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Sample records for 1-d-old broiler chicks

  1. Fumonisin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Brown, T P; Weibking, T S; Rottinghaus, G E

    1992-07-01

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 were evaluated in young broiler chicks. The experimental design consisted of 5 treatments each with 9 randomly allotted male broiler chicks. Day-old chicks were fed diets containing 0 (feed control), 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg fumonisin B1/kg feed for 21 days. Response variables measured were chick performance, organ weights, serum biochemistry, and histologic parameters. Body weights and average daily gain dramatically decreased with increasing dietary fumonisin B1, and liver, proventriculus, and gizzard weights increased. Diarrhea, thymic cortical atrophy, multifocal hepatic necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and rickets were present in chicks fed diets containing fumonisin B1. Serum calcium, cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels all increased at higher fumonisin dietary levels. Results indicate that fumonisin, from Fusarium moniliforme culture material, is toxic in young chicks. PMID:1515495

  2. Assessing Thermal Comfort of Broiler Chicks During Brooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of the thermal environment during brooding is essential to performance in broilers. Brooding programs used in the broiler industry are prescriptive, but little information exists about thermal comfort in chicks. Identifying thermal conditions that chicks prefer would allow for be...

  3. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  4. The toxicity of purified fumonisin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Henry, M H; Wyatt, R D; Fletchert, O J

    2000-10-01

    An investigation of the toxicity of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme, in broiler chicks was conducted. Purified FB1 (98.1% pure) was incorporated into the diets of broiler chicks at 0, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, and fed to chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. Dietary FB1, at concentrations of 80 mg/kg or less, did not adversely affect body weight, feed efficiency, or water consumption of broiler chicks. The relative weights of the liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, and bursa of Fabricius were also unaffected (P < 0.05) by any dietary concentration of FB1 compared with the control (0 mg/kg) group. Total liver lipids of chicks fed 40 or 80 mg FB1/kg were significantly lower than those of the chicks fed either 0 or 20 mg FB1/kg of feed. Liver sphinganine concentration and the sphinganine:sphingosine ratio were increased significantly in all treated groups. Chicks fed dietary FB1 at 80 mg/kg had significantly higher serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransaminase:aspartate aminotransferase ratios and levels of free sphinganine in the serum. The results of this investigation agree with the results previously described, in which FB1 was supplied to diets from the use of F. moniliforme-contaminated grain; therefore, the use of such material as the source of the mycotoxin in animal feeding studies is appropriate. PMID:11055840

  5. Effects of Dietary Octacosanol on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Long, L; Wu, S G; Yuan, F; Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Qi, G H

    2016-10-01

    Octacosanol, which has prominent physiological activities and functions, has been recognized as a potential growth promoter in animals. A total of 392 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks with similar body weight were randomly distributed into four dietary groups of seven replicates with 14 birds each supplemented with 0, 12, 24, or 36 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks and was divided into the starter (day 1 to 21) and the grower (day 22 to 42) phases. The results showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved in broilers fed a diet containing 24 mg/kg octacosanol compared with those fed the control diet in the overall phase (day 1 to 42, p = 0.042). The average daily gain and FCR both showed linear effects in response to dietary supplementation of octacosanol during the overall phase (p = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet showed a higher eviscerated yield, which increased by 5.88% and 4.26% respectively, than those fed the control diet (p = 0.030). The breast muscle yield of broilers fed with 24 mg/kg octacosanol diet increased significantly by 12.15% compared with those fed the control diet (p = 0.047). Eviscerated and breast muscle yield increased linearly with the increase in dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). Broilers fed with 24 or 36 mg/kg octacosanol diet had a greater (p = 0.021) pH45min value in the breast muscle, which was maintained linearly in response to dietary octacosanol supplementation (p = 0.003). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in drip loss value between the octacosanol-added and the control groups. The drip loss showed linear (p = 0.004) and quadratic (p = 0.041) responses with dietary supplementation of octacosanol. These studies indicate that octacosanol is a potentially effective and safe feed additive which may improve feed efficiency and meat

  6. ARGININE AND COCCIDIOSIS RESPONSES IN BROILER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine (Arg) is an essential amino acid in broilers that has numerous physiological and immunological functions, in addition to being required for growth. The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial design of dietary Arg (1.00, 1.25, and 1.50% of diet) and coccidiosis (with and with out a field isolate ...

  7. Tribasic copper chloride toxicosis in commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Malinak, Chad M; Hofacre, Charles C; Collett, Stephen R; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Susan M; Sellers, Holly S; Myers, Elise; Wang, Yun-Ting; França, Monique

    2014-12-01

    Two broiler chicken houses containing 17,500 chicks each experienced an extreme elevation in chick mortality beginning on day 3 after placement. Clinical signs observed upon farm visit included numerous small chicks for their age; depressed, lethargic, and comatose chicks; and chicks huddling near feed pans and under heaters. Necropsied chicks were markedly pale and had atrophy of the thymus and bursa, swollen and edematous proventriculus, erosions in the koilin and in the proventricular-ventricular junction, pale kidneys, and yellowish to brownish-orange liver often with linear pale areas. The chicks had watery blood and hematocrits measured from 9.5% to 18%. Chicken infectious anemia was initially suspected based on the clinical signs and gross lesions. Histopathology revealed multifocal acute hepatic degeneration and necrosis with golden-brown pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, moderate to severe koilin degeneration and fragmentation, multifocal mild to moderate proventricular necrosis, mild to moderate necrosis and loss of enterocytes, blunting of small intestinal villi, lymphoid depletion in the thymus and bursa, erythrophagocytosis in the liver and spleen, and acute renal tubular degeneration and necrosis. Special stains revealed mild to abundant accumulation of copper pigment in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and iron pigment in the cytoplasm of Kupffer cells. Feed analysis revealed 2140 to 2393 parts per million of copper in the starter ration, and heavy metal analysis detected markedly elevated copper levels in formalin-fixed samples of the liver. Excessive amounts of tribasic copper chloride in the starter ration caused copper toxicosis in these chicks. Similar clinical signs and lesions were reproduced when the suspect feed was used in an experimental pen trial. PMID:25619012

  8. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

  9. Apparent Metabolizable Energy Needs of Broiler Chicks Subjected to Diverse Ambient Temperature Regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early chick performance is adversely affected by inadequate ambient temperatures. Increasing AME may help alleviate poor performance with chicks subjected to low brooding temperatures. This study examined broiler chicks provided diets formulated to either 3,040 or 3,140 kcal AME/kg when subjected to...

  10. Evaluation of vitamin E against deltamethrin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jayasree, U; Reddy, A Gopala; Reddy, K S; Anjaneyulu, Y; Kalakumar, B

    2003-10-01

    Deltamethrin toxicity was studied in broilers and vitamin E was evaluated for therapeutic management. Day old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 chicks in each. Group 1 was maintained as control for 6 wks, group 2 was fed on deltamethrin (100 mg/kg feed) for 6 wks and group 3 was fed on deltamethrin for the first 4 wks and during the subsequent 2 wks with vitamin E (300 mg/kg feed) with out deltamethrin. Weekly body weights, feed conversion ratio, glutathione (GSH) concentration and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSH-R), catalase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the lipid profile and renal biomarkers were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in group 2 and 3 at the end of 4th wk as compared to group 1. Following treatment with vitamin E during the last 2 wks in group 3, all the parameters in study revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that deltamethrin induces toxicity by oxidative damage in biological system and supplementing vitamin E in feed is useful in treating accidental toxicity. PMID:15266958

  11. Impact of chlorpyrifos on health biomarkers of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Zishan; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, M Tariq; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the deleterious effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in experimentally exposed broiler birds. The experiment was carried out on one day old (n = 120) broiler chicks. The CPF was reconstituted in corn oil as vehicle (1 ml/kg) to obtain a final concentration of a single dose to the birds 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) for fourteen days of the experiment through the stomach tube. The control group was given corn oil 1 ml/kg only. Birds exposed to high dose (20 mg/kg BW) showed signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, gasping, convulsions, frequent defecation and tremors). The birds exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased body weight. Significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased hematological parameters i.e. total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and total leukocyte were observed in the high dosed group as compared to control and other low dosed fed birds. Serum protein and albumin showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in high dosed CPF fed birds. Non significant results were observed in the case of globulin. The acetylcholinestrease (AChE) activity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in blood, serum and plasma in CPF fed birds compared to control birds. In CPF fed birds as compared to control birds we found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Necrotic and degenerative changes were observed on histopathological investigations of spleen, kidneys, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and brain tissues in CPF exposed birds. In conclusion the chlorpyrifos induced toxicopathological effects on health biomarkers of broiler chicks. PMID:26071807

  12. Effects of Low Phytic Acid Barley on Zinc Utilization in Young Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21 day experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of low phytic acid barley (LPB) on Zn utilization by young broiler chicks, and to determine the contribution of endogenous phytase, present in LPB. In the first experiment, 96 d-old male chicks were assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangeme...

  13. Evaluation of an experimental irradiated oocysts vaccine to protect broiler chicks against avian coccidosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigates the use of irradiated oocysts to protect broiler chicks, raised on litter, from infection with multiple species of Eimeria. In order to determine the optimum radiation dose for each Eimeria species, day- old chicks were immunized with oocysts of E. maxima, E. acervulin...

  14. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  15. Influence of photoperiod, light intensity, and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of photoperiod, light intensity and their interaction on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers in 2 trials. In each trial, 540 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled rooms (30 males/30 females chicks...

