decreased and PRO increased the first week and wk 3 MEM BW. PS numerically increased FCR by 16 points, while PRO decreased FCR by 2 points. Both PS and PRO tended to increase overall mortality, and PRO significantly increased mortality in the CS/EC challenge. These results suggest that the effects of PS may be too variable in this challenge model for further study; however, the PRO treatment improved production values and may have potential as an alternative to antibiotics during the first weeks after hatch. PMID:25743418

  1. Efficacy of a novel prebiotic and a commercial probiotic in reducing mortality and production losses due to cold stress and Escherichia coli challenge of broiler chicks 1.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; El-Gohary, F A; Zhou, Z Y; Shini, S

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics consisting of resistant starch may alter intestinal ecology, thus modulating inflammation and increasing intestinal health through increased cecal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Probiotics may directly alter the intestinal microbiome, resulting in the same effects. We hypothesize that adding prebiotics and probiotics to feed may protect the gut of young chicks under stress. Studies 1, 2, and 3 evaluated treatments in a cold stress (CS) and Escherichia coli (EC) oral challenge to 430 day-old broiler chicks for 3 wk. In study 1, prebiotics were administered as 15% of the diet during the first week only and consisted of the following: Hi-Maize resistant starch (HM), potato starch (PS), or raw potato (RP). In studies 2 and 3, the PS treatment was identical to study 1, and an additional probiotic treatment (PRO) was administered in feed and water. In study 1, PS protected BW during the first week and decreased the mortality of CS/EC-challenged birds during the first week and wk 3, while RP decreased the mortality of warm-brooded birds challenged with EC during the first week. In study 2, PS decreased and PRO increased the main effect mean (MEM) of the first week BW. PS and PRO numerically decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 23 and 29 points, respectively, in CS/EC-challenged birds with no effects on mortality. In study 3, PS decreased and PRO increased the first week and wk 3 MEM BW. PS numerically increased FCR by 16 points, while PRO decreased FCR by 2 points. Both PS and PRO tended to increase overall mortality, and PRO significantly increased mortality in the CS/EC challenge. These results suggest that the effects of PS may be too variable in this challenge model for further study; however, the PRO treatment improved production values and may have potential as an alternative to antibiotics during the first weeks after hatch.

  2. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed.

  3. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed. PMID:25846572

  4. Spread of hatch and delayed feed access affect post hatch performance of female broiler chicks up to day 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Li, Y; Willems, E; Willemsen, H; Franssens, L; Koppenol, A; Guo, X; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2014-04-01

    It is not rare that newly hatched chicks remain without feed for about 24 to 48 h before they are placed on farms due to a series of logistic operations. Furthermore, the spread in hatching time can also mount up to 30 to 48 h for late v. early hatchers. In other words, the practice is a complex combination of spread of hatch and delayed feed access. The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of hatching time with a delay in feed access of 48 h, starting from their hatch-time (biological age). When chicks had access to feed immediately after hatch, late hatchers had a higher feed intake and relative growth rate up to day 5 compared with their early hatched counterparts. Feed deprivation during the first 48 h resulted in retarded early growth rate, which was further aggravated by an impaired feed intake after refeeding. In addition, the differential effects of hatching time on relative growth rate and feed intake observed in immediately fed chicks were eliminated by the 48 h feed delay. The yolk utilization after hatch was faster for the late hatchers up to biological day 2 regardless of the feeding treatments. Hatching muscle glycogen content was higher in the late hatchers compared with that of their early counterparts at hatch and at biological day 2 independent of feeding treatment. Moreover, the liver glycogen content of the late hatchers was also higher at hatch. For the immediately fed chicks, the proportional breast muscle weight of the late hatchers was higher at biological day 2 and 5. For the starved chicks, on the other hand, this effect was only observed after they had access to feed (biological day 5). The different plasma T3 levels at hatch may have contributed to the different post hatch performance. It is concluded that the spread of hatch influenced post hatch performance, especially appetite and growth at least until day 5. Moreover, the delay in feed access interacted with the hatching time and caused adverse effects on the

  5. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  6. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding), intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days) and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding) groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) (P<0.05) and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) (P<0.05), and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.01) mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P<0.05) and of TRα was lower (P<0.01) than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P<0.05), indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (P<0.001) or RF (P<0.05) cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these

  7. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. PMID:25864115

  8. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers.

  9. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  10. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  11. Translocation of Campylobacter and Salmonella to the spleen and liver/gallbladder in 7 and 14 day old broiler chicks following oral gavage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-of-hatch broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery and orally gavaged with 0.10mL of either 103 or 106 cells of a marker strain of Campylobacter coli (CC) or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). At one and two wk after inoculation 10 broilers from the control and each treatment group were human...

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of yeast extract in reducing intestinal Clostridium perfringens levels in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Thanissery, R; McReynolds, J L; Conner, D E; Macklin, K S; Curtis, P A; Fasina, Y O

    2010-11-01

    The etiological agent of necrotic enteritis is Clostridium perfringens. Traditionally, necrotic enteritis is controlled with in-feed antibiotics. However, increasing consumer demand for drug-free poultry has fostered the search for nonantibiotic alternatives. Yeast extract contain nucleotides that are immunomodulatory and also essential for cellular functions. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of NuPro yeast extract (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) in reducing intestinal C. perfringens levels in broiler chickens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old male broiler chicks were obtained and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a battery cage trial. Treatment 1 consisted of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) without added bacitracin methylene disalicylate or NuPro. Treatment 2 consisted of chicks fed BD into which bacitracin methylene disalicylate was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 consisted of chicks fed BD supplemented with NuPro at a 2% level for the first 10 d of the experiment. Treatments 4 (PX), 5, and 6 (PN) consisted of chicks that were challenged with 3 mL of the C. perfringens inoculum (~10(7) cfu/mL) on d 14, 15, and 16 of the experiment and fed diets similar to treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. On d 1 and 7 postchallenge, intestinal C. perfringens levels, lesion scores, and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed. On d 1 postchallenge, C. perfringens level in treatment 5 (2.09 log(10) cfu/g) was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the PX treatment (4.71 log(10) cfu/g) but similar to the PN treatment (2.98 log(10) cfu/g). A similar trend was observed on d 7 postchallenge. NuPro supplementation enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05) in C. perfringens-challenged chicks and appeared to reduce intestinal lesion scores. Although dietary supplementation of NuPro in the PN treatment reduced C. perfringens levels by 1.73 and 0.68 log(10) cfu/g compared with the PX treatment on d 1 and 7 postchallenge, respectively, these

  13. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens.

  14. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  15. Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gocsik, É; Kortes, H E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most prevalent and economically relevant endemic diseases in the broiler farms. Health care costs consisted of losses and expenditures. The study investigated whether higher animal welfare standards increased health care costs, in both absolute and relative terms, and also examined which cost components (losses or expenditures) were affected and, if so, to what extent. The results show that health care costs represent only a small proportion of total production costs in each production system. Losses account for the major part of health care costs, which makes it difficult to detect the actual effect of diseases on total health care costs. We conclude that, although differences in health care costs exist across production systems, health care costs only make a minor contribution to the total production costs relative to other costs, such as feed costs and purchase of 1-d-old chicks.

  16. Biocheck.UGent: a quantitative tool to measure biosecurity at broiler farms and the relationship with technical performances and antimicrobial use.

    PubMed

    Gelaude, P; Schlepers, M; Verlinden, M; Laanen, M; Dewulf, J

    2014-11-01

    The Biocheck.UGent scoring system has been developed to measure and quantify the level of biosecurity on broiler farms. This tool is composed of all relevant components of biosecurity on broiler farms and is subdivided into external (purchase of 1-d-old chicks, off-farm movements of live animals, feed and water supply, removal of manure and dead birds, entrance of visitors and personnel, supply of materials, infrastructure and biological vectors, location of the farm) and internal (disease management, cleaning and disinfection, materials, and measures between compartments) biosecurity. The unique feature of this scoring system is that it takes the relative importance of the different biosecurity aspects into account, resulting in a risk-based weighted score. The Biocheck.UGent scoring system and accompanying questionnaire can be filled in for free at www.Biocheck.UGent.be. The obtained biosecurity scores are provided immediately after completion of the questionnaire, and the scores for each subcategory can be compared with national averages to allow the farmer to benchmark the obtained results to his colleagues. Preliminary results (n = 15) show a huge range in the biosecurity level on broilers farms in Belgium, with internal biosecurity scores ranging from 54/100 to 87/100 and external biosecurity scores ranging from 55/100 to 72/100. These first results show that despite the well-known importance of biosecurity, there's a lack of implementation of many biosecurity measures and room for improvement.

  17. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  18. An insight into the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of eggshells hatching broiler chicks and its effects to the hatcher environment.

    PubMed

    Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Hong, S W; Tong, Q; McGonnell, I; Demmers, T G M; Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Roulston, N; Verhelst, R; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic study of incubated eggs is an important component in the optimisation of incubation processes. However, research on the interaction of heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in eggs is rather limited and does not focus on the hatching stage of incubation. During hatch, both the recently hatched chick and the broken eggshell add extra heat and moisture contents to the hatcher environment. In this study, we have proposed a novel way to estimate thermodynamically the amount of water evaporated from a broken eggshell during hatch. The hypothesis of this study considers that previously reported drops in eggshell temperature during hatching of chicks is the result remaining water content evaporating from the eggshell, released on the inner membrane by the recently hatched wet chick, just before hatch. To reproduce this process, water was sprayed on eggshells to mimic the water-fluid from the wet body of a chick. For each sample of eggshell, the shell geometry and weight, surface area and eggshell temperature were measured. Water evaporation losses and convection coefficient were calculated using a novel model approach considering the simultaneous heat and mass transfer profiles in an eggshell. The calculated average convective coefficient was 23.9 ± 7.5 W/m(2) °C, similar to previously reported coefficients in literature as a function of 0.5-1m/s air speed range. Comparison between measured and calculated values for the water evaporation showed 68% probability accuracy, associated to the use of an experimentally derived single heat transfer coefficient. The results support our proposed modelling approach of heat and mass transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, by estimating the amount of evaporated water in an eggshell post-hatch, air humidity levels inside the hatcher can be optimised to ensure wet chicks dry properly while not dehydrating early hatching chicks.

  19. Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

    2007-04-01

    1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts.

  20. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  1. Behavior of salmonella heidelberg and salmonella enteritidis strains following broiler chick inoculation: evaluation of cecal morphometry, liver and cecum bacterial counts and fecal excretion patterns.

    PubMed

    Borsoi, Anderlise; Ruschel do Santos, Luciana; Beatriz Rodrigues, Laura; Luiz de Souza Moraes, Hamilton; Tadeu Pippi Salle, Carlos; Pinheiro do Nascimento, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has gained prominence in North America poultry production and in the poultry production of other countries. Salmonella Heidelberg has been isolated and reported from poultry and poultry products in Brazil since 1962, whereas Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has only emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health since 1993. These strains of Salmonella can cause intestinal problems in newly hatched chicks, and infection may persist until adulthood. Upon slaughter of chickens, Salmonella can contaminate carcasses, a condition that poses a threat to human health. The aim of this study was to compare the fecal excretion of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg in newly hatched chicks (orally inoculated with 10(5)ufc/mL each) until 20 days of age. In addition, the ratio of cecal villus height:crypt depth (morphometry) and liver and cecum cell counts was analyzed in chicks ranging from 0 to 3 days of age and infected with these two Salmonella strains. One hundred seventeen chicks were separated into one of three experimental groups: a control group, an SE-infected group and an SH-infected group. Eight chicks per group were euthanized at 6, 12 and 72 hours post-inoculation (pi) to allow for Salmonella isolation from the liver and cecum and for the collection of the cecum for villi and crypt analysis. Other birds were allowed to mature to 20 days of age and cloacal swabs were taken at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days pi to compare the fecal excretion of inoculated strains. The Salmonella Enteritidis group had a higher number of cells excreted during the trial. Both strains were isolated from the liver and cecum by 6h pi. At 12h pi the Salmonella Heidelberg group had high cell counts in the cecum. No difference was found in liver cell counts. Both strains showed lower villus height:crypt depth ratio than the control group post-infection.

  2. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  3. Efficacy of in-feed preparations of an anticoccidial, multienzyme, prebiotic, probiotic, and herbal essential oil mixture in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected broilers.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Aysul, N; Küçükyilmaz, K; Aypak, S; Ege, G; Catli, A U; Aksit, H; Cöven, F; Seyrek, K; Cinar, M

    2014-02-01

    The efficacies of 5 widely used dietary supplements were investigated on performance indices, fecal oocyst excretion, lesion score, and intestinal tract measurements in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected birds by using a comparative model. This study included 2,400 sexed Ross 308 broiler chicks that were equally divided in 2 groups: the infected group, experimentally infected with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. at 14 d of age, and the healthy controls. The birds in both groups were further divided equally into 6 groups, of which one was fed a basal diet and served as control without treatment and the other 5 served as experimental treatments. These 5 groups were fed 5 diets containing preparations of 60 mg/kg of anticoccidial salinomycin (SAL), 1 g/kg of multienzyme (ENZ), 1 g/kg of probiotic (PRO), 1 g/kg of prebiotic (PRE), and 40 mg/kg of an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM). Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant improvement in the infected animals, which indicates that dietary supplemental regimens with SAL, ENZ, PRO, and PRE initiated in 1-d-old chicks reduced adverse effects after challenge with coccidiosis; however, chicks that were administered EOM failed to show such improvement. Uninfected chickens showed significant improvement in FCR with supplements SAL, PRE, and EOM, which signifies significant (P < 0.01) infection by supplement interactions for BW gain and FCR. In the infected group, all of the supplements reduced the severity of coccidiosis lesions (P < 0.01) induced by mixed Eimeria spp. through the middle and lower regions of the small intestines, whereas supplementation with SAL or EOM alone was effective (P < 0.01) in reducing oocyst excretion compared with the control treatment. The data indicated that use of these subtherapeutically efficacious supplements (except EOM) in broiler production can lessen the depression in growth due to coccidial challenge.

  4. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B₁ in Starter Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B₁ in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B₁ residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver's ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  5. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Abdel-Raheem, S; Böhm, J

    2009-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of synbiotic and probiotic on broiler performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and histomorphological measurements of small intestine. Six hundred 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with synbiotic (1 kg of Biomin IMBO/ ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets), 3) basal diets supplemented with probiotic (1 kg of a homofermentative and a heterofermentative Lacto-bacillus sp./ton of feed). The BW, average daily weight gain, carcass yield percentage, and feed conversion rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by the dietary inclusion of the synbiotic compared with the control and probiotic-fed broilers. Moreover, a slight improvement in performance traits was observed in broilers fed the probiotic compared with control birds. The absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus tended to be greater (P < 0.1) for the probiotic-supplemented group compared with the synbiotic-supplemented group. The relative liver weight was greater (P < 0.05) for probiotic-fed birds compared with synbiotic-fed birds. Additionally, the weight of small intestine was greater for either probiotic- (3.17) or synbiotic-fed birds (3.11) than the controls (2.89). Furthermore, dietary treatments influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of either probiotic or synbiotic increased (P < 0.05) the villus height:crypt depth ratio and villus height in both duodenum and ileum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementations compared with control. In conclusion, synbiotic or probiotic displayed a greater efficacy as growth promoters for broilers. Furthermore, the dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of

  6. Genotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens fed low-protein feeds.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Dadak, A; Gille, L; Staniek, K; Hess, M; Böhm, J

    2012-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Deoxynivalenol has negative influences on the health and performance of chicks. However, there is little information available regarding the effect of DON on DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets on lymphocyte DNA have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the effect of DON on lipid peroxidation and lymphocyte DNA fragmentation in broilers and to evaluate the potential of Mycofix select in the prevention of toxin-mediated changes. Thirty-two 1-d-old (Ross 308 male) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a noncontaminated diet, and a second group was fed the same diet but supplemented with Mycofix select (0.25%). A third group of broilers was fed a diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg of feed-grade DON/kg of diet, and a fourth group was fed a DON-contaminated diet supplemented with Mycofix select. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected and the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage was measured in the plasma by comet assay. Deoxynivalenol increased (P = 0.016) the amount of DNA damage in chicken lymphocytes by 46.8%. Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA from the DON effects. To our knowledge, these are the first data on genotoxic effects of a moderate dose of DON on chicken lymphocytes. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in liver and liver enzyme activity did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the diets contaminated with the mycotoxin DON at moderate levels in combination with low-protein feed are able to induce lymphocyte DNA damage in chickens

  7. The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on broiler pigmentation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Rajput, N; Naeem, M; Ali, S; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L; Wang, T

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with 2 carotenoids, curcumin and lutein, on pigmentation and immunity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated broiler chicks. Two hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatment groups: a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of curcumin (CRM), or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of lutein (LTN) for 42 d. The birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza on d 10. At 16, 18, and 20 d of age, half of the chicks in each group were injected in the abdominal region with either LPS (250 mg/kg of BW) or an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl. The intensity of the shank skin color (Roche color fan score) and the b* (yellow) values of the breasts and thighs were highest in lutein-supplemented broilers, followed by curcumin-supplemented and control broilers, whereas the a* (red) value of the thigh muscle was highest in curcumin-supplemented LPS-induced birds. At 42 d, the relative weight of the abdominal fat was lowest in the CRM-supplemented group, followed by the LTN-supplemented and control groups; the spleen weight was lower in the non-LPS-induced LTN-supplemented group than the LPS-induced control group. The ND and avian influenza titers were significantly higher in the CRM-supplemented group than in the other groups at 20 d; at 30 d, the ND titer was significantly higher in the LPS-induced LTN group. Supplementation with curcumin significantly promoted B and T lymphocyte proliferation in both LPS- and non-LPS-induced birds at 21 d. Curcumin also promoted B lymphocyte proliferation in non-LPS-induced birds at 42 d. Curcumin significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at 42 d in non-LPS-treated birds, whereas lutein significantly increased the activities of these enzymes in LPS-induced birds. Both carotenoids significantly

  8. A study of nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks fed hairy and hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) products.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, R W; Ram, J I; Hucl, P; Patterson, C A; Classen, H L

    2011-12-01

    A nutrient retention study and a growth study were conducted with broiler chickens to evaluate the nutritive value and potential toxicity of 2 hairless canary seed products-hulled seed and groats (cultivar CDC Maria), and one hairy hulled canary seed (cultivar Keet). Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed contained 24.5, 21.8, and 16.3% CP; 7.1, 5.8, and 6.6% ether extract; 1.5, 14.2, and 12.3% acid detergent fiber, and 3,867, 3,205 and 3,292 kcal/kg of AME(n), on a DM basis, respectively. The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed protein comprised, respectively, 0.49, 0.33, and 0.33% lysine (DM basis), which was 79, 78, and 67% digestible (apparent ileal); 0.65, 0.53, and 0.60% cysteine (DM basis), which was 86, 87, and 85% apparent ileal digestible; and 0.40, 0.30, and 0.25% methionine (DM basis), which was 89, 90, and 86% apparent ileal digestible. In the second study, a 35-d feeding study with male broiler chickens was conducted. The canary seed products were compared with a Canadian Western Red Spring wheat control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The test ingredients comprised 50% of the corn/soybean diets. The birds fed the hulled canary seed (hairy or hairless) had similar weight gain, feed intake, and G:F to those fed wheat. There were no statistically significant (P = 0.05) differences in the weights of the bursa, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, or the pancreas, nor was there any effect on serum lactate dehydrogenase or creatine kinase. The data indicated that feeding hulled canary seed increased the number of gizzard ulcers (P < 0.01). It was concluded that canary seed does not contain anti-nutritional components that negatively affect broiler performance or bird health. However, the canary seed hulls may damage the gizzard lining. PMID:22080017

  9. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  10. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  11. mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase, and the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the intestine and liver of posthatch broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Miska, Katarzyna B; Fetterer, Raymond H; Wong, Eric A

    2015-06-01

    Amino acid (AA) transporter proteins are responsible for the movement of amino acids in and out of cells. Aminopeptidase cleaves AAs from the N-terminus of polypeptides making them available for transport, while PepT1 is a di- and tripeptide transporter. In the intestine, these proteins are present on the brush border and basolateral membranes of enterocytes, and are essential for the uptake of AAs into enterocytes and their release into circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of transcription of these genes after hatch in 3 regions of the small intestine, the ceca, and liver. Heritage broiler chicks (n=5) were sampled at day after hatch and days 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21 posthatch, and mRNA expression level was measured using absolute quantitation. The small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) expressed the largest quantities of each gene tested. The expression in the ceca and liver was 1 to 3 orders of magnitude less than that of the small intestine. The expression of basolateral transporters in the small intestine was more constant over days posthatch than the expression of brush border transporters. In the ceca the expression of the brush border transporters decreased over the sampling period, while expression of basolateral genes was relatively constant. In the liver the expression of Na+ independent cationic and zwitterionic amino acid transporter (bo,+AT), Na+ independent cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2), excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), and the heavy chain corresponding to the bo,+) system (rBAT) significantly decreased at 12 days posthatch; however, the expression of Na+ independent cationic and Na+ dependent neutral amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), Na+ coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1; (SNAT1), and Na+ coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) significantly increased at day 5 posthatch compared to day 1 and these levels remained throughout the rest of the sampling period. The

  12. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets. PMID:9603354

  13. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets.

  14. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  15. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  16. Individual and combined effects of genistein and hesperidin on immunity and intestinal morphometry in lipopolysacharide-challenged broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kamboh, A A; Zhu, W-Y

    2014-09-01

    Genistein and hesperidin have been shown to have beneficial effects in several animal models including mice, rats, pigs, and humans. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of genistein (an isoflavone) and hesperidin (a flavanone) on immunity and intestinal morphometry in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broiler chickens. Seven hundred twenty 1-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 treatments, with 6 replicates of 20 birds each. Chicks were fed a basal diet without any additive (control), supplemented with 5 mg of genistein/kg of feed (G5) and 20 mg of hesperidin/kg of feed (H20), or a mixture of genistein and hesperidin (1:4) with doses of 5 (GH5), 10 (GH10), and 20 (GH20) mg/kg of feed for 42 d. On d 16, 18, and 20, one-half the birds from each group were separated and injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli LPS (250 µg/kg of BW) to induce the immunological stimulation. Samples were collected on 21 and 42 d. The results showed that LPS treatment exerts immunomodulatory effects (P < 0.05) in phagocytic activity at 21 d, whereas a few negative effects including reduced villus length and increased crypt depth were observed in some segments of the small intestine. Both genistein and hesperidin seemed to modify the immunity positively by altering the phagocytic activity (P < 0.01). Parameters of intestinal morphometry such as villus length, crypt depth, villus width, and villus length/crypt depth ratios were also improved (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) by the supplemental genistein and hesperidin in both LPS-unchallenged and -challenged groups. However, no effect (P > 0.05) was observed for BWG, FI, and FCR of broilers. Overall, genistein and hesperidin improved the immunity and the morphometry of small intestine in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provided the first account on the in vivo effects of genistein and hesperidin for immunostimulation and morphometric gut development in LPS

  17. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  18. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  19. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  20. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  1. Single and Combined Effects of Deoxynivalenol Mycotoxin and a Microbial Feed Additive on Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Ghareeb, Khaled; Dadak, Agnes; Hess, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The immune and intestinal epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of DON and/or a microbial feed additive on the DNA damage of blood lymphocytes and on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in broilers. A total of forty 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 birds per group) for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) basal diet; 2) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; 3) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg/ton of feed of Mycofix Select; 4) basal diet supplemented with Mycofix Select (2.5 kg/ton of feed). At the end of the feeding trial, blood were collected for measuring the level of lymphocyte DNA damage of blood and the TBARS level was measured in plasma, heart, kidney, duodenum and jejunum. The dietary exposure of DON caused a significant increase (P = 0.001) of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (31.99±0.89%) as indicated in the tail of comet assay. Interestingly addition of Mycofix Select to DON contaminated diet decreased (P = 0.001) the DNA damage (19.82±1.75%) induced by DON. In order to clarify the involvement of lipid peroxidation in the DNA damage of DON, TBARS levels was measured. A significant increase (P = 0.001) in the level of TBARS (23±2 nmol/mg) was observed in the jejunal tissue suggesting that the lipid peroxidation might be involved in the DNA damage. The results indicate that DON is cytotoxic and genotoxic to the chicken intestinal and immune cells and the feed additive have potential ability to prevent DNA damage induced by DON. PMID:24498242

  2. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  3. Study on price transmission in China's broiler industry chain based on MCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiwei; Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin; Cui, Liguo; Kong, Fantao; Li, Ganqiong; Yu, Haipeng

    This paper studies price transmission mechanism of China's broiler industry chain with Market-chain Cooperated Model (MCM), according to the monthly price data of corn, broiler compound feed, broiler chicks, live chicken and eviscerated chicken from 1994 June to 2011 October. The result shows that the price system of China's broiler industry chain exists price transmission relationship, the price of representative products from upstream and midstream conducts obviously to downstream, and broiler compound feed price plays an important role in the price system. The result also indicates that the interior adjusting of broiler industry chain cannot guarantee that the entire price system recover to balance quickly. Therefore, the government needs to regulate timely the price system of broiler industry chain, especially the price change of feed and live broiler to maintain the price system relative stable.

  4. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Hume, M E; Byrd, J A; Nisbet, D J; Ijaz, A; Sohail, A; Shabbir, M Z; Rehman, H

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were divided into 5 treatment groups and fed a corn-soybean diet ad-libitum. The temperature control (CONT) group was held at the normal ambient temperature. Heat stress broilers were held at 35 ± 2°C from d 1 until the termination of the study at d 42. Heat stress groups consisted of HS-CONT fed the basal diet; HS-MOS fed the basal diet containing 0.5% MOS; HS-PM fed the basal diet containing 0.1% PM; and HS-SYN (synbiotic) fed 0.5% MOS and 0.1% PM in the basal diet. Broilers were examined at d 21 and 42 for BW gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum corticosterone concentrations, and ileal microarchitecture. The results revealed that the CONT group had higher (P < 0.01) feed consumption, BW gain, and lower FCR on d 21 and 42, compared with the HS-CONT group. Among supplemented groups, the HS-MOS had higher (P < 0.05) BW gain and lower FCR compared with the HS-CONT group. On d 21 and 42, the HS-CONT group had higher (P < 0.05) serum corticosterone concentrations compared with the CONT and supplemented groups. The CONT group had higher (P < 0.05) villus height, width, surface area, and crypt depth compared with the HS-CONT group. On d 21, the HS-PM had higher (P < 0.05) villus width and surface area compared with HS-CONT group. On d 42, the HS-SYN had higher (P < 0.05) villus width and crypt depth compared with the HS-CONT group. These results showed that chronic HS reduces broiler production performance, intestinal microarchitecture, and increases adrenal hormone concentrations. Also, supplementation of the MOS prebiotic and the PM can partially lessen these changes.

