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Sample records for 1-d-old broiler chicks

  1. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  2. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Nam, Kyoung-Woo; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that drinking oxygenated water may improve oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improving immune activity. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of oxygenated drinking water in broiler chicks and demonstrated the protective efficacy of oxygenated drinking water against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased serum lysozyme activity, peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) splenocyte ratio in broiler chicks. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, oxygenated drinking water alleviated symptoms and increased survival. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks, and increases survivability against S. Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

  3. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  4. The influence of temperature on the threonine and tryptophan requirements of young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shan, A S; Sterling, K G; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Driver, J P; Tejedor, A A

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of a warm environment (35 degrees C) on the threonine and tryptophan requirements of young broiler chicks from 7 to 18 or 21 d of age. Seven hundred forty (experiment 1) and one thousand eight (experiment 2) 1-d-old Cobb x Cobb straight-run broiler chicks were raised in wire-floored battery brooders in moderate temperature rooms (33 to 34 degrees C). For the first 7 d, all chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean-meal-based crumbled starter diet. On d 7, six chicks each (experiment 1) and eight chicks each (experiment 2) were randomly assigned to individual pens. In experiment 1, chicks were fed a corn-peanut meal basal diet supplemented with six levels of threonine (0.630, 0.651, 0.673, 0.715, 0.758, or 0.800% of the diet). In experiment 2, chicks were fed a corn-corn gluten meal based basal diet supplemented with six levels of tryptophan (0.090, 0.115, 0.140, 0.165, 0.190, or 0.215% of the diet). Each dietary treatment was repeated with three pens in each room and three rooms at each temperature. Three rooms were set at a moderate temperature of 25 degrees C, and the other three rooms were set at a warmer temperature of 35 degrees C. Body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were measured. The threonine requirements of young broiler chicks were 0.733 +/- 0.016% (R2 = 0.59) and 0.752 +/- 0.046% (R2 = 0.25) for body weight gain, and 0.744 +/- 0.016% (R2 = 0.67) and 0.722 +/- 0.016% (R2 = 0.47) for feed conversion ratio at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively (broken-line linear model). The tryptophan requirements of young broiler chicks were 0.151 +/- 0.004% (R2 = 0.85) and 0.144 +/- 0.003% (R2 = 0.89) for body weight gain, 0.144 +/- 0.003% (R2 = 0.88) and 0.142 +/- 0.003% (R2 = 0.88) for feed consumption, and 0.146 +/- 0.005% (R2 = 0.76) and 0.127 +/- 0.002% (R2 = 0.94) for feed conversion ratio at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. On average, the threonine and tryptophan requirements of

  5. Effect of dietary zinc proteinate supplementation on growth performance, and skin and meat quality of male and female broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, B D

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary zinc proteinate (ZP) supplementation on growth performance and on skin and meat quality of male and female broiler chicks. 2. A total of 240 1-d-old male and 240 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 24 floor pens (12 replicate pens/sex; 20 birds/pen) and were given either 0 (Control diet) or 40 mg/kg ZP (ZP 40), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. 3. The growth performance of male and female broiler chicks was not affected by the ZP supplementation, but the males showed significantly higher growth performance than did females. 4. ZP supplementation increased the total thickness of skin in both sexes, and males had thicker skin than females. It also increased the collagen content of skin, but not that of meat. Males had higher skin collagen contents than did females, but no sex difference was found in the meat collagen contents. 5. ZP supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat; however, males had higher shear force values of back skin than females. ZP supplementation increased the zinc contents of thigh meat and plasma in both sexes. Males had higher zinc contents in back skin than females. 6. It is concluded that dietary ZP supplementation could increase the skin quality of broiler chicks in both sexes, particularly in female broilers, without any effect on growth performance. Male broilers have better growth performance and skin quality than females.

  6. Early growth and environmental implications of dietary zinc and copper concentrations and sources of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Ward, T L

    2003-12-01

    1. Environmental accumulation of zinc and copper is becoming a concern in areas having intensive animal production. This study examined performance and excretion of broiler chicks given diets supplemented with graded concentrations of zinc and copper from three different sources. 2. Two experiments were conducted, each utilising 570 1-d-old chicks. In Experiment 1, chicks were given diets containing supplemental zinc concentrations from 40 to 120 mg/kg supplied as zinc sulphate, a zinc amino acid complex (Availa Zn), or a combination of zinc sulphate and Availa Zn with each contributing one-half of the total supplemental zinc. In Experiment 2, broiler chicks were given diets with graded concentrations of supplemental copper ranging from 4 to 12 mg/kg from copper sulphate, a copper amino acid complex (Availa Cu), or a combination of copper sulphate and Availa Cu with each contributing one-half of the total supplemental copper. 3. During the 17-d experimental period, mineral concentration or source did not influence body weight, feed conversion, or the incidence of mortality from 1 to 17 d. 4. Decreasing dietary zinc concentration from 120 to 40 mg/kg reduced zinc excretion by 50%. 5. Copper excretion was decreased by 35% as supplemental copper was reduced from 12 to 4 mg/kg. 6. Reducing dietary zinc and copper concentrations can potentially decrease the accumulation of heavy metals in the environment without compromising bird performance.

  7. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  8. Effects of age, vitamin D3, and fructooligosaccharides on bone growth and skeletal integrity of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Bloomfield, S A; Ricke, S C

    2011-11-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of age, vitamin D(3), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and mechanical properties in broiler chicks using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical testing. A total of 54 male broiler chicks (1 d old) were placed in battery brooders and fed a corn-soybean starter diet for 7 d. After 7 d, the chicks were randomly assigned to pens of 3 birds each. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. There were 6 treatments: 1) early age control (control 1); 2) control 2; 3) 125 µg/kg of vitamin D(3); 4) 250 µg/kg of vitamin D(3); 5) 2% FOS); and 6) 4% FOS. The control 1 chicks were fed a control broiler diet and killed on d 14 to collect femurs for bone analyses. The remaining groups were killed on d 21. Femurs from 3-wk-old chicks showed greater midshaft cortical BMD, BMC, bone area, thickness, and marrow area than those from 2-wk-old chicks (P = 0.016, 0.0003, 0.0002, 0.01, and 0.0001, respectively). Total, cortical, and trabecular BMD of chick proximal femurs were not influenced by age. However, BMC and bone area were significantly affected by age. The femurs of 2-wk-old chicks exhibited significantly lower stiffness and ultimate load than those of 3-wk-old chicks (P = 0.0001), whereas ultimate stress and elastic modulus of the femurs of 2-wk-old chicks were significantly higher than that of femurs of 3-wk-old chicks (P = 0.0001). Chicks fed 250 µg/kg of vitamin D(3) exhibited significantly greater midshaft cortical BMC (P = 0.04), bone area (P = 0.04), and thickness (P = 0.03) than control 2, 2% FOS, or 4% FOS chicks. In summary, our study suggests that high levels of vitamin D(3) can increase bone growth and mineral deposition in broiler chicks. However, FOS did not have any beneficial effects on bone growth and skeletal integrity. Age is an important factor influencing skeletal integrity and mechanical

  9. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-10-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks

  10. Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni amongst broiler chicks: experimental studies.

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, S.; Lee, A.; Sorrell, T. C.

    1990-01-01

    Horizontal transmission of Campylobacter jejuni was investigated in campylobacter-free broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty chicks housed individually, were provided with water containing 10(2)-10(9) c.f.u./ml C. jejuni. Colonization was rapid [47 of 73 (64%) positive cloacal cultures within 3 days and 65 of 73 (89%) within 7 days], dependent on C. jejuni strain and inoculum size but independent of chick age. Groups of 5-24 chicks in isolators were exposed to C. jejuni-contaminated water or colonized seeder chicks. Transmission occurred in 2-7 days concurrent with a gradual increase of C. jejuni in litter, water and feed. Environmental samples were culture-negative within 3 days following removal of colonized chicks. Treatment of 1-day-old chicks with adult caecal microbiota did not affect colonization. Treated and control chicks were all C. jejuni-positive within 3 days of seeder challenge. PMID:2307180

  11. Experimental colonization of broiler chicks with Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, S.; Lee, A.; Sorrell, T. C.

    1988-01-01

    Minimal colonization inocula for two broiler strains of Campylobacter jejuni were determined in broiler chicks aged 2-3 days and 2 weeks. Individually housed chicks were exposed to a single oral or cloacal challenge. Diarrhoeal symptoms were absent in all 380 chicks included in the study. Chick susceptibility to the two C. jejuni strains varied. Colonization was effected by less than 10(2)-10(4) colony forming units (c.f.u.) via cloacal challenge and 10(4)-10(6) c.f.u. via the oral route. Colonization inocula for 2- to 3-day and 2-week-old chicks were similar. Treatment of 1-day-old chicks with fresh adult caecal flora or an anaerobic broth culture of adult caecal flora did not inhibit colonization after challenge with low-dose C. jejuni. Susceptible chicks were colonized rapidly. C. jejuni was detected in 167 of 189 (88%) colonized chicks within 3 days of challenge and persisted during the 2-week monitoring period. Our data suggest that colonization of broiler chicks with C. jejuni is effected more easily by the cloacal than the oral route and is independent of age. PMID:3338504

  12. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Qi, G H

    2016-10-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  13. Comparison of embryo physiological parameters during incubation, chick quality, and growth performance of three lines of broiler breeders differing in genetic composition and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Jego, Y; Kamers, B; Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2004-03-01

    In broiler breeder management, stringent feed restriction is practiced to reduce body size in order to improve egg production and meet broiler production demand, but this practice has raised welfare issues. The potential for the dwarfing (dw) gene to reduce feed intake and body size of breeders under ad libitum feeding or less stringent restriction while maintaining improved egg production has been reported. In this study, we compared embryo physiology, quality of chicks, and performance of broilers from eggs of dwarf breeders with those from a standard broiler breeder. Hatching eggs from 3 commercial lines of broiler breeders were compared for incubation parameters, 1-d-old chick weight, chick quality, and broiler growth to 41 d of age. The lines included a standard heavy (S) line, an experimental (E) line, and a label-type (L) line. The E and L line breeders carry the sex-linked dw gene and are being used to assess the potential for dw to reduce feed intake or lower feed restriction and improve reproductive performance in heavy female broiler parent stock. Two separate experiments were conducted. All female parent stocks were mated to Cornish males, and fertile eggs were collected. In the first experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions to determine, during final stages of incubation, corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, T3; thyroxine, T4) in embryos and hatchlings, CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), and O2 partial pressure (pO2) in air cells, heat production by eggs and 1-d-old weights. In the second experiment, eggs were incubated for 21 d to compare chick quality, chick weights at 1 d of age, and broiler growth to 7 and 41 d. Average egg weights were higher for the S and L lines than the E line, but weight loss during incubation was lowest for the E line. Plasma T3 and T3/T4 ratio was similar between lines at IP, but corticosterone was higher in the S line. At hatch, T3/T4 ratio was higher in the S line compared with

  14. Neuropeptide Y effect on food intake in broiler and layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Ikura, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yoko; Hasegawa, Shin

    2011-08-01

    Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. In this study, we examined the involvement of orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks (Gallus gallus). First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of NPY and its receptors (Y1 and Y5 receptors) between these strains at 1, 2, 4, and 8 days of age. Daily food intake was significantly higher in broiler chicks than layer chicks after 2 days of age. However, the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level was significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks except at 8 days of age. In addition, the mRNA levels of NPY receptors were also significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks at 2 and 4 days of age (Y1 receptor) or 2 days of age (Y5 receptor). These results suggest that the differences in the expressions of hypothalamic NPY and its receptors do not cause the increase in food intake in broiler chicks. To compare the orexigenic effect of NPY between broiler and layer chicks, we next examined the effects of central administration of NPY on food intake in these strains. In both strains, central administration of NPY significantly increased food intake at 2, 4 and 8 days of age. All our findings demonstrated that the increase in food intake in broiler chicks is not accompanied with the over-expression of NPY or its receptor.

  15. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Long, L.; Wu, S. G.; Yuan, F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Qi, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  16. Comparisons of insulin related parameters in commercial-type chicks: Evidence for insulin resistance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun-Ichi; Yanagita, Kouichi; Fukumori, Rika; Sugino, Toshihisa; Fujita, Masanori; Kawakami, Shin-Ichi; McMurtry, John P; Bungo, Takashi

    2011-05-03

    The aim of this study is to elucidate whether insulin acts differentially within the central nervous system (CNS) of two types of commercial chicks to control ingestive behavior. Male layer and broiler chicks (4-day-old) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with saline or insulin under satiated and starved conditions. Feed intake was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after treatment. Secondly, blood and hypothalamus were collected from both chick types under ad libitum feeding and fasting for 24 h. Plasma insulin concentration was measured by time-resolved fluoro-immunoassay. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The ICV injection of insulin significantly inhibited feed consumption in layer chicks when compared with saline (P<0.05), but not broiler chicks (P>0.1). Plasma insulin concentration of both chick types significantly decreased following 24 h of fasting, while insulin concentrations in the broiler chicks were significantly higher compared to the layers fed under ad libitum conditions. Hypothalamic insulin receptor mRNA expression levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in broiler chicks than in layer ones under ad libitum feeding. Feed deprivation significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA levels in layer chicks (P<0.01), but not in broiler chicks (P>0.1). Moreover, plasma insulin concentrations correlated negatively with hypothalamic insulin receptor protein expression in the two types of chicks fed ad libitum (P<0.05). These results suggest that insulin resistance exists in the CNS of broiler chicks, possibly due to persistent hyperinsulinemia, which results in a down-regulation of CNS insulin receptor expression compared to that in layer chicks.

  17. Tribasic copper chloride toxicosis in commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Malinak, Chad M; Hofacre, Charles C; Collett, Stephen R; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Susan M; Sellers, Holly S; Myers, Elise; Wang, Yun-Ting; França, Monique

    2014-12-01

    Two broiler chicken houses containing 17,500 chicks each experienced an extreme elevation in chick mortality beginning on day 3 after placement. Clinical signs observed upon farm visit included numerous small chicks for their age; depressed, lethargic, and comatose chicks; and chicks huddling near feed pans and under heaters. Necropsied chicks were markedly pale and had atrophy of the thymus and bursa, swollen and edematous proventriculus, erosions in the koilin and in the proventricular-ventricular junction, pale kidneys, and yellowish to brownish-orange liver often with linear pale areas. The chicks had watery blood and hematocrits measured from 9.5% to 18%. Chicken infectious anemia was initially suspected based on the clinical signs and gross lesions. Histopathology revealed multifocal acute hepatic degeneration and necrosis with golden-brown pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, moderate to severe koilin degeneration and fragmentation, multifocal mild to moderate proventricular necrosis, mild to moderate necrosis and loss of enterocytes, blunting of small intestinal villi, lymphoid depletion in the thymus and bursa, erythrophagocytosis in the liver and spleen, and acute renal tubular degeneration and necrosis. Special stains revealed mild to abundant accumulation of copper pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and iron pigment in the cytoplasm of Kupffer cells. Feed analysis revealed 2140 to 2393 parts per million of copper in the starter ration, and heavy metal analysis detected markedly elevated copper levels in formalin-fixed samples of the liver. Excessive amounts of tribasic copper chloride in the starter ration caused copper toxicosis in these chicks. Similar clinical signs and lesions were reproduced when the suspect feed was used in an experimental pen trial.

  18. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses.

  19. Impact of chlorpyrifos on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Zishan; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, M Tariq; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the deleterious effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in experimentally exposed broiler birds. The experiment was carried out on one day old (n = 120) broiler chicks. The CPF was reconstituted in corn oil as vehicle (1 ml/kg) to obtain a final concentration of a single dose to the birds 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) for fourteen days of the experiment through the stomach tube. The control group was given corn oil 1 ml/kg only. Birds exposed to high dose (20 mg/kg BW) showed signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, gasping, convulsions, frequent defecation and tremors). The birds exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased body weight. Significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased hematological parameters i.e. total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and total leukocyte were observed in the high dosed group as compared to control and other low dosed fed birds. Serum protein and albumin showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in high dosed CPF fed birds. Non significant results were observed in the case of globulin. The acetylcholinestrease (AChE) activity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in blood, serum and plasma in CPF fed birds compared to control birds. In CPF fed birds as compared to control birds we found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Necrotic and degenerative changes were observed on histopathological investigations of spleen, kidneys, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and brain tissues in CPF exposed birds. In conclusion the chlorpyrifos induced toxicopathological effects on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

  20. Effect of coprophagia on colonization of broiler chicks with Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coprophagous activity is normal among broiler chickens. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the effect of coprophagia on estimates of the population of Campylobacter jejuni RM1221 necessary to colonize 50% of broiler chicks inoculated (colonization dose 50% or CD50). Campylobacter je...

  1. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, S K; Kim, T H; Lee, S K; Chang, K H; Cho, S J; Lee, K W; An, B K

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  2. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  3. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  4. Influence of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of photoperiod, light intensity and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers in 2 trials. In each trial, 540 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled rooms (30 males/30 females chicks...

  5. Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Despins, J L; Axtell, R C

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to broiler chicks on chick growth. Chicks readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Chicks 3 to 8 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 1,552 +/- 172 (mean +/- SD) larvae per chick per day and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 84 g) at the end of the 6 d than for chicks on starter feed during the same time. After return to starter feed for 8 d after feeding on larvae for 6 d, the chicks did not compensate for the reduced weight and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 170 g) than for chicks on starter feed for the 14 d. Chicks from age 2 through 9 d were given a choice between broiler starter feed and darkling beetle larvae. The numbers (mean +/- SD) of larvae consumed per chick per day were: 389 +/- 18, 631 +/- 14, 496 +/- 20, and 287 +/- 33, for Days 2 to 3, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, and 8 to 9, respectively. The body weight of chicks feeding on starter feed and larvae was significantly greater than the weight of chicks consuming feed only. In the presence of larvae, the mean feed consumption per chick was less than for chicks provided with only starter feed. The beetle larvae were 68% crude protein and 21% fat (DM basis) and had higher amounts of 18 amino acids than the starter feed.

  6. Dietary cholecalciferol and phosphorus influence intestinal mucosa phytase activity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Onyango, E M; Asem, E K; Adeola, O

    2006-10-01

    1. The role of cholecalciferol and phosphorus in the regulation of intestinal mucosa phytase was investigated in broiler chicks. 2. A total of 144 7-d-old male broiler chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 4 cages with 6 broiler chicks per cage. Four maize-soybean meal-based mash diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The 4 diets consisted of cholecalciferol at 0 or 75 microg/kg and total phosphorus at 3.6 or 7.0 g/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The birds were given the experimental diets for 12 d under conditions which excluded ultraviolet light. 3. Broiler chicks fed on diets with the higher concentration of cholecalciferol had higher Vmax and Km of the mucosa phytase, weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and percentage tibia ash, higher ileal digestibility of dry matter, energy, phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca), and increased retention of dry matter, nitrogen, P, Ca and energy. 4. Broiler chicks receiving diets with the higher P concentration showed lower Vmax and Km of the intestinal mucosa phytase but greater weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and percentage tibia ash, higher ileal digestibility of dry matter, energy, P and nitrogen, and increased retention of dry matter, energy, nitrogen and Ca. 5. In conclusion, both dietary P and cholecalciferol influenced the activity of intestinal mucosa phytase.

  7. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  8. Differences in the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kimura, Sayaka; Inui, Mariko; Yoshimoto, Yu; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Genetic selection results in a higher growth rate and meat yield in broiler chickens than in layer chickens. We herein demonstrated differences in the effects of 24 h of fasting on the expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks. The mRNA levels of proteolysis-related genes were analyzed in the pectoralis major muscle of 14-day-old chicks after 0 or 24 h of fasting. The mRNA levels of ubiquitin ligases such as atrogin-1 and muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF-1) as well as transcription factor forkhead box class O (FOXO) 1 were significantly increased by fasting in broiler and layer chicks, suggesting that the FOXO1-induced ubiquitin-proteasome system, a major proteolytic system in skeletal muscles, was activated by fasting in both chicks. The mRNA levels of atrogin-1 were significantly lower in broiler chicks than in layer chicks after fasting. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 were significantly decreased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. The mRNA levels of FOXO3 were significantly increased by fasting in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks. Therefore, the ubiquitin-proteasome system did not appear to have been fully upregulated in broiler chicks. These results suggest that differences in the expression of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle proteolysis between broiler and layer chicks during food deprivation are one of the causes of the high growth rate in broiler chickens.

  9. Effects of oligosaccharides in a soybean meal-based diet on fermentative and immune responses in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Dilger, R N; Hopkins, A C; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2012-12-01

    Fermentable oligosaccharides, particularly those found in soybean meal (SBM), may modulate fermentation in the ceca, thus affecting intestinal immune responses to intestinal pathogens. We hypothesized that fermentable oligosaccharides found in SBM would positively affect cecal fermentation and intestinal immune status in chicks challenged with an acute coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina) infection and fed either a SBM-based diet or a semi-purified soy protein isolate- (SPI) based diet. Using a completely randomized design, 1-d-old broiler chicks (n = 200; 5 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to 1 of 4 SBM- or SPI-based diets containing either dietary cellulose (4%) or a fermentable carbohydrate, galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex (4%). On d 9 posthatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either distilled water (sham control) or E. acervulina (1 × 10(6) oocysts) and then euthanized on d 7 postinoculation. Overall, body weight gain and feed intake were greater (P < 0.01) for SBM-fed chicks, regardless of infection status. Gain:feed ratio was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for SPI-fed chicks except during d 3-7 postinoculation. Infection status, but not fiber source, affected propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and total branched-chain fatty acid concentrations (P ≤ 0.02). Soybean meal-based diets resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.04) short-chain fatty acid and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations than SPI-based diets. Messenger RNA fold changes relative to uninfected SBM-cellulose-fed chicks of all duodenal cytokines were greater (P ≤ 0.01) for infected chicks, and SBM-fed chicks had greater (P < 0.01) interferon-γ and interleukin-12β expression compared with SPI-fed chicks. Cecal tonsil cytokine expression was also affected (P ≤ 0.02) by infection; however, protein source only affected (P < 0.01) interleukin-1β expression in this tissue. Overall, a SBM-based diet, compared with a semi

  10. The effects of a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Dilger, R N; Hopkins, A C; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2012-05-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a mannose-rich, galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively impact immune status and prevent weight loss resulting from acute coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina) infection of chicks. Using a completely randomized design, 1-d-old commercial broiler chicks (n = 160; 4 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to one of 4 corn-soybean meal-based diets containing supplemental GGMO-AX (0, 1, 2, or 4%) that replaced dietary cellulose. On d 9 posthatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either distilled water (sham control) or E. acervulina (1 × 10(6) oocysts). All birds were euthanized on d 7 postinoculation (PI) for collection of cecal contents and duodenal tissue. Overall, BW gain of chicks was not affected by diet PI, whereas infection decreased (P < 0.01) weight gain on d 0 to 7 PI. Feed intake was not affected by dietary treatment, but infection decreased (P < 0.01) feed intake on d 0 to 7 PI. Overall, infection, but not diet, decreased (P < 0.01) G:F on d 0 to 7 PI. Cecal propionate concentrations were independently affected by infection and diet, while butyrate concentrations were affected only by infection (P = 0.02). Cecal Bifidobacterium spp. populations were affected (P < 0.01) by diet, with the 2% GGMO-AX resulting in the highest cfu/g of cecal contents (on a DM basis). Messenger RNA expression of all duodenal cytokines evaluated was affected by infection status (P ≤ 0.02) but not by dietary treatment alone. Supplementing 4% GGMO-AX consistently resulted in the greatest fold change in proinflammatory cytokine expression, while inhibiting antiinflammatory cytokine expression, which indicates a more robust innate immune response. Despite decreasing performance, 4% dietary GGMO-AX improved select fermentation indices and the innate intestinal

  11. Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Q K; Yang, L Q; Zhao, H B; Wang, X L; Wang, K

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet.

  12. Early age thermal conditioning immediately reduces body temperature of broiler chicks in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    De Basilio, V; Requena, F; León, A; Vilariño, M; Picard, M

    2003-08-01

    Early age thermal conditioning (TC) durably improves resistance of broilers to heat stress and reduces body temperature (Tb). Three experiments on broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effects of TC at 5 d of age on Tb variation measured by thermometer between 4 and 7 d of age, under a tropical environment. Because manipulation of chickens to measure Tb with a thermometer may increase Tb, a preliminary experiment on 13 3-to-4-wk-old male broilers compared Tb measured by telemetry to Tb measured in the terminal colon during three successive periods at 22, 33, and 22 degrees C. During heat exposure, Tb rapidly increased by 0.9 degrees C and plateaued over 24 h. During the last period, seven of the broilers rapidly reduced Tb to a plateau lower than the initial Tb, although six broilers exhibited more variable Tb. Measurement by thermometer underestimated on average core Tb by 0.28 degrees C at 22 degrees C and by 0.57 degrees C at 33 degrees C, whereas Tb recorded by telemetry was not affected by manipulation of the chickens. TC reduced Tb 24 h later in the three experiments. Compared to unexposed control chicks (N), 12 h of TC at 40 degrees C did not significantly reduce Tb at 7 d of age, although 24 h did. TC at 38 and 40 degrees C over 24 h significantly reduced Tb variation from 4 to 7 d of age compared to N chicks, whereas 36 degrees C did not. Withdrawing feed from the chicks for 2 h prior to measurement did not significantly reduce Tb at 4 and 7 d of age, but Tb reduction due to TC was greater in fed chicks (0.28 degrees C) than in chicks without feed (0.05 degrees C). Early age thermal conditioning at 38 to 40 degrees C at 5 d of age for 24 h reduced body temperature of 7-d-old male broilers.

  13. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  14. Experimental infection of IS/885/00-like infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Chhabra, Rajesh; Forrester, Anne; Chantrey, Julian; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Hussein, Hussein Aly; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenesis of an IS/885/00-like (IS/885) strain of variant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined in one day old specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chicks. Chicks were humanely euthanized at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21 and 28 days post infection (dpi) for necropsy examination, and tissues were collected for histopathology and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Respiratory clinical signs and gross lesions consisting of tracheal caseous exudate and plugs, and swollen kidneys (with or without) urate deposits were observed in SPF and broiler chicks. The onset of disease developed more slowly and were of lesser severity in broiler compared to SPF chicks, reflecting the inhibitory effects of the IBV maternal-antibodies in the broiler chicks or genetic/strain susceptibility, or both. Head swelling was observed in one infected broiler chick at 15 dpi and the virus was recovered by RT-PCR and isolation. In the IS/885-infected SPF chicks, cystic oviducts were found in two female chicks. IS/885 was isolated from the cystic fluid. Using ELISA, low to moderate levels of the antibodies to IBV was detected in the SPF compared to broiler infected chicks.

  15. Ingestion of a novel galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex affected growth performance and fermentative and immunological characteristics of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Dilger, R N; Iakiviak, M; Hopkins, A C; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2012-09-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against a pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively affect immune status and prevent colonization and shedding in Salmonella typhimurium-infected chicks. Using a completely randomized design, 1-d-old commercial broiler chicks (n = 240 chicks; 4 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments differing in concentration of GGMO-AX (0, 1, 2, or 4%) or containing 2% Safmannan or 2% short-chain fructooligosaccharides. Cellulose was used to make diets iso-total dietary fiber. On d 10 posthatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either phosphate-buffered saline (sham control) or Salmonella typhimurium (1 × 10(8) cfu). All birds were euthanized on d 10 postinoculation (PI) for collection of intestinal contents and select tissues. Body weight gain and feed intake of chicks were greater (P < 0.05) in infected chicks PI for all time periods, except for weight gain on d 0 to 3 PI. Gain:feed was affected (P < 0.05) by diet, with Safmannan-fed chicks having the highest G:F and 1% GGMO-AX-fed chicks having the lowest. The GGMO-AX substrate demonstrated effects similar to a prebiotic substrate as indicated by increased cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, decreased cecal pH, and increased populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp. as dietary GGMO-AX concentration increased. Excreta Salmonella typhimurium populations on d 5 and 10 PI, and ileal and cecal Salmonella typhimurium populations, tended to be affected (P < 0.10) by the main effect of diet. Messenger RNA expression of IFN-γ in the cecal tonsils was the only cytokine independently affected by infection and diet (P < 0.01). Chicks fed 2 and 4% GGMO-AX had similar expressions of IFN-γ and IL-1β, regardless of infection, suggesting that Salmonella typhimurium

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky isolates recovered from broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations is critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling wi...

  17. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine (ARG), vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, chicks were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative contro...

  18. Effects of dietary clays on performance and intestinal mucus barrier of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and on goblet cell function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J A S; Ponnuraj, N P; Lee, J J; Utterback, P; Gaskins, H R; Dilger, R N; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-04-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to test for beneficial effects of dietary clays on broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and to explore potential mechanisms. First, two hundred forty 1-d-old male broilers (initial BW: 41.6 ± 0.4 g) were allotted in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design. There were 2 infection treatments (with or without Salmonella) and 4 diets: basal (BAS), 0.3% smectite A (SMA), 0.3% smectite B, and 0.3% zeolite. The Salmonella reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate of chicks fed the BAS, and feeding clay largely restored it (challenge × diet interaction, P < 0.05). Goblet cell number and size were increased (P < 0.05) by Salmonella in chicks fed the BAS and were reduced (P < 0.05) in Salmonella-challenged chicks by feeding SMA. Villus height was reduced by the Salmonella challenge in the chicks fed dietary clays (P < 0.01) but not in chicks fed the BAS (interaction P < 0.05). A human adenocarcinoma cell line (LS174T) was cultured in vitro in 3 separate experiments in the absence or presence of 3 concentrations (0.05, 0.10, and 0.50%) of SMA. Expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), resistin-like molecule β (RELMß), and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) were determined by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The expression of RELMβ was increased and expression of MUC2 was reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.10% SMA. Also, LS174T cells were cultured without or with SMA (0.05 and 0.10%) and the medium and cell lysate were analyzed for RELMβ using an immunoblot assay. Protein expression of RELMß in the cell lysate was reduced (P < 0.05) by SMA addition but increased in the medium, indicating that SMA increased secretion of RELMß, thus depleting the cell and concentrating this protein in the medium. In conclusion, the dietary clays restored the growth depression caused by Salmonella, and changes in goblet cell function may contribute to the benefits of one of the clays, specifically SMA.

  19. Corn expressing an Escherichia coli-derived phytase gene: comparative evaluation study in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nyannor, E K D; Adeola, O

    2008-10-01

    The efficacy of corn expressing an Escherichia coli-derived gene (corn-based phytase; CBP) and an E. coli-derived microbial phytase (expressed in Pichia pastoris) sprayed onto a wheat carrier (Quantum) was comparatively evaluated in two 14-d broiler chicken studies. In experiment 1, a total of 288 seven-day-old male broiler chicks were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 6 cages, with 6 birds per cage, and used to measure growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient utilization. In experiment 2, a total of 192 seven-day-old male broiler chicks were used, with 4 birds per cage. Six dietary treatment groups were randomly allotted to the cages within each of 8 blocks. The corn-soybean meal-based diets used in each study consisted of a positive control adequate in P and Ca; a negative control (NC) low in P and Ca (no added inorganic P); the NC supplemented with 3,630, 36,300, or 363,000 phytase units (FTU) of CBP/kg; and the NC + 3,630 FTU of Quantum/kg. Growth performance and bone mineralization criteria were reevaluated in the second broiler study. Data from the 2 experiments were combined because there was no diet x experiment interaction and analyzed as a randomized complete block design. Weight gain decreased (P < 0.05) with a reduction in dietary P and Ca in the NC diet. Weight gain, feed efficiency, and percentage of tibia ash of birds fed 3,630 FTU/kg of either CBP or Quantum phytase were not different. There was a quadratic response (P < 0.01) to CBP supplementation of the NC diets in weight gain of the broiler chicks. Feed intake increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with CBP supplementation of the NC diets, but CBP supplementation of the NC diets did not affect feed efficiency. Tibia ash of birds fed the positive control diet was greater (P < 0.01) than that of birds fed the NC diet. There was a quadratic response (P < 0.01) to CBP supplementation of the NC diets in tibia ash of the broiler chicks. Birds fed supplemental phytase had greater (P < 0

  20. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation.

  1. Transmission and genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis during hatch of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-09

    The normal gastrointestinal flora of poultry includes Enterococcus faecalis. E. faecalis is also associated with first week mortality of chickens, but it is not clear whether this is due to vertical or horizontal transmission. Aims of the present study were to investigate transmission and genetic diversity of E. faecalis during hatching of broiler chicks. When hatching started, 15% of the chicks were colonized with E. faecalis. This colonization was interpreted as vertical transmission and was higher than previously reported. Transmission of E. faecalis from parents older than 42 weeks was five times greater than transmission of E. faecalis from younger parents. Seventy percent of broiler chicks were colonized with E. faecalis within 24 h after hatch started, which was interpreted as horizontal transmission. Twenty-one sequence types (STs) were demonstrated among 322 isolates of E. faecalis obtained from newly hatched chicks representing 11 different broiler parent flocks. Furthermore, three STs (ST59, ST82, ST174) made up 50.6% of the isolates, indicating that these STs have adapted successfully to the avian niche. All STs, except those novel to this study, have previously been associated with lesions in poultry, underlining the importance of controlling these particular STs.

  2. Intestinal cytokine response of commercial source broiler chicks to Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Holt, P S; Moran, E T; Moore, R W; Conner, D E; McKee, S R

    2008-07-01

    Development of molecular-based immunotherapeutic strategies for controlling Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) infection in poultry requires a better understanding of intestinal and cecal cytokine responses. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted to measure changes in intestinal cytokine expression when commercial source broiler chickens were challenged with a nalidixic acid-resistant ST. Ross broiler chicks were nonchallenged with ST (control treatment) or challenged by orally giving 7.8 x 10(6) cfu at 4 d of age (STC treatment). Each treatment consisted of 4 replicate pens with 14 chicks per pen. Expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma, and antiinflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 were determined at 5 and 10 d postchallenge (PC). Intestinal flushes were also collected from each treatment at 7 d PC to estimate IgA and IgG. Results showed an upregulation in IL-1beta mRNA in STC chicks at 5 d PC. By 10 d PC, the expression of IL-1beta was further increased and accompanied by an upregulation of IL-6 and interferon-gamma mRNA, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression decreased. It was concluded that ST induced an intestinal mucosal inflammatory response in commercial source broiler chicks less than 2 wk of age.

  3. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P < 0.05) but did not reduce cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in either experiment (P > 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  4. A comparative study of the central effects of melanocortin peptides on food intake in broiler and layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Hasegawa, Shin; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. However, the causes of the difference in food intake in the neonatal period between these strains are not clear. In this study, we examined the involvement of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin peptides α-, β- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks. First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of POMC between these strains and found that there was no significant difference in these levels between broiler and layer chicks. Next, we examined the effects of central administration of MSHs on food intake in these strains. Central administration of α-MSH significantly suppressed food intake in both strains. Central administration of β-MSH significantly suppressed food intake in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks, while central administration of γ-MSH did not influence food intake in either strain. It is therefore likely that the absence of the anorexigenic effect of β-MSH might be related to the increased food intake in broiler chicks.

  5. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  6. [Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

    1996-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets.

  7. Application of the filial imprinting phenomenon to broiler chicks at a commercial farm.

    PubMed

    Gvaryahu, G; Snapir, N; Robinzon, B

    1987-09-01

    Ten thousand broiler chicks on commercial farms in Israel were imprinted to blue and red plastic boxes (20 x 20 x 40 cm) containing loud speakers (8 omega, 12 W) equipped with a tape recorder, in which a classical music cassette had been placed. Upon reaching 3 wk of age, an attempt was made to move these chicks from the training area (A) to a new area (B) using the imprinting objects. This experiment was repeated four times: May, August and November of 1985, and in January 1986. During the warm months of May and August 30 to 60% of the experimental chicks followed the imprinting objects toward Area B. During the cold months and in all four repetitions with the controls, less than 5% of the flocks moved from Area A to Area B. Winter chicks may have been imprinted on brooder heaters. In all repetitions, most of the imprinted chicks distributed themselves equally over Area B 1 h after the doors between Areas B and A were closed. Controls, however, crowded around the door between Areas A and B resulting in the death of many chicks by asphyxiation. This study has shown that thousands of heavy strain chicks can be easily attached to an imprinting stimulus and it may be possible to apply this phenomenon for commercial purposes.

  8. Immunological responses as affected by dietary protein and arginine concentrations in starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R

    2009-09-01

    The study presented here aimed to investigate the effect of dietary protein content on Arg needs and immunological responses of broiler chicks during the starter period. A total of 715 one-day-old male Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 replicate pens for each of 11 experimental diets during a 21-d feeding trial. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal control diet or experimental diets (corn-soybean meal-corn gluten meal) containing 5 dietary Arg levels of 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120% of NRC recommendations and 2 dietary protein levels of 19 and 22.35% of diet. Increasing dietary CP content significantly (P<0.001) increased daily feed consumption and weight gain. Also, feeding diets deficient in Arg to the chicks led to a noticeable decline in feed intake, and dietary Arg supplementation overcame decreased feed consumption and weight gain observed in Arg-deficient chicks. Feed efficiency was affected only by dietary Arg concentration so that chicks on Arg-deficient diets markedly (P<0.001) increased feed conversion ratio. Contrast comparisons showed that the highly variable responses of chicks to dietary Arg level were mainly attributed to dietary protein concentration: more dietary protein content and higher Arg demands. Among lymphoid organs, thymus (P<0.001) and spleen (P<0.05) were affected by dietary Arg deficiency, whereas diets low in CP content decreased (P<0.001) relative weights of thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Increase in dietary CP level from 19 to 22.35% caused an increase (P<0.001) in the proportion of lymphocytes and consequently lower (P<0.05) heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Broiler chicks on Arg-deficient diets decreased the proportion of heterophils in peripheral blood. Furthermore, skin reaction to phytohemagglutinin P was impaired when the diets were low in CP and Arg contents. Similarly, a decrease in dietary CP and Arg levels diminished the antibody production response to Newcastle disease virus. The broken

  9. Broiler chicks fed low-calcium diets. 2. Increased sensitivity to copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Leach, R M; Rosenblum, C I; Amman, M J; Burdette, J

    1990-11-01

    Young broiler chicks were more sensitive to copper toxicity when they were fed diets deficient or marginal in calcium content. Growth rate was depressed and liver copper concentration was increased under these conditions. Chicks fed a casein-gelatin diet were more sensitive to copper toxicity than those fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Addition of phytic acid to the casein-gelatin basal diet enhanced copper toxicity as evidenced by effects on growth rate and liver copper content. Measurements of intestinal and biliary copper content suggested that the influence of calcium on copper toxicity was mediated via intestinal absorption rather than through influences on copper excretion.

  10. Peripheral Insulin Doesn't Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  11. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur. PMID:27047021

  12. Dietary chromium methionine supplementation could alleviate immunosuppressive effects of heat stress in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, immune responses, and stress status of broiler chicks subjected to heat-stress conditions. A total of 450 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 5 replicate pens (15 birds each) of 6 experimental treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments including 2 temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress) and 3 supplemental Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 μg/kg as CrMet). For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 35 ± 2°C from 15 to 42 d of age. Results showed that the chicks subjected to heat-stress condition had lower (P < 0.01) feed intake, BW gain, and deteriorated (P < 0.05) feed conversion values compared with those kept in the thermoneutral house. Dietary supplementation with CrMet increased (P < 0.01) feed intake and improved (P < 0.01) weight gain and feed efficiency. There were significant Cr level × temperature interactions, so that inclusion of CrMet into the diets was more effective in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress suppressed (P < 0.01) cutaneous hypersensivity response to phytohemagglutinin-P injection at 30 d of age, and dietary supplementation of 500 μg Cr/kg induced (P < 0.05) this response, with the greater impacts in heat-stressed chicks, resulting in a significant (P < 0.01) Cr × temperature interaction. Antibody responses against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were diminished (P < 0.01) in heat-stressed chicks. Dietary inclusion of CrMet improved (P < 0.05) antibody responses to different immunostimulants, and this effect was more pronounced in heat-stressed chicks. Exposure to heat stress caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the proportion of helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes and increased cytotoxic (CD8+) T lymphocytes, resulting in a decreased (P < 0.01) CD4+ to CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood

  13. A simple method for enema administration in one-day-old broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Marietto-Gonçalves, Guilherme Augusto; Grandi, Fabrizio; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe a simple technique for enema administration in one-day-old broiler chicks. For this purpose we used 455 unsexed health birds divided into four groups submitted to three different experimental protocols: in the first one, we measured the total length of the large intestine in order to establish a secure distance for probe introduction; in the second, we evaluated maximum compliance of large intestine and diffusion range; finally, based on results obtained we tested the hypothesis in 400 birds in order to standardize the method. Enema solutions applied in an intrarectal manner with a stainless steel gavage BD-10 probe into one-day-old broiler chicks at 0.2 mL at a distance of 1.5 cm proved to be a reliable method.

  14. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of (137)Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, B; Vitorovic, G; Vitorovic, D; Dakovic, A; Stojanovic, M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically (137)Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml(-1)(137)Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of (137)Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p<0.01) reduced (137)Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of (137)Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  15. Influence of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on health indices of modern broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of photoperiod, light-intensity, and their interaction on health indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated in 2 trials. In each trial, 540 1 d old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally c...

  16. Immunization of broiler chicks by in ovo injection of Eimeria tenella sporozoites, sporocysts, or oocysts.

    PubMed

    Weber, F H; Evans, N A

    2003-11-01

    Immunization of chickens by in ovo injection of Eimeria tenella parasite stages was investigated. Fertile Hubbard x Petersen broiler chicken eggs were injected through the air cell on d 18 of incubation with sporozoites, sporocysts, or oocysts of E. tenella. Injected doses were in the range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(6) sporozoites, 2 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(7) sporocysts, or 1 x 10(2) to 5 x 10(6) oocysts per egg. Hatch rates were generally unaffected. Hatched chicks shed oocysts, with oocysts per gram of feces reaching a maximum at 3 d posthatch for chicks injected with sporozoites and at 7 d posthatch for chicks receiving oocysts or sporocysts in ovo. After 2 wk in wire-floored cages or 3 wk on litter, birds were challenged with 2.5 x 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Chicks immunized by in ovo injection of parasite stages had significantly reduced lesion scores compared to their nonimmunized counterparts. The results demonstrate the feasibility of immunizing broiler chickens against E. tenella infection by in ovo injection of sporozoites, sporocysts, or oocysts.

  17. Effects of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Dawson, K A; Ford, M J; Paul, M

    2011-08-01

    1. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc (Zn) on the performance and tibia Zn status of broiler chicks. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks fed on the control or the diet supplemented with 12?mg of Zn as sulphate had lower feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content than other treatment groups. Chicks given 12 and 24 mg of organic Zn in starter and grower phases, respectively, had the same performance and tibia Zn content as those fed 40 mg of Zn as sulphate and the same performance but higher tibia Zn content than those given 12 mg of Zn as organic over the 42 d. 3. In Experiment 2, chicks given 24 mg organic Zn had greater weight gain than chicks fed on the other treatment diets in the starter period. Chicks fed on the control diet had lower tibia Zn content than chicks fed other treatment diets. Chicks given 80 mg Zn as sulphate had higher tibia Zn content than chicks fed the other treatment diets except those given 40 mg of Zn as sulphate. 4. The results from these trials indicate that feeding lower concentration of Zn as organic form may better promote the growth performance of broiler chicks.