  16. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  17. Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Yang, L. Q.; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. PMID:25049914

  18. Perinatal broiler physiology between hatching and chick collection in 2 hatching systems.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about physiological responses of early- versus late-hatching chicks to early posthatch conditions in broiler practice. We investigated effects of hatching time on perinatal broiler physiology in 2 hatching systems, differing in conditions: a conventional hatcher, where chicks are deprived of feed and water between hatching and the moment of chick pulling (d E21.5), and a patio system, in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined, and chicks have immediate posthatch feed and water access. Climate conditions in patio also differ with about 3°C lower temperature and 20% lower RH compared with conventional hatchers. At E18, fertile eggs were transferred to either a hatcher or the patio until the end of incubation. From each system, 50 newly hatched chicks were collected at 3 hatching times: at 468 h (early), 483 h (midterm), and 498 h (late) of incubation, of which 25 chicks were decapitated for analyses of physiological parameters. The other 25 chicks were returned to the hatching system for analyses after 515 h of incubation (E21.5). At hatch, weights of the heart, lungs, stomach, and intestine increased with hatching time, concurrent with a decrease in residual yolk weight, regardless of hatching system, and indicating that later hatching chicks are more matured. Weights of the heart, liver, stomach, and intestines were lower in hatcher than in patio chicks. Between hatch and E21.5, residual yolk weight decreased, whereas organ weights increased in both fasted hatcher and fed patio chicks, but at a higher rate in the latter. At E21.5, plasma glucose and triiodothyronine had increased with time after hatch in patio chicks, whereas levels were similar among hatching times and lower in hatcher chicks. Early feed and water access seems to enable early hatching chicks to compensate for their apparent disadvantage in development at hatching, whereas chicks subjected to fasting show metabolic adaptations to preserve nutrients. Chick physiology at

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky isolates recovered from broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens are constantly adapting to circumvent intervention strategies. The ability to detect and overcome these adaptations is critical to ensure a safe food supply. We determined genotypic and/or phenotypic differences between Salmonella recovered from broiler chicks after comingling wi...

  20. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine (ARG), vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, chicks were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative contro...

  1. Individual and combined effects of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1 and moniliformin in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, D R; Broomhead, J N; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E

    2003-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of feeding fumonisin B1 (FB1; 0, 100, 200 mg FB1/kg) and moniliformin (M; 0, 100, 200 mg M/kg) were evaluated using a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Significant mortality (P < 0.05) occurred in chicks fed all diets containing 200 mg M/kg (50%-65%). Compared with controls and chicks fed FB1, both feed intake and body weight gain were decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed diets containing 100 mg M/kg. Chicks fed M had heavier heart weights (P < 0.05) than control chicks or chicks fed FB1. Compared with controls, chicks fed diets containing 200 mg M/kg or a combination of 200 mg FB1/kg and 100 mg M/kg had increased kidney and liver weights (P < 0.05). Significant FB1 by M interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for serum total protein and aspartate aminotransferase. Mild to moderate periportal extramedullary hematopoiesis and mild focal hepatic necrosis were observed in chicks fed FB1 alone. An increased incidence of large pleomorphic cardiomyocyte nuclei, loss of cardiomyocytes, and mild focal renal tubular mineralization were observed in chicks fed M alone. Both cardiac and renal lesions were observed in chicks fed combinations of FB1 and M. Data indicate FB1 and M, alone or in combination, can adversely affect chick performance and health at these dietary concentrations. The interactive effects of FB1 and M were not synergistic and were less than additive in nature. At the dietary concentrations studied, M is much more toxic to broilers than FB1. PMID:14708984

  2. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation. PMID:25711527

  3. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P < 0.05) but did not reduce cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in either experiment (P > 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined. PMID:20371858

  4. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  5. Use of rice husk litter at different depths for broiler chicks during summer.

    PubMed

    Haque, M I; Chowdhury, S D

    1994-12-01

    1. Four groups of 36 one-day-old broiler chicks were reared for 8 weeks during summer on rice husk litter spread to depths of 20, 30, 40 or 50 mm. 2. The depth of the litter did not significantly affect live weight gain, food consumption, food conversion ratio, liveability or production number. 3. It was concluded that rice husks can be used as litter at depths of between 20 and 50 mm during summer to raise broilers without affecting performance. PMID:7719744

  6. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  7. Peripheral Insulin Doesn't Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Xu, Shaohua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline). The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU) did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05). Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p<0.05). In fasted chicks, 10 and 20 IU insulin treatments significantly decreased the plasma glucose level for 4 h (p<0.05). Peripheral insulin treatment of 10 IU for 2 or 4 h did not significantly affect the hypothalamic genes expression of neuropeptide Y, proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin-releasing factor and insulin receptors (p>0.05). All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks. PMID:26954230

  8. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gourav; Khan, Asma; Singh, Surender; Anand, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur. PMID:27047021

  9. Effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chickens on developmental stability, hatchability and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Narinç, D; Erdoğan, S; Tahtabiçen, E; Aksoy, T

    2016-08-01

    Stress based on high temperature and humidity reduces the production performance of fast-growing broilers and causes high mortality. Temperatures higher than optimum have been applied to broilers in the embryonic period in order to overcome thermal stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of exposure to two long-term high-thermal environments on the developmental stability of embryonic growth, hatchability and chick quality. For this purpose, 600 broiler eggs were incubated. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C at 55% relative humidity throughout (control), heated to 39.6°C at 60% relative humidity for 6 h daily from 0 to 8th day, and heated to 39.6°C at 60% relative humidity for 6 h daily from the 10 to 18th day. Embryo weights and lengths of face, wing, femur, tibia and metatarsus were measured daily between the 10th and 21st day of the experiment. Daily relative asymmetry values of bilateral traits were estimated. The hatchability, the weight of the 1-day-old chicks and chick quality were determined. In conclusion, no negative effects of the treatments of the long-term high-thermal environment in the early and late stages of incubation for epigenetic adaptation were determined on the embryo morphology, development stability and weight of the chick. Moreover, regressed hatchability of embryos that were exposed to a long-term high-thermal environment was detected. Especially between the 10 and 18th day, the thermal manipulation considerably reduced the quality of the chicks. Acclimation treatments of high temperature on the eggs from cross-breeding flocks should not be made long term; instead, short-term treatments should be made by determining the stage that generates epigenetic adaptation. PMID:26932726

  10. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  11. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters. PMID:25049842

  12. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the

  13. Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights. Part 1: growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of light sources and light intensity on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices of heavy broilers (> 3.0 kg) in 4 trials with 2 replications per trial. A total of 960 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks (30 males/30 females/room) were randomly ...

  14. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linear<0.05). Nevertheless, BW corrected for egg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired

  15. Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sarada Prasanna; Kaur, Daljeet; Sethi, A. P. S.; Sharma, A.; Chandra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Yucca schidigera extract has been successfully used as feed additives in the poultry industry. It enhances the growth and productivity in broiler production. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze the effect of Y. schidigera extract in growth, carcass quality and behavior along with its economical utility in broiler rearing. Materials and Methods: Total, 120 numbers of day-old broiler chicks of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into Yucca supplemented treatment and control group, each having 60 birds in three replications of 20 numbers. The feeding management and rearing conditions were similar for all the groups as per the standard except the Yucca supplementation in the treatment group @ 125 mg/kg of feed. The parameters with respect to growth, carcass, behavior, and litter content were recorded as per standard procedures. Results: The Yucca supplementation can effectively enhance growth of 173 g in 6th week by utilizing lesser feed intake than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. Eviscerated weight of 58.50% for the treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than 54.10% in the control group. The breast meat yield of Yucca group (32.23%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than control (30.33%). More frequency of agonistic behavioral expressions was noticed in the control group than the treatment group. A profit of 43.68% was received by usage of Yucca supplementation in the diet on live weight basis. Numerically, lower percentage of moisture was present in Yucca treated group than the control. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Yucca supplementation has an important role in augmenting broiler‘s growth performance, efficiency to utilize feed, protein and energy, and survivability. Hence, use of Yucca powder in broiler ration could be beneficial to maintain the litter quality, which directly enhances the

  16. Bone Mineralization of Broiler Chicks Challenged with Salmonella enteritidis Fed Diet Containing Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis).

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, A A

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on ash and calcium contents of tibia bone in unchallenged and challenged broiler chicks with Salmonella enteritidis. In a completely randomized design, 160 chicks were divided into four groups. Each group had four replicates with 10 birds each. Treatments were control group, probiotic-treated group, challenged group and challenged probiotic-treated group. Ash and calcium contents of tibia at 21 and 42 days of age were determined. At 21 days of age, the highest contents of ash and calcium were related to probiotic-treated group and the lowest means to challenged chicks (P < 0.05). At this period, inclusion of probiotic to diet of challenged chick increased (P < 0.05) ash and calcium contents of tibia. With increases in age, the negative effects of challenging and beneficial effects of probiotic on bone mineralization diminished; since at 42 days of age, challenging or probiotic treatment had no effect on ash and calcium contents of tibia. PMID:25300924

  17. Physiological adaptive indicators in fasted neonate broiler chicks in response to calcium gluconate injection.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2016-06-01

    Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2)  = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2)  = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks. PMID:26344414

  18. Effects of feeding Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known levels of fumonisin B1, on the young broiler chick.