  5. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet. PMID:12079050

  6. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  7. Growth performance, organ weights, and blood parameters of broilers fed diets containing expeller-extracted canola meal.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M

    2011-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of including expeller-extracted canola meal (EECM) in diets for broilers on performance, thyroid gland size, liver and kidney sizes, blood serum concentration of triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, hemoglobin content in blood, hematocrit, and histology of liver and kidney. A total of 200 male broiler chicks (1 d old) were divided into 40 groups of 5 birds balanced for BW and fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups/diet) from d 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a complete corn-soybean meal-based basal diet with 0, 10, 20, 30, or 40% of EECM. Diets were formulated to have the same ME, CP, Ca, nonphytate P, and standardized ileal digestible Met and Lys contents. The EECM contained (% of DM) 37.8% CP, 0.74% Met, 2.14% Lys, 1.62% Thr, 1.61% Val, and 7.64 μmol/g of glucosinolates. An increase in dietary level of EECM from 0 to 40% resulted in a linear decrease in feed intake (P < 0.001) by 4.8 g/21-d period for each 1% increase in EECM and in BW gain (P < 0.001) by 6.0 g/21-d period for each 1% increase in EECM. However, dietary EECM linearly increased liver weight relative to live BW (P < 0.001) and serum tetraiodothyronine concentration (P = 0.019). An increase in dietary level of EECM from 0 to 40% did not result in a significant increase in kidney weight relative to live BW. There was no effect of EECM on heart and thyroid gland weights relative to live BW or on the blood hemoglobin content, hematocrit, and serum triiodothyronine concentration. In conclusion, an increase in dietary level of EECM resulted in reduced growth performance and may interfere with liver function, likely because of increased dietary concentration of glucosinolates. Thus, the amount of EECM included in broiler diets should be based on the desired growth performance and the cost of the EECM.

  8. Effects of nano-selenium on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cai, S J; Wu, C X; Gong, L M; Song, T; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-selenium (nano-Se) on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. A total of five hundred forty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The 5 treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se. The selenium content of the unsupplemented control diet was 0.09 mg/kg for the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and 0.08 mg/kg for the grower phase (22 to 42 d). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in performance, meat color, or immune organ index (thymus, bursa, and spleen) due to supplementation with nano-Se. On d 42, a significant quadratic effect of nano-Se was observed on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition, contents of IgM, glutathione, and malondialdehyde in serum, on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition in liver, and on glutathione peroxidase activity in muscle, with birds fed 0.30 mg/kg of nano-Se exhibiting the best effect and birds fed 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se showing the worst effect on these parameters. Liver and muscle selenium content increased linearly and quadratically as the dietary nano-Se level increased (P < 0.01), and reached the highest value when 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se was fed. Based on a consideration of all experiment indexes, 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg is suggested to be the optimum level of supplementation of nano-Se, and the maximum supplementation of nano-Se could not be more than 1.0 mg/kg in broilers. PMID:22991539

  9. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Q H; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, G G; Jiang, S Z

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  10. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Q. H.; Yang, Z. B.; Yang, W. R.; Li, Z.; Zhang, G. G.; Jiang, S. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  11. Fat utilization in relation to intestinal fatty acid binding protein and bile salts in chicks of different ages and different genetic sources.

    PubMed

    Katongole, J B; March, B E

    1980-04-01

    New Hampshire chicks utilized dietary fat more efficiently than did broiler-type or White Leghorn chicks. The difference was more pronounced with tallow than with corn oil. Utilization of fat by all three types of chicks increased until the chicks were about six weeks old. At hatching, the concentration of fatty acid binding protein (FABP) in the intestine of the broiler-type chicks was significantly less than in the New Hampshire and White Leghorn chicks. Concentration of FABP declined during the first 1 to 2 weeks of life and then increased. By four weeks of age the breed differences in concentration of FABP in the intestine were no longer apparent. At some time after four weeks of age, FABP reached maximum concentrations in the intestinal tissue of the chicks of different breeds and thereafter declined as a proportion of the total intestinal tissue. Broiler-type chicks, which did not utilize fat as efficiently as did New Hampshire chicks in the first weeks of life, displayed lower concentrations in the proximal third of the intestine and higher concentrations in the remainder of the intestine than was the case with the New Hampshire chicks. A high level of dietary fat or dietary supplementation with sodium taurocholate increased the concentration of FABP in the intestine.

  12. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  13. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  14. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  15. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  16. Alleviation of cyclic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide and Lactobacillus-based probiotic: dynamics of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Zaneb, H; Aleem, M; Rehman, H

    2010-09-01

    Heat stress (HS), one of the major problems of tropical and subtropical countries, adversely affects the production performance of poultry. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to investigate some of the biological markers of HS in broilers as modulated by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (LBP), either alone or in combination. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old-chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS to the conclusion of study, d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based basal diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP group), or their combination. Birds were immunized against Newcastle disease virus on d 4 (intraocular; live attenuated) and d 20 (drinking water; live attenuated) and infectious bursal disease virus on d 8 (intraocular; live intermediate strain) and d 24 (drinking water; live attenuated). Birds were killed on d 42 to collect serum for determination of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and postvaccinal antibody titers. Results revealed that dietary supplementations decreased (P < 0.05) the serum cortisol and cholesterol concentrations and increased (P < 0.05) thyroxine concentration compared with the HS group without affecting triiodothyronine concentration. The percentage of the C-reactive protein-positive birds was higher (P < 0.05) in the HS group compared with the TN group. Dietary supplementations improved humoral immunity against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus during HS. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of either MOS or LBP alone or in combination can reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS in broilers.

  17. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, F.; Ronchi, A.; Castelli, P.; Sparks, N.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0–10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10–24) and finisher (d 24–42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  18. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Khattak, F; Ronchi, A; Castelli, P; Sparks, N

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0-10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10-24) and finisher (d 24-42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  19. In-house Windrowing of a Commercial Broiler Farm During Summer Months and Its Effect on Litter Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-house windrowing of broiler litter between flocks has been suggested as an effective method to reduce pathogens and improve the quality of the house environment in which new chicks are placed. In this study, different methods of in-house windrowing were tested in commercial broiler houses during...

  20. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  1. Digestible isoleucine-to-lysine ratio effects in diets for broilers from 4 to 6 weeks posthatch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestible Ile:Lys ratio (%) in finisher (28 to 42 d of age) phase diets fed to broilers, based on live performance and carcass trait responses. A total of 1,248 Ross × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 8 dietary treatments varying in ...

  2. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  3. Capability of different non-nutritive feed additives on improving productive and physiological traits of broiler chicks fed diets with or without aflatoxin during the first 3 weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Allakany, H F; Abd Al-Hamid, A E; Al-Saffar, A A; Hassan, R A; Mohamed, N A

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether some non-nutritive feed additives (NNFA) could block the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and physiological parameters of Cobb broilers throughout the period from 1 to 21 day of age. There were eight treatments consisting of two levels of AF at 0 and 200 ppb and four NNFA within each AF level. These additives included mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) at 2 g/kg diet, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) at 2 g/kg diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lac) at 2 g/kg diet. At 21 day of age, five chickens of each treatment were slaughtered to study dressing percentage and relative weight of inner organs and glands. AF had a significant negative effect on body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake, while impairing feed conversion ratio (FCR). Aflatoxin significantly increased percentage liver, lymphocyte (%), monocyte (%), serum triglyceride level, and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), concentrations while decreasing dressing percentage, intestinal percentage, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hgb), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophil (%), heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total serum protein and serum albumin. Aflatoxin adversely affected the morphology of the liver, bursa and the thymus. There was a significant interaction between AF and NNFA on the relative weights of liver, heart and intestine. Lac completely blocked the negative effects of AF on the percentage liver and the heart and partially on the intestine. In conclusion, Lac was most effective in reversing the adverse effects of AF on growth and FCR and on the percentage, functions and morphology of the liver. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate also improved the economic traits of broilers but was less effective than Lac and more effective than MOS.

  4. Influence of bird strain on competitive exclusion of Campylobacter jejuni in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Laisney, M J; Gillard, M O; Salvat, G

    2004-02-01

    1. Newly hatched chicks of either layer or broiler strain were treated orally at regular intervals with either homologous or heterologous gut-flora preparations from young donor birds, in an attempt to prevent subsequent colonisation with Campylobacter jejuni by 'competitive exclusion' (CE). 2. Donors of 3 to 10 d of age were chosen to correspond with the period in which intensively reared poultry are least likely to become colonised with Campylobacter. 3. In two separate trials, material from donor layer hens (ISA Brown) protected male chicks of the same strain against a low (195 to 360 cfu/bird) Campylobacter challenge, but the same kind of material was ineffective when administered to chicks of a broiler strain (JA957). 4. Two further trials involved treatment preparations from young broilers, which failed to prevent Campylobacter colonisation of broiler chicks, even when colonisation occurred relatively slowly from a challenge of 90 to 94 cfu/bird. 5. It was concluded that any CE effect observed was strongly dependent on bird strain.

  5. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    PubMed

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fed raw or dehulled meals. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05) higher in birds fed raw or dehulled meals compared with those fed the control diet. The relative weight of the pancreas was significantly (P<0.05) increased as a result of acinar hypertrophy. The kidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in birds fed raw and dehulled meals, and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes. The structural alterations were attributed to intake of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in the processed seeds. In conclusion, aqueous heated kidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any

  6. Effects of incubational humidity and hen age on embryo composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Burnham, M R; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D

    2001-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding the influence of incubational humidity on the characteristics of broiler embryos from young hens that often produce chicks of marginal quality. Therefore, the effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) in young broiler breeders and incubator humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on embryonic growth between 16 and 21 d of incubation, hatching chick weight, and embryo and chick body compositions were evaluated. Hatching broiler chick BW at 21 d was lower for 26-wk-old breeders compared to those at 28 and 30 wk, and the lowest RH decreased relative wet embryo weight. Embryonic growth, on wet and DM bases, was increased in eggs from the youngest hens. Embryo moisture content (EM) was lower at 16, 17, and 19 d of incubation in eggs from breeders at 26 wk when compared to those at 28 wk of age. The effects of RH on embryo crude protein and fat composition were not consistent and varied with breeder age and length of incubation. It was demonstrated that broiler breeder age affects embryogenesis and hatching chick BW. Furthermore, EM was influenced by breeder age, and changes in incubational RH between 43 and 63% affected embryogenesis without having associated effects on EM or consistent effects on embryo crude fat and protein content. Nevertheless, a depression in embryogenesis with a reduction in incubational RH to 43% may accentuate poor posthatch performance of chicks from young breeders.

  7. Effects of housing systems on growth performance, blood plasma constituents and meat fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sekeroglu, A; Demir, E; Sarica, M; Ulutas, Z

    2009-04-15

    A research was conducted to determine the influence of the conventional and the free-range broiler housing systems using female broiler chicks had low hatching weight on growth performance, breast meat characteristics and some blood plasma parameters. In the conventional (totally confined) housing system sixty one-day-old female Ross broiler chicks were placed in indoor floor pens with three replicates of 20 chicks. In the free-range (partly-confined) housing system, sixty one-day-old Ross broiler chicks were placed in indoor floor pens and also accessed to a grass paddock during 44 day experimental period after 7 days old. Birds of both systems were fed the same commercial broiler diet. The free-range housing system significantly decreased the total feed intake and body weight of broilers (p<0.05). The redness (a* color) and yellowness (b* color) in breast meat were affected by the housing systems (p<0.05). The housing systems had no affect on fatty acids composition of breast meat (p>0.05). The plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels of the conventional reared birds were significantly higher than those reared the free-range (p<0.05). In conclusion, longer growth period was necessary to the free-range reared broilers.

  8. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  9. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  10. Reduction of Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in 20-day-old broiler chickens by the plant derived compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chicks. In three separate experiments for each compound, day-old, chicks (N=75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatments (n=15/treatment): a...

  11. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  12. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  13. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D{sub 3} or its metabolite 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D{sub 3} steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP.

  14. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  15. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  16. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions. PMID:25990012

  17. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  18. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  19. Single or combined effects of mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic supplements on the total oxidants, total antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants, liver enzymes, and serum trace minerals in cyclic heat-stressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Rahman, Z U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Zaneb, H; Anwar, H; Rehman, H

    2011-11-01

    This study was intended to explore the oxidative status of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS) as modulated by supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and a probiotic mixture (PM). Two hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, birds were either kept in a thermoneutral zone (TN; 26.7°C for 24 h/d) or subjected to HS (35 ± 1.1°C and 75 ± 5% RH for 8 h/d from 1000 to 1800 h) to the conclusion of the study on d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% PM (HS-PM group), or their combination as a symbiotic (SYN; HS-SYN group). On d 42, birds were killed by cervical dislocation to collect serum for the determination of total oxidants, total antioxidants, paraoxonase, arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and trace minerals. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants and decreased (P < 0.05) paraoxonase and arylesterase, with no change in ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Dietary supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants, with no effect on the activities of other enzymes. Heat stress did not influence serum copper, zinc, and manganese concentrations of birds when compared with those in the TN group. However, MOS increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of all the trace minerals, whereas SYN increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of only zinc and copper. It was concluded that MOS or PM supplementation, alone or as a SYN, may reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS, whereas MOS alone or as a SYN may improve the absorption of trace minerals.

  20. The effect of brooding temperature on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Deaton, J W; Branton, S L; Simmons, J D; Lott, B D

    1996-10-01

    In response to the energy crisis of the 1970s, this laboratory recommended that initial brooding temperatures for broilers be reduced to 29.4 C from 32.2 or 35 C. Because environmental temperature has been implicated in the ascites syndrome, this work was conducted to see whether the recommended brooding temperature of 29.4 C the 1st wk, 26.7 C the 2nd wk, and 23.9 C the 3rd wk would be satisfactory for broiler production when compared with higher brooding temperature regimens starting at 32.2 or 35 C. Brooding chicks at a temperature of 29.4 C the 1st wk, 26.7 C the 2nd wk, and 23.9 C the 3rd wk did not adversely affect broiler performance at 6 wk of age, when compared with higher brooding temperature regimens. Under the conditions of this experiment, brooding chicks at a temperature of 29.4 C the 1st wk, 26.7 C the 2nd wk, and 23.9 C the 3rd wk was satisfactory when compared with the higher temperature brooding regimens. Mortality due to ascites and total mortality significantly increased for broilers brooded in the negative control temperature regimen of 26.7 C the 1st wk, 23.9 C the 2nd wk, and 21.1 C when compared with some or all of the higher brooding temperature regimens. Heat loss calculations based on a commercial setting show an 18% savings in liquified petroleum (LP) gas usage for chicks brooded at 29.4 vs 35 C and a savings of 10% in LP gas usage for chicks brooded at 29.4 vs 32.2 C on a winter day.

  1. MSTN, mTOR and FoxO4 are involved in the enhancement of breast muscle growth by methionine in broilers with lower hatching weight.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Chen, Yueping; Wu, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Broilers with lower hatching weight (HW) present poorer performance than those with high HW, but there is limited research on the growth regulation of broilers with lower HW. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary methionine (Met) levels on the growth performance and breast muscle yield of broilers with different HW and underlying mechanisms. A total of 192 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48.3±0.1 g, and light: 41.7±0.1 g) were allocated to a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 6 replicates of 8 chicks per replicate cage. Control starter (1-21 d) and finisher (22-42 d) diets were formulated to contain 0.50% and 0.43% Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high Met treatment were 0.60% and 0.53%. Light chicks had lower body weight gain (BWG) and breast muscle yield than heavy chicks when the broilers were fed the control diets. High Met diets improved BWG, gain to feed ratio and breast muscle yield in light but not heavy chicks. Decreased DNA content and increased RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios in breast muscle were induced by high Met diets only in light chicks. MSTN mRNA level was decreased by high Met diets only in light chicks, and this decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in MSTN gene exon 1 methylation. In addition, high Met diets increased mTOR phosphorylation, but decreased FoxO4 phosphorylation in breast muscle of light chicks. In conclusion, the BWG and breast muscle yield of light chicks were improved by increasing dietary Met levels probably through alterations of MSTN transcription and phosphorylation of mTOR and FoxO4. PMID:25437444

  2. Inhibition of Growth of Salmonella by Native Flora of Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Some bacteria in the cecal microflora of broilers can inhibit colonization of chicks by Salmonella. Beneficial cecal bacteria may reduce Salmonella colonization by competing for nutrients and attachment sites or by producing metabolites that inhibit Salmonella growth. The purpose of th...

  3. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  4. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  5. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

  6. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals.

  7. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks.

  8. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. PMID:26362978

  9. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  10. Gastrointestinal obstruction in penguin chicks.

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Curro, Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    A 7-day-old gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was found dead and postmortem examination revealed impaction of the ventriculus with feathers. A review of mortality in gentoo penguin chicks from 1997 to 2007 at that institution revealed another case of feather impaction of the ventriculus in a 4-week-old chick, a sibling of the previous chick. A third case of gastrointestinal impaction occurred in a 24-day-old king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) with omphallitis and enteritis. In this chick, a fibrin mat produced a complete obstruction of the intestine at the level of Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:20235460

  11. Risk factors for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica infection in senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-05-14

    Our objective was to assess the association of managerial practices, general hygiene and Salmonella infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broilers farms were studied from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh broiler droppings were taken. A 28.6% of the flocks were infected by Salmonella (mainly Hadar and Brancaster serovars). Salmonella infection of the previous flock (OR = 6.82) and of day-old chicks (OR = 3.73), frequent poultry farmers' visits (OR = 5.38) and keeping sick birds inside the farm (OR = 5.32) increased the risk of Salmonella infection. But, using antibiotics on day-old chicks (OR = 0.17) and a detergent for cleaning (OR = 0.16) decreased the risk.

  12. Infectious Bursal Agent Vaccination of Chicks from Infectious Bursal Agent-vaccinated Dams

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Chicks from infectious bursal agent-vaccinated broiler breeders were vaccinated with a commercial infectious bursal agent vaccine at intervals after hatching. Bursas from some of these chicks were examined for infectious bursal agent-specific fluorescence four days after vaccination and bursas from others were examined for histological lesions of infectious bursal disease 21 days after vaccination. Serological studies were conducted to determine if active immunity to infectious bursal agent followed vaccination. Chicks failed to develop immunity if their levels of maternally-derived serum neutralizing antibody were in excess of approximately log2 7 at the time of vaccination. When antibody titres fell below this level, vaccination usually resulted in infectious bursal agent virus replication in the bursa and consequential bursal damage but was followed by development of active immunity. PMID:219952

  13. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Schneitz, C.; Hakkinen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 103 cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter. The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  14. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  15. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens.

  16. Transmission of Salmonella to broilers by contaminated larval and adult lesser mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Roche, A J; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Fairchild, B D; Hinkle, N C

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit marker Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to nonchallenged pen mates. In trial 1, day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged with 4 larval or 4 adult beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 72 h. In addition, chicks were gavaged with the marker Salmonella in saline solution. These chicks were then placed into pens to serve as challenged broilers. In trial 2, all pens received 2 challenged chicks that were gavaged with larvae or beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 24 h and then removed from the inoculated feed for a period of 7 d. At 3 wk of age, cecal samples from the marker Salmonella-challenged broilers and from 5 pen mates in trial 1, or 10 pen mates in trial 2, were evaluated for the presence of the marker Salmonella in their ceca, and at 6 wk of age, all remaining pen mates were sampled. To monitor the presence of the marker Salmonella within pens, stepped-on drag swab litter samples were taken weekly. For the Salmonella-saline pens, 29 to 33% of the broilers that had been challenged and 10 to 55% of the pen mates were positive at 3 wk of age, and only 2 to 6% had positive ceca at 6 wk. For the pens challenged with adult beetles, 0 to 57% of the challenged broilers and 20 to 40% of the pen mates had positive ceca at 3 wk, and 4 to 7% were positive at 6 wk. The pens challenged with larvae had the greatest percentage of marker Salmonella-positive broilers; 25 to 33% of the challenged broilers and 45 to 58% of pen mates were positive at 3 wk, and 11 to 27% were positive at 6 wk. These results demonstrated that ingestion of larval or adult beetles contaminated with a marker Salmonella could be a significant vector for transmission to broilers. PMID:19096055

  17. Influence of feed form and source of soybean meal of the diet on growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. 1. Floor pen study.

    PubMed

    Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Méndez, J; Mateos, G G

    2012-11-01

    In total, 3,120 broilers were used to study the effects of feed form and source of soybean meal (SBM) of the diet on growth performance. From 1 to 21 d of age, there were 12 treatments arranged factorially with 3 feed forms (mash, crumbles, and pellets) and 4 commercial sources of SBM that differed in the CP content [48.1 and 46.2% CP from the United States (USA-1 and USA-2), 47.6% CP from Brazil (BRA), and 46.3% CP from Argentina (ARG)]. From 21 to 42 d of age, diets were fed as pellets. Diets were formulated assuming that all SBM had similar digestible amino acid content per unit of CP. From 1 to 21 d of age, chicks fed crumbles or pellets had higher (P < 0.001) ADG than chicks fed mash. Also, chicks fed pellets had better (P < 0.001) feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) than chicks fed crumbles, and both were better than chicks fed mash. However, from 21 to 42 d of age, F:G was best (P < 0.001) for chicks previously fed mash. For the entire experimental period, broilers that were fed crumbles or pellets from 1 to 21 d of age had higher (P < 0.001) ADG than broilers that were fed mash. Also, broilers that were fed pellets had better (P < 0.05) F:G than broilers fed mash, with broilers fed crumbles being intermediate. Broilers fed the USA-2 meal had higher (P < 0.01) ADG than broilers fed the BRA or the ARG meals, with broilers fed the USA-1 meal being intermediate. Feed efficiency tended (P = 0.07) to be hindered in broilers fed the BRA meal. The results show that pelleting improved growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 d of age with effects being less evident at 42 d than at 21 d of age. Source of SBM affected growth performance suggesting the need for a better control of chemical composition and quality of this ingredient before diet formulation.

  18. Chicks like consonant music.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments. PMID:21934134

  19. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens. PMID:24628388

  20. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  1. Butyric acid-based feed additives help protect broiler chickens from Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rubio, C; Ordóñez, C; Abad-González, J; Garcia-Gallego, A; Honrubia, M Pilar; Mallo, J Jose; Balaña-Fouce, R

    2009-05-01

    Sodium butyrate is a sodium salt of a volatile short-chain fatty acid (butyric acid) used to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds. Three groups of fifty 1-d-old broilers each were fed the following diets: T0 = standard broiler diet (control); T1 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with free sodium butyrate (Gustor XXI B92); and T2 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats (Gustor XXI BP70). Twenty percent of the birds were orally infected with Salmonella Enteritidis at d 5 posthatching and fecal Salmonella shedding was assessed at d 6, 9, 13, 20, 27, 34, and 41 of the trial. At d 42, all birds were slaughtered and 20 of them dissected: crop, cecum, liver, and spleen were sampled for bacteriological analyses. Both butyrate-based additives showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds from d 27 onward. However, the partially protected butyrate additive was more effective at the late phase of infection. Partially protected butyrate treatment successfully decreased infection not only in the crop and cecum but also in the liver. There were no differences in the spleen. These results suggest that sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats offers a unique balance of free and protected active substances effective all along the gastrointestinal tract because it is slowly released during digestion.

  2. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-03-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  3. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  4. Effects of in ovo injection of organic zinc, manganese, and copper on the hatchability and bone parameters of broiler hatchlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent containing supplemental microminerals (Zn, Mn, and Cu) on hatchability and hatching chick quality variables in Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation (doi) eggs were subjected to 1 of 4 treatments using a commercial multi-e...

  5. Experimental rickets in broilers: gross, microscopic, and radiographic lesions. III. Vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Long, P H; Lee, S R; Rowland, G N; Britton, W M

    1984-01-01

    Day-old broiler chicks were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet for 30 days. Gross, microscopic, and radiographic examinations of the proximal tibiotarsus were done at 2, 3, and 4 weeks of age. In 2-week-old chicks, there was variable lengthening and disorganization of the proliferating-prehypertrophied zone (P-PHZ), resorption of cartilage spicules in the degenerating hypertrophied zone and primary spongiosa, and lengthening of bone spicules in the secondary spongiosa; many bone surfaces were lined with increased osteoid. In 3-week-old chicks, there was a tendency for the P-PHZ to decrease in relative length and for cartilage spicules to increase in length. In 4-week-old chicks, however, there was marked lengthening of the P-PHZ, resorption of cartilage spicules, and replacement of the metaphysis with irregularly oriented islands of woven bone, osteoid, and loose fibrous connective tissue.

  6. Human-Friendly Light-Emitting Diode Source Stimulates Broiler Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Dai, Wenhua; Yu, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Previous study and our laboratory have reported that short-wavelength (blue and green) light and combination stimulate broiler growth. However, short-wavelength stimuli could have negative effects on poultry husbandry workers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human-friendly yellow LED light, which is acceptable to humans and close to green light, on broiler growth. We also aimed to investigate the potential quantitative relationship between the wavelengths of light used for artificial illumination and growth parameters in broilers. After hatching, 360 female chicks (“Meihuang” were evenly divided into six lighting treatment groups: white LED strips (400–700 nm, WL); red LED strips (620 nm, RL); yellow LED strips (580 nm, YL); green LED strips (514 nm, GL); blue LED strips (455 nm, BL); and fluorescent strips (400–700 nm, FL). From 30 to 72 days of age, broilers reared under YL and GL were heavier than broilers treated with FL (P < 0.05). Broilers reared under YL obtained the similar growth parameters with the broilers reared under GL and BL (P > 0.05). Moreover, YL significantly improved feeding efficiency when compared with GL and BL at 45 and 60 days of age (P < 0.05). In addition, we found an age-dependent effect of light spectra on broiler growth and a quantitative relationship between LED light spectra (455 to 620 nm) and the live body weights of broilers. The wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be negatively related (R2 = 0.876) to live body weight at an early stage of development, whereas the wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be positively correlated with live body weight (R2 = 0.925) in older chickens. Our results demonstrated that human-friendly yellow LED light (YL), which is friendly to the human, can be applied to the broilers production. PMID:26270988

  7. The broiler breeder paradox: ethical, genetic and physiological perspectives, and suggestions for solutions.

    PubMed

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V; Everaert, N; Li, Yue; Boonen, R; De Tavernier, J; Janssens, S; Buys, N

    2010-10-01

    1. Due to intensive selection, broiler chickens became the most efficient meat-producing animals because of their fast growth, supported by a virtually unlimited voluntary feed intake. These characteristics cause many problems in the management of broiler breeder hens because of the negative correlation between muscle growth and reproduction effectiveness. 2. This problem, namely the fast muscle growth versus reproduction health paradox, induces a second paradox, acceptable reproduction and health versus hunger stress and impaired welfare, because broiler breeder hens require dedicated programmes of feed restriction (1) to maximise egg and chick production and (2) to avoid metabolic disorders and mortality in broiler breeders. 3. Given that poultry selection is a global large-scale business and chickens are a prolific species, improvement in profit can only be obtained by selecting on feed conversion and/or for higher breast meat percentage, which will intensify the broiler-breeder paradox. 4. New feeding strategies are being studied, but it is questionable if the paradox can be solved by management tools alone. Because breeding and selection are long-term processes, involving animals, farmers, consumers, industry, environment etc., a more sustainable breeding goal needs to be determined by a multidisciplinary approach and an open debate between several actors in the discussion. 5. Using dwarf broiler breeder hens could be one alternative, because dwarf hens combine relatively good reproductive fitness with ad libitum feeding. Another possibility is to accept lower broiler productivity by assigning economic values to welfare and including integrity traits in an extended breeding goal.