  18. Manipulation of plasma uric acid in broiler chicks and its effect on leukocyte oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Simoyi, Melvin F; Van Dyke, Knox; Klandorf, Hillar

    2002-03-01

    Birds have high metabolic rates, body temperatures, and plasma glucose concentrations yet physiologically age at a rate slower than comparably sized mammals. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant uric acid protects birds against oxidative stress. Mixed sex broiler chicks (3 wk old) were fed diets supplemented or not with purines (0.6 mol hypoxanthine or inosine). Study 1 consisted of 18 female Cobb x Cobb broilers that were fed purines for 7 days, whereas study 2 consisted of 12 males in a 21-day trial. Study 3 involved 30 mixed sex broilers that were fed 40 or 50 mg allopurinol/kg body mass (BM) for 21 days, a drug that lowers plasma uric acid (PUA). PUA and leukocyte oxidative activity (LOA) were determined weekly for all studies. For study 2, pectoralis major shear force, relative kidney and liver sizes (RKS and RLS), and plasma glucose concentrations were also determined. In study 1, PUA concentration was increased three- and twofold (P < 0.001) in birds fed inosine or hypoxanthine, respectively, compared with control birds. LOA of birds supplemented with inosine was lower (P < 0.05) than that of control or hypoxanthine birds. In study 2, PUA concentrations were increased fivefold (P < 0.001) in birds fed inosine and twofold (P < 0.001) in birds fed hypoxanthine compared with control birds at day 21. RKS (g/kg BM) was greater (P < 0.001) for chicks fed purine diets compared with control chicks. Muscle shear value was lower (P < 0.05) in chicks fed purine diets. PUA concentration was decreased (P < 0.001) in birds consuming allopurinol diets, whereas LOA was increased (P < 0.01) in study 3. These studies show that PUA concentrations can be related to oxidative stress in birds, which can be linked to tissue aging.

  19. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  20. Immunization of broiler chicks by in ovo injection of infective stages of Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Weber, F H; Genteman, K C; LeMay, M A; Lewis, D O; Evans, N A

    2004-03-01

    Immunization of chickens by in ovo injection of infective stages of 5 species of Eimeria was investigated. Fertile Hubbard x Petersen broiler chicken eggs were injected through the air cell on d 18 of incubation with oocysts of E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, or E. brunetti. Injected doses of all species ranged from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(6) sporulated oocysts per egg. Chicks receiving oocysts in ovo shed oocysts posthatch. After 2 wk in wire-floored cages, birds were given a challenge infection with the homologous Eimeria species. Chicks immunized by in ovo injection of oocysts had significantly reduced lesion scores, improved weight gain, or reduced oocyst output compared with their nonimmunized counterparts. In additional studies, eggs were injected with 1 x 10(5) sporozoites of E. tenella, E. maxima, or E. acervulina per egg. Sporozoites of E. acervulina were not infective for chick embryos when administered in phosphate-buffered saline, but if sporozoites were suspended in tissue culture medium when injected in ovo, hatched chicks shed oocysts with peak output occurring 3 to 4 d posthatch. Sporozoites of E. maxima and E. tenella were infective for 18-d-old embryos regardless of the vehicle. The results demonstrate that immunization of broiler chickens against several species of coccidia by in ovo injection of oocysts is feasible. The infectivity of sporozoites for 18-d-old chick embryos varied depending on the species of Eimeria and the vehicle in which the sporozoites were suspended prior to injection.

  1. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocyst vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Jenkins, Mark C; Miska, Katarzyna B; Barfield, Ruth C

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, 1-day-old chicks were immunized with oocysts of Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella exposed to gamma radiation ranging from 0-500 Gy. The litter oocyst counts at 7 days postimmunization, and the effect on weight gain following a challenge infection, decreased with an optimum dose between 150-200 Gy. Based on this finding, broiler chicks were immunized with a mixture of E. maxima, E. acervulina, and E tenella that had been exposed to 150 or 200 Gy. This resulted in more than a 100-fold reduction in litter oocyst counts and significant protection from a challenge infection, as measured by improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Immunization of birds with oocysts receiving 200 Gy was less effective in providing protection from a challenge infection. An additional formulation of vaccines containing two different oocyst doses of the three species that had been irradiated with 150 Gy were evaluated in their ability to attenuate oocyst output and convey protection to challenge. Results were similar with both high and low numbers of irradiated oocysts. Immunized chicks shed less oocysts at 7 days postimmunization and were protected from negative effects of challenge infection as measured by FCR, changes in weight gain, lesion scores, and measurement of body composition. However, the level of protection was somewhat less than that achieved by immunization with nonirradiated oocysts. The overall conclusion is that an irradiated oocyst vaccine developed in this study can effectively protect chicks that are raised on litter from challenge infection with multiple species of Eimeria, comparable to vaccines with virulent or precocious strains.

  2. Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights. Part 1: growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of light sources and light intensity on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices of heavy broilers (> 3.0 kg) in 4 trials with 2 replications per trial. A total of 960 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks (30 males/30 females/room) were randomly ...

  3. Influence of dietary fat source on growth performance responses and carcass traits of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  4. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the

  5. Toxico-pathological changes induced by cypermethrin in broiler chicks: their attenuation with Vitamin E and selenium.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Faiza; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Sharaf, Summaira; Gul, Shafia Tahseen; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

    2010-07-01

    Ninety 1-day old broiler chicks of mixed gender (as hatched) procured from a local hatchery were randomly divided into five equal groups. All the treatments were given through crop tubing. Groups 1-4 received cypermethrin (CY) (600mgkg(-1)b. wt.) daily for 30 days. In addition to CY (group 1), groups 2-4 received Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b. wt.), Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b. wt.), and Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b. wt.)+Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b. wt.), respectively. Group 5 served as control andreceived normal saline (2mlkg(-1)b. wt.) for 30 days. Randomly selected six broiler chicks from each group were slaughtered at experimental days 10, 20 and 30 for the collection of serum/plasma and morbid tissues. Absolute organ weights were recorded. Total plasma proteins, fibrinogen and creatinine were significantly (P<0.05) increased while alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and urea decreased significantly (P<0.05) in CY-treated group when compared with the control group. Kidneys were swollen grossly in treated broiler chicks. In liver, necrosis of hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolation, bile duct hyperplasia and mononuclear cellular infiltration were observed. In kidneys, necrosis of tubular epithelial cells, cytoplasmic vacuolation, cellular infiltration and atrophy of glomeruli were observed. Sub-arachnoid space was much dilated in CY-treated broiler chicks. It can be concluded that CY induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broilers chicks; however, these toxic effects can be ameliorated by Vit E or Se. Combination of Vit E and Se was more effective in ameliorating toxic effects of cypermethrin in broilers chicks.

  6. Immunosuppressive effects of arsenic in broiler chicks exposed to Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Adeel; Khan, Ahrar; Hussain, Hafiz Iftikhar; He, Cheng; Hussain, Riaz; Zhiqiang, Shen; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Gul, Shafia Tehseen

    2016-11-01

    To assess the effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic (As, as arsenate) on host immune competence overall and resistance to Newcastle disease (ND) viral infection in particular, a study was carried out in broiler chicks. At 7 days of age, chicks were assigned to groups that would undergo varying vaccination, challenge, and/or As exposures; Group 1 was a control; Group 2 was to receive Newcastle disease virus (NDV) only; two groups (Groups 3, 4) were to be given As daily (50 mg/kg, by gavage) from Days 7-35 of the experiment. All groups underwent normal vaccination on Days 5, 23, and 32 against live NDV (B1 type, LaSota strain); two groups (Groups 2, 4) were challenged with field-isolated NDV at Day 24. At Days 14, 21, 28, and 35 of age, subsets of chicks in each group were evaluated. The results showed feed intake and weight gain were lower in As-treated and NDV-challenged chicks. In As-treated chicks, absolute and relative spleen weights were significantly greater, whereas those of the thymus significantly lower, over the entire 35-day period. Effects on bursa weights (absolute, relative) were only significantly reduced through Day 21. Antibody titers against ND were significantly reduced (vs. control) over the whole 35 days in birds that received As alone, but only significantly depressed through the first 21 days in birds that received As + NDV; thereafter, titers were significantly greater (in parallel with effects in birds that received NDV alone). In contrast, antibody responses to T-dependent antigen (Sheep red blood cells [SRBC]) were significantly lower in As only- and As + NDV-treated chicks throughout the study period. Among birds exposed to As (alone or with NDV), in situ phagocytic activity was elevated and cutaneous sensitivity responses decreased during the period from Day 28 to Day 35. NDV alone had spurious effects on phagocytic activity but did cause significant reductions in cutaneous sensitivity responses. It was concluded that

  7. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linear<0.05). Nevertheless, BW corrected for egg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired

  8. Immuno-pathologic effects of oral administration of chlorpyrifos in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Asim; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, M Zargham; Mahmood, Fazal; Gul, S T; Saleemi, M Kashif

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess if chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced immunotoxic effects in orally-treated day-old broiler chicks. Groups of chicks received per os CPF diluted in xylene at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight (CPF-5, CPF-10, and CPF-20) orally daily for 15 days. Xylene and control groups received xylene alone (1 ml/kg BW) and physiological saline, respectively. At various times during/after the exposure regimens, different immune end-points were analyzed in the birds. Humoral immunity was examined by assessing antibody responses to sheep red blood cells. Cell-mediated immunity was measured via lymphoproliferative responses to avian tuberculin. Leukocyte phagocytic ability was measured using a carbon clearance assay. Results showed that CPF administered to broiler chicks caused a dose-dependent decrease in humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, and phagocytic activity. Dose- and time-related pathological changes were observed in bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus in treated birds. These changes were mild, moderate, and severe, respectively, in the 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg CPF groups. The Bursa of Fabricius in treated birds showed increased inter-follicular connective tissue proliferation, severe moderate cytoplasmic vacuolation, edema, and degenerative changes such as pyknosis and fragmentation of nuclei that depleted the follicles of lymphoid cells. In the spleen, disorganization of follicular patterns, severe congestion, cytoplasmic vacuolation, degenerative changes, and hyperplasia of reticular cells were noted. The thymus in treated birds exhibited congestion, hyper-cellularity, and a presence of immature monocytes in the medullary region, as well as myoid cell necrosis. Taken together, these studies clearly demonstrated that chlorpyrifos could induce immunotoxicities in broiler birds.

  9. High stocking density as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Stocking density is a management factor which has critical implications for the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high stocking density as a predisposing factor in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Two hundred and forty as hatched day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group N, with normal stocking density (15 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group D, with high stocking density (30 birds/m(2)) and no challenge; group P, with normal stocking density and positive challenge; and group DP, with high stocking density and positive challenge. From each bird, the intestine, gizzard and liver were collected and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed significant interaction effects between "stocking density" and "challenge", regarding gross lesion scores in intestine and liver, pH values in jejunum, ileum and caeca as well as C. perfringens counts in the caeca (P ≤ 0.05). High stocking density in challenged birds increased the gross lesion score in the intestine (P ≤ 0.05), contrary to unchallenged birds. It can be concluded that high stocking density affects unfavourably the welfare and gut health of broiler chicks, predisposes to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and increases further its importance as a management factor for the poultry industry.

  10. Antiparasitic effect of wild rue (Peganum harmala L.) against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tanweer, A Jabbar; Chand, N; Saddique, U; Bailey, C A; Khan, R U

    2014-08-01

    Organic farming of poultry has increased in recent years as the prophylactic use of antibiotics has come into disfavor. This study was conducted to explore the antiparasitic effect of a methanolic extract of Peganum harmala in broilers challenged with coccidiosis. For this purpose, 200 1-week-old broiler chicks were divided into five treatments: negative control (basal diet, Ph-0/NC), positive control (basal diet with coccidiosis challenge, Ph-0/C), and three groups challenged with coccidiosis and supplemented with P. harmala at the rate of 200 mg L(-1) (Ph-200), 250 mg L(-1) (Ph-250), and 300 mg L(-1) (Ph-300) drinking water. Each group had three replicates of ten chicks each. Challenge with standard dose of the larvae of coccidiosis and supplementation of P. harmala were initiated on day 14 until 35 days of age. As expected, the results revealed that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were depressed significantly in Ph-0 group with significant mortality percentage. Weight gain, total body weight, and FCR increased linearly with increasing dose of P. harmala with the exception of feed intake. The growth and feed efficiency of Ph-0/NC was better in Ph-0/NC compared to that in Ph-0/C and comparable to that in P. harmala-treated birds. Similarly, mean ooccytes per gram (OPG) decreased linearly (P < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared to that in Ph-0/C. Histological evidences showed that cecal lesion and leucocyte infiltration decreased markedly in supplemented groups of P. harmala specifically the Ph-300 group compared to those in Ph-0/C. From the present experiment, we concluded the anticoccidial effect of P. harmala in broiler chicks.

  11. Effect of thyroid hormone on concentrations of plasma calcitonin in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Boyce, C S; Holt, S B; Iqbal, M; Killefer, J; Peterson, R A; Deaver, D R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the effect of thyroidectomy (Tx), and thyroid hormone (T3/T4) treatment on concentrations of plasma CT in chicks. In addition, the turnover of CT in Tx- and T3/T4-treated chicks was estimated using a novel nonradioactive salmon CT preparation. One-week-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) (n = 75) were divided into three groups. Group I was sham-injected daily (i.m. saline), Group II was injected with 50 micrograms/day of T3/T4 while Group III was injected with the goitrogen, methimazole, (150 mg/kg BW per day) for 8 weeks. Chicks (8-9 weeks old) were implanted with catheters in the brachial wing vein and administered ruthenium-labeled salmon CT. Blood samples were collected at 30 s, 1, 2, 4, 8, 20 min, and 3 h after injection. Results showed that concentrations of plasma CT were decreased in T3/T4-injected birds. There was no significant effect of methimazole on circulating concentrations of plasma CT. The half-life of CT was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in both T3/T4-injected (n = 6; 1.34 +/- 0.16 min) and goitrogen-treated birds (n = 2; 5.81 +/- 2.83 min) compared to controls (n = 7; 54 +/- 3 s) The results demonstrate that changes in concentrations of plasma thyroid hormones can significantly affect concentrations of plasma CT.

  12. Physiological adaptive indicators in fasted neonate broiler chicks in response to calcium gluconate injection.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2016-06-01

    Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2)  = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2)  = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks.

  13. Development of a procedure to determine standardized mineral availabilities in soybean meal for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songbai; Li, Sufen; Lu, Lin; Xie, Jingjing; Zhang, Liyang; Jiang, Yong; Luo, Xugang

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for estimating the standardized mineral (calcium, Ca; phosphorus, P; copper, Cu; manganese, Mn; zinc, Zn) availabilities (SMA) in soybean meal for broilers. In experiment 1, twelve 24-day-old male chicks were used to determine the length of the pre-experimental fasting period needed to empty the total tract of feed residues. Feed was removed and excreta samples were collected for 12, 24, 36 or 48 h after feed withdrawal, respectively. The result indicated that birds were fasted for at least 24 h after feed withdrawal in order to ensure that no previous feed residues remained in the digestive tract of chicks. In a subsequent experiment, forty-eight 24-day-old male chicks were used to determine SMA in soybean meal. Chicks were fasted for 24 h and then fed mineral-free or soybean meal diet for 4 h, and excreta samples were collected until 24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal. The results showed that the extended excreta collection time of 48 h after feed withdrawal was adequate for estimating SMA. The standardized availability values of Ca, P, Cu, Mn or Zn in soybean meal were 51.14%, 50.22%, 36.28%, 30.79% or 49.66%, respectively. In experiment 3, a similar bioassay was conducted with forty-eight 36-day-old male chicks to measure SMA in the same soybean meal. The standardized availability values of P (51.59%), Cu (36.37%), Mn (31.94%) or Zn (43.37%) were similar (P > 0.12) to the results of experiment 2 except for Ca (41.49%), indicating that the age of birds had no effect on the standardized availabilities of P, Cu, Mn or Zn in soybean meal. The results from this study suggested that this simple and rapid procedure could be used to determine SMA in feedstuffs (e.g., soybean meal) for broiler chicks.

  14. The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gross lesions were scored and intestinal digesta pH and viscosity were measured. C. perfringens was counted in the caecum. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed that the cold stress in challenged birds significantly increased the incidence and the severity of necrotic enteritis lesions (Ρ ≤ 0.05), while causing no lesions in unchallenged birds. Moreover, the cold stress caused a significant increase (Ρ ≤ 0.05) in the pH and C. perfringens counts in the caeca. The study provides evidence that cold stress increased the susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and thus should be regarded as a physical environmental stressor that could significantly affect the welfare, health and intestinal ecosystem of broiler chicks.

  15. Metabolic effects of low aflatoxin B1 levels on broiler chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, D V; Bodine, A B; Rehrer, N J

    1983-01-01

    The effects of daily ingestion of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth, feed intake, plasma glucose, plasma cholesterol, plasma amino acids, plasma albumin, plasma ceruloplasmin, muscle amino acids, liver lipid, and bone strength were studied. For 3 weeks, beginning at an age of 2 days, broiler chicks were dosed daily per os with 50 or 100 micrograms of AFB1 per kg of body weight. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded daily, and metabolic responses were determined at 3 weeks. Treatment with AFB1 did not significantly alter body weight or feed intake. Relative liver weight showed a significant increase at the highest dose, with a significant concomitant increase in liver lipid and decrease in hepatic zinc. Relative spleen and heart weights were not affected by the toxin. Plasma glucose and cholesterol were significantly elevated at the highest dose. AFB1 significantly decreased plasma lysine and histidine and significantly increased muscle histidine, arginine, and valine. AFB1 decreased plasma albumin and markedly increased plasma ceruloplasmin. Dimensions of the long bones (femur and tibiotarsus) were not altered by the toxin. However, AFB1 caused a significant linear decline in the resistance of bone to breakage ("bone breaking strength"). The results indicate that low levels of AFB1 reduced bone strength in broiler chicks. The alterations in blood parameters indicated that AFB1 can disrupt metabolism even at low levels. PMID:6405694

  16. Colonization of day-of-hatch broiler chicks with antimicrobial resistant strains of salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen linked to poultry and poultry products. However, limited research regarding the in vivo interactions of non-host adapted Salmonella serotypes in broiler chicks is available. In order to evaluate the effect of two serotypes on colonization, 600 day-of-hatch ...

  17. Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and eighty-eight Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per pen; 0.45 m2 per bird) were randomly assigne...

  18. Effect of a Selected Lactobacillus spp-Based Probiotic on Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Infected Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (FM-B11**TM) on Salmonella recovery was evaluated in liquid (Exp. 1) and lyophilized (Exp. 2) forms in two separate experiments with two trials each. For each trial, eighty broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two treatments: control and probioti...

  19. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure.

  20. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on the surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of broiler chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mashhadani, E.H.; Beck, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    The surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of 7-week-old broiler chicks were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain a more accurate understanding of structural changes due to atmospheric ammonia (NH/sub 3/). In the first experiment, four broilers were randomly assigned to each of four chambers, and exposed to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 7 days. Chickens exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ exhibited a large number of mucus-secreting cells that were not seen in the other treatments. Ciliary loss from the tracheal epithelium was not a consistent finding in either the exposed or the control groups. There was no evidence of goblet cell disappearance due to ammonia treatment. In the second experiment, four broilers were randomly allocated to each of four chambers and exposed to 0, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 4 days. There was an increase in the thickness of the atrial walls and a shrinking of air capillaries with increasing NH/sub 3/ concentration; in birds exposed to 75 and 100 ppm NH/sub 3/, wall thickness was one to two times greater than in the control birds. There were no observable differences in gross appearance of lungs and tracheas between control and exposed groups except for hemorrhagic spots on one of the lungs exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/.

  1. Excess levels of cysteine and homocysteine induce tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Orth, M W; Bai, Y; Zeytun, I H; Cook, M E

    1992-03-01

    The effect of excessive levels of cysteine and homocysteine on tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in broiler chicks was studied. In the first experiment, graded levels of L-cysteine as well as one level of L-homocysteine were supplemented to a corn-soybean-based diet adequate in sulfur amino acids. Levels equal to or above 0.5% supplemental cysteine increased the incidence of TD, and levels equal to or above 0.75% supplemental cysteine increased the severity of TD above that found in chicks fed the basal diet. Also, L-homocysteine at 0.5% induced TD. In the second experiment, graded levels of DL-homocystine were added to the basal diet to determine the threshold value of homocystine needed to induce TD, and a level of ammonium sulfate isosulfurous to 0.45% homocystine was added to a basal diet. The results showed that 0.45% DL-homocystine was the lowest level that increased the severity of TD above that found in chicks fed the basal diet and that sulfate did not induce TD. In the third experiment, a 2 x 2 factorial design was used to investigate the interaction between DL-homocystine and copper. Copper supplementation lessened the severity of TD caused by DL-homocystine. Copper supplementation also tended to improve growth, especially in birds fed DL-homocystine.

  2. The effects of copper sulfate on liver histology and biochemical parameters of term Ross broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Emin Oguzhan; Yuksel, Hayati; Enli, Yasar; Tufan, A Cevik; Turgut, Gunfer

    2010-03-01

    Copper is an essential trace element that is extremely toxic to organisms and organs at high doses. We have investigated the histological and biochemical effects of a toxic dose of copper sulfate on the liver of term Ross broiler chicks. Fertilized eggs were divided into three groups: experimental, injected with 50 mcg/0.1 ml copper sulfate in the air chambers on day 1; sham, injected with 0.1 ml saline; and control, no injection. Term chicks were killed and their livers investigated histologically, with hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections examined under light microscopy, and biochemically, for malondialdehyde and glutathione levels. Histological examinations showed copper-treated samples with granular degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes and impairment to the cell lining of the remark cords. The samples had a congestive appearance, with blood in the vena centralis and sinusoids, slight connective tissue increase, and lymphocyte infiltration. Control and sham group sections had normal appearances. As oxidative damage parameters, in the copper-treated group, malondialdehyde levels were increased and glutathione levels decreased. In the sham and control groups, there were no significant differences. At this toxic dose, copper sulfate shows oxidative damage according to the histology of term chick liver that are confirmed biochemically by the changes in malondialdehyde and glutathione levels.

  3. Effect of egg weight and position relative to incubator fan on broiler hatchability and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments, which included 3 incubators, were carried out to investigate the effects of egg weight and position relative to incubator (setter) fan on embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability of broiler eggs. Three egg weight groups termed small (approximately 62.4 g), average (approximately 65.4 g), and large (approximately 68.9 g) were set in either the incubator trolley most distant from the fan (FAR) or in the incubator trolley nearest the fan (NEAR) as would be the case during single-stage operation in this type of incubator. Fertile hatchability decreased in the large egg weight group due to increased percentage late embryonic mortality in experiment 1, and both percentage early and late embryonic mortality in experiment 2. Percentage late embryonic mortality and second quality chicks increased and percentage fertile hatchability decreased for eggs in the FAR position in experiment 1 only. A significant interaction of incubator position x egg weight group for late embryonic mortality, second quality chicks, and fertile hatchability was found in experiment 1, but only late embryonic mortality was so affected in experiment 2. Experiment 2 was conducted so that eggshell temperatures could be measured. Large eggs in the FAR position at transfer time (E 18) exhibited significantly higher eggshell temperatures than did the other groups probably because air velocity or air distribution was modified in the FAR position of the incubator and large eggs were most negatively influenced in the trolley in this position.

  4. Effects of Dangguibuxue Tang, a Chinese herbal medicine, on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu Ting; Wang, Bin; Li, Jin Liang; Yang, Rui; Li, Si Cong; Zhang, Min; Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Dangguibuxue Tang (DBT) on growth performance and immunity response in immunosuppressed broiler chicks were investigated in this study. 240 one-d-old broiler chicks (DaHeng S01) were randomly divided into 4 groups, 2.0% DBT-treatment (A), 0.5% DBT-treatment (B), cyclophosphamide-control (C), and control group (D). From 4 d to 7 d of age, chicks in group A, B and C were given cyclophosphamide (CY) at a dosage of 100mg/kg body weight (BW) daily by intraperitoneal injection to induce immunosuppression. Chicks in group D were given an equal volume of physiological saline daily by intraperitoneal injection and considered normal chicks. Groups A and B were supplemented with 2.0% or 0.5% of DBT in the drinking water from 8 d to 42 d of age. Groups C and D did not receive any additional medication. The results revealed that chicks from group B had lower feed:gain rate (FGR), lower total mortality, higher immunity organ indexes, higher levels of Newcastle disease (ND) antibody and infectious bursal disease (IBD) antibody, higher interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 levels, and greater lymphocyte proliferative responses to concanavalin A (ConA) during the experiment than those from group C. However, no significant difference in the immunity status in the two levels of DBT-treatment was observed. These results indicate that supplementation of 0.5% of DBT can improve both cellular immunity and humoral immunity in immunosuppressed broiler chicks.

  5. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry

  6. Influence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on intestinal goblet cells and villous morphology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Hoerr, F J; McKee, S R; Conner, D E

    2010-06-01

    Live broiler chickens are important in the transmission of Salmonella to humans. Reducing Salmonella levels in the intestine of broiler chickens, in part, requires understanding of the interactions between Salmonella and the intestinal barriers that represent the first line of defense. Such barriers include the mucus layer (composed of mucins secreted by goblet cells) and the underlying epithelium. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on intestinal goblet cell dynamics (density and size) and villous morphology in broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, broiler chicks were either challenged with sterile media (control treatment) or orally given 7.4 x 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) at 3 days of age (termed the CST treatment). Treatments were similar in Experiment 2, except that chicks in the CST treatment were challenged with 7.8 x 10(6) CFU at 4 days of age. Duration of each experiment was 14 days. At 7 days postchallenge (PC) in Experiment 1, jejunal tissue sections were collected, formalin-fixed, and routinely processed for histologic measurement of villous morphometric indices. In Experiment 2, at 10 days PC, jejunal tissue sections were collected and processed for histologic determination of goblet cell numbers and size, in addition to villous measurements. Results showed that Salmonella Typhimurium infection increased goblet cell density, reduced villous surface area, increased the incidence of epithelial exfoliation, and increased the incidence of heterophil influx into the lamina propria (P < 0.05). It was concluded that Salmonella Typhimurium infection impacts goblet cell biology and exerts morphopathologic changes in the jejunum of broiler chicks.

  7. Lysine requirement of broiler chicks as affected by protein source and method of statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barbour, G; Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B

    1993-09-01

    1. An experiment was designed to test if the lysine requirement, expressed as g lysine/kg CP, was the same for several protein sources. 2. Groundnut meal, groundnut meal adjusted with indispensable amino acids or sesame meal supplied the dietary CP at 180 g/kg diet. Increments of lysine (1.5 g/kg diet) were added to each of these diets. 3. The gain, food intake and food efficiency responses of broiler chicks were analysed using a quadratic equation and a two-slope method. An estimate of lysine requirements was also obtained from a survey of college students. 4. The different methods produced widely different estimates of lysine requirement. 5. The average lysine requirement was estimated at 50.1 g lysine/kg CP for groundnut meal, 61.7 for adjusted groundnut meal and 54.9 for sesame meal. 6. Reasons for the effect of statistical analysis and protein source on lysine requirement are discussed.

  8. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

  9. Effect of extrusion processing of soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2016-12-01

    The present experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of extrusion of inadequately processed soybean meal (SBM) on amino acid (AA) digestibility and performance of broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 180 day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 6 pen replicates (15 chicks each) of 2 dietary treatments; diets based on SBM or extruded SBM (ESBM) as the main protein sources. Based on the results of Exp. 1 and AA digestibility assay, Exp. 2 was designed using 216 day-old Ross broiler chicks (6 replicates of 18 chicks each), in which dietary SBM content was replaced by 86% using ESBM. This replacement caused about a 9% decrease in dietary crude protein (CP) level. Results showed that coefficients of CP and AA digestibility were greater (P < 0.05) for ESBM than those of SBM. Extrusion processing of SBM increased digestibility coefficients of Lys, Thr, Cys, Leu, Phe, Tyr, Pro, Ser, and Gly. Except during the starter period, dietary inclusion of ESBM increased (P < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) in Exp. 1 and caused increases (P < 0.01) in average daily weight gains (ADWG) throughout the trial period. Also, using ESBM improved the (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio (FCR) during starter and finisher periods. In Exp. 2, reducing dietary CP level using ESBM decreased both ADFI (P < 0.05) and ADWG (P < 0.01) in the starter period. During grower, finisher, and entire trial periods, however, ADFI and ADWG were not influenced by dietary treatments. Dietary inclusion of ESBM improved (P < 0.05) FCR value in the finisher period. Although carcass yield was not affected by dietary treatments, reducing dietary CP level resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in abdominal fat percentage. Moreover, a decrease in dietary CP level reduced (P = 0.08) breast yield. The present findings indicate that extrusion of SBM could improve its nutritive value for broiler chicks. Using ESBM, one can reduce dietary CP level by about 9% without any detrimental effect on

  10. Fermented rapeseed meal is effective in controlling Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and improving growth performance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ashayerizadeh, Amin; Dastar, Behrouz; Shams Shargh, Mahmoud; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    The aim of present experiment was to assess the effects of fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) colonization and growth performance in broiler chicks. Two hundred forty day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were divided into six experimental treatments with four replicates and 10 birds per each. The treatments were including two positive and negative controls which birds received a basal corn-soybean diet as well as four others which birds received the diets that rapeseed meal (RSM) or FRSM was replaced with soybean meal at 50 and 100% levels. All chicks except the negative control birds were challenged orally with 10(5) CFU of S. Typhimurium at 3days of age. Results showed that birds were fed FRSM had significantly greater lactic acid bacteria populations and lesser S. Typhimurium colonization in ileal and cecal sections compared to others (P<0.05). The less percentage of liver and bursa of fabricius was belonged to negative control group. At 10day, feeding chicks with diet containing FRSM, but not RSM, significantly decreased the organ invasion by S. Typhimurium (P<0.05). Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly lesser in chicks were fed FRSM compared to those fed RSM or positive control (P<0.05). Birds were fed FRSM had significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion ratio compared to those birds were fed RSM (P<0.05). The findings of present experiment concerning positive effects of feeding FRSM on reducing S. Typhimurium and improving growth performance show that this processed protein source can be considered as a nutritional effective strategy to control Salmonella contamination in broiler chicks.

  11. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  12. Performance of male broiler chicks exposed to heat from infrared or microwave sources

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; Amyot, E.; McMillan, I.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    In eight trials, 240 male broiler birds, initially 7 days old, were randomly allocated to three treatments. Treatments were: continuous infrared (CI), intermittent infrared (II; 4 min on, 2 min off, 10 cycles/h), and intermittent microwaves (IM; 2 min on, 4 min off, 10 cycles/h). At the conclusion of the 14-day experimental period the 21-day-old birds were killed. Although there were significant differences (P less than or equal to .05) in mean gain over the 2-wk treatment period between trials, no differences (P greater than .05) were attributed to treatments. There were, however, significant differences in feed:gain ratios between trials and between treatments. Feed:gain ratios of birds kept under CI and II treatments did not differ significantly (P greater than .05). However, feed:gain ratios, 1.61 +/- .04 and 1.57 +/- .04 for CI and II, respectively, differed significantly (P less than or equal to .05) from that of the IM treatment (1.76 +/- .04). The protein content of chicks under II was significantly (P less than or equal to .05) lower than that of birds under IM. There were no differences (P greater than .05) in fat, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content of chicks among treatments.

  13. Effects of copper source on phosphorus retention in broiler chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Banks, K M; Thompson, K L; Rush, J K; Applegate, T J

    2004-06-01

    Copper sulfate is often added to broiler and laying hen diets at prophylactic dosages due to its antimicrobial and growth promoting effects despite reduced P digestibility, whereas P use from other Cu sources is unknown. Therefore, male broiler chicks were fed diets containing 0 or 250 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate (Cu SUL), Cu citrate (Cu CIT), Cu lysinate (Cu LYS), or CuCl from 9 to 22 d of age (8 cages/diet, 6 birds/cage) to determine the effect of each Cu source on performance characteristics, bone mineralization, and P retention. Body weight gain was not different among treatments (P > 0.05). Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu LYS resulted in chicks having greater toe and tibia ash weights as compared with chicks fed Cu SUL (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different from those of birds fed Cu CL, Cu CIT, and 0 ppm Cu diets. Supplementation with Cu LYS resulted in birds with greater toe ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu CIT, Cu SUL, and the 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but was not significantly different than those of birds fed the CuCl diet. Birds fed the Cu LYS diet had greater tibia ash percentage as compared with birds fed Cu SUL and 0 ppm Cu diets (P < or = 0.05) but were not significantly different than birds fed the Cu CL or Cu CIT diet. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu SUL or Cu CIT reduced apparent P retention by 0.029 and 0.053 percentage-units of the diet, respectively (P < or = 0.05) as compared with the 0 ppm diet; whereas the apparent P retention when 250 ppm Cu LYS or Cu CL was fed was not different from the 0 ppm Cu diet (P > 0.05). Feeding of different Cu sources in a subsequent experiment had no influence on P retention in laying hens (P > 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu CIT or Cu SUL resulted in decreased apparent P retention. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu CL or Cu LYS, however, improved apparent P retentions as compared with Cu CIT or Cu SUL.

  14. Effect of zinc imprinting and replacing inorganic zinc with organic zinc on early performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, S; Timmons, J; Ao, T; Paul, M; Macalintal, L; Pescatore, A; Cantor, A; Ford, M; Dawson, K A

    2016-09-23

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a zinc (Zn) deficient diet to broiler chicks for 96 h post-hatch followed by feeding diets with different Zn sources and supplemental levels (5 to 21 d) on the growth performance, tissue, and excreta Zn content. At the start of the study, four hundred 20-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn soybean meal based diet containing 25 mg of Zn/kg (imprinting diet, ID). The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn/kg from Zn oxide (ZnO) (non-imprinting diet, NID). Both groups were fed these diets for 96 h. At d 5, chicks from each group were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments consisting of the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 8 or 40 mg/kg Zn as ZnO or Zn proteinate. Main effects of post-hatch Zn ID were observed on feed intake and G:F. ID decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and improved (P < 0.05) the gain to feed ratio (G:F) of 14 and 21 d old chicks compared to G:F of chicks fed NID. Additionally, G:F for 14 and 21 d was improved (P < 0.05) by interaction of Zn source × level. Furthermore, at d 21 chicks fed the ID had a lower (P < 0.05) Zn content in the tibia ash and excreta, and a higher (P < 0.05) Zn content in the pancreas tissue compared to chicks fed NID. These results suggest that Zn imprinting can affect body Zn stores and early performance.

  15. Effects of dietary saturated or unsaturated fatty acids and calcium levels on performance and mineral metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Leeson, S

    1984-11-01

    The effects of inclusion of 8% oleic, palmitic, or a 50/50 mixture of oleic and palmitic acids as the major source of fat in the presence of .8, 1.2, or 1.6% calcium in broiler diets was investigated using broiler chicks from day-old to 3 weeks of age. Supplementation of broiler diets with oleic acid reduced feed intake (P less than .05) and improved feed efficiency (P less than .01) compared to other treatments. Chicks fed diets supplemented with oleic acid or a mixture of oleic and palmitic acid gained more weight (P less than .01) over a 3-week period. Significant interactions were observed between type of dietary fatty acid and calcium level on metabolizable energy of diets (P less than .01), magnesium retention (P less than .05), calcium and fat retention (P less than .01), and proportion of excreta fatty acid that was present as soap (P less than .01). Although all fatty acids tested formed soap in the small intestine, soaps of oleic acid were efficiently utilized as opposed to soaps of palmitic acid. There was a significant (P less than .05) reduction in bone ash and bone calcium content of chicks fed diets supplemented with palmitic acid. There was a significant interaction (P less than .05) between type of fatty acid and calcium level on bone magnesium content. Increasing the calcium content of diets aggravated the decrease in calcium retention and bone calcium content associated with addition of fat.

  16. Toxic effects of copper sulfate on the brains of term Hubbard broiler chicks: a stereological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, E O; Enli, Y; Tufan, A C; Turgut, G

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate can cause different pathologies in different organ systems during development. We determined the effects of toxic levels of copper sulfate on brain development in term Hubbard broiler chicks using stereological and biochemical analyses. Hubbard broiler chicken eggs were divided into three groups: controls with no treatment, sham-treated animals and an experimental group. On day 1, 0.1 ml saline was injected into the air chambers of the sham and experimental groups. The experimental group received also 50 μg copper sulfate. At term (day 21), all chick brains were removed and their volumes were determined using the Cavalieri volume estimation. Parallel biochemical analyses were carried out for glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in the brain tissues as indicators of oxidative damage. With copper treatment, the mean brain volume (8079 μm(3)) was significantly decreased compared to both the control (10075 μm(3)) and sham (9547 μm(3)) groups. Copper treatment (143.8 nmol/g tissue) showed significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels compared to the control (293.6 nmol/g tissue) and sham groups (268.8 nmol/g tissue). Copper treatment (404.5 nmol/g tissue) showed significantly increased malondialdehyde levels compared to the control (158.6 nmol/g tissue) and sham (142.8 nmol/g tissue) groups. The morphological and biochemical parameters we measured demonstrated that in term Hubbard broiler chicks, toxic levels of copper sulfate cause developmental and oxidative brain damage.

  17. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  18. Oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to extra thyroxine modulates early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N; Akhlaghi, A A; Navidshad, B; Yussefi Kelarikolaei, K; Hashemi, S R

    2013-04-01

    Based on the findings of a recent study suggesting a decreased cold-induced ascites incidence in broiler progeny from hyperthyroid (HYPER) breeder hens, and a controversy on the effects of hyperthyroidism on immunocompetence, the present study was conducted to determine the probable adverse effect of induced maternal hyperthyroidism on immune function in progeny chicks. Breeder hens (n = 88) were randomly allotted to the control or HYPER groups and received common or thyroxine (T4)-added (1 mg/L) water, respectively. The hens were artificially inseminated, and hatching eggs (n = 924) were incubated. Thereafter, the male hatchlings (n = 288) were reared for 42 d, and several cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated at standard or low ambient temperature. Prevaccination antibody titers to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease virus were higher in HYPER chicks during 1 wk of age, although not different in their dams. For primary response to SRBC administered at 7 d of age, HYPER chicks recorded higher total, IgM (d 14), and IgG (d 21) anti-SRBC antibody titers. Higher cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response in HYPER chicks (d 10) was not observed at 35 d of age. Carbon clearance assay showed no difference, but in vitro lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A was higher in 19-d-old HYPER chicks, independent of temperature treatment. An increase in lymphocyte percentage coincided with a decreased heterophil percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (d 14) in the HYPER group. The weight of lymphoid organs in progeny was not influenced by the oral exposure of dams to extra T4. Independent of T4 treatment, cold exposure was generally associated with decreased immune functions at early stages. The data suggested that oral exposure of broiler breeder hens to 1 mg/L of T4 not only had no adverse effect on immune function, but also modulated early adaptive immune responses in progeny chicks for which the causal

  19. Moderate excess of dietary protein increases breast meat yield of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartov, I; Plavnik, I

    1998-05-01

    Two factorial experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary protein level, expressed as energy to protein (E:P) ratio, on yields of carcass and breast and on abdominal fat pad weight of male broiler chicks at 43 and 57 d of age. Two diets similar in their energy content and differing markedly in their protein content, in which the E:P ratios were lower and identical to the NRC (1994) recommendations, were used in Experiment 1. Four diets, the combination of two energy and two protein levels, in which the E:P ratios were lower and identical to the recommendations, were used in Experiment 2. There were no differences in feed intake or weight gain until 42 d of age between broilers fed the diets with the low and those fed the recommended E:P ratio. However, feed efficiency of the former was consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) higher. The high-energy diets did not affect feed intake but significantly improved weight gain between 7 and 28 d of age and feed efficiency until 42 d of age. In both experiments, carcass yield was not affected by dietary E:P ratio at 43 d of age; however, at 57 d of age it was increased significantly by the low E:P ratio in Experiment 1 and in birds fed the high energy diet in Experiment 2. On a factorial basis, the effect of the low E:P ratio on increasing yield was significant only in Experiment 1. The high dietary energy level increased carcass yield only at 43 d of age, but on a factorial basis its effect was significant. Carcass yield was significantly (P < 0.001) higher at 57 than at 43 d of age. In both experiments, breast meat yield was negatively correlated with dietary E:P ratio, a significant factorial effect. The difference in this variable between broilers fed the diets containing the low and the recommended E:P ratio was significant, at both ages in Experiment 1, and only at 57 d of age in Experiment 2. Breast meat yield was not affected by dietary energy level, and it was significantly (P < 0.001) higher

  20. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Homan; Arshami, Javad; Golian, Abolghasem; Raji, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP) as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate). At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days), feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24), one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW), drumstick weight (DW), and jejunum length (JL) as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01). The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04) and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01) and total periods (p < 0.05). The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059) and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079) as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD) at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL) and villi number (p < 0.05) and, VL/CD (p < 0.01) and, villus surface area (p < 0.02). The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05). The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01). In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry. PMID:25653792

  1. Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Eyng, C.; Murakami, A. E.; Santos, T. C.; Silveira, T. G. V.; Pedroso, R. B.; Lourenço, D. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control – macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and

  2. Effects of dietary inclusion of silymarin on performance, intestinal morphology and ileal bacterial count in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, E; Mahdavi, A H; Asgary, S; Jahanian, R

    2017-01-04

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of silymarin on performance, jejunal morphology and ileal bacterial population in broiler chicks intoxicated with a mix of aflatoxins. A total of three hundred thirty six 7-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between seven experimental groups with four replicates of 12 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of a control group (unchallenged), and a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, including two aflatoxin levels (0.5 and 2 ppm) and three levels of silymarin (0, 500 and 1000 ppm). Birds were challenged with a mix of aflatoxins from 7 to 28 days of age. Results showed that increasing aflatoxin level resulted in decreased average daily feed intake (ADFI) and weight gain (ADWG), consequently impaired feed conversion ratio (FCR) throughout the trial period. Dietary supplementation of silymarin resulted in the marked increases in ADFI and ADWG, and improved FCR values in aflatoxin-challenged chicks. Ileal bacterial populations at days 28 and 42 of age were increased by incremental levels of aflatoxins. On the other hand, dietary silymarin supplementation suppressed ileal populations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella and total negative bacteria in aflatoxicated birds. Increase in dietary aflatoxin level resulted in the decreased villi height, villi height-to-crypt depth ratio (VH:CD), villi surface area and apparent villi absorptive area, while it increased crypt depth, goblet cell count and lymphoid follicular diameter. Feeding silymarin at the level of 1000 ppm increased villi height and VH:CD in aflatoxicated birds. Present results indicate that dietary inclusion of silymarin could improve performance by suppressing ileal bacteria and enhancing absorptive surface area in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks.