    PubMed

    Weibking, T S; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Turk, J R; Rottinghaus, G E; Wang, E; Merrill, A H

    1993-03-01

    The effects of feeding Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1), were studied in broiler chicks. Day-old chicks were allotted randomly to dietary treatments containing 0, 1.02, 2.04, 3.06, 4.08, 5.10, 6.12, and 7.14% fumonisin culture material (FCM). These levels of FCM supplied 0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375, 450, and 525 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each dietary treatment was fed to four pen replicates of six birds each for 21 days. Chicks fed FCM that supplied 450 and 525 mg FB1/kg diet had lower (P < .05) feed intakes and BW gains; increased (P < .05) liver and kidney weights; and increased (P < .05) mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentrations. Compared with controls, chicks fed FCM had increased (P < .05) free sphinganine levels and sphinganine:sphingosine ratios. Treatment-associated histological lesions were only observed in the liver of chicks fed diets containing FCM that supplied 225 mg FB1/kg or higher. Diets containing FCM that supplied levels as low as 75 mg FB1/kg affected the physiology of chicks by increasing free sphinganine levels and sphinganine:sphingosine ratios. Because inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis has been hypothesized as the mechanism of action of FB1, this suggests that diets containing 75 mg FB1/kg FCM may be toxic to young broiler chicks. PMID:8464788

  19. Interactions of vitamins A, D3, E, and K in the diet of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Abawi, F G; Sullivan, T W

    1989-11-01

    A total of 3,888 broiler chicks (Vantress x Arbor Acre) were used in a study involving 81 dietary treatments to determine the interactions among vitamins A, D3, E, and K in broiler chicks. Three levels of each fat-soluble vitamin representing deficient, optimum, and excessive amounts were included. Significant observations were: effect of vitamin A levels on feed efficiency (P less than .01), plasma vitamin A (P less than .01), and plasma vitamin E (P less than .01); effect of vitamin D levels on body weight gain (P less than .01) and mortality (P less than .05); effect of vitamin E levels on plasma vitamin A (P less than .01); effect of vitamin A x vitamin D interaction on body weight gain (P less than .02) and plasma vitamin E (P less than .05); effect of vitamin A x vitamin E interaction on mortality (P less than .01), plasma vitamin A (P less than .03), and plasma vitamin E (P less than .01); effect of vitamin D x vitamin K interaction on feed efficiency (P less than .05); effect of vitamin A x vitamin D x vitamin E interaction on plasma vitamin E concentration (P less than .01); effect of vitamin A x vitamin E x vitamin K interaction on mortality (P less than .05). The results of this study suggest that higher supplemental levels of vitamins D and K would improve performance of poultry occasionally being fed high supplemental levels of vitamins A and E. PMID:2558372

  20. The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gross lesions were scored and intestinal digesta pH and viscosity were measured. C. perfringens was counted in the caecum. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed that the cold stress in challenged birds significantly increased the incidence and the severity of necrotic enteritis lesions (Ρ ≤ 0.05), while causing no lesions in unchallenged birds. Moreover, the cold stress caused a significant increase (Ρ ≤ 0.05) in the pH and C. perfringens counts in the caeca. The study provides evidence that cold stress increased the susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and thus should be regarded as a physical environmental stressor that could significantly affect the welfare, health and intestinal ecosystem of broiler chicks. PMID:26642742

  1. Effect of a Selected Lactobacillus spp-Based Probiotic on Salmonella Serovar Enteritidis-Infected Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (FM-B11**TM) on Salmonella recovery was evaluated in liquid (Exp. 1) and lyophilized (Exp. 2) forms in two separate experiments with two trials each. For each trial, eighty broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two treatments: control and probioti...

  2. TRANSLOCATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER, SALMONELLA AND CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TO SEVERAL LYMPHOID ORGANS FOLLOWING ORAL OR INTRACLOACAL INOCULATION OF BROILER CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day old broiler chicks were either orally or intracloacally inoculated with a 100ul suspension containing 106-109 cells of one of three marker strains of either Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp. or Clostridium perfringens. At one hour, one day and one week following inoculation, five birds from...

  3. Colonization of day-of-hatch broiler chicks with antimicrobial resistant strains of salmonella Heidelberg and Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen linked to poultry and poultry products. However, limited research regarding the in vivo interactions of non-host adapted Salmonella serotypes in broiler chicks is available. In order to evaluate the effect of two serotypes on colonization, 600 day-of-hatch ...

  4. Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and eighty-eight Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per pen; 0.45 m2 per bird) were randomly assigne...

  5. Involvement of oxidative stress in subacute toxicity induced by fumonisin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Poersch, A B; Trombetta, F; Braga, A C M; Boeira, S P; Oliveira, M S; Dilkin, P; Mallmann, C A; Fighera, M R; Royes, L F F; Oliveira, M S; Furian, A F

    2014-11-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. It has been reported to be a potential cause of liver cancer in rats and esophageal cancer in humans. The underlying mechanisms of FB1 toxicity are thought to be related to the inhibition of ceramide synthase, causing an accumulation of sphingosine (SO) and sphinganine (SA), which in turn may cause tissue functional impairment and the development of oxidative stress. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effects of an FB1-contaminated diet on markers of oxidative stress in chick liver. A total of 24 male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were fed a standard control diet or a diet contaminated with FB1 (100mg/kg) for 21 days, starting on postnatal day one. The feed and animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 to estimate the feed conversion ratio, and at 21 days, the liver weight and liver relative weight were determined. At the end of the experiment, samples of blood and liver were collected. The blood was used to quantify the SA/SO ratio, and the liver was used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); ascorbic acid levels (VitC), non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels and TBARS content were also determined. The FB1 diet increased the liver weight, liver relative weight, feed conversion and SA/SO ratio. Furthermore, hepatic TBARS levels, Vit C content and CAT activity were also increased. Conversely, the activities of SOD, GST and NPSH levels, in the liver were not altered by the mycotoxin-contaminated diet. In summary, we showed that subacute exposure of broiler chicks to FB1 induced liver oxidative stress concomitantly with SA/SO accumulation. PMID:25219295

  6. Impact of dietary branched chain amino acids concentration on broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gene expression of the mTOR pathway in broiler chicks when exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 BCAA concentrations (1.16, 1.94, and 2.73%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 (1.77 mg/kg analyzed). Each diet was fed to 8 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from 6 to 20 d of age. Exposure to AFB1 significantly reduced gain:feed ratio and breast muscle weight (P < 0.05), and tended to decrease cumulative BW gain (P = 0.087), while increasing dietary BCAA improved all performance measures (P ≤ 0.0002), except relative breast muscle weight. Apparent ileal digestibility of N and 9 amino acids were increased by AFB1 (P ≤ 0.05), but were reduced by higher dietary BCAA (P ≤ 0.023). Jejunum histology was not affected by AFB1, while higher dietary BCAA tended to increase villus height (P = 0.08). Additionally, the gene expression of mTOR pathway (mTOR, 4EBP1, and S6K1) from liver and jejunum were not affected by dietary treatments, while muscle expression of S6K1 tended to be increased by AFB1 (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between AFB1 and dietary BCAA were observed for any measures in the current study. Results from this study suggested that feed AFB1 contamination can significantly reduce growth performance and breast muscle growth in broiler chicks at 20 d. Higher BCAA supply may have beneficial impact on bird performance, but this effect is independent of AFB1 exposure. PMID:26957625

  7. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on the surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of broiler chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mashhadani, E.H.; Beck, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    The surface ultrastructure of the lung and trachea of 7-week-old broiler chicks were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain a more accurate understanding of structural changes due to atmospheric ammonia (NH/sub 3/). In the first experiment, four broilers were randomly assigned to each of four chambers, and exposed to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 7 days. Chickens exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ exhibited a large number of mucus-secreting cells that were not seen in the other treatments. Ciliary loss from the tracheal epithelium was not a consistent finding in either the exposed or the control groups. There was no evidence of goblet cell disappearance due to ammonia treatment. In the second experiment, four broilers were randomly allocated to each of four chambers and exposed to 0, 50, 75, or 100 ppm NH/sub 3/ for 4 days. There was an increase in the thickness of the atrial walls and a shrinking of air capillaries with increasing NH/sub 3/ concentration; in birds exposed to 75 and 100 ppm NH/sub 3/, wall thickness was one to two times greater than in the control birds. There were no observable differences in gross appearance of lungs and tracheas between control and exposed groups except for hemorrhagic spots on one of the lungs exposed to 100 ppm NH/sub 3/.

  8. Effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Stutz, M W; Johnson, S L; Judith, F R

    1983-08-01

    Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet, bacitracin, and body weight restrictions on the intestine of the broiler chick. Bacitracin, at levels of 11 and 55 ppm, significantly increased body weight, significantly reduced small intestine weight, but had no significant effect on liver weight of chicks fed a soybean protein and sucrose-based diet. The greatest effects were observed in the ileum where weight, moisture, length per unit of body weight, and dry matter per unit of length were all significantly reduced. The least effects were observed in the duodenum where weight and length per unit of body weight were significantly reduced and dry matter per unit of length was significantly increased. Intestinal weight, as a percent of body weight, was not significantly affected when body weight was suppressed with a high level of nicarbazin added to a practical diet, but it was significantly reduced when bacitracin was added to the semipurified diet and chicks were restricted in food intake to 70% of controls. A level of 55 ppm of bacitracin added to the practical diet had no significant effect on body weight, intestinal weight, or liver weight. As discussed, the observed changes in the intestine, due to bacitracin, are probably indirect and most likely reflect the action of the antibiotic on the intestinal microflora. PMID:6634597

  9. Effects of LED lighting during incubation on layer and broiler hatchability, chick quality, stress susceptibility and post-hatch growth.