  8. Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2014-12-01

    Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for different production traits: broilers and layers. Chicks of both breeds either received feed and water immediately posthatch or were subjected to a 72-h feed and water delay. Ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin mRNA expression levels were determined at different time points. Effects of early feeding were limited, but breeds differed strikingly regarding cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels. Cytokine expression levels in broilers were low compared with layers and showed a transient drop in the second to third week of life. In contrast, broilers showed considerably higher expression levels of IgA, IgM, and IgY. These findings indicate that the 2 breeds use different immune strategies, at least on the ileal level.

  9. Relationship between body weight and beak characteristics in one-day-old white Leghorn chicks: its implications for beak trimming.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A G; Marchant-Forde, R M; Cheng, H W

    2007-07-01

    Beak trimming is a routine practice used in laying hens to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. The effect of beak trimming on bird well-being depends on multiple factors, including the amount of beak that is trimmed and the quality of the procedure. The aim of this work was to determine if a relationship existed between BW and beak characteristics in 1-d-old chicks, with a future aim to develop an automated system for standardizing beak trimming. Three hundred forty-four 1-d-old chicks (Hy-Line W-36) were sorted into 3 categories based on their BW (heavy, intermediate, and light), and their beaks were photographed. Dimensional measures of beaks, including the lengths of the culmen, gonys, maxillary tomia, mandibular tomia, and the width of the upper mandible and lower mandible measured at 2, 3, and 4 mm from the tip of the upper and lower beaks, were calculated using imaging software. Correlations between BW and beak measures were evaluated using Pearson product-moment, Spearman rank-order, Kendall's tau, and Hoeffding's dependency tests. Results showed there were no significant correlations between beak dimensions and BW in the light BW group. In contrast, correlations were present between BW and the width of the upper mandible measured at 4 mm from the tip of the upper beak (P < 0.05) and the width of the lower mandible measured 2 to 4 mm from the tip of the lower beak (P < 0.05) in the intermediate BW group. In the heavy BW group, BW was positively correlated with mandibular tomia, gonys, and the width of the lower mandible measured at 2 mm from the tip of the lower beak (P < 0.05). However, in general, these correlations were too low (all below 0.23) to have any practical use for predicting beak size. Overall, the data indicated that BW cannot be used as a reliable predicator of beak size in 1-d-old Hy-Line W-36 chicks.

  10. Effect of presolvent extraction processing method on the nutritional value of soybean meal for chicks.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M W; Parsons, C M

    2000-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of extruding or expander processing prior to solvent extraction on the nutritional value of soybean meal (SBM). Three samples of SBM containing 100% nonexpander SBM, 100% expander SBM, or a mixture of nonexpander and expander SBM were obtained from a commercial plant. An experiment was conducted using Peterson x Hubbard commercial male broiler chicks fed 20% CP corn-SBM-corn gluten meal diets from 8 to 21 d of age. The experiment had a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design, with three SBM types, two levels of Met + Cys (0.77 and 0.90%), and two levels of Lys (0.95 and 1.20%). Processing method had no effect on the amino acid concentration or protein solubility of the SBM. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on chick weight gain or feed intake. Feed efficiency was significantly improved (P < 0.05) by Met and Lys supplementation, but SBM processing method had no significant effect. The results of this study indicate that presolvent processing method (expander or nonexpander) had no significant effect on the nutritional value of SBM for broiler chicks.

  11. The chemical characteristics of organic iron sources and their relative bioavailabilities for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-four organic Fe sources were evaluated by polarographic analysis and via solubility in buffers (pH 5 and 2) and deionized water. Organic Fe sources included 6 Fe-Met complexes (Fe-Met), 10 Fe-Gly complexes, 1 Fe-Lys complex, 4 Fe proteinates, and 3 Fe-AA complexes (Fe-AA). Sources varied considerably in chemical characteristics. Chelation strengths (quotient of formation [Q] values) ranged from weak (Q = 1.08) to extremely strong strength (Q = 8,590). A total of 1,170 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 6 replicate cages (15 chicks/cage) for each of 13 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 Fe sources × 3 added Fe levels) plus a control with no added Fe. Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; 55.8 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, or 60 mg Fe/kg as iron sulfate (FeSO∙7HO); an Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; Q = 1.37; 14.7% Fe); an iron proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Q = 43.6; 14.2% Fe); or an iron proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Q = 8,590; 10.2% Fe). The growth performance, Fe concentrations, hematological indices, and activities and gene expressions of 2 Fe-containing enzymes in tissues of broilers at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were determined in the present study. Transferrin saturation in plasma on 14 d; bone Fe on d 7 and 14; liver Fe on d 7, 14, and 21; kidney Fe on d 14; succinate dehydrogenase activities in the liver on d 21 and in the kidney on d 7 and 21; mRNA levels in the kidney and heart on d 14; and mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21 linearly increased ( < 0.05) as added Fe levels increased. However, differences in bioavailabilities among Fe sources were detected ( < 0.05) only for the mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of mRNA level in the liver or kidney of

  12. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion (FC) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  13. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  14. Experimental rickets in broilers: gross, microscopic, and radiographic lesions. I. Phosphorus deficiency and calcium excess.

    PubMed

    Long, P H; Lee, S R; Rowland, G N; Britton, W M

    1984-01-01

    Day-old broiler chicks were fed diets high in calcium or low in phosphorus for 30 days. Chicks in both groups had similar gross, microscopic, and radiographic lesions. At 2 weeks, the growth-plate degenerating hypertrophied zone (DHZ) and metaphyseal primary spongiosa were lengthened and decreased in radiopacity. Metaphyseal vessels extended to the growth-plate hypertrophied zone (HZ), and osteoid seams were widened. At 3 and 4 weeks, lesions were similar; however, folding fractures were common and cartilage columns of the metaphysis were thinned and replaced with increased woven bone.

  15. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance. PMID:25542197

  16. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  17. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Latif, M A; Morris, T R; Miah, A H; Hewitt, D; Ford, J E

    1979-01-01

    1. A flour was prepared from rhizomes of shoti(Curcuma zedoaria) in such a way that most of the protein was retained. The crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) content in this product was 155 g/kg, compared with approximately 10 g/kg in commercial shoti flour. 2. The high-protein flour proved highly toxic to 5-week-old rats and caused 100% mortality within 6 d when given at 320 g/kg diet. 3. Fresh rhizomes were minced and dried, and the resulting meal was given to weanling rats at 400 g/kg diet. All the animals lost weight rapidly, and two of the five rats died within 4 d. 4. This same shoti meal was given to 1-d-old chicks at 100 and 200 g/kg diet. All the chicks survived the test period (20 d), but body-weight, food intake and efficiency of food conversion decreased with increase in the level of shoti meal in the diet. 5. The traditional method of preparing shoti involves prolonged washing in changes of water, which removes most of the protein and other water-soluble nutrients and, presumably, a toxic constituent. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic principle, and to discover a less wasteful procedure for removing it. PMID:420761

  18. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Latif, M A; Morris, T R; Miah, A H; Hewitt, D; Ford, J E

    1979-01-01

    1. A flour was prepared from rhizomes of shoti(Curcuma zedoaria) in such a way that most of the protein was retained. The crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) content in this product was 155 g/kg, compared with approximately 10 g/kg in commercial shoti flour. 2. The high-protein flour proved highly toxic to 5-week-old rats and caused 100% mortality within 6 d when given at 320 g/kg diet. 3. Fresh rhizomes were minced and dried, and the resulting meal was given to weanling rats at 400 g/kg diet. All the animals lost weight rapidly, and two of the five rats died within 4 d. 4. This same shoti meal was given to 1-d-old chicks at 100 and 200 g/kg diet. All the chicks survived the test period (20 d), but body-weight, food intake and efficiency of food conversion decreased with increase in the level of shoti meal in the diet. 5. The traditional method of preparing shoti involves prolonged washing in changes of water, which removes most of the protein and other water-soluble nutrients and, presumably, a toxic constituent. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic principle, and to discover a less wasteful procedure for removing it.

  19. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers. PMID:25071230

  20. Caffeine causes pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kamely, M; Torshizi, M A Karimi; Rahimi, S; Wideman, R F

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), or ascites, is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Experimental models are required for triggering PHS to study the pathogenesis of this syndrome and to select resistant genetic lines. Caffeine increases vascular resistance and promotes systemic hypertension in mammals, but a similar effect of caffeine on the pulmonary circulation had not previously been demonstrated. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of caffeine alone (Exp. 1) or in combination with cold temperature (Exp. 2) on parameters associated with PHS in young broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 288 chicks were distributed among 24 pens and brooded at standard environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 2, 192 chicks were distributed among 16 pens and brooded at cool environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 1 caffeine administered at or above 12.5 mg/(kg BW·d) induced severe PHS and resulted in acute mortality and RVH ( < 0.05). Hematocrit also slightly increased by caffeine supplementation ( = 0.07). In Exp. 2 caffeine-treated broilers exposed to cold temperatures remarkably exhibited PHS incidences and developed RVH with right ventricular to total ventricular weight ratios of 30% or greater. Moreover, hematocrit significantly increased because of caffeine supplementation in cool ambient temperature ( = 0.002). Our data demonstrate that caffeine induces high incidences of PHS in broilers, which is exacerbated by exposure to low temperatures. PMID:27136008

  1. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers.

  2. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  3. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  4. Plexogenic arteriopathy in broiler lungs: Evaluation of line, age, and sex influences1

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, R. F.; Mason, J. G.; Anthony, N. B.; Cross, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform lesions form in the terminal pulmonary arterioles of human patients suffering from prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. Plexiform lesions also develop in broiler lungs, but lesion incidences are not strongly correlated with sustained pulmonary hypertension as reflected by right to total ventricular weight (RVTV) ratios. The present study was conducted to assess plexiform lesion incidences in broiler lines that have been divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to pulmonary hypertension. Broilers from susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) lines were reared together and only clinically healthy (nonascitic, noncyanotic) individuals were evaluated to minimize potential line differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. The objective was to determine if an innate genetic predisposition for plexogenic arteriopathy would be exposed in SUS broilers when compared with RES broilers in the absence of extreme differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. Broilers up to 12 wk age from the SUS and RES lines had essentially equivalent BW, indices of cardiopulmonary function (left ventricle + septum weight, total ventricle weight, and RVTV ratios), and lung volumes within a sex. Average RVTV ratios for broilers from both lines were indicative of normal pulmonary arterial pressures at all ages sampled. Nevertheless, plexiform lesions were detected in SUS and RES broiler lungs immediately posthatch and thereafter at all ages sampled. Lesion incidences were consistently low and did not differ between the lines within any of the sampling ages. This evidence demonstrates that plexiform lesions develop extremely rapidly in broiler chicks, apparently without the prerequisite for vascular stress caused by severe, prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. No innate genetic predisposition for complex vascular lesion development appeared to exist in the SUS line when compared with the RES line. PMID:25681478

  5. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-10-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of (14C)HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis.

  6. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  7. Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liao, X D; Ma, G; Cai, J; Fu, Y; Yan, X Y; Wei, X B; Zhang, R J

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers, 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of 5 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design for 42 d. The 5 treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 2.5×10(8) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB1), basal diet supplemented with 5×10(8) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB2), basal diet supplemented with 1×10(9) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB3), and basal diet supplemented with 150 mg aureomycin/kg (antibiotic). The results showed that all C. butyricum-supplemented groups during d 1 to 21 and the CB2 group during d 22 to 42 had higher ADG compared with the control (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB3 diet had higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity (P<0.05), and chicks fed the CB2 diet had a higher glutathione (GSH) concentration in duodenal and ileal mucosa at 21 d of age than those in the control group (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB3 diet had a lower malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in duodenal mucosa than those in the control and CB1 groups (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic diets had a lower MDA concentration in ileal mucosa than those in the control and CB1 groups (P<0.05). Broilers fed the CB3 diet had greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the ileal mucosa on d 21 and in jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the other groups (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic diets had a higher GSH concentration in duodenal and jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the control group (P<0.05). Broilers fed the CB2 and CB3 diets had a lower MDA concentration in the jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the control and CB1 groups. Chicks fed diets supplemented with C. butyricum had a higher IgM concentration than those in the control group at 21 and 42 d of age (P<0.05). The results indicate that C. butyricum improves broilers' growth performance, antioxidation, and immune

  8. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration. PMID:27087091

  9. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  10. Influence of relative humidity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Line, J E

    2006-07-01

    Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni among broiler chickens has been documented; however, the influence of RH on transmission rates is an important factor that has not been extensively studied. The purpose of our experiments was to determine the rate of C. jejuni colonization among groups of broilers raised in microbiological isolation under high (approximately 80%) and low (approximately 30%) RH conditions. Day-of-hatch chicks (n = 100 per group) were placed on wood shavings in high and low humidity-controlled pens and challenged with C. jejuni by introducing 2 seeder birds orally inoculated with C. jejuni into each group. The rate of colonization was monitored by analyzing ceca from 10 chicks from each group at d 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. After 3 wk, the remaining chickens were removed, and 100 newly hatched chicks were placed on the contaminated litter. A second trial was conducted with the litter as the only inoculum source. Trials were repeated in this manner with the time between removing birds and placing newly hatched chicks on the litter extended to 6 h, 24 h, and 1 wk. Significant differences in Campylobacter colonization rates were observed between chickens raised under the high and low RH conditions. A delay in colonization was observed in birds raised under the low RH conditions, which increased with the increased time between removal of birds and placement of newly hatched chicks. These experiments demonstrate the importance of humidity in the transmission of Campylobacter from litter, and they could lead to practical applications to help reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers. PMID:16830853

  11. Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Kawu, Mohammed; Raji, Moshood; Dzenda, Tavershima; Govwang, Felix; Sinkalu, Victor; Ayo, Joseph

    2013-11-06

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T₁, T₂ and T₃ administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T₁ had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T₁, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T₂ was higher (p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens.

  12. Colour categorization by domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Jones, C D; Osorio, D; Baddeley, R J

    2001-10-22

    Spectral stimuli form a physical continuum, which humans divide into discrete non-overlapping regions or categories that are designated by colour names. Little is known about whether non-verbal animals form categories on stimulus continua, but work in psychology and artificial intelligence provides models for stimulus generalization and categorization. We compare predictions of such models to the way poultry chicks (Gallus gallus) generalize to novel stimuli following appetitive training to either one or two colours. If the two training colours are (to human eyes) red and greenish-yellow or green and blue, chicks prefer intermediates, i.e. orange rather than red or yellow and turquoise rather than green or blue. The level of preference for intermediate colours implies that the chicks interpolate between the training stimuli. However, they do not extrapolate beyond the limits set by the training stimuli, at least for red and yellow training colours. Similarly, chicks trained to red and blue generalize to purple, but they do not generalize across grey after training to the complementary colours yellow and blue. These results are consistent with a modified version of a Bayesian model of generalization from multiple examples that was proposed by Shepard and show similarities to human colour categorization.

  13. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred and fifty day-old chicks were...

  14. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of three- and six-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid, a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In two separate 3- and 6-wk trials, day-old straight run (N=70 per trial), chicks were assigned to 5 treatment groups ...

  15. Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charco...

  16. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  17. Recovery of Campylobacter and Salmonella serovars from the spleen, liver and gallbladder, and ceca of six and eight week old commercial broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that when Campylobacter or Salmonella were either orally or intracloacally inoculated into day old broiler chicks, within 1hr these bacteria moved rapidly to the lymphoid organs. These bacteria were still present 1 wk after inoculation. Two different market age (...

  18. Comparison of mucosal competitive exclusion and competitive exclusion treatment to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Stern, N J; Cox, N A; Bailey, J S; Berrang, M E; Musgrove, M T

    2001-02-01

    Control of Salmonella spp. during the earliest phases of broiler production may provide the best opportunity to reduce human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. Application of the "Nurmi concept" has been demonstrated to be an effective means in reducing Salmonella colonization among broiler chicks. In 1989, Aho et al. developed a competitive exclusion (CE) culture for control of Salmonella spp., whereas a mucosal competitive exclusion culture (MCE) developed in the United States was originally created to control Campylobacter colonization (Stern et al., 1995). The major differences in the two patents were the higher level of anaerobic culture required, the degree of epithelial scraping and washing of the ceca, media used for subculturing, and the culture incubation temperatures (35 C vs. 42 C). The CE and MCE were compared for efficacy in reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in broiler chicks. Nine adult birds (three for each of three replicates) were slaughtered, and each of a bird's paired ceca were used to produce corresponding antagonistic microflora, which were administered to day-of-hatch chicks. The chicks (a total of 210) were challenged 24 h later with Salmonella and Campylobacter and were killed 1 wk later, and levels of the pathogens were determined. Ninety CE-treated birds were significantly more colonized by Salmonella typhimurium than those 90 chicks treated with the MCE microflora (3.97 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents vs. 1.25 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents). Also, Campylobacter spp. colonization of these birds was significantly higher for CE-treated birds when compared with MCE-treated birds (6.96 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents vs. 5.03 log 10 cfu/g cecal contents). These results can be useful in developing intervention strategies to reduce chicken colonization by Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  19. Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to recycle organic wastes and as feed for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; González, Ernesto Avila; Hernández, Alma Rocha; Pino, José Manuel

    2002-02-01

    Several dried waste materials from different origins were used as a substrate to grow Tenebrio molitor L. Nutrient/amino acid values differed depending on both larval size/weight and substrate. These larvae were experimentally used as a broiler feedstuff. Seven-day-old chicks of a commercially available strain with an average weight of 126 g were randomly distributed into nine six-broiler groups. Three levels of Tenebrio molitor larvae (0, 5, and 10% dry weight) were used in a 19% protein content sorghum-soybean meal basal diet, to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency. Results after 15 d showed no significant differences among treatments. These data indicate that Tenebrio molitor has the potential to be used as protein source for raising broilers.

  20. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Defu; Hao, Shengyan; Liu, Guohua; Nian, Fang; Ru, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4) and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP) and B (Avizyme 1502). Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks). Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p<0.05). Apparent ileal crude protein digestibility coefficient of M2 was higher than that of M3 (p<0.05). Apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn) of M1 were significant higher than those of M4 (p<0.05). Supplementation of the basal diets with enzyme A or B improved the BWG by 8.6% (p<0.05) and 4.1% (p>0.05), respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05). Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets. PMID:25358370

  1. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  2. Maternal energy and protein affect subsequent growth performance, carcass yield, and meat color in Chinese Yellow broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C; Jiang, Z Y; Jiang, S Q; Zhou, G L; Lin, Y C; Chen, F; Hong, P

    2012-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of maternal ME and CP levels on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broiler offspring. A total of 1,134 thirty-week-old Chinese Yellow broiler breeders was randomly assigned to 3 dietary ME levels (11.09, 11.51, and 11.92 MJ/kg) and 3 CP levels (15.5, 16.5, and 17.5%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with 21 hens per replicate. At 39 wk of age, 30 settable eggs per replicate were selected for hatching. All broiler offspring were fed the same diets. There were significant ME×CP interactions in egg CP and ether extract (EE) contents, BW at d 1, 22 to 42 d ADG, ADFI during 1 to 21 d and 43 to 63 d, shear force, plasma albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides contents of broiler offspring. Dietary ME at 11.92 MJ/kg increased average egg weight, egg EE content, and broiler 1-d-old BW compared with 11.09 MJ/kg group at 16.5%, 15.5%, and 17.5% CP levels, respectively (P<0.05). Maternal 11.51 and 11.92 MJ/kg of ME increased 1 to 21-d ADFI, and 11.51 MJ/kg of ME decreased lightness (L*) value of broiler offspring compared with 11.09 MJ/kg group at 17.5 and 16.5% CP levels, respectively (P<0.05). Broiler breeder dietary CP at 17.5% decreased egg EE content, increased average egg weight, egg CP content, BW at d 1, and 1 to 21-d ADFI of broiler offspring compared with 15.5% CP group at 11.92 MJ/kg of ME level (P<0.05). Maternal dietary 15.5% CP increased dressing percentage and decreased yellowness (b*) value of broiler offspring compared with 16.5% and 17.5% CP groups at 11.51 MJ/kg of ME level, respectively (P<0.05). Collectively, the results indicate that maternal diets composed of 11.51 to 11.92 MJ/kg of ME and 17.5% CP at 39 wk of age increased growth performance during 1 to 21 d in Chinese Yellow broiler, whereas 11.51 MJ/kg of ME and 15.5% CP improved carcass dressing percentage and meat color of their offspring. PMID:22802180

  3. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P<0.001), BW gain (P=0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P=0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P=0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P<0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.

  4. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Qaisrani, S. N.; van Krimpen, M. M.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P = 0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P > 0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P = 0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. PMID:26175052

  5. Use of Aviguard and other intestinal bioproducts in experimental Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotizing enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hofacre, C L; Froyman, R; Gautrias, B; George, B; Goodwin, M A; Brown, J

    1998-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis (CPANE) is a common problem among rapidly growing broiler strains of chickens that are raised intensively in modern microenvironments. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of Aviguard and three other intestinal bioproducts (two normal gut flora [NGF] products and one probiotic product) in experimental CPANE in broiler chickens. Male broiler chicks were housed in the same environmentally controlled facility and given one of six treatments. The necrotic enteritis infection model (NEIM) used in the present study was effective in inducing CPANE intestinal gross lesions in broiler chickens. Equally important, Aviguard was found to be significantly more effective than either the other two NGF products or the probiotic for reducing gross lesions induced by the NEIM. In addition, Aviguard/NEIM-treated chicks ate more feed and had better feed efficiency than their NGF- or probiotic/NEIM-treated counterparts. Other significant differences among these four reconstituted microbial preparations were not found. Results from this study have additional importance because they further support the use of reconstituted microbial preparations as novel and effective alternatives to antibiotics that can reduce the severity of C. perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis challenge in broilers. PMID:9777159

  6. Use of fly ash in diets of cage and floor broilers

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, C.L.; Andrews, L.D.

    1980-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare limestone to fly ash from a coal-fired generator station as a calcium source for broilers. In experiment 1, 5 male and 5 female broiler chicks were placed in each of 32 cages. Sixteen cages of birds were fed a ration with limestone supplying 30% of the total calcium and 16 cages were fed a ration with 30% of the total calcium supplied by fly ash. The total calcium and phosphorus levels of the rations were 1.0% and .5%, respectively. In this experiment no significant difference was found for 8-week body weight between diets where the added calcium was from limestone or fly ash. In experiment 2 a group of 40 male and 40 female cage reared broilers and 40 male and 40 female floor reared broilers were fed a basal diet of limestone providing 33% of the total calcium. Three diets with increasing fly ash levels were fed to three cage groups of 40 male and 40 female broilers providing 33, 46, and 45% of the total calcium of .9, 1.1, and 1.8%, respectively. Broilers fed the highest fly ash level weighed significantly less at 8 weeks than the caged controls but did not differ from the other treatments. Bone breaking strength as measured by the Allo Kramer Shear Press was similar between the basal and low level fly ash group and increased with higher fly ash levels. In experiment 3 four groups of 40 male broilers in cages were fed limestone diets with graded levels of limestone for the calcium source. Another four groups of 40 caged male broilers were fed fly ash diets with equivalent graded levels of fly ash for the calcium source. Both limestone and fly ash diets provided .17, .34, .51, and .68% calcium of a total calcium content of .28, .45, .62, and .79%, respectively.

  7. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    PubMed

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P<0.001) than CL (r=0.264, P>0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest

  8. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-01-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment. PMID:26580288

  9. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-11-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment. PMID:26580288

  10. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  11. Variations in growth of roseate tern chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisbet, I.C.T.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    We measured growth parameters of Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) chicks at two contrasting colonies: Bird Island, Massachusetts, and Falkner Island, Connecticut, from 1987 through 1990. Differences in growth parameters among individual chicks are used to explore differences in parental performance, whereas differences in average growth parameters among colonies and years are used to explore differences in average environmental conditions. Chicks were marked at hatching and weighed at one- or two-day intervals. For each chick that survived to fledging, we calculated two measures of growth: linear growth rate and asymptotic mass. There were no significant differences between growth parameters of first-hatched chicks in broods of one and two. Both measures of growth were significantly lower and more variable for second-hatched chicks than for first-hatched chicks. Both measures were significantly positively related to egg mass and negatively related to hatch date. After controlling for these variables, differences between colonies and among years were relatively small and inconsistent. Mean survival of second-hatched chicks was positively correlated with the mean growth rate of survivors across colonies and years. These findings are consistent with a general hypothesis that growth of chicks reflects individual parental performance and parental quality.

  12. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  13. Hatching system and time effects on broiler physiology and posthatch growth.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Debonne, M; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2011-06-01

    A multilevel housing system for broilers was developed, named Patio (Vencomatic BV, Eersel, the Netherlands), in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined. In a Patio system, climate conditions differ from those provided in the hatchers currently in use. We compared the physiology of broilers hatched in a hatcher or in a Patio system, and included the effects of hatching time. Eggs from 1 breeder flock were incubated until embryonic d 18 in a setter and subsequently placed in a hatcher or the Patio until the end of incubation. From each hatching system, 154 chicks were collected per hatching time, at 465 h (early), 480 h (midterm), and 493 h (late) of incubation, from which 24 chicks/group were decapitated for analyses of blood plasma and organ weights. The remaining 130 chicks in each group from both systems were individually labeled and placed together in the Patio system. All chicks were given access to feed and water directly after hatch and were housed up to d 45 to monitor growth. From embryonic d 18 until the end of incubation, average ambient temperature and RH were 38.1°C and 50.8% in the hatcher and 35.2°C and 29.7% in the Patio system. Glucose and corticosterone were slightly higher in hatcher chicks, whereas organ weights were not affected by the hatching system. Although hatchling weights were lower in hatchery chicks, growth from d 0 to 45 was not affected by the hatching system. In both systems, glucose increased with hatching time, whereas lactate and triiodothyronine levels decreased. Yolk weights decreased with hatching time, whereas absolute and relative weights of the yolk-free body, intestines, stomach, lungs, and heart increased, indicating more advanced maturation of organs. Growth up to d 21 was depressed in chicks in the late group, which was possibly related to lower thyroid hormone levels at hatching. We conclude that the hatching system had minor effects on hatchling physiology and that posthatch growth and livability were not

  14. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass.