  3. The effects of dietary fluoride on growth and bone mineralization in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Parr, C; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    Fluoride has been shown to have varying degrees of beneficial effects on bone mineralization and bone strength, despite its toxic effects on growth and leg disorders. Some studies have demonstrated an increase in bone ash resulting from F supplementation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether low levels of dietary F would have any beneficial effect on the bone strength and leg disorders of young chicks fed P-deficient diets. Effects on BW and feed efficiency were also observed to monitor for F toxicity. One-day-old straight-run Cobb × Cobb broiler chicks were weighed, randomly allocated to treatment groups, housed in electrically heated wire-floored battery brooders, and provided with water and feed for ad libitum consumption. Phosphorus-deficient diets were formulated to induce P rickets with 2 different P sources. Treatment 1 contained feed grade dicalcium phosphate to simulate a commercial diet. Treatment 2 contained purified dicalcium phosphate to represent a diet with minimal F (~0.46 mg/kg). Treatments 3 and 4 used purified dicalcium phosphate as the P source and contained 10 and 20 mg/kg of F from NaF, respectively. Four more treatments were added for experiment 2. Treatments 5, 6, 7, and 8 used purified dicalcium phosphate as the P source and contained 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/kg of F from NaF, respectively. The analyzed F values in the diet were lower than the formulated values as a result of an unexplained lower than desired rate of recovery (72%) of an internal standard. Chicks fed purified calcium phosphate grew better in experiment 1 (P < 0.05) and had a lower incidence of P-deficiency rickets in experiment 2 (P < 0.01) than did birds fed feed grade dicalcium phosphate. Percentage of bone ash was increased by increasing the F level in the diets in experiment 1, but not experiment 2. It was concluded that even low levels of F, such as those used in the present study, have the potential to increase bone quality.

  4. The several elements of intestinal innate immune system at the beginning of the life of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Nazligul, A; Gules, O; Aka, E; Zorlu, S; Yildiz, M

    2016-07-01

    Functional capacity of digestive system and intestinal adaptive immunity are immature at hatching of broiler chicks. Therefore, intestinal innate immunity after hatching is vital to young chicks. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression and tissue distributions of several elements of the innate immune system (i.e., TLR2, TLR4, CD83, and MHC class II expressing cells) in the intestine of one-day-old chicks. For this purpose, ileum and cecum were examined the under different conditions, which included the control and 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phosphate buffered saline. The findings indicated that regardless of the antigenic stimulation, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 expressing cells were present in the intestinal tissues of one-day-old chicks. We noticed that the intestinal segments have different TLR expression levels after LPS stimulation. Dendritic cells were identified, and they left the intestinal tissue after LPS treatment. MHC class II molecules were diffusely present in both the ileum and cecum. This study demonstrates that the intestinal tissue of one-day-old chicks has remarkable defensive material, including histological properties and several elements of the innate immune system. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:604-614, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detection of rotaviruses and intestinal lesions in broiler chicks from flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS).

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Elschner, Mandy; Reetz, Jochen; Löhren, Ulrich; Diller, Roland

    2006-09-01

    The intestinal tract and intestinal contents were collected from 34 stunted, 5-to-14-day-old broiler chicks from eight flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in Northern Germany to investigate intestinal lesions and the presence of enteric pathogens with a special focus on rotaviruses (RVs). Seven chicks from a healthy flock were used as controls. Severe villous atrophy was seen in chicks from six flocks with RSS but not in the control flock. Lesions were often "regionally" distributed in the middle-to-distal small intestine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and seminested RT-PCR were used for detection and characterization of RVs. The PAGE allows discrimination of different RV groups, and the RT-PCR was used to verify the presence of group (gp) A RVs. RVs were detected (by all methods) in 32 of 34 chicks from the flocks with RSS. By TEM (negative staining), RV particles were observed in intestinal contents of 28 chicks from the flocks with RSS. PAGE analysis showed four RV groups: gpA, gpD, gpF, and gpG. Group A RVs were detected in four chicks from two flocks with RSS, without intestinal lesions. GpD RVs were detected in 12 chicks of five flocks with RSS, 10 of them with severe villous atrophy. GpF RVs were confirmed in four chicks from three flocks with RSS and in two birds in the control flock. GpG RVs were verified in two chicks from two flocks with RSS, one with, and one without, intestinal lesions. At present, PCR methods are only available for detection of gpA RVs. Using RT-PCR, gpA RVs were identified in samples from 22 chicks including samples of two chicks from the control flock. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between presence of gpD RV and severe villous atrophy in flocks with RSS. The results suggest that gpD RV plays a major role in the pathogenesis of RSS.

  6. Efficacy of feeding glucosinolate-extracted crambe meal to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kloss, P; Jeffrey, E; Wallig, M; Tumbleson, M; Parsons, C; Johnson, L; Reuber, M

    1994-10-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products (nitriles) have long been implicated as toxic factors when feeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) meals and crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meals to poultry. Accordingly, various methods have been developed to remove these compounds from the meals to enhance their value as feed supplements. Glucosinolates and nitriles were extracted from commercially processed, defatted crambe meal by washing with water or various solvent-water mixtures: 50% isopropanol, 50% acetone, or 50% ethanol. In addition, crambe seed was extruded and extracted in the laboratory with isopropanol or hexane. Water washing of commercially defatted meal proved to be the most effective method of extraction, removing 95% of the glucosinolates and nitriles. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 10% of the diet for 14 d. Weight gain decreased (P < .05) in most groups; however a greater decrease (P < .01) was observed in birds fed meals with high glucosinolate content. Feed intake also decreased (P < .05) in most groups; consequently, feed efficiencies were similar for all groups. No changes in serum chemistries, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, or tissue lesions were associated with glucosinolate or nitrile intake. A relationship (P < .05, r = .74) was found between weight gain and glucosinolate intake. No correlation was found between feed intake and meal glucosinolate or nitrile concentrations.

  7. Comparative pathology of gizzard lesions in broiler chicks fed fish meal, histamine and copper.

    PubMed

    Itakura, C; Kazama, T; Goto, M

    1982-01-01

    In order to elucidate the histopathogenesis of gizzard lesions occurring with various diets and in particular with fish meals, comparative studies were made on the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 15% of a suspect batch of fish meal (group A), and normal fish meal containing diets to which were added 0.4% of histamine (group B) or 1,000 parts/10(6) of copper (group C). The gizzard lesions in group A were widespread and consisted of thickening and loosening of the lining, frequently with erosions and ulcerations. The lesions in group B were almost identical to those in group A, but were less severe and less associated with erosions and ulceration. The lesions in group C were widespread and consisted of a markedly thickened lining with numerous desquamated surface cells, sometimes with erosions. The surface and chief cells were swollen in most glands of groups A and C and in the cells of those glands under the altered lining in group B. A poorly-staining secretion was shown to be excreted into the lining. The proventriculus in the three experimental groups showed increased secretion in direct proportion to the severity of the gizzard lesions. It was suggested that the gizzard lesions caused by dietary fish meal might have originated from hyperactivity of the gizzard glands, followed by erosion and ulceration.

  8. Molybdenum but not copper counteracts cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Sunde, M L; Cook, M E

    1994-04-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of copper and molybdenum to prevent cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler chicks. Experiment 1 was a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments used to investigate the interaction between Cu (0, 150 or 300 mg/kg diet) and Mo (0, 10, or 100 mg/kg diet) on cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. Molybdenum at both supplemental levels, but not Cu, prevented cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia. In Experiment 2 (a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 0, 5 or 10 g/kg diet of cysteine and 0, 10 or 100 mg/kg diet of Mo), Mo prevented cysteine-induced but not spontaneous tibial dyschondroplasia. Cysteine and Mo did not affect the mechanical properties of the tibiotarsus. In Experiment 3, cysteine (0 or 10 g/kg diet) and Mo (0 or 100 mg/kg diet) were used to study the tissue concentrations of mineral and hepatic sulfite oxidase activity. Supplemental Mo increased Mo concentrations in the plasma and liver. Cysteine prevented these increases; however, cysteine, in the absence of supplemental Mo, did not affect concentrations of Mo in these tissues. Dietary cysteine and/or Mo did not affect tissue levels of Cu. We conclude that Mo prevents cysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia and that the induction of tibial dyschondroplasia by cysteine is not related to the Mo and Cu deficiency.

  9. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Ohh, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Seongjin; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-Mahn

    2016-06-01

    Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.

  10. Performance of broiler chicks fed on alkali-treated neem (Azadirachta indica) kernel cake as a protein supplement.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, D; Sastry, V R; Agrawal, D K; Katiyar, R C; Verma, S V

    1996-09-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth and nutrient efficiency of broiler chicks from 3 to 42 d fed on diets containing alkali-treated neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) kernel cake (NKC) as a protein supplement in place of peanut meal (PNM). 2. NKC was treated with sodium hydroxide at 10 (ANKC 1) or 20 g (ANKC 2)/kg and incorporated into the test diets at 135 or 300 g/kg to replace 50 (low-L) or 100 (High-H)% of the PNM protein of the reference diet. 3. Despite comparable retentions of dry matter and total carbohydrate on L-ANKC 1 and 2, fibre on L-and H-ANKC 2 and nitrogen, calcium and acid detergent fibre on all experimental diets compared to the retentions of chicks on the reference diet, only the chicks fed L-ANKC 2 were found to grow and utilise food as well as those on the reference diet. 4. The activities of serum alkaline phosphatase on H-ANKC 1 and alanine amino transferase on all test diets were depressed (P < 0.05), but the activity of serum aspartate amino transferase, total erythrocyte count and concentration of blood haemoglobin and urea were similar in all chicks. 5. No significant differences were noticed in the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the meat of chicks fed on the reference diet and on diets incorporating ANKC at the lower concentrations. Feeding ANKC protein did not impart any untoward taste as evaluated in pressure cooked meat by a semitrained panel on a 7 point Hedonic scale. 6. Except for duodenal and jejunal inflammation in chicks on both reference and test diets, all the vital organs were normal, ruling out any adverse affects caused by residual neem bitters. 7. Comparable performance and cost of chicks fed on the reference and L-ANKC 2 diets, warrants the utilisation of hitherto wasted protein-rich NKC after alkali treatment in broiler chick diets to spare peanut meal for human consumption in developing countries.

  11. Effect of transportation duration of 1-day-old chicks on postplacement production performances and pododermatitis of broilers up to slaughter age.

    PubMed

    Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Tong, Q; Roulston, N; Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Garain, P; Demmers, T G M; McGonnell, I M; Bahr, C; Burel, C; Eterradossi, N; Michel, V

    2013-12-01

    This experiment studied the effect of transportation duration of 1-d-old chicks on dehydration, mortality, production performance, and pododermatitis during the growout period. Eggs from the same breeder flock (Ross PM3) were collected at 35, 45, and 56 wk of age, for 3 successive identical experiments. In each experiment, newly hatched chicks received 1 of 3 transportation duration treatments from the hatchery before placement in the on-site rearing facility: no transportation corresponding to direct placement in less than 5 min (T00), or 4 (T04) or 10 h (T10) of transportation. The chicks were housed in 35-m(2) pens (650 birds each) and reared until 35 d old. Hematocrit and chick BW were measured on sample chicks before and after transportation. During the growout period, bird weight, feed uptake, and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly until slaughter. Transportation duration affected BW; T00 groups had a significantly higher BW than T04 and T10 transported birds but this effect lasted only until d 21. No clear effect on hematocrit, feed uptake, feed conversion ratio, or mortality was observed for birds transported up to 10 h. The decrease in weight in T10 birds was associated with less severe pododermatitis. Increasing age of the breeder flock was correlated with reduced egg fertility and hatchability, and also with higher quality and BW of hatched chicks. Chicks from older breeders also exhibited reduced mortality during the growout period.

  12. The composition of egg yolk absorbed by fasted ostrich (Struthio camelus L.) chicks from 1 to 7 days posthatching and for ostrich (Struthio camelus L.) chicks from 1 to 16 days posthatching on a prestarter broiler diet.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, M; Brand, T S; Soley, J T; Boomker, E A

    2012-06-01

    This study was performed to obtain information on yolk utilization in fasted and fed ostrich chicks posthatching. The fasted trial lasted for 7 d, whereas the fed trial continued for 16 d. Fasted ostrich chicks showed a decrease of 31.3 g of BW, with yolk weight decreasing by 28.9 g daily after hatching. Yolk weight comprised 28% of 1-d-old ostrich chick BW and decreased to 12% at 7 d of age. Only 44.4% of the fasted ostrich chick yolk was assimilated over the trial period. Crude protein content of the yolk decreased by 13.2 g daily. Fat content increased by 1.77% daily, whereas total yolk fat weight decreased with 8.91 g daily. Slaughter weight of fed ostrich chicks increased, with yolk weight decreasing by 16.3 g daily. Yolk content for fed ostrich chicks was 26% of BW at 2 d of age. Ostrich chicks absorb 30% of yolk over the first 4 d, 67% after 8 d, and only deplete the yolk after 14 d posthatch. Fasted ostrich chicks absorbed the yolk content at a rate of 28.9 g/d, compared with 22.3 g/d over the first 8 d and 16.3 g/d over the 16 d for fed ostrich chicks. The CP content of the yolk decreased by 6.84 g daily in fed ostrich chicks, whereas fat content of the yolk increased by 1.39% daily, although total yolk fat weight decreased by 6.61 g daily. Yolk weight and total CP decreased faster over the first 7 d in the fasted ostrich chicks compared with the fed ostrich chicks, which indicated that the decrease in yolk weight could be attributed to absorption of protein from the yolk. Fat content decreased faster over the first 8 d from the yolk of the fed ostrich chicks compared with that from the yolk of the fasted ostrich chicks, which could indicate that external feed has a positive influence on the absorption of fat from the yolk content.

  13. Ileal digestibility of amino acids for zero-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba L.) fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) in zero-tannin faba beans (ZFB; Vicia faba L.) fed to broiler chicks. In total, 120 broiler chicks were divided into 24 groups of 5 birds that were balanced for BW and fed 1 of 3 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups/diet) from d 14 to 21 of age. The diets were a soybean meal-cornstarch-based basal diet or the basal diet with soybean meal and cornstarch replaced by 50% of either conventional (tannin-containing) faba beans (CFB) or ZFB. The CFB were fed for comparison with ZFB. All of the 3 diets contained chromic oxide (0.3%) as an indigestible marker, and nutrient digestibilities were determined by the difference method. On d 21, the birds were killed by cervical dislocation and contents of the lower-half of the ileum were obtained for determination of apparent AA digestibility. The CFB and ZFB were similar in CP, AA, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents. The ZFB did not contain tannins, whereas the CFB contained 0.82% tannins. The ZFB had greater (P < 0.05) AID for all AA (except Met) compared with that of the CFB by an average of 12.6 percentage points. The 2 faba-bean types were similar in AID of Met. The results show that the ZFB evaluated in the current study had greater AID of AA than CFB, and hence, it may be a better source of protein for broiler chicks than CFB.

  14. Egg storage duration and hatch window affect gene expression of nutrient transporters and intestine morphological parameters of early hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Izzetoglu, G T; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, researchers have given emphasis on the differences in physiological parameters between early and late hatched chicks within a hatch window. Considering the importance of intestine development in newly hatched chicks, however, changes in gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of early hatched chicks within a hatch window have not been studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the effects of egg storage duration before incubation and hatch window on intestinal development and expression of PepT1 (H+-dependent peptide transporter) and SGLT1 (sodium-glucose co-transporter) genes in the jejunum of early hatched broiler chicks within a 30 h of hatch window. A total of 1218 eggs obtained from 38-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks were stored for 3 (ES3) or 14 days (ES14) and incubated at the same conditions. Eggs were checked between 475 and 480 h of incubation and 40 chicks from each egg storage duration were weighed; chick length and rectal temperature were measured. The chicks were sampled to evaluate morphological parameters and PepT1 and SGLT1 expression. The remaining chicks that hatched between 475 and 480 h were placed back in the incubator and the same measurements were conducted with those chicks at the end of hatch window at 510 h of incubation. Chick length, chick dry matter content, rectal temperature and weight of small intestine segments increased, whereas chick weight decreased during the hatch window. The increase in the jejunum length and villus width and area during the hatch window were higher for ES3 than ES14 chicks. PepT1 expression was higher for ES3 chicks compared with ES14. There was a 10.2 and 17.6-fold increase in PepT1 and SGLT1 expression of ES3 chicks at the end of hatch window, whereas it was only 2.3 and 3.3-fold, respectively, for ES14 chicks. These results suggested that egg storage duration affected development of early hatched chicks during 30 h of hatch window. It can be concluded that

  15. Immune responses to dietary beta-glucan in broiler chicks during an Eimeria challenge.

    PubMed

    Cox, C M; Sumners, L H; Kim, S; McElroy, A P; Bedford, M R; Dalloul, R A

    2010-12-01

    Escalating consumer concerns regarding pathogen resistance have placed the poultry industry under mounting pressure to eliminate the use of chemotherapeutic agents as feed additives. One possible alternative receiving increased attention is the use of immunomodulators such as β-glucan. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a yeast-derived β-glucan (Auxoferm YGT) on broiler chick performance, lesion scores, and immune-related gene expression during a mixed Eimeria infection. Day-old chicks were fed diets containing 0, 0.02, or 0.1% YGT. On d 8 posthatch, one-half of the replicate pens were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Measurements were taken and samples collected on d 4, 10, 14, and 21 posthatch. Dietary supplementation had no effect on performance or mortality. On d 14, 3 birds per pen (n = 24/treatment) were scored for intestinal coccidia lesions. Gross lesion severity was significantly reduced in birds supplemented with 0.1% YGT. On d 10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was downregulated in the jejunum of challenged birds fed 0.1% YGT. Expression of iNOS in the ileum was downregulated in the nonchallenged birds, but upregulated in the challenged birds fed 0.1% YGT on d 14. Interleukin (IL)-18 was upregulated in the jejunum of 0.1% YGT-treated birds. Interferon (IFN)-γ expression was decreased in challenged and nonchallenged birds fed 0.1% YGT. The IL-4 expression was downregulated in the nonchallenged birds with 0.1% YGT diet supplementation. The IL-13 and mucin-1 levels were also reduced due to β-glucan supplementation. Mucin-2 expression was increased in the nonchallenged birds, but decreased in the infected birds fed 0.1% YGT. These results suggest that although Auxoferm YGT at doses of 0.02 and 0.1% does not influence performance, it significantly reduces lesion severity and is capable of altering immune-related gene expression profiles, favoring an enhanced T

  16. Dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chicks subjected to delayed placement.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, I; Shakeri, M; Soleimani, A F

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary glutamine (Gln) + glutamic acid (Glu) supplementation on growth performance and physiological stress response in broiler chickens subjected to 24 h delay in placement. Equal number of day-old broiler chicks were assigned to either immediate placement or with 24 h delay in placement with no access to feed and water. Chicks from each placement group were fed either standard starter diet (control) or standard starter diet +1% AminoGut (AG; mixture of 10% Gln and 10% Glu) from 1 to 21 d. Blood and duodenal samples were collected at 21 d for analysis of serum levels of ceruloplasmin (CER), ovotransferin (OVT) and α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), duodenal heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, and villi length and crypt depth. Results showed that delayed placement for 24 h was detrimental to weight gain during the starter phase (1 to 21 d) but not thereafter. AG supplementation was not able to eliminate that reduction in weight gain and feed intake during the starter stage. However, the observed enhancement in villi length and crypt depth at d 21 resulted in improvement of FCR and weight gain during the finisher stage (22 to 42 d) and consequently the overall period (1 to 42 d). Broiler chickens supplemented with AG also showed lower mortality rate, and higher AGP, OVT, CER, and HSP 70 expression compared to their control counterparts. Based on AGP, OVT, CER, and HSP 70 expression, there is no indication that delayed placement was physiologically stressful to the broiler chickens at 21 d of age.

  17. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.

  18. Pathophysiological effects of chronic toxicity with synthetic pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinated pesticides on bone health of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Garg, Umesh K; Pal, Asim K; Jha, Gautam J; Jadhao, Sanjay B

    2004-01-01

    This experiment evaluated effects following chronic toxicity with 20 ppm fenvalerate (synthetic pyrethroid), 2 ppm monocrotophos (organophosphate) and 2 ppm endosulfan (chlorinated hydrocarbon) on bone health of broiler chicks. A total of 120 chicks were divided equally into 4 groups and were fed poultry mash without (control) or mixed with different pesticides for 8 weeks. Body mass, serum calcium and phosphorus levels were unaffected due to pesticides treatment. However, increase an (p < 0.01) in serum alkaline phosphatase activity was noted and serum total protein decreased (p < 0.01) in all treated groups. Roentogenography revealed destructive changes in the upper part of the femur in the monocrotophos group. Endosulfan intoxicated chicks had increased numbers of trabeculae in the medullary cavity. Microscopic alterations of the costochondral junction in intoxicated chicks were similar. The zones of proliferating, maturing and degenerating, and calcifying cartilage cells were reduced in width and the metaphysis in treated birds showed a reduced number of cartilage cells and thinner trabeculae. Due to toxicity, the capillary scaffolding of the degenerating cartilage cells was reduced and a larger number of transverse trabeculae could be seen in the metaphysis. Appositional bone growth studied by the tetracyclicline labeling technique indicated decreased active osteons.

  19. Growth responses of breast and leg muscles to essential amino acids in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mehri, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M

    2016-03-01

    The first three essential amino acids (EAA) for broilers including methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and threonine (Thr) may greatly influence the growth of chick muscles at early stages of life. In order to survey the potential effects of those EAA on growth muscles, a rotatable three-variable central composite design (CCD) was conducted to track the interrelationships of dietary digestible Met (dMet), Lys (dLys) and Thr (dThr) for optimization of processing yields in broiler chicks using response surface methodology. A total of 60 floor pens of six birds each were assigned to 15 dietary treatments based on CCD containing five levels of dMet (0.416% to 0.584% of diet), dLys (0.881% to 1.319% of diet) and dThr (0.532% to 0.868% of diet) from 3 to 16 days of age. Experimental treatments significantly affected breast mass (BM) and leg mass (LM) of the birds (P<0.05) in which the main effect of dLys on BM was threefold higher than the main effect of dThr, and interaction effect between dMet and dLys was observed on BM (P<0.05). However, in the case of LM, the main effect of dThr was higher than the main effects of dMet and dLys and highest interaction effect exist between dThr and dMet (P<0.05). The second-order models for BM and LM were fitted by least squares regression. Canonical analysis revealed that the stationary points for carcass components were saddle points, thus ridge analysis was performed for getting optimal values of each EAA. Ridge analyses of BM and LM models showed that the maximum BM point may be obtained with 0.58%, 1.05% and 0.76% of dMet, dLys and dThr, respectively, in diet, and maximum LM point may be achieved with 0.58%, 1.09% and 0.70% of dMet, dLys and dThr, respectively, in diet. The resultant ideal ratios of dMet and dThr to dLys were 55% and 72% for BM; 53% and 64% for LM. Moreover, sensitivity analysis showed that the most important amino acids in BM and LM models were Lys and Thr, respectively. In conclusion, providing these three amino

  20. The effects of copper on the efficacy of phytase, growth, and phosphorus retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Banks, K M; Thompson, K L; Jaynes, P; Applegate, T J

    2004-08-01

    Copper is often added to broiler diets at prophylactic concentrations as an antimicrobial despite purported chelation with and reduced utilization of phytin phosphorus. Therefore, male chicks were fed 0, 62.5, 125, 250, or 375 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate in combination with 600 phytase units (FTU)/kg phytase from 9 to 22 d of age (6 cages/diet, 8 birds/cage). Nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) and Ca were formulated to 0.2 and 0.7% of the diet, respectively. Three additional control diets were formulated to contain 0.27, 0.34, and 0.40% NPP, each with 0.7% Ca. Birds fed increasing concentrations of Cu with 600 FTU phytase/kg had linear reductions in performance characteristics (P < or = 0.05). Birds fed increasing concentrations of Cu with 600 FTU phytase/kg had linear increases in toe ash percentage (P < or = 0.027), but tibia ash percentage was not affected (P > 0.05). Birds fed increasing Cu concentrations with 600 FTU phytase/kg had linear reductions in apparent P retention as a percentage of total P (P < or = 0.0005). Supplementation with increasing concentrations of Cu to a diet containing 600 FTU phytase/kg resulted in decreases in 21 d BW, BW gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, tibia and toe ash weights, and apparent P retention as a percentage of total P. In this experiment, Cu supplementation did not reduce the efficacy of phytase (i.e., improvement in apparent P retention with phytase supplementation) but did decrease apparent P retention, BW gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, and tibia ash and toe ash weights.

  1. The effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes on growth, metabolizable energy value, and nitrogen utilization of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Squires, M W; Naber, E C; Toelle, V D

    1992-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of heat, water, acid, and alkali treatment of tomato pomace on gain, feed to gain ratio, nitrogen utilization, and ME of diets for broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, both treated and untreated tomato pomace was included in broiler diets at a 10 or 20% level. Results indicated that the level or antinutritional factors present in untreated tomato cannery waste did not appreciably depress any measured production parameter. Hence, it appeared that untreated tomato cannery wastes might be used as a feed ingredient in low-energy poultry diets (broiler breeder and laying hen recycling rations), ruminant diets, and as a protein source in regions of the world where such feed ingredients are scarce. The second experiment was designed to test the effect of alkali concentration and treatment time of tomato pomace on the performance of broiler chicks. Alkali treatment of tomato cannery wastes increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of broiler chicks over those of untreated tomato waste controls. Results indicated that the increased gain and decreased feed to gain ratios of the chicks were due in part to the acid neutralization phase of the alkali treatment. Alkali treatment apparently affects the tomato cannery wastes almost instantaneously, as differences among actual treatment times and concentrations were small. However, only the highest alkali treatment increased the pH of the tomato cannery waste above 7, suggesting that a true alkali treatment might cause additional improvements in gain and feed to gain ratio when fed to broiler chicks.

  2. Oral administration of a combination of select lactic acid bacteria strains to reduce the Salmonella invasion and inflammation of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y; Tsen, H-Y; Lin, C-L; Yu, B; Chen, C-S

    2012-09-01

    One-day-old chicks are susceptible to infection by strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies. Because multistrain probiotics are suggested to be more effective than monostrain probiotics due to the additive and synergistic effects, in this study, we prepared a multistrain formula A (MFA) consisting of 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains selected by enhancing the TNF-α production for mouse macrophage 264.7 cells. The antagonistic effect of this MFA against the cecal colonization, viscera invasiveness, as well as the inflammation of 1-d-old chicks challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium were then assayed. One-day-old chicks were fed with MFA from d 1 to d 3, and on d 4, chicks were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium (200 μL, 10(6) cfu/mL). The livers, spleens, and cecal tonsils of chicks were then removed on d 3 and 6 postinfection. Compared with the multistrain formula B (MFB) which consisted of LAB strains selected at random, the efficacy of MFA to reduce the Salmonella counts recovered from the cecal tonsils, spleens, and livers of chicks were significantly higher. Moreover, when the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and anti-inflmmatory cytokine, that is, IL-10, in cecal tonsils were measured by reverse-transcription real-time quantitative PCR; it was found that chicks fed with MFA for 3 d had lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and a higher level of IL-10 in the cecal tonsils of chicks as compared with those of the chicks fed with MFB or without LAB. These results suggest that multistrain probiotics consisting of LAB strains selected by immunomodulatory activity and adherence are more effective than those consisting of strains selected at random in antagonistic effect against Salmonella colonization, invasion, and the induced inflammation.

  3. The efficacy of raw and concentrated bentonite clay in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Shannon, T A; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Shaw, D P; Daković, A; Marković, M

    2016-11-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two adsorbents, a raw bentonite clay (RC) and a concentrated bentonite clay (CC), in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Results of the in vitro study (pH 3.0) indicated the CC adsorbed more AFB1 than RC (93.39 mg/g vs. 79.30 mg/g) suggesting that CC may be more effective than RC in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1 One hundred and eighty day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 6 replicate pens of 5 chicks each and assigned to 6 dietary treatments from hatch to day 21. Dietary treatments included: 1) basal diet (BD) containing no AFB1 or adsorbents; 2) BD plus 0.50% RC; 3) BD plus 0.50% CC; 4) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg; 5) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg plus 0.50% RC; and 6) BD plus 2.0 mg AFB1/kg plus 0.50% CC. Dietary AFB1 concentrations were confirmed by analysis and diets were screened for other mycotoxins prior to the start of the experiment. The addition of AFB1 to the feed reduced (P < 0.05) growth performance and increased (P < 0.05) relative liver weight (RLW) and kidney weight (RKW) of chicks fed AFB1 compared to control chicks on day 21. These changes were ameliorated (P < 0.05) by the addition of RC and CC to the AFB1 diet. Mild to moderate lesions of aflatoxicosis (2.25) were observed in chicks fed AFB1 alone on day 21. The addition of both RC and CC to the AFB1 diet decreased (P < 0.05) but did not prevent liver lesions (0.92 and 1.42, respectively). Results indicate that both RC and CC were effective in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1, however the cost of processing of CC would make the RC a more economical product for reducing the effects of AFB1 in young broiler chicks.

  4. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks.

  5. The use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess the impact of Eimeria infections in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Mitchell, Alva D; Jenkins, Mark C

    2013-06-01

    A number of parameters have been used to assess the impact ofcoccidiosis on chickens in clinical settings as well as in experimental studies. However, a rapid way to determine body composition would be useful to evaluate or compare responses to coccidia and could give further insight into the metabolic impact of infection. The current study evaluates the use of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to determine the impact of coccidiosis on body composition in chicks receiving inoculations with single or mixed species of Eimeria. Chicks infected with Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, or Eimeria tenella had altered parameters of body composition as measured by DEXA at 6 days postinfection (PI). The greatest effects were noted in birds infected with E. acervulina or E. maxima, where lean mass and fat were reduced from control values about 75% and 85%, respectively. In chicks infected with E. tenella, tissue and fat were reduced about 10%. Bone mineral content (BMC) was about 75% of control values in birds infected with E. acervulina or E. maxima, but only E. acervulina altered bone mineral density (BMD). The decreases in BMC and BMD are likely due to malabsorption. In chicks receiving a mixed coccidian infection, all DEXA parameters were significantly decreased at 8 days PI compared with age-matched controls. As with single infections, BMD and BMC were significantly depressed (P < 0.05). Values of all DEXA parameters were near 92% of control values by day 16 PI. Analysis of all birds in the current study indicates DEXA tissue weight slightly underestimated the gravimetrically measured weight by about 3%. The current results demonstrate that DEXA is a potentially important tool for the rapid evaluation of the effect of coccidiosis on broiler chicks and suggest it can be useful for evaluation of vaccines and other disease controls.

  6. Effects of dietary grape proanthocyanidins on the growth performance, jejunum morphology and plasma biochemical indices of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Jiang, X R; Qi, G H

    2016-10-24

    Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat-soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of GPCs. Results show that dietary GPCs decrease the feed conversion ratio and average daily gain from day 21 to day 42, increase breast muscle yield by day 42 and improve jejunum morphology between day 21 and day 42. Chicks fed 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of GPCs show increased breast muscle yield and exhibit improved jejunum morphologies than birds in the control group. Dietary GPCs fed at a level of 15 mg/kg markedly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity between day 21 and day 42, whereas a supplement of GPCs at 7.5 mg/kg significantly increased T-SOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde content by day 42. A supplement of 30 mg/kg of GPCs has no effect on antioxidant status but adversely affects the blood biochemical indices, as evidenced by increased creatinine content, increased alkaline phosphatase by day 21 and increased alanine aminotransferase by day 42 in plasma. GPC levels caused quadratic effect on growth, jejunum morphology and plasma antioxidant capacity. The predicted optimal GPC levels for best plasma antioxidant capacity at 42 days was 13 to 15 mg/kg, for best feed efficiency during grower phase was 16 mg/kg, for best jejunum morphology at 42 days was 17 mg/kg. In conclusion, GPCs (fed at a level of 13 to 17 mg/kg) have the potential to be a promising feed additive for broiler chicks.

  7. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks.

  8. Effect of methionine supplement on physical responses and neurological symptoms in broiler chicks fed grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)-based starter ration.

    PubMed

    Fikre, Asnake; Yami, Alemu; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Ahmed, Seid; Gheysen, Godelieve; Lambein, Fernand

    2010-01-01

    Starter feeding experiments of broiler chicks with raw grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) supplemented with different levels of DL-methionine were undertaken for 4 weeks to assess the toxicity of grass pea-based feed and to correlate it with neurological symptoms. Four hundred fifty day-old broiler chicks were divided into two groups and were given formulations containing 35% (ration I) or 98.5% (ration II) grass pea, respectively. Each ration included controls and treatments with added methionine of four different concentrations. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were much higher in ration I than in ration II and these parameters significantly improved by addition of methionine in both rations. Significant increase of neurological signs with higher grass pea intake and significant reduction of acute neurological signs with addition of methionine were observed. Tolerance for grass pea was enhanced with increasing methionine in the diet and with age. Despite a similarity in the initial intake, a significant (p0.05) increase in the final feed intake by the chicks with methionine addition was found in both rations. These results suggest that methionine can improve a grass pea-based diet for broiler chicks and especially can protect young chicks from neurological symptoms.

  9. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  10. Vicine and convicine in common vetch (Vicia sativa) seeds enhance beta-cyanoalanine toxicity in male broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Farran, M T; Darwish, A H; Uwayjan, M G; Sleiman, F T; Ashkarian, V M

    2002-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding raw and water-soaked vetch seeds to male broiler chicks on performance, organ weights, and blood parameters. Intact and ground vetch seeds were soaked in water (1:5) at room temperature for 24 hours (study 1), and (1:10) at 40 degrees C for 24, 48, and 72 hours, with water change every 12 hours (study 2). In study 1, untreated vetch contained, on dry matter basis, 0.530%, 0.731%, and 0.081% total beta-cyanoalanine (BCA), vicine, and convicine, respectively. Toxins were not appreciably reduced in soaked intact and ground vetch. Diets containing untreated, soaked intact, and soaked ground vetch, each at 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%, were fed to 7-day-old male broilers until onset of neurotoxicity symptoms. Survival time was not only decreased by BCA level but also by those of vicine and convicine (p <.05). In study 2, 60% of untreated or treated vetch seeds were incorporated in chick diets. Although untreated vetch used in this study contained 32% less BCA but 8% and 81% more vicine and convicine, respectively, yet, the chicks on 60% untreated vetch showed toxicity symptoms earlier than those of study 1. Soaking ground vetch for 48 hours or more reduced BCA and totally removed vicine and convicine. Consequently, birds on 60% ground vetch soaked for 48 and 72 hours survived through the starter period and had mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and organ weights comparable to those of control at 4 days post trial. The results indicated that "high levels" of vicine or convicine or both might have shortened the birds' survival time by enhancing the neurotoxicity induced by "lower levels" of BCA.

  11. Intestinal morphology, brush border and digesta enzyme activities of broilers fed on a diet containing Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y L; Guo, T

    2008-01-01

    1. A total of 320 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite (CM) on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and activities of brush border enzyme in the intestinal mucosa and digestive enzyme in the intestinal digesta of broilers. 2. The chicks were assigned randomly into 4 groups with 80 chicks per treatment. The 4 dietary treatments were: basal diet only (control group), basal diet + 2 g montmorillonite/kg, basal diet + 1 g CM/kg, and basal diet + 2 g CM/kg. The chicks were raised in cages and feed and water were provided ad libitum for a period of 42 d. 3. The addition of CM to the diet of broilers significantly increased body weight and feed efficiency. Similarly, birds receiving montmorillonite had higher feed efficiency than the control after 42 d of feeding. 4. Data on villus height and crypt depth for duodenum, jejunum and ileum indicated that treating the diet of broilers with either CM or montmorillonite improved the mucosal morphology of the small intestine. 5. The presence of CM in the diet of broilers significantly increased the activities of maltase, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase in small intestinal mucosa. However, the activities of protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase in small intestinal digesta of broilers fed on the CM-supplemented diet were slightly higher than control values.

  12. Effects of propionic acid and of copper sulfate on the nutritional value of diets containing moldy corn for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartov, I

    1983-11-01

    Diets containing moldy corn (in which fat levels were restored or not restored by soybean oil) were supplemented with either propionic acid (PA) or copper sulfate (CS), and their nutritional value for young broiler chicks was evaluated. The fat content of a diet containing good quality grains decreased slightly, whereas that of diets containing moldy grains decreased markedly, during the 30 days of the experiment. The PA (.3%), but not CS (600 ppm), almost completely prevented this decrease. Dietary metabolizable energy (ME), retention of dry matter and protein, and the performance of the chicks fed the diet containing the moldy corn were markedly depressed. Neither CS, nor soybean oil supplementation, nor a combination of the two, counteracted these effects. Supplementation with PA however, significantly (P less than .05) increased dietary ME, increased retention of dry matter and protein, and improved performance of chicks fed the moldy grains. The combination of PA and soybean oil supplementation yielded essentially the same results as the diet containing the good corn. It is concluded, therefore, that the nutritional value of diets containing moldy grains can be completely restored if their fat content is increased in proportion to the amount lost in the moldy grains and an efficient fungistat is used.

  13. Layer and broiler chicks exhibit similar hypothalamic expression of orexigenic neuropeptides but distinct expression of genes related to energy homeostasis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lixia; Ni, Yingdong; Barth, Stephan; Wang, Yufeng; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2009-06-01

    Layer and broiler chickens demonstrate striking differences in body weight and body composition. However, the mechanism underlying such difference is elusive. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates energy homeostasis and body size in mammals, but information in birds is scarce. Here we test the hypothesis that such breed difference is more associated with hypothalamic expression of genes related to HPA axis, rather than orexigenic neuropeptides. Broiler chicks exhibit significantly higher body weight and food intake at day (D) 7 posthatching, but the food intake relative to body weight gain was actually lower. No breed differences were observed for hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin (ORX), leptin receptor (LEPR), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) or fatty acid synthase (FAS). However, broiler chicks expressed significantly higher glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA (P<0.05) and protein (P<0.01) in hypothalamus compared to layer chicks, which is associated with lower corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (P<0.05) yet higher accumulation of CRH peptide in hypothalamus, suggesting an augmented GR-mediated negative feedback regulation of CRH transcription and release in broiler chicks. Furthermore, fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene was also more highly expressed in hypothalamus of broiler chicks (P<0.05). These results suggest that the genes related to energy homeostasis and obesity, such as GR, CRH and FTO, rather than orexigenic neuropeptides, are impacted by the genetic selection practices and play a role in breed-specific body weight setpoint regulation in the chicken.

  14. Methodologies of tissue preservation and analysis of the glycogen content of the broiler chick liver.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L W; Keirs, R W; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D

    2007-12-01

    indicate that small field samples may be minced, immediately placed in 10% perchloric acid without freezing, and then processed in the laboratory up to 1 wk later when using a phenol-sulfuric acid reagent, as described in this study, to determine the glycogen concentration in broiler chick livers accurately.

  15. Breeder age affects small intestine development of broiler chicks with immediate or delayed access to feed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Edens, F W

    2012-01-01

    1. The relationship between breeder age and chick gastrointestinal tract development to 21 days of age, as influenced by immediate or delayed access to feed, was examined in three consecutive trials. 2. Ross 708 chicks, derived from breeder flocks at 31 (young), 40 (middle) and 63 (old) weeks of age were placed randomly into either a control group with immediate access to feed and water, or a 48 h feed delayed (FD) group with free access to water. 3. FD negatively affected body weight (BW) of chicks derived from young and old flocks through the first and second weeks of age, respectively. Chicks from the older flock absorbed more yolk in the first 48 h with no FD effect. When feed was made available, chicks from the FD group showed a large increase in small intestine weight relative to BW, surpassing (P < 0·05) the control groups across all breeder flock ages. 4. Morphological measurements in all intestinal sections had higher values in chicks derived from the middle age breeder flock. FD to newly hatched chicks from the young breeder flock shortened villi (P < 0·01), decreased crypt depth and villus surface area (P < 0·001) in the duodenum through the first week post hatch. 5. Crypt depths were maximised between 7 and 14 d post-hatch in chicks from young and old breeder flocks, but crypt depths in chicks from the middle aged flocks continued to deepen. 6. The increased crypt depth may augment the number of enterocytes available for villus growth, and facilitate longer villi and greater villus surface area, in chicks from the middle age flocks. Intestinal morphological variation was associated with breeder flock age, which accounted for differential growth in chicks derived from young, middle, and old aged breeder flocks.

  16. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2017-02-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching.

  17. Effects of different sulphur amino acids and dietary electrolyte balance levels on performance, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, V; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, E

    2016-02-01

    As alterations of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) can influence amino acid metabolism via changes the ions incur in their configurations, performance and immunological responses of broiler chicks might be affected. So, the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of sulphur amino acids (SAA) and DEB on performance, jejunal morphology and immunocompetence of broiler chicks. A total of 360 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine experimental treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of SAA (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation, provided by methionine supplementation in diets with the same cysteine level) and three levels of DEB (150, 250, and 350 mEq/kg) that were fed during the entire of trial in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that the relative weights of intestine and abdominal fat were decreased markedly (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of SAA and DEB respectively. Antibody titre against sheep red blood cell was neither individually nor in combination influenced by supplementation of SAA or DEB. Nevertheless, a decrease in DEB level led to a suppression in heterophile (p < 0.05) and an increase in lymphocyte counts (p = 0.06); consequently, heterophile to lymphocyte ratio was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by decremental levels of DEB. Albumin to globulin ratio was increased after inclusion of at least 10% SAA (p < 0.001) and 150 mEq DEB/kg in the diet (p = 0.11). Although feeding high-DEB level led to a remarkable decrease in villus height (p < 0.01) and goblet cell numbers (p < 0.001), supplementing the highest level of SAA improved the height of jejunal villus. During the entire trial period, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased by incremental SAA levels (p < 0.05). However, inclusion of 150 mEq/kg led to not only a remarkable increase (p < 0.0001) in both ADFI and average daily weight gain (ADWG) but

  18. The effects of suboptimal eggshell temperature during incubation on broiler chick quality, live performance, and further processing yield.

    PubMed

    Joseph, N S; Lourens, A; Moran, E T

    2006-05-01

    Different incubation conditions can cause eggshell temperature (EST) to deviate from optimum. Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of low EST at the start of incubation and high EST at the end of incubation on hatchability, chick quality, 6-wk live performance, and breast meat yield of broiler chickens. In each experiment, 1,800 eggs from a single flock were divided and set into 2 setters. From 0 to 10 d of incubation, one setter was set to attain an EST of 36.6 degrees C (considered low), whereas the other was set to 37.8 degrees C (the control temperature). Using an infrared thermometer, EST was measured daily on a sample of eggs to ensure treatment intentions. On d 11 of incubation, the temperature of the low EST setter was increased to 37.8 degrees C in synchrony with the other setter until transfer. On d 18 of incubation, eggs from both setters were combined into 2 equal groups and transferred to hatchers. The EST in one hatcher was set to 37.8 degrees C (control) and in the other to 39.5 degrees C (considered high) until 21 d of incubation. Hatched males were placed in battery cages (Experiment 1) or floor pens (Experiment 2) and reared on common feeds to 1 or 6 wk of age, respectively. Low EST in the first 10 d of incubation reduced hatchability, increased BW and chick yield, and reduced 1-wk gain compared with the control EST. Throughout rearing, BW was reduced for low EST chicks compared with control EST chicks; consequently, carcass, fillet, and tender weights were also reduced. High EST in the hatcher increased hatchability, and reduced BW, chick yield, and 1-wk gain compared with control EST in the hatcher. By 3 wk of age, there was no difference in BW between chicks in high EST and control EST treatments. Subsequent carcass and processing yields were also similar. Incubation at the control EST of 37.8 degrees C, particularly from 0 to 10 d, resulted in the best performance overall.