    PubMed

    Huth, Jesse C; Archer, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Providing light during incubation has been shown to affect hatchability, but the use of LED lights has not been evaluated. This experiment evaluated the effects of LED lighting during embryogenesis on White Leghorn and commercial broiler eggs. To determine this, two experiments were conducted, the first using White Leghorn eggs (N=3456) and the second using commercial broiler eggs (N=3456) where eggs were incubated 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LED) or complete darkness (DARK); the light level was 250 lux. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick quality were measured in both studies, and a subset of one of the broiler egg trials were grown out to investigate fear and stress parameters. There was no effect (P>0.05) on hatchability of layer eggs; however, there was a difference (P=0.02) observed in chick quality, with the LED group having more chicks (75.34%) with no defects than the DARK group (56.53%). Broiler eggs exposed to LED light showed an increase in hatchability (90.12%, P=0.03) and an increase in no-defect chick percentage (86.12%, P=0.04) at hatch compared to the DARK chicks (85.76% and 69.43%, respectively). Differences were observed between treatments during the 14 d grow-out. The LED birds had lower (P<0.05) physical asymmetry (0.90±0.05 mm) and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (0.279±0.021), indicating that they were less susceptible to stress than the DARK birds (1.16±0.07 mm and 0.347±0.021, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) observed between treatments in growth, FCR, or fear measures at 14 d. These results indicate that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick quality in both white layer and broiler eggs; however, it only appears to improve hatchability in broilers, which could be related to shell pigmentation. It was also demonstrated that providing LED light during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers post-hatch. Utilizing light during incubation may be useful tool for the poultry

  10. Saline drinking water in broiler and Leghorn chicks and the effect in broilers of increasing levels and age at time of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mirsalimi, S. Mehdi; Julian, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of increasing levels of salt and 5 g/L of salt (0.20% extra sodium) in the drinking water in broiler chickens at various ages up to five weeks of age and to compare the response of broiler chickens and White Leghorns to saline water (0.20% sodium). The effect was measured by the response of the right ventricle to pulmonary hypertension. The results indicated that broiler chickens under three weeks are more susceptible to saline water containing 0.20% sodium than those over three weeks of age, and that broilers given increasing levels of dietary salt may be more resistant to excess dietary salt than those that have had no previous exposure. The results also demonstrated that broiler chickens are more susceptible than White Leghorns to 0.20% extra dietary sodium in drinking water. We conclude that Leghorn chicks are more resistant to excess dietary sodium than broilers and that broilers become more resistant to saline water containing 0.20% sodium after three weeks of age. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424251

  11. Severe histiolymphocytic and heterophilic bronchopneumonia as a reaction to in ovo fowlpox vaccination in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Williams, S M; Smith, J A; Garcia, M; Brinson, D; Kiupel, M; Hofacre, C

    2010-01-01

    Broiler chickens on several farms from a single poultry company experienced neurological signs and mortality in chicks between 3 days and 10 days of age over a 3-week period after use of a fowlpox-vectored infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine in ovo. At necropsy the lungs contained numerous tan or gray, opaque to translucent, 0.5- to 2.0-mm nodules in the parenchyma. Microscopic lesions were a multifocal severe lymphohistiocytic and heterophilic bronchopneumonia. Immunohistochemistry was positive for fowlpox virus in macrophages and lymphocytes, and polymerase chain reaction on paraffin-embedded lung tissues was positive for a fowlpox vector virus commonly used as a vaccine. The cause of the neurological signs was not determined. PMID:20080499

  12. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability. PMID:26950872

  13. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Woyengo, T. A.; Emiola, I. A.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability. PMID:26950872

  14. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 932 to selected anticoccidial drugs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Stanley, V G; Woldesenbet, S; Gray, C; Hinton, A

    1996-01-01

    The ability of selected anticoccidial drugs to inhibit the colonization of day-old male broiler chicks (Cornish Rocks) by Escherichia coli O157:H7, strain 932 was examined. Chicks were challenged with 1.8 x 10(9) E. coli O157:H7 on Day 1, and fed diets supplemented with three selected anticoccidial drugs; monensin, nicarbazin, or robenidine. The cecal and colon fecal contents of the chicks were removed on Day 7, 14, and 21 postinoculation and examined for the concentration of E. coli O157: H7 per gram of contents. Monensin effectively reduced cecal and colon colonization of the chicks by E. coli O157:H7. By Day 7, there were significant reductions in the bacterial population of the cecal contents of chicks receiving the monensin-medicated feed, and by Day 21 no E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from the cecal and colon contents. The bacterial counts in the colon contents of the nicarbazin- and robenidine-medicated and unmedicated chicks were significantly higher than the monensin-treated chicks. Bacterial populations in the colon contents were high only when there were high bacterial concentrations in the cecal contents. PMID:8650109

  15. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  16. Lack of effect of dietary factors on nicarbazin toxicity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartov, I

    1989-01-01

    Effects of dietary fat, protein, and methionine levels and the type of dietary grain in nicarbazin-containing diets on the growth response of broiler chicks were evaluated in five experiments in a factorial design. Nicarbazin at levels ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg significantly (P less than .05) depressed weight gain and feed efficiency. Feed intake was significantly reduced only when nicarbazin was used at levels of 150 and 200 mg/kg. The latter concentration also significantly decreased water intake and water:feed ratio. Nicarbazin, at a level of 150 mg/kg, did not affect dietary metabolizable energy content or the retention of nitrogen and dry matter. A higher level of soybean oil (3.5 vs. .5 or 1.0%) did not counteract the growth-depressing effects of 100, 150, and 200 mg nicarbazin/kg. The growth-depressing effect of the highest dose also was not affected by increasing the protein level from 18.2 to 20.4%. Neither type of dietary grains (corn vs. sorghum) nor supplemental methionine level affected the toxicity of 125 mg nicarbazin/kg. Water intake and water:feed ratio were significantly increased due to elevation of dietary protein and fat levels. It was concluded that the severity of the growth-depressing effect of nicarbazin on chicks was not dependent on the levels of dietary unsaturated fat, protein, and methionine. PMID:2704670

  17. The nutritive value of stackburned yellow maize for livestock: tests in vitro and in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, S; Bestwick, L A; Davis, R H; Wood, C D

    1996-07-01

    Difference in the nutritive value of four grades of stackburned yellow maize, obtained from a single storage unit in Mozambique, were examined. Samples were analysed for chemical composition, and subjected to the following in vitro assays for estimating digestibility: total dietary fibre and pancreatin for non-ruminants, and gas production using sheep rumen fluid for ruminant livestock. Samples were also fed to broiler chicks at 600 g/kg diet in a growth trial. There were no significant differences in crude protein contents of the maize samples, but there was evidence for the development of Maillard reaction products. Detectable amino acids were lower in discoloured maize, with decreases of 52% in lysine, 35% in arginine, and 15% in glycine concentration in the most severely discoloured sample compared with control. Total starch, reducing sugar, acid-detergent fibre and amylase-neutral-detergent fibre values increased, while total non-reducing sugar content decreased with increased discolouration. Total dietary fibre and pancreatin assays indicated a lowering in digestibility of maize with increasing discolouration. Weight gain of chicks (P = 0.0228), efficiency of feed utilization (P = 0.0009) and the metabolizable energy value of diets decreased (P < 0.0001) with increasing stackburn discolouration. There were no significant effects on N retention of diets. In vitro fermentation using sheep rumen fluid showed a linear decrease in gas production with increasing maize discolouration, indicating a reduction in rumen degradability with stackburn. PMID:8774220

  18. Performance of male broiler chicks exposed to heat from infrared or microwave sources

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; Amyot, E.; McMillan, I.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    In eight trials, 240 male broiler birds, initially 7 days old, were randomly allocated to three treatments. Treatments were: continuous infrared (CI), intermittent infrared (II; 4 min on, 2 min off, 10 cycles/h), and intermittent microwaves (IM; 2 min on, 4 min off, 10 cycles/h). At the conclusion of the 14-day experimental period the 21-day-old birds were killed. Although there were significant differences (P less than or equal to .05) in mean gain over the 2-wk treatment period between trials, no differences (P greater than .05) were attributed to treatments. There were, however, significant differences in feed:gain ratios between trials and between treatments. Feed:gain ratios of birds kept under CI and II treatments did not differ significantly (P greater than .05). However, feed:gain ratios, 1.61 +/- .04 and 1.57 +/- .04 for CI and II, respectively, differed significantly (P less than or equal to .05) from that of the IM treatment (1.76 +/- .04). The protein content of chicks under II was significantly (P less than or equal to .05) lower than that of birds under IM. There were no differences (P greater than .05) in fat, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content of chicks among treatments.