  15. Effects of feed additives on ileal mucosa-associated microbiota composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R; Peinado, M J; Aranda-Olmedo, I; Abecia, L; Suárez-Pereira, E; Ortiz Mellet, C; García Fernández, J M; Rubio, L A

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 2 recently developed feed additives on the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of the ileum were studied in growing broiler chickens. A total of 48 male 1-d-old broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in 4 treatments with 2 replicates of 6 birds each. The 2 additives tested were a di-d-fructose dianhydride–enriched caramel (FC) and the garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O). Dietary treatments were a control (commercial diet with no additive), INU (20 g inulin/kg diet), CAR (20 g FC/kg diet), and GAR (90 mgPTS-O/kg diet). As a result of this study, inulin supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) and FC feeding resulted in higher (P < 0.05) Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log10 number of copies respect to controls. Higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria log10 number of copies with respect to the controls was determined in the ileal mucosa of birds fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis on Bifidobacterium spp. revealed the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in samples from chickens fed the control and the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Bifidobacterium longum was exclusively found in poultry fed the control diet, whereas B. pseudocatenulatum was found only in poultry fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. This study showed that both PTS-O and FC were able to modulate the composition of the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota of growing broiler chickens. Finally, in addition to B. pseudolongum, the presence of B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, species not previously described in intestinal samples of broilers, was also demonstrated. PMID:26440010

  16. Research note: the performance of spring- and summer-reared broilers as affected by precision beak trimming at seven days of age.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B

    1993-12-01

    In each of two duplicate trials approximately 2,500 day-old Peterson x Arbor Acres straight-run broiler chicks were equally divided between two treatments of three pens each. Treatment 1 was maintained as controls (C), and Treatment 2 birds were precision beak-trimmed (PBT) at 7 days of age. Feed and water were supplied for ad libitum consumption to both groups. Trials 1 and 2 were initiated in March and June, respectively. Performance of spring-reared broilers were comparable regardless of beak trimming procedure, except that PBT broilers experienced slightly higher mortality after PBT. Final body weights of the summer-reared broilers were 15% lower than those reared in the spring. Additionally, PBT resulted in significantly reduced final body weights and feed intake. There were no significant differences in mortality or feed conversion due to PBT.

  17. Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, J; Hong, E C; Jang, A; Kang, H K; Oh, J S; Kim, B W; Park, B S

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the utilization of maggots as a feed supplement forenhanced broiler performance. Maggots, which are a major dietary source of protein, appear during the biodegradation of chicken droppings using house flies. The objective ofthe present study was to investigate the effect of maggot supplementation on the meat quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 600 one-day-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 40 replicates of 3 birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% maggots. Overall, broiler chicken performance was influenced by the optimal amino acid profile; high protein (63.99%) and essential amino acid content (29.46%), or high protein digestibility (98.50%) of the maggots. Maggot supplementation caused linear increases in live weight gain but not the feed conversion ratio. The diets of 10 and 15% maggots was the most efficient in terms of average weight gain forthe 4-5 week old broiler chickens (p<0.05). It also significantly increased dressing percentage, breast muscle, and thigh muscle (p<0.05). No differences were observed forliver abdominalfat, or meat color, and the crude protein contents of breast muscle were constant. However, in the maggot-fed broilers, breast muscle lysine and tryptophan levels increased significantly as compared to the birds fed the basal diet (p<0.05). These results indicate that feeding diets containing 10 to 15% maggots in chicken dropping after biodegradation can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens.

  18. Effects of trehalose supplementation on the growth performance and intestinal innate immunity of juvenile chicks.

    PubMed

    Kikusato, M; Nanto, F; Mukai, K; Toyomizu, M

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose is composed of two molecules of D-glucose joined by an α,α-1,1 glucosidic linkage and has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effect of feeding a trehalose-supplemented diet on the growth performance, as well as the oxidative status and the intestinal innate immunity of juvenile chicks. A total of 16 d-old male broiler chicks were used in this study: two groups of 8 birds were fed on a 0% (control) or 0.5% trehalose-supplemented diet for 18 d. The mean body weight of the trehalose group was significantly greater than that of the control group, but feed efficiency was not altered by feeding the trehalose-supplemented diet. No differences in the levels of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle, liver and plasma were observed between the control and trehalose-supplemented groups. The mRNA levels of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-like ligand 1A, interleukin-10, NADPH oxidase 4 and inducible NO synthase were significantly reduced by the trehalose supplementation. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with trehalose after hatching may have beneficial effects on the growth performance of juvenile chicks, probably by improving their intestinal innate immunity. PMID:26986698

  19. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  20. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  1. Lipid synthesis in chick epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lavker, R M

    1975-07-01

    Lipid synthesis in newborn chick epidermis was studied by electron microscopic autoradiography after injection of tritiated palmitate. The labeled lipid product in the tissue was identified as mostly triglyceride. At the earliest time after injection (6 hr), the radioactive precursor was taken up by all viable cells of the epidermis. Grain density was heaviest over basal cells, moderate over spinous cells, and slight over granular cells; thus lipid incorporation is highest in the basal and spinous regions of the chick epidermis. As time after injection progressed, the increasing amounts of grains over the granular and horny cells and decreasing amounts over the basal and spinous cells reflected the continuous upward displacement of cells from one layer into the next. From the distribution of silver grains within the epidermal cells, it has been concluded that, with the passage of time, triglycerides synthesized by the epidermal cells were mainly located in lipid droplets. The numerous grains associated with the elements of the endoplasmic reticulum indicated that this organelle is involved in aggregating triglyceride molecules into lipid droplets. The fact that grains were seen within the horny cells indicated that part of the horny cell consists of lipid probably derived from the lipid droplets retained by the cells during keratinization. PMID:1151110

  2. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  3. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  4. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry.

  5. Nanosilver effects on growth parameters in experimental aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

    2013-03-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a cause of economic losses in broiler production. In this study, the effect of one commercial nanocompound, Nanocid (Nano Nasb Pars Co., Iran) was evaluated in reduction of aflatoxin effects on the growth and performance indices in broiler chickens suffering from experimental aflatoxicosis. For this, a total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross strain) were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates of 15 chicks in each separated pen during the 28-day experiment. Treatment groups including group A: chickens fed basal diet, group B: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin in basal diet, group C: chickens fed basal diet plus 2500 ppm Nanocid, and group D: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin and 2500 ppm Nanocid, in basal diet. Data on body weight, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded at weekly intervals. Also cumulative data were assessed. Results showed, although supplement of Nanocid to conventional diet had no effect on performance but addition of Nanocid to diet containing 3 ppm aflatoxin increased significantly the cumulative BWG, cumulative feed consumption and decreased FCR in the last 2 weeks of experimental period. The improvement in these performance indices by supplement of Nanocid to diet containing aflatoxin showed the ability of Nanocid to diminish the inhibitory effects of aflatoxin.

  6. Investigation of a chronic feed-passage problem on a broiler farm in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Apple, R O; Skeeles, J K; Houghten, G E; Beasley, J N; Kim, K S

    1991-01-01

    A commercial broiler farm with a history of poor feed conversion and chronic feed-passage problems was chosen for investigation. Chickens were taken from the broiler flock at specified intervals during growout and tested by virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for avian reovirus. Abnormal tissue pathology was first seen in the broilers at 9 days of age and continued sporadically throughout the growout period. Antireovirus antibody levels began to increase at 24 days of age. Avian reovirus and avian adenovirus was recovered at different intervals starting at 17 and 31 days of age, respectively. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks housed in filtered-air positive-pressure isolation units were inoculated with two inocula recovered from the field study. Avian reovirus was recovered from the tissues of both treatment groups using chick kidney cells. Significant weight differences were seen in one of the two treatment groups. This avian reovirus was given the name SS-412. PMID:1649595

  7. Investigation of a chronic feed-passage problem on a broiler farm in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Apple, R O; Skeeles, J K; Houghten, G E; Beasley, J N; Kim, K S

    1991-01-01

    A commercial broiler farm with a history of poor feed conversion and chronic feed-passage problems was chosen for investigation. Chickens were taken from the broiler flock at specified intervals during growout and tested by virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for avian reovirus. Abnormal tissue pathology was first seen in the broilers at 9 days of age and continued sporadically throughout the growout period. Antireovirus antibody levels began to increase at 24 days of age. Avian reovirus and avian adenovirus was recovered at different intervals starting at 17 and 31 days of age, respectively. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks housed in filtered-air positive-pressure isolation units were inoculated with two inocula recovered from the field study. Avian reovirus was recovered from the tissues of both treatment groups using chick kidney cells. Significant weight differences were seen in one of the two treatment groups. This avian reovirus was given the name SS-412.

  8. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  9. Serological Incidence of Avian Reovirus Infection in Broiler-breeders and Progeny in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P. R.; Dewitt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The plaque neutralization test and the agar gel precipitation test were used to detect neutralizing and precipitating antibody to avian reovirus strain WVU2937 in sera from 14 commercial broiler breeder flocks and eight progeny flocks. Ten breeder flocks (71%) possessed positive agar gel precipitation reactors (598 sera tested) and 12 (86%) possessed plaque neutralization reactors (114 serum pools tested). All broiler flocks possessed agar gel precipitation reactors, but these were not examined for neutralizing antibody. As no avian reovirus vaccine had been used in Canada prior to this survey these reactions were presumably due to natural infection. Clinical evidence suggested that such infection was asymptomatic in most cases. The development and persistence of antibody to reovirus strain WVU2937 was followed in chicks exposed to the virus by oral inoculation or by contact. Neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in all birds by postinoculation day 17 and this persisted for at least six months. Precipitating antibody was also demonstrated in most chicks by postinoculation day 17, but by six months only 12% of the chicks were still agar gel precipitation positive. PMID:231481

  10. Effects of various types of aluminosilicates and aflatoxin B1 on aflatoxin toxicity, chick performance, and mineral status.

    PubMed

    Scheideler, S E

    1993-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro trials were conducted to test the efficacy of four aluminosilicates (AS) (Ethacal feed component, Novasil, Perlite, and Zeobrite) to sorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and alleviate aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Percentage sorption capacity of AS to radiolabeled AFB1 dissolved in methanol varied from 2 to 60%, whereas percentage sorption in intestinal contents varied from 0 to 40.0% according to type of AS tested. Intestinal contents alone sorbed 42% radiolabeled AFB1. Novasil and Zeobrite exhibited the highest rates of sorption (55 and 60%, respectively) in methanol. An in vivo study compared the four types of AS in combination with 0 or 2.5 ppm AFB1 fed to day-old chicks (two pens of six chicks per treatment) to 3 wk of age. Diet effects on body weight, liver lipid, bone ash, and serum Ca, P, Na, K, and Cl were measured. The AFB1 significantly decreased 2- and 3-wk body weight, and a significant interaction effect of AS and AFB1 on bird weight occurred at 2 and 3 wk of age. Three of the four AS tested alleviated the growth depression caused by AFB1. Liver lipids percentage was increased in the AFB1-treated chicks, but this effect was suppressed by three of the AS. Bone ash was not affected by AFB1 and was increased by Novasil and decreased by Ethacal. Ethacal, Novasil, Perlite, and Zeobrite all tended to decrease serum Cl, regardless of AFB1 treatment.

  11. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. PMID:25834246

  12. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible.

  13. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.

    1999-01-01

    We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

  14. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  15. Effects of magnesium and high dietary intakes of pyridoxine on the chick.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, G; Singsen, E P

    1976-05-01

    Day-old broiler-type male chicks were used to determine what effects magnesium and high dietary pyridoxine had on the chick's performance. The chicks were randomly assigned to 15 treatments of magnesium at 875, 1375 and 1875 mg/kg. diet and pyridoxine at 1, 4, 31, 301, and 3001 mg/kg. diet in a 3 x 5 factorial block design. A regression was used to study some of the criteria. The highest mortality of 20% occurred in chicks on the 1875 mg. magnesium-3001 mg. pyridoxine treatment. Magnesium and pyridoxine had highly significant effects on body moisture. Effects due to magnesium and pyridoxine and the interaction between the two were highly significant for weight gain and the efficiency of feed utilization (E.F.U.) At 1875 mg. magnesium/kg diet, maximum growth response and E.F.U. were predicted to occur on 10 and 39 mg pyridoxine/kg diet, respectively, Neither magnesium nor the interaction between magnesium and pyridoxine had any significant effect on carcass protein. Pyridoxine had a highly significant effect on carcass protein. Maximum response in carcass protein occurred at 31 mg. pyridoxine/kg diet irrespective of magnesium level. Serum aminotransferase activity (S.A) was significant for magnesium, pyridoxine and the interaction between the two. Pyridoxine requirement for maximum S.A. was 49 mg/kg diet at 1875 mg magnesium/kg diet. Pyridoxine requirement for maximum response was highest for S.A. and least for growth. But S.A. had the highest R2 whereas growth had the least.

  16. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins.

    PubMed

    Langhout, D J; Schutte, J B

    1996-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of feeding high-methylated (HM) and low-methylated (LM) pectin on performance and physiological characteristics in broiler chicks. Two levels each (1.5 and 3%) of HM citrus pectin (HMC), LM citrus pectin (LMC), or HM sugar beet pectin (HMS) were added to a semi-purified basal diet. The experiment was conducted in battery brooders, and chicks received the diets as pellets from 6 to 27 d of age. The inclusion of LMC or HMS in the diet had little or no effect on the performance of chicks; however, when HMC was added to the diet growth and feed utilization were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Water intake and water:feed ratio were increased (P < 0.05) after inclusion of all three pectin products in the diet. The effect on water consumption was more pronounced in the HMC-containing diets than in the LMC or HMS diets, and was dose-dependent. In vitro viscosity was increased significantly by incorporating HMC or LMC into the diet, whereas HMS had no effect on this parameter. Waterholding capacity of the diets and the excreta were increased significantly by including one (P < 0.05) of the three pectin products in the diet. The concentration of some of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the cecal chyme was markedly decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding HMC, whereas LMC had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of VFA. In contrast, inclusion of HMS in the diet significantly increased the concentration of VFA in the cecal content (P < 0.05) dose-dependently. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of dietary pectin on chick performance is dependent on the degree of carboxyl groups that is esterified, the origin of the pectin product, and the amount added to the diet. PMID:8893300

  17. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins.

    PubMed

    Langhout, D J; Schutte, J B

    1996-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of feeding high-methylated (HM) and low-methylated (LM) pectin on performance and physiological characteristics in broiler chicks. Two levels each (1.5 and 3%) of HM citrus pectin (HMC), LM citrus pectin (LMC), or HM sugar beet pectin (HMS) were added to a semi-purified basal diet. The experiment was conducted in battery brooders, and chicks received the diets as pellets from 6 to 27 d of age. The inclusion of LMC or HMS in the diet had little or no effect on the performance of chicks; however, when HMC was added to the diet growth and feed utilization were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Water intake and water:feed ratio were increased (P < 0.05) after inclusion of all three pectin products in the diet. The effect on water consumption was more pronounced in the HMC-containing diets than in the LMC or HMS diets, and was dose-dependent. In vitro viscosity was increased significantly by incorporating HMC or LMC into the diet, whereas HMS had no effect on this parameter. Waterholding capacity of the diets and the excreta were increased significantly by including one (P < 0.05) of the three pectin products in the diet. The concentration of some of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the cecal chyme was markedly decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding HMC, whereas LMC had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of VFA. In contrast, inclusion of HMS in the diet significantly increased the concentration of VFA in the cecal content (P < 0.05) dose-dependently. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of dietary pectin on chick performance is dependent on the degree of carboxyl groups that is esterified, the origin of the pectin product, and the amount added to the diet.

  18. By-product of Tropical Vermicelli Waste as a Novel Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Diets

    PubMed Central

    Rungcharoen, P.; Therdthai, N.; Dhamvithee, P.; Attamangkune, S.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Ferket, P. R.; Amornthewaphat, N.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW) and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF), and 0.57% ether extract (EE), as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen) were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn) of VW. The AMEn of VW was 1,844.7±130.71 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (p<0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with those fed the control diet. No difference was observed during grower and finisher phase (19 to 42 d). Chicks fed VW diets had lower relative weight of abdominal fat (p<0.001) but higher relative weight of gizzard (p<0.05) than those of chicks fed the control diet. Increasing VW inclusion levels increased ileal digesta viscosity (p<0.05) and intestinal villus height of chicks (p< 0.001). For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay) in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF. PMID:25049764

  19. Effects of different limestone particle sizes in the diet of broiler breeders post molting on their performance, egg quality, incubation results, and pre-starter performance of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Bueno, I J M; Surek, D; Rocha, C; Schramm, V G; Muramatsu, K; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse limestone diet improves productivity, reproductive performance and the calcium utilization of molted broiler breeders. In total, 640 broiler breeder females, 73-week-old and sixty-four 27-week-old cockerels, Cobb 500, were evaluated during 10 weeks, according to a randomized block design composed of 4 treatments with 8 replicates each. Treatments consisted of diets with the inclusion of 100% fine limestone-fine PS (0.2 mm GMD-geometric mean diameter); PS1: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 1.0 mm GMD; PS2: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 2.0 mm GMD; and PS3: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 3.0 mm GMD. Calcium retention in the gizzard of the breeders, bone characteristics, and breeder performance, egg characteristics, eggshell quality, incubation performance, chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were determined. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the rate of lay, percentage of non-settable eggs, egg weight, egg shape index, egg specific gravity, eggshell weight, thickness, and percentage hatchability and egg weight loss of broiler breeders fed with diets with different limestone particle sizes. The chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by any of the limestone particle sizes. It was concluded that live and reproductive performance parameters of broiler breeders post molting is not affected by limestone particle size in the feed. PMID:26769267

  20. Subtherapeutic tylosin phosphate in broiler feed affects Campylobacter on carcasses during processing.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2007-06-01

    Tylosin phosphate is an antimicrobial drug approved for use in broiler feed at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion. Erythromycin is often the drug of choice for treating humans with campylobacteriosis. Both tylosin and erythromycin are classified as macrolide drugs and cross-resistance between these antimicrobials occurs. Commercial broiler chicks were placed in isolation grow-out chambers and colonized with Campylobacter jejuni. From 14 d of age through grow-out, broilers were fed ad libitim a diet that included 22 ppm of tylosin phosphate (20 g/ton). Control broilers received the same diet without tylosin phosphate. At 42 d of age, broilers were processed in a pilot plant with equipment that closely modeled commercial conditions. Carcass rinses were collected after feather removal, after inside and outside washing, and after immersion chilling. Campylobacter numbers recovered from carcasses after feather removal did not differ according to feed type (3.53 log cfu/mL of rinse for control carcasses, and 3.60 log cfu/mL of rinse for those fed medicated feed). Likewise, medicated feed did not affect Campylobacter numbers on carcasses after inside-outside washing (3.11 and 3.07 log cfu/mL of rinse). However, carcasses of broilers fed tylosin phosphate had lower numbers of Campylobacter after chilling (1.45 log cfu/mL of rinse) than control carcasses (2.31 log cfu/mL of rinse). No Campylobacter isolated from control carcasses were resistant to erythromycin; all Campylobacter recovered from carcasses fed tylosin phosphate were resistant to erythromycin. Application of tylosin phosphate in feed results in lower numbers of Campylobacter on chilled carcasses; however, the Campylobacter that do remain are resistant to erythromycin. PMID:17495097

  1. The effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate with Busumbu rock phosphate on performance and the mechanical properties of bone in growing chicks.

    PubMed

    Odongo, N E; Plaizier, J; van Straaten, P; McBride, B

    2002-07-01

    Three hundred, day-old broiler chicks, with an average initial weight of 41.8 +/- 1.79 g, were used in a 15-day study (10 birds per battery cage) to characterize their performance and fluorine status when dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was replaced by Busumbu rock phosphate (BRP) as the source of phosphorus in the chicks' ration. The treatments comprised a standard ration with BRP replacing 0, 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of DCP. Replacing DCP with BRP significantly reduced the final weight of the chicks (p < 0.01), feed intake (p < 0.01), weight gains (p < 0.01) and dry matter digestibility (p < 0.05) but increased (p < 0.05) the feed-to-gain ratio. True phosphorus absorption and the percentage of phosphorus in the tibia were not affected by increasing amounts of BRP in the diet. Increasing levels of BRP in the diet linearly reduced (p < 0.01) the percentage bone ash, calcium, Ca:P ratio, ultimate breaking force, bending moment, stress, and modulus of elasticity. Leg stiffness, lameness, reduced feed intake, and a decline in general health were recorded in 10-40% of the chicks on 75% and 100% BRP, respectively. These results suggest that excessive ingestion of fluorine from the BRP caused the reduction in the chicks' performance.

  2. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in crops of challenged birds, significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio, and increased weight gain compared with controls. The 0.025% and 0.015% EO in drinking water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed. PMID:23436536

  3. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in crops of challenged birds, significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio, and increased weight gain compared with controls. The 0.025% and 0.015% EO in drinking water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed.

  4. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Groves, Peter J; Muir, Wendy I

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Experiments Linking Incubation Conditions with Subsequent Leg Weakness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Peter J.; Muir, Wendy I.

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4–6 and 13–15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16–18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05). A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1–15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16–18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth. PMID:25054636

  6. Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.

    PubMed

    Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-01-01

    1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation.

  7. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P < 0.05). An elevated risk of Campylobacter infection was associated with other animals (mainly laying hens, cattle and sheep) being bred in the farm, the farm staff not wearing their work clothing exclusively in the poultry houses, uncemented poultry-house floors and the use of cartons that transport chicks from the hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  8. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  9. Dietary mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal improves growth and increases muscle weights in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Masahisa; Yoshimoto, Yu; Inui, Mariko; Fukui, Kensuke; Yonemoto, Hiroko; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The utilization of copra meal as a feed ingredient is limited because it contains a high level of mannan. However, recent findings indicate that the effect of copra meal on growth performance in broiler chickens can be improved by the supplementation of mannanase in the diet. In the present study, we examined the effect of mannanase-hydrolyzed copra meal (MCM) on growth performance and muscle protein metabolism in growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty 8-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups (four birds in each pen, five replicates) and fed either a commercial diet (as a control diet) or a diet containing MCM at 0.2% until 22 days of age. Dietary MCM significantly increased the weights of body, breast muscle, and thighs in chickens, whereas the weights of abdominal adipose tissue and liver were not affected. Cumulative feed intake was significantly increased by MCM. Dietary MCM significantly decreased plasma 3-methylhistidine level. The messenger RNA and protein levels of muscle protein metabolism-related factors were not altered by MCM. These findings suggest that the growth-promoting effect of MCM is related to the suppression of muscle proteolysis in growing broiler chickens.

  10. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  11. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  12. Competitive exclusion of Salmonella typhimurium in broilers fed with vermicompost and complex carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J L; Chambers, J R; Modler, H W

    1998-01-01

    Vermicompost (VC) was produced by earthworms fed with fresh chicken faeces, and was earth-like in appearance and odour. In three experiments, VC was sprinkled on the first feed of newly-hatched broiler chicks. Treated and control groups were challenged on day 6 by the addition of seeder chicks that had been inoculated orally with Salmonella typhimurium. Chickens were killed at intervals during a 6-week period and were tested for colonization of the pathogen in the crop, caecum and internal organs. The VC-treated groups were significantly more resistant (p < 0.01) to colonization by S. typhimurium than the untreated controls. In one experiment, the VC treatment appeared to have conferred complete protection against colonization of both the crop and caecum. Colonization of the crop was increased transiently by addition to the diet of 2.5% fructooligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide or transgalactosylated oligosaccharide. The influence of these carbohydrates on colonization of the caecum was variable. PMID:18484271

  13. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  14. Effect of thermal manipulation during embryogenesis on liver heat shock protein expression in chronic heat stressed colored broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vinoth, A; Thirunalasundari, T; Tharian, Jenny Anne; Shanmugam, M; Rajkumar, U

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has been shown to improve thermo tolerance in broilers. Heat shock proteins are a family of proteins produced in response to variety of stress and protect cells from damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis on HSP gene and protein expression in the embryos and in chronic heat stressed 42nd day old chicks. On 15th day of incubation, fertile eggs from two breeds-Naked neck (NN) and Punjab Broiler-2 (PB-2) were randomly divided in to two groups, namely Control (C) eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions and Thermal Conditioning (TC) eggs were exposed to higher incubation temperature (40.5°C) for 3h on 15th, 16th and 17th day of incubation. The chicks so obtained from each group were further subdivided and reared from 15th-42nd day as normal (N; 25±1°C, 70% RH) and heat exposed (HE; 35±1°C, 50% RH) resulting in four treatment groups (CN, CHE, TCN and TCHE). Embryos of two groups (C and TC) on 17th day and birds from four treatment groups on 42nd day were sacrificed. Liver was collected for analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR and protein expression by Western blot of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP 90 alpha, HSP 90 beta, HSP 70, HSP 60, HSP 27 and ubiquitin). The plasma collected on 42nd day was analyzed for biochemical parameters. Thermal challenging of embryos of both the breeds caused significant (P≤0.05) increase in all the HSPs gene and protein expression. The TCHE chicks had significantly (P≤0.05) lower HSPs gene and protein expressions and oxidative stress compared to CHE groups in both NN and PB-2. Based on these findings it can be concluded that TM during incubation provides adaptation to broiler chicks during chronic heat stress. PMID:26590469

  15. Dietary Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Body Composition, Meat Quality and Decreases Collagen Content in Muscle of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    El-Senousey, H. K.; Fouad, A. M.; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Shen, Q. W.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary α-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed intake (AFI), average daily gain (ADG), final live body weight (BW) and carcass weight (p<0.05), while no difference in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was detected among chickens fed with and without ALA. Abdominal fat weight significantly decreased (p<0.05) for broilers fed 800 and 1200 ppm ALA. However when calculated as the percentage of carcass weight there was no significant difference between control and ALA treatments. Meat quality measurements showed that dietary ALA regulated postmortem glycolysis and improved meat quality as evidenced by increased muscle pH and decreased drip loss of meat (p<0.05). Although ALA did not change the tenderness of meat as indicated by meat shear force, dietary ALA decreased collagen content and mRNA expression of COL3A1 gene (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that dietary ALA may contribute to the improvement of meat quality in broilers. PMID:25049802

  16. Effects of color of light on preferences, performance, and welfare in broilers.

    PubMed

    Riber, Anja B

    2015-08-01

    Broiler houses are mainly lit by fluorescent light. With the expected continued increase in energy prices, the interest in less energy consuming light sources is growing. The light-emitting diode (LED) is an energy-saving alternative. The aims of the present 2 studies were to examine 1) the preference for LED color temperature and effects on behavior, and 2) effects of LED color temperature on performance and welfare of male broilers (Ross 308). Two color temperatures were investigated: neutral-white (4,100 K) and cold-white (6,065 K). First, 6 groups of 6-day-old chicks were housed in pens consisting of 2 lightproof compartments with a pop-hole between allowing chicks to move freely between compartments. Number of broilers in each compartment and their behavior were recorded every 15 min on 6 d. A preference for 6,065 K was found (P < 0.001). On d 16, 28, and 34, more time was spent in the 6,065 K treatment (P < 0.03), whereas indifference between treatments was found on d 4, 10, and 22 (P > 0.07). Second, each of the 2 light conditions was applied to 6 groups of 75 chicks. BW and feed consumption were registered weekly. On d 34, we scored gait, foot pad dermatitis, and hock burns in 15 individuals/pen. At slaughter (d 35), cold carcass weight was recorded from all individuals, while yields of different body parts were collected from 9 individuals/group. Broilers from the 6,065 K treatment were 67.4 ± 19.2 g heavier on the day of slaughter (P = 0.0009), whereas no difference was found at other ages (P > 0.12). Feed intake was found to be similar for the 2 treatments (P = 0.52). Pectoralis minor was 4.1 ± 1.9 g heavier in the 6,065 K treatment (P = 0.03). There was no difference between the light treatments in any of the welfare parameters. We conclude from the results that of the 2 color temperatures examined, the most suitable for use in commercial broiler houses is 6,065 K. PMID:26112034

  17. Experimental rickets in broilers: gross, microscopic, and radiographic lesions. II. Calcium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Long, P H; Lee, S R; Rowland, G N; Britton, W M

    1984-01-01

    Day-old broiler chicks were fed a calcium-deficient diet for 30 days. Gross, microscopic, and radiographic examinations of the proximal tibiotarsus were done at 2, 3, and 4 weeks of age. In 2-week-old chicks, the growth-plate proliferating-prehypertrophied zone (P-PHZ) was variably lengthened and disorganized, cartilage columns of the degenerating hypertrophied zone and metaphyseal primary spongiosa were shortened, and bone spicules of the secondary spongiosa were bordered by increased osteoid. In 3-week-old chicks, lesions were either similar or more pronounced, with the additional finding of metaphyseal peritrabecular fibrosis. In 4-week-old chicks, the P-PHZ decreased in relative length, osteoid seams and fibrous connective tissue were less prominent, and tibial dyschondroplasia-like lesions were present. Results demonstrated that dietary calcium deficiency produced rachitic lesions, that the lesions were very different from those of phosphorus deficiency or calcium excess, and that the lesions were variable over time.