  19. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  20. Replacement value of blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) for fishmeal and a vitamin-mineral premix for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, L V; Somasekaran, T; Becker, E W

    1994-07-01

    1. The effect of sun-dried Spirulina platensis in poultry diets was studied in a 12-week feeding trial by replacing either fishmeal (FM) or groundnut cake (GC) in a commercial diet with algae at isonitrogenous concentrations of 140 g/kg and 170 g/kg respectively. Additional vitamins/minerals were omitted from the algal diets because Spirulina is rich in them. 2. Efficiency of food utilisation, protein efficiency ratio and dressing percentage indicated that substitution of FM or GC by alga did not affect the performance of broilers. 3. None of the diets affected the weights, compositions and histopathology of the various organs of the chicks. 4. Meat quality remained unchanged except for a more intense colour in the case of birds fed on the alga-containing diets.

  1. Studies on the toxic effects of crambe meal and two of its constituents, 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) and epi-progoitrin, in broiler chick diets.

    PubMed

    Kloss, P; Jeffery, E; Tumbleson, M; Zhang, Y; Parsons, C; Wallig, M

    1996-12-01

    1. Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion rate for crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meal in broiler chick diets, and to determine the mechanism for adverse effects by investigating its constituents; 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) and 3-butenyl glucosinolate (epi-progoitrin, E-PG). 2. Crambe meals were prepared to differ in E-PG (19, 36 and 40 g/kg) and CHB contents (0.1, 0.7 and 1.9 g/kg), and with either active or inactive thioglucosidase. 3. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 50 or 100 g/kg of the diet for 12 or 13 d. In separate studies, isolated E-PG or CHB were mixed into the diet or administered by gavage to 7-d-old broiler chicks in amounts equivalent to 50 or 100 g/kg crambe meal diets for 10 and 12 d, respectively. 4. Weight gain decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed on the high glucosinolate crambe diets or isolated E-PG. Food consumption decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed on the diet containing the high E-PG meal with active enzyme. 5. Mild liver lesions and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase were found in chicks fed on the diet containing the high glucosinolate meal with active enzyme. Other organs, including thyroids, were normal. 6. Commercially-processed crambe meal appeared safe at an inclusion rate of 50 or 100 g/kg diet, but could not be recommended at this point for long term feeding.

  2. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p < 0.01) than broilers fed the higher phosphorus level. Bone strength was higher (p < 0.01) for broilers fed diets based on low-phytate pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  3. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  4. Apparent metabolisable energy and digestibility of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) fat, cocoa (Theobroma cacao) fat and soybean oil in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to determine and compare the apparent lipid digestibility coefficient and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa, Gaertn.) fat in broiler chickens with that of soybean oil and cocoa fat. 2. One hundred and sixty 13-d-old male broiler chicks were used in a randomised complete block design. The fats were added at 30, 60 and 90 g/kg to a basal diet. A tenth dietary treatment was the basal feed with no added fats or oils. The birds were fed on the diets for 8 d and all droppings were collected for the final 4 d. 3. The mean coefficient of apparent lipid digestibility for shea fat (0.58) was similar to that of cocoa fat (0.54) but lower than that of soybean oil (0.95). There was evidence of a lipid x concentration interaction with the 90 g/kg shea fat diet having low lipid digestibility (0.43). 4. There was an interaction between the effects of dietary lipid concentration and test lipid on AME but, at dietary levels of 60 g/kg and below, the AME of shea fat (22.0 MJ/kg DM) and cocoa fat (26.4 MJ/kg DM) was significantly lower than that of soybean oil (39.8 MJ/kg DM).

  5. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  6. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    de Barros Moreira Filho, Alexandre Lemos; de Oliveira, Celso José Bruno; de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Givisiez, Patricia Emília Naves

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry.

  7. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  8. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on body weight, antibody titres and histology of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tessari, E N C; Oliveira, C A F; Cardoso, A L S P; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2006-06-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), administered singly or in combination to broilers. 2. Feeds were prepared with concentrations equal to 0, 50 and 200 microg AFB1/kg, and/or 0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg, and offered to broiler chicks from 8 to 41 d of age. The experimental design was totally randomised, in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 9 treatments and 12 birds per treatment. Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 14 of life and killed at 41 d. 3. Compared with controls, all mycotoxin-treated groups at 41 d had lower body weight and weight gain, and higher relative heart weight. The relative weight of the liver increased only in birds fed diets containing 200 mg FB1, singly or in combination with AFB1. 4. At 35 d, all groups receiving mycotoxin-treated rations had reduced geometrical mean antibody titres, with birds from groups fed combinations of AFB1 and FB1/kg having even lower values, when compared to the other groups. 5. Histological changes were observed only in liver from birds fed mycotoxin-contaminated rations, and in kidneys of birds fed the diet containing 200 microg AFB1 and 200 mg FB1/kg. Main alterations included vacuolar degeneration and cell proliferation of bile ducts in the liver, and hydropic degeneration in renal tubules in the kidneys. 6. We concluded that AFB1 and FB1 in combination have primarily additive effects on body weight, liver structure and immunological response of broilers at the concentrations used.

  9. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  10. Selenium Deficiency Affects the mRNA Expression of Inflammatory Factors and Selenoprotein Genes in the Kidneys of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-Li; Xu, Bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Gao, Yu-Hong; Chen, Yu; Shan, An-Shan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Se deficiency on the transcription of inflammatory factors and selenoprotein genes in the kidneys of broiler chicks. One hundred fifty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to two groups fed with either a low-Se diet (L group, 0.033 mg/kg Se) or an adequate Se diet (C group, 0.2 mg/kg Se). The levels of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) in the serum and the mRNA levels of 6 inflammatory factors and 25 selenoprotein genes in the kidneys were measured as the clinical signs of Se deficiency occurred at 20 days old. The results indicated that the contents of UA and Cr in the serum increased in L group (p < 0.05), and the mRNA levels of the inflammatory factors (NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α) increased in L group (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of PTGEs and HO-1 were not changed. In addition, 25 selenoprotein transcripts displayed ubiquitous expression in the kidneys of the chicks. The mRNA levels of 14 selenoprotein genes (Dio1, Dio2, GPx3, Sepp1, SelH, SelI, SelK, Sepn1, SelO, SelW, Sep15, SelT, SelU, and SelS) decreased, and 9 selenoprotein genes (GPx1, GPx2, GPx4, SelPb, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SPS2, and SelM) increased in L group (p < 0.05), but the Dio3 and Sepx1 mRNA levels did not change. The results indicated that Se deficiency resulted in kidney dysfunction, activation of the NF-κB pathway, and a change in selenoprotein gene expression. The changes of inflammatory factor and selenoprotein gene expression levels were directly related to the abnormal renal functions induced by Se deficiency.

  11. Effect of competitive exclusion in reducing the occurrence of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the ceca of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nuotio, L; Schneitz, C; Nilsson, O

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and class C serine β-lactamases (pAmpC) able to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins are a recognized threat to the efficacy of these drugs in treating serious infections. Broiler chicks are a known source of Escherichia coli harboring genes for these enzymes. Competitive exclusion (CE) has been used for decades in Finland to prevent the colonization of broiler ceca by Salmonella, but has not been widely used in Sweden. The markedly different prevalences of ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli at slaughter in broilers produced in the 2 countries suggest a potential role for CE. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of a commercial CE product in reducing the colonization of broiler ceca by ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli. The challenge organisms were isolated from healthy broilers in Sweden. Each E. coli strain (1 ESBL and 2 pAmpC types) was subjected to 4 replicate trials. In each trial, a group of 20 newly hatched Ross breed chicks were treated by gavage with the CE product, whereas another group of 20 was left untreated. The next day, all 40 chicks were inoculated by gavage with the E. coli strain. The chicks were reared in cardboard boxes and received feed and water ad libitum. After a week the chicks were asphyxiated with CO(2), and their ceca removed and examined for the presence of the E. coli strains. The median and quartiles of the challenge E. coli estimates in the groups were determined, and the treated and control groups were compared with the Wilcoxon 2-sample test. In each trial, a substantial and statistically significant or highly significant reduction was observed in the colonization of the ceca of CE-treated chicks by E. coli strains, compared with that of untreated control. Referring to an arbitrary criterion for high shedders presented in the literature, it was concluded that at least for the ESBL E. coli, the results were also of epidemiological relevance.

  12. Re-esterified palm oils, compared to native palm oil, do not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia or growth performance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Tres, A; Bayés-García, L; Parella, T; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2014-08-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within acylglycerol molecules and the effect of acylglycerol composition on FA apparent absorption, and their possible consequences on the evolution of postprandial lipemia and growth performance in broiler chicks. Seventy-two 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 18 cages. The three treatments used were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 6 wt% of native palm oil (N-TAG), re-esterified palm oil (E-TAG), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (E-MDAG). Chemical esterification raised the fraction of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position from 9.63 mol% in N-TAG oil to 17.9 mol% in E-TAG oil. Furthermore, E-MDAG oil presented a high proportion of mono- (23.1 wt%) and diacylglycerols (51.2 wt%), with FA mainly located at the sn-1,3 positions, which resulted in a lower gross-energy content and an increased solid-fat index at the chicken's body temperature. However, re-esterified palm oils did not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia, or growth performance, compared to native palm oil, so they can be used as alternative fat sources in broiler chick diets.

  13. Short preincubations during egg storage increase hatchability and chick quality in long-stored broiler eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated the efficacy of the SPIDES (short pre-incubations during egg storage) regimen in restoration of hatchability of broiler eggs during 21-day cool storage. Prolonged cool storage reduced hatchability of stored eggs from 92% to 71%. Alternatively, the SPIDES treatment, which consi...

  14. Hatchability rate and embryonic growth of broiler chicks following in ovo injection royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, A A; Borji, M; Komazani, D

    2014-01-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to compare the hatchability, chick body and internal organs weights and plasma testosterone concentration of hatchlings after in ovo administration of royal jelly (RJ) on d 7 of incubation. 2. Fertile eggs (n = 150) were injected into the air sac or yolk sac with 0.5 ml normal saline solution or normal saline and pure RJ. The eggs were randomly divided into 5 groups of 30 eggs each: NC, control eggs receiving no injection; ASA, air sac-injected eggs given normal saline solution; ARJ, air sac-injected eggs injected with pure RJ; YSA, yolk sac-injected eggs receiving normal saline solution and YRJ, yolk sac-injected eggs given pure RJ. 3. Injection of RJ significantly decreased hatchability (46.7%) compared with injection of saline solution (68.3%). Hatchability was lower in ARJ (33.3 %) and YRJ (60.0%) groups than in the NC group (90.0%). Hatchability in ASA (70.0%) and YSA (66.66%) groups were comparable to the NC group. 4. In ovo injection of RJ into both sacs increased chicks' absolute and relative body, heart, liver and testes weights compared to the control group whereas plasma testosterone concentration was similar among the different groups. 5. It was concluded that in ovo injection of RJ may be an effective method to increase the body weight of hatched chicks as an absolute value (CWT) and chicks' internal organ weights.

  15. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to coccidiosis in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that threonine (Thr) deficiency would exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdraw combined with coccidiosis, because of its high obligatory requirement by the gut. In this study, two dietary Thr treatments (0.49 and 0.90%) were fed to chicks from 1-21 d of age. At 13 d ...

  16. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to coccidiosis in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For this study, threonine (Thr) deficiency was hypothesized to exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdrawal and coccidiosis infection because of its high obligatory requirement of the gut. Two dietary Thr treatments (0.49 and 0.90%) were fed to chicks from 1-21 d of age. At 13 d of a...

  17. Influence of rapeseed meal on productivity and health of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Janjecić, Z; Grbesa, D; Muzic, S; Curić, S; Rupić, V; Liker, B; Dikić, Marija; Antunović, B; Zupanić, D

    2002-01-01

    Research was focussed on investigating the influence of different quantities (0, 10, 20 and 30%) of rapeseed meal (RM), 00-cultivar Silvia on production results, as well as on the morphological and pathohistological changes in the internal organs of chicks during the course of the experiment, measured on the 21st and 42nd days of the 42-day experiment. The experiment involved 120 chicks divided into four groups: a control group (C) and three experimental groups (E1-3). It was found that chicks in Groups C, E1 and E2 realised significantly (P < 0.05) higher gains than those in Group E3, both after the test period and at the end of the experiment. No significant differences with regard to feed conversion were found between groups of chicks. Throughout the experiment chicks in Groups E1-3 were found to have a significantly (P < 0.05) heavier liver. Compared to Groups E1-3, Group C chicks had a significantly (P < 0.05) heavier gizzard after 21 days, but following the finisher diet Group E3 had a significantly (P < 0.05) lighter gizzard. Compared with birds in Group C, those in Groups E2-3 had significantly heavier (P < 0.05) unevacuated intestines when fed the starter diet, and those in Groups E1-2 showed a similar result when fed the finisher diet. Chicks in Group E3 had a significantly lower grill weight than those in Groups C, E1 and E2, both in the first half of the experiment and at the end. The starter diet did not result in any differences in the quantity of abdominal fat among groups, but following the finisher diet Groups E2-3 showed significantly less abdominal fat in comparison to Groups C and E1 (P < 0.05). Group C showed a significantly higher carcass yield than Groups E1-3 (P < 0.05) in the first half of the experiment and at the end. Groups E1-3 manifested a slight to medium hypertrophy of thyroid epithelial tissue as well as slight thymus hypertrophy and slight atrophy of the cloacal bursa follicles.

  18. Vaccination of commercial broiler chicks against avian metapneumovirus infection: a comparison of drinking-water, spray and oculo-oral delivery methods.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Kannan; Bufton, Andrew; Pearson, Andrew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard C

    2010-05-21

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine was administered by spray, drinking water or oculo-oral methods to separate groups of broiler chicks under field conditions. Following this, the chicks were immediately transferred to separate rooms in an experimental isolation house, monitored and challenged with virulent subtype B aMPV. No clinical signs were recorded following the vaccination methods. In the oculo-oral vaccinated chicks, 40-60% of the birds were vaccine virus positive by RT-PCR. In addition, in comparison to other groups, statistically higher levels of aMPV ELISA antibodies were detected. After spray vaccination, the number of chicks positive for the vaccine virus increased gradually from 10% at one week to 30% by 3 weeks post vaccination. Following drinking water vaccination, 30% of chicks were aMPV positive at 1 week but negative by 3 weeks post vaccination. In both, spray and drinking water vaccinated groups, no ELISA antibodies were detected, but when challenged all chicks were protected against disease. At 5 days post challenge, 100% of chicks in the unvaccinated and those vaccinated by spray or drinking water routes but only 20% of the oculo-oral-vaccinated chicks were aMPV positive by RT-PCR. At 10 days post challenge, 10% of chicks in each group were aMPV RT-PCR positive. On challenge, all vaccinated chicks were protected against disease. It appears that when aMPV vaccine is accurately applied to chicks by spray or drinking water routes, both are capable of giving protection against clinical disease equal to that induced in those chicks vaccinated individually by the oculo-oral route.

  19. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Meloche, K J; Kerr, B J; Billor, N; Shurson, G C; Dozier, W A

    2014-06-01

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior research data were used to generate a best-fit equation for AMEn based on proximate analysis. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 4.98 to 14.29% (DM basis) were collected from various dry-grind ethanol plants and were subsequently fed to broiler chicks to determine AMEn content. A corn-soybean meal control diet was formulated to contain 15% dextrose and test diets were created by mixing the control diet with 15% DDGS at the expense of dextrose. In each trial, male Ross × Ross 708 chicks were housed in grower battery cages and received a common starter diet until the experimental period. Each cage was randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments (trial 1 and trial 2: control + 6 test diets, 13 replicates per diet; trial 3: control + 3 test diets, 12 replicates per diet). Experimental diets were fed over a 6-d acclimation period, followed by a 48-h total excreta collection period. On a DM basis, AMEn of the 15 DDGS samples ranged from 1,975 to 3,634 kcal/kg. Analyses were conducted to determine gross energy, CP, EE, DM, starch, total dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber (CF), acid detergent fiber, and ash content of the DDGS samples. All results were reported on a DM basis. Application of the 4 equations to the validation data resulted in root mean square error (RMSE) values of 335, 381, 488, and 502 kcal/kg, respectively. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique was applied to proximate analysis data for 30 corn coproducts adapted from prior research and resulted in the following best-fit equation: [AMEn (kcal/kg) = 3,673 - (121.35 × CF) + (51.29 × EE) - (121.08 × ash); P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.70; R(2) adj = 0.67; RMSE = 270 kcal/kg]. The RMSE values

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with fermented ginkgo leaves on antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Sun, Z Y; Cao, F L; Ahmad, H; Yang, X H; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2015-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with three types of fermented Ginkgo-leaves (FGL) on growth, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks. 2. A total of 300 d-old broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replications of 10 birds each. Birds were fed on basal diets (Control) or basal diets supplemented with 0.5% FGL with Candida utilis (CF group), Aspergillus niger (AF group) or their combined fermentation (CAF group), respectively, for a 42 d feeding trial. 3. AF and CAF supplementation improved body weight gain (BWG) (22-42 d) and feed conversion ratio (22-42 d and 1-42 d). Concentrations of serum α-tocopherol in CAF group, as well as hepatic α-tocopherol in the three FGL groups were increased, while hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were greatly decreased in group AF and CAF. Chickens in AF and CAF groups had decreased hepatic protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as jejunal and ileal protein carbonyls. The total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and glutathione (GSH) of both jejunum and ileum of the CAF group were higher than the other groups. 4. Duodenal and jejunal villous height of birds fed on the AF and CAF diets were increased, while jejunal crypt depth (CD) was decreased. Furthermore, birds fed on AF and CAF supplemented diets had increased ileal lactobacilli populations. Decreased ileal and caecal Escherichia coli and Salmonellas populations was found for the birds fed on CAF supplemented diets. 5. The present study may indicate that the improved feed efficiency and intestinal functions in the group supplemented with AF and CAF are directly connected with the improved antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbial ecology.

  1. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  2. Effects of in ovo supplementation of probiotics on performance and immunocompetence of broiler chicks to an Eimeria challenge.

    PubMed

    Pender, C M; Kim, S; Potter, T D; Ritzi, M M; Young, M; Dalloul, R A

    2016-11-30

    Coccidiosis is regarded as the parasitic disease with the greatest economic impact on the poultry industry due to reduced performance and increased mortality. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo administration of probiotics on hatchability, performance, immune organ weights, and lesion scores in broiler chicks during a mixed Eimeria infection. At embryonic day 18, 210 eggs were injected with either sterile water or 1×10(6) cfu probiotic bacteria. On day 3 post-hatch, half of the chicks from each treatment group were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella. Measurements and tissue samples were taken on day of hatch (DOH) and days 3, 9 and 15. On day 9, 24 birds per treatment were scored for intestinal Eimeria lesions. No differences were seen among groups for hatchability as well as for body weight (BW), BW gain (BWG), or immune organ weights prior to the Eimeria challenge. On day 9, the non-challenged birds with probiotic supplementation had higher BW and BWG than the non-supplemented controls while no differences were seen among the challenged groups. On day 15, probiotic supplemented birds had improved BW compared to the non-supplemented birds as well as increased BWG from day 9 to 15. Bursa weight was not affected by treatment at any time point while spleen weight was greater in supplemented birds on day 15. Birds receiving the probiotic had significantly lower mortality than non-treated birds. Additionally, gross lesion severity was reduced due to probiotic supplementation in all intestinal segments evaluated. These results suggest that in ovo supplementation of probiotics may improve early performance and provide protection against a mixed Eimeria infection.

  3. Infectious bronchitis vaccine virus detection and part-S1 genetic variation following single or dual inoculation in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher; Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-12-05

    An investigation was undertaken of the extent of genetic variation occurring within infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine strains following vaccination of day-old broiler chicks. Chicks were divided into seven groups, with two groups receiving single Massachusetts (Mass) vaccinations and the other four were inoculated with combinations of different IBV serotypes; Mass, 793B, D274, and Arkansas (Ark). The remaining group was maintained as an unvaccinated control. Following vaccination, swabs and tissues collected at intervals were pooled and RNA was extracted for detection of IBV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR). Positive amplicons were sequenced for the part-S1 gene and compared to the original vaccine strain sequences. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), amino acid variations and hydrophobicity changes were identified and recorded for each sampling point. A total of 106 SNPs were detected within 28 isolates. The average SNP counts of swab isolates were greater than those found in tissue samples. This translated into 64 amino acid changes, however only six resulted in a change to the hydrophobicity properties. All hydrophobic alterations occurred within swab isolates and the majority were recovered at 3 days post vaccination suggesting such changes to be detrimental to early virus survival. Nucleotide deletions were seen only in the group given the combination of Mass and Ark. Of the 16 sequenced samples in this group, 13 contained the same AAT deletion at position 1033 1035 in the Ark strains. Findings presented in this study demonstrate alteration in the S1 nucleotide sequence following co-administration of live IBV vaccines.

  4. Effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with organoselenium compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids on hatchability.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A C; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C; Surai, P F; McDevitt, R M

    2006-09-01

    The effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and organoselenium compounds on fertility, hatchability, and the weight of 1-d-old chicks was assessed. Prepeak (23 wk) and peak (27 wk) production breeders were fed 1 of 4 diets: a wheat-based commercial breeder diet with 55 g/kg of either soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), but no added Se (only that originating from feed ingredients), and each diet with added Se as Sel-Plex (SO + Se, FO + Se). The diets were designed to contain <0.1 mg/kg of Se and about 0.5 mg/kg of Se for the nonsupplemented (no added Se) and the supplemented diets, respectively. The Se concentration of the eggshell of the hatching egg was measured. The concentration of Se, PUFA, and total lipid content of the brain and liver of the 1-d-old chick was determined. The number of fertile eggs increased, embryonic mortality decreased, and hatchability increased as hen age increased from 23 to 27 wk. The Se concentration in the eggshell and the brain and liver of 1-d-old chicks was higher in the high-Se treatments com pared with the concentration in the low-Se treatments. Fish oil inclusion in the breeder diet increased embryonic mortality in wk 3 of incubation and reduced both hatchability and 1-d-old chick weight in hens of both ages. The addition of Se to the FO diets ameliorated some of these adverse effects, because chicks hatched from eggs laid by 23-wk-old breeders of the FO + Se treatment were heavier than those receiving the FO treatment. The Se concentration in the brain and liver of chicks from the FO hens was higher than that in chicks from the SO hens. The concentration of docosahexaenoic fatty acid was higher in the liver of chicks from the SO + Se treatment compared with that of chicks from the SO treatment, indicating possible protective effects of Se. Hatchability was decreased by increased PUFA and was higher in 27-wk-old compared with 23-wk-old breeders.

  5. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  6. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  7. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  8. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  9. Effect of extracted galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides from pine wood (Pinus brutia) on Salmonella typhimurium colonisation, growth performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Rajani, J; Dastar, B; Samadi, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Abdulkhani, A; Esfandyarpour, S

    2016-10-01

    An in vitro and in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the fermentability of isolated galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMs) and the influence of their feeding on shedding and colonisation of Salmonella typhimurium, growth performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chicks. The in vitro data demonstrated that three probiotic lactic acid bacteria namely Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were able to ferment the extracted oligosaccharides and other tested sugars on a basal de Man Rogosa Sharpe media free from carbohydrate. For the in vivo experiment, 144 one-d-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 6 experimental treatments (with 4 replicates) including two positive and negative controls which received a basal maize-soybean diet without any additives, supplementation of three levels of isolated GGMs (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) and a commercial mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) at 0.2% to the basal diet. All birds except those in the negative control group were challenged orally with 1 × 10(8) cfu of S. typhimurium at 3-d post-hatch. The results revealed that challenge with S. typhimurium resulted in a significant reduction in body weight gain, feed intake, villus height, villus height to crypt depth ratio and villus surface area in all of infected chicks. Birds that were given GGMs or MOS showed better growth performance, increased villus height and villus surface area and decreased S. typhimurium colonisation than the positive control birds. GGM at 0.2% level was more effective than the other treatments in improving growth rate as well as gut health of broiler chicks.

  10. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased

  11. Effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell components on growth performance, meat quality, and ileal mucosa development of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A W; Lee, B D; Lee, S K; Lee, K W; An, G H; Song, K B; Lee, C H

    2005-07-01

    An experiment was conducted with 240, 1-d-old, male broilers to investigate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) cell components on the growth performance, meat quality, and ileal mucosa development. There were 4 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates. Whole yeast (WY), SC extract (YE), and SC cell wall (CW) were added at 0.5, 0.3, and 0.3%, respectively, to the control starter and finisher diets. From 0 to 3 wk of age, a lower feed/gain ratio (P < or = 0.05) was observed with CW, whereas the WY-fed birds at 4 to 5 wk of age showed a lower feed/gain ratio compared with the control. From 0 to 5 wk of age, WY and CW gave higher BW gains than did the control. The shear force of raw drumstick decreased in the WY treatment relative to the control, and YE and CW treatments were intermediate. The shear forces in cooked breast and drumstick in treatments WY and YE decreased when compared with the control. The amount of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the breast meats of WY, YE, and CW were lower than the control at 10 d of incubation. In raw drumstick meats, TBARS values were lower in treatments WY and YE than that of the control at 6 and 10 d of incubation. At 10 d of incubation, skins from YE and CW treatments had lower TBARS values than did the control. Villus height was greater in WY and CW compared with those in control and YE. No differences were found in crypt depth among the 4 treatments. The villus height/ crypt depth ratios in WY and CW were greater than those of the control and YE. It could be concluded that dietary yeast components, such as WY or CW supplementation improved growth performance. Meat tenderness could be improved by the WY or YE. Both YE and CW had oxidation-reducing effects. Yeast cell wall may improve ileal villus development.

  12. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Baker, K M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2011-02-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the feeding value to broiler chicks of soybean meal (SBM) produced from high-protein (SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide (SBM-LO), or conventional (SBM-CV) varieties of soybeans. The 3 SBM contained 54.9, 53.6, and 47.5% CP, respectively. The standardized digestibility (SDD) of amino acids (AA) in the 3 ingredients was measured using a precision-fed rooster assay with cecectomized Single Comb White Leghorn roosters. Results indicated that the SDD of AA was not different among the 3 sources of SBM, with the exception that the SDD of Lys in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.07) than that in SBM-CV. In the second experiment, a precision-fed rooster assay was used to measure the concentration of TME(n) in each source of SBM. Results indicated that the TME(n) in SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.001) than those in SBM-LO and SBM-CV (3,104 vs. 2,984 and 2,963 kcal/kg of DM). A 14-d growth performance experiment was also conducted using 120 Ross 308 male commercial broiler chicks (mean initial BW = 102.6 g) that were allotted to a completely randomized design. There were 5 chicks/pen and 8 replicate pens/diet. Three corn- and SBM-based diets were formulated based on the data for digestible AA and TME(n) that were measured in the previous experiments. Each source of SBM was used in 1 diet, but because of the greater concentrations of digestible AA in SBM-HP and SBM-LO than in SBM-CV, the inclusion of SBM-HP and SBM-LO were 31.21 and 32.60%, respectively, whereas an inclusion of 38.21% SBM-CV was used. There were no differences among the 3 diets for BW gain or feed efficiency, which indicated that the reduced inclusion rates of SBM-HP and SBM-LO compared with SBM-CV were not detrimental to broiler chick growth performance. It was concluded that, compared with SBM-CV, SBM-HP and SBM-LO are needed in lower concentrations in diets fed to broiler chicks because these 2 sources of SBM have a greater nutritional value than does SBM-CV.

  13. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  14. The influence of BPC 157 on nitric oxide agonist and antagonist induced lesions in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Grabarevic, Z; Tisljar, M; Artukovic, B; Bratulic, M; Dzaja, P; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P; Peric, J; Geres, D; Kos, J

    1997-01-01

    We describe the effects of nitric oxide (NO) agonists and antagonists and the influence of a novel organoprotective pentadecapeptide BPC 157, on the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome and tissue lesions in chicks. Acute toxicity, which includes single dose application of saline (1 mL intraperitoneally (i.p.)), BPC 157 (10 micrograms/kg bw), L-NAME (NO antagonist, doses 50, 100, 150 mg/kg bw) and L-arginine (NO agonist/100 mg/kg bw with their combination L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine) was investigated. In this experiment pathohistological examination of the spleen, heart, liver and lungs and hematological analysis was conducted. In the chronic toxicity experiment, the animals were treated daily for 5 weeks with L-NAME (10 mg/kg bw), L-arginine (100 mg/kg bw), BPC 157 (10 micrograms/kg bw) and their combinations (L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine) i.p. Seven animals from each group, including controls (saline 1 mL i.p.) were killed every week. Application of L-NAME caused pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in the treated chicks, which was prevented by the simultaneous application of L-arginine and BPC 157. Pathohistological examination of both acute and chronic toxicity revealed that L-NAME caused severe tissue damage (myocardial and hepatic cell necrosis, necrosis of the lymphoid cells in the spleen) while L-arginine provoked predominantly congestion, edema and hemorrhages in all organs. The effect of L-NAME was successfully inhibited by the application of L-arginine and BPC 157 but the latter substance did not cause any tissue or organ damage. Hematological analysis shows significant hemoglobin and leukocyte number decrease in the L-NAME-treated groups of chicks.

  15. The endocrine interface of environmental and egg factors affecting chick quality.

    PubMed

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2007-05-01

    Day-old chicks are the endproduct of the hatchery industry and form important starting material for the broiler farms. The major objective is to obtain a high hatchability of marketable chicks and a low spread of hatch. For the farmers, these chicks have to perform well, which is translated in high viability, high growth rate, high breast meat yield, and low feed conversion. A good-quality 1-d-old chick is hence a crucial hinge between the hatchery and the broiler farm. Moreover, maximal hatchability is not always synonymous with maximal posthatch viability and growth potential of the chick. Quantitative and qualitative scoring of chick quality is assessed. We will briefly discuss some recently developed scoring systems, which will convert differences in qualitative parameters into a quantitative score. Preincubation factors such as egg storage duration and age of broiler breeders, as well as incubation conditions, affect day-old chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Heat production and metabolism, hormonal balances of thyroid hormones and corticosterone, and gas exchange (O(2), CO(2)) are of fundamental importance for embryonic development and survival during incubation. Results from our studies indicated that embryos with higher pCO(2) levels in the air cell and higher triiodothyronine-thyroxine ratios at internal pipping or in the newly hatched chicks had higher hatchability, chick quality, and posthatch chick growth until 7 d of age. Incubation factors such as temperature, turning conditions, or gaseous environment also affect development, change concentrations of hormones related to metabolism and growth of the embryo, and in this way affect 1-d-old chick quality. Moreover, the spread of the hatch process is affected by incubation conditions as well as by the aforementioned preincubation factors. Depending on the spread of the hatching curve together with the place in the sequence of hatching (early or late) and in interaction with quality of the

  16. Induction of oral lesions in broiler chicks by supplementing the diet with copper.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L S; Dunn, P A; Dobson, K N

    1991-01-01

    Copper sulfate was added to the diet of broiler chickens from 1 day to 3 weeks of age at the rate of 0.05% to 0.20% in order to evaluate its influence on the incidence of oral lesions. Both the incidence and severity of oral lesions showed a significant linear increase as the concentration of copper sulfate increased. Adding a level of sulfate equivalent to that produced by the highest level of copper sulfate failed to induce oral lesions. The severity of gizzard erosion also increased as the concentration of copper increased. Dietary copper sulfate supplementation should be considered a possible cause of oral lesions seen during the necropsy of avian species.

  17. Effects of oral administration of toxic levels of lead and selenium upon concentration of different elements in the liver of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z; Szarek, J; Markiewicz, K

    1993-01-01

    Broiler chicks fed lead or selenium for varying periods were later intoxicated with two levels of either of these elements. In this way different groups of chicks were exposed to lead or selenium alone or a combination of these two. Lead caused increased liver concentrations of lead and iron. Selenium administration increased liver selenium and iron levels while liver copper decreased. Concurrent administration of lead and selenium greatly enhanced the accumulation of both elements in the liver and increased the liver iron. Lead partially counteracted the depression of liver copper caused by selenium. Mortality due to concurrent exposure to lead and selenium was lower when vitamin E was added to the feed. Body weights were markedly suppressed by selenium. The concurrent administration of lead partially alleviated the growth depression caused by selenium. Selenium fed birds had increased relative weights of liver and heart but this increase was of lesser degree in birds given both elements.

  18. Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. J.; Lee, S. R.; Oh, J-W.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS) by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF) by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS) by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF) by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG) and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05). In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05). However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05). In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01). IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05) and in

  19. Effects of Different Levels of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Seed Powder and Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Microbiota, and Immunity in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  20. Effects of different levels of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed powder and extract on serum biochemical parameters, microbiota, and immunity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds.

  1. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  2. Development of artificial neural network models based on experimental data of response surface methodology to establish the nutritional requirements of digestible lysine, methionine, and threonine in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mehri, M

    2012-12-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to develop feed-forward multilayer perceptron models to estimate the nutritional requirements of digestible lysine (dLys), methionine (dMet), and threonine (dThr) in broiler chicks. Sixty data lines representing response of the broiler chicks during 3 to 16 d of age to dietary levels of dLys (0.88-1.32%), dMet (0.42-0.58%), and dThr (0.53-0.87%) were obtained from literature and used to train the networks. The prediction values of ANN were compared with those of response surface methodology to evaluate the fitness of these 2 methods. The models were tested using R(2), mean absolute deviation, mean absolute percentage error, and absolute average deviation. The random search algorithm was used to optimize the developed ANN models to estimate the optimal values of dietary dLys, dMet, and dThr. The ANN models were used to assess the relative importance of each dietary input on the bird performance using sensitivity analysis. The statistical evaluations revealed the higher accuracy of ANN to predict the bird performance compared with response surface methodology models. The optimization results showed that the maximum BW gain may be obtained with dietary levels of 1.11, 0.51, and 0.78% of dLys, dMet, and dThr, respectively. Minimum feed conversion ratio may be achieved with dietary levels of 1.13, 0.54, 0.78% of dLys, dMet, and dThr, respectively. The sensitivity analysis on the models indicated that dietary Lys is the most important variable in the growth performance of the broiler chicks, followed by dietary Thr and Met. The results of this research revealed that the experimental data of a response-surface-methodology design could be successfully used to develop the well-designed ANN for pattern recognition of bird growth and optimization of nutritional requirements. The comparison between the 2 methods also showed that the statistical methods may have little effect on the ideal ratios of dMet and dThr to dLys in

  3. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count.

  4. Comparison of Chemstrip bG visual blood glucose method with Accu-Chek III monitor method for measuring blood glucose in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, M A; Bounous, D I; Brown, J; Fuchs, D W

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to 1) measure blood glucose values in a flock of broiler chicks tentatively diagnosed as having spiking mortality syndrome (SMS), and 2) compare the blood glucose values using two methods: the Chemstrip bG visual method and the Chemstrip bG Accu-Chek III monitor method. Results indicated that Chemstrip bG reagent test strips can be used successfully to assay blood glucose values in chicks with SMS and that these strips will detect hypoglycemia when hypoglycemia is present. Readings obtained by the visual method were as reliable as those obtained by the more expensive and time-consuming digital electronic monitor method. Blood glucose values were lowest in the chicks with the most severe clinical signs. Malassimilation is a differential diagnosis for hypoglycemia among neonatal mammals, and blood glucose values are lower in inappetent or starving chicks. Therefore, the hypothesis that gastrointestinal or endocrine disease could be major etiologies of hypoglycemia and spiking mortality should be investigated.

  5. The yeast production system in which Escherichia coli phytase is expressed may affect growth performance, bone ash, and nutrient use in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Onyango, E M; Bedford, M R; Adeola, O

    2004-03-01

    The efficacy of three Escherichia coli-derived phytase preparations on the performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chicks was evaluated. Two hundred sixteen 7-d-old male broiler chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 6 cages with 6 birds per cage. Six corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The 6 diets were adequate P, very low P, and low P and contained (g of P/kg of diet) 7.7, 4.0, and 5.1, respectively; and low-P diet plus phytase preparation A, B, or C at 1,000 units/kg of feed. All 3 phytase preparations were produced in different yeast production systems with slightly different glycosylation patterns. Preparation A was produced in Pichia pastoris, B in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The chicks were fed the experimental diets from 8 to 22 d of age. Excreta samples were collected between 17 and 21 d of age. At the end of the study, blood was collected, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds per cage. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency among the 3 phytase preparations did not differ, although only phytase A diet outperformed (P < 0.05) the low-P diet in terms of weight gain and feed efficiency. All 3 phytase diets outperformed (P < 0.05) the low-P diet in bone mineral content, density, strength, percentage ash, P retention, and serum P levels. Phytase B diet outperformed the adequate-P diet in bone strength. All 3 preparations increased (P < 0.05) Ca retention with phytase B or C showing a better retention of Ca than phytase A. All 3 phytase preparations showed similar P use as indicated by BW gain and tibia bone characteristics.

  6. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  7. The effect of particle size of commercial soybean meal on performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, J; Edwards, H M

    2004-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soybean meal (SBM) particle size on broiler performance, particularly P utilization. This experiment utilized a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with the following variables: SBM particle size, P level, and diet type, either corn-SBM or semipurified. SBM was obtained from a processing plant before (geometric mean diameter 1,239 microm) and after (891 microm) hammer milling. The P levels were 0.5% total P for deficient diets and 0.7% total P for adequate P diets. The coarse SBM improved bone ash (P < 0.05), gain:feed ratios (P < 0.1), and plasma P levels (P < 0.1). The diets with 0.5% P resulted in overall poorer performance as 16-d BW was reduced, gain:feed ratio decreased, bone ash decreased, and rickets incidence increased. Chicks fed the semipurified diets also had lower 16-d BW, lower gain-to-feed ratio, and lower bone ash. There was a significant interaction between the diet type and the soy particle size when the corn-SBM meal diets were fed because the coarse SBM increased plasma P levels, whereas there was little effect when the semipurified diets were fed. There were also significant interactions observed between these variables on growth and gain:feed ratio in that the coarse SBM elicited a much more dramatic response when incorporated into the semipurified diets as opposed to the corn-SBM diets. The results suggest that large particle size soybean meal may be more efficiently utilized than fine particle size soybean meal.

  8. Performance and immune responses to dietary beta-glucan in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cox, C M; Stuard, L H; Kim, S; McElroy, A P; Bedford, M R; Dalloul, R A

    2010-09-01

    During the first week posthatch, the avian immune system is immature and inefficient at protecting chicks from invading pathogens. Among immunomodulators, beta-glucans are known as biological response modifiers due to their ability to activate the immune system. Current research suggests that beta-glucans may enhance avian immunity; however, very little is known about their influence on regulation of immune function. A study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary beta-glucan on growth performance, immune organ weights, peripheral blood cell profiles, and immune-related gene expression in the intestine. One-day-old chicks were fed a diet containing 0, 0.02, or 0.1% yeast beta-glucan (n = 30/treatment). On d 7 and 14 posthatch, body and relative immune organ weights were measured and small intestinal sections were collected to evaluate gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Peripheral blood samples were also collected to determine heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Supplementation of beta-glucan did not significantly affect BW gains, and no significant differences were observed among groups for relative immune organ weights or heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. Compared with controls, expression of interleukin (IL)-8 was downregulated in the beta-glucan-treated groups on d 7 and 14. On d 14, beta-glucan inclusion resulted in increased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Expression of IL-18 was upregulated on d 7 but reduced on d 14 due to beta-glucan supplementation. On d 7, interferon-gamma and IL-4 expression decreased in the beta-glucan-treated groups. However, on d 14, IL-4 expression was upregulated in the supplemented groups. Intestinal expression of IL-13 was also downregulated in the beta-glucan-treated birds on d 7. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of beta-glucans altered the cytokine-chemokine balance; however, it did not elicit a robust immune response in the absence of a challenge, resulting in no deleterious effects on

  9. Broiler chicks with slow-feathering (K) or rapid-feathering (k+) genes: Effects of environmental stressors on physiological adaptive indicators up to 56 h posthatch.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H; Manafi, M

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the physiological responses of slow-feathering (K) and rapid-feathering (k(+)) genes in neonate broiler chicks subjected to posthatch fasting (PHF). In the first experiment, 300 Ross 308 chicks were denied access to feed and water for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 h posthatch. In the second experiment, 625 Ross 308 chicks were subjected to PHF for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. In experiment 1, the weight loss rate increased over 56 h PHF and did not differ between fast- and slow-feathering chicks up to 28 h posthatch but was greater (P < 0.05) in fast-feathering birds from 28 to 56 h posthatch. The fast-feathering genotypes demonstrated greater serum K levels following 7, 21, and 56 h (P < 0.05) and serum uric acid (UA) levels after 7, 21, 28, 49, and 56 h PHF (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, weight loss increased linearly with no difference between fast- and slow-feathering chicks through 36 h PHF but increased in fast-feathering birds when PHF continued for 48 h. Neonatal fasting periods of 12 to 48 h decreased breast and thigh percentage (P < 0.01), with no difference between feathering genotypes. The fast-feathering genotypes showed greater serum HDL levels at 24 h (P < 0.05) and greater serum UA concentration following 12, 36, and 48 h PHF (P < 0.05). The mean frequency of jumping (P < 0.01) and active wakefulness (P > 0.01) was increased as PHF continued from 12 to 48 h across genotypes. At 48 h, the fast-feathering chicks showed greater frequency of escape attempts from the test field (P < 0.01). It was concluded that slow-feathering chicks are more capable of withstanding PHF periods lasting more than 28 h. This is important to consider when day-old chicks are transported for extended periods without access to feed.

  10. Effect of various fiber types and choice feeding of fiber on performance, gut development, humoral immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abasali

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fibrous materials with one single diet or by choice feeding on performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 240-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to one of 4 treatments, comprising 5 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: a basal diet (control) or 30 g/kg sugar beet pulp (SBP), 30 g/kg rice hull (RH), or 30 g/kg equal combination of them (SBP/RH) added to the basal diet. Results showed SBP and SBP/RH impaired daily weight gain (DWG) in the growing period compared with control (P < 0.05). Additionally, chickens that received SBP had deteriorated FCR across the entire rearing period (P < 0.05). In comparison to control and SBP, supplementing SBP/RH significantly increased antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV; P < 0.05) at 23 d of age. Furthermore, SBP reduced duodenal and ileal villus height compared with control at 21 d of age. In experiment 2, a total of 240 chicks were allotted to 4 experimental treatments of feeding: 1) control; or choice feeding between 2) control and SBP (C-SBP); 3) control and RH (C-RH); 4) control and SBP/RH (C- SBP/RH). Results indicated that chicks had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. RH was consumed lower than C-SBP/RH and C-SBP in starter and growing periods, respectively (P < 0.05). Chickens choice fed RH and SBP/RH had greater daily feed intake than control across 14 to 28 d of age (P < 0.05). However, DWG reduced in all fiber fed birds (P < 0.05) and resulted in impaired FCR in broilers of the C-SBP group (P < 0.05). In addition, choice feeding of SBP/RH increased antibody titer against NDV as compared with control and SBP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, fiber inclusion in both experiments impaired growth performance but an equal combination of fiber improved immunity. In addition, broilers had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber.