  19. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Homan; Arshami, Javad; Golian, Abolghasem; Raji, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP) as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers' diet to investigate the growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate). At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days), feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24), one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW), drumstick weight (DW), and jejunum length (JL) as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1(st) period (p < 0.01). The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1(st) period and, in the 2(nd) and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1(st) (p < 0.04) and, at 3% in the 2(nd) (p < 0.01) and total periods (p < 0.05). The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059) and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079) as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD) at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL) and villi number (p < 0.05) and, VL/CD (p < 0.01) and, villus surface area (p < 0.02). The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05). The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01). In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry. PMID:25653792

  20. Effect of species-specific sound stimulation on the development and hatching of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Berckmans, D; Bahr, C; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; Demmers, T

    2015-04-01

    1. Previous research has reported that chicken embryos develop a functionary auditory system during incubation and that prenatal sound may play an important role in embryo development and alter the hatch time. In this study the effects of prenatal auditory stimulation on hatch process, hatch performance, the development of embryo and blood parameters were investigated. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler breeder eggs were incubated either in control or in sound-stimulated groups. The sound-stimulated embryos were exposed to a discontinuous sound of species-specific calls by means of a speaker at 72 dB for 16 h a day: maternal calls from d 10 to d 19 of incubation time and embryo/chick calls from d 19 until hatching. The species-specific sound was excluded from the control group. 3. The onset of hatch was delayed in the sound-stimulated group compared to the controls. This was also supported by comparison of the exact hatching time of individual focal chicks within the two groups. However, the sound-stimulated embryos had a lower hatchability than the control group, mainly due to significantly increased numbers of late deaths. 4. The embryos exhibited a similar growth pattern between the sound-stimulated group and the control group. Although sound exposure decreased body weight at d 16, no consistent effect of sound on body weight at incubation stage was observed. Species-specific sound stimulation also had no impact on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone concentrations during hatch. PMID:25559058

  1. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights. PMID:26015587

  2. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Homan; Arshami, Javad; Golian, Abolghasem; Raji, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP) as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate). At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days), feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24), one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW), drumstick weight (DW), and jejunum length (JL) as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01). The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04) and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01) and total periods (p < 0.05). The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059) and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079) as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD) at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL) and villi number (p < 0.05) and, VL/CD (p < 0.01) and, villus surface area (p < 0.02). The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05). The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01). In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry. PMID:25653792

  3. Influence of chick hatch time and access to feed on broiler muscle development.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; Velleman, S G; Cowieson, A J; Singh, M; Muir, W I

    2016-06-01

    The effect of hatch time and the timing of access to feed on growth rate and breast muscle development was assessed in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Chicks were removed from the incubator upon hatching, and classified as early (EH), midterm (MH), or late (LH) hatchers, based on the duration of their incubation. Feed and water were available either immediately at hatch, or 24 h after the conclusion of the hatch period. Hatchling body weight was uniform regardless of hatch time. Subsequently, bodyweight was increased in EH compared to LH birds following immediate access to feed, until 7 d in female, and 14 d in male birds. Relative breast weight was increased until 28 d in birds with immediate access to feed, and also EH and MH birds regardless of access to feed. Pectoralis major muscle morphology and expression of the myogenic regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1 (MYOD1) and myogenin, and the proteoglycans syndecan-4, glypican-1, and decorin were measured. Myogenin and glypican-1 stimulate satellite cell (SC) differentiation. Glypican-1 expression was unaffected by treatment. A late increase in myogenin expression was observed in MH birds with delayed access to feed, and all LH birds. Syndecan-4 and MYOD1, expressed in proliferating SC, and decorin, which stimulates satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, were variably upregulated in the first wk posthatch in the same birds. These data suggest SC were activated and proliferating, but had reduced differentiation in later hatching and feed deprived birds. Conversely, EH birds with immediate access to feed had maximal myofiber width at 7 d, while fiber width was increased in birds with immediate access to feed compared to those with delayed access to feed through 40 d of age. These results demonstrate that delaying chick access to feed for 24 h upon removal from the incubator will impair muscle growth. Additionally, hatch time influences muscle development, with accelerated muscle growth in EH and

  4. Dose titration of FITC-D for optimal measurement of enteric inflammation in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Tellez, G; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Seeber-Galarza, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Wolfenden, A D; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) have been used in foodstock animals to reduce enteric inflammation and maintain intestinal homeostasis, thus improving growth and performance. Due to increasing restrictions regarding the use of AGP however, precise and high throughput enteric inflammation models and markers to search for effective alternatives are urgently needed. In this paper, oral administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d, 3-5 kDa) and its passage into blood was used as a marker for tight junction permeability. In experiement 1, broilers were assigned to a control group, a group which received 24 h feed restriction (FR), or a group which received dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (0.75% in water for 5 d), and each group then underwent an oral gavage of FITC-d 2.5 h before sample collection on d10. FITC-d in serum and intestinal samples (duodenum and ceca) were found to be higher (P<0.05) after FR than in the DSS and control groups. In experiment 2, FR was evaluated for its effect on mucosal leakage and an oral dose of FITC-d of 0.5, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/chick was used to measure the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) permeability at 6 d of age. The amount of FITC-d remaining in the duodenal tissue of the control birds increased with dose, only the 1.1 mg FITC-d/chick dose resulted in differences (P<0.05) between the control and FR groups. No differences were noted between the control and FR groups, regardless of FITC-d dosage in cecal recovery of FITC-d. Additionally, FR increased FITC-d serum levels when compared to the control group and in a dose-dependent manner. Experiment 3 compared serum levels after administration of 0.55 and 1.1 mg/chick doses of FITC-d in birds treated with FR, rye-based diet (RBD), and DSS. Intestinal sections were collected for FITC-d recovery in the 1.1 mg dosage group. All inflammation treatments significantly increased serum FITC-d levels at both doses. Only FR resulted in increased (P<0.05) FITC-d recovery from

  5. The several elements of intestinal innate immune system at the beginning of the life of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Nazligul, A; Gules, O; Aka, E; Zorlu, S; Yildiz, M

    2016-07-01

    Functional capacity of digestive system and intestinal adaptive immunity are immature at hatching of broiler chicks. Therefore, intestinal innate immunity after hatching is vital to young chicks. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression and tissue distributions of several elements of the innate immune system (i.e., TLR2, TLR4, CD83, and MHC class II expressing cells) in the intestine of one-day-old chicks. For this purpose, ileum and cecum were examined the under different conditions, which included the control and 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phosphate buffered saline. The findings indicated that regardless of the antigenic stimulation, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 expressing cells were present in the intestinal tissues of one-day-old chicks. We noticed that the intestinal segments have different TLR expression levels after LPS stimulation. Dendritic cells were identified, and they left the intestinal tissue after LPS treatment. MHC class II molecules were diffusely present in both the ileum and cecum. This study demonstrates that the intestinal tissue of one-day-old chicks has remarkable defensive material, including histological properties and several elements of the innate immune system. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:604-614, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27115541

  6. Immunoprophylactic effects of administering honeybee (Apis melifera) venom spray against Salmonella gallinarum in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Park, Seong-Beom; Hyun, Pung-Mi; Park, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-10-01

    Antibiotics continue to be used as growth promoters in the poultry industry. Honeybee (Apis melifera) venom (HBV) possesses a number of beneficial biological activities, particularly for regulating the immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunoprophylactic effects of HBV against Salmonella Gallinarum in broiler chicks as an initial step towards developing eco-friendly alternatives to reduce antibiotic use. HBV was administered using a spray technique. HBV improved body weight gain, particularly in the presence of infection. Moreover, HBV enhanced antibody production activity against formalin-killed S. Gallinarum. The CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio, relative mRNA expression levels of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ, and serum lysozyme activity also increased following HBV administration before the infection period as well as during infection. HBV reinforced bacterial clearance and increased survivability against S. Gallinarum. Corresponding pathological analyses demonstrated that the HBV-sprayed group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with those in the control group. It was presumed that the prophylactic effects of HBV against S. Gallinarum were associated with its non-specific immune response stimulating activity. Thus, HBV may provide an alternative to reduce antibiotic use in the poultry industry. PMID:23719751

  7. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Ohh, Mi-hyang; Kim, Seongjin; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-mahn

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions. PMID:26954210

  8. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Ohh, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Seongjin; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-Mahn

    2016-06-01

    Astaxanthin (ASX) is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His) is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD), BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old) in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group). The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05). ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions. PMID:26954210

  9. Egg storage duration and hatch window affect gene expression of nutrient transporters and intestine morphological parameters of early hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Izzetoglu, G T; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, researchers have given emphasis on the differences in physiological parameters between early and late hatched chicks within a hatch window. Considering the importance of intestine development in newly hatched chicks, however, changes in gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of early hatched chicks within a hatch window have not been studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the effects of egg storage duration before incubation and hatch window on intestinal development and expression of PepT1 (H+-dependent peptide transporter) and SGLT1 (sodium-glucose co-transporter) genes in the jejunum of early hatched broiler chicks within a 30 h of hatch window. A total of 1218 eggs obtained from 38-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks were stored for 3 (ES3) or 14 days (ES14) and incubated at the same conditions. Eggs were checked between 475 and 480 h of incubation and 40 chicks from each egg storage duration were weighed; chick length and rectal temperature were measured. The chicks were sampled to evaluate morphological parameters and PepT1 and SGLT1 expression. The remaining chicks that hatched between 475 and 480 h were placed back in the incubator and the same measurements were conducted with those chicks at the end of hatch window at 510 h of incubation. Chick length, chick dry matter content, rectal temperature and weight of small intestine segments increased, whereas chick weight decreased during the hatch window. The increase in the jejunum length and villus width and area during the hatch window were higher for ES3 than ES14 chicks. PepT1 expression was higher for ES3 chicks compared with ES14. There was a 10.2 and 17.6-fold increase in PepT1 and SGLT1 expression of ES3 chicks at the end of hatch window, whereas it was only 2.3 and 3.3-fold, respectively, for ES14 chicks. These results suggested that egg storage duration affected development of early hatched chicks during 30 h of hatch window. It can be concluded that