  18. Distribution of alpha-amylase activity in selected broiler tissues.

    PubMed

    Rodeheaver, D P; Wyatt, R D

    1986-02-01

    In an examination of broiler alpha-amylase, significant variation in the serum enzyme activity level was noted, adult levels were lower than those of young chicks. Analysis of alpha-amylase activity in various body fluids and tissues of 11-day and 7-week-old broilers indicated that the liver cannot be considered a source of alpha-amylase, although there was activity in both liver tissue and bile of 10 units/g wet weight and 35 units/100 ml, respectively. Fluid from the oral cavity had low levels of alpha-amylase activity, less than 100 units/100 ml, which decreased with age, indicating that the salivary glands may synthesize some alpha-amylase but are not a primary source. Sonication of the pancreatic homogenates was found to significantly increase the apparent activity of alpha-amylase 35-fold over unsonicated homogenates. The pancreas was the major source of alpha-amylase with activities ranging from 89 X 10(2) to 445 X 10(2) units/g wet weight. The level of activity increased with age of the bird. The electrophoretic zymograms of serum, liver, and pancreatic homogenates indicate a similar pancreatic origin for the alpha-amylase found in each tissue or fluid.

  19. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation: Effects on performance and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers.

    PubMed

    Afsarian, O; Shahir, M H; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfolahian, H; Hoseini, A; Lourens, A

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (16 replicates of 75 eggs per treatment). The eggs were incubated at a constant eggshell temperature (EST) of 37.8ºC throughout the incubation period (CON) or were periodically exposed to 15°C for one hour on days 11, 13, 15, and 17 of incubation and the EST was measured (periodical low EST; PLE). After hatching, 240 one-day-old male broiler chicks from both treatment groups were reared for 42 d with or without dietary arginine supplementation in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. In order to induce ascites, all chicks were exposed to a 15°C room temperature from 14 d onwards. Results showed that second grade chicks and yolk sac weight were decreased, and final body weight was increased in the PLE group. Ascites mortality rate was decreased only in the PLE group and dietary arginine supplementation had no apparent effect. In the PLE group, the packed cell volume (PCV) percentage and red blood cell (RBC) count were decreased. In conclusion, the results showed that the PLE treatment during incubation was associated with improved hatchability, chick quality, and productive performance of broilers and decreased ascites incidence during post hatch cold exposure. Dietary arginine supplementation had no beneficial effects in cold exposed broilers. PMID:27287379

  20. Genotype-by-environment interaction with broiler genotypes differing in growth rate. 3. Growth rate and water consumption of broiler progeny from weight-selected versus nonselected parents under normal and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Deeb, N; Cahaner, A

    2002-03-01

    One cycle of high-intensity selection on BW was conducted to study correlated effects on performance under high ambient temperature (AT). From a large flock of a commercial sire-line, 3 males and 15 females with the highest BW at 35 d of age were mated and produced a group of 120 BW-selected chicks. Three average-BW males and 15 average-BW females from the same flock were mated to produce a control group of 120 chicks. On Day 17, the two groups were equally divided between two temperature-controlled chambers and housed in individual cages. One chamber was set to a normal AT (NAT; constant 22 C) and the second chamber to high AT (HAT; constant 32 C). Under NAT, the relative advantage of the selected broilers over the controls did not change from 17 to 42 d of age, averaging about 15% for BW gain and 9.7% for feed consumption. These differences were halved under HAT from Days 17 to 28 and were reversed from 28 to 42 d of age, when the selected broilers consumed significantly less feed and gained less BW than the controls. Water-to-feed ratio was measured in each AT treatment. From 28 to 42 d of age, averaged over the two groups, birds under HAT consumed 2.5 g water/g of feed compared to only 1.5 g water/g feed under NAT. The diminished superiority of the selected broilers under HAT led to a substantial genotype-by-environment interaction involving high AT and within-stock genetic differences in growth rate. It appears that broilers selected for rapid growth under optimal conditions do not achieve their genetic potential under high AT. Thus, specific indicators of adaptation to heat, possibly water consumption or body temperature, should be added to commercial selection for rapid growth to improve broiler performance in hot climates.

  1. Effect of Dietary Nutrient Density on Small Intestinal Phosphate Transport and Bone Mineralization of Broilers during the Growing Period.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791

  2. Effect of Dietary Nutrient Density on Small Intestinal Phosphate Transport and Bone Mineralization of Broilers during the Growing Period

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791

  3. Effect of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella growth factor on growth performance, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Ki; Kim, Kwan-Eung; Jeon, Jin-Young; Lee, Kyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dried chlorella powder (Chlorella vulgaris; DCP) and chlorella growth factor (CGF) on growth performance, serum characteristics, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 1050 day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 35 pens (30 chicks/pen) and subjected to one of seven dietary treatments. A non-medicated corn-soybean meal base diet was considered as negative control (NC) and added with either antibiotic (PC), three levels of DCP (NC diets added with 0.05, 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP) or two levels of CGF (NC diets added with 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF). The final body weight and daily weight gain in PC and groups fed diets with 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP were heavier (p < 0.001) than those of NC and CGF-treated groups. Serum total lipid concentrations were lower (p = 0.001) in groups fed diets with 0.5 % DCP and 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF compared with PC group. The levels of serum IgG (p = 0.050) and IgM (p = 0.010) were elevated in chicks fed diets with DCP and CGF compared with the PC or NC group. Meat qualities such as cooking loss, meat color, and pH, of edible meats were not altered by dietary treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary DCP, but not CGF, exerted growth-promoting effect, and both DCP and CGF affected humoral immune response in broiler chicks. PMID:27375987

  4. Effect of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella growth factor on growth performance, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Ki; Kim, Kwan-Eung; Jeon, Jin-Young; Lee, Kyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dried chlorella powder (Chlorella vulgaris; DCP) and chlorella growth factor (CGF) on growth performance, serum characteristics, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 1050 day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 35 pens (30 chicks/pen) and subjected to one of seven dietary treatments. A non-medicated corn-soybean meal base diet was considered as negative control (NC) and added with either antibiotic (PC), three levels of DCP (NC diets added with 0.05, 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP) or two levels of CGF (NC diets added with 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF). The final body weight and daily weight gain in PC and groups fed diets with 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP were heavier (p < 0.001) than those of NC and CGF-treated groups. Serum total lipid concentrations were lower (p = 0.001) in groups fed diets with 0.5 % DCP and 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF compared with PC group. The levels of serum IgG (p = 0.050) and IgM (p = 0.010) were elevated in chicks fed diets with DCP and CGF compared with the PC or NC group. Meat qualities such as cooking loss, meat color, and pH, of edible meats were not altered by dietary treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary DCP, but not CGF, exerted growth-promoting effect, and both DCP and CGF affected humoral immune response in broiler chicks.

  5. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16. PMID:26723190

  6. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16.

  7. Removal of the alpha-galactosides of sucrose from soybean meal using either ethanol extraction or exogenous alpha-galactosidase and broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Irish, G G; Barbour, G W; Classen, H L; Tyler, R T; Bedford, M R

    1995-09-01

    Two studies using broiler chicks and one using adult White Leghorn roosters were conducted to determine the influence of stachyose and raffinose (alpha-galactosides of sucrose) present in soybean meal (SBM) on the nutritional value of the meal. In Experiment 1, the addition of four levels (0, .05, .10, or .20 g/kg) of alpha-galactosidase with and without 1 g/kg of invertase to a corn-SBM diet had no effect on weight gain, feed efficiency, protein digestibility, or the digestible energy value of the feed when fed to broiler chicks. However, both enzymes decreased (P < .001) dietary AMEn. In Experiment 2, ethanol extraction and incubation of SBM with alpha-galactosidase decreased the concentrations of the alpha-galactosides of sucrose in SBM from 6.59 to .81 and 1.43%, respectively. However, when broiler chicks were fed semi-purified diets containing SBM, ethanol-extracted SBM, water-incubated SBM, or water plus alpha-galactosidase-incubated SBM, no improvements in weight gain, feed efficiency, or apparent protein digestibility were observed. There was also no improvement in TMEn when the above meals were precision fed to adult White Leghorn roosters (Experiment 3). These results indicate that the removal of up to approximately 90% of the alpha-galactosides of sucrose has no beneficial effect on the nutritional value of SBM for chickens.

  8. Avian maternal response to chick distress

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. L.; Lowe, J. C.; Paul, E. S.; Nicol, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which an animal is affected by the pain or distress of a conspecific will depend on its capacity for empathy. Empathy most probably evolved to facilitate parental care, so the current study assessed whether birds responded to an aversive stimulus directed at their chicks. Domestic hens were exposed to two replicates of the following conditions in a counterbalanced order: control (C; hen and chicks undisturbed), air puff to chicks (APC; air puff directed at chicks at 30 s intervals), air puff to hen (APH; air puff directed at hen at 30 s intervals) and control with noise (CN; noise of air puff at 30 s intervals). During each test, the hens' behaviour and physiology were measured throughout a 10 min pre-treatment and a 10 min treatment period. Hens responded to APH and APC treatments with increased alertness, decreased preening behaviour and a reduction in eye temperature. No such changes occurred during any control period. Increased heart rate and maternal vocalization occurred exclusively during the APC treatment, even though chicks produced few distress vocalizations. The pronounced and specific reaction observed indicates that adult female birds possess at least one of the essential underpinning attributes of empathy. PMID:21389025

  9. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  10. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth, carcass characteristics, redox status, and mitochondria metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Samuel, K G; Long, C; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-02-01

    The potential benefits of supplementing pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ·Na2) in the diet of broiler chicks were explored. We first examined the effect of different levels of dietary PQQ·Na2 on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and plasma biochemical parameters (trial 1). A total of 490 1-day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 5 dietary groups supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg PQQ·Na2/kg feed. As the 0.2 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 supplement gave the best performance, we then investigated whether this level of PQQ·Na2 influenced the redox status of plasma samples and mitochondrial-related metabolism (trial 2). A total of 120 1-day-old male AA chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups supplemented with 0 or 0.2 mg PQQ·Na2/kg diet. In trial 1, birds fed a diet containing 0.2 mg PQQ·Na2/kg showed lower feed conversion ratio compared with those fed the control diet in the overall study (d 1 to 42, P=0.039). Breast muscle yield (d 42) increased quadratically in response to dietary PQQ·Na2 supplementation (P=0.021). Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters revealed that feeding broiler chicks with ≤0.4 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 did not cause adverse health effects. In trial 2, birds fed 0.2 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 again showed improved feed efficiency than the control birds in the grower and overall phases (P=0.038 and 0.016, respectively). In addition, dietary PQQ·Na2 supplementation resulted in a higher anti-oxidative capacity (P=0.001), lower redox potential (P=0.008), and higher hepatic citrate synthase activity (P=0.002). In contrast, no difference in hepatic mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed between the 2 experimental groups (P>0.1). These results indicate that PQQ·Na2 is a potentially effective feed additive for improving feed efficiency, stimulating breast muscle development, and maintaining redox status in broiler chicks. Enhancement of mitochondria efficiency, rather than modulating mitochondria numbers

  11. Clinical and biochemical effects of aflatoxin in feed ration of chicks.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Taskar, P K; Schwabe, O; Das, Y T; Brown, H D

    1985-06-01

    Aflatoxin carcinogenesis appears to relate to multiple factors. This includes bulky adduct formation at DNA guanine N-7. The process also requires more extensive physiological degradation, possibly by the toxin alone as the active principle, but in instances also involving other assaults (e.g., hepatitis B virus). Since aflatoxin carcinogenesis involves complex effects, we have undertaken to define the range of influence of this common food contaminant upon a susceptible model, the broiler-type chick. Aflatoxicosis in two treated groups was indicated by jaundice, coagulopathy, dehydration of combs and shanks, retardation of body weight, and decrease in bursa weight. Blood clotting time, hemoglobin content, erythrocyte and packed-cell volume were affected. Hepatocytes were swollen and had undergone fatty degeneration. Bile duct hyperplasia was evident. Total serum protein, alkaline phosphatase, creatine, lactate dehydrogenase, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and glutamyl transpeptidase were similarly abnormal in birds receiving the contaminated (0.5 and 2.5 micrograms/g aflatoxin B1) feed rations. The aflatoxin B1 and its metabolites were isolated by HPLC from chick serum, liver and muscle.

  12. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    PubMed Central

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80 ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  13. Knockdown of Lmo7 inhibits chick myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Possidonio, Ana C B; Soares, Carolina P; Fontenele, Marcio; Morris, Eduardo R; Mouly, Vincent; Costa, Manoel L; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    The multifunctional protein Lmo7 has been implicated in some aspects of myogenesis in mammals. Here we studied the distribution and expression of Lmo7 and the effects of Lmo7 knockdown in primary cultures of chick skeletal muscle cells. Lmo7 was localized within the nuclei of myoblasts and at the perinuclear region of myotubes. Knockdown of Lmo7 using siRNA specific to chick reduces the number and width of myotubes and the number of MyoD positive-myoblasts. Both Wnt3a enriched medium and Bio, activators of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, could rescue the effects of the Lmo7 knockdown suggesting a crosstalk between the Wnt/beta-catenin and Lmo7-mediated signaling pathways. Our data shows a role of Lmo7 during the initial events of chick skeletal myogenesis, particularly in myoblast survival.

  14. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  15. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  16. Flies and Campylobacter Infection of Broiler Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Dybdahl, Jens; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Madsen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks in summer. PMID:15496257

  17. Amelioration of hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin using citrus fruit oil in broilers (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Senthil; Rao, Suguna; Satyanarayana, M L; Kumar, P G Pradeep; Anitha, N

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of citrus fruit oil (CFO; 2.5 g kg(-1)) on the clinicopathological changes in broilers fed with diets containing 1 ppm of aflatoxin (AF). A total of 160 Ross 308 broiler chicks of 1-day-old were procured from a commercial hatchery, divided randomly on 7th day of age into four groups with two replicates of 20 birds each and fed with basal diet (group A), basal diet + CFO (group B), basal diet + AF (group C) and CFO + basal diet + AF (group D). The gross and histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were investigated and relative organ weights were calculated. Slight to moderate hydropic degeneration, fatty change with the formation of cyst in some cases, periportal necrosis, infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells and bile duct hyperplasia were observed in chicks fed with 1 ppm AF-containing diet. The addition of CFO to AF-containing diet moderately decreased the magnitude and severity of lesions (hydropic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) in the liver. The supplementation of CFO to the basal diet did not produce any adverse effects in birds.

  18. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Yegani, M; Smith, T K; Leeson, S; Boermans, H J

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of broiler breeders. Forty-two 26-wk-old broiler breeder hens and nine 26-wk-old roosters were fed the following diets: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for 12 wk. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (12.6 mg/kg of feed), with lesser amounts of zearalenone and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol. Feed consumption and BW were not affected by diet. The feeding of contaminated grains did not significantly affect egg production. Decreased eggshell thickness was seen, however, at the end of wk 4, and dietary supplementation with GMA prevented this effect. There was no effect of diet on other egg parameters measured. There was a significant increase in early (1 to 7 d) embryonic mortality in eggs from birds fed contaminated grains at wk 4, but mid- (8 to 14 d) and late- (15 to 21 d) embryonic mortalities were not affected by diet. There were no differences in newly hatched chick weights or viability. The ratio of chick weight to egg weight was not affected by the feeding of contaminated grains. Weight gains of chicks fed a standard broiler starter diet at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were not significantly affected by previous dietary treatments for the dam. It was found that rooster semen volume and sperm concentration, viability, and motility were not affected by the feeding of contaminated diets. There was no effect of diet on the relative weights of liver, spleen, kidney, and testes. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased antibody titers against infectious bronchitis virus at the end of wk 12, and this was prevented by dietary supplementation with GMA. There was no effect of the diet on serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus. It was concluded that the feeding of blends of grains contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins could affect

  19. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05) the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus) were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine

  20. The impact of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on the health and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05) the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus) were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine

  1. Development and nutrient metabolism of embryos from two modern broiler strains.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-10-01

    A progressive selection for broiler live and processing performance traits has changed broiler growth patterns during the post hatch period. However, limited information is available to understand whether changes have also occurred during the embryonic stages. This study aims to examine influences of broiler strain on nutrient availability, embryonic development, and nutrient metabolism during incubation. Hatching eggs of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 fast feathering were selected from breeder flocks aged 43 to 46 weeks at an egg weight range of 60 to 63 g. Eggs were obtained in 2 batches, 120 eggs per strain per batch. For each batch, 20 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition and nutrient availability. The remaining eggs were incubated separately in one of 2 climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that Ross 308 eggs had a higher yolk:albumen ratio with 0.9 g more yolk and 0.7 g less albumen than Cobb 500. Albumen + yolk of Ross 308 eggs had a higher dry matter (Δ = 0.24 g) and crude fat (Δ = 0.23 g) than that of Cobb 500 eggs, but a similar amount of crude protein. Albumen and yolk of Ross 308 eggs had a higher energy content (Δ = 8.9 kJ) compared to Cobb 500 eggs. At 3 h after hatch, Ross 308 chicks were 0.2 cm longer and had a 0.6 g heavier yolk free body mass (YFBM) than Cobb 500 chicks. During incubation, Ross 308 embryos used 13.9 kJ more energy than Cobb 500, and the efficiency of converting energy used to YFBM (EYFB) was approximately 7.6% lower compared to Cobb 500. Ross 308 chicks hatched approximately 4 h later and had less hepatic glycogen (Δ = 5 mg) than Cobb 500 chicks. It can be concluded that, Cobb 500 and Ross 308 differ in egg nutrient availability and have different trajectories for embryonic development and nutrient metabolism during incubation.

  2. Estimation of standardized phosphorus retention for inorganic phosphate sources in broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, S B; Xie, J J; Lu, L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Jiang, Y; Luo, X G

    2013-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate standardized P retention (SPR) values of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and monopotassium phosphate (MKP) in broilers. In total, ninety-six 22-d-old male broilers with similar BW (780 g average) were used in each experiment. The chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments (P-free, DCP, MCP, or MKP diets) with 6 replicate cages of 4 chicks each in a completely randomized design. After 3-d acclimation, chicks were fasted for 24 h and then fed P-free, DCP, MCP, or MKP diets for 4 h in Exp. 1 or 72 h in Exp. 2. Excreta samples were collected for a total of 28 or 52 h (24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal) in Exp. 1 and 96 or 120 h (24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal) in Exp. 2, respectively. The excreta collection time of 52 h in Exp. 1 or 96 h in Exp. 2 was adequate for the estimation of SPR. The estimated basal endogenous P losses (EPL) in chicks fed the P-free diet were 109 ± 4 mg/52 h per bird and 49.2 ± 4.0 mg/96 h per bird in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. The SPR values of inorganic phosphate sources corrected by the above basal EPL differed (P < 0.001) in Exp. 2 but not in Exp. 1. However, these SPR values were very similar between the 2 experiments with 68.7, 69.8, or 76.6% in Exp. 1 and 71.8, 70.6, or 78.3% in Exp. 2 for DCP, MCP, or MKP, respectively. The results from the current study indicated that, compared with the 72-h feeding and 96-h excreta collection procedure, the 4-h feeding and 52-h excreta collection procedure was a relatively quicker time- and labor-saving method for estimating the SPR values of inorganic P sources in broilers. The estimated SPR values of commonly used inorganic P sources (MCP and DCP) were about 70%.

  3. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol contaminated wheat on growth performance, organ weights and histological parameters of the intestine of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Böhm, J; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Zentek, J

    2006-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of moderate dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) during a 21-day feeding experiment on the performance of broilers. Fifteen 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was fed non-contaminated diet. Another group of broilers was fed a diet naturally contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg diet. Deoxynivalenol had no effect (p > 0.05) on feed consumption, feed conversion, body-weight gain, live body weight or mortality. The absolute and relative weight of the organs (gizzard, pancreas, heart, spleen, colon and caecum) were not altered by the dietary inclusion of DON contaminated grain. However, both the absolute and relative weight of small intestine was decreased (p < 0.01) in DON fed broilers compared to the controls. No gross lesions were detected in any of the organs of birds fed contaminated wheat during the feeding trial. The microscopic examination revealed that, the height and the width of villi in duodenum decreased (p < 0.05) in birds fed DON contaminated wheat compared to controls. On the other hand the height and the width of jejunum villi were not affected (p > 0.05). This study indicates that feeding DON for 21 days to broiler chickens at a concentration of up to 5 mg/kg of diet influenced the weight of the small intestine as well as intestinal histology, especially the duodenum, as evidenced by shorter and thinner villi. In conclusion, diets with DON contamination below levels that induce negative impact on health and performance could affect small intestinal morphology in broilers.

  4. Effect of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplementation on performance, immune responses, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations in broilers.

    PubMed

    Salehimanesh, A; Mohammadi, M; Roostaei-Ali Mehr, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic (Primalac), prebiotic (TechnoMos) and synbiotic (Primalac + TechnoMos) supplementation on performance, immune responses, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations of ileum in broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups which included 60 birds. Control group did not receive any treatment. The chicks in the second, third and fourth groups were fed probiotic (0.9 g/kg), prebiotic (0.9 g/kg) and probiotic (0.9 g/kg) plus probiotic (0.9 g/kg; synbiotic), respectively, at entire period. Daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were evaluated. The birds were immunized by sheep red blood cell (SRBC) on days 12 and 29 of age and serum antibody titres were measured on days 28, 35 and 42. Newcastle vaccines administered on days 9, 18 and 27 to chicks and blood samples were collected on day 42. Intestinal morphometric assessment and enumeration of intestinal bacterial populations were performed on day 42. The results indicated that consumption of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic had no significant effect on daily feed intake, daily body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass traits, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations of ileum (p > 0.05). Consumption of prebiotic increased total and IgM anti-SRBC titres on days 28 and 42 and antibody titre against Newcastle virus disease on day 42 (p < 0.05). Synbiotic increased only total anti-SRBC on day 28 (p < 0.05). It is concluded that consumption of prebiotic increased humoral immunity in broilers. Therefore, supplementation of diet with prebiotic for improvement of humoral immune responses is superior to synbiotic supplementation. PMID:26847817

  5. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  6. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  7. Nutritional Value of electron beam irradiated cottonseed meal in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Nayefi, M; Salari, S; Sari, M; Behgar, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam-irradiated cottonseed meal on performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Treatments were cottonseed meal (CSM) at levels of 12% and 24% (raw and irradiated at 30 kGy) and corn-soya bean meal diet (as control, without CSM and without irradiation) that used with five dietary treatments, four replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were recorded weekly. At 42 days of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for the determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. BWG decreased with increasing levels of dietary CSM during the experiment (p < 0.05). In addition, radiation had significant positive effect in broilers fed 12% compared with those fed 24% CSM. FI in chicks fed control and diet containing 24% CSM were increased significantly in starter period. But FI was significantly decreased in broilers consumed CSM compare to the control in grower and during the experiment. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diets. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreas, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased by increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p < 0.05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride and phosphorous concentrations increased, and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p < 0.05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM, but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve performance of chickens. PMID:26621476

  8. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors.