  11. Effects of dietary supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid on performance, carcass composition and plasma L-carnitine concentration of broiler chicks reared under different temperature.

    PubMed

    Celik, L; Oztürkcan, O

    2003-02-01

    The present study was initiated to determine whether dietary supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid affect growth performance, carcass yield and composition, abdominal fat and plasma L-carnitine concentration of broiler chicks reared under normal and high temperature. During the experiment, two temperature regimes were employed in two experimental rooms, which were identical but different in environmental temperature. The regimes were thermoneutral (20-22 degrees C for 24 h) or recycling hot (34-36 degrees C for 8 h and 20-22 degrees C for 16 h). One-day-old broiler chicks (ROSS) were used in the experiment. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was employed with two levels (0 and 50 mg/kg) of supplemental L-carnitine and two levels (0 or 500 mg/kg) of supplemental ascorbic acid in drinking water under thermoneutral or high temperature regimes. Body weight gain was affected by high temperature. However, body weight gain was significantly improved in animals receiving supplemental L-carnitine, ascorbic acid or L-carnitine + ascorbic acid compared to animals receiving unsupplemented diet under high temperature. On the other hand, supplemental L-carnitine or L-carnitine + ascorbic acid reduced body weight gain under thermoneutral condition. Supplemental ascorbic acid significantly improved feed conversion efficiency, the improvement was relatively greater under high temperature. The L-carnitine content in the plasma was higher in the groups receiving supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid under high temperature, while broilers fed supplemental L-carnitine and ascorbic acid had a decreased level of plasma L-carnitine concentration under normal temperature. It is concluded that dietary supplemental L-carnitine or L-carnitine + ascorbic acid may have positive effects on body weight gain, carcass weight under high temperature conditions.

  12. Efficacy of mealworm and super mealworm larvae probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics challenged orally with Salmonella and E. coli infection in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Manirul; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate dry mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) (DMLP) and super mealworm (Zophobas morio) (DSMLP) larvae probiotics as alternatives to antibiotics in broiler chicks. A total of 240 one-day old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments consisting of ten replications with eight birds each in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were, (i) control (basal diet), (ii) 0.4% DMLP (basal diet + 0.4% DMLP, DM basis), and (iii) 0.4% DSMLP (basal diet + 0.4% DSMLP, DM basis). On day one, 1 mL of mixed broth agar consisting of 2.4 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella enteritidis KCTC 2021 and 3.7 × 10(7) cfu Escherichia coli KCTC 2571 was injected orally into each chick. After one week, growth performance, immunity, mortality, internal organ weight, and cecal and fecal microbiota were investigated. Average daily gain ( ADG: ) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) increased, while feed conversion ratio (FCR) (g intake/g gain per bird) decreased in response to DMLP and DSMLP supplementation (P < 0.05). Additionally, mortality decreased (P < 0.05), while IgG and IgA levels increased following DMLP and DSMLP supplementation (P < 0.05). Internal organs remained unaffected, except for a reduced bursa of Fabricius weight in DSMLP supplementation (P < 0.05). Cecal E. coli and Salmonella contents were reduced in DMLP and DSMLP supplementation (P < 0.05), while fecal microbiota contents and pH of cecal and fecal digesta remained unaffected. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DMLP and DSMLP increased ADG and IgG and IgA levels, while reducing FCR, mortality and cecal E. coli and Salmonella spp.

  13. Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to ameliorate the adverse effects of 0.5 to 2 mg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg in broiler chicks. The study consisted of 8 dietary treatments, including 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with or without HSCAS (0.5%) fed to 8 replicate cages per diet (6 males chicks per cage) from 0 to 21 d of age. Cumulative feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.0001), and G:F (P = 0.004) of birds fed the 2 mg of AFB1/kg of diet were significantly lower in comparison with birds fed 0 to 1 mg of AFB1/kg. Relative liver weight was increased in the 2 mg of AFB1/kg group (P < 0.0001). Dietary HSCAS improved cumulative BW gain (main effect P = 0.06), particularly from 14 to 21 d of age (P = 0.037). Dietary HSCAS also reversed the increase in relative liver weight for birds fed AFB1 (P = 0.019). Dietary AFB1 negatively affected major serum parameters (albumin, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase), whereas supplementation with HSCAS partially alleviated the affected serum biochemistry. In addition, serum complement activity and liver gene expression were negatively affected by 2 mg of AFB1/kg. The HSCAS supplement increased the liver expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with HSCAS can effectively improve BW gain and partially ameliorate aflatoxicosis for broiler chicks fed AFB1-contaminated feeds.

  14. Copper in organic proteinate or inorganic sulfate form is equally bioavailable for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songbai; Lu, Lin; Li, Sufen; Xie, Jingjing; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Runlian; Luo, Xugang

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of organic copper (Cu) proteinate relative to inorganic Cu sulfate for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 320 day-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of five treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of added Cu (125 or 250 mg Cu/kg) and two Cu sources (Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate) plus a control with no added Cu for an experimental phase of 42 days. Plasma and liver tissue samples were collected at both 21 and 42 days of age, and bile samples were also obtained at 42 days of age for Cu analyses. The Cu concentrations in liver and bile increased linearly (P < 0.001) on both days 21 and 42 as dietary Cu levels increased. No significant (P > 0.17) linear regression relationships were observed between plasma Cu concentrations on days 21 and 42 or log10 liver Cu concentration on day 21 and daily analyzed Cu intake. Therefore, based on the slope ratios from multiple linear regressions of log10 liver and bile Cu concentrations with daily analyzed Cu intake on day 42, when Cu sulfate was set as 100%, the estimated relative bioavailability values of Cu proteinate were 78.8% for log10 liver Cu concentration and 79.3% for log10 bile Cu concentration, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.08) difference in bioavailability between Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate for broilers chicks in this experiment.

  15. Effect of different concentrations of ginger root powder and its essential oil on growth performance, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Habibi, R; Sadeghi, Gh; Karimi, A

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) feed supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks under conditions of heat stress (32 ± 2ºC for 8 h per d). 2. A total of 336 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly assigned to one of 6 dietary groups representing: basal diet with no supplement as control, basal diet containing 100 mg/kg vitamin E as positive control, basal diets containing either 7.5 or 15 g/kg of ginger root powder, and diets containing 75 or 150 mg/kg of ginger essential oil. 3. The results indicated that at 22 d of age, the group receiving 7.5 g/kg of ginger root powder experienced significantly increased body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) compared to the control group. There were no significant difference among the diet groups regarding BW, BWG, feed intake (FI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42 and 49 d of age. 4. The inclusion of powder and essential oil of ginger in broiler diets did not affect carcass characteristics and blood parameters of the chickens. However, in the group receiving 150 mg/kg ginger essential oil, the total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activity in liver increased compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver also decreased in the groups receiving ginger powder and essential oil compared to that in the control group. There were no significant difference between experimental groups regarding glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), TSOD and catalase (CAT) enzymes in red blood cells. All dietary groups increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased MDA concentration in serum compared to the control group. 5. The results of this study suggest that ginger powder and essential oils may be a suitable replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Results also suggest that ginger powder might be better than extracted essential oil for improving

  16. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance.

  17. Modulation of the intestinal environment, innate immune response, and barrier function by dietary threonine and purified fiber during a coccidiosis challenge in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Wils-Plotz, E L; Jenkins, M C; Dilger, R N

    2013-03-01

    Coccidiosis is a major contributor to economic losses in the poultry industry due to its detrimental effects on growth performance and nutrient utilization. We hypothesized that the combined effects of supplemental dietary Thr and purified fiber may modulate the intestinal environment and positively affect intestinal immune responses and barrier function in broiler chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. A Thr-deficient basal diet (3.1 g of Thr/kg of diet) was supplemented with 70 g/kg of silica sand (control) or high-methoxy pectin and 1 of 2 concentrations of Thr (1.8 or 5.3 g/kg of diet; 4 diets total), and fed to chicks from hatch to d 16 posthatch. On d 10 posthatch, chicks received 0.5 mL of distilled water or an acute dose of Eimeria maxima (1.5 × 10(3) sporulated oocytes) with 6 replicate pens of 6 chicks per each of 8 treatment combinations (4 diets and 2 inoculation states). Body weight gain, feed intake, and G:F increased (P < 0.01) with addition of 5.3 g of Thr/kg of diet. Eimeria maxima schizonts were present only in intestinal tissue sampled from infected birds (P < 0.01). Weights of cecal digesta were highest (P < 0.01) in pectin-fed birds, and ceca with the heaviest weights also had the highest concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids. Expression of interleukin-12 in ileal mucosa was highest (P < 0.01) in infected birds receiving the control diet with 5.3 g of supplemental Thr/kg. In cecal tonsils, interferon-γ expression was highest in infected birds receiving the control diet (fiber × infection, P < 0.05); interferon-γ expression was lowest in infected birds fed the high Thr diet (Thr × infection, P < 0.05). There were no differences due to infection or Thr supplementation for cytokine expression in birds fed pectin-containing treatments. Overall, we conclude that although pectin has some protective function against coccidiosis, Thr supplementation had the greatest effect on intestinal immune response and maintenance of near normal growth

  18. Influence of dietary excess methionine on the relationship between dietary copper and the concentration of copper and iron in organs of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ekperigin, H E; Vohra, P

    1981-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to study the nature of the relationship between methionine, copper and iron. The day-old broiler chicks used were adapted to an isolated soyprotein-cornstarch diet containing 20% protein, 3,300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, normal levels of minerals and 0.59% methionine. They were then fed the basal diet, alone or supplemented with 1.5% DL-methionine, 2,000 ppm molybdenum (Mo), 4,000 ppm Mo, or 100, 250, 500 or 1,000 ppm copper for 1 or 3 weeks. In contrast to 1.5% excess methionine, excess Mo increased plasma copper concentrations significantly, had no effect on spleen or liver iron and did not induce neurological changes. Dietary copper or methionine significantly influenced body weight gain, and the concentrations of copper in plasmas or livers. Supplements of 1.5% DL-methionine, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm copper retarded body weight. A direct relationship between dietary copper, and the concentration of copper in livers or plasmas was demonstrated in chicks fed either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1.5% DL-methionine. However, chicks fed excess methionine had lower levels of copper in their plasmas and livers at every level of excess dietary copper. Liver and spleen iron concentrations were increased by 1.5% excess DL-methionine, but were not significantly altered by supplementary copper.

  19. Body and intestinal growth of broiler chicks on a commercial starter diet. 1. Intestinal weight and mucosal development.

    PubMed

    Iji, P A; Saki, A; Tivey, D R

    2001-09-01

    1. A study was conducted on the pattern of development of the intestinal mucosa of the Steggles x Ross (F1) strain of broiler chickens reared on a commercial starter diet. The mechanisms underlying the structural changes were also assessed. 2. In relation to body weight, small intestinal weight peaked at 7 d of age and declined subsequently. There was also a reduction in the relative weights of the gizzard and yolk sac with age. The length of the small intestine and its regions increased with age. 3. Crypt depth increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum while villus height increased significantly with age in all three regions of the small intestine. There were also significant changes in apparent villus surface area in the three regions, while interactions between age and intestinal region were significant in the case of crypt depth and villus height. 4. There were significant differences between the age groups in the mucosal protein content of jejunal and ileal homogenates, both tending to peak at 7 d of age. The DNA content of the intestinal mucosa declined with age in the three regions of the small intestine. While there was an increase in RNA content in the duodenum and ileum, there was a reduction in the jejunum. 5. Protein: DNA ratio increased between hatch and 21 d of age in all intestinal regions. Protein: RNA ratio decreased with age in the duodenum and ileum but increased in the jejunum. There were significant increases in RNA: DNA ratio in the duodenum and ileum but no changes were observed in the jejunum. The interactions between age and intestinal region were significant for all biochemical indices assessed. 6. At all ages, enterocyte proliferation at the jejunum was completed and quantifiable within 1 h of administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrDU). Subsequent assessment revealed an increase in crypt column count and number of BrDU-labelled cells. The rate of cell migration increased with age while there was a decline in the distance

  20. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermented feed on the enhanced growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, K-L; Kho, W-L; You, S-H; Yeh, R-H; Tang, S-W; Hsieh, C-W

    2009-02-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. natto N21 (Bac; for greater proteolytic capacity) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y10 (Sac; for greater acidic capacity) were applied to produce a 2-stage combined fermentation feed. This study investigated whether the enhancement of Bac+Sac fermented feed on broiler growth performance was due to the probiotics per se or due to the fermentation process. Trial 1 included 1-d-old broiler chicks (n=144) randomly assigned to control, water added (same as in the fermentation feed, 23%), and Bac+Sac fermented feed (FBac+Sac) treatments with 4 replicates. Trial 2 included 21-d-old broiler chickens (n=12) assigned into control and FBac+Sac groups for a metabolic trial for nutrient availability. Trial 3 included 1-d-old male broiler chicks (n=216) randomly assigned into 6 treatments with 3 replicates. Treatments included a control, Sac fermented feed (FSac), FBac+Sac, Bac powder (PBac), Sac powder (PSac), and Bac+Sac powder (PBac+Sac). The results from trial 1 showed that FBac+Sac increased BW and feed intake (P<0.05) in 21- and 39-d-old chickens. The water-added group showed decreased BW, weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Trial 2 showed that FBac+ Sac increased gross energy availability (P<0.05). Trial 3 showed that FBac+Sac increased 21- and 39-d-old BW and weight gain (P<0.05). Diets supplemented with probiotic powder or fermented with Sac did not improve broiler growth performance (P>0.05). The growth performance improvement of the FBac+Sac treatment was probably not due to the added water, probiotic powder inclusion, or through single-strain fermentation, but due to the 2-stage fermentation process using Bac and Sac strains.

  1. Genome Sequences of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Broiler Chicks in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János; Barta, Endre; Nagy, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Three strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolated from healthy broiler chickens from 2012 to 2013 have been sequenced. Comparison of these and previously published S. Infantis genome sequences of broiler origin in 1996 and 2004 will provide new insight into the genome evolution and recent spread of S. Infantis in poultry. PMID:27979950

  2. Effects of dietary substitution of zinc-methionine for inorganic zinc sources on growth performance, tissue zinc accumulation and some blood parameters in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of zinc-methionine (ZnMet) as a replacement for conventional inorganic zinc sources on performance, tissue zinc accumulation and some plasma indices in broiler chicks. A total of 450-day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five pen replicates of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments consisted of two basal diets supplemented with 40 mg/kg added Zn as feed-grade Zn sulphate or Zn oxide in which, Zn was replaced with that supplied from ZnMet complex by 25, 50, 75 or 100%. At 42 days of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were bled to measure plasma metabolites; then, the chicks were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics. Results showed that dietary treatments affected (p < 0.05) feed intake during the starter period, and chicks on Zn oxide diets consumed more feed than sulphate counterparts. Furthermore, dietary substitution of inorganic Zn sources by ZnMet caused improvements (p < 0.01) in body weight gain during all experimental periods. Dietary supplementation of ZnMet improved feed conversion efficiency during 1-21 and 1-42, but not in 21-42 days of age. Complete replacement of inorganic Zn by that supplied from ZnMet caused an increase (p < 0.05) in relative liver weight. Similarly, dietary inclusion of ZnMet increased breast meat and carcass yields and reduced abdominal fat percentage (p < 0.05). Incremental levels of ZnMet increased (p < 0.05) zinc concentrations in liver and thymus, and the highest zinc accumulations were seen in 100% ZnMet-supplemented birds. Interestingly, introduction of ZnMet into the diets partially in place of inorganic sources resulted in decreases (p < 0.01) in plasma uric acid and triglycerides concentrations. The present findings indicated that dietary ZnMet inclusion in replacement of inorganic sources in addition to improving growth performance, reduced plasma uric acid and triglycerides concentrations, consequently

  3. Effect of TEX-OE(®) treatment on the development of heat shock proteins in commercial broiler chicks and the impact on performance indicators in the grow-out period.

    PubMed

    Parker, C D; Prins, C; Saliba, C; Gutierrez, G; Serrar, M

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins, shown to protect organisms against physical and physiological stress. TEX-OE(®) is a patented total extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica, which has been demonstrated to accelerate the development of HSPs in several animal species. One-day-old commercial broiler chicks were treated with TEX-OE(®); HSP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a large commercial field trial investigated key performance indicators (KPIs) in treated versus untreated controls chicks. TEX-OE(®) significantly increased HSP concentrations in treated chicks versus controls. Final cumulative mortality, liveweight and percentage factory-rejects were better than in controls. The accelerated HSP response may enable chicks to cope with early stressors, which is reflected in improved KPIs.

  4. Reduction of ascites mortality in broilers by coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M; Yang, Y

    2004-09-01

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites were studied in broilers. One hundred eighty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates each. From d 8, the diets were supplemented with CoQ10 at levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. From d 15 to 21, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature (15 to 18 degrees C) to induce ascites. Average feed intake, BW gain, and feed conversion ratio of the broilers during 0 to 3 wk, 3 to 6 wk, and 0 to 6 wk were measured. The results showed that there were no influences observed on broilers' growth performance, but the mortality due to ascites was reduced by CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 compared with the control, but no significant changes were observed on blood packed cell volume (PCV) among the treatments. Pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure was significantly decreased on d 36, but no significant changes were observed on right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, and the maximum change ratio of right intraventricular pressure (+/- dp/ dtmax). Ascites heart index (AHI) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). The results of this study suggested that CoQ10 has a beneficial effect in reducing ascites mortality in broilers, and 40 mg/kg CoQ10 seems to be more effective than 20 mg/ kg CoQ10.

  5. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets.

  7. Effects of Vitamin C or E on the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines, Heat Shock Protein 70 and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Chicks under Summer Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jang, In-Surk; Ko, Young-Hyun; Moon, Yang-Soo; Sohn, Sea-Hwan

    2014-05-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants on pro-inflammatory cytokines, heat shock protein (HSP) and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under summer conditions. A total of 162, 3-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a basal diet (CON) and the basal diet supplemented with vitamin C (200 mg/kg diet, VCD) or vitamin E (100 mg/kg, VED) until 35 day of age. All birds were exposed to summer diurnal heat stress at average daily fluctuations of temperature between 32°C to 34°C at day to 27°C to 29°C at night for the entire feeding periods. There was no significant difference in body weight, feed to gain ratio and the relative organ weight except the thymus in response to dietary vitamin C or E supplementation. However, the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, Toll like receptor (TLR)-4 and HSP70 in the liver of birds fed diet containing vitamin C significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared with those in birds fed basal diet. Dietary vitamin E also showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the mRNA expression of IL-6 and HSP70 compared with a basal diet. Total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum of birds fed vitamin C supplemented diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher with than that in birds a basal diet. Lipid peroxidation in serum and liver resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in response to dietary vitamin C or E supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins, especially vitamin C resulted in a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and HSP70, and higher antioxidant parameters than that of birds on the basal diet under summer conditions.

  8. Effect of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture treatment timing on Salmonella Enteritidis in neonatal broilers.

    PubMed

    Higgins, J P; Higgins, S E; Wolfenden, A D; Henderson, S N; Torres-Rodriguez, A; Vicente, J L; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, a series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of a combination of 3 ATCC lactobacilli (LAB3) or a commercially available probiotic culture (PROB) to reduce Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in broiler chicks. Additionally, we varied the timing of PROB administration in relationship to Salmonella challenge and determined the influence on recovery of enteric Salmonella. In experiments 1 to 3, chicks were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were then challenged via oral gavage with Salmonella Enteritidis. Chicks were treated 1 h after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge with LAB3 or PROB. Twenty-four hours posttreatment, cecal tonsils were collected for recovery of enteric Salmonella. In experiments 4 to 7, day-of-hatch chicks were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were then treated with PROB via oral gavage and placed into pens. Chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis 24 h after treatment via oral gavage. At 24 h after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, cecal tonsils were collected and recovery of enteric Salmonella was determined. In experiments 8 to 10, 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were then challenged via oral gavage with Salmonella Enteritidis and placed into pens. Chicks were treated 24 h after challenge with PROB via oral gavage. Twenty-four hours post PROB treatment, cecal tonsils were collected and enriched as described above. It was found that PROB significantly reduced cecal Salmonella Enteritidis recovery 24 h after treatment as compared with controls or LAB3-treated chicks in experiments 1 to 3 (P<0.05). Administration of PROB 24 h before Salmonella Enteritidis challenge significantly reduced recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis in 2 out of 4 experiments and no reduction in cecal Salmonella Enteritidis was observed when chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis and treated 24 h later with PROB. These data demonstrate that PROB

  9. Fasting alters protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in the hypothalamus of broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Yue, Yunshuang; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Everaert, Nadia; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan

    2012-09-15

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fasting and re-feeding on hypothalamic 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels and (an)orexigenic neuropeptides. Male Arbor Acres chicks (7-day-old, n=160) were allocated to four equal treatment groups: control chicks (fed ad libitum for 48 h, C48), chicks that were fasted for 48 h (F48), chicks that were first fasted for 48 h and then re-fed for 24h (F48C24), and chicks that were fed ad libitum for 72h (C72). Fasting for 48 h significantly (P<0.05) increased the ratio of phosphorylated AMPKα to total AMPKα and phosphorylated LKB1 to total LKB1, whereas re-feeding for 24h reduced these ratios to that of the ad libitum fed C72 chicks. The gene expressions of agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortin receptor 4, melanin-concentrating hormone, prepro-orexins and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the fasted chicks relative to the ad libitum fed C48 group. The gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), as well as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was not affected by the nutritional status. Fasting significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). The results suggest that the LKB1/AMPK signal pathway is involved in the energy homeostasis of fasted chicks, and its possible role in feed intake regulation might be mediated by the AgRP/NPY rather than the POMC/CART pathway.

  10. Protection conferred by live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses against variant Middle East IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like isolates in commercial broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the infectious bronchitis H120 (a Massachusetts strain) and CR88 (a 793B strain) live attenuated vaccine viruses to protect from two Middle East infectious bronchitis virus isolates, IS/885/00-like (IS/885) and IS/1494/06-like (IS/1494) in broiler chicks was investigated. Day-old chicks were separated into three groups, (I) vaccinated with H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, (II) vaccinated with H120 and CR88 simultaneously at day-old and again with CR88 at 14 days-old, (III) control unvaccinated. At 30 days-old, each of the groups was challenged with virulent IS/885 or IS/1494. Protection was evaluated based on the clinical signs, tracheal and kidney gross lesions and tracheal ciliostasis. Results showed that administering combined live H120 and CR88 vaccines simultaneously at day-old followed by CR88 vaccine at 14 days-old gave more than 80 per cent tracheal ciliary protection from both of the Middle East isolates. In addition, this programme conferred 100 per cent protection from clinical signs and tracheal or kidney lesions. The other vaccination programme, H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, the tracheal ciliary protection conferred were 60 per cent and 80 per cent from IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like, respectively. PMID:26392909

  11. The effect of phytogenic feed additives to substitute in-feed antibiotics on growth traits and blood biochemical parameters in broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Abudabos, Alaeldein M; Alyemni, Abdullah H; Dafalla, Yousif M; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing concern over the use of antibiotics due to the increased resistance of pathogens in broiler. The present study was designed to find the comparative effect of an antibiotic, and some phytogenic on performance traits, blood biochemical parameters, and antioxidant status during starter phase exposed to Salmonella typhimurium challenge. A total of 560-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to seven treatments (eight replicates). Control (basal diet); T1, infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. typhimurium; T2, infected + avilamycin at the rate of 0.2 g/kg; T3, infected + essential oil of thymol; T4, infected + phytogenic; T5, infected + anti-Salmonella organic acid; and T6, infected + essential oils of thyme, anise, and other components. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P < 0.05) high in the T2 and T5 at the end of the first and the second week and similar to T4. During the second week, European production efficiency factor (EPEF) was also significantly (P < 0.05) high in T2, T4 and T5. Blood albumin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in birds of T2 in the first week, while during the second week, blood glucose and triglyceride concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in T5. Blood ALT concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in T6 compared to other treatments in the second week. Total antioxidant capacity (at the end of the second week) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) did not change significantly. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that different feed additives could be substituted with antibiotics in the feed of broiler exposed to S. typhimurium challenge.

  12. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses.

  13. Effects of a Phytogenic Feed Additive Versus an Antibiotic Feed Additive on Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chicks and a Possible Mechanism Determined by Electron Spin Resonance.

    PubMed

    Settle, T; Leonard, S S; Falkenstein, E; Fix, N; Van Dyke, K; Klandorf, H

    Phytogenic feed additives are plant-derived products used in poultry feeding to improve overall performance of broilers. In this study, 588 one day-old Cobb 500 chicks were fed one of four diets and housed on either dirty or clean litter for 3wks. Treatments included: Group I: commercial diet with no additive and housed on clean litter; Group II: commercial diet with no additive and housed on dirty litter; Group III: commercial diet with a 0.05% inclusion of the anitobiotic, BMD (bacitracin methylene disalicylate); Group IV: commercial diet with a 0.05% inclusion of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA). The study was designed around a random block assignment of treatments allocated to groups of twenty-one birds per pen. Blood samples were obtained from chicks at 18 days of age for measurement of leukocyte oxidative activity by a bioluminescence technique. Results of the study showed that chicks in the treatment groups fed the PFA had significantly lower oxidative stress (p<0.02) when compared to the BMD treatment group. Once this was determined, electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping was used to detect and measure hydroxyl or superoxide radicals in. Fenton chemistry was utilized for production of hydroxyl radicals and a xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction for the production of superoxide radicals in the diet and in RAW 264.7 mouse peritoneal monocytes exposed to the diet. Results from the reactions showed that the antibiotic scavenges hydroxyl and superoxide radicals more efficiently than the phytogenic. The results were comparable to those measured in the RAW 264.7 cells.

  14. Effects of a Phytogenic Feed Additive Versus an Antibiotic Feed Additive on Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chicks and a Possible Mechanism Determined by Electron Spin Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Settle, T.; Leonard, S.S.; Falkenstein, E.; Fix, N.; Van Dyke, K.; Klandorf, H.

    2015-01-01

    Phytogenic feed additives are plant-derived products used in poultry feeding to improve overall performance of broilers. In this study, 588 one day-old Cobb 500 chicks were fed one of four diets and housed on either dirty or clean litter for 3wks. Treatments included: Group I: commercial diet with no additive and housed on clean litter; Group II: commercial diet with no additive and housed on dirty litter; Group III: commercial diet with a 0.05% inclusion of the anitobiotic, BMD (bacitracin methylene disalicylate); Group IV: commercial diet with a 0.05% inclusion of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA). The study was designed around a random block assignment of treatments allocated to groups of twenty-one birds per pen. Blood samples were obtained from chicks at 18 days of age for measurement of leukocyte oxidative activity by a bioluminescence technique. Results of the study showed that chicks in the treatment groups fed the PFA had significantly lower oxidative stress (p<0.02) when compared to the BMD treatment group. Once this was determined, electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping was used to detect and measure hydroxyl or superoxide radicals in. Fenton chemistry was utilized for production of hydroxyl radicals and a xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction for the production of superoxide radicals in the diet and in RAW 264.7 mouse peritoneal monocytes exposed to the diet. Results from the reactions showed that the antibiotic scavenges hydroxyl and superoxide radicals more efficiently than the phytogenic. The results were comparable to those measured in the RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:26180524

  15. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  16. Comparative effects of in ovo versus subcutaneous administration of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time on the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Barbosa, T M; Cummings, T S; Dickson, J; Womack, S K

    2016-09-01

    Effects of method of administration [moa; in ovo (i.o.) or s.c.] of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time (pht) on early post-hatch male broiler chick quality was investigated. Sixty-five Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were randomly set in each of 15 replicate trays (blocks) belonging to each of 4 pre-assigned moa and pht treatment combinations (3,900 total eggs) in a single stage Jamesway incubator. Eggs that were i.o.-vaccinated received injections at 18 d of incubation and male chicks from eggs that were not i.o.-injected were vaccinated by s.c. injection at hatch. The i.o. injections (50 μL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg injector and the s.c. injections (200 μL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic s.c. injector. Male chicks from each moa group also were subjected to either a 4 or 18 h pht. At hatch and placement total and yolk-free BW; body length; body mass index; yolk sac weight; yolk-free body and yolk sac weights as percentages of total BW; and yolk-free body and yolk moisture concentrations were determined. Chick BW also was determined at 7 d of age. Hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected by i.o. injection. However, at hatch, body length was increased and body mass index was decreased in response to i.o. injection. No main effect of moa or an interactive effect with pht was observed for the above variables at placement. However, body length was longer and body mass was lower in the 18 h than in the 4 h pht chicks. Placement yolk sac and body weights, and the 7 d BW of 18 h pht chicks was also lower than that of 4 h pht chicks. In conclusion, prolonging pht for 14 h adversely affected early chick quality, whereas i.o. injection did not negatively affect the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks whether or not they were held for 4 or 18 h prior to placement.

  17. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Siska; Ahammed, Musabbir; Jang, Seong Hun; Ohh, Sang Jip

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract (OE) supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR), blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively). On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04) than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01) and ether extract (p = 0.04) linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p = 0.03) with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01) redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality. PMID:27809460

  18. Validation of prediction equations for apparent metabolizable energy of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of 3 nearly identical trials was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to validate 4 previously published prediction equations for AMEn of corn DDGS in broilers. In addition, prior res...

  19. Effects of early neonatal development and delayed feeding immediately post-hatch on the hepatic lipogenic program in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The embryo to neonate transition is a critical period of development that has significant impact on broiler production. During this time important genetic programs governing metabolism and growth are established. The goal of this work was to study the effects of early post-hatch (PH) development and...

  20. Characterization of a sustained-release estrogen implant on oviduct development and plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder chicks: modulation by feed restriction and thyroid state.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Blauwiekel, R; Qin, X; Russell, R W

    1992-06-01

    The effect of estradiol-17 beta (E2) given as a sustained-release implant (Compudose 200) on concentrations of plasma calcium (Ca) and the development of the chick shell gland has been investigated in food-restricted and thyroid hormone-treated 6- to 8-week-old broiler breeder pullets. Chicks implanted with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 Compudose pellets for 24 days (n = 6/group) revealed a dose-response relationship between plasma E2 and Ca and on oviduct growth. Plasma E2 concentrations were characterized by an initial burst phase for approximately 17 days, followed by a constant release phase. Histologic examination of shell gland tissue confirmed the dose related E2-induced development of microvilliated epithelium and tubular glands over time. Feed restriction initiated at 2 weeks of age markedly increased the response to the E2 implants. Birds (n = 8/group) implanted with 2 pellets and feed restricted had increased plasma concentrations of E2 and Ca, and increased growth of the oviduct (P less than 0.01) as compared to ad libitum implanted birds. In a separate study birds (n = 6/group) had restricted access to feed from 8 weeks of age and were implanted with 0, 2, 4, or 8 pellets. At intervals from 9 to 45 days after implantation one bird from each group was killed. Although concentrations of plasma Ca were significantly greater in feed-restricted birds (P less than 0.01), oviduct growth was only marginally increased by the food restriction program. Plasma Ca concentrations in broiler breeder pullets (n = 8/group) implanted with 1 or 3 pellets and injected with T3/T4 (100 micrograms/day) were significantly decreased (P less than 0.05). Injection of thyroid hormone also marginally decreased shell gland epithelial cell height (P less than 0.05) and development of microvilli (P less than 0.05). There was no effect of the administration of the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (10 micrograms/day im), on the E2 induced development of the shell gland.

  1. Ghrelin modulates fatty acid synthase and related transcription factor mRNA levels in a tissue-specific manner in neonatal broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Buyse, Johan; Janssen, Sara; Geelissen, Sofie; Swennen, Quirine; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Darras, Veerle M; Dridi, Sami

    2009-07-01

    The endogenous ligand for the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor ghrelin is a peptide secreted by the stomach of mammals and stimulates food intake and enhances adiposity. In avian species, ghrelin is mainly produced by the proventriculus but reduces food intake whereas its effect on lipogenesis in different tissues is unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of a single intravenous injection of 2.8 microg (1 nmol per chick) recombinant chicken ghrelin in neonatal broiler chicks. Besides food intake and plasma corticosterone levels, mRNA levels of the key lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) and its related transcription factors sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) were determined in diencephalon, liver and quadriceps femoris muscle before, and 15, 30, and 60 min after injection. Chicken ghrelin administration induced a significant short-term (<30 min) reduction in food intake and markedly elevated plasma corticosterone levels. In diencephalon, FAS, SREBP-1 and PPARgamma mRNA levels were significantly increased within 15 min after ghrelin injection. These observations suggest that central fatty acid metabolism is involved in the anorectic effects of ghrelin. In contrast, hepatic mRNA levels of FAS and both transcription factors were significantly reduced within 30 min after ghrelin injection. In muscle, FAS and transcription factor gene expression was very low and not affected by ghrelin. Overall, our results indicate that ghrelin has opposite effects on FAS and transcription factor mRNA amounts with increased levels in diencephalon (central anorectic effect) and decreased levels in liver (peripheral anti-lipogenic effect) in chickens.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Fadrozole and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I on Female-To-Male Sex Reversal and Body Weight of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadrezaei, Mohammad; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abbasali; Toghyani, Mehdi; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Fadrozole hydrochloride and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) on female-to-male sex reversal, hatching traits, and body weight of broiler chickens. On the third day of incubation, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to five experimental groups comprising (i) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg), (ii) rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iii) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg) + rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iv) vehicle injection (10 mM acetic acid and 0.1% BSA), and (v) non-injected eggs. Eggs in the rhIGF-I-injected groups showed the mode of hatching time at the 480th hour of incubation, 12 hours earlier compared to the other groups, with no statistically significant difference in mortality and hatchability. On Day 1 and 42 of production, 90% of genetically female chicks were masculinized using Fadrozole treatment, while 100% female-to-male phenotypic sex reversal was observed in the Fadrozole+rhIGF-I group. Fadrozole equalized the body weight of both genders, although rhIGF-I was effective on the body weight of male chicks only. Interestingly, combined rhIGF-I and Fadrozole could increase the body weight in both sexes compared to the individual injections (P<0.05). These findings revealed that (i) IGF-I-treated chicken embryos were shown to be an effective option for overcoming the very long chicken deprivation period, (ii) the simultaneous treatment with Fadrozole and IGF-I could maximize the female-to-male sex reversal chance, (iii) the increase in the body weight of masculinized chickens via Fadrozole could be equal to their genetically male counterparts, and (iv) the IGF-I effectiveness, specifically along with the application of aromatase inhibitors in female chicks, indicates that estrogen synthesis could be a stumbling block for the IGF-I action mechanism in female embryos. PMID:25075864

  3. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed.

  4. Spread of hatch and delayed feed access affect post hatch performance of female broiler chicks up to day 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Li, Y; Willems, E; Willemsen, H; Franssens, L; Koppenol, A; Guo, X; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2014-04-01

    It is not rare that newly hatched chicks remain without feed for about 24 to 48 h before they are placed on farms due to a series of logistic operations. Furthermore, the spread in hatching time can also mount up to 30 to 48 h for late v. early hatchers. In other words, the practice is a complex combination of spread of hatch and delayed feed access. The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of hatching time with a delay in feed access of 48 h, starting from their hatch-time (biological age). When chicks had access to feed immediately after hatch, late hatchers had a higher feed intake and relative growth rate up to day 5 compared with their early hatched counterparts. Feed deprivation during the first 48 h resulted in retarded early growth rate, which was further aggravated by an impaired feed intake after refeeding. In addition, the differential effects of hatching time on relative growth rate and feed intake observed in immediately fed chicks were eliminated by the 48 h feed delay. The yolk utilization after hatch was faster for the late hatchers up to biological day 2 regardless of the feeding treatments. Hatching muscle glycogen content was higher in the late hatchers compared with that of their early counterparts at hatch and at biological day 2 independent of feeding treatment. Moreover, the liver glycogen content of the late hatchers was also higher at hatch. For the immediately fed chicks, the proportional breast muscle weight of the late hatchers was higher at biological day 2 and 5. For the starved chicks, on the other hand, this effect was only observed after they had access to feed (biological day 5). The different plasma T3 levels at hatch may have contributed to the different post hatch performance. It is concluded that the spread of hatch influenced post hatch performance, especially appetite and growth at least until day 5. Moreover, the delay in feed access interacted with the hatching time and caused adverse effects on the

  5. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  6. Cytotoxic damage of soybean agglutinin on intestinal epithelial cells of broiler chicks: in vitro protection by Bifidobacterium infantis CRL1395.

    PubMed

    Babot, Jaime D; Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Lorenzo-Pisarello, María J; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    Plant lectins, which are proteins/glycoproteins present in a wide range of vegetables, fruits, cereals and beans, are resistant to digestive enzymes and food cooking temperatures. They bind reversibly to specific glycosidic residues expressed on the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and cause anti-nutritional effects in humans and animals. Soybean lectin (SBA) has been detected in poultry diets, and its ability to bind to the intestinal epithelium has been reported. The development of new methods for removing SBA from feeds or to prevent interaction with the intestinal mucosa is of interest. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of SBA on IEC of chicks was demonstrated for the first time. The LD50, assessed after 2 h exposure of IEC to SBA, was 6.13 μg mL(-1) The ability of Bifidobacterium infantis CRL1395 to bind SBA on the bacterial envelope was confirmed, and prevention of IEC cytotoxicity by lectin removal was demonstrated. Safety of B. infantis CRL1395, resistance to gastrointestinal stress and adhesion were also determined. It was concluded that the early administration of B. infantis CRL1395 to chicks would effectively reduce the toxicity of SBA. Besides, it would favour the colonization of the gut with a beneficial microbiota.

  7. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding), intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days) and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding) groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) (P<0.05) and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) (P<0.05), and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.01) mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P<0.05) and of TRα was lower (P<0.01) than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P<0.05), indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (P<0.001) or RF (P<0.05) cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these

  8. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  9. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the target of rapamycin complex 1, disrupts intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q; Zhao, J P; Fan, X X; Liu, G H; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Sun, S H; Lin, H

    2016-04-01

    To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the intestinal barrier integrity, this study determined whether the rapamycin (RAPA)-sensitive target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway was involved in this process. Three groups of 4-day-old male chicks were randomly subjected to one of the following treatments for 6 days: high-dose RAPA [a specific inhibitor of TORC1; an intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 mg/kg body weight (BW), once daily at 09:00 hours], low-dose RAPA (0.4 mg/kg BW) and RAPA vehicle (control). Results showed that the RAPA treatment increased mortality, while decreasing villus height (p < 0.01), claudin 1 expression, content of immunoglobulin A (IgA), extent of TORC1 phosphorylation (p < 0.05), ratio of villus height to crypt depth (p < 0.01), and population of IgA-positive B cells in intestinal mucosa, particularly for the jejunum. Some aspects of these responses were dose dependent and appeared to result from weight loss. Together, RAPA exerts the expected inhibition of small intestinal development and IgA production in birds, suggesting the important role of TORC1 in gut barrier integrity.

  10. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers.

  11. Effect of stachyose supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and caecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H Q; Gong, L M; Ma, Y X; He, Y H; Li, D F; Zhai, H X

    2006-08-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the oligosaccharide stachyose enhances gastrointestinal tract health by fermentation and proliferation of desirable bacteria species and thus affects growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. 2. A total of 432 1-d-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allocated to one of 6 treatments, with 12 replicate pens per treatment and 6 birds per pen. Chicks were fed a maize-hamlet protein 300 (HP300) basal diet with 0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 or 16.0 g/kg stachyose. A sixth diet contained no HP300 but soybean meal (SBM) and provided 8.7 g/kg stachyose and 3.1 g/kg raffinose. The duration of the study was 42 d. 3. Stachyose contents above 12.0 g/kg depressed group body weights, average daily gain and feed/gain but not feed intake during the whole experimental period. Broiler growth decreased linearly and quadratically with increasing stachyose content. No differences were detected between diets supplemented with 12.0 g/kg stachyose and SBM. 4. Nutrient digestibility tended to decrease but not significantly with increasing stachyose. 5. Stachyose content had no significant positive effects on caecal pH, microflora population and the resulting short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites during the 42 d experiment, with only butyrate differing significantly in the initial period.

  12. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  13. Translocation of Campylobacter and Salmonella to the spleen and liver/gallbladder in 7 and 14 day old broiler chicks following oral gavage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-of-hatch broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery and orally gavaged with 0.10mL of either 103 or 106 cells of a marker strain of Campylobacter coli (CC) or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). At one and two wk after inoculation 10 broilers from the control and each treatment group were human...

  14. Comparative efficacy of a yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in broiler chicks from breeder hens of different ages.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Thanissery, R R

    2011-05-01

    The intestine of the newly hatched chick is immature at hatch. Yeast contains nucleotides and β-glucans that enhance intestinal development and chick growth. Accordingly, a 14-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in chicks obtained from young (26-27 wk old) and old (58 to 59 wk old) breeder hens. Chicks (384) were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 (YH) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet alone. Treatment 2 (YHB) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which BMD was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 (YHE) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which yeast extract (YE) was added at 0.075% level. Treatment 4 (YHED) consisted of chicks, from young hens, fed corn-SBM basal into which YE was added at 0.15% level. Treatments 5 (OH), 6 (OHB), 7 (OHE), and 8 (OHED) consisted of chicks from old hens fed diets similar to those given to YH in treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Growth performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was evaluated on d 7 and 14. Intestinal tissue samples were also analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an indicator of intestinal maturation on d 4 and 13 of experiment. Results showed that by d 14 of experiment, only BMD treatments (YHB and OHB) improved body weight gain (P < 0.05). However, the body weight gains of chicks in the yeast-supplemented treatments (YHE, YHED, OHE, and OHED) were statistically similar (P > 0.05) to those of the BMD treatments. Ileal ALP activity was consistently enhanced by BMD and yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet. It was concluded that antibiotic BMD and our novel yeast product supplemented at 0.075% of the diet improved early chick growth and maturation of the ileal segment of the small intestine.

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with copper sulfate or tribasic copper chloride on broiler performance, relative copper bioavailability, and oxidation stability of vitamin E in feed.

    PubMed

    Luo, X G; Ji, F; Lin, Y X; Steward, F A; Lu, L; Liu, B; Yu, S X

    2005-06-01

    An experiment was conducted using a total of 420, 1-d-old, Arbor Acres commercial male chicks to compare copper sulfate and tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) as sources of supplemental copper for broilers. Chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 7 treatments for 6 replicates of 10 birds each and were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (11.45 mg/kg copper) supplemented with 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/kg copper from copper sulfate or TBCC for 21 d. Chicks fed 450 mg/kg copper as copper sulfate had lower (P < 0.01) average daily feed intake and average daily gain than those consuming other diets. Feeding supplemental copper increased linearly (P < 0.0001) liver copper concentrations regardless of copper source. The slopes of regressions of log10 liver copper on different independent variables used in regressions differ (P < 0.05) between the 2 copper sources. Linear regression over nonzero dietary levels of log10 transformed liver copper concentration on added copper intake resulted in a slope ratio estimate of 109.0 +/- 3.4% (with a 95% confidence interval from 102.2 to 115.8) for bioavailability of copper from TBCC compared with 100 for that in copper sulfate. When the feeds were stored at room temperature for 10 or 21 d, the vitamin E content in the feed fortified with 300 mg/kg copper as TBCC was higher (P < 0.01) than that in the feed added with 300 mg/kg copper as CuSO4. The vitamin E contents in liver and plasma of broilers given TBCC were also higher (P < 0.01) than those of birds fed copper sulfate. The results from this study indicate that TBCC is a safer product and more available to broilers than copper sulfate, and it is chemically less active than copper sulfate in promoting the oxidation of vitamin E in feed.