  10. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks. PMID:25229409

  11. Growth responses of breast and leg muscles to essential amino acids in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mehri, M; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Rokouei, M

    2016-03-01

    The first three essential amino acids (EAA) for broilers including methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and threonine (Thr) may greatly influence the growth of chick muscles at early stages of life. In order to survey the potential effects of those EAA on growth muscles, a rotatable three-variable central composite design (CCD) was conducted to track the interrelationships of dietary digestible Met (dMet), Lys (dLys) and Thr (dThr) for optimization of processing yields in broiler chicks using response surface methodology. A total of 60 floor pens of six birds each were assigned to 15 dietary treatments based on CCD containing five levels of dMet (0.416% to 0.584% of diet), dLys (0.881% to 1.319% of diet) and dThr (0.532% to 0.868% of diet) from 3 to 16 days of age. Experimental treatments significantly affected breast mass (BM) and leg mass (LM) of the birds (P<0.05) in which the main effect of dLys on BM was threefold higher than the main effect of dThr, and interaction effect between dMet and dLys was observed on BM (P<0.05). However, in the case of LM, the main effect of dThr was higher than the main effects of dMet and dLys and highest interaction effect exist between dThr and dMet (P<0.05). The second-order models for BM and LM were fitted by least squares regression. Canonical analysis revealed that the stationary points for carcass components were saddle points, thus ridge analysis was performed for getting optimal values of each EAA. Ridge analyses of BM and LM models showed that the maximum BM point may be obtained with 0.58%, 1.05% and 0.76% of dMet, dLys and dThr, respectively, in diet, and maximum LM point may be achieved with 0.58%, 1.09% and 0.70% of dMet, dLys and dThr, respectively, in diet. The resultant ideal ratios of dMet and dThr to dLys were 55% and 72% for BM; 53% and 64% for LM. Moreover, sensitivity analysis showed that the most important amino acids in BM and LM models were Lys and Thr, respectively. In conclusion, providing these three amino

  12. Interaction of dietary fat with levels of vitamins A and E in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Abawi, F G; Sullivan, T W; Scheideler, S E

    1985-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to study the effect of different levels of choice animal tallow on absorption of vitamins A and E. The first experiment involved 9 dietary treatments in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of 3 levels of vitamin A (2,000, 10,000, and 18,000 IU/kg) and 3 levels of animal fat (0, 3, and 6%). Liver vitamin A concentration significantly increased linearly (P less than .01) with increasing dietary vitamin A. The effect of dietary fat on liver vitamin A concentration was not significant. The highest liver vitamin A concentration occurred with 3% added fat (5.2% total dietary fat). The second experiment consisted of 7 levels of dietary fat (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10%), each fed with a constant vitamin A (14,500 IU/kg). Increasing fat significantly (P less than .05) increased liver vitamin A concentration in a quadratic manner at 4 and 6 weeks of age (P less than .01). The highest liver vitamin A concentration corresponded to 5% added fat (5.3% total fat). The third experiment involved 9 treatments in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with supplemental vitamin E at 0, 10, and 100 IU/kg and animal fat at 0, 3, and 6% of the diet. Plasma vitamin E significantly increased in a quadratic manner (P less than .01) with increasing vitamin E and increased linearly (P less than .01) with increasing fat. Plasma vitamin A concentration also increased (P less than .01) with increasing fat. The fat x vitamin E interaction was significant (P less than .01). PMID:4011558

  13. Relationship between chick conformation and quality measures with early growth traits in males of eight selected pure or commercial broiler breeder strains.

    PubMed

    Wolanski, N J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Carney, V L; Fancher, B I

    2006-08-01

    Current commercial broiler products are derived from the crosses of various strains at the primary breeder level. This study investigated chick development, yolk utilization, and early growth rate of males from 8 broiler breeder strains. These strains were a combination of both specialized and commercial-line products. At hatch, 110 male chicks per strain were weighed and wing-banded, and chick quality was assessed. Traits included navel condition, hock color, chick length, shank length, and abdomen score by abdominal palpation (to evaluate residual yolk content on live chicks). At hatch, 50 chicks per strain were dissected to assess breast muscling and residual yolk weight. At 2 wk of age, 50 chicks per strain were dissected to characterize changes in weight, conformation, fleshing, and residual yolk content. Chick weight at hatch varied from 40.8 g in a heavily growth-selected line to a low of 36.9 g in a commercial strain. The mass of residual yolk at hatch ranged from 0.8 to 10.6 g across all chicks dissected at hatch. A heavily breast-selected pure-line strain had 5.8 g of residual yolk in contrast to the commercial strain that had only 3.0 g. Although there were no significant strain differences in abdomen score, this score correlated with dissected residual yolk weight (r = 0.50). Shank length and chick body length at hatch correlated more strongly with BW on d 14 than did hatch weight. This information stresses the importance of evaluating several characteristics at hatch to better quantify early chick quality. PMID:16903483

  14. Effects of dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks.

    PubMed

    Walugembe, M; Hsieh, J C F; Koszewski, N J; Lamont, S J; Persia, M E; Rothschild, M F

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dietary fiber on cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and cecal microbiota of broiler and laying-hen chicks. The lower fiber diet was based on corn-soybean meal (SBM) and the higher fiber diet was formulated using corn-SBM-dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat bran to contain 60.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 1 to 12 d and 80.0 g/kg of both DDGS and wheat bran from 13 to 21 d. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements. Broiler and laying-hen chicks were randomly assigned to the high and low fiber diets with 11 replicates of 8 chicks for each of the 4 treatments. One cecum from 3 chicks was collected from each replicate: one cecum underwent SCFA concentration analysis, one underwent bacterial DNA isolation for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), and the third cecum was used for metagenomics analyses. There were interactions between bird line and dietary fiber for acetic acid (P = 0.04) and total SCFA (P = 0.04) concentration. There was higher concentration of acetic acid (P = 0.02) and propionic acid (P < 0.01) in broiler chicks compared to laying-hen chicks. TRFLP analysis showed that cecal microbiota varied due to diet (P = 0.02) and chicken line (P = 0.03). Metagenomics analyses identified differences in the relative abundance of Helicobacter pullorum and Megamonas hypermegale and the genera Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, Faecalibacterium, and Bacteroides in different treatment groups. These results provide insights into the effect of dietary fiber on SCFA concentration and modulation of cecal microbiota in broiler and laying-hen chicks. PMID:26316341

  15. Influence of peas (Pisum sativum) as a dietary ingredient and flavomycin supplementation on the performance and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Brenes, A; Treviño, J; Centeno, C; Yuste, P

    1989-03-01

    1. Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of diets containing various concentrations of pea meal (Pisum sativum L.), with or without flavomycin supplementation, on the performance and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks. 2. During the 7 to 28-d period, chicks fed on diets containing 300, 600 and 800 g pea meal/kg consumed more food and gained more weight than chicks receiving a maize-isolated soyabean protein control diet. The addition of flavomycin to the diets had similar effects on the performance of both the control and the pea groups. 3. Pea diets, with and without supplemental flavomycin, had little influence on the composition of intestinal microflora. The counts of enterococci in the small intestine and Clostridium perfringens and coliforms in the caeca of pea-fed chicks exceeded those of control chicks. PMID:2787194

  16. [Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated vaccine viruses against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) in conventional broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, A; Alloui, N

    2008-12-01

    The pathological and immunological effects of two infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) vaccines containing attenuated virus were evaluated under experimental conditions. A total of 200 conventional broiler chicks were divided into three batches, two of which were administered an experimental dose of Gumboro disease vaccine via the ocular route, at 14 days of age, using an 'intermediate' strain for one group and an 'intermediate plus' strain for the other. At different post-inoculation intervals, the chicks from the three batches were weighed and slaughtered and their bursa of Fabricius were removed to be weighed and subjected to histological examination. This allowed a lesion score and a ratio between the weight of the bursa of Fabricius and body weight to be calculated for each group of chicks. The immunosuppressive potential of the two vaccines was also estimated by evaluating the chicks' serological response to a Newcastle disease vaccine administered by eye-drop two weeks following vaccination against Gumboro disease. The results showed that the two vaccine strains were not of equal pathogenicity and that one was potentially immunosuppressive. The 'intermediate plus' strain proved to be more virulent than the 'intermediate' strain, as it caused greater atrophy and more severe lesions of the bursa of Fabricius. By exerting a more suppressive effect on the serological response of the chicks, the 'intermediate plus' vaccine also proved to be immunosuppressive. The three weeks of observation were not sufficient to ascertain whether the lesions caused by the two vaccines were temporary or whether the immunosuppressive state induced by the 'intermediate plus' strain was reversible. PMID:19284047

  17. Effect of cecal cultures lyophilized in skim milk or reagent 20 on Salmonella colonization in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hollister, A G; Corrier, D E; Nisbet, D J; Beier, R C; DeLoach, J R

    1994-09-01

    Mixed cultures of cecal bacteria that were grown under continuous flow anaerobic conditions were prepared as lyophilized powder in skim milk or Reagent 20 (R-20; a mixture containing sucrose and bovine serum albumin fraction V) and compared with broth cultures for reduction of Salmonella typhimurium enteric colonization. Day old broiler chicks were provided a standard corn-soybean diet with: 1) no culture, (control); 2) broth culture administered by crop gavage; 3) broth culture added to the drinking water; 4) culture lyophilized in skim milk and added to drinking water; 5) culture lyophilized in skim milk in gelatin capsules and force-fed; 6) culture lyophilized in R-20 and added to drinking water; and 7) culture lyophilized in R-20 in gelatin capsules and force-fed. All groups were challenged on Day 3 with 10(4) cfu of S. typhimurium per chick. Culture by crop gavage, culture in the drinking water, skim milk powder in capsules, and R-20 powder in the water and in capsules significantly (P < .05) reduced mean Salmonella colony-forming units in cecal contents by 3.21 to 5.26 log10 units at 10 d of age. Likewise, the number of cecal-culture-positive chicks in the same groups was significantly less than controls with reductions of 27 to 67%. The numbers of Salmonella per gram of cecal contents and the percentage of cecal-culture-positive chicks in the skim milk powder in the drinking water group were not different from control chicks in one of two experiments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7800640