  9. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers. PMID:21076106

  10. The Efficacy of Artesunate, Chloroquine, Doxycycline, Primaquine and a Combination of Artesunate and Primaquine against Avian Malaria in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    SOHSUEBNGARM, Damnern; SASIPREEYAJAN, Jiroj; NITHIUTHAI, Suwannee; CHANSIRIPORNCHAI, Niwat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of 5 antimalarial drugs was evaluated on P. gallinaceum infected broilers. One hundred and forty-seven 19-day-old broilers were divided into 7 groups of 21 chicks each. Group 1 was the unmedicated, uninfected control. Groups 2–6 were infected and medicated with artesunate, chloroquine, doxycycline, primaquine and an artesunate-primaquine combination, respectively. Group 7 was the unmedicated, infected control. Infectivity, mortality, parasitemia, schizonts in tissues and body weight gain were monitored. The results revealed that the two most effective drugs for treating P. gallinaceum at the asexual erythrocyte stage were chloroquine and doxycycline. Tissue schizonts of P. gallinaceum in all the medicated groups were significantly fewer than the unmedicated, infected control (P<0.05). The mortality rate of all the medicated groups was significantly lower than the unmedicated, infected control (P<0.05). PMID:24531829

  11. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators

  12. Housing systems interacting with sex and genetic line affect broiler growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Ren, Wenshi; Siegel, Paul B; Li, Juan; Yin, Huadong; Liu, Yiping; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yao; Honaker, Christa F; Zhu, Qing

    2015-07-01

    Housing systems used in the production of poultry meat vary worldwide dependent on climate, land availability, and other resources essential for production. Reported here are comparisons between pen and cage rearing (the housing system, denoted HS: ), line crosses LC: ), two native Chinese lines (EM males were mated to Y1 and Y2 and their offspring denoted as EMY1 and EMY2), and sex in determining broiler traits. At hatch, 320 males and 320 females from each LC (giving a total of 1,280 chicks) were randomly assigned within each subgroup to 16 battery pens. There were 4 replicates for each combination of LC by sex. On d 28, half of the chicks were transferred to indoor floor pens, and the others were raised in single cages from d 29 to 91. Weekly body weights, livability, and feed conversion ratios ( FCR: ) were obtained to d 91, the age at which the broilers were slaughtered for carcass measurements. The caged males and females were heavier (P < 0.05) than their penned counterparts (2,292 vs 2,219 g). Except for females from line EMY1 (94.9%), the livability for each unit from 1 to 28 d, and 29 to 91 d was greater than 95%. Penned EMY2 broilers had the highest FCR (3.02), whereas penned EMY1 broilers had the lowest FCR (2.96) among the housing systems by LC combinations (P < 0.05). Caged chickens had thicker subcutaneous fat (7.24 mm), a higher percentages of abdominal fat (5.01%) and liver mass (3.13%) , but lower eviscerated carcass (60.63%) and breast muscle weights (pectoralis major and minor, 17.10%). Males were heavier and had higher percentages of leg muscle (boneless drum plus thigh, 24.22%) and heart muscle (1.08%) than the females (P < 0.05). However, the females had thicker subcutaneous fat (7.19 mm) and higher percentages of carcass weight (87.28%), breast muscle (18.11%), abdominal fat (6.54%), and liver mass (3.15%) than males. Penned females had the highest percentage of breast muscle (18.94%), and caged females had the highest percentage of liver

  13. Effect of zinc on growth performance, gut morphometry, and cecal microbial community in broilers challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuxin; Lei, Zhao; Yuan, Jianmin; Yang, Ying; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Bingkun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc on growth performance, gut morphometry, and the cecal microbial community in broilers challenged with Salmonella typhimurium, 180, 1-day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments with ten replicates for a 42 day experiment. The 3 treatments were: unchallenged, S. typhimurium-challenged, and S. typhimurium-challenged with 120 mg/kg of zinc supplementation in the diet. Salmonella infection caused a reduction in body-weight gain and feed intake, disrupted the intestinal structure by decreasing the villus-height/crypt-depth ratio of the ileum and increasing the apoptotic index of ileal epithelial cells. Moreover, the cecal microbial community was altered by Salmonella infection, as demonstrated by a reduced number of Lactobacillus and total bacteria. Dietary zinc supplementation improved growth performance by increasing the body-weight gain and feed intake in the challenged broilers. In addition, zinc repaired intestinal injury by reducing the apoptotic index of ileal epithelial cells, enhancing villus height and the villus-height/crypt-depth ratio of the ileum, and the proliferation index of ileal epithelial cells. Finally, zinc regulated the cecal microbial community by increasing the number of total bacteria and beneficial Lactobacillus bacteria, and reducing the number of Salmonella. The results indicated that dietary zinc supplementation improved growth performance, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota in S. typhimurium-challenged broilers. PMID:25467118

  14. Effects of dietary betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and serum lipids in broilers subjected to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    He, Shaojun; Zhao, Shujing; Dai, Sifa; Liu, Deyi; Bokhari, Shehla Gul

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplementing betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and lipid metabolism status in broilers kept under chronic heat stress. Five hundred and forty chicks were randomly divided into six groups and the two normal temperature groups were held at normal ambient temperature and fed the basal diet (CONT) and basal diet plus 0.1% betaine, respectively. Heat stressed (HS) broilers were held at 32 ± 1°C from days 22 to 42 and fed the basal diet containing variable levels of betaine. Broilers were examined at days 28, 35 and 42 for body weight, feed consumption, fat deposition and serum lipids. The CONT and betaine-supplemented groups showed higher (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) feed consumption, body weight gain, and lower feed : gain ratio compared with the HS-CONT group. Meanwhile, heat stress increased abdominal, intermuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition, whereas the supplemental betaine significantly decreased those compared with the HS-CONT group. Additionally, betaine supplementation significantly decreased triglyceride, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with HS-CONT. Chronic HS reduces broiler production performance. However, betaine can reverse these negative effects partially and thus improve carcass composition by changing lipid metabolism. PMID:25780810

  15. Effects of dietary betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and serum lipids in broilers subjected to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    He, Shaojun; Zhao, Shujing; Dai, Sifa; Liu, Deyi; Bokhari, Shehla Gul

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplementing betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and lipid metabolism status in broilers kept under chronic heat stress. Five hundred and forty chicks were randomly divided into six groups and the two normal temperature groups were held at normal ambient temperature and fed the basal diet (CONT) and basal diet plus 0.1% betaine, respectively. Heat stressed (HS) broilers were held at 32 ± 1°C from days 22 to 42 and fed the basal diet containing variable levels of betaine. Broilers were examined at days 28, 35 and 42 for body weight, feed consumption, fat deposition and serum lipids. The CONT and betaine-supplemented groups showed higher (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) feed consumption, body weight gain, and lower feed : gain ratio compared with the HS-CONT group. Meanwhile, heat stress increased abdominal, intermuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition, whereas the supplemental betaine significantly decreased those compared with the HS-CONT group. Additionally, betaine supplementation significantly decreased triglyceride, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with HS-CONT. Chronic HS reduces broiler production performance. However, betaine can reverse these negative effects partially and thus improve carcass composition by changing lipid metabolism.

  16. Prevalence and Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in Small-Scale Broiler Operations.

    PubMed

    Tangkham, Wannee; Janes, Marlene; LeMieux, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. Previous studies have focused on the transmission routes of C. jejuni from commercial flock farms to the final retail product. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. in eggshells, live birds, feed, drinking water, and the rearing environment in a small-scale broiler operation. Broilers were raised under two different production systems: (i) environmentally controlled housing and (ii) open-air housing with two replications. Each week, samples were collected from eggshells, bird feces, feed, drinking water, enclosures (vertical walls of bird housing), and feed troughs for enumeration and isolation testing. All samples were plated on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar to determine the log CFU per gram and percent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Isolation of C. jejuni was verified with latex agglutination and hippurate hydrolysis tests. The results from this study suggest that vertical transmission of these bacteria from egg surfaces to newly hatched chicks is not a significant risk factor. The results also suggest that the prevalence of C. jejuni at time of harvest (week 6) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the open-air housing broilers than in those in the environmentally controlled housing. Elevated levels of cross-contaminants, especially water and feed, may have played a role in this outcome.

  17. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms.

  18. Effects of fermentatively recovered fish waste lipids on the growth and composition of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, M A; Domendra, D; Muthukumar, S P; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of feeding fermentatively recovered fish oil (FFO) from fish processing waste (FPW), on the performance and carcass composition of broilers. A total of 60 one-d-old VenCobb broiler chicks randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups were studied. 2. The birds were randomly assigned to treatment groups and fed with a normal commercial diet (control, T1), a diet with 2% groundnut oil (positive control, T2), a diet with 1% FFO (T3), a diet with 1.5% FFO (T4) and a diet with 2% FFO (T5). Performance and growth parameters (feed intake and body weight) and fatty acid composition of serum, liver and meat were determined. 3. The performance characteristics of broiler meat did not differ among treatments. Feeding FFO reduced total cholesterol concentration in serum, meat and liver of the FFO-fed groups (T3 to T5) as compared to both the controls (T1 and T2), but there was no significant difference in triglyceride concentration between treatments. Increased concentrations of EPA and DHA in serum, liver and meat of FFO-fed groups, as compared to both controls, were observed as the FFO concentration increased. 4. The study clearly demonstrates the value of oil recovered from FPW in addition to addressing the environmental issues related to disposal of such biological waste.

  19. Prevalence and Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in Small-Scale Broiler Operations.

    PubMed

    Tangkham, Wannee; Janes, Marlene; LeMieux, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. Previous studies have focused on the transmission routes of C. jejuni from commercial flock farms to the final retail product. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. in eggshells, live birds, feed, drinking water, and the rearing environment in a small-scale broiler operation. Broilers were raised under two different production systems: (i) environmentally controlled housing and (ii) open-air housing with two replications. Each week, samples were collected from eggshells, bird feces, feed, drinking water, enclosures (vertical walls of bird housing), and feed troughs for enumeration and isolation testing. All samples were plated on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar to determine the log CFU per gram and percent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Isolation of C. jejuni was verified with latex agglutination and hippurate hydrolysis tests. The results from this study suggest that vertical transmission of these bacteria from egg surfaces to newly hatched chicks is not a significant risk factor. The results also suggest that the prevalence of C. jejuni at time of harvest (week 6) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the open-air housing broilers than in those in the environmentally controlled housing. Elevated levels of cross-contaminants, especially water and feed, may have played a role in this outcome. PMID:26735032

  20. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  1. Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Choo, Won-Don; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether dietary lycopene (LP) could prevent the copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and affect growth performance, relative organ weights, plasma and meat lipid profiles, and LP contents in plasma and tissues in broiler chickens. A total of 160 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 16 pens with rice husk as a bedding material. Each experiment had 4 replicates, 10 chicks per replicate (n = 4 per treatment). A corn-soybean meal base diet was used as a control diet (CONT). To formulate the experimental diets, the base diet was added with LP at the levels of 10 (LP10) or 20 mg/kg (LP20), or 17 g/kg of tomato paste (TP17) which was equivalent to 5 ppm of LP. The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Growth performance and relative organ weights were not affected (p > 0.05) by any of dietary treatments. Dietary LP significantly lowered (p < 0.05) triglyceride and LDL cholesterol at 2 weeks of age, but did not affect them at 4 weeks of age. Total cholesterol in thigh meats was not altered by dietary treatments. LP was not detected in leg meats in all chicks, nor in liver or plasma of the CONT group. LP was found in liver and plasma, being the former greater in the concentration, of the chicks fed diets containing LP10, LP20, or TP17. At 2 and 4 weeks, the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL was delayed (p < 0.05) in either LP- or TP-fed chickens compared with the CONT group. In conclusion, LP lowers triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, is deposited into serum and liver, and prevents the LDL oxidation in broiler chickens, confirming the role of LP in the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties in broiler chickens. PMID:27047715

  2. Effects of Two Herbal Extracts and Virginiamycin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflora Population and Fatty Acid Composition in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Zulkifli, Idrus; Rahim, Nordiana Asyikin Abdul; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    The competency of garlic and pennywort to improve broiler chicken growth and influence intestinal microbial communities and fatty acid composition of breast meat were studied. Two hundred forty, “day-old” chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups consisting of 6 replications of 10 chicks in each pen. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diets as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet plus 0.5% garlic powder (GP), iii) basal diet plus 0.5% pennywort powder (PW) and iv) 0.002% virginiamycin (VM). Birds were killed at day 42 and intestinal samples were collected to assess for Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The pectoralis profundus from chicken breast samples was obtained from 10 birds from each treatment group on day 42 and frozen at −20°C for further analyses. Fatty acid profile of breast muscles was determined using gas liquid chromatography. Feed intake and weight gain of broilers fed with GP, PW, and VM were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Feeding chicks GP, PW, and VM significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (p<0.05) while Lactobacillus spp count were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the gut when compared to control group on day 42. Supplemented diet containing pennywort increased the C18:3n-3 fatty acid composition of chickens’ breast muscle. Garlic and pennywort may be useful in modulating broiler guts as they control the enteropathogens that help to utilize feed efficiently. This subsequently enhances the growth performances of broiler chickens. PMID:25049964

  3. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl broilers fed micronized-dehulled pea (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Nahashon, S N; Tufarelli, V

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized peas (Pisum sativum) in diets of guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass yields, and fatty acid composition of meat. One hundred forty 1-d-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments, which were fed from hatch to 12 wk. The birds were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets comprising a control diet, which contained SBM (78 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized peas (180 g/kg) as the main protein source. The substitution of SBM with peas had no adverse effect on growth performance, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscle relative weights of the guinea broilers. However, a reduction of abdominal fat content (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed the pea diet compared with the control. Breast and thigh meat of birds fed the pea diet had higher lightness scores (P < 0.05) and water-holding capacity (P < 0.01) than the control. Meat from guinea fowls fed the pea diet had less cholesterol (P < 0.01) and lipids (P < 0.05), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.05). Feeding peas increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and thigh muscles, and decreased the saturated fatty acid concentration. Feeding the pea diet also lowered the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the guinea broiler muscles. Our results suggest that replacing the conventional SBM as the protein source with dehulled-micronized pea meal in diets of guinea fowls broilers can improve carcass quality and favorable lipid profile without adversely affecting growth performance traits.

  4. Nutritional Evaluation of Distillery Sludge and Its Effect as a Substitute of Canola Meal on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, M.; Shahzad, M. A.; Rehman, S.; Khan, S.; Ali, R.; Khan, M. L.; Khan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of distillery yeast sludge and its inclusion in broiler diets to replace canola meal. Raw distillery yeast sludge was washed with water using water and sludge in the ratio 6:1, respectively. Proximate analysis of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge was carried out for crude protein (CP), true protein (TP), ether extract (EE), ash, acid insoluble ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) determination. Mineral contents and amino acid profile of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge were also determined. After chemical evaluation, four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler starter and finisher diets were prepared in mash form using 0 (control), 4, 8 and 12% levels of washed distillery sludge replacing canola meal. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units in such a way that each diet was offered to three experimental units, each comprising of 10 chicks. It was observed that washing affected the nutrients either by decreasing or increasing their concentration. It decreased the total mineral contents whereas CP, TP, EE and NFE contents increased. Washing also increased amino acid profile. Average feed intake and weight gain were higher in birds fed diet containing 8% washed distillery sludge and lower in birds fed diet containing 0% washed distillery sludge. Feed cost per kg live weight gain decreased significantly as the level of washed distillery sludge was increased in the diet. Average heart, liver and pancreas weights decreased with increased level of washed distillery sludge in the diet. The study revealed that after washing, distillery yeast sludge can be used successfully in broiler diets up to the level of 8% without any adverse effect on broiler’s performance. PMID:25049579

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the growth plate of broiler chickens with thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Tian, W X; Zhang, W P; Li, J K; Bi, D R; Guo, D Z; Pan, S Y; Zhang, Y H; Qin, P

    2009-04-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is characterized by expansion of the proximal growth plates of the tibiotarsus that fail to form bone, lack blood vessels, and contain non-viable cells. Thiram (a carbamate pesticide), when fed to young broiler chicks, induces TD with high regularity and precision. We used this experimental model to understand the cause of the defects associated with TD by selecting and identifying the genes differentially expressed in the TD growth plate of broiler chickens. Broiler chicks at 7 days of age were randomly divided into two groups. After fasting overnight, they were fed with regular diet (control) or the same diet containing 100 mg/kg thiram for 96 h to induce TD (thiram-fed). mRNA was purified from the growth plates of control and thiram-fed broilers. Forward and reverse-subtracted cDNA libraries were generated by suppression subtractive hybridization technology. Ten selected genes from cDNA libraries were identified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. All were differentially expressed in TD growth plates (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The levels of collagen type X (Col X), pro-alpha-1 collagen type I (Col I alpha1), collagen type IX (Col IX), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH DH), cytochrome C oxidase subunit III (COX III), enolase 1, alpha (ENO1), carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) mRNA transcripts were up-regulated, while the expression levels of Matrilin 3 (MATN3) and chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) were down-regulated. Col I and Hsp90 were detected by immunohistochemistry at different stages. Given that these genes are involved in matrix formation, endochondral ossification, developmental regulation, electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and vascularization, our findings may provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of TD.

  6. Regulation of free glutamate content in meat by dietary lysine in broilers.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Genya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2015-04-01

    Regulation of taste is important for improving meat quality and glutamate (Glu) is one of the important taste-active components in meat. Here, the effects of dietary lysine (Lys) content on taste-active components in meat, especially free Glu, were investigated. Fourteen-day-old broiler chicks (Gallus gallus) were fed on diets containing 100% or 150% of the recommended Lys content for 10 days. Concentrations of free amino acids in plasma, muscle and liver were measured. The levels of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for enzymes related to Glu metabolism were determined in muscle and liver. The concentration of muscle metabolites was also determined. The free Glu content in muscle of chicks fed the Lys150% diet was increased by 44.0% compared with that in chicks fed the Lys100% diet (P < 0.01). The mRNA level of lysine α-ketoglutarate reductase, which is involved in Lys degradation and Glu production, was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the Lys150% group. Metabolome analysis showed that the Lys degradation products, muscular saccharopine, pipecolic acid and α-aminoadipic acid, were increased in the Lys150% group. Our results suggest that free Glu content in muscle is regulated by Lys degradation. These results suggest that a short-term feeding of high-Lys diet could improve the taste of meat. PMID:25491790

  7. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.

  8. Effect of different levels of crude glycerol on the morphology and some pathogenic bacteria of the small intestine in male broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozdogan, M; Topal, E; Paksuz, E Pinar; Kirkan, S

    2014-01-01

    The gut health of poultry is closely associated with feeds and feeding. The experiment was conducted to the effect of crude glycerol addition to diets of male broilers on the bacterial microflora and morphology of their small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chicks received diets containing 0% (GLY 0), 4% (GLY 4) or 8% (GLY 8) crude glycerol for 42 days. The presence of Coliform bacteria and Enterobacteria was reduced in the duodenal tract of the broilers of GLY 4 (P<0.001); however, the presence of Staphylococci/Micrococci in the GLY 8 was reduced relative to the other groups (P<0.001). The presence of Salmonella spp. decreased in conjunction with the increasing quantities of glycerol (P<0.001). Analysis of the data regarding gut morphology (epithelial cell thickness, villi length and width, and crypt length and width) indicated that the glycerol levels fed to the different groups of broilers represented statistically different results in the small intestine. In general, whereas the diet with 4% glycerol statistically affected the investigated parameters of the gut, the diet with 8% glycerol statistically affected some segments of the broiler intestines.

  9. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1–21 days and 61.0% during 22–42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  10. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks <1 week old for more than 2 days because of feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  11. Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J

    2007-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  12. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb.

    PubMed

    Petrovova, Eva; Sedmera, David; Luptakova, Lenka; Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental data of carbamate pesticides are scarce although they generally possess low toxicity for vertebrates. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of bendiocarb to liver and central nervous system of chick embryos. Bendiocarb (1600 μg/egg) was administered to the embryo through membrana papyracea on embryonic day 3 and 10. In the liver and central nervous system we observed no macroscopic or microscopic changes. These organs were also investigated for caspase activity in regard to application of bendiocarb and no differences in the caspase immunopositivity were observed in comparison with the control. The embryolethality after bendiocarb respective dose was high (94 %) on the embryonic day 3, though following results indicated no toxicity to investigated organs and no increase in the number of apoptotic cells in survived chick embryos on both the early (day 3 of incubation) and the later (day 10 of incubation) developmental stage. PMID:22540656

  13. Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

  14. Effects of fermented corni fructus and fermented kelp on growth performance, meat quality, and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from broiler chicken droppings.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Islam, M M; Yang, C-J

    2014-01-01

    1. Corni fructus is the fruit of Cornus officinalis, a dogwood species. This study was conducted to prepare fermented corni fructus preparation (FCFP) and fermented kelp (FK) from corni fructus and by-products of Laminaria japonica fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. 2. The effects of dietary FCFP and FK as replacer of oxytetracycline (OTC) on growth performance, meat composition, meat oxidative stability, and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from broiler chicken droppings were investigated. 3. A total of 140 d-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments including control, OTC (0.05 g/kg), FCFP (5 g/kg), and FK (5 g/kg). 4. Overall, inclusion of FCFP resulted in lower weight gain and feed intake during the overall experimental period. Broilers fed FCFP diets tended to have lower crude fat and higher crude ash content in the carcasses. 5. In the fresh state, the malondialdehyde (MDA) value of broiler meat was lower in the FK supplemented group. At one week, meat from broilers fed antibiotic and FK diets had lower MDA values, whereas at 2 weeks broiler meat from all dietary treatment groups had lower MDA values than the control. 6. Dietary supplementation with FK significantly reduced faecal NH3 emissions throughout the experimental period, whereas dietary OTC and FCFP supplementation increased NH3 emissions at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no significant effects of dietary treatments on H2S emissions throughout the experimental period, except during week one, when FCFP supplementation reduced the emission. 7. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5 g/kg FK improved the oxidative stability of broiler meat and reduce faecal NH3 emissions without affecting growth performance. PMID:25204489

  15. Effects of fermented corni fructus and fermented kelp on growth performance, meat quality, and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from broiler chicken droppings.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Islam, M M; Yang, C-J

    2014-01-01

    1. Corni fructus is the fruit of Cornus officinalis, a dogwood species. This study was conducted to prepare fermented corni fructus preparation (FCFP) and fermented kelp (FK) from corni fructus and by-products of Laminaria japonica fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. 2. The effects of dietary FCFP and FK as replacer of oxytetracycline (OTC) on growth performance, meat composition, meat oxidative stability, and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from broiler chicken droppings were investigated. 3. A total of 140 d-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments including control, OTC (0.05 g/kg), FCFP (5 g/kg), and FK (5 g/kg). 4. Overall, inclusion of FCFP resulted in lower weight gain and feed intake during the overall experimental period. Broilers fed FCFP diets tended to have lower crude fat and higher crude ash content in the carcasses. 5. In the fresh state, the malondialdehyde (MDA) value of broiler meat was lower in the FK supplemented group. At one week, meat from broilers fed antibiotic and FK diets had lower MDA values, whereas at 2 weeks broiler meat from all dietary treatment groups had lower MDA values than the control. 6. Dietary supplementation with FK significantly reduced faecal NH3 emissions throughout the experimental period, whereas dietary OTC and FCFP supplementation increased NH3 emissions at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no significant effects of dietary treatments on H2S emissions throughout the experimental period, except during week one, when FCFP supplementation reduced the emission. 7. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5 g/kg FK improved the oxidative stability of broiler meat and reduce faecal NH3 emissions without affecting growth performance.

  16. In ovo electroporation in embryonic chick retina.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed M; Doh, Sung Tae; Cai, Li

    2012-02-05

    Chicken embryonic retina is an excellent tool to study retinal development in higher vertebrates. Because of large size and external development, it is comparatively very easy to manipulate the chick embryonic retina using recombinant DNA/RNA technology. Electroporation of DNA/RNA constructs into the embryonic retina have a great advantage to study gene regulation in retinal stem/progenitor cells during retinal development. Different type of assays such as reporter gene assay, gene over-expression, gene knock down (shRNA) etc. can be performed using the electroporation technique. This video demonstrates targeted retinal injection and in ovo electroporation into the embryonic chick retina at the Hamburger and Hamilton stage 22-23, which is about embryonic day 4 (E4). Here we show a rapid and convenient in ovo electroporation technique whereby a plasmid DNA that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker is directly delivered into the chick embryonic subretinal space and followed by electric pulses to facilitate DNA uptake by retinal stem/progenitor cells. The new method of retinal injection and electroporation at E4 allows the visualization of all retinal cell types, including the late-born neurons(1), which has been difficult with the conventional method of injection and electroporation at E1.5(2).

  17. Versazyme supplementation of broiler diets improves market growth performance.

    PubMed

    Odetallah, N H; Wang, J J; Garlich, J D; Shih, J C H

    2005-06-01

    Day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 32 floor pens in a completely randomized block design and grown to 6 wk of age. Birds in experiment 1 were fed 1 of 2 basal diets supplemented with or without a protease containing feed additive, Versazyme (VZ). The 4 treatments were 1) control (C), a corn-soybean meal diet that contained 95% of amino acids recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; 2) C + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (C+) in the starter diet only; 3) high (HP) amino acid diet, a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 to 105% of amino acid recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; and 4) HP + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (HP+) in starter diet only. Supplementing both diets with VZ improved BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 21 d of age and BW at 42 d of age. Cumulative 42-d FCR was only improved in birds fed the HP+ diet. Birds in experiment 2 received the following treatments: 1) HP, 2) HP + 0.1% VZ batch A (wt/wt) (A) in starter diet only, and 3) HP + 0.1% VZ batch B (wt/wt) (B) in starter diet only. Enzyme supplementation improved 22-d BW and FCR. There was no significant difference in BW at 43 d of age. Both A and B improved overall FCR (1.758 and 1.751 vs. 1.79 for A and B vs. HP, respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of starter broiler diets with VZ resulted in improved market growth performance.

  18. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids which have a greater potential for peroxidat...

  19. {Delta}-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: A sensitive indicator of lead exposure in broiler chicks: (Gallus domesticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalli, R.I.; Pesti, G.M.; Konjufca, V.

    1995-12-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, EC 4.2.1.24 (ALAD) is one of the enzymes participating in heme synthesis. The study reported in this paper was designed to determine the activity of erythrocyte ALAD anbd the relationship between this enzyme and tissue lead levels in chickens, during Pb intake and after withdrawing Bv from the feed. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on the viscosity of two barley cultivars for broiler chicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Mohammed, Mahmoud A.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammed, Manal H.

    2002-03-01

    Seeds of two barley cultivars (Local Black and Shoaa) were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses using Cobalt-60 source to decrease the viscosity. The viscosity was determined in the flour of the seeds using Ostwald U-tube viscometer. The viscosity values were reduced by 25%, 50%, 65%, 72% and 74% in Local Black barley cultivar, while, in Shoaa cultivar the reductions were 15%, 30%, 52%, 69% and 67% at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy, respectively. The chemical compositions of the seeds were determined in all treatments.