  16. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 at 21 d, and only the TLR2 mRNA level at 42 d in the foregut of chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  17. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  18. Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gocsik, É; Kortes, H E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most prevalent and economically relevant endemic diseases in the broiler farms. Health care costs consisted of losses and expenditures. The study investigated whether higher animal welfare standards increased health care costs, in both absolute and relative terms, and also examined which cost components (losses or expenditures) were affected and, if so, to what extent. The results show that health care costs represent only a small proportion of total production costs in each production system. Losses account for the major part of health care costs, which makes it difficult to detect the actual effect of diseases on total health care costs. We conclude that, although differences in health care costs exist across production systems, health care costs only make a minor contribution to the total production costs relative to other costs, such as feed costs and purchase of 1-d-old chicks.

  19. Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

    2007-04-01

    1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts.

  20. An insight into the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of eggshells hatching broiler chicks and its effects to the hatcher environment.

    PubMed

    Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Hong, S W; Tong, Q; McGonnell, I; Demmers, T G M; Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Roulston, N; Verhelst, R; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic study of incubated eggs is an important component in the optimisation of incubation processes. However, research on the interaction of heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in eggs is rather limited and does not focus on the hatching stage of incubation. During hatch, both the recently hatched chick and the broken eggshell add extra heat and moisture contents to the hatcher environment. In this study, we have proposed a novel way to estimate thermodynamically the amount of water evaporated from a broken eggshell during hatch. The hypothesis of this study considers that previously reported drops in eggshell temperature during hatching of chicks is the result remaining water content evaporating from the eggshell, released on the inner membrane by the recently hatched wet chick, just before hatch. To reproduce this process, water was sprayed on eggshells to mimic the water-fluid from the wet body of a chick. For each sample of eggshell, the shell geometry and weight, surface area and eggshell temperature were measured. Water evaporation losses and convection coefficient were calculated using a novel model approach considering the simultaneous heat and mass transfer profiles in an eggshell. The calculated average convective coefficient was 23.9 ± 7.5 W/m(2) °C, similar to previously reported coefficients in literature as a function of 0.5-1m/s air speed range. Comparison between measured and calculated values for the water evaporation showed 68% probability accuracy, associated to the use of an experimentally derived single heat transfer coefficient. The results support our proposed modelling approach of heat and mass transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, by estimating the amount of evaporated water in an eggshell post-hatch, air humidity levels inside the hatcher can be optimised to ensure wet chicks dry properly while not dehydrating early hatching chicks.

  1. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  2. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  3. Genome Sequences of Three Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Healthy Broiler Chicks in Hungary and in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Olasz, Ferenc; Nagy, Tibor; Szabó, Móni; Kiss, János; Szmolka, Ama; Barta, Endre; van Tonder, Andries; Thomson, Nicholas; Barrow, Paul; Nagy, Béla

    2015-02-12

    The genome sequences of three strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from broiler chickens in 1994 and 2004 in Hungary and in the 1980s in the United Kingdom are reported here. A sequence comparison should improve our understanding of the evolution of the genome and spread of S. Infantis in poultry.

  4. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  5. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  6. Reduction of intestinal viscosity through manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration is effected through changes in the carbohydrate composition of the intestinal aqueous phase and results in improved growth rate and food conversion efficiency of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bedford, M R; Classen, H L

    1992-03-01

    The effect of dietary rye (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg substituting for wheat) and pentosanase concentration (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 g/kg) on weight gain, molecular weight distribution of soluble carbohydrates in the intestinal lumen and lumenal viscosity in broiler chicks was investigated. A 4 x 6 factorial design was used with four replicates per treatment and six birds per replicate pen. Diets were fed from 1 to 19 d of age, at which time body weight, food intake and intestinal viscosity and molecular weight distribution of carbohydrate complexes in proximal and distal gut sections were determined. Weight gain and food conversion efficiency (FCE) improved with increasing pentosanase and decreasing rye concentration. Intestinal viscosity, which rose as digesta passed from the proximal to distal small intestine, fell with pentosanase addition and decreasing rye concentration. Intestinal viscosity, which correlated positively with reduced weight gain and FCE, was in turn correlated with the lumenal concentration of soluble high-molecular-weight carbohydrates (HMC, greater than 500 kDa), which constituted less than 15% of the total lumenal carbohydrate concentration. The arabinose and xylose content of the HMC increased with increasing rye concentration, suggesting that HMC composition in addition to concentration may determine intestinal viscosity. The results indicate that pentosanase isolated from rye by extraction methods may not be representative of those released by digestion.

  7. Effect of dietary aspirin on ascites in broilers raised in a hypobaric chamber.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Huff, W E

    2000-08-01

    During the course of ascites development in broilers, many factors can interact to cause hypoxia. To counteract hypoxia, birds with ascites develop greatly increased hematocrit and red cell counts. Increasing hematocrits result in more viscous blood. Prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of constriction and dilation of pulmonary blood vessels and in the formation of blood clots. Dietary aspirin, a prostaglandin inhibitor, was used in an attempt to promote vasodilation and inhibit blood clotting in broilers, with the objective of determining the effect of aspirin on ascites progression. The experimental design consisted of two trials with a total of 1,360, 1-d-old male broiler chicks, which were placed at either local altitude (390 m above sea level) or in a hypobaric chamber that simulated an altitude of 2,900 m above sea level. At each elevation, five dietary treatments were employed: [control, 0.025% crystalline acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), 0.05% aspirin, 0.10% aspirin, and 0.20% aspirin]. Bird and feed weights were recorded weekly. At the end of 5 wk, blood samples and organ weights were collected, and all birds were examined for signs of ascites. In both trials, birds raised at high altitudes were significantly lighter, had a higher incidence of ascites, and had differences in hematology, compared with birds raised at local elevation. Only in Trial 2, however, did dietary aspirin appear to have any effect on ascites incidence. At the 0.20% aspirin level, a reduction in ascites incidence approached significance compared with controls (34% vs. 56%, P < or = 0.06). Unfortunately, birds fed 0.20% aspirin also were significantly (P < or = 0.01) lighter than controls. Because slowing growth rate is known to reduce ascites, this decrease in BW may have been partially responsible for any beneficial effect on ascites development and progression obtained through feeding aspirin.

  8. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Abdel-Raheem, S; Böhm, J

    2009-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of synbiotic and probiotic on broiler performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and histomorphological measurements of small intestine. Six hundred 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with synbiotic (1 kg of Biomin IMBO/ ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets), 3) basal diets supplemented with probiotic (1 kg of a homofermentative and a heterofermentative Lacto-bacillus sp./ton of feed). The BW, average daily weight gain, carcass yield percentage, and feed conversion rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by the dietary inclusion of the synbiotic compared with the control and probiotic-fed broilers. Moreover, a slight improvement in performance traits was observed in broilers fed the probiotic compared with control birds. The absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus tended to be greater (P < 0.1) for the probiotic-supplemented group compared with the synbiotic-supplemented group. The relative liver weight was greater (P < 0.05) for probiotic-fed birds compared with synbiotic-fed birds. Additionally, the weight of small intestine was greater for either probiotic- (3.17) or synbiotic-fed birds (3.11) than the controls (2.89). Furthermore, dietary treatments influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of either probiotic or synbiotic increased (P < 0.05) the villus height:crypt depth ratio and villus height in both duodenum and ileum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementations compared with control. In conclusion, synbiotic or probiotic displayed a greater efficacy as growth promoters for broilers. Furthermore, the dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of

  9. Effects of fungal (Aspergillus niger or Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) fermentation on the nutritive value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2008-05-01

    1. Shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) meal was fermented for 8 d with either Aspergillus niger, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora or a mixture of the two organisms. The fermentation was completed using two methods, an opened container or a closed container. 2. Each of the 6 samples was dried and incorporated into basal broiler diets at 90 g/kg. 3. In addition, the unfermented shea nut meal was incorporated in the diet at 90 g/kg and the basal diet (maize and soybean meal based) was also provided as an eighth dietary treatment to individually caged broiler chickens. 4. All fermented fungi-treated shea nut meals had similar proximate nutrient compositions to the unfermented shea nut meal, but there were substantial decreases in their hydrolysable tannins and saponin contents. Both fermentation methods gave similar reductions in the concentrations of tannins and saponins. 5. Shea nut meal fermented with individual or both fungal organisms gave greater (P < 0.001) growth performance than that of unfermented shea nut meal. However, all shea nut meals including the unfermented meal gave lower (P < 0.001) growth variables than those for the maize-soybean meal control. 6. The nutritional improvement of shea nut meal achieved in this study still falls far short of what is expected for it to become valuable for the poultry feed industry. These fermentation methods using A. niger or C. subvermispora require further improvements to provide satisfactory feed products.

  10. Effects of clinoptilolite and modified clinoptilolite on the growth performance, intestinal microflora, and gut parameters of broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, L C; Zhou, Y M; Zhang, J F; Wang, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, and its relation to gut circumstances. A total of two hundred forty 1-d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, whereas those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group) or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group) for 42 d. The results showed that compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (P < 0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (P > 0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. Total viable counts of Escherichia coli were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by MCLI and NCLI from d 1 to 21. The NCLI and MCLI significantly increased the total viable counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus from d 22 to 42. Small intestine and cecal pH values in the MCLI group were found to be lower (P < 0.05) than those in other groups. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in both experimental groups from d 22 to 42. This study showed that NCLI or MCLI, as feed additives for broilers, had a positive effect on gut parameters by acting on microbial populations of the digestive tract.

  11. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  12. Effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on broiler performance, intestinal nutrient transport and integrity under experimental conditions with increased microbial challenge.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G R; Gabler, N K; Persia, M E

    2014-02-01

    1. The effects of Aspergillus oryzae- and Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFM) were investigated on the performance, ileal nutrient transport and intestinal integrity of broiler chickens, raised under experimental conditions, with increased intestinal microbial challenge. 2. The first study was a 3 × 2 factorial experiment, with 3 dietary treatments (control (CON), CON + DFM and CON + antibiotic growth promoter) with and without challenge. Chicks were fed experimental diets from 1 to 28 d, while the challenge was provided by vaccinating with 10 times the normal dose of commercial coccidial vaccine on d 9. In a second experiment, two groups of 1 d-old broilers, housed on built-up litter (uncleaned from two previous flocks), were fed the same CON and CON + DFM diets from 1 to 21 d. 3. The challenge in the first experiment reduced performance, but no differences were observed among dietary treatments from 8 to 28 d. The challenge reduced the ileal epithelial flux for D-glucose, L-lysine, DL-methionine and phosphorus on d 21. Epithelial flux for D-glucose, L-lysine and DL-methionine were increased by DFM. Ileal trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TER) was increased in challenged broilers fed DFM, although this was not observed in unchallenged birds as indicated by a significant interaction. 4. Ileal mucin mRNA expression and colon TER were increased, and colon endotoxin permeability was reduced by DFM on d 21 in the second experiment. 5. It was concluded that the addition of DFM in the diet improved the intestinal integrity of broiler chickens raised under experimental conditions designed to provide increased intestinal microbial challenge.

  13. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  14. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets.

  15. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  16. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to feed withdrawal combined with coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xi; Eicher, Susan D; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Applegate, Todd J

    2016-12-01

    For this study, threonine (Thr) deficiency was hypothesised to exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdrawal with coccidial infection because of its high obligatory requirement by the gut; two dietary Thr treatments (0·49 and 0·90 %) were applied to chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. At 13 d of age, feed was withdrawn for 24 h from one-half of birds of each dietary treatment with subsequent gavage of a 25× dose of coccidial vaccine. Overall, there were four treatments with eight replicate cages per treatment. Under combined challenge, birds fed the Thr-deficient diet had 38 % lower 13-21-d body weight gain (P≤0·05) compared with birds fed the Thr-control diet. At 21 d, the challenged group fed low Thr had higher number of oocysts (+40 %, P=0·03) and lower crypt depth (-31 %, P0·05). Overall, Thr deficiency worsened the detrimental effects of combined feed withdrawal and coccidial infection on growth performance and oocyst shedding by impairing intestinal morphology, barrier function, lymphocyte profiles and their cytokine expressions.

  17. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  18. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  19. Quantitative evaluation of 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol as a cholecalciferol substitute for broilers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H M; Shirley, R B; Escoe, W B; Pesti, G M

    2002-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted using a corn-soybean meal diet that meets or exceeds the NRC (1984) requirements for all nutrients except cholecalciferol (D3) to determine the effectiveness of 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1alpha-OHD3) as a substitute for D3 in the diet of young broilers. Ross x Ross mixed-sex, 1-d-old chicks were reared in Petersime battery brooders not exposed to ultraviolet light with feed and water supplied ad libitum for 16 d. In Experiment 1, D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 microg/kg and one source of 1alpha-OHD3-(Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc.; HLR) was fed at 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 microg/kg of diet. In Experiment 2, the D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 microg and two sources of 1alpha-OHD3-[HLR and Majestic Research Inc. (MRI)] were fed at 0, 0.625, 1.25, and 5 microg/kg of diet. Slope ratio analysis of data from the measurement of 16-d body weight, plasma Ca, rickets, and bone ash indicated bioavailability of the 1alpha-OHD3 as compared to D3 from 1.88 to 21.2. Percentage bone ash gave the most precise values in both experiments. Considering all the data from both experiments, the 1alpha-OHD3 appears to be approximately eight times as effective as D3 for satisfying the requirements of several criteria in two experiments with broiler chickens.

  20. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  1. Efficacy of diclazuril in comparison with chemical and ionophorous anticoccidials against Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Conway, D P; Mathis, G F; Johnson, J; Schwartz, M; Baldwin, C

    2001-04-01

    Two 42-d floor pen studies were conducted with commercial broiler chickens to measure the efficacy of 1 ppm diclazuril in the starter or grower diet in shuttle programs with 66 ppm salinomycin. Study 1 compared a salinomycin to diclazuril (starter to grower diet) shuttle treatment with salinomycin to salinomycin, salinomycin to 100 ppm monensin, salinomycin to 99.8 ppm lasalocid, and unmedicated treatments. Study 2 compared a diclazuril to salinomycin (starter to grower) shuttle treatment with 125 ppm nicarbazin to salinomycin, 79.2 ppm narasin + nicarbazin to salinomycin, 125 ppm zoalene to salinomycin, and unmedicated treatments. Fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly allotted to each of 10 pens per treatment in each study using a randomized complete block design. Starter (Days 0 to 21) and grower (Days 22 to 37) diets in each study contained 55 ppm bacitracin methylene disalicylate. The finisher diet (Days 38 to 42) in each study was unmedicated. Birds were inoculated via their feed on Day 22 (Study 1) or Day 15 (Study 2) with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Four birds per pen (two male and two female) were randomly selected in each study for coccidial lesion scores on Day 6 postinoculation. These studies demonstrated that the use of 1 ppm diclazuril in shuttle programs was highly efficacious against a mixed inoculum of Eimeria spp. in comparison with nicarbazin, narasin + nicarbazin, and zoalene in starter diets and salinomycin, monensin, and lasalocid in grower diets.

  2. The use of diclazuril in extended withdrawal anticoccidial programs: 1. Efficacy against Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Conway, D P; Mathis, G F; Lang, M

    2002-03-01

    A 49-d floor pen study was conducted with broiler chickens to compare the effects of different anticoccidial withdrawal times on the efficacy of 1 ppm diclazuril. The starter diet in three treatments contained 66 ppm salinomycin + 50 ppm roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), followed by 1 ppm diclazuril in the grower diet commencing on Day 17. Diclazuril was withdrawn from these treatments on Day 28, 35, or 42 (finisher diet), respectively. Two other treatments in the study were given 66 ppm salinomycin + 50 ppm roxarsone in the starter and grower diets to Day 28 or no anticoccidial (unmedicated). The starter (Days 0 to 16), grower (Days 17 to 35), and finisher (Days 36 to 49) diets in each treatment included 55 ppm bacitracin methylene disalicylate for growth promotion. Fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly allotted to each of 10 pens per treatment using a randomized complete block design. Birds in each pen were raised on litter naturally contaminated with a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. The results demonstrated that some performance loss occurred in the salinomycin Day 28 treatment. Means for weight gain and feed conversion on Day 49 were improved (P < 0.05) in each diclazuril treatment in comparison with the salinomycin and unmedicated treatments. Feed conversion means in the diclazuril Day 35 and Day 42 treatments were improved (P < 0.05) in comparison with the diclazuril Day 28 treatment, indicating that shorter withdrawal times provided further benefit.

  3. Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, zinc accumulation, and gene expression of zinc transporters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z G; Chen, G Y; Li, L F; Wen, C; Wang, T; Zhou, Y M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated Zn-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) as a Zn supplement on performance, organ or tissue development, Zn accumulation in tissues, and gene expression of Zn transporters in the duodenum of broilers. A total of 300 1-d-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per treatment for a 21-d feeding period. The treatments comprised a basal corn–soybean meal diet without supplemental Zn (the control) or similar diets supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4 or 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn- ZCP, respectively. Supplementation of Zn-ZCP had a positive effect on G:F (linear, P < 0.05) and had tendency difference on ADG (linear, P < 0.1) of broilers during 1 to 21 d. Incremental Zn-ZCP inclusion in the diet increased the fresh weight of the pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) and tibia (linear, P < 0.05) in broilers on d 14. The same trend to the fresh weight of the tibia (linear, P < 0.05) and pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) was observed on d 21. Increasing Zn-ZCP level showed a linear response on Zn concentration in the liver (linear, P < 0.001), pancreas (linear, P < 0.05), and tibia (linear, P < 0.05) on d 14. The same trend of Zn concentrations in pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) and tibia (linear, P < 0.001) was observed on d 21. The mRNA levels of Zn transporter 2 (ZnT-2) and Zn transporter 5 (ZnT-5) in the duodenum of chicks fed the diet with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP did not differ from those of chicks fed the control diet, but both were lower (P < 0.05) than those of chicks fed ZnSO4 diet. Metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels of broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP or ZnSO4 was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Dietary treatments did not affect the mRNA expression of Zn transporter 1 (ZnT-1) or metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). In conclusion, as a Zn supplement, Zn-ZCP was comparable to ZnSO4 for enhancing Zn accumulation

  4. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  5. The effects of natural and modified clinoptilolite on intestinal barrier function and immune response to LPS in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu Jue; Zhou, Yan Min; Wu, Ya Nan; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2013-05-15

    The protection of intestinal barrier function and the anti-inflammatory effects of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) were investigated in broilers that were repeatedly challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 288 1-d-old broiler chicks were divided equally into three treatment groups: control, NCLI-treated (2%) and MCLI-treated (2%). Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with 0.9% NaCl solution or LPS (250μg/kg body weight, administered orally) at 16, 18 and 21d of age. The results indicated that, prior to LPS challenge, the diet had no effect on bird growth performance (P>0.05). The oral administration of LPS was also not associated with any significant changes in poultry performance (P>0.05). In LPS-challenged birds that were pretreated with NCLI (2%) or MCLI (2%), the LPS-induced increases in the plasma and intestinal mucosa concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, significant decreases in the plasma d-lactic acid and diamine oxidase (DAO) levels were found in birds that were pretreated with NCLI or MCLI. Furthermore, both NCLI and MCLI reduced the sICAM-1 concentration in the intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, NCLI and MCLI are able to prevent the LPS-induced intestinal mucosa damage and inflammatory response in vivo. These beneficial effects suggest that NCLI and MCLI act as anti-inflammatory agents in part by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and hyperactivation and by suppressing the secretion of various plasma and intestinal mucosa inflammatory mediators.

  6. The effect of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Wang, Qin; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and nonfermented Ginkgo biloba (NFG) on the immunity status of broiler chickens, 180 1-d-old female Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups and fed either a basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% NFG, or a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% FG. Blood samples were taken on the seventh (before vaccination), 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day for the assessment of serum IL-18 and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels by ELISA. In addition, Newcastle disease antibody titer analysis was made via hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test methods. On d 35, 6 chickens from each group were sacrificed and the thymus, liver, spleen, small intestine (jejunum segment), cecum, and bursa of Fabricius from each chicken were removed for analysis. RNA was isolated for defensin expression detection by real-time PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that serum IL-18 and IFN-γ levels decreased after treatment with NFG and FG compared with untreated control chickens. The ND antibody titers did not differ significantly between the 3 groups on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th day; however, on the 35th day, the ND antibody titers of the NFG and FG chickens were both significantly higher than those of control group chickens. Defensin RNA expression levels were inhibited by NFG; however, they were induced by FG. In conclusion, fermentation of Ginkgo biloba with Bacillus coagulans can promote the beneficial effect of Gingko biloba on the immunity status of broiler chickens.

  7. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line.

  8. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  9. Effects of breeder age and egg weight on morphological changes in the small intestine of chicks during the hatch window.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Izzetoğlu, G T; Aktaş, A

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of breeder age and egg weight on hatching performance and morphological changes in segments of the small intestine of broiler chicks during a 21 h hatch window. 2. Eggs from Ross broiler breeder flocks aged 29 (young) and 48 weeks (old) were classified as light (LE) or heavy (HE) and incubated at the same conditions. At 475 h of incubation, eggs were checked every 3 h to determine time of external pipping and hatching. The first 42 chicks to emerge from each group were weighed and chick length was measured and 14 chicks from each group were sampled to collect residual yolk and intestine segments. The rest of chicks were placed back in the incubator and chick weight and length were measured individually at 9, 15 and 21 h after chicks hatched. At the end of 21 h, 14 chicks from each group were sampled again and the same procedure was followed. 3. The HE chicks pipped and hatched later than LE, regardless of breeder age. From hatch to the end of the hatch window, chick weight, but not yolk-free chick weight, gradually reduced. Relative residual yolk weight of chicks from both egg weights was similar at hatch, however, yolk sac utilisation was higher for LE chicks during the 21 h post-hatch period. At hatch, jejunum and ileum villus development was very similar for HE and LE chicks but greater development was observed for villus area with an increase in the jejunum villus length, width and goblet cell numbers in HE chicks. 4. The longest jejunum villus and the widest duodenum and jejunum villus were obtained for HE chicks from old breeders indicating that HE chicks from old breeders would have a greater surface area for nutrient absorption.

  10. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  11. Single and combined effects of deoxynivalenol mycotoxin and a microbial feed additive on lymphocyte DNA damage and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Dadak, Agnes; Hess, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The immune and intestinal epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of DON and/or a microbial feed additive on the DNA damage of blood lymphocytes and on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in broilers. A total of forty 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 birds per group) for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) basal diet; 2) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; 3) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg/ton of feed of Mycofix Select; 4) basal diet supplemented with Mycofix Select (2.5 kg/ton of feed). At the end of the feeding trial, blood were collected for measuring the level of lymphocyte DNA damage of blood and the TBARS level was measured in plasma, heart, kidney, duodenum and jejunum. The dietary exposure of DON caused a significant increase (P = 0.001) of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (31.99 ± 0.89%) as indicated in the tail of comet assay. Interestingly addition of Mycofix Select to DON contaminated diet decreased (P = 0.001) the DNA damage (19.82 ± 1.75%) induced by DON. In order to clarify the involvement of lipid peroxidation in the DNA damage of DON, TBARS levels was measured. A significant increase (P = 0.001) in the level of TBARS (23 ± 2 nmol/mg) was observed in the jejunal tissue suggesting that the lipid peroxidation might be involved in the DNA damage. The results indicate that DON is cytotoxic and genotoxic to the chicken intestinal and immune cells and the feed additive have potential ability to prevent DNA damage induced by DON.

  12. Single and Combined Effects of Deoxynivalenol Mycotoxin and a Microbial Feed Additive on Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Ghareeb, Khaled; Dadak, Agnes; Hess, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The immune and intestinal epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of DON and/or a microbial feed additive on the DNA damage of blood lymphocytes and on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in broilers. A total of forty 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 birds per group) for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) basal diet; 2) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; 3) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg/ton of feed of Mycofix Select; 4) basal diet supplemented with Mycofix Select (2.5 kg/ton of feed). At the end of the feeding trial, blood were collected for measuring the level of lymphocyte DNA damage of blood and the TBARS level was measured in plasma, heart, kidney, duodenum and jejunum. The dietary exposure of DON caused a significant increase (P = 0.001) of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (31.99±0.89%) as indicated in the tail of comet assay. Interestingly addition of Mycofix Select to DON contaminated diet decreased (P = 0.001) the DNA damage (19.82±1.75%) induced by DON. In order to clarify the involvement of lipid peroxidation in the DNA damage of DON, TBARS levels was measured. A significant increase (P = 0.001) in the level of TBARS (23±2 nmol/mg) was observed in the jejunal tissue suggesting that the lipid peroxidation might be involved in the DNA damage. The results indicate that DON is cytotoxic and genotoxic to the chicken intestinal and immune cells and the feed additive have potential ability to prevent DNA damage induced by DON. PMID:24498242

  13. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  14. Efficacy of polymers in combination with biocides as sanitizer of salmonella inoculated broiler hatching eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of broiler hatching eggs can be carried through the hatchery and with the hatched chick into the broiler house. Commercially available chemical hatching egg sanitizers have achieved acceptable levels of eggshell decontamination of >70% reductions when applied prior to setti...

  15. Systematic evaluation of in-house broiler litter windrowing effects on production benefits and environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-house windrowing of broiler litter between flocks has been adopted by producers to reduce pathogens and improve litter quality before chick placement. In this study, 5 consecutive windrow trials were conducted in commercial broiler houses for their effect on litter bacterial populations, organic ...

  16. Study on price transmission in China's broiler industry chain based on MCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiwei; Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin; Cui, Liguo; Kong, Fantao; Li, Ganqiong; Yu, Haipeng

    This paper studies price transmission mechanism of China's broiler industry chain with Market-chain Cooperated Model (MCM), according to the monthly price data of corn, broiler compound feed, broiler chicks, live chicken and eviscerated chicken from 1994 June to 2011 October. The result shows that the price system of China's broiler industry chain exists price transmission relationship, the price of representative products from upstream and midstream conducts obviously to downstream, and broiler compound feed price plays an important role in the price system. The result also indicates that the interior adjusting of broiler industry chain cannot guarantee that the entire price system recover to balance quickly. Therefore, the government needs to regulate timely the price system of broiler industry chain, especially the price change of feed and live broiler to maintain the price system relative stable.

  17. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Hume, M E; Byrd, J A; Nisbet, D J; Ijaz, A; Sohail, A; Shabbir, M Z; Rehman, H

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were divided into 5 treatment groups and fed a corn-soybean diet ad-libitum. The temperature control (CONT) group was held at the normal ambient temperature. Heat stress broilers were held at 35 ± 2°C from d 1 until the termination of the study at d 42. Heat stress groups consisted of HS-CONT fed the basal diet; HS-MOS fed the basal diet containing 0.5% MOS; HS-PM fed the basal diet containing 0.1% PM; and HS-SYN (synbiotic) fed 0.5% MOS and 0.1% PM in the basal diet. Broilers were examined at d 21 and 42 for BW gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum corticosterone concentrations, and ileal microarchitecture. The results revealed that the CONT group had higher (P < 0.01) feed consumption, BW gain, and lower FCR on d 21 and 42, compared with the HS-CONT group. Among supplemented groups, the HS-MOS had higher (P < 0.05) BW gain and lower FCR compared with the HS-CONT group. On d 21 and 42, the HS-CONT group had higher (P < 0.05) serum corticosterone concentrations compared with the CONT and supplemented groups. The CONT group had higher (P < 0.05) villus height, width, surface area, and crypt depth compared with the HS-CONT group. On d 21, the HS-PM had higher (P < 0.05) villus width and surface area compared with HS-CONT group. On d 42, the HS-SYN had higher (P < 0.05) villus width and crypt depth compared with the HS-CONT group. These results showed that chronic HS reduces broiler production performance, intestinal microarchitecture, and increases adrenal hormone concentrations. Also, supplementation of the MOS prebiotic and the PM can partially lessen these changes.

  18. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  19. Tolerance for excess basic zinc chloride and basic copper chloride in chicks.

    PubMed

    Persia, M E; Baker, D H; Parsons, C M

    2004-10-01

    (1) Four chick experiments were conducted to determine toxicity estimates for basic zinc chloride (BZC) and basic copper chloride (BCC), now being used as sources for these minerals. (2) In experiment 1, New Hampshire x Columbian crossbred chicks were fed 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 3000 and 5000 mg Zn/kg from BZC (Zn5Cl2(OH)8). Broken-line regression analysis showed that the minimal toxic break points for chick weight gain and gain:food were 1720 and 2115 mg Zn/kg, respectively. (3) Crossbred chicks were fed 0, 150, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg Cu/kg from BCC (Cu2(OH)3C) in experiment 2. Regression analysis indicated that the minimal toxic break points for chick weight gain and gain:food were 642 and 781 mg Cu/kg, respectively. (4) In experiment 3, commercial broiler chicks were fed 0, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg supplemental Zn/kg from BZC or 0, 500, 650 and 800 mg supplemental Cu/kg from BCC. Broiler chicks fed those high inclusion rates of Zn did not show reduced weight gain in comparison to chicks fed no supplemental Zn. All high concentrations of supplemental Cu depressed chick weight gain in comparison to control chicks. (5) Experiment 4 involved two separate 4 x 2 factorial designs with supplemental Zn (0, 2500, 3500 and 4500 mg/kg) or Cu (0, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg) and two breeds of chicks (crossbred and commercial). Significant interactions for weight gain, food intake, gain:food and liver Cu suggested that the crossbred and commercial chicks responded differently to high concentrations of supplementary dietary Cu.

  20. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet.

  1. Effects of nano-selenium on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cai, S J; Wu, C X; Gong, L M; Song, T; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nano-selenium (nano-Se) on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. A total of five hundred forty 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The 5 treatments consisted of corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se. The selenium content of the unsupplemented control diet was 0.09 mg/kg for the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and 0.08 mg/kg for the grower phase (22 to 42 d). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in performance, meat color, or immune organ index (thymus, bursa, and spleen) due to supplementation with nano-Se. On d 42, a significant quadratic effect of nano-Se was observed on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition, contents of IgM, glutathione, and malondialdehyde in serum, on glutathione peroxidase activity, free radical inhibition in liver, and on glutathione peroxidase activity in muscle, with birds fed 0.30 mg/kg of nano-Se exhibiting the best effect and birds fed 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se showing the worst effect on these parameters. Liver and muscle selenium content increased linearly and quadratically as the dietary nano-Se level increased (P < 0.01), and reached the highest value when 2.0 mg/kg of nano-Se was fed. Based on a consideration of all experiment indexes, 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg is suggested to be the optimum level of supplementation of nano-Se, and the maximum supplementation of nano-Se could not be more than 1.0 mg/kg in broilers.

  2. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Q. H.; Yang, Z. B.; Yang, W. R.; Li, Z.; Zhang, G. G.; Jiang, S. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  3. [Fish silage prepared from fish species of shrimp by-catch. II. Biological test in broilers].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, T; Montilla, J J; Bello, R A

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the nutritional evaluation of proteins in fish silage. A biological test was conducted in chicks (broilers) to evaluate two levels of inclusion of fish silage (2.5% and 5%, respectively) in diets normally used for feeding them. Chicks were evaluated in weight gain, food consumption, and feeding conversion index. Finally, flavor and acceptability tests of meat from broilers fed the experimental diet were conducted. Results of the biological assay indicated that the best biological response was that of the animals fed the 5% fish silage diet. Sensory tests revealed that the meat of chicks fed the experimental diets had favorable acceptance by the consumers.

  4. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  5. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  6. Comparison between broilers and layers for growth and protein use by embryos.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, T; Tsushima, N

    2004-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the growth and protein utilization of embryo between broilers and layers. In experiments 1 and 2, the average weight of eggs was the same for broilers and layers. Nothing or an amino acid (AA) solution was injected into the eggs of broilers at d 7 of incubation, and the plasma AA concentration of newly hatched chicks was determined in broilers in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the same treatments as experiment 1 were used on layer breeder eggs. Plasma Tau, Thr, and Lys concentrations of hatched chicks increased when AA solution was injected in broilers breeder eggs (P < 0.05) but not in layers (P > 0.05). The AA ratio to Lys was reduced by AA injection in broilers but not in layers. In experiment 3, weights of embryos and egg were recorded, and CP contents were analyzed over time during incubation (d 0, 7, 14, and 19 of incubation) in broilers and layers using eggs of the same weight. There were no differences in the weights and CP contents of embryos and eggs from broilers and layers. On d 14 and 19 of incubation, weights and CP contents of embryo were higher in broilers than layers (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the egg protein content might be adequate for hatching but insufficient for maximum growth of embryos from broilers.

  7. Digestible isoleucine-to-lysine ratio effects in diets for broilers from 4 to 6 weeks posthatch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestible Ile:Lys ratio (%) in finisher (28 to 42 d of age) phase diets fed to broilers, based on live performance and carcass trait responses. A total of 1,248 Ross × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 8 dietary treatments varying in ...

  8. Effect of vancomycin, tylosin, and chlortetracycline on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization of broiler chickens during grow-out

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly-used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed ...

  9. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  10. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  11. Compatibility of a combination of tiamulin and chlortetracycline with salinomycin in feed during a pulsed medication program coadministration in broilers.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Afrin, S; Das, P M; Hassan, M M; Valks, M; Klein, U; Burch, D G S; Kemppainen, B W

    2008-12-01

    In an earlier study, the continuous medication of broiler feed with a combination of tiamulin (TIA; 20 mg/kg), chlortetracycline (CTC; 60 mg/kg), and the ionophore anticoccidial salinomycin (SAL; 60 mg/kg) caused an initial increase in BW and feed efficiency (FE; g of weight gain/kg of feed intake). However, as doses increased to combinations of 30 mg/kg of TIA and 90 mg/kg of CTC or 50 mg/kg of TIA and 150 mg/kg of CTC, there was a dose-related reduction in growth rate and FE. This was thought to be due to the interaction between TIA and SAL. In this study, using a protocol similar to the previous trial, broiler chicks were administered SAL at 60 mg/kg via the feed and the same inclusion rates of TIA + CTC. However, instead of feeding the birds continuously, considering the cost of TIA and possibly to compensate for the depressed growth attributable to the interaction with SAL, they were pulse-dosed for 1 to 10 d and again at 21 to 27 d, and the whole trial lasted 35 d to see if the intermittent pulses might reduce production losses. A total of 200 straight-run 1-d-old broiler chicks (Hubbard classic) were randomly distributed into 4 groups, with each group consisting of 5 cages containing 10 birds. The 20 cages were allocated to the 4 treatment groups on a random basis. The control diet, containing only SAL at 60 mg/kg, was fed to all birds throughout the 35-d trial, including the period during the gaps between dosing (i.e., d 11 to 20 and d 28 to 35). Feed and water were available for the whole trial period. Several serum enzymes (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) were determined from blood samples taken on d 35. Blood samples were also collected at 1, 19, and 35 d of age and were examined for antibody titers to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. Necropsy and histopathology of the birds (n = >or=4) were conducted during weekly intervals. There was no significant difference in weight gain, feed intake, and FE

  12. Capability of different non-nutritive feed additives on improving productive and physiological traits of broiler chicks fed diets with or without aflatoxin during the first 3 weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Allakany, H F; Abd Al-Hamid, A E; Al-Saffar, A A; Hassan, R A; Mohamed, N A

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether some non-nutritive feed additives (NNFA) could block the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and physiological parameters of Cobb broilers throughout the period from 1 to 21 day of age. There were eight treatments consisting of two levels of AF at 0 and 200 ppb and four NNFA within each AF level. These additives included mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) at 2 g/kg diet, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) at 2 g/kg diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lac) at 2 g/kg diet. At 21 day of age, five chickens of each treatment were slaughtered to study dressing percentage and relative weight of inner organs and glands. AF had a significant negative effect on body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake, while impairing feed conversion ratio (FCR). Aflatoxin significantly increased percentage liver, lymphocyte (%), monocyte (%), serum triglyceride level, and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), concentrations while decreasing dressing percentage, intestinal percentage, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hgb), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophil (%), heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total serum protein and serum albumin. Aflatoxin adversely affected the morphology of the liver, bursa and the thymus. There was a significant interaction between AF and NNFA on the relative weights of liver, heart and intestine. Lac completely blocked the negative effects of AF on the percentage liver and the heart and partially on the intestine. In conclusion, Lac was most effective in reversing the adverse effects of AF on growth and FCR and on the percentage, functions and morphology of the liver. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate also improved the economic traits of broilers but was less effective than Lac and more effective than MOS.

  13. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of 3- and 6-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically.

    PubMed

    Kollanoor-Johny, A; Mattson, T; Baskaran, S A; Amalaradjou, M A R; Hoagland, T A; Darre, M J; Khan, M I; Schreiber, D T; Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J; Venkitanarayanan, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In separate 3- and 6-wk trials, 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 70 birds/trial) were assigned to a control group (challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis, no CA) and 2 replicates of 0.7 and 1% CA (n = 14 birds/group). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. On d 1, birds were tested for any inherent Salmonella (n = 2 birds/group). For the 3-wk trial, on d 5, birds were challenged with 8 log(10) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis of a 4-strain mixture by crop gavage, and after 5 d postchallenge, birds (n = 2 birds/group) were euthanized to ensure Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. Caprylic acid was supplemented the last 5 d before tissue collection (n = 10 birds/group). For the 6-wk trial, on d 25, birds were challenged and confirmed for Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. The birds (n = 10 birds/group) were euthanized for tissue samples after CA supplementation for the last 5 d. Caprylic acid at 0.7 or 1% decreased Salmonella Enteritidis populations in cecum, small intestine, cloaca, liver, and spleen in both 3- and 6-wk trials. Body weight of birds did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.05). Further, to elucidate a potential antibacterial mechanism of action of CA, we investigated if CA could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis invasion of an avian epithelial cell line and expression of invasion genes hilA and hilD. The cell invasion study revealed that CA reduced invasive abilities of all Salmonella Enteritidis strains by ~80% (P < 0.05). Gene expression studies indicated that CA downregulated (P < 0.001) Salmonella invasion genes hilA and hilD. These results suggest that supplementation of CA through feed could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in broiler chicken and potentially reduces the pathogen's ability to invade intestinal epithelial cells

  14. Effect of dietary Fe to Cu ratios on hematological and growth responses of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J L; Day, E J

    1979-04-01

    A total of 2,640 broiler strain cockerels were used in three experiments to determine the interrelationships between Fe and Cu requirements of 1- to 21-day old broiler chicks. In each experiment, a starch non-fat milk basal diet was fed to chicks maintained in battery brooders beginning at 1 day of age. Maximum hemoglobin levels and packed cell volumes (PCV) of 21-day old chicks were found by feeding 80 parts per million (ppm) of dietary Fe and 8 ppm of dietary Cu from 1 to 21 days of age. The heaviest 21-day old chicks were found by feeding 80 ppm dietary Fe. Variations were found among experiments in the copper requirement based on body weight. The Cu requirement ranged from 8 to 16 ppm as indicated by 21-day old chick weights. A 10:1 dietary Fe to Cu ratio with an Fe requirement of 80 ppm appeared to maximize hemoglobin levels and PCV's of 21-day old broiler chicks; whereas, a 5:1 dietary Fe to Cu ratio, rather than a 10:1, 15:1, or 20:1 ratio, maximized 21-day old chick weights. Iron requirements for hematological and growth responses are essentially the same; however, the copper requirement may be slightly different for the two criteria.

  15. Relative bioavailabilities of organic zinc sources with different chelation strengths for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Lu, L; Li, S F; Luo, X G; Liu, B

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate relative bioavailability of Zn in 3 organic zinc sources with different chelation strength (Q(f)) compared with ZnSO(4). A total of 1,092, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to 6 replicate cages (14 chicks per cage) for each of 13 treatments. Dietary treatments included the basal corn-soybean meal diet (27.82 mg of Zn/kg of DM) supplemented with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg of added Zn as reagent ZnSO(4), or Zn sources with Q(f) of 6.5 (11.93% Zn; Zn AA C), 30.7 (13.27% Zn; Zn Pro B), or 944.0 (18.61% Zn; Zn Pro A)/kg, which are considered as weak, moderate, or strong Q(f), respectively. Bone Zn, pancreas Zn, pancreas metallothionein (MT) concentration, and pancreas MT messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6, 10, or 14 d of age. The results showed that bone Zn, pancreas Zn, pancreas MT concentration, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P < 0.001) as dietary Zn concentration increased at all ages. At 6 d of age, pancreas MT mRNA differed (P < 0.001) among dietary Zn sources, and the same tendency was observed at 10 (P = 0.08) or 14 d (P = 0.06) of age. The R(2) for a linear model was greater on d 6 than d 10 or 14 for all the response criteria. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of pancreas MT mRNA concentration on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailability of Zn AA C, Zn Pro B, and Zn Pro A relative to ZnSO(4) (100%) were 100.0, 121.1, and 72.3%, respectively, at 6 d of age. The results indicated that MT mRNA concentration in pancreas was more sensitive in reflecting differences in bioavailability among organic Zn sources than the MT concentration in pancreas or other indices. Moreover, the bioavailability of organic Zn sources was closely related to their Q(f).

  16. Effects of dietary boron supplementation on some biochemical parameters, peripheral blood lymphocytes, splenic plasma cells and bone characteristics of broiler chicks given diets with adequate or inadequate cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) content.

    PubMed

    Kurtoğlu, F; Kurtoğlu, V; Celik, I; Keçeci, T; Nizamlioğlu, M

    2005-02-01

    (1) The effects of 5 and 25 mg/kg boron supplementation of diets with inadequate (6.25 microg/kg) or adequate (50 microg/kg) cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) content on some biochemical parameters, tibia characteristics, peripheral blood lymphocyte and splenic plasma cell counts of broilers were investigated. (2) Supplementation of the diet with boron affected plasma concentrations of boron, iron, copper and zinc and also tibia boron, zinc and calcium concentrations but did not have any effect on tibia iron or copper concentrations or tibia ash and tibia weight values. (3) Boron supplementation caused significant increases in splenic plasma cell count but decreased the proximal and distal tibia growth plate widths. There was no effect of boron supplementation on peripheral blood alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) content. Whole blood haematocrit and haemoglobin counts were significantly increased by boron supplementation but there were no effects on leucocyte ratios such as eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and thrombocyte. (4) In general, the findings of the present study support the hypothesis that boron has an important biological role that affects the mineral metabolism of animals by influencing both biochemical and haematological mechanisms.

  17. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  18. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  19. Reduction of Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in 20-day-old broiler chickens by the plant derived compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chicks. In three separate experiments for each compound, day-old, chicks (N=75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatments (n=15/treatment): a...

  20. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  1. Dietary copper level affects copper metabolism during lipopolysaccharide-induced immunological stress in chicks.