  18. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks. PMID:20170700

  19. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries. PMID:26142532

  20. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected immune responses in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Li, Y C; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Fritsche, K L; Rottinghaus, G E

    1999-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate immune responses in chicks fed fumonisin B1 (FB1). Day-old male chicks were randomly allotted to dietary treatments: 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg FB1/kg diet. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed diets for 3 wk and were injected intravenously with 4.6x10(6) Escherichia coli on Day 21. Blood samples were collected at 60, 120, and 180 min postinjection, and liver, spleen, and lung were collected after 180 min. Chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet had significantly higher numbers of bacterial colonies in blood, spleen, and liver (P<0.05) than control chicks. In Experiment 2, chicks were placed on the diets for 4 wk and were injected with 0.5 mL inactivated Newcastle Disease virus vaccine on Weeks 2 and 3 of the experiment, and primary and secondary antibody titers were measured 7 d after each injection. The secondary antibody response in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of control chicks. In Experiment 3, lymphocyte proliferation in chicks exposed to FB1 in vivo or in vitro was determined. Results of the in vivo study showed that cell proliferation in response to mitogens was lower (P<0.05) in chicks fed 200 mg FB1/kg diet than in control chicks. For the in vitro study, cell proliferation was lower (P<0.05) when cells were exposed to > or = 2.5 microg FB1/mL. Data of the current study suggested that FB1 is immunosuppressive in chicks when present in the ration at 200 mg FB1/kg diet. PMID:10515357

  1. Methodologies of tissue preservation and analysis of the glycogen content of the broiler chick liver.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L W; Keirs, R W; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D

    2007-12-01

    indicate that small field samples may be minced, immediately placed in 10% perchloric acid without freezing, and then processed in the laboratory up to 1 wk later when using a phenol-sulfuric acid reagent, as described in this study, to determine the glycogen concentration in broiler chick livers accurately. PMID:18029813

  2. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  3. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  4. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  5. Factors affecting the incidence of necrotic enteritis, caecal carriage of Clostridium perfringens and bird performance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Elwinger, K; Schneitz, C; Berndtson, E; Fossum, O; Teglöf, B; Engstöm, B

    1992-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of a competitive exclusion (CE) product BROILACT and the anticoccidial narasin on the incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE), the numbers of Clostridium perfringens (CP) in the caeca of broiler chicks and the performance of the birds. In trial 1 the effects of type of protein and partial replacement of a narasin containing diet with whole wheat were also studied. All groups of chicks were studied up to the point of slaughter at 43 days of age and after evisceration in a processing plant to determine slaughter yield. In trial 1, statistically significant results included the following: CE-treatment reduced total mortality, and incidence of NE, on diet containing animal but not vegetable protein. Caecal carriage of CP was also reduced, while slaughter yield increased. Narasin reduced caecal carriage of CP and increased both growth rate and slaughter yield in both trials. Whole wheat replacement improved feed conversion but reduced bird growth rate. In trial 2, both CE-treatment and narasin influenced feed intake, CE-treatment significantly only at days 22 and 44. Narasin improved feed conversion until 5 weeks of age and CE-treatment did so until 22 days of age. In both trials, there was also an interaction effect indicating that CE-treatment increased slaughter yield for birds that were not fed narasin. PMID:1488953

  6. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    de Barros Moreira Filho, Alexandre Lemos; de Oliveira, Celso José Bruno; de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Givisiez, Patricia Emília Naves

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  7. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  8. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on body weight, antibody titres and histology of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tessari, E N C; Oliveira, C A F; Cardoso, A L S P; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2006-06-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), administered singly or in combination to broilers. 2. Feeds were prepared with concentrations equal to 0, 50 and 200 microg AFB1/kg, and/or 0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg, and offered to broiler chicks from 8 to 41 d of age. The experimental design was totally randomised, in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 9 treatments and 12 birds per treatment. Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 14 of life and killed at 41 d. 3. Compared with controls, all mycotoxin-treated groups at 41 d had lower body weight and weight gain, and higher relative heart weight. The relative weight of the liver increased only in birds fed diets containing 200 mg FB1, singly or in combination with AFB1. 4. At 35 d, all groups receiving mycotoxin-treated rations had reduced geometrical mean antibody titres, with birds from groups fed combinations of AFB1 and FB1/kg having even lower values, when compared to the other groups. 5. Histological changes were observed only in liver from birds fed mycotoxin-contaminated rations, and in kidneys of birds fed the diet containing 200 microg AFB1 and 200 mg FB1/kg. Main alterations included vacuolar degeneration and cell proliferation of bile ducts in the liver, and hydropic degeneration in renal tubules in the kidneys. 6. We concluded that AFB1 and FB1 in combination have primarily additive effects on body weight, liver structure and immunological response of broilers at the concentrations used. PMID:16787861

  9. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  10. Aluminium sulphate exposure increases oxidative stress and suppresses brain development in Ross broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Emin Oğuzhan; Enli, Yaşar; Şahin, Barbaros; Gönen, Cafer; Turgut, Günfer

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Aluminium (Al) is known to have neurotoxic effects that can result in oxidative damage to a range of cellular biomolecules. These effects appear to be of significance in the developmental stages of the brain. We therefore investigated the oxidative and histopathological damage induced by Al during growth and development of the chick brain. Material/Methods We used a chick embryonic development model, with Al treatment of 500 μg Al sulphate in 0.1 ml saline injected into the egg air chambers at the beginning of their incubation period. The effects on chick-brain growth and development were then assessed at term (day 21). Determination of malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were used as relevant biological measures for increased oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and biochemical oxidative damage, respectively. Furthermore, we also monitored neuronal degeneration as estimated stereologically using the Cavalieri brain volume estimation tool. Results This Al treatment showed significantly increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels, as indicators of increased biochemical oxidative damage. This was accompanied by significantly decreased brain volume, as a measure of neuronal degeneration during brain development in this chick embryonic development model. Conclusions Exposure to Al during chick embryonic development results in increased oxidative stress in the brain that is accompanied by neuronal degeneration. PMID:22367119

  11. Effect of threonine deficiency on intestinal integrity and immune response to coccidiosis in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that threonine (Thr) deficiency would exacerbate the intestinal damage induced by feed withdraw combined with coccidiosis, because of its high obligatory requirement by the gut. In this study, two dietary Thr treatments (0.49 and 0.90%) were fed to chicks from 1-21 d of age. At 13 d ...

  12. Effects of multistage or single-stage incubation on broiler chick quality and performance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single-stage (SS) incubation has benefit over multistage (MS) incubation by matching incubator environment to embryo needs. Eggs from a young breeder flock may be incubated diffeerently than eggs from old flocks. Information on chick quality and performance are scarce. The objective of this study...

  13. Effects of different sulphur amino acids and dietary electrolyte balance levels on performance, jejunal morphology, and immunocompetence of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, V; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, E

    2016-02-01

    As alterations of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) can influence amino acid metabolism via changes the ions incur in their configurations, performance and immunological responses of broiler chicks might be affected. So, the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of sulphur amino acids (SAA) and DEB on performance, jejunal morphology and immunocompetence of broiler chicks. A total of 360 1-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine experimental treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of SAA (100, 110, and 120% of NRC recommendation, provided by methionine supplementation in diets with the same cysteine level) and three levels of DEB (150, 250, and 350 mEq/kg) that were fed during the entire of trial in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that the relative weights of intestine and abdominal fat were decreased markedly (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of SAA and DEB respectively. Antibody titre against sheep red blood cell was neither individually nor in combination influenced by supplementation of SAA or DEB. Nevertheless, a decrease in DEB level led to a suppression in heterophile (p < 0.05) and an increase in lymphocyte counts (p = 0.06); consequently, heterophile to lymphocyte ratio was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by decremental levels of DEB. Albumin to globulin ratio was increased after inclusion of at least 10% SAA (p < 0.001) and 150 mEq DEB/kg in the diet (p = 0.11). Although feeding high-DEB level led to a remarkable decrease in villus height (p < 0.01) and goblet cell numbers (p < 0.001), supplementing the highest level of SAA improved the height of jejunal villus. During the entire trial period, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was increased by incremental SAA levels (p < 0.05). However, inclusion of 150 mEq/kg led to not only a remarkable increase (p < 0.0001) in both ADFI and average daily

  14. The effects of thermal manipulations during embryogenesis of broiler chicks on growth of embryo and skeletal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    Incubation temperature is one of the important environmental factors that can induce epigenetic thermal adaptation of different physiological control systems. Thus, post hatch thermo tolerance ability of birds may be gained using these manipulations during different incubation periods. The current study was carried out to reveal the effects of temperature manipulations during early and late embryogenesis on weight of embryo and size of skeletal bilateral traits (face, wings, metatarsus, tibia, and femur) in broiler chicken embryos. One thousand commercial broiler eggs from 46 week old breeder flock were used in study. Treatments consisted of eggs incubated at 37.8°C and 55% relative humidity throughout (control; DG1), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 0 to 8 (DG2), heated to 36.9°C and supplied 60% relative humidity for 6 hours daily from day 10 to 18 (DG3), heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 8 to 10 (DG4), and heated to 41°C and supplied 65% relative humidity for 3 hours daily from day 16 to 18 (DG5). Measurements of embryo weight and bilateral traits were obtained at 20 day of incubation and at hatch (at day 21). It was determined that the live weights of embryo and chick were affected significantly by treatment; DG3 group has shown higher mean values than the other treatment groups (P<0.05). There were differences in lengths of femur, tibia and metatarsus among treatment groups at hatch. Particularly, the high incubator temperatures at the second half of incubation accelerated growth of body and bone in embryos. These consequences of the treatments performed at different temperatures and times indicate that the different metabolic shifts realized by the embryos.