  1. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    PubMed

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P<0.001) than CL (r=0.264, P>0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest

  2. Effect of feeding fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cao, F L; Zhang, X H; Yu, W W; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2012-05-01

    Aspergillus niger-fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FR) and its comparative effect with vitamin E (VE) and nonfermented (NF) Ginkgo leaves on growth, lipid metabolism, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chicks were investigated. In total, 360 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 6 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as control group (basal diet), VE group (containing respectively 15 and 30 IU/kg of all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate in the starter and grower phase), NF group (containing respectively 0.35% and 0.7% NF in the starter and grower phase), and FR1, FR2, and FR3 groups containing respectively 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% FR in the starter and 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0% FR in the grower phase. The results on performance showed that a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of feed:gain ratio of birds in the FR2 group (22-42 d and 1-42 d) was observed when compared with that of the control and NF groups. With dietary FR increasing, the serum α-tocopherol concentration increased linearly (P = 0.001). Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, total superoxide dismutase activities, and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with the FR2 and FR3 diet. Whereas the low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in broilers from FR2 or FR3 groups. As the dietary FR increased, abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and muscle malondialdehyde (P = 0.001) concentrations decreased. Furthermore, 24-h pH, 24-h drip loss, and cooking loss were greatly improved (P < 0.05) as the levels of FR increased. Birds fed with FR had a lower (P < 0.05) C16:0 and C18:0 concentrations but a greater (P = 0.001) concentration of C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 than that of the control. In conclusion, FR can improve the growth performance and lipid metabolism of broilers with decreased abdominal fat deposition. Also, the antioxidant capacity and meat quality improving effects

  3. Effect of feeding fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cao, F L; Zhang, X H; Yu, W W; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2012-05-01

    Aspergillus niger-fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FR) and its comparative effect with vitamin E (VE) and nonfermented (NF) Ginkgo leaves on growth, lipid metabolism, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chicks were investigated. In total, 360 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 6 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as control group (basal diet), VE group (containing respectively 15 and 30 IU/kg of all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate in the starter and grower phase), NF group (containing respectively 0.35% and 0.7% NF in the starter and grower phase), and FR1, FR2, and FR3 groups containing respectively 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% FR in the starter and 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0% FR in the grower phase. The results on performance showed that a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of feed:gain ratio of birds in the FR2 group (22-42 d and 1-42 d) was observed when compared with that of the control and NF groups. With dietary FR increasing, the serum α-tocopherol concentration increased linearly (P = 0.001). Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, total superoxide dismutase activities, and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with the FR2 and FR3 diet. Whereas the low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in broilers from FR2 or FR3 groups. As the dietary FR increased, abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and muscle malondialdehyde (P = 0.001) concentrations decreased. Furthermore, 24-h pH, 24-h drip loss, and cooking loss were greatly improved (P < 0.05) as the levels of FR increased. Birds fed with FR had a lower (P < 0.05) C16:0 and C18:0 concentrations but a greater (P = 0.001) concentration of C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 than that of the control. In conclusion, FR can improve the growth performance and lipid metabolism of broilers with decreased abdominal fat deposition. Also, the antioxidant capacity and meat quality improving effects

  4. Selenium deposition kinetics of different selenium sources in muscle and feathers of broilers.

    PubMed

    Couloigner, Florian; Jlali, Maamer; Briens, Mickael; Rouffineau, Friedrich; Geraert, Pierre-André; Mercier, Yves

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine selenium (Se) deposition kinetics in muscles and feathers of broilers in order to develop a rapid method to compare bioavailability of selenium sources. Different Se sources such as 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA, SO), sodium selenite (SS) and seleno-yeast (SY) were compared for their kinetics on Se deposition in muscles and feathers in broiler chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. A total of 576 day-old broilers were divided into four treatments with 8 replicates of 18 birds per pen. The diets used in the experiment were a negative control (NC) not supplemented with Se and 3 diets supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg as SS, SY or SO. Total Se content in breast muscle and feathers were assessed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. At 7 d of age, SO increased muscle Se content compared to D0 (P < 0.05), whereas with the other treatments, muscle Se concentration decreased (P < 0.05). After 21 days, organic Se sources maintained (SY) or increased (SO) (P < 0.05) breast muscle Se concentration compared to hatch value whereas inorganic source (SS) or non-supplemented group (NC) showed a significant decrease in tissue Se concentration (P < 0.05). At D21, Se contents of muscle and feathers were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.927; P < 0.0001). To conclude, these results indicate that efficiency of different Se sources can be discriminated through a 7 d using muscle Se content in broiler chickens. Muscle and feathers Se contents were highly correlated after 21 days. Also feather sampling at 21 days of age represents a reliable and non-invasive procedure for Se bioefficacy comparison.

  5. Variations of clinical biochemical parameters of laying hens and broiler chickens fed aflatoxin-containing feed.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Verde, M T; Gascon, M; Ramos, J; Gomez, J; Luco, D F; Chavez, G

    1994-03-01

    Two groups of 32 laying hens (Hyssex Brown) and two groups of 32 23-day-old (Hybro) broiler chickens were fed 2.5 and 5 parts/10(6) of aflatoxin in their diet for 4, 8, 16 and 32 days; 16 hens and 32 chicks were maintained as control groups (0 parts/10(6)). After the intoxication period, a clearance period was established of 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. Relative weights of liver and kidneys significantly increased in intoxicated hens, but not in broiler chickens. Histological lesions in both types of bird consisted of hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty infiltration. There was a significant decrease (P< 0.001) in egg production in the 5 parts/10(6) group, which started to recover during the clearance period. No morbidity or mortality due to the aflatoxicosis were observed in either type of bird. In intoxicated laying hens, cholesterol levels were not significantly (P> 0.05) different from control values, but triglyceride levels decreased (P< 0.001) in both intoxicated groups. The effect of aflatoxin on calcium and phosphorus levels was important, because on the 4th day their values decreased significantly. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels remained normal, whereas alanino aminotransferase (ALT) activity decreased in both intoxicated groups. The activity of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and gammaglutamil transferase (GGT) increased significantly. In intoxicated broiler chickens, aflatoxins did not alter (P> 0.05) the biochemical parameters studied, except that the serum calcium concentration was lower in the 5 parts/10(6) group. These data indicated that in intoxicated laying hens, a severe clinical biochemical alteration was produced, and that this together with the hepatic lesions observed in hens and broilers may aid disease diagnosis.

  6. Changing the incubation temperature during embryonic myogenesis influences the weight performance and meat quality of male and female broilers.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Sharifi, A R; Wicke, M; Krischek, C

    2015-10-01

    Eggs of broilers were initially incubated at 37.8°C, then at 38.8°C (group H) and 36.8°C (group L) between embryonic days 7 to 10 (time A) and days 10 to 13 (time B) and further incubated at 37.8°C until hatching. The chicks were fattened until day 35 and then slaughtered. The effect of treatment, time, and sex and their interactions on carcass and meat quality traits were determined. No significant impact of the "treatment time" was analysed, but "treatment" and "sex" and their interactions influenced (P < 0.05) the different parameters. After hatching, group L broilers were heavier (P < 0.05), followed by slower growth compared to group H chicken. At slaughter day, body, carcass, and leg weights of group H broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and yield results lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L animals. pH, drip loss, shear force, and lightness values of group H broiler breast muscles were higher (P < 0.05) and grill loss and redness values lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). Body, carcass, MPS, and leg weights, leg yields and grill loss and lightness values of the male broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and drip loss results lower (P < 0.05) than the female birds. Male group H broiler showed lower (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS yields compared to the control and group L males, whereas females group H birds had higher (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS weights and lower leg yields (P < 0.05) than the female group L animals. The study shows that an increasing incubation temperature during early embryogenesis positively influences the growth and carcass traits of the broilers, accompanied with a partly negative impact on meat quality (drip loss, shear force, lightness). The growth effects were sex-dependent, as significant weight differences could be only found in female broilers. The results indicate that incubation temperature alteration influences molecular mechanisms in the muscle and other tissues with an impact on growth after

  7. Changing the incubation temperature during embryonic myogenesis influences the weight performance and meat quality of male and female broilers.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Sharifi, A R; Wicke, M; Krischek, C

    2015-10-01

    Eggs of broilers were initially incubated at 37.8°C, then at 38.8°C (group H) and 36.8°C (group L) between embryonic days 7 to 10 (time A) and days 10 to 13 (time B) and further incubated at 37.8°C until hatching. The chicks were fattened until day 35 and then slaughtered. The effect of treatment, time, and sex and their interactions on carcass and meat quality traits were determined. No significant impact of the "treatment time" was analysed, but "treatment" and "sex" and their interactions influenced (P < 0.05) the different parameters. After hatching, group L broilers were heavier (P < 0.05), followed by slower growth compared to group H chicken. At slaughter day, body, carcass, and leg weights of group H broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and yield results lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L animals. pH, drip loss, shear force, and lightness values of group H broiler breast muscles were higher (P < 0.05) and grill loss and redness values lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). Body, carcass, MPS, and leg weights, leg yields and grill loss and lightness values of the male broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and drip loss results lower (P < 0.05) than the female birds. Male group H broiler showed lower (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS yields compared to the control and group L males, whereas females group H birds had higher (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS weights and lower leg yields (P < 0.05) than the female group L animals. The study shows that an increasing incubation temperature during early embryogenesis positively influences the growth and carcass traits of the broilers, accompanied with a partly negative impact on meat quality (drip loss, shear force, lightness). The growth effects were sex-dependent, as significant weight differences could be only found in female broilers. The results indicate that incubation temperature alteration influences molecular mechanisms in the muscle and other tissues with an impact on growth after

  8. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  9. Transmission dynamics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in a broiler flock without antibiotic use.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Patricia M C; Graat, Elisabeth A M; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Veenman, Christiaan; de Jong, Mart C M; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2016-09-01

    Extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) are found throughout the broiler production pyramid. Transmission of resistance between broilers and humans could occur at any point, representing a potential public health issue. Insight in farm transmission dynamics could provide a basis for control, leading to fewer contaminated broilers. The aim was quantifying transmission rates and routes of ESBL/AmpC-EC, and specific phylogenetic groups, in an organic broiler flock without antibiotic use. In each of two consecutive production rounds, 80 randomly chosen broilers were followed individually. Cloacal swabs from these, 20 other randomly chosen broilers, and 11 environmental samples were taken at several moments from arrival till slaughter. ESBL/AmpC-EC were isolated by selective pre-enrichment, and ESBL/AmpC-genes and E. coli phylogenetic groups were determined. Transmission parameters (β) were estimated using a Generalised Linear Model with a susceptible-infectious-susceptible model. Effect of direct broiler contact as compared to contact through the environment and previous carriage c.q. infectious status and their interaction were included as explanatory variables. Multiplying β by the length of the infectious period gives the reproduction ratio (R). On day 1, prevalence was 28.8% (95%CI 19.2-40.0%) and 0.0% (95%CI 0.0-4.5%) among individually followed broilers, in round 1 and 2 respectively. In round 2, the environment was positive before arrival of day-old chicks. After 3 days, almost 100% of broilers and environmental samples were positive in both rounds. Most samples were positive for CTX-M-1 group genes, and A1 and B1 were predominant phylogenetic groups. From day 3 there was a shift towards more phylogenetic groups. R was 1.70 (95%CI 0.55-5.25) for total ESBL/AmpC-EC. Risk for broilers to become infectious was lower if previously infectious (βpreviously infectious=0.02 vs. βnot previously infectious=3.41; P<0.0001). For

  10. Effects of dietary vitamin E on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhifar, Seyed Hamid; Ali Jafari, Ramezan; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Fatemi Tabatabaee, Seyed Reza; Mayahi, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E levels on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in broiler chickens were studied in the present study. One hundred and eighty of male day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 strain) were randomly assigned into five groups, each with three replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate. Chickens in group A were fed corn-soy- based diet, while those in groups B, C, D and E were fed the same diet with 20, 60, 180, and 540 mg kg-1 vitamin E supplement (d-alpha tocopherol), respectively. Six birds were randomly chosen from each group, and were euthanized on days 10, 21, 32, and 42 of age. One segment of small intestine outset was homogenized and mucosal ALP and maltase activity were measured. Moreover, mucosal lipid peroxidate amount was measured to reveal the impact of vitamin E on oxidative stress. Maltase activity was increased with the increase of vitamin E up to 60 mg kg-1 of diet while with further levels, it was decreased. Addition of 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E to the diet significantly increased ALP enzyme activity (p ≤ 0.001). Addition of 540 mg kg-1 of vitamin E supplement to the diet led to the minimum amount of MDA at 32 days of age. It may be concluded that supplementation of broiler's diet with 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E can increase mucosal maltase and ALP enzyme activity. PMID:25568675

  11. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid

  12. Efficacy of beer fermentation residue containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bovo, F; Franco, L T; Kobashigawa, E; Rottinghaus, G E; Ledoux, D R; Oliveira, C A F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) binding capacity of a beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the efficacy of BFR to ameliorate the toxic effects of AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, and histology of broilers. The BFR was collected from a microbrewery, and the yeast cells were counted, dried, and milled before it was used in the study. In vitro evaluation of the BFR was conducted using different concentrations of AFB1 (2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, and 32.0 μg AFB1/mL) and 100 mg/10 mL of BFR at pH 3.0 or 6.0. Two hundred 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to chick batteries and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with 5 replicate pens of 5 chicks assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments from hatch to 21 d, which included: 1) basal diet (BD), with no BFR or AFB1; 2) BD supplemented with 1% BFR; 3) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg of feed; and 4) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg feed and 1% BFR. Performance variables were determined weekly, while serum analyses were performed on d 14 and 21. At the end of the study, chicks were anesthetized with carbon dioxide, euthanized by cervical dislocation, and the kidney, liver, and bursa of Fabricius were removed for determination of relative weights, and for histological evaluation. In vitro assays showed that the higher the initial AFB1 concentration in solution, the greater the AFB1 amount adsorbed by BFR at both pHs tested. Feed intake, BW gain, and concentrations of albumin, total protein, and globulin increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed BFR+AFB1 (Diet 4), when compared to the birds receiving only AFB1 (Diet 2). Although BFR was not able to reduce or prevent the effects of AFB1 on relative weights of kidneys and liver, it reduced the severity of histological changes in the liver and kidney caused by AFB1.

  13. Chromium propionate in broilers: effect on insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Brooks, M A; Grimes, J L; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K; Lamptey, A; Spears, J W

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr), as chromium propionate, on measures of insulin sensitivity. Liver and muscle glycogen, and plasma glucose and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were used as indicators of insulin sensitivity. In total, 288 newly hatched male Ross broilers were divided into 4 dietary treatments consisting of 0 (control diet analyzed 0.43 to 0.45 mg Cr/kg), 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg supplemental Cr/kg diet, resulting in 4 treatments with 9 replicate pens per treatment containing eight birds per pen. At d 21, 2 birds per cage were removed based on the greatest deviation from pen mean BW, resulting in each pen containing 6 birds for the final analyses. Final BW were taken on d 40, and on d 42 two birds from each pen were sampled for plasma NEFA, glucose, and muscle and liver glycogen determination at the initiation and termination of a 22 h fast. The remaining 2 fasted birds were sampled after a 30 min refeeding period. No differences were observed in feed intake, BW gain, or feed efficiency on d 21 or d 40. Liver glycogen tended (P=0.10) to be greater in Cr-supplemented chicks in the fed state, and muscle glycogen concentrations tended (P=0.07) to be greater in Cr-supplemented chicks compared with controls following fasting and refeeding. Plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by dietary Cr in the fed, fasted, or refed state. Plasma NEFA levels were not affected by treatment in fed or fasted birds. However, plasma NEFA concentrations were lower (P<0.01) in chicks supplemented with Cr than in controls following fasting and refeeding, suggesting that Cr increased insulin sensitivity. No differences were detected among birds supplemented with 0.2 or 0.4 mg Cr/kg, and among those receiving 0.4 or 0.6 mg Cr/kg. Results of this study indicate that Cr propionate supplementation of a control diet containing 0.43 to 0.45 mg Cr/kg enhanced insulin sensitivity. PMID:26933236

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enrichment alters performance and immune response in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD) results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens. Methods A total of 300 day old male broiler chicks were assigned to four dietary n-3 PUFA ascending levels as the treatment groups (T1: 0.5; T2: 8.0; T3: 11.5; T4: 16.5) using combinations of tuna oil and sunflower oil. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On day 28, all birds were challenged with IBD virus. Antibody titer, cytokine production, bursa lesion pre and post-challenge and lymphoid organ weight were recorded. Results On d 42 the highest body weight was observed in the T2 and T3 and the lowest in T4 chickens. Feed conversion ratio of the T2 broilers was significantly better than the other groups. Although productive parameters were not responded to the dietary n-3 PUFA in a dose-dependent manner, spleen weight, IBD and Newcastle disease antibody titers and IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were constantly elevated by n-3 PUFA enrichment. Conclusions Dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may improve the immune response and IBD resistance, but the optimum performance does not coincide with the optimum immune response. It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, a moderate level of dietary n-3 PUFA enrichment may help to put together the efficiency of performance and relative immune response enhancement in broiler chickens. PMID:22273277

  15. Genetic analysis of juvenile growth and carcass traits in a full diallel mating in selected colored broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Ullengala; Sharma, R P; Padhi, M K; Rajaravindra, K S; Reddy, B L N; Niranjan, M; Bhattacharya, T K; Haunshi, S; Chatterjee, R N

    2011-08-01

    The juvenile growth and carcass traits were evaluated in a 4 × 4 full diallel crossing involving four colored broiler chicken lines viz., Naked neck (NN), Dwarf, Punjab Broiler-1 (PB-1), and Punjab Broiler-2 to study the performance and crossbreeding parameters. The data on 2,280 chicks were analyzed using least squares techniques to assess the effect of genetic group, and the significant traits were further analyzed for crossbreeding parameters. Genetic group had significant influence on the body weights and carcass traits. The cross of PB-1 × NN recorded significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher body weight at 6 weeks of age. The data revealed that general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), maternal ability (MA), sex-linked effect (SE), and purebred effects significantly influenced the growth and carcass traits in the broiler crosses. The crossbred PB-1 × NN showed positive heterosis for growth as well as carcass traits. The results suggest that GCA, SCA, SE, and MA are important in the inheritance of the body weights and carcass traits indicating the presence of both additive and nonadditive genetic variation along with reciprocal effects. Therefore, pure line selection along with development of specialized sire and dam lines followed by crossing will improve the growth performance and benefit the poultry farmers. It is concluded that PB-1 as a male line and NN as a female line performed significantly higher, therefore, may be used for improving the performance of colored broilers.

  16. Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Carla W; Molenaar, Roos; Buitink, Christiaan J; van Roovert-Reijrink, Inge A M; Maatjens, Conny M; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming

  17. Performance, immunity, and physiological responses of broilers to dietary energy and protein sequential variations.

    PubMed

    Ale Saheb Fosoul, S S; Toghyani, M; Gheisari, A; Tabeidiyan, S A; Mohammadrezaei, M; Azarfar, A

    2016-09-01

    The current trial was designed to examine effects of sequential feeding of diets varying in energy and protein contents on performance, gut development, welfare indices, and immune responses of broiler chicks. A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 5 replicates in a completely randomized design. Sequential feeding was evaluated in 48-h cycles during 8 to 28 d of age. Diets varied in energy (E+ = 3,210 kcal/kg and E- = 2,790 kcal/kg) and protein (P+ = 25.14% CP and P- = 16.76% CP) contents. The 4 feeding programs were: control (ME: 3,000 kcal/kg, CP: 20.95%); P+/P- (P+ followed by P- containing 3,000 kcal/kg energy); E-/E+ (E- followed by E+ containing 20.95% CP), and E-P+ / E+P- (E-P+ followed by E+P-). The experiment lasted 42 d and birds were fed by a standard finishing diet from d 28 to 42. Broilers fed on E-/E+ and E-P+/E+P- had lower daily feed intake than control ones during 8 to 28 d of age (P < 0.05), while daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected significantly. Footpad dermatitis was lower in birds sequentially fed E-/E+ and E-P+/E+P- at 35 d of age (P < 0.05). Sequential feeding of diets varying in either energy or protein or both increased duration of tonic immobility at d 39 of age (P < 0.05). Feeding with E-/E+ regime decreased jejunal crypt depth, while feeding P+/P- regime increased villus height and crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). However, no relationship was found between intestinal morphology and growth performance of broiler chickens. Antibody production against sheep red blood cells as well as Newcastle and influenza disease viruses was not affected by sequential feeding. In conclusion, digestive organs and intestinal morphology might be adjusted to energy and protein variations. Sequential feeding increased the fear level in chickens. PMID:26994199

  18. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B1 in broiler model

    PubMed Central

    Amiridumari, Halimeh; Sarir, Hadi; Afzali, Nazar; FaniMakki, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS), as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB1. Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design) was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1), 250 ppb AFB1 (T2), 500 ppb AFB1 (T3), 0.5% MTS (T4), 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T5), 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6), 1.0% MTS (T7), 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T8), and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T9). The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid), lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), and High density lipoprotein (HDL)) and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT) in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010) were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65), Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13), and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42) compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively), (P < 0.05). In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011) and AST (244.51 ± 4.91). Using MTS together with AFB1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on broiler chicks. PMID:24381623

  19. Sodium butyrate maintains growth performance by regulating the immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W H; Jiang, Y; Zhu, Q F; Gao, F; Dai, S F; Chen, J; Zhou, G H

    2011-06-01

    1. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 240 1-d-old chickens were allocated into 4 dietary groups (0, 0·25, 0·50 or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg) with 6 replicates each. In experiment 2, 120 1-d-old chickens were fed a control diet (without sodium butyrate) or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg diet. Half of the chickens fed on each diet were injected intra-peritoneally with 0·5 g/kg body weight of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. 2. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance. On d 21, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were decreased in chickens given 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were significantly increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by dietary sodium butyrate at 0·50 or 1·00 g/kg. On d 42, serum IL-6 was markedly decreased by dietary sodium butyrate, while 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg greatly reduced MDA and increased catalase. 3. LPS challenge significantly reduced the growth performance of chickens. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, corticosterone, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were increased in LPS-challenged chickens. Dietary sodium butyrate supplementation maintained the body weight gain and feed intake. Sodium butyrate supplementation inhibited the increase in IL-6 and AGP in serum at 16 d of age and TNF-α, corticosterone, AGP and PGE(2) at 20 d of age. Similar inhibitory effects of sodium butyrate in serum glucose and total protein concentrations were also found at 20 d of age. 4. The results indicated that dietary sodium butyrate supplementation can improve the growth performance in chickens under stress and that this may be used to moderate the immune response and reduce tissue damage.

  20. Dietary inclusion level and time effects of taurine on broiler performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content.

    PubMed

    Huang, C X; Wang, B; Min, Z; Yuan, J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on growth performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content in broilers. In Experiment 1, 50 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 0, 0.125, 0.50, 2.00 or 8.00 g/kg taurine from 1 to 42 d of age. In Experiment 2, 80 22-d-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 4.00 g/kg taurine for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Taurine contents of thigh and breast muscle increased linearly with increasing dietary taurine. Taurine supplementation for 1, 2 and 3 weeks significantly increased the taurine content of breast muscle. The taurine contents of liver and thigh meat were significantly increased by taurine supplementation for 3 weeks. The taurine contents of thigh and breast meat from broilers given a diet supplemented with 4 g/kg taurine for 3 weeks increased to 1.89 times the concentrations of the control group. There were no detrimental effects on growth performance, breast or thigh muscle yield, pH value or drip-water loss, and taurine supplementation did not affect the serum carbonyl content. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was significantly decreased by taurine supplementation for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. PMID:25022619

  1. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  2. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  3. Changes in yolk sac membrane absorptive area and fat digestion during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Yadgary, L; Kedar, O; Adepeju, O; Uni, Z

    2013-06-01

    The capacity of yolk sac (YS) utilization by the chick embryo may be affected by structural changes in the YS membrane (YSM) and by the mechanisms within its cells for digestion, absorption, and transfer of nutrients. Two experiments were conducted to examine structural and digestive changes in the YS of the broiler chick embryo; weights of embryo, YS, and YSM, as well as the total area of the YSM and the absorptive area of the YSM, were measured between embryonic day (E) 5 and E21. In addition, fat content, lipase activity, and bile acid concentration in the YSM and YS contents (YSC) were measured between E11 and E21. Results showed that YSM weight increased from 0.19 g on E5 to 6.46 g on E15, and decreased by 3.74 g between E17 and E21. The absorptive YSM area increased from 536 mm² on E5 (51% of total YSM area) to 6,370 mm² (86% of total area) on E17, and decreased to 4,439 mm(2) on E21 (85% of total area). The smaller YSM area between E17 and E21 did not decrease the rate of YS fat utilization, which could suggest that YSM mechanisms for fat absorption, digestion, and secretion increased during that period. Total YSM lipase activity relative to fat content (units per g of YSM fat) increased from approximately 1,000 units on E15 to 1,500 units on E21. The detection of lipase in the YSM lends support to the hypothesis that YS lipids are hydrolyzed in the lipolysosomes of the YSM. The current study also confirmed for the first time that bile acids are present in the YS, with levels that ranged from 0.61 to 1.06 µmol/g in the YSM, and may suggest that bile is synthesized in the YSM of the chick embryo. Results of the current study contribute to our understanding of the developmental changes that affect YS functionality and could give insight into the coordination between the embryo's demands and YSM morphological, absorptive, digestive, and secretive changes.

  4. Research notes: passive integrated transponder tags as markers for chicks.

    PubMed

    Jamison, B E; Beyer, R S; Robel, R J; Pontius, J S

    2000-07-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been used to mark a variety of organisms and have potential for marking poultry chicks. We examined the effects of PIT tags subcutaneously implanted in 3- and 7-d-old Leghorn chicks and found no significant differences over 40 d in survival or rate of daily body mass gain among tagged chicks and controls. The PIT-tagged birds were not more susceptible to pecking by other chicks than controls. No birds died, but 1 of 20 chicks lost its tag during the study. We believe that PIT tags provide a viable technique for marking individual juvenile birds, if tag loss can be reduced. Costs may be prohibitive in studies involving large numbers of birds.

  5. Broiler Growers. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Maurice Layton family, broiler (chicken) growers in Mississippi. Beginning with early morning chores, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical day while explaining how a broiler farm operates. Although the booklet focuses on broiler…

  6. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  7. Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.

    PubMed

    Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρL, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders.

  8. Lipidemic responses of male broiler chickens to enzyme-supplemented wheat-soybean meal-based diets with various levels of metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Karimi, K; Shokrollahi, B

    2013-11-01

    Effects of 2 various levels of AME (according to the manual recommendation and 100 kcal kg(-1) less than it), 2 levels of endo-beta-D-mannanase enzyme (0, 1 g kg(-1)) and 2 levels of xylanase enzyme (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) on serum lipid parameters as a 2(3) factorial arrangement were tested in 120 male broiler chicks fed wheat-soybean meal-based diet. These birds were randomly assigned to 8 experimental groups with 3 pen per group and 5 birds per pen. The serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL), LDL-cholesterol (LDL), Total-cholesterol (TC) and Triglycerides (TG) concentrations were measured at 31 and 41 day of age. The concentrations of serum TG, TC and LDL of 41-day-old birds demonstrated to be lower than those of 31-d-old (p < 0.001). Some hypolipidemic responses were observed in the broiler chicks fed on (1) Diet supplemented with only beta-mannanase, (2) Normal-AME diets supplemented with p-mannanase, (3) Normal-AME diets supplemented with Xylanse and (4) Normal-AME diets supplemented with both beta-mannanase and Xylanase (p < 0.01). In the other hand, some hyperlipidemic responses were detected in the broiler chicks fed on low-AME diets supplemented with xylanse or beta-mannanase enzymes, alone or in combination (p < 0.01). Regardless of AME, adding both xylanse and beta-mannanase to the wheat-soybean meal-based diets have both hyperlipidemic and hypolipidemic effects together (p < 0.01).