    PubMed

    Koh, T S; Peng, R K; Klasing, K C

    1996-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of dietary Cu level on Cu metabolism during the acute phase response in broiler chicks with adequate (Experiment 1) or deficient (Experiment 2) Cu. Diets based on cornstarch and isolated soybean protein were used to formulate a basal diet, and basal diet plus either 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg additional Cu as either CuO or CuSO4. Each diet was fed to six pens of five chicks per pen (Experiment 1) or eight pens of five chicks (Experiment 2). Half of the chicks on each diet were injected with Salmonella typhymurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on alternate days. In Experiment 1, LPS significantly decreased daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency (P < 0.01) and increased the concentration of Cu in blood plasma (P < 0.01). In the uninjected birds, adding 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuO or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuSO4 increased the rate of gain over that of chicks fed the basal diet. In the birds challenged with LPS, 10 mg/kg Cu as CuO increased the rate of gain and efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Addition of CuSO4 to the diet of chicks challenged with LPS did not affect gain, intake, or feed efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Ceruloplasmin levels were higher in chicks challenged with LPS than in control chicks (P = 0.03), and this difference tended to be greater in chickens fed CuO than in chickens fed CuSO4 (P = 0.07). In chicks challenged with LPS, feeding CuO at all levels and feeding CuSO4 to give 10 or 15 mg/kg Cu increased ceruloplasmin levels above that of chicks fed the basal diet. Hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD were not influenced by dietary Cu level or source or LPS. Results of Experiment 2 were similar to those of Experiment 1 except that supplemental CuSO4 and CuO gave similar increases in gain and CuSO4 was more effective at increasing ceruloplasmin levels. Chicks given supplemental Cu had higher ceruloplasmin levels following challenge with LPS than

  2. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  3. The addition of fowlpox and pigeon pox vaccine to Marek's vaccine for broilers.

    PubMed

    Siccardi, F J

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies indicated that a cell-culture fowlpox vaccine was effective and safe when administered subcutaneously to day-old broiler chicks in combination with cell-associated Marek's vaccine without compromising the latter. Pox vaccines of chick embryo origin evaluated similarly provided excellent protection, although they caused local musculature swelling when injected into muscle rather than under the skin. No muscle swelling followed improper vaccination with the cell-culture fowlpox vaccine.

  4. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D{sub 3} or its metabolite 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D{sub 3} steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP.

  5. Dissemination and tracking of Salmonella spp. in integrated broiler operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeran; Kang, Min Su; Kwag, Sang Ick; Cho, Jae Keun

    2007-01-01

    Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea. PMID:17519569

  6. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  7. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  8. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  9. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken glucagon-like peptide-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-related peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin (OXM), are processed from an identical precursor proglucagon. In mammals, all of these peptides are suggested to be involved in the central regulation of food intake. We previously showed that intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM and GLP-1 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Here, we show that central administration of chicken GLP-2 potently suppresses food intake in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased by chicken GLP-2, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was significantly increased. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken GLP-2 did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. In addition, the anorexigenic effect of GLP-2 was not reversed by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist α-helical CRF, suggesting that CRF is not a downstream mediator of the anorexigenic pathway of GLP-2 in chicks. Intracerebroventricular administration of an equimolar amount of GLP-1 and GLP-2, but not OXM, significantly suppressed food intake in both broiler and layer chicks. All our findings suggest that GLP-2 functions as a potent anorexigenic peptide in the brain, as well as GLP-1, in chicks.

  10. Single or combined effects of mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic supplements on the total oxidants, total antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants, liver enzymes, and serum trace minerals in cyclic heat-stressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Rahman, Z U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Zaneb, H; Anwar, H; Rehman, H

    2011-11-01

    This study was intended to explore the oxidative status of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS) as modulated by supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and a probiotic mixture (PM). Two hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, birds were either kept in a thermoneutral zone (TN; 26.7°C for 24 h/d) or subjected to HS (35 ± 1.1°C and 75 ± 5% RH for 8 h/d from 1000 to 1800 h) to the conclusion of the study on d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% PM (HS-PM group), or their combination as a symbiotic (SYN; HS-SYN group). On d 42, birds were killed by cervical dislocation to collect serum for the determination of total oxidants, total antioxidants, paraoxonase, arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and trace minerals. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants and decreased (P < 0.05) paraoxonase and arylesterase, with no change in ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Dietary supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants, with no effect on the activities of other enzymes. Heat stress did not influence serum copper, zinc, and manganese concentrations of birds when compared with those in the TN group. However, MOS increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of all the trace minerals, whereas SYN increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of only zinc and copper. It was concluded that MOS or PM supplementation, alone or as a SYN, may reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS, whereas MOS alone or as a SYN may improve the absorption of trace minerals.

  11. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals.

  12. Inhibition of Growth of Salmonella by Native Flora of Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Some bacteria in the cecal microflora of broilers can inhibit colonization of chicks by Salmonella. Beneficial cecal bacteria may reduce Salmonella colonization by competing for nutrients and attachment sites or by producing metabolites that inhibit Salmonella growth. The purpose of th...

  13. Efficacy of combination chemicals as sanitizers of Salmonella-inoculated broiler hatching eggshells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitization of broiler hatching eggs provides an opportunity to reduce the eggshell bacterial load entering hatchery incubators, which can be subsequently carried with the chicks to the growout farm and ultimately into the processing plant. Two experiments evaluated combination chemicals containin...

  14. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  15. Prediction of optimal vaccination timing for infectious bursal disease based on chick weight.

    PubMed

    Vaziry, Asaad; Venne, Daniel; Frenette, Diane; Gingras, Sylvain; Silim, Amer

    2007-12-01

    Growth rate in broiler birds has increased substantially in the last decade due to improvement in genetics, feed formulation, cleaner environment, and vaccine formulations. As a result, it has become necessary to review and revise prediction method for vaccination in chicks. This study was undertaken to determine the possible use of the rate of weight gain rather than age in predicting vaccination time. Two groups of 1-day-old broilers originating from old and young breeders, respectively, and with different levels of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were used in this study. The chicks were divided into four groups and subjected to two feed regiments: groups A1 and B1 were fed broiler feed for normal growth rate, and groups A2 and B2 were fed breeder feed for slower growth rate. At 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 29, and 36 days of age, 22 chicks in each group were weighed, and blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against IBDV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test. Maternal antibody decline curves for each group were plotted according to chick age and chick weight. Fast-growing birds in groups A1 and B1 showed a faster rate of antibody decline, whereas slow-growing birds in groups A2 and B2 had a slower rate of antibody decline. Based on the effect of weight gain on maternal antibody decline, a new way of predicting vaccination time for IBDV based on measuring maternal antibody titers at 4 days of age was proposed and tested. The predicted antibody decline was shown to correspond to the real ELISA titers measured in our experiments (R = 0.9889), whereas a lower correlation (R = 0.8355) was detected between real ELISA titers and the titers predicted by the current method using age-based Deventer formula.

  16. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks.

  17. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  18. Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y

    2011-10-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n = 840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n = 210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000 mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500 mg/kg YE + 500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60 d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW + YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW + YE groups during the 60 d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60 d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE + YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60 d growing period.

  19. Effect of dietary palm kernel oil and biotin on the fatty liver and kidney syndrome in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Oloyo, R A; Ogunmodede, B K

    1989-01-01

    The effect of feeding biotin and palm kernel oil to broiler chicks on the appearance of Fatty Liver and Kidney Syndrome (FLKS) was investigated. A total of 480 broiler chicks was divided into two equal batches each of which was divided into 6 groups of 40 chicks per group. Each group was further subdivided into equal units of 20 chicks. Six dietary levels of biotin (40, 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240 mcg/kg feed) were given to the first batch of chicks, while the second batch had 2% palm kernel oil added to the six dietarybiotin levels. These two basic rations were supplemented with biotin in order to obtain six levels of the vitamin in the rations. The results showed that the 2% palm kernel oil forage affected FLKS mortality and the minimum biotin requirement. FLKS mortality was significantly reduced in case of palm kernel oil supplement. A lower amount of biotin (120 mcg/kg feed) was needed in case of palm kernel oil supplement-as compared with the necessary biotin (160 mcg/kg feed)-in order to prevent FLKS mortality when palm kernel oil was not contained in the rations. The biochemical analysis of the liver and kidney syndrome-coupled with the correlation and regression analysis of the data collected-showed that a minimum of 120 mcg/kg feed was needed by broiler chicks for the prevention of FLKS.

  20. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Schneitz, C.; Hakkinen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 103 cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter. The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  1. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens.

  2. Transmission of Salmonella to broilers by contaminated larval and adult lesser mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Roche, A J; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Fairchild, B D; Hinkle, N C

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit marker Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to nonchallenged pen mates. In trial 1, day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged with 4 larval or 4 adult beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 72 h. In addition, chicks were gavaged with the marker Salmonella in saline solution. These chicks were then placed into pens to serve as challenged broilers. In trial 2, all pens received 2 challenged chicks that were gavaged with larvae or beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 24 h and then removed from the inoculated feed for a period of 7 d. At 3 wk of age, cecal samples from the marker Salmonella-challenged broilers and from 5 pen mates in trial 1, or 10 pen mates in trial 2, were evaluated for the presence of the marker Salmonella in their ceca, and at 6 wk of age, all remaining pen mates were sampled. To monitor the presence of the marker Salmonella within pens, stepped-on drag swab litter samples were taken weekly. For the Salmonella-saline pens, 29 to 33% of the broilers that had been challenged and 10 to 55% of the pen mates were positive at 3 wk of age, and only 2 to 6% had positive ceca at 6 wk. For the pens challenged with adult beetles, 0 to 57% of the challenged broilers and 20 to 40% of the pen mates had positive ceca at 3 wk, and 4 to 7% were positive at 6 wk. The pens challenged with larvae had the greatest percentage of marker Salmonella-positive broilers; 25 to 33% of the challenged broilers and 45 to 58% of pen mates were positive at 3 wk, and 11 to 27% were positive at 6 wk. These results demonstrated that ingestion of larval or adult beetles contaminated with a marker Salmonella could be a significant vector for transmission to broilers.

  3. Influence of feed form and source of soybean meal of the diet on growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. 1. Floor pen study.

    PubMed

    Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Méndez, J; Mateos, G G

    2012-11-01

    In total, 3,120 broilers were used to study the effects of feed form and source of soybean meal (SBM) of the diet on growth performance. From 1 to 21 d of age, there were 12 treatments arranged factorially with 3 feed forms (mash, crumbles, and pellets) and 4 commercial sources of SBM that differed in the CP content [48.1 and 46.2% CP from the United States (USA-1 and USA-2), 47.6% CP from Brazil (BRA), and 46.3% CP from Argentina (ARG)]. From 21 to 42 d of age, diets were fed as pellets. Diets were formulated assuming that all SBM had similar digestible amino acid content per unit of CP. From 1 to 21 d of age, chicks fed crumbles or pellets had higher (P < 0.001) ADG than chicks fed mash. Also, chicks fed pellets had better (P < 0.001) feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) than chicks fed crumbles, and both were better than chicks fed mash. However, from 21 to 42 d of age, F:G was best (P < 0.001) for chicks previously fed mash. For the entire experimental period, broilers that were fed crumbles or pellets from 1 to 21 d of age had higher (P < 0.001) ADG than broilers that were fed mash. Also, broilers that were fed pellets had better (P < 0.05) F:G than broilers fed mash, with broilers fed crumbles being intermediate. Broilers fed the USA-2 meal had higher (P < 0.01) ADG than broilers fed the BRA or the ARG meals, with broilers fed the USA-1 meal being intermediate. Feed efficiency tended (P = 0.07) to be hindered in broilers fed the BRA meal. The results show that pelleting improved growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 d of age with effects being less evident at 42 d than at 21 d of age. Source of SBM affected growth performance suggesting the need for a better control of chemical composition and quality of this ingredient before diet formulation.

  4. Chicks like consonant music.

    PubMed

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether preference for consonance is rooted in acoustic properties important to the auditory system or is acquired through enculturation has not yet been resolved. Two-month-old infants prefer consonant over dissonant intervals, but it is possible that this preference is rapidly acquired through exposure to music soon after birth or in utero. Controlled-rearing studies with animals can help shed light on this question because such studies allow researchers to distinguish between biological predispositions and learned preferences. In the research reported here, we found that newly hatched domestic chicks show a spontaneous preference for a visual imprinting object associated with consonant sound intervals over an identical object associated with dissonant sound intervals. We propose that preference for harmonic relationships between frequency components may be related to the prominence of harmonic spectra in biological sounds in natural environments.

  5. Rice expressing lactoferrin and lysozyme has antibiotic-like properties when fed to chicks.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Brooke D; Huang, Ning; Klasing, Kirk C

    2002-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether rice that has been genetically produced to express human lactoferrin (LF) or lysozyme (LZ) protects the intestinal tract similarly to subtherapeutic antibiotics (bacitracin + roxarsone; Antibiotics). Experiment 1 compared 10 corn-soy diets containing 20% of various proportions of LF, LZ or conventional rice (CONV). Chicks fed 5% LF + 10% LZ + 5% CONV had significantly better feed efficiency and thinner lamina propria in the duodenum than those fed 20% CONV. Experiment 2 compared five corn-soy diets containing experimental rice combinations totaling 15% rice. Chicks fed 10% LZ + 5% CONV or 5% LF + 10% LZ had significantly lower feed intake and significantly better feed efficiency than those fed 15% CONV. Chicks fed 10% LZ + 5% CONV, 5% LF + 10% LZ or Antibiotics had significantly greater villous height in the duodenum compared with chicks fed 15% CONV. The lamina propria of the ileum was thinner and contained fewer leukocytes in chicks fed 10% LZ + 5% CONV or Antibiotics compared with those fed 15% CONV. The results from these experiments demonstrate a potential of genetically produced LF and LZ rice to be used as a substitute for antibiotics in broiler diets.

  6. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  7. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES FOR BROILER CHICKENS SUBJECTED TO SHORT-TERM ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate growth responses, blood chemistry and heart characteristics of broiler chicks subjected to progressive concentrations (0, 3,000, 6,000, 9,000 ppm) of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from 1 to 14 days of age, which were then discontinued throughout the remainder of th...

  8. Phytate utilization and phosphorus excretion by broiler chickens fed diets containing cereal grains varying in phytate and phytase content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor digestibility of phytate P by poultry leads to supplementation of poultry diets with inorganic P thereby increasing feed costs and also increasing the excretion of P by the birds. In order to quantify phytate utilization and P excretion by poultry, eighty, 12 day-old, male broiler chicks, weig...

  9. Effects of in ovo injection of organic zinc, manganese, and copper on the hatchability and bone parameters of broiler hatchlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent containing supplemental microminerals (Zn, Mn, and Cu) on hatchability and hatching chick quality variables in Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation (doi) eggs were subjected to 1 of 4 treatments using a commercial multi-e...

  10. Non-reducible collagen cross-linking in cartilage from broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Orth, M W; Leach, R M; Vailas, A C; Cook, M E

    1994-01-01

    Recent work has shown that hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), a non-reducible cross-link that stabilizes the collagen fibril network, is significantly greater (over 10-fold) in dyschondroplastic cartilage than in normal growth-plate cartilage in the tibiotarsi of chickens with homocysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). In the present study, broiler chicks with a genetic disposition to TD, as well as normal broiler chicks on a copper-deficient diet alone or supplemented with copper and thiram, were raised for 3 to 4 weeks (Expts. 1 and 2). Their dyschondroplastic cartilage from the proximal tibiotarsus was collected and analyzed for HP as well as lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links. Normal growth plate cartilage was obtained from chicks on the copper-deficient diet supplemented with copper. In a third experiment, another set of broiler chicks was raised on a corn/soybean meal-based diet with or without homocysteine, and their articular and sternal cartilage were isolated for cross-link analysis. In the first two experiments, dyschondroplastic cartilage from all birds with induced TD had higher HP and LP concentrations than growth-plate cartilage from birds without TD, although the ratios of HP to LP varied. In the third experiment, the sternal and articular cartilage from birds with homocysteine-induced TD appeared normal, having similar HP concentrations in the same types of cartilage in birds without TD.

  11. Dietary inclusion of different multi-strain complex probiotics; effects on performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Balamuralikrishnan, B; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two different complex probiotic supplementations on the growth performance, meat quality, excreta microflora, nutrient retention, blood metabolic profile and noxious gas emissions in broilers. A total of 612 conventional healthy 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers with body weight of 41 ± 0.3 g were randomly divided into 3 treatments with 12 replicate cages, with 17 broilers in each cage and fed with the following diets: CON-Basal diet, T1-CON + Probiotic A, T2-CON + Probiotic B. Significant results were observed on body weight gain, but not on feed conversation ratio and feed intake, in the whole experimental period. Increased faecal lactobacillus counts were found with probiotics supplementation. However, no significant effects were found for meat quality, nutrient retention, blood metabolic profile or noxious gas emissions. In conclusion, both multi-strain probiotics had beneficial effects on growth performance, drip loss percentage and faecal Lactobacillus counts in broilers.

  12. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  13. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of plant flavonoids in lipopolysaccharide-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Kamboh, A A; Hang, S-Q; Khan, M A; Zhu, W-Y

    2016-10-01

    Plant flavonoids are generally regarded as natural replacers of synthetic growth promoters in poultry production. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of plant flavonoids, such as genistein and hesperidin, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broilers. A total of 700 21-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into six treatment groups, each having six pens of 20 chicks/pen. Chicks were fed a basal diet without any additive (control, CON), 5 mg genistein/kg feed (G5), 20 mg hesperidin/kg (H20), or a basal diet with a combination of genistein and hesperidin (1 : 4) with doses of 5 mg/kg feed (GH5), 10 mg/kg (GH10) and 20 mg/kg (GH20) for 6 weeks. Half of the birds from each treatment were separated, and either challenged with 0·9% sodium chloride solution or Escherichia coli LPS (250 μg/kg BW) on days 16, 18 and 20. The results showed that both genistein and hesperidin improved (P<0.01) the plasma antioxidant status of growing broilers, by increasing total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreasing malondialdehyde production. LPS challenge further increased (P<0.05) TAOC and SOD levels. Regardless of LPS challenge, both genistein and hesperidin improved the humoral and mucosal immunity by increasing the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers (P<0.01), as well as anti-Newcastle disease and anti-avian influenza antibody titers (P<0.05). Supplementation of both the plant flavonoids generally increased (P<0.05) the immune organs indices (spleen, thymus and bursa). Thus, supplementation of basal diet of broiler chicks, either with genistein or hesperidin, improved immune and antioxidant status of growing broilers. In addition, combined supplementation of both the flavonoids showed further improvement than individual compounds.

  14. Comparison of Cobb and Ross strains in embryo physiology and chick juvenile growth.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Kamers, B; Everaert, N; Bruggeman, V; Decuypere, E

    2010-08-01

    Broiler performance is known to be related to embryonic developmental parameters. However, strain or genotype differences with regard to embryo physiological parameters and juvenile growth have received little attention. A total of 1,200 hatching eggs produced by Cobb and Ross broiler breeders of the same age were studied. At setting for incubation and between 66 and 130 h of incubation, egg resonant frequency (RF) was measured as an indicator of embryonic development. Also, eggs were weighed before setting and at d 18. From d 10 to 18 of incubation, remaining albumen was weighed. During the last days of incubation, hatching events such as internal pipping (IP), external pipping, and hatch were monitored every 2 h. Hatched chicks were recorded and weighed. At IP stage, gas partial pressures in the egg air chamber were measured. Hatched chicks were reared for 7 d and weighed. Results indicate that RF of Ross eggs were lower than those of Cobb eggs (P < 0.01) and starting time point of RF decrease occurred earlier in Cobb eggs than in Ross eggs. Relative egg weight loss up to 18 d of incubation was lower in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At IP, partial pressure of CO(2) was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05) with shorter incubation duration in Cobb. Between 6 and 60 h posthatch, heat production was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At 7 d posthatch, Cobb chicks were heavier than Ross chicks (P < 0.05). It is concluded that Cobb and Ross embryos-chicks have different growth trajectories leading in different patterns of growth resulting from differences in physiological parameters.

  15. Evaluation of broiler performance when fed Roundup-Ready wheat (event MON 71800), control, and commercial wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kan, C A; Hartnell, G F

    2004-08-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 40% wheat grain from Roundup Ready wheat (MON 71800), its similar nontransgenic control (MON 71900), or reference commercial wheat varieties. The feeding trial lasted 40 d, and each treatment consisted of 10 replicates of 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers (5 pens of males and 5 pens of females). Each pen contained 12 birds, and at d 13 birds were randomly removed until 9 birds remained. Body weight and feed intake were measured on pen basis at 40 d. At d 41, four broilers per pen were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected, and cut-up yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and fat contents of breast meat were determined. The data were analyzed by an ANOVA procedure. The BW and feed conversion at d 40 averaged 2,450 g and 1.52, respectively. There were no significant treatment x sex interactions, except for evisceration yield with significant differences (P < 0.05) in yield between birds fed 2 commercial wheat varieties. Data for final BW, feed conversion, carcass yield, and breast meat were not statistically different (P < 0.05) between broilers fed MON 71800 or MON 71900 or the population of birds fed commercial wheat varieties, except a lower carcass yield at d 41 for birds fed the nontransgenic control wheat. Thus MON 71800 was nutritionally equivalent to nongenetically modified wheat varieties when fed to broilers.

  16. Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2014-12-01

    Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for different production traits: broilers and layers. Chicks of both breeds either received feed and water immediately posthatch or were subjected to a 72-h feed and water delay. Ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin mRNA expression levels were determined at different time points. Effects of early feeding were limited, but breeds differed strikingly regarding cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels. Cytokine expression levels in broilers were low compared with layers and showed a transient drop in the second to third week of life. In contrast, broilers showed considerably higher expression levels of IgA, IgM, and IgY. These findings indicate that the 2 breeds use different immune strategies, at least on the ileal level.

  17. Human-Friendly Light-Emitting Diode Source Stimulates Broiler Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Dai, Wenhua; Yu, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Previous study and our laboratory have reported that short-wavelength (blue and green) light and combination stimulate broiler growth. However, short-wavelength stimuli could have negative effects on poultry husbandry workers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human-friendly yellow LED light, which is acceptable to humans and close to green light, on broiler growth. We also aimed to investigate the potential quantitative relationship between the wavelengths of light used for artificial illumination and growth parameters in broilers. After hatching, 360 female chicks (“Meihuang” were evenly divided into six lighting treatment groups: white LED strips (400–700 nm, WL); red LED strips (620 nm, RL); yellow LED strips (580 nm, YL); green LED strips (514 nm, GL); blue LED strips (455 nm, BL); and fluorescent strips (400–700 nm, FL). From 30 to 72 days of age, broilers reared under YL and GL were heavier than broilers treated with FL (P < 0.05). Broilers reared under YL obtained the similar growth parameters with the broilers reared under GL and BL (P > 0.05). Moreover, YL significantly improved feeding efficiency when compared with GL and BL at 45 and 60 days of age (P < 0.05). In addition, we found an age-dependent effect of light spectra on broiler growth and a quantitative relationship between LED light spectra (455 to 620 nm) and the live body weights of broilers. The wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be negatively related (R2 = 0.876) to live body weight at an early stage of development, whereas the wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be positively correlated with live body weight (R2 = 0.925) in older chickens. Our results demonstrated that human-friendly yellow LED light (YL), which is friendly to the human, can be applied to the broilers production. PMID:26270988

  18. The effectiveness of dietary sunflower meal and exogenous enzyme on growth, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood chemistry of broilers.

    PubMed

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Attia, Adel I; Ibrahim, Zenat A; Mahmoud, Reda A; El-Sayed, Sabry A

    2017-03-29

    High costs of conventional protein feed sources including soybean meal (SBM) generated the need for finding other alternatives. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of graded replacements of SBM by sunflower seed meal (SFM) with or without enzyme supplementation on growth performance, digestive enzymes, carcass traits, and blood profile of broiler chickens. A total of 240 unsexed 1-week-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups of 30 chicks each in five replicates each of six chicks in a factorial design (4 × 2) arrangement, including four levels of SFM (0, 25, 50, and 75% replacing SBM) and two levels of enzyme (0- or 0.1-g/kg diet) supplementation. Performance traits including feed conversion ratio, body weight, and weight gain were significantly (P < 0.01) improved with increasing SFM up to 50% substitution for SBM or with enzyme supplementation in broiler diet during the experiment. However, feed intake of broiler chicks was decreased with enzyme supplementation (P < 0.05). The activities of digestive enzymes (protease and amylase) were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced and enhanced by SFM and enzyme inclusion in diets, respectively. The activities of protease and amylase were improved with SFM diet supplemented with 0.1 g/kg enzyme in comparison with those with the un-supplemented diet. The evaluated carcass traits were not statistically (P > 0.05) influenced by feeding SFM meal or enzyme addition. Biochemical blood parameters were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by SFM, enzyme, or their interaction in broiler diets, except for globulin that was not affected by dietary enzyme. It is concluded that increasing SFM level in the diet up to 50% replacing SBM with the supplementation of enzyme improved the growth performance and enhanced positively carcass traits as well as the activity of digestive enzymes in broiler chickens.

  19. Monocular sleep in male domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone; Bobbo, Daniela; Rugger, Marina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2004-08-31

    Behavioural sleep during the first 2 weeks after hatching was studied in male chicks reared with an imprinting object (I-chicks) and in social isolation (NI-chicks). Time spent in sleeping with both eyes closed (binocular sleep) decreased gradually with age in both I-chicks and in NI-chicks whilst the number of episodes of binocular sleep decreased with age in NI-chicks but not in I-chicks. The pattern of monocular sleep (only one eye closed) of both I-chicks and NI-chicks showed no significant bias towards predominant left- or right-eye closure during the first week. During the second week, I-chicks showed a tendency towards more pronounced left-eye closure with a peak on day 10, whilst NI-chicks showed a tendency for more pronounced right-eye closure with peaks on days 9 and 11. In a different group of chicks, changing the colour of the imprinting object on day 8 produced a shift towards right-eye closure. In contrast, the removal of the imprinting object on day 8 did not cause any change in the pattern of monocular sleep. Differences with respect to sleeping patterns previously observed in females chicks are discussed.

  20. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Latif, M A; Morris, T R; Miah, A H; Hewitt, D; Ford, J E

    1979-01-01

    1. A flour was prepared from rhizomes of shoti(Curcuma zedoaria) in such a way that most of the protein was retained. The crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) content in this product was 155 g/kg, compared with approximately 10 g/kg in commercial shoti flour. 2. The high-protein flour proved highly toxic to 5-week-old rats and caused 100% mortality within 6 d when given at 320 g/kg diet. 3. Fresh rhizomes were minced and dried, and the resulting meal was given to weanling rats at 400 g/kg diet. All the animals lost weight rapidly, and two of the five rats died within 4 d. 4. This same shoti meal was given to 1-d-old chicks at 100 and 200 g/kg diet. All the chicks survived the test period (20 d), but body-weight, food intake and efficiency of food conversion decreased with increase in the level of shoti meal in the diet. 5. The traditional method of preparing shoti involves prolonged washing in changes of water, which removes most of the protein and other water-soluble nutrients and, presumably, a toxic constituent. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic principle, and to discover a less wasteful procedure for removing it.

  1. Interactive effects of sodium bentonite and coccidiosis with monensin or salinomycin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Gray, S J; Ward, T L; Southern, L L; Ingram, D R

    1998-04-01

    Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the interactive effects of sodium bentonite (NaB) with the efficacy of monensin (MON) or salinomycin (SAL) in coccidiosis-infected chicks. Male broiler chicks 5 to 14 d of age were used, and each treatment was replicated with eight (Exp. 1) or four (Exp. 2 and 3) pens of five chicks each. In Exp. 1, MON (80 ppm), NaB (0.50%), or MON+NaB were fed to uninfected and coccidiosis-infected (5 x 10(5) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts on Day 2 of the Exp.) chicks in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experiment 2 was identical to Exp. 1, but SAL (30 ppm) replaced MON as the anticoccidial additive. In Exp. 3, MON (55 ppm) or SAL (22 ppm) were added individually or with NaB (0.50%) to diets for uninfected or coccidiosis-infected chicks. Coccidial infection reduced (P < 0.01) gain, feed intake, gain:feed, plasma carotenoids, and percentage tibia ash in all experiments. The MON and SAL additions increased these response criteria in infected chicks (coccidiosis by anticoccidial, P < 0.07), except MON did not increase (P > 0.10) feed intake or tibia ash in Exp. 3. In Exp. 3, NaB partially reduced the positive effect of MON on daily gain (NaB by MON, P < 0.03), and of SAL on feed intake (NaB by SAL, P < 0.08). The NaB addition also increased gain:feed (P < 0.08), and the increase was greater in infected chicks (coccidiosis by NaB, P < 0.08). Also in Exp. 3, SAL increased feed intake more in chicks not fed NaB than in chicks fed NaB (SAL by NaB, P < 0.08). Dietary NaB (0.5%) may reduce the efficacy of MON and SAL in coccidiosis-infected chicks when these additives are added at less than recommended levels.

  2. Responses in calcium and phosphorus metabolism and hepatic lipid deposition among estrogenized chicks fed various dietary ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bolden, S L; Jensen, L S; Takahashi, K

    1984-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether diet composition would influence calcium and phosphorus metabolism in chicks administered estrogen. At 1 day of age, broiler chicks were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (CS), or an isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet containing 5% fish meal, 5% alfalfa meal and 10% torula yeast (FAY). At 21 days equivalent numbers were implanted with one of two lengths of Silastic tubing containing estradiol dipropionate, while the remaining birds served as nonimplanted controls. Significant increases were observed in liver weight, liver lipid, plasma total calcium and inorganic phosphate in chicks that were implanted, while concomitant declines were seen in body weight. Implanted chicks fed the CS diet had significantly higher liver weight, liver lipid, plasma phosphorus and plasma calcium and lower tibial bone ash than those fed the FAY diet. Furthermore, liver lipid values were very highly correlated with plasma phosphorus and calcium. In an identical study with slower growing White Leghorn chicks, the same trends were observed but were less well defined. These data show that the inclusion of certain ingredients into corn-soybean diets balanced for the major nutrients affects the response of chicks to estrogenization. Liver lipid deposition, calcium and phosphorus metabolism are all subject to diet and estrogen interactions.

  3. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  4. Stunting syndrome in broilers: physical, physiological, and behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, F; Nir, I

    1995-01-01

    The effect of stunting syndrome (SS) on young broilers induced by orally administering an inoculum prepared from intestines of SS-affected broiler chicks was studied in two experiments. Depression of growth, feed intake, and feed utilization, respectively, was negatively related to the age of inoculation, i.e., highest at posthatch inoculation (63, 57, and 61%), and intermediate at the ages of 3 (42, 45, and 50%) and 7 d (29, 34, and 53%), whereas at the age of 14 d inoculation was ineffectual and the inoculated chicks performed similarly to the naive controls. Eating behavior was determined by periodically recording the number of chicks in each treatment group exhibiting this behavior, i.e., pecking mash in the feeder or pecking the litter. Eating activity was much higher in inoculated chicks (about 20 to 24%) than in the naive controls (6 to 12%) and as with performance negatively related to the age of inoculation. In chicks inoculated at the age of 14 d, eating activity was quite similar to that of the naive control chicks. Noninoculated chickens raised in the same room as their inoculated counterparts were infected by the disease agents. In some respects the consequences of horizontal infection were similar to those observed in inoculated chicks, i.e., depressed feed intake, growth, and feed utilization and a heavier heart, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, and gastrointestinal contents. In contrast, the activities of the pancreatic digestive enzymes were more similar to those of the naive controls than to those of the inoculated groups. At the age of 14 d, activities of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase in the pancreas were lower in the inoculated than in the naive control birds. At the age of 21 d, the results were reversed and activity in the inoculated birds was higher than in the naive control birds. During both periods, the activity of pancreatic lipase was higher in the naive controls than in the inoculated birds. The hyperactivity

  5. Caffeine causes pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kamely, M; Torshizi, M A Karimi; Rahimi, S; Wideman, R F

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), or ascites, is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Experimental models are required for triggering PHS to study the pathogenesis of this syndrome and to select resistant genetic lines. Caffeine increases vascular resistance and promotes systemic hypertension in mammals, but a similar effect of caffeine on the pulmonary circulation had not previously been demonstrated. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of caffeine alone (Exp. 1) or in combination with cold temperature (Exp. 2) on parameters associated with PHS in young broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 288 chicks were distributed among 24 pens and brooded at standard environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 2, 192 chicks were distributed among 16 pens and brooded at cool environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 1 caffeine administered at or above 12.5 mg/(kg BW·d) induced severe PHS and resulted in acute mortality and RVH ( < 0.05). Hematocrit also slightly increased by caffeine supplementation ( = 0.07). In Exp. 2 caffeine-treated broilers exposed to cold temperatures remarkably exhibited PHS incidences and developed RVH with right ventricular to total ventricular weight ratios of 30% or greater. Moreover, hematocrit significantly increased because of caffeine supplementation in cool ambient temperature ( = 0.002). Our data demonstrate that caffeine induces high incidences of PHS in broilers, which is exacerbated by exposure to low temperatures.

  6. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers.

  7. Generation of hydroxyl radicals during ascites experimentally induced in broilers.

    PubMed

    Arab, H A; Jamshidi, R; Rassouli, A; Shams, G; Hassanzadeh, M H

    2006-04-01

    Increased metabolic rates, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac dysfunction are the most important features of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. However, the mechanism of cell injury causing the pathogenesis of the syndrome is not clearly understood. Our study aimed to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in broiler chickens experiencing ascites. The hundred and fifty 1-d-old chickens were purchased from a local hatchery and reared in an open poultry house for 46 d. They were divided at random into three groups and ascites was induced in two groups by exposing them to low temperature or administration of triiodothyronine (T(3)). The third group served as control and was reared normally. Haematological, biochemical and pathological tests were used to determine the incidence of ascites: including total red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), release of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight (RV/TV). A salicylate hydroxylation method was used to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in treated groups. TWo hydroxylated salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (2,3- and 2,5-DHBA), were measured by HPLC to detect the generation of OH*. An ascites syndrome was observed in T(3) and low-temperature treated groups, as shown by necropsy changes and increases in f RBC, PCV, ALT, AST and the ratio of RV/TV. Concentrations of 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA were increased in groups experiencing ascites compared to control group. It is suggested that reactive oxygen species that is OH* ions, may be involved in the pathogenesis of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens.

  8. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  9. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  10. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-10-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of (14C)HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis.

  11. Incidence of Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Chickens in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, K.K.; O'Neil, J.B.; Prior, M.G.; Dunkelgod, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7. PMID:6831304

  12. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  13. Plexogenic arteriopathy in broiler lungs: Evaluation of line, age, and sex influences1

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, R. F.; Mason, J. G.; Anthony, N. B.; Cross, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform lesions form in the terminal pulmonary arterioles of human patients suffering from prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. Plexiform lesions also develop in broiler lungs, but lesion incidences are not strongly correlated with sustained pulmonary hypertension as reflected by right to total ventricular weight (RVTV) ratios. The present study was conducted to assess plexiform lesion incidences in broiler lines that have been divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to pulmonary hypertension. Broilers from susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) lines were reared together and only clinically healthy (nonascitic, noncyanotic) individuals were evaluated to minimize potential line differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. The objective was to determine if an innate genetic predisposition for plexogenic arteriopathy would be exposed in SUS broilers when compared with RES broilers in the absence of extreme differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. Broilers up to 12 wk age from the SUS and RES lines had essentially equivalent BW, indices of cardiopulmonary function (left ventricle + septum weight, total ventricle weight, and RVTV ratios), and lung volumes within a sex. Average RVTV ratios for broilers from both lines were indicative of normal pulmonary arterial pressures at all ages sampled. Nevertheless, plexiform lesions were detected in SUS and RES broiler lungs immediately posthatch and thereafter at all ages sampled. Lesion incidences were consistently low and did not differ between the lines within any of the sampling ages. This evidence demonstrates that plexiform lesions develop extremely rapidly in broiler chicks, apparently without the prerequisite for vascular stress caused by severe, prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. No innate genetic predisposition for complex vascular lesion development appeared to exist in the SUS line when compared with the RES line. PMID:25681478

  14. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    PubMed

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  15. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  16. Effect of low doses of dietary rare earth elements on growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Wehr, U; Rambeck, W A

    2010-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate effect of dietary rare earth elements (REE), including both organic and inorganic compounds, on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, a total of 180 male Ross broiler chicks were allocated to 72 pens with different assignment: four chicks per pen or individually. The following three treatment diets were applied: control, REE-chlorides at a dose of 40 mg/kg and REE-citrate at a dose of 70 mg/kg. Each treatment group had 24 pens containing both assignments (12 pens each). In experiment 2, a total of 72 male 3-day-old Ross broiler chicks were separated to four groups: control, REE-chlorides at a dose of 70 mg/kg and REE-citrate at doses of 70 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. In experiment 1, dietary REE-citrate improved body weight gain during the overall period by 5.0% (p < 0.05) while the increase with REE-chloride was not significant. In experiment 2, growth effects (p < 0.05) were only found in the period from day 21 to slaughter with all REE forms, and feed conversion ratio was improved by 3.4% (p < 0.05) with REE-citrate. No significant effects of REE were found on chill weight, percentages of breast meat, thigh weight, drumstick weight and wing weight. Concentrations of La and Ce in the liver and muscles were very low, accounting for 0.11-0.76 and 0.02-0.30 mg/kg respectively. There was weak tendency for a dose-response relationship especially in the groups supplemented with REE-chlorides. The main blood serum biochemical parameters were not significantly affected by REE in the diets. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of low doses of REE-citrates might improve growth performance of broilers without affecting carcass composition and health of the broilers.

  17. Quantification of FITC-labelled probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P during gastrointestinal transit in broilers.

    PubMed

    Blajman, J E; Astesana, D M; Zimmermann, J A; Rossler, E; Scharpen, A Romero; Berisvil, A P; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S

    2017-02-07

    The knowledge related to the fate of probiotics in the complex environment of the intestinal microbiota in broilers is just beginning to be elucidated; however, it is not yet well understood. A good method to investigate the mechanisms by which probiotics mediate their effects is to mark probiotic bacteria and trace them. The aim of this research was to develop a new method to estimate in vivo fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P counts during passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broilers. Forty-five, 1 d old Cobb broilers were used in this trial. Programmed necropsies were performed 30 min, 6 h, and 12 h after the administration of the probiotic bacterium, and samples of liver, crop, duodenum, caecum, and bursa of fabricius were collected. To determine the spatial and temporal transit of L. salivarius DSPV 001P in broilers, the number of bacteria as well as its respective fluorescent signal produced by FITC were measured. In order to observe the relationship between the variables, a logistic regression analysis was applied. The amount of fluorescence could be used as an indicator of fluorescent probiotic bacteria in the crop and duodenum 30 min after probiotic bacterium supplementation. In addition, the fluorescent signal could be used to estimate bacterial counts in caecum 6 and 12 h after L. salivarius DSPV 001P administration. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first in vivo trial to employ the bacterial FITC-labelling technique in order to enumerate probiotic bacteria during gastrointestinal transit in broilers.

  18. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  19. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin receptor (LPR) genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for real time RT-PCR analysis with custom-designed primers and probes. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chick...

  20. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred and fifty day-old chicks were...

  1. Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charco...

  2. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat and its ratio to the final body weight showed that fat accumulation in the broiler chicken abdomen was reduced when broiler chickens drank only ONW for five weeks (P < 0.05). ONW supplementation improved blood parameters, including triacylglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, in accordance with a globulin increase in broiler chickens, both IgG and IgM generation were significantly enhanced when ONW was supplied to broiler chickens (P < 0.05) but only a numerical advance was observed in the HNW group (P > 0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P < 0.05), and it seems that superoxide dismutase refinement was completed due to oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM.

  3. Broiler weight estimation based on machine vision and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Amraei, S; Abdanan Mehdizadeh, S; Salari, S

    2017-03-09

    1. Machine vision and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures were used to estimate live body weight of broiler chickens in 30 1-d-old broiler chickens reared for 42 d. 2. Imaging was performed two times daily. To localise chickens within the pen, an ellipse fitting algorithm was used and the chickens' head and tail removed using the Chan-Vese method. 3. The correlations between the body weight and 6 physical extracted features indicated that there were strong correlations between body weight and the 5 features including area, perimeter, convex area, major and minor axis length. 5. According to statistical analysis there was no significant difference between morning and afternoon data over 42 d. 6. In an attempt to improve the accuracy of live weight approximation different ANN techniques, including Bayesian regulation, Levenberg-Marquardt, Scaled conjugate gradient and gradient descent were used. Bayesian regulation with R(2) value of 0.98 was the best network for prediction of broiler weight. 7. The accuracy of the machine vision technique was examined and most errors were less than 50 g.

  4. Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Bolder, Nico M; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F

    2008-11-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses.

  5. Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to recycle organic wastes and as feed for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; González, Ernesto Avila; Hernández, Alma Rocha; Pino, José Manuel

    2002-02-01

    Several dried waste materials from different origins were used as a substrate to grow Tenebrio molitor L. Nutrient/amino acid values differed depending on both larval size/weight and substrate. These larvae were experimentally used as a broiler feedstuff. Seven-day-old chicks of a commercially available strain with an average weight of 126 g were randomly distributed into nine six-broiler groups. Three levels of Tenebrio molitor larvae (0, 5, and 10% dry weight) were used in a 19% protein content sorghum-soybean meal basal diet, to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency. Results after 15 d showed no significant differences among treatments. These data indicate that Tenebrio molitor has the potential to be used as protein source for raising broilers.

  6. Anaemia-dermatitis of broilers: field observations on its occurrence, transmission and prevention.

    PubMed

    Vielitz, E; Landgraf, H

    1988-01-01

    Anaemia-dermatitis was first observed in German broiler flocks in 1977. Its frequency has increased in the past six years. Atrophy of thymus, bursa and bone marrow occur and are affected by a severe anaemia and immunosuppression. Secondary bacterial infections of the skin cause gangrenous dermatitis. Systematic investigations of outbreaks in two broiler integrations showed the syndrome to occur only in the offspring of young broiler breeders during the first 3 to 9 weeks of production. Anaemia could be reproduced experimentally in CAA-antibody negative SPF birds by injecting a bacteria-free filtrate of organ homogenates of diseased birds; birds kept in contact with the inoculated chicks remained healthy. It is concluded that anaemia-dermatitis is primarily caused by the chicken anaemia agent (CAA). Vertical transmission via hatching egg predominates with no evidence of horizontal transmission. In order to prevent egg transmission of CAA immunisation during rearing is indicated for breeder stocks.

  7. Effects of clinoptilolite on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Wu, Qiujue; Zhou, Yanmin; Ahmad, Hussain; Wang, Tian

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of natural clinoptilolite and modified clinoptilolite on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into three treatments, each of which had eight replicates. Each replicate contains 10 chicks. Control (CON) group fed with the basal diets, natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) group fed basal diets with 2 % natural clinoptilolite, and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) group fed basal diets with 2 % modified clinoptilolite for 42 days. The results showed that the 2 % supplementation of natural clinoptilolite and modified clinoptilolite had no adverse effect on growth performance of broilers at 42 days of age. Relative weights of organs were not influenced by dietary treatments at 21 and 42 days. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in MCLI group than CON group at 21 days of age. At 21 and 42 days, the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, total superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in NCLI and MCLI groups than the CON group while there was no difference in T-AOC between CON and NCLI groups. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in NCLI and MCLI groups than the CON group. It was concluded that the addition of 2 % natural clinoptilolite and modified clinoptilolite to diet can improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, although their effects on growth performance was negligible.