  15. Genistein attenuates low temperature induced pulmonary hypertension in broiler chicks by modulating endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Mingyu; Wu, Zhenlong; Guo, Yuming

    2010-12-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by high pulmonary blood pressure, vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. In the present study, we investigated whether genistein would prevent the development of low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension in broilers. Hemodynamic parameters, vascular remodeling, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1 content in lung tissue were evaluated. The results demonstrated that genistein significantly reduced pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppressed pulmonary arterial vascular remodeling without affecting broilers' performance. The beneficial effects appeared to be mediated by restoring endothelial function especially endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1, two critical vasoactive molecules that associated with the development of hypertension. Genistein supplementation might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20854807

  16. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition. PMID:25336108

  17. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  18. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions. PMID:24096939

  19. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  20. Influence of canthaxanthin on broiler breeder reproduction, chick quality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Hernandez, J M; Yao, B; Zhu, Q

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effect of canthaxanthin supplied via a maternal route on the production of both breeder hens and chickens, 270 Chinese Three-Yellow breeder hens were randomly divided into 2 groups consisting of 135 birds each (5 replicates of 27) for study. The breeder hens were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 6 mg of canthaxanthin/kg for 24 wk. At the end of the 24-wk breeder experiment, all hatching eggs laid in 5 consecutive days of each group were collected and incubated. For each breeder group, 100 newly hatched chicks (5 replicates of 20) were reared under environmentally controlled conditions for 21 d. Canthaxanthin supplementation resulted in the following outcomes: an enhancement of the serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of breeder hens (P = 0.029), a significant increase in the yolk colorimetric score of Roche Yolk Color Fan (RYCF; P < 0.001), and a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the egg yolk (P < 0.05). The chicks that hatched from eggs laid by breeder hens fed the canthaxanthin supplementation diet demonstrated a higher pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF for their shank skin (P < 0.05), and the antioxidant capacity of the newly hatched chicks was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Both of these positive effects on shank skin pigmentation colorimetric score of RYCF and antioxidant capacity were observed for at least 7 d posthatching, and the chicks that hatched from canthaxanthin-enriched eggs showed a lower mortality (0 vs. 4%) during the first 21 d posthatching. These findings support the hypothesis that canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet enhances the protective capacity of tissues against oxidative stress in vivo, which might be beneficial for poultry producers. PMID:21673167

  1. T-maze behaviour in broiler chicks is not sensitive to right-left preferences, test order or time-of-day.

    PubMed

    Marin; Jones

    2000-06-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the time taken by broiler chicks to traverse a T-maze and thereby reinstate visual contact with their companions. Chicks completing this task quickly (high performance, HP) subsequently grew faster in the laboratory and on farm, exhibited greater sociality, and showed less pronounced adrenocortical responses to a partial water immersion stressor than did their slower (low performance, LP) counterparts [Marin, R.H., Jones, R.B., 1999. Latency to traverse a T-maze at 2 days of age and later adrenocortical responses to an acute stressor in domestic chicks. Physiol. Behav. 66, 809-813.; Marin, R.H., Arce, A., Martijena, I.D., 1997. T-maze performance and body weight relationship in broiler chicks. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 54, 197-205.; Jones, R.B., Marín, R.H., García, D.A., Arce, A., 1999. T-maze behaviour in domestic chicks: a search for underlying variables. Anim. Behav. 58, 211-217.]. Given its simplicity, rapidity and non-invasiveness, the T-maze test might represent a commercially attractive selection criterion for future breeding programmes if this behavioural trait exhibits sufficient genetic variability. However, it is first necessary to ensure that performance in the T-maze is not sensitive to potentially confounding variables, such as existing preferences to turn right or left at the junction of the maze, the order of testing, or the time of day. In the present study, 240 newly hatched, mixed-sex broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly allocated to 12 groups of 20 upon receipt. When they were 2 days of age a group of 20 chicks was placed in the brood area of each of two T-mazes at 0830 h; the brood areas were positioned on either the right or the left sides of the mazes. After acclimatisation, one chick from each group was placed in the isolation chamber of the T-maze and we recorded the time it took to traverse the maze. This procedure was repeated until all 20 chicks and all 12 groups had been tested. The locations

  2. Serohematologic alterations in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material on fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Richard, J L; Bennett, G A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1995-10-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight male broiler chicks (Columbia x New Hampshire) were given feed amended with autoclaved culture material of Fusarium proliferatum containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) at 61, 193, and 546 ppm, fumonisin B2 (FB2) at 14, 38, and 98 ppm, and moniliformin at 66, 193, and 367 ppm in 3 separate feeding trials (amounts of toxin in each trial, respectively). Birds were started on amended rations at days 1, 7, and 21 and continuing for 14 days. Of serum chemistry parameters, only glucose was significantly decreased. Significant increases were noted in serum cholesterol, sodium, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Of the hematologic parameters, significant decreases were noted in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and white blood cell counts. Immunologic changes included impaired anti-Newcastle disease antibody hemagglutination inhibition titers associated with relative decreases in total serum globulins and increases in albumin/globulin ratios. The changes were noted in all treatment groups when compared to controls. PMID:8580176

  3. [The effect of betain on biology and morphology of developmental stages of Eimeria acervulina in broiler chicks experimentally infected].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Niang, Tania Marcia S; Gomes, Augusto V da C; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2006-01-01

    Purposing to investigate the betaine effect on biology and morphology of developmental stages of Eimeria acervulina, 420 broiler chicks Cobb were experimentally inoculated with 2 x 10(5) sporulated oocysts and housed in battery cages in a block design with five treatments and six replicates each, including a positive control, a group treated with salinomycin and growth promoter plus three levels of betaine as additive in the feed at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15%. Measurements of oocysts, sporocysts and endogenous stages were performed as morphological parameters, while pre patent and patent periods and sporulation time were taken as biological parameters. Morphology was also associated with the mathematical constant Phi (1.618) to evaluate possible relationship. Betaine was able to cause modifications in both biology and morphology of oocysts and sporocysts, whereas it was weakly able to affect developmental stages based on trophozoites and macrogamonts measurements. According to the measures of sporocysts E. acervulina development was closely related to Phi. PMID:17196124

  4. Assessment of growth performance, immune responses, serum metabolites, and prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chicks submitted to early-age water restriction.

    PubMed

    Toghyani, Mehdi; Toghyani, Majid; Shahryar, Habib Aghdam; Zamanizad, Mehdi

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two methods of early-age water restriction on performance, some immune responses, serum metabolites, and prevalence of leg weakness in broiler chicks. One-hundred-eighty-seven-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to three treatments with four replicates based on a completely randomized design. Treatments included the control group, where birds had free access to water, and water-restricted groups, where access to water was limited to three 2-h periods (WRT1) or a 12-h period (WRT2) per day from days 7 to 17. Chicks in the control group were significantly heavier (P < 0.05) at 17 and 46 days of age compared to the restricted birds. In the WRT2 group, feed intake decreased significantly over the 17- to 28-day period while feed conversion ratio was poorer during water restriction (P < 0.05). Antibody titers against Newcastle and SRBC were higher (P < 0.05) for chicks with ad libitum access to water. Birds in the restricted groups exhibited a higher heterophil to lymphocyte ratio compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The treatments had no significant impact on serum metabolites including protein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations. Walking ability, tibial dyschondroplasia, foot pad, hock burn, and valgus/varus angulation were not significantly influenced by water restriction. In conclusion, the current results indicate that early-age water restriction negatively influenced productive traits and immunological responses of broiler chicks and failed to have any favorable impacts on leg health. PMID:21455695

  5. The influence of BPC 157 on nitric oxide agonist and antagonist induced lesions in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Grabarevic, Z; Tisljar, M; Artukovic, B; Bratulic, M; Dzaja, P; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P; Peric, J; Geres, D; Kos, J

    1997-01-01

    We describe the effects of nitric oxide (NO) agonists and antagonists and the influence of a novel organoprotective pentadecapeptide BPC 157, on the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome and tissue lesions in chicks. Acute toxicity, which includes single dose application of saline (1 mL intraperitoneally (i.p.)), BPC 157 (10 micrograms/kg bw), L-NAME (NO antagonist, doses 50, 100, 150 mg/kg bw) and L-arginine (NO agonist/100 mg/kg bw with their combination L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine) was investigated. In this experiment pathohistological examination of the spleen, heart, liver and lungs and hematological analysis was conducted. In the chronic toxicity experiment, the animals were treated daily for 5 weeks with L-NAME (10 mg/kg bw), L-arginine (100 mg/kg bw), BPC 