  9. Loss of decorin from the surface zone of articular cartilage in a chick model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Massé, P G; Carrino, D A; Morris, N; Wenger, L; Mahuren, J D; Howell, D S

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study was to immunolocalize decorin and to assess changes as a result of pyridoxine (PN) deficiency in chick articular cartilage from femoral condyles. After maintenance on a normal diet for the first two weeks after hatching, 15 broiler chickens were deprived of this vitamin for 6 weeks. It was previously shown that the ankle joints of PN-deficient animals are swollen with effusions. They also present an abnormal gait, enlarged bony margins, and fissuring of the articular cartilages. Milder changes (no fissures) were also shown in the knee joints. Data from a previous study were suggestive that sulfated glycosaminoglycans are lost from the knee cartilage surface into synovial fluid. The current study was focused on the small proteoglycan, decorin, which coats the surface of collagen fibrils and may regulate their morphology. To examine decorin in normal and PN-deficient articular cartilage, a monoclonal antibody to an epitope on the protein core of decorin was used for immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections and for Western Blot analysis of cartilage extracts. Reduction of staining with the antibody was demonstrated in the tangential surface zone of PN-deficient cartilage, and Western Blot analysis showed reduced intensity of decorin bands compared to normal controls. These data suggest that a lack of decorin may play a role in the enlargement of collagen bundles in the tangential zone of PN-deficient articular cartilage as observed in a previous electron microscopic study.

  10. Influence of graded inclusion of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal on performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Hejdysz, M; Kubiś, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal (WLM) addition on the intestinal viscosity, bird performance, nutrient utilisation and villi morphology of growing broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted with 480 broiler chicks divided into 6 dietary treatments, including a maize-soybean meal control diet (CON) and 5 experimental diets containing 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 g/kg WLM. During the period from d 0 to 35, birds fed on 200 or higher WLM/kg were characterised by lower body weight gain and feed intake than CON. The use of 150 g of WLM/kg increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and starch, linearly decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. There was a quadratic effect of WLM dose on sialic acid excretion. A strong negative linear correlation was found between the excretion of sialic acid and AMEN. The viscosity of ileal digesta was linearly increased as WLM increased. The effect of WLM dose on ileum villus height (VH) was linear, while that on ileum villus area (VA) was quadratic. Both parameters decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. In conclusion, the use of over 150 g/kg of WLM in broiler diets depressed performance results. However, depression of nutrient utilisation was only observed when 250 or 300 g/kg of WLM was used. PMID:27025275

  11. Relative bioavailability of zinc-methionine chelate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Suo, Haiqing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Xueyuan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yufei; Luo, Xugang

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of the organic Zn-methionine chelate relative to inorganic Zn source (ZnSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn/kg) and two Zn sources (Zn-methionine chelate and Zn sulfate) plus a Zn-unsupplemented control diet containing 29.2 mg of Zn/kg by analysis for an experimental phase of 21 days. Bone and pancreas were collected for testing Zn concentrations and pancreas metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) level at 7 or 21 days of age. The results showed that bone and pancreas Zn concentrations and MT mRNA level in pancreas increased linearly (P < 0.0001) at 7 or 21 days of age as added Zn level increased. Based on slope ratios from multiple linear regressions of the pancreas, MT mRNA level at 7 days and pancreas Zn concentration at 21 days on added Zn level and the bioavailability values of the Zn-methionine chelate relative to ZnSO4•7H2O (100%) were 120 and 115%, respectively (P > 0.22). The results indicated that the Zn from the Zn-methionine chelate was just as bioavailable as the Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  12. Green Light-emitting Diodes Light Stimuli during Incubation Enhances Posthatch Growth without Disrupting Normal Eye Development of Broiler Embryos and Hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X. D.; Wang, X. F.; Li, J. L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Monochromatic green light-emitting diodes (LED) light stimuli influences the posthatch growth performance of chicks. This study was undertaken with the following objectives: i) to examine whether the green LED light stimuli induces an overheating effect by determining weight loss rate of fertile eggs during incubation period; ii) to look for the development of eyes and other primary organs at different ages of embryos and newly hatched chicks. Arbor Acres fertile broiler eggs (n = 480) were randomly assigned to 3 incubation groups and exposed to continuous white light, green light, or a dark environment (control) from the first day to 19 d of incubation. The light sourced from LED lamps with the intensity of 30 lx at eggshell level. The results showed that either green or white light stimuli during incubation did not significantly affect the weight loss rate of fertile eggs, hatching time, hatchability, chick embryo, or body weight (BW), the weight percentage of heart, liver, and eyes, as well as obvious systematic abnormalities in eye weight, side-to-side, back-to-front, or corneal diameter from 15 d of embryogenesis to 6 d of posthatch (p>0.05). Compared with the dark condition, green light stimuli during incubation tended to increase feed intake (p = 0.080), improved the BW gain of chicks during 0 to 6 day posthatch (p<0.05), and increased the percentage of pectoral muscle to the BW on 3- and 6-day-old chicks. In addition, embryos or chicks in green light had lower weight percentage of yolk retention on 19 d of embryogenesis and 1 d of posthatch in comparison to those in dark or white group (p<0.05). These results suggest that providing 30 lx green LED light stimuli during incubation has no detrimental effect on the development of eyes, heart and liver of embryos and hatchlings, but does have potential benefits in terms of enhancement of the chick growth during the early posthatch stages. In addition, the fertile broiler eggs stimulated with 30 lx green LED

  13. Effects of chitooligosaccharide supplementation on performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, T X; Chen, Y J; Yoo, J S; Huang, Y; Lee, J H; Jang, H D; Shin, S O; Kim, H J; Cho, J H; Kim, I H

    2009-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with chitooligosaccharide (COS) on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 broilers with an average initial BW of 45.04 g per chick were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 4 dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with 6 pens per treatment): 1) CON (basal diet), 2) ANT (basal diet + 44 mg/kg of avilamycin), 3) COS0.2 (basal diet + 14 g/kg of COS), 4) COS0.4 (basal diet + 28 g/kg of COS). The experiment lasted for 5 wk and avilamycin was administered from d 0 to 21. Growth performance was measured on d 0, 21, and 35, and all other response criteria were measured on d 35. No change in feed conversion (G:F) was observed in response to any of the treatments throughout the experimental period (P > 0.05). However, BW gain and feed intake were greater (P < 0.05) in broilers provided with feed supplemented with COS than in those in the control group. In addition, broilers had significantly greater (P < 0.05) red blood cell and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations when they were provided with the COS0.4 diet, whereas the triglyceride concentration was lower (P < 0.05) in broilers in the COS0.2 treatment group. No other blood characteristics were affected by the treatments. Additionally, as the dietary COS concentration increased, the liver weight increased (P < 0.05). Conversely, as the concentrations of dietary COS increased, abdominal fat decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, meat yellowness decreased (P < 0.05) as the concentration of COS increased. Finally, the breast meat and abdominal fat of birds provided with feed supplemented with COS had a lower (P < 0.05) saturated fatty acid concentration but a greater concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) than that of birds in the control. In conclusion, COS can improve the performance and breast meat quality of broilers while increasing

  14. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Chen, Y. P.; Wu, D. W.; Wen, C.; Zhou, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  15. Evaluation in broilers of the probiotic properties of Pichia pastoris and a recombinant P. pastoris containing the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene.

    PubMed

    Gil de los Santos, João Rodrigo; Storch, Otávio Brod; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Gil-Turnes, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The probiotic properties of Pichia pastoris and of a recombinant P. pastoris containing the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene were evaluated in broilers. One-day-old chicks randomly divided in four groups were fed with commercial feed devoid of antibacterials. The control group (1) received plain food, while the other groups were supplemented with either P. pastoris (2), the recombinant P. pastoris (3) or Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi (4). At day 49, live weights, feed efficiency and seroconversions were higher (P<0.05) in the supplemented groups than in the control groups. Group 3 showed the best results, while group 2 had lower weight gain than groups 3 and 4 although food conversion was better than in group 4. Seroconversions were not different (P>0.05) among the supplemented groups. Adverse reactions were not observed in histopathologic evaluation. We concluded that P. pastoris and the recombinant P. pastoris could be used as probiotics in broilers. PMID:22176763

  16. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a slightly better antioxidant capacity was found in the blood of broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared

  17. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a slightly better antioxidant capacity was found in the blood of broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  19. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  20. Influence of a superactivated charcoal on the toxic effects of aflatoxin or T-2 toxin in growing broilers.

    PubMed

    Edrington, T S; Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Rottinghaus, G E

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a superactivated charcoal (SAC) in alleviating mycotoxicosis, two experiments were conducted in which 432 male broiler chicks (216 per experiment) were fed diets containing 4 mg aflatoxin (AF) or 6 mg T-2 toxin/kg of diet, with and without 0.5% SAC, from 1 to 21 d of age. Feeding AF and T-2 toxin significantly decreased BW gain over the 21-d experimental period. Inclusion of SAC in the diet containing AF resulted in BW gains that were intermediate between gains of chicks fed AF and those of controls. No benefits were seen in BW gain when SAC + T-2 toxin was fed. Feeding AF increased relative weights of liver, spleen, and kidney; however, only liver weight in Experiment 1 was similar to controls when SAC was included. Of the blood parameters altered by AF (decreased cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, and urea nitrogen, and increased mean corpuscular volume and hematocrit in Experiment 1; decreased albumin and total protein, and increased creatine kinase in Experiment 2) only urea nitrogen, hematocrit, and inorganic phosphorus (Experiment 1) and hematocrit (Experiment 2) were comparable to controls when SAC was included in the diet. Feeding T-2 toxin decreased serum cholesterol, total protein, urea nitrogen, and mean corpuscular volume; however, only cholesterol and mean corpuscular volume were improved with the addition of SAC (Experiment 1). Oral lesions were observed in birds fed T-2 toxin with no difference in severity when SAC was added in Experiment 1, however in Experiment 2, birds fed SAC + T-2 had a significantly lower lesion scores than those fed T-2 alone. Mortality was noted in both experiments but was not influenced by SAC treatment. These findings suggest that the addition of dietary SAC is marginally effective in alleviating some of the toxic affects associated with AF, but was of little benefit when T-2 toxin was fed to growing broiler chicks.

  1. Effect of supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 to broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbiology and small intestinal morphology.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sinol; Ingale, S L; Kim, Y W; Kim, J S; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Kim, E K; Kim, H S; Ryu, M H; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2012-08-01

    Present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 on growth performance, apparent nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred and twenty day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments on the basis of BW in a randomized complete block design. Experimental diets were fed in two phases: starter (d 0-21) and finisher (d 22-35). Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0% (control), 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% B. subtilis LS 1-2. Supplementation of increasing levels of B. subtilis LS 1-2 showed linear improvement (P<0.05) in growth performance and apparent nutrient retention. At d 35, birds supplemented with increasing levels of B. subtilis LS 1-2 showed decrease in caecal Clostridium and Coliform count (linear, P<0.05). Moreover, supplementation of B. subtilis LS 1-2 increased (linear, P<0.05) villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in both duodenum and ileum. Results obtained in the present study indicate that B. subtilis LS 1-2 can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve intestinal microbial balance and gut health of broilers.

  2. Effects of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (T-Bind) on mycotoxicosis in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Bailey, R H; Buckley, S A; Rottinghaus, G E

    1998-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (T-Bind) sorbent to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins (AF) or T-2 toxin in male broiler chickens from day of hatch to 21 d of age. In Experiment 1, the sorbent was added at 0.250 or 0.375% to diets containing AF at 5 or T-2 toxin at 8 mg/kg of diet. When compared with controls, AF reduced BW gain by 27% and T-2 toxin reduced BW gain by 17%. The addition of the sorbent at 0.250 or 0.375%, in the absence of added mycotoxins, did not alter the performance of the chicks. The sorbent reduced the toxic effects of 5 mg AF/kg of diet on BW gain by 43% but did not significantly diminish the toxic effects of 8 mg T-2 toxin/kg of diet. The decreased efficiency of feed utilization and the increased relative organ weights caused by AF were significantly diminished to differing degrees by the sorbent. Oral lesions caused by T-2 toxin were not affected by the sorbent. In Experiment 2, the sorbent was added at 0.80% to a diet containing 8 mg T-2 toxin/kg of diet. The sorbent did not diminish the toxic effects of T-2 toxin when added at 0.80% of the diet. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent can provide protection against the toxicity of AF, but not T-2 toxin, in young broiler chicks.

  3. Effect of feeding cottonseed meal on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalaisamy, G.; Purushothaman, M. R.; Kumar, P. Vasantha; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the effect of feeding cottonseed meal (CSM) on performance of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: A 6-week biological trial was carried out with 432-day-old Cobb 400 broiler chicks distributed to nine experimental diets with six replicates, each containing eight chicks. The experimental diets were formulated based on total amino acids (BTAA) or based on digestible amino acids (BDAA) with or without iron supplementation with two levels of CSM (2% and 4%) and control diet based on maize – soybean. The whole blood was subjected to hematological studies. The serum samples were analyzed for protein fractions and lipid profiles. Results: The packed cell volume (PCV) value, red blood cell (RBC) numbers, and hemoglobin (Hb) were lower in iron unsupplemented CSM BTAA or BDAA diets than the control (33.86-35.54 vs. 36.41%, 2.78-2.87 vs. 2.98 × 106/μl, and 10.30-10.70 vs. 10.88%). Supplementation of iron in CSM diets improved the PCV, RBC numbers, and Hb, and the values were comparable to the control. White blood cell numbers, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration values were comparable to the control. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was poor in birds fed diets containing up to 4% CSM BTAA or CSM BDAA without iron supplementation (32.02-32.57 vs. 28.77%). Supplementation of iron improved the EOF. The serum cholesterol level did not change with or without iron supplementation. Conclusion: This study suggested that feeding of CSM BTAA or BDAA up to 4% level voiding iron supplementation lowers the hematological parameters, whereas supplementation of iron did not alter serum protein fractions and cholesterol profile; however, it had lowered some hematological parameters, which was rectified by iron supplementation. PMID:27536033

  4. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  5. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production. PMID:25746622

  6. The Probiotic Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum Reduces Feed Conversion and Protects from Potentially Harmful Intestinal Microorganisms and Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Wang, Jun; Van Parys, Alexander; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Joossens, Marie; Falony, Gwen; Raes, Jeroen; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics which do not result in the development and spread of microbial resistance are among the candidate replacements for antibiotics previously used as growth promotors. In this study the effect of in-feed supplementation of the butyrate producing Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum strain 25-3T on performance, intestinal microbiota and prevention of necrotic enteritis (NE), a disease caused by Clostridium perfringens was evaluated in broilers. For the performance study, day old Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated into two treatment groups and fed either a non-supplemented diet or a diet supplemented with 109 cfu lyophilized B. pullicaecorum per kg feed for 40 days. On day 40 broilers administered B. pullicaecorum had a significant lower bodyweight (2675 g vs. 2762 g; p = 0.0025) but supplementation of B. pullicaecorum decreased the feed conversion ratio significantly (1.518 vs. 1.632; p < 0.0001). Additionally, ingestion of the Butyricicoccus strain significantly lowered the abundance of Campylobacter spp. in the caecum and Enterococcus and Escherichia/Shigella spp. in the ileum at day 40. In feed supplementation of B. pullicaecorum in the NE trials resulted in a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions compared with the untreated control group. These studies show that supplementation of B. pullicaecorum is able to improve feed conversion, to reduce the abundance of some potentially important pathogens in the caeca and ileum and to contribute to the prevention of NE in broilers, making the strain a potential valuable probiotic. PMID:27708624

  7. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  8. Effects of Citrus junos by-products fermented with multistrain probiotics on growth performance, immunity, caecal microbiology and meat oxidative stability in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Islam, M M; Kim, S-S; Hwang, J-A; Kim, Y-J; Yang, C-J

    2014-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to develop Citrus junos probiotics (CJP), using by-products of Citrus junos fermented with multispecies probiotic bacteria including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis. The effects of dietary CJP on the growth performance, immune status, caecal microbiology and meat oxidative stability of broiler were investigated. 2. A total of 240 one-day-old Ross broiler chicks were used in a 35-d experiment in which the chicks were randomly allotted to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 5, 10 and 20 g CJP/kg diet) in a completely randomised design. 3. Dietary supplementation of 5 g/kg CJP significantly increased body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake of broiler during the overall experimental period. 4. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)M concentration was significantly increased by 10 and 20 g/kg CJP, whereas the IgG and IgA concentration remained unaffected. In addition, 20 g/kg CJP significantly inhibited proliferation of Escherichia coli without affecting the concentration of Lactobacillus or Bacillus spp. 5. A significant reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of breast and thigh meat was observed in response to increasing concentration of dietary CJP. 6. Thus, the results suggest that CJP up to a concentration of 20 g/kg can be used in the diet of broilers to improve immunity and to reduce caecal E. coli and TBARS values of breast and thigh meat without any adverse effects on growth performance. PMID:25005143

  9. Effects of Citrus junos by-products fermented with multistrain probiotics on growth performance, immunity, caecal microbiology and meat oxidative stability in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Islam, M M; Kim, S-S; Hwang, J-A; Kim, Y-J; Yang, C-J

    2014-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to develop Citrus junos probiotics (CJP), using by-products of Citrus junos fermented with multispecies probiotic bacteria including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis. The effects of dietary CJP on the growth performance, immune status, caecal microbiology and meat oxidative stability of broiler were investigated. 2. A total of 240 one-day-old Ross broiler chicks were used in a 35-d experiment in which the chicks were randomly allotted to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 5, 10 and 20 g CJP/kg diet) in a completely randomised design. 3. Dietary supplementation of 5 g/kg CJP significantly increased body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake of broiler during the overall experimental period. 4. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)M concentration was significantly increased by 10 and 20 g/kg CJP, whereas the IgG and IgA concentration remained unaffected. In addition, 20 g/kg CJP significantly inhibited proliferation of Escherichia coli without affecting the concentration of Lactobacillus or Bacillus spp. 5. A significant reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of breast and thigh meat was observed in response to increasing concentration of dietary CJP. 6. Thus, the results suggest that CJP up to a concentration of 20 g/kg can be used in the diet of broilers to improve immunity and to reduce caecal E. coli and TBARS values of breast and thigh meat without any adverse effects on growth performance.

  10. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  11. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  12. Effect of dietary selenium (Se) on the development of fusarium-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (FITD) in broiler chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, M.M.; Levander, O.A.

    1986-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of low and high levels of dietary Se on the pathogenesis of FITD and to use the findings to assess the applicability of FITD as an animal model of Kashin-Beck disease. Day-old female broiler chickens were assigned to 1 or 3 diets: low Se (0.02 ppm), normal Se (0.15 ppm), and high Se (0.5 ppm). At 1 week of age, dosing of 15 of 26 chicks in each dietary group with TDP-1, the toxic component of fusarium roseum Graminearum was begun. Chicks were terminated from 24 to 30 days of age. The mortality rate of the TDP-1-treated chicks on the high Se diet was significantly less than that in the other TDP-treated groups. There were no differences in the incidence, severity, or character of the FITD lesions among the dietary groups. Neither diet nor TDP-1 treatment affected hematocrit levels. Plasma Se and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly lower in the low Se dietary group than in other groups. The nature of the lesion of FITD and the time course of its development are distinct from the features of Kashin-Beck disease. Administration of a high dietary level of Se did not affect the development of FITD.

  13. Effects of peach palm oil on performance, serum lipoproteins and haemostasis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Baldizán, G; Oviedo, M; Michelangeli, C; Vargas, R E

    2010-12-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the comparative effects of peach palm oil (PPO, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K), crude palm oil (CPO, Elaeis guinenesis), maize oil (MO) and beef tallow (BT) on serum total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels and haemostatic factors in broiler chickens. 2. Four experimental diets were formulated to be isocaloric (14·2 MJ AME(N)/kg) and isonitrogenous (230 g CP/kg). PPO was extracted from the whole dry fruit with hexane. Each fat was added to the diet in an amount equivalent to 25% of total dietary calories. Six replicate groups of eight male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to each dietary treatment. Diets were fed on ad libitum basis. The experiment lasted 42 d. 3. At 42 d, birds were fasted overnight and three chickens/dietary treatment were utilised to draw blood for lipoprotein separation. Various haemostatic factors were determined in thrombocyte-poor plasma. Thrombocyte aggregation was assayed in whole blood. 4. No significant differences were detected in body-weight gain or feed efficiency between the chickens fed on the PPO diet and those receiving the CPO, MO or BT diets. Total serum cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)) were not significantly affected after consuming the PPO, CPO and MO diets. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) was reduced only by the MO diet. Birds fed on the PPO diet had a significantly lower [corrected] LDLC/HDLC ratio compared with other dietary treatments 5. Thrombocyte count and thrombin time were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Dietary oils significantly affected prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and thrombocyte aggregation. PPO and MO diets elicited the lowest fibrinogen levels compared to the CPO and BT diets. Thrombocyte aggregation in broilers fed on the PPO diet was similar to that of the CPO, MO and BT diets. 6. The results suggest that PPO might efficiently provide up to

  14. Effects of peach palm oil on performance, serum lipoproteins and haemostasis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Baldizán, G; Oviedo, M; Michelangeli, C; Vargas, R E

    2010-12-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the comparative effects of peach palm oil (PPO, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K), crude palm oil (CPO, Elaeis guinenesis), maize oil (MO) and beef tallow (BT) on serum total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels and haemostatic factors in broiler chickens. 2. Four experimental diets were formulated to be isocaloric (14·2 MJ AME(N)/kg) and isonitrogenous (230 g CP/kg). PPO was extracted from the whole dry fruit with hexane. Each fat was added to the diet in an amount equivalent to 25% of total dietary calories. Six replicate groups of eight male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to each dietary treatment. Diets were fed on ad libitum basis. The experiment lasted 42 d. 3. At 42 d, birds were fasted overnight and three chickens/dietary treatment were utilised to draw blood for lipoprotein separation. Various haemostatic factors were determined in thrombocyte-poor plasma. Thrombocyte aggregation was assayed in whole blood. 4. No significant differences were detected in body-weight gain or feed efficiency between the chickens fed on the PPO diet and those receiving the CPO, MO or BT diets. Total serum cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)) were not significantly affected after consuming the PPO, CPO and MO diets. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) was reduced only by the MO diet. Birds fed on the PPO diet had a significantly lower [corrected] LDLC/HDLC ratio compared with other dietary treatments 5. Thrombocyte count and thrombin time were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Dietary oils significantly affected prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and thrombocyte aggregation. PPO and MO diets elicited the lowest fibrinogen levels compared to the CPO and BT diets. Thrombocyte aggregation in broilers fed on the PPO diet was similar to that of the CPO, MO and BT diets. 6. The results suggest that PPO might efficiently provide up to

  15. Relative utilization of serine and glycine by chicks.

    PubMed

    Featherston, W R

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the relative utilizaiton of glycine and serine by chicks fed basal crystalline amino acid diets devoid of these amino acids. The crystalline amino acid mixture was fed at one and three times the requirement levels, thereby stimulating uric acid synthesis at differing rates. In addition, 5 per cent L-glutamine replaced L-glutamic acid on an isonitrogenous basis in three diets containing normal levels of amino acids in the second study. Chicks fed diets devoid of glycine and serine grew less rapidly and less efficiently than chicks fed diets containing either serine or glycine plus serine. These decreases were roughly the same whether the diet contained normal or high levels of amino acids. Serine was as efficient as glycine in supporting chick growth and feed efficiency regardless of whether diets containing normal or high levels of amino acids were fed. Chicks fed diets containing high levels of amino acids grew approximately 81 per cent as rapidly, but 24 per cent more efficiently, than chicks fed normal levels of amino acids, and excreted approximately twice the amount of uric acid per gram of nitrogen consumed. In spite of increased uric acid excretion by chicks fed the high amino acid diets, the dietary void in glycine and serine was no more detrimental to chick growth or feed efficiency than that noted when normal levels of amino acids were fed. Feeding 5 per cent L-glutamine rather than L-glutamic acid in the diet containing normal levels of amino acids had little effect on weight gain, feed efficiency or uric acid excretion. The absence of cystine from the amino acid mixture used in the third study did not have a marked influence on the relative utilization of glycine and serine by the chick. PMID:1169769

  16. Social hierarchies in very young chicks.

    PubMed

    Rogers, L J; Astiningsih, K

    1991-03-01

    1. Three behavioural tests involving social competition were used to determine rank orders in groups of 8 male chicks aged between 4 and 18 days posthatching. 2. The group structure was found to consist of one or two dominant animals which consistently held a position at the top of the rank order, with a more flexible order beneath this. 3. Compared to the top-ranking birds, the middle- and lower-ranking birds showed more variability in their ranking positions across the behavioural tests and the testing periods. 4. Treatment of the lowest ranking individual in each group with testosterone led to this individual's rise in the rank order, most often to the top rank.

  17. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  18. Studies on type C influenza virus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R; Freeman, M J

    1972-03-01

    The effect of varying conditions of inoculation and incubation on the growth of type C influenza virus in the allantoic cavity of the developing chick embryo were investigated. It was found that the highest yields of both virus haemagglutinin and infectious virus were obtained following the inoculation of chick embryos at 8 days with subsequent incubation at 32 degrees C. Using the chick embryo allantoic cavity for titration of infectious virus, growth curves of allantoically propagated virus under varying inoculation and incubation conditions were determined.

  19. Relating weight gain and feed:gain of male and female broilers to rearing temperature.

    PubMed

    May, J D; Lott, B D

    2001-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on growth and feed:gain were studied in three trials each for male and female broilers. Chicks were reared in a common environment to 21 d of age. At 21 d, they were randomly allocated to 10 environmental chambers. Each chamber was maintained at a constant temperature; the chambers ranged from 12 to 30 C in two-degree increments. The dewpoint was maintained at 18 C, except that relative humidity was not permitted to exceed 82.9%. Body weight was determined at 21 d. Weight gain and feed:gain were determined at 28, 35, 42, and 49 d. The data were analyzed statistically, and regression equations were obtained for weight gain and feed:gain for each sex. Equations were based on body weight and temperature, and the body weight equations were plotted as grams gained per bird per day. Feed:gain increased with increasing weight. The temperature that resulted in the most favorable feed:gain decreased with increasing weight. These results support lower rearing temperatures for optimum growth and feed:gain by large broilers than those of other reports in the literature.

  20. Effect of dietary histidine on contents of carnosine and anserine in muscles of broilers.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shinichi; Watanabe, Genya; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) are dipeptides mainly found in skeletal muscle and brain of many vertebrates, and particularly high concentrations are observed in chicken pectoral muscles. It was reported that these peptides have many functions, such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we examined the effect of different levels of dietary histidine on carnosine and anserine contents in broiler muscles. The 14-days-old female Chunky strain broilers were given feeds containing three different levels of histidine; 67% (Low-His), 100% (Control) and 200% (High-His) of histidine requirement according to the NRC (1994). Chicks were fed experimental diets for 10 days. Both dipeptides in muscle were significantly decreased. In particular, carnosine was not detected at all in the Low-His group and was significantly increased in the High-His group. Both dipeptides were not detected in plasma. These results indicated the possibility to produce chicken meat with enhanced amount of these dipeptides by high histidine feeding. PMID:25521014