  8. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Defu; Hao, Shengyan; Liu, Guohua; Nian, Fang; Ru, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4) and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP) and B (Avizyme 1502). Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks). Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p<0.05). Apparent ileal crude protein digestibility coefficient of M2 was higher than that of M3 (p<0.05). Apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn) of M1 were significant higher than those of M4 (p<0.05). Supplementation of the basal diets with enzyme A or B improved the BWG by 8.6% (p<0.05) and 4.1% (p>0.05), respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05). Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets. PMID:25358370

  9. Effects of maize source and complex enzymes on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Defu; Hao, Shengyan; Liu, Guohua; Nian, Fang; Ru, Yingjun

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4) and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP) and B (Avizyme 1502). Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks). Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p<0.05). Apparent ileal crude protein digestibility coefficient of M2 was higher than that of M3 (p<0.05). Apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn) of M1 were significant higher than those of M4 (p<0.05). Supplementation of the basal diets with enzyme A or B improved the BWG by 8.6% (p<0.05) and 4.1% (p>0.05), respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05). Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets.

  10. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Qaisrani, S. N.; van Krimpen, M. M.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P = 0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P > 0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P = 0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. PMID:26175052

  11. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P<0.001), BW gain (P=0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P=0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P=0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P<0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.

  12. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr.

  13. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

  14. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-11-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment.

  15. Increased dietary protein elevates plasma uric acid and is associated with decreased oxidative stress in rapidly-growing broilers.

    PubMed

    Machín, M; Simoyi, M F; Blemings, K P; Klandorf, H

    2004-03-01

    Uric acid is an important antioxidant and methods to elevate its plasma concentration may be important in animal health. In a first study, the effect of dietary protein on plasma uric acid (PUA) and glucose concentrations were determined in 3-week-old chicks. Twenty-four broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four diets: a commercial control diet (C, 20% crude protein), low protein (LP) containing 10% casein, medium protein (MP) containing 20% casein or high protein (HP) containing 45% casein for a 3-week experiment. PUA concentration increased (P<0.05) in chicks fed HP diet and declined (P<0.05) in chicks fed LP while plasma glucose concentrations were lower (P<0.05) in chicks fed the LP diet at the end of the study. In a second study, PUA and leukocyte oxidative activity (LOA) were determined in broilers fed C, LP, MP or HP diets for 4 weeks. As in the first study, dietary protein directly affected PUA concentrations. In birds consuming HP diets, PUA was negatively correlated (P=0.06) with lowered LOA. These data support the view that increases in dietary protein can increase PUA concentrations, which can ameliorate oxidative stress.

  16. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  17. Use of fly ash in diets of cage and floor broilers

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, C.L.; Andrews, L.D.

    1980-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare limestone to fly ash from a coal-fired generator station as a calcium source for broilers. In experiment 1, 5 male and 5 female broiler chicks were placed in each of 32 cages. Sixteen cages of birds were fed a ration with limestone supplying 30% of the total calcium and 16 cages were fed a ration with 30% of the total calcium supplied by fly ash. The total calcium and phosphorus levels of the rations were 1.0% and .5%, respectively. In this experiment no significant difference was found for 8-week body weight between diets where the added calcium was from limestone or fly ash. In experiment 2 a group of 40 male and 40 female cage reared broilers and 40 male and 40 female floor reared broilers were fed a basal diet of limestone providing 33% of the total calcium. Three diets with increasing fly ash levels were fed to three cage groups of 40 male and 40 female broilers providing 33, 46, and 45% of the total calcium of .9, 1.1, and 1.8%, respectively. Broilers fed the highest fly ash level weighed significantly less at 8 weeks than the caged controls but did not differ from the other treatments. Bone breaking strength as measured by the Allo Kramer Shear Press was similar between the basal and low level fly ash group and increased with higher fly ash levels. In experiment 3 four groups of 40 male broilers in cages were fed limestone diets with graded levels of limestone for the calcium source. Another four groups of 40 caged male broilers were fed fly ash diets with equivalent graded levels of fly ash for the calcium source. Both limestone and fly ash diets provided .17, .34, .51, and .68% calcium of a total calcium content of .28, .45, .62, and .79%, respectively.

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome in Broilers Caused by Enterococcus faecalis†

    PubMed Central

    Tankson, J. D.; Thaxton, J. P.; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A field strain of Enterococcus faecalis was administered to broiler chicks at doses of 0, 3 × 106, 1.5 × 107, and 2 × 107 bacteria/bird either intra-abdominally or intravenously. In trials 1 to 3, birds were reared communally in a broiler house on pine shaving litter. In trial 4, challenged and control birds were maintained in separate isolation rooms in metal cages with raised wire floors. Challenged birds exhibited a characteristic cavity or depression in the external wall of the right ventricle. A subjective scoring system was devised to quantify challenge effects by assigning each heart a score of 1 to 4. The average number of birds, over all trials and over all dose levels, exhibiting the ventricular cavity was 93%. This value in controls was 5%. The average heart score for challenged birds was 3.1, and that for controls was 0.20. Heart scores of challenged and control chicks were not different in birds reared communally or in separate isolation rooms. Additionally, both routes of administration were equally effective. Results suggest that challenge with E. faecalis caused pulmonary hypertension. PMID:11553576

  19. Pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers caused by Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Tankson, J D; Thaxton, J P; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y

    2001-10-01

    A field strain of Enterococcus faecalis was administered to broiler chicks at doses of 0, 3 x 10(6), 1.5 x 10(7), and 2 x 10(7) bacteria/bird either intra-abdominally or intravenously. In trials 1 to 3, birds were reared communally in a broiler house on pine shaving litter. In trial 4, challenged and control birds were maintained in separate isolation rooms in metal cages with raised wire floors. Challenged birds exhibited a characteristic cavity or depression in the external wall of the right ventricle. A subjective scoring system was devised to quantify challenge effects by assigning each heart a score of 1 to 4. The average number of birds, over all trials and over all dose levels, exhibiting the ventricular cavity was 93%. This value in controls was 5%. The average heart score for challenged birds was 3.1, and that for controls was 0.20. Heart scores of challenged and control chicks were not different in birds reared communally or in separate isolation rooms. Additionally, both routes of administration were equally effective. Results suggest that challenge with E. faecalis caused pulmonary hypertension.

  20. The use of high oil corn in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J A; Gernat, A G; Murillo, J G; Araba, M

    1999-06-01

    We examined the effect of substituting conventional corn (CC; 3.5% crude fat) with high oil corn (HOC; 8.81 and 6.75% crude fat) on broiler performance. In Experiment 1, 100 chicks were assigned to 16 experimental pens consisting of two treatments. Treatment 1, the control group used CC, whereas in Treatment 2, CC was totally replaced with HOC containing 8.81% crude fat. In Experiment 2, 52 chicks were assigned to each of 16 experimental pens divided also into two treatments. Treatment 1 was the control group using CC and in Treatment 2 CC was totally replaced by HOC (6.75% crude fat). Body weight, cumulative feed intake, and feed efficiency were determined weekly for each pen from 7 to 42 d of age. Carcass weight and percentage yield were determined prechill. Results in Experiment 1 showed no significant differences for any parameter measured. In Experiment 2, body weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for birds fed HOC at 42 d of age. There were no significant differences among treatments for the remaining parameters. These results indicate that comparable performance of broilers can be obtained when CC is substituted with HOC.

  1. Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Apata, David Friday

    2011-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents.

  2. Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Apata, David Friday

    2011-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

  3. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( < 0.05) greater than that in CON and CAP throughout the feeding period, whereas the ratio of feed to gain (G:F) was significantly ( < 0.05) lower. Broilers in P1, P2, CAPP1, and CAPP2 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater levels of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, IgG, and cluster of differentiation 3 than those in CON. Furthermore, broilers in CAPP1 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater richness and diversity of intestinal microorganisms, particularly of , than those in all other dietary treatments. In summary, our results indicate that large-scale microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can

  4. Interrelations between the Microbiotas in the Litter and in the Intestines of Commercial Broiler Chickens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Michael D.; Yu, Zhongtang; Nelson, Michael C.; Moeller, Steven J.; Lilburn, Michael S.; Zerby, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens and the microbiota in the litter have been well studied, but the interactions between these two microbiotas remain to be determined. Therefore, we examined their reciprocal effects by analyzing the intestinal microbiotas of broilers reared on fresh pine shavings versus reused litter, as well as the litter microbiota over a 6-week cycle. Composite ileal mucosal and cecal luminal samples from birds (n = 10) reared with both litter conditions (fresh versus reused) were collected at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days of age. Litter samples were also collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 42. The microbiotas were profiled and compared within sample types based on litter condition using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The microbiotas were further analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from microbiota DNA extracted from both chick intestinal and litter samples collected at day 7. Results showed significant reciprocal effects between the microbiotas present in the litter and those in the intestines of broilers. Fresh litter had more environmental bacteria, while reused litter contained more bacteria of intestinal origin. Lactobacillus spp. dominated the ileal mucosal microbiota of fresh-litter chicks, while a group of bacteria yet to be classified within Clostridiales dominated in the ileal mucosal microbiota in the reused-litter chicks. The Litter condition (fresh versus reused) seemed to have a more profound impact on the ileal microbiota than on the cecal microbiota. The data suggest that the influence of fresh litter on ileal microbiota decreased as broilers grew, compared with temporal changes observed under reused-litter rearing conditions. PMID:20693454

  5. Supplementation of nitrocompounds in broiler diets: Effects on bird performance, ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in broiler manure.

    PubMed

    Mowrer, Jake E; Sedlacek, Paula; Kim, Jihyuk; Ritz, Casey; Kim, Woo K

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrocompounds on bird performance, ammonia volatilization, and changes in manure nitrogen (N). A total of 200 one-day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were used for this study. The chicks were raised in electrically heated battery brooders for 18 days. On day 1, birds were allocated into five treatment groups with four replicated pens: (T1) control, a corn and soybean meal diet (3,100 kcal kg(-1) metabolizable energy (ME) and 21% Crude Protein (CP)); (T2) 16.7 mg kg(-1) nitroethanol (NEL); (T3) 33.3 mg kg(-1) NEL; (T4) 16.7 mg kg(-1) nitropropanol (NPL); and (T5) 33.3 mg kg(-1) NPL. The body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured on days 7, 14 and 18. Volatized ammonia (VA) and other N forms were measured at collection and following 2 weeks of incubation at 30°C. Broiler growth was not adversely affected by the nitrocompounds at concentrations up to 33.3 mg kg(-1). The results show that initial manure pH was reduced by adding nitroethanol (NEL) and nitropropanol (NPL) to the diet by 0.2 and 0.5 pH units, respectively. Total VA after 2 weeks was unaffected by dietary treatment. The amounts of uric acid decomposed and ammonia produced were closely balanced in the control sample. However, this balance was significantly different among the manures produced by birds receiving nitrocompound treatments. The inclusion of NEL and NPL resulted in the presence of measurable amounts of Xanthine not found in the control group. This study indicates that supplementation of nitroethanol or nitropropanol into broiler diets up to 33.3 mg kg(-1) influences uric acid degradation and ammonia production in broiler manure while maintaining optimal growth performance.

  6. Eimeria tenella oocyst shedding and output in cecal or fecal contents following experimental challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, A; Caldwell, D J; Klein, J; Coppedge, J; Pohl, S; Fitz-Coy, S; Lee, J T

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether Eimeria tenella oocyst output in cecal and fecal contents, lesion development, and performance characteristics were affected by ad libitum versus restricted feeding and challenge level. In experiment 1, 144 Cobb 500 males were placed in battery cages with 6 chicks/pen. On d 20, half of the battery pens were placed on feed restriction and all broilers were orally challenged with Eimeria tenella oocysts at one of 3 challenge levels (0, 5,000, or 20,000 sporulated oocysts). Cecal and fecal material were collected separately from d 4 postchallenge through d 10 postchallenge for oocysts output (oocysts shed/g) determination. Six days postchallenge, 3 broilers from each pen were removed and subjected to necropsy for lesion assessment. In experiment 2, 96 Cobb 500 males were placed in identical battery pens with 8 chicks/pen. On d 14, restricted feeding was initiated and broilers were challenged with Eimeria tenella oocysts at one of 3 challenge levels (1,000, 5,000, or 20,000 oocysts). Twenty-four hour collections of cecal and fecal material were obtained separately from d 4 postchallenge through d 10 postchallenge for oocysts per gram and total output determination. Six days postchallenge, 4 broilers from each pen were removed and subjected to necropsy for lesion assessment. In both experiments, BW gain was not affected by challenge dose in either the ad libitum-fed or restrict-fed broilers. Increased lesion development was observed with increasing challenge levels, and oocyst shedding peaked between d 7 and 9 postchallenge in both experiments. Oocyst concentration was higher in cecal droppings compared with fecal material throughout peak shedding; however, total oocyst output for the challenge period was similar between fecal material and cecal droppings.

  7. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  8. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z R; Hu, C H; Xia, M S; Zhan, X A; Wang, M Q

    2003-06-01

    Two hundred forty male Avian Farms broiler chicks, 1 d of age, were randomly allocated to four treatments, each of which had five pens of 12 chicks per pen. The chicks were used to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora and morphology. The chicks received the same basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, and FOS was added to the basal diet at 0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g/kg diet at the expense of corn. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS to the basal diet significantly increased average daily gain of broilers. The feed-to-gain ratios were significantly decreased for the birds fed diets with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg FOS versus the control. Addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but inhibited Escherichia coli in the small intestinal and cecal digesta. Supplementation of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg FOS to chicks significantly improved the activities of amylase compared to the control (12.80 or 14.75 vs. 8.42 Somogyi units). A significant increase in the activities of total protease was observed in 4.0 g/kg FOS-treated birds versus controls (83.91 vs. 65.97 units). Morphology data for the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum showed no significant differences for villus height, crypt depth, or microvillus height at the duodenum. By contrast, addition of 4.0 g/kg FOS significantly increased ileal villus height, jejunal and ileal microvillus height, and villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratios at the jejunum and ileum and decreased crypt depth at the jejunum and ileum. However, addition of 8.0 g/kg FOS had no significant effect on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora, or morphology.

  9. Effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on performance and development of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Jung, B; Batal, A B

    2012-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on broiler performance, and physical and morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Experiment 1: A total of 180 one-d-old male chicks were placed in battery brooders in 3 × 6 replicate pens containing 10 chicks each. Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments; a maize-soyabean meal based diet supplemented with 0, 0·25, and 0·50% Torula yeast RNA (as a source of nucleotides) from 0 to 16 d of age. 3. Experiment 2: A total of 1344 one-d-old male chicks were placed in floor pens and reared on recycled wood shavings (two flocks) under a high stocking density (0·068 m(2)/bird). Chicks were randomly assigned to one of the 4 dietary treatments (0, 0·25% Torula yeast RNA, 2% and 6% Nupro®) for the starter period (0 to 14 d of age) with 6 replicate pens containing 56 chicks each. All the birds were fed on the same common grower diet with no supplementation of nucleotides from 15 to 32 d of age. 4. Experiment 1: Supplementing the diets with up to 0·50% Torula yeast RNA did not affect broiler performance, or relative intestinal tract weight and length of broilers at any periods measured. 5. Experiment 2: From 0 to 14 d of age, broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 0·25% Torula yeast RNA and 2 and 6% Nupro® were significantly heavier and had improved feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios as compared with the birds fed on the control diet. Supplementing the starter diet only with 2% Nupro® supplementation significantly improved body weight (BW) gain as compared with the control diet over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age). Broilers fed on the diets supplemented with 2 and 6% Nupro® from 0 to 14 d of age had better feed conversion (feed:gain) ratios over the entire experiment (0 to 32 d of age) as compared with the birds fed on the control diet, even though the birds were only fed on the diets

  10. Acute and chronic eggshell temperature manipulations during hatching term influence hatchability, broiler performance, and ascites incidence.

    PubMed

    Sozcu, A; Ipek, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine how a control temperature and acute and chronic high eggshell temperatures during the last three days of incubation, can affect hatchability, chick quality, and organ development on day of hatch as well as broiler performance and ascites incidence in later life. The eggshell temperature manipulations were applied during hatching term (days 19 to 21) as follows: control EST (37.3 to 38.0°C), acute high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4- to 39.0°C for three hours daily) and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4 to 39.0°C). The lowest hatchability and the highest cull chick rate were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. Lower chick quality parameters correlated with lower chick weights and heavier residual yolk sac weights that were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group depending on hatch time. The live weights on the 1(st) day of the growing period were higher in the control and acute high eggshell temperature manipulations groups than the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. At 6 wk of age, live weights of broilers were the highest in the control than in the acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups. The total mortality was 2.5, 9.2, and 13.3%, the mortality due to ascites was 2.1, 8.3, and 12.9% in the control, acute ,and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups, respectively. The right ventricular/total ventricular ratios for the control, acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups were 0.22, 0.28, and 0.30%, respectively. In conclusion, short-term and long-term higher temperatures during the hatching term affect embryo development, incubation results, broiler performance, and ascites incidence. Although the acute high eggshell temperature manipulations did not affect the chick quality parameters at hatch, it negatively affected incubation results and broiler performance

  11. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  12. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  13. The effect of monochromatic light on broiler growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rozenboim, I; Biran, I; Uni, Z; Robinzon, B; Halevy, O

    1999-01-01

    Artificial illumination, including light quality, is crucial in modem broiler management. In the present study, a new, highly efficient, monochromatic light system has been developed for broilers. One hundred and eighty male broiler chicks (Anak) were divided into four light treatment groups (n = 45) in three replicates each. All birds were housed in a single room previously divided by wooden bars into 12 sealed cells of 1 m2. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. Light intensity was 0.1 W/m2 at the height of birds' heads and was scheduled for 23 h of light and 1 h of dark during the entire experimental period. Light treatments were: control white (mini-incandescent light bulbs), blue (480 nm), green (560 nm), and red (660 nm). Body weight was recorded periodically, feed consumption was measured daily, and feed efficiency was calculated. Blood samples were taken at 1, 9, and 32 d of age and plasma testosterone was determined. Two necropsies were conducted, at 23 and 35 d of age, and selected glands and organs were weighed. In the group reared under green light, a significant enhancement in weight gain was observed as early as 3 d of age; this gain was maintained during the entire experimental period. Broilers reared under blue light had a later onset of growth enhancement and were significantly heavier than those reared under white and red light at 20 d of age. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly higher in birds reared under blue light. Breast muscle weights were significantly higher in the birds reared under green light at 23 and 35 d of age. These results suggest that green and blue light stimulate growth.

  14. An alternative to antibiotic-based drugs in feed for enhancing performance of broilers grown on Eimeria spp.-infected litter.

    PubMed

    Stanley, V G; Gray, C; Daley, M; Krueger, W F; Sefton, A E

    2004-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lasalocid, an anticoccidial feed additive (90.7 kg/ton); bacitracin, a growth-promoter (50 g/ton); and yeast culture residue (YCR) (1 kg/ton) on the performance of broiler chicks reared to 42 d of age on recycled litter. Recycled litter consisted of pine wood shavings containing droppings from chicks infected with 3 select strains of coccidia (Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina). Response variables (BW, intestinal tract and litter coliform counts, cecal and liver relative weights, and litter moisture content) were recorded biweekly. Mean BW of chicks fed the diet supplemented with YCR was higher than that of the controls (P < 0.05) and comparable to that of the lasalocid-treated birds in all 3 trials. Mean BW of chicks in all treatment groups decreased uniformly as the litter aged and moisture content increased. The mean intestinal coliform population from YCR-treated chicks was lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control and lasalocid populations. The coliform count was consistently lower than that in chicks on a bacitracin-supplemented diet. Coliform counts from the control and lasalocid-treated birds did not differ. The litter coliform counts increased with increased use of the litter. Cecal and liver relative weights calculated from the chicks in trial 3 showed that only the liver was significantly affected by treatments. YCR appeared to be a viable alternative to bacitracin and lasalocid medication in enhancing growth of broiler chicks reared on recycled litter.

  15. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Mucin Expression and Suppresses the Mucosal Immune Function of the Respiratory Tract in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guanhua; Zhao, Jingpeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Zhigang; Lin, Hai

    2015-01-01

    The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A supplement levels on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of three replicates of 10 broilers and subjected to dietary vitamin A supplement levels of 0, 1,500, 6,000, or 12,000 IU/kg for seven days. Compared with control birds, vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the mucin and IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the IgA level in serum. In the lungs, vitamin A supplementation downregulated TNF-α and EGFR mRNA expression. The TGF-β and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were upregulated by vitamin A supplementation at a dose of 6,000 IU/kg, and the IL-13 mRNA expression level was increased at the 12,000 IU/kg supplement level. Vitamin A deficiency (control) significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of MUC2, IgA, EGFR, IL-13 and TGF-β in trachea tissue. Histological section analysis revealed that the number of goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium was less in the 0 and 12,000 IU/kg vitamin A supplement groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency suppressed the immunity of the airway by decreasing the IgA and mucin concentrations in neonatal chicks. This study suggested that a suitable level of vitamin A is essential for the secretion of IgA and mucin in the respiratory tract by regulating the gene expression of cytokines and epithelial growth factors. PMID:26422233

  16. Studies on the growth performance of different broiler strains at high altitude and evaluation of probiotic effect on their survivability

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Sahil; K. Bharti, Vijay; Gogoi, Deepak; Giri, Arup; Kumar, Bhuvnesh

    2017-01-01

    Identification of appropriate breeds of broilers and development of new feed additives is required for the development of poultry industry at high altitude. Therefore, this experiment was conducted first to identify the suitable broiler strain for this region. One week old chicks (150) from three broiler strains, i.e. Vencobb, RIR cross-bred, and Hubbard were randomly selected and divided equally into three groups. All the chicks were provided the same basal diet. The body weight gain and feed: gain responses were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in RIR cross-bred. Mortality was also observed lower in RIR cross-bred. Thereafter, the second trial was conducted in RIR cross-bred to evaluate the effect of probiotic supplementation (T1@ 9 gm/kg feed, T2@ 18 gm/kg feed) on their performance and mortality. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in weight gain, feed intake, feed: gain, and water intake among the three groups, however, mortality from ascites and coccidiosis was reduced in probiotic treated groups. Hence, our results suggest that RIR cross-bred is suitable for rearing in high altitude regions and probiotic supplementation has no beneficial effects on production performance of broilers at high altitude. However, probiotic supplementation indicated lesser loss due to mortality of birds.

  17. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function.

  18. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.

    1999-01-01

    We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

  19. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    PubMed Central

    An, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Oh, S. T.; Kang, C. W.; Cho, S.; Kim, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated) or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract) for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW) and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01). The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01). In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics. PMID:25557821

  20. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  1. Investigation of a chronic feed-passage problem on a broiler farm in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Apple, R O; Skeeles, J K; Houghten, G E; Beasley, J N; Kim, K S

    1991-01-01

    A commercial broiler farm with a history of poor feed conversion and chronic feed-passage problems was chosen for investigation. Chickens were taken from the broiler flock at specified intervals during growout and tested by virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for avian reovirus. Abnormal tissue pathology was first seen in the broilers at 9 days of age and continued sporadically throughout the growout period. Antireovirus antibody levels began to increase at 24 days of age. Avian reovirus and avian adenovirus was recovered at different intervals starting at 17 and 31 days of age, respectively. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks housed in filtered-air positive-pressure isolation units were inoculated with two inocula recovered from the field study. Avian reovirus was recovered from the tissues of both treatment groups using chick kidney cells. Significant weight differences were seen in one of the two treatment groups. This avian reovirus was given the name SS-412.

  2. Effect of sodium bentonite on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Santurio, J M; Mallmann, C A; Rosa, A P; Appel, G; Heer, A; Dageförde, S; Böttcher, M

    1999-03-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of natural sodium bentonite (NaB) in the prevention of toxic effects of aflatoxins. Five hundred and twenty-eight 1-d-old Ross male broiler chickens were housed in pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. There were 3 inclusion rates of NaB (0, 2.5, and 5 g/kg) and 2 of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg food). Each treatment had 4 replicates of 22 chickens. 2. All chickens treated with aflatoxin and without bentonite were adversely affected. NaB treatment at 5.0 g/kg improved body weights at 42 d of age by 31.3%, increased food intake by 23.8% and improved productive efficiency by 40.1%. Weights of liver, heart, pancreas and crop and biochemical variables were not affected by dietary NaB. However, serum phosphorous concentration was reduced by 30% compared with chickens that received aflatoxin. 3. NaB caused no adverse effects on chickens that did not receive aflatoxin. 4. It is concluded that NaB at pH 7.9 partially neutralises the effects of aflatoxins on broiler chickens when included at 5.0 g/kg in the diet.

  3. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  5. Protein source and dietary structure influence growth performance, gut morphology, and hindgut fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; Moquet, P C A; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-12-01

    An experiment with 210 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet improves performance of broilers fed a poorly digestible protein source. A highly digestible diet based on soybean meal was gradually replaced by a low digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) in 5 steps (RSM-0%, RSM-25%, RSM-50%, RSM-75%, and RSM-100%). Two diet structures (fine and coarse) were used as an additional factor. These 2 factors and their interactions were tested at different ages in a factorial arrangement with 10 dietary treatments. An increase in indigestible dietary protein negatively affected feed intake (P = 0.003), BW gain (P = 0.008), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.034). This increase in dietary indigestible protein contents resulted in a decrease (P = 0.001) in total cecal volatile fatty acid concentration from 209.1 to 125.9 mmol/kg of DM digesta in broilers with increasing RSM in diets. Increase in the indigestible protein level, from RSM-0% to RSM-100%, resulted in a decrease (P = 0.042) in villus heights (1,782 vs. 1,574 µm), whereas crypt depths increased (P = 0.021; 237 vs. 274 µm). A coarse diet improved feed intake (P = 0.006), BW gain (P = 0.014), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.009). Broilers fed coarse diets had approximately 11, 24, and 10% lower relative empty weights of the crop, proventriculus, and jejunum, respectively, whereas a 15% heavier gizzard was found compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in approximately 16% lower gizzard pH, 21% greater villus heights, 27% lower crypt depths, 24% reduced branched-chain fatty acids, and 12% lower biogenic amines in the cecal digesta compared with broilers fed fine diets. In conclusion, feeding coarse particles improved broiler performance irrespective of digestibility of the diet. Hindgut protein fermentation can be reduced by coarse grinding of the diet.

  6. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins.

    PubMed

    Langhout, D J; Schutte, J B

    1996-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of feeding high-methylated (HM) and low-methylated (LM) pectin on performance and physiological characteristics in broiler chicks. Two levels each (1.5 and 3%) of HM citrus pectin (HMC), LM citrus pectin (LMC), or HM sugar beet pectin (HMS) were added to a semi-purified basal diet. The experiment was conducted in battery brooders, and chicks received the diets as pellets from 6 to 27 d of age. The inclusion of LMC or HMS in the diet had little or no effect on the performance of chicks; however, when HMC was added to the diet growth and feed utilization were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Water intake and water:feed ratio were increased (P < 0.05) after inclusion of all three pectin products in the diet. The effect on water consumption was more pronounced in the HMC-containing diets than in the LMC or HMS diets, and was dose-dependent. In vitro viscosity was increased significantly by incorporating HMC or LMC into the diet, whereas HMS had no effect on this parameter. Waterholding capacity of the diets and the excreta were increased significantly by including one (P < 0.05) of the three pectin products in the diet. The concentration of some of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the cecal chyme was markedly decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding HMC, whereas LMC had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of VFA. In contrast, inclusion of HMS in the diet significantly increased the concentration of VFA in the cecal content (P < 0.05) dose-dependently. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of dietary pectin on chick performance is dependent on the degree of carboxyl groups that is esterified, the origin of the pectin product, and the amount added to the diet.

  7. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible.

  8. Chick embryogenesis: a unique platform to study the effects of environmental factors on embryo development.

    PubMed

    Yahav, S; Brake, J

    2014-01-01

    . Manipulating environmental temperature during the period of egg storage, during the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se has been found to significantly affect embryo development, hatching progress, chick quality at hatching, and chick development post-hatching. These temperature manipulations have also been shown to affect the acquisition of thermotolerance to subsequent post-hatching thermal challenge. This chapter will focus on: a. "maternal effects" on embryo and post-hatching development; b. environmental effects during the post-ovipositional period of egg storage, the intermediate pre-incubation period, and incubation period per se on chick embryogenesis and subsequent post-hatching growth and development; and c. effects of temperature manipulations during the pre-incubation and incubation periods on acquisition of thermotolerance and development of secondary sexual characteristics in broiler chickens.

  9. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  10. Temporal distribution of encapsulated bacteriophages during passage through the chick gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Islam, Golam S; Wu, Ying; Sabour, Parviz M; Chambers, James R; Wang, Qi; Wu, Shirley X Y; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2016-12-01

    Encapsulation of bacteriophages ("phage") protects phage against environmental deactivation and provides a product that is easy to handle for storage and application with animal feed as an antibiotic alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate an orally administered, encapsulated phage for efficient phage release in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of young chicks receiving feed. An optimized formulation that consisted of 0.8% low molecular weight (MW) alginate, 2% ultra-low molecular weight alginate and 3% whey protein completely released the encapsulated phage within 60 min under simulated intestinal conditions. This product was given to broiler chicks to determine passage time and distribution of the viable phage within the GIT. Following a single oral dose of 10(9) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/chick, the major portion (peak concentration) of the encapsulated phage passed through the chick's GIT and was detected in the feces within 4 h, with low levels being continuously excreted for up to 24 h. In comparison, the passage of free phage through the GIT occurred faster as indicated by a peak concentration in feces after 1.5 h. In assessing the temporal phage distribution, both encapsulated and free phage treatments showed no apparent difference, both having low levels of 10(2) to 10(6) PFU/g of contents along the entire GIT after 1, 2 and 4 h. These low concentrations recovered in vivo led us to examine various exposure conditions (with feed, fecal material, and buffer solutions) that were suspected to have affected phage viability/infectivity during oral delivery, sample recovery, and enumeration by plaque assay. Results showed that the exposure conditions examined did not significantly reduce phage viability and could not account for the observed low phage levels following oral administration in chicks that are on feed. In conclusion, an oral encapsulated phage dose can take more than 4 h to completely move through the GIT of young chicks. Thus

  11. The effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate with Busumbu rock phosphate on performance and the mechanical properties of bone in growing chicks.

    PubMed

    Odongo, N E; Plaizier, J; van Straaten, P; McBride, B

    2002-07-01

    Three hundred, day-old broiler chicks, with an average initial weight of 41.8 +/- 1.79 g, were used in a 15-day study (10 birds per battery cage) to characterize their performance and fluorine status when dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was replaced by Busumbu rock phosphate (BRP) as the source of phosphorus in the chicks' ration. The treatments comprised a standard ration with BRP replacing 0, 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of DCP. Replacing DCP with BRP significantly reduced the final weight of the chicks (p < 0.01), feed intake (p < 0.01), weight gains (p < 0.01) and dry matter digestibility (p < 0.05) but increased (p < 0.05) the feed-to-gain ratio. True phosphorus absorption and the percentage of phosphorus in the tibia were not affected by increasing amounts of BRP in the diet. Increasing levels of BRP in the diet linearly reduced (p < 0.01) the percentage bone ash, calcium, Ca:P ratio, ultimate breaking force, bending moment, stress, and modulus of elasticity. Leg stiffness, lameness, reduced feed intake, and a decline in general health were recorded in 10-40% of the chicks on 75% and 100% BRP, respectively. These results suggest that excessive ingestion of fluorine from the BRP caused the reduction in the chicks' performance.

  12. Anasarca and myopathy in ostrich chicks.

    PubMed

    Philbey, A W; Button, C; Gestier, A W; Munro, B E; Glastonbury, J R; Hindmarsh, M; Love, S C

    1991-07-01

    Twenty ostrich chicks that died at, or within, 1 week after hatching were examined from 7 farms with poor (43 to 75%) hatchability. All chicks had anasarca and 15 had mild, generalised, acute degenerative changes in the complexus and pelvic limb muscles. One had fibrinoid degeneration of arterioles. Biochemical examinations produced no evidence of deficiencies of selenium, vitamin A or vitamin E. The syndrome was related to high relative humidity during incubation. Malpositioning also was a cause of embryo mortality.

  13. The Selenium Deficiency Disease Exudative Diathesis in Chicks Is Associated with Downregulation of Seven Common Selenoprotein Genes in Liver and Muscle123

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-01-01

    Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental α-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 7 common selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sepw1, Sepn1, Sepp1, Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing α-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo. PMID:21795426

  14. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in crops of challenged birds, significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio, and increased weight gain compared with controls. The 0.025% and 0.015% EO in drinking water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed.

  15. Antigenotoxic Effect of Piperine in Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ribeiro de Lima, Cristina Amorim; Mendes de Oliveira, Jéssica; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson; Pinto da Silva, Lúcia Helena; Direito, Glória Maria; Miranda Danelli, Maria das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C) control, (P) 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A) 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route), and (P + A) co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment). The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight. PMID:27809242

  16. Subtherapeutic tylosin phosphate in broiler feed affects Campylobacter on carcasses during processing.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2007-06-01

    Tylosin phosphate is an antimicrobial drug approved for use in broiler feed at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion. Erythromycin is often the drug of choice for treating humans with campylobacteriosis. Both tylosin and erythromycin are classified as macrolide drugs and cross-resistance between these antimicrobials occurs. Commercial broiler chicks were placed in isolation grow-out chambers and colonized with Campylobacter jejuni. From 14 d of age through grow-out, broilers were fed ad libitim a diet that included 22 ppm of tylosin phosphate (20 g/ton). Control broilers received the same diet without tylosin phosphate. At 42 d of age, broilers were processed in a pilot plant with equipment that closely modeled commercial conditions. Carcass rinses were collected after feather removal, after inside and outside washing, and after immersion chilling. Campylobacter numbers recovered from carcasses after feather removal did not differ according to feed type (3.53 log cfu/mL of rinse for control carcasses, and 3.60 log cfu/mL of rinse for those fed medicated feed). Likewise, medicated feed did not affect Campylobacter numbers on carcasses after inside-outside washing (3.11 and 3.07 log cfu/mL of rinse). However, carcasses of broilers fed tylosin phosphate had lower numbers of Campylobacter after chilling (1.45 log cfu/mL of rinse) than control carcasses (2.31 log cfu/mL of rinse). No Campylobacter isolated from control carcasses were resistant to erythromycin; all Campylobacter recovered from carcasses fed tylosin phosphate were resistant to erythromycin. Application of tylosin phosphate in feed results in lower numbers of Campylobacter on chilled carcasses; however, the Campylobacter that do remain are resistant to erythromycin.

  17. Effects of copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on growth and immunity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Wang, M Q; Ye, S S; Tao, W J; Du, Y J

    2011-10-01

    Effects of dietary copper-loaded chitosan nanoparticle (CNP-Cu) supplementation on growth performance, hematological and immunological characteristics, and the cecal microbiota in broilers were investigated. Three hundred healthy Avian × Avian (1-d-old) broilers were randomly assigned into 5 dietary groups (20 birds per replicate with 3 replicates per group). Birds were fed with 0 (the control group), 50, 100, 150 mg/kg of CNP-Cu and 50 mg/kg chlorotetracycline (CTC, a positive control group) for 42 d. Results indicated that supplemental CNP-Cu could improve growth performance, affect the immune system, enhance protein synthesis, and be beneficial to cecal microbiota of Avian broilers, especially the dietary supplementation with 100 mg/kg of CNP-Cu. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg of CNP-Cu increased the average daily gain(P < 0.05) and the contents of IgA (P < 0.01), IgG (P < 0.01), IgM (P < 0.01), complement C3 (P < 0.05), and complement C4 (P < 0.05). Thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricus indexes and the populations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in cecal digesta were increased (P < 0.05) by 100 mg/kg of CNP-Cu supplementation, and the population of coliforms was decreased (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 100 mg/kg of CNP-Cu increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of serum total protein and albumin, and decreased (P < 0.05) the content of urea nitrogen in serum. Effects of dietary supplementation with 100 mg/kg of CNP-Cu were similar to 50 mg/kg of CTC supplementation. These results may indicate that CNP-Cu could be a new substitute for CTC in dietary supplementation.

  18. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, R L; Yin, Y L; Wu, G Y; Zhang, Y G; Li, T J; Li, L L; Li, M X; Tang, Z R; Zhang, J; Wang, B; He, J H; Nie, X Z

    2005-09-01

    The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance.

  19. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P < 0.05). An elevated risk of Campylobacter infection was associated with other animals (mainly laying hens, cattle and sheep) being bred in the farm, the farm staff not wearing their work clothing exclusively in the poultry houses, uncemented poultry-house floors and the use of cartons that transport chicks from the hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  20. Some aspects of lipid metabolism in fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks.

    PubMed

    Evans, A J; Bannister, D W; Whitehead, C C

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of lipid metabolism were examined in broiler chicks affected with fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS). Plasma free fatty acid concentrations were invariably elevated. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased amounts of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue was considerably reduced, but in heart tissue the enzyme activity was increased. Hepatic lipogenesis was reduced. Rates of oxidation of palmitic and succinic acids by liver, heart and kidney were normal. The increased oxidation rate of palmitic acid following the addition of carnitine was also normal. These findings indicate that elevated blood lipid levels are likely to be an important factor contributing to the development of fatty deposition, particularly in extrahepatic tissues.

  1. The presence of lysylpyridinoline in the hypertrophic cartilage of newly hatched chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, M. W.; Martinez, D. A.; Cook, M. E.; Vailas, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a nonreducible cross-link in appreciable quantities has primarily been limited to the mineralized tissues, bone and dentin. However, the results reported here show that LP is not only present in the hypertrophic cartilage of the tibiotarsus isolated from newly hatched broiler chicks, but it is approx. 4-fold as concentrated as hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP). Bone and articular cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic cartilage do not contain measurable quantities of LP. Purified LP has a fluorescent scan similar to purified HP and literature values, confirming that we indeed were measuring LP. Also, the cartilage lesion produced by immature chondrocytes from birds with tibial dyschondroplasia had LP but the HP:LP ratio was > 1. Thus, the low HP:LP ratio could be a marker for hypertrophic cartilage in avians.

  2. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  3. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  4. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  5. Effect of dietary copper on litter microbial population and broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E L; Nicholoson, J L; Doerr, J A

    1985-04-01

    Proprietary broiler diets, containing added copper (125 mg/kg) as sulphate, were fed to broilers in 4 trials (32 pens each) over a one year period without a change of litter. Mould counts in the litter of pens containing birds fed the standard diets decreased to 2 X 10(3) propagules per g in trial 4. Those in the pens with birds fed the diets containing supplemental copper decreased to 6 X 10(2) propagules per g. Litter bacterial counts (10(7) organisms/g) were not affected by dietary copper. Litter copper concentrations in pens where the birds were fed supplemented diets increased significantly to more than 600 mg/kg in trial 4. Dietary copper sulphate addition significantly increased broiler weight gains at 7 weeks in trials 3 and 4 (P less than 0.05) and the efficiency of food utilisation was significantly improved in trial 4. The copper content of the chicks' livers remained unchanged. It is suggested that broiler performance may be independent of dietary copper content. Litter copper concentrations and litter microbial alterations may be important factors.

  6. Progress and problems in vaccination against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.

  7. Effects of Concanavalin A, fed as a constituent of Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) seeds, on the humoral immune response and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mendez, A; Vargas, R E; Michelangeli, C

    1998-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the lectin, Concanavalin A (Con A), contained in raw Jack bean (JB) (Canavalia ensiformis, L.) seeds on the immunological response of broilers. A maize-soybean meal basal diet was prepared to which either 2.5, 5, or 10% of ground raw Jack bean (RJB) seeds was added. The RJB seeds contained 24 g Con A/kg on a dry matter basis, as measured by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Similar diets were prepared by using the same levels of JB after toasting at 190 C for 16 min. In addition, the basal diet was pair-fed to groups of chicks at the level of feed intake of chicks fed the 10% RJB diet. Each diet was fed to six groups of six chicks for 6 wk. At 5 wk, 15 of chicks from each diet were immunized against Brucella abortus (BA) and the anti-BA antibody titers were determined 1 wk later by ELISA. Antibody production against Con A was also measured by the same method. Binding of Con A to intestinal villi and subsequent endocytosis were confirmed by microscopic examination using a specific peroxidase-antiperoxidase-staining technique. Performance was recorded weekly. Feed intake and weight gain were reduced (P < 0.05) only by the diet containing 10% RJB, indicating that broiler chicks can tolerate daily intakes of 100 mg of Con A over 6 wk without affecting growth. Toasted JB diets supported adequate chick performance. The antibody response to BA did not differ with dietary treatment. Serum from chicks fed raw JB also contained antibodies against Con A. The bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and pancreas dry weights, as a percentage of dry body weight, were not affected by the experimental diets. The data indicated that Con A binds to the cells of the gastrointestinal tract, passes into the general circulation and, eventually, elicits an immunological response without affecting the production of antibodies to BA.

  8. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Komal Prasad; Gendley, M. K.; Tiwari, S. P.; Sahu, Tarini; Naik, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment). The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days). Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05) body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05) higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05) increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl) was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight. PMID:27047070

  9. Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females.

  10. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation: Effects on performance and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers.

    PubMed

    Afsarian, O; Shahir, M H; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfolahian, H; Hoseini, A; Lourens, A

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (16 replicates of 75 eggs per treatment). The eggs were incubated at a constant eggshell temperature (EST) of 37.8ºC throughout the incubation period (CON) or were periodically exposed to 15°C for one hour on days 11, 13, 15, and 17 of incubation and the EST was measured (periodical low EST; PLE). After hatching, 240 one-day-old male broiler chicks from both treatment groups were reared for 42 d with or without dietary arginine supplementation in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. In order to induce ascites, all chicks were exposed to a 15°C room temperature from 14 d onwards. Results showed that second grade chicks and yolk sac weight were decreased, and final body weight was increased in the PLE group. Ascites mortality rate was decreased only in the PLE group and dietary arginine supplementation had no apparent effect. In the PLE group, the packed cell volume (PCV) percentage and red blood cell (RBC) count were decreased. In conclusion, the results showed that the PLE treatment during incubation was associated with improved hatchability, chick quality, and productive performance of broilers and decreased ascites incidence during post hatch cold exposure. Dietary arginine supplementation had no beneficial effects in cold exposed broilers.

  11. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangxing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Kyung Woo; Jang, Seung I; Marc, Pages; Gay, Cyril G; Ritter, G Donald; Bautista, Daniel A; Phillips, Kathy; Neumann, Anthony P; Rehberger, Thomas G; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2010-08-01

    The present report describes an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) infection in a commercial poultry farm in Delaware involving 34-day-old broiler chickens. In addition to obvious clinical signs, some GD-affected broilers also showed severe fibrino-necrotic enteritis and large numbers of Gram-positive rods in the necrotic tissue. Histopathological findings included haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous cells, especially of skin, muscle, and intestine. Immunofluorescence staining revealed Clostridium-like bacilli in the skin and the intestine. Both Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum genomic sequences were identified by polymerase chain reaction in bacterial cultures isolated from the skin, muscle, and intestine, and in the frozen tissues from the GD-affected birds. Serological analysis demonstrated that both affected and clinically healthy birds from the same house had high serum antibody titres against C. perfringens, C. septicum, Eimeria, chick anaemia virus, and infectious bursal disease virus. These results are discussed in the context of the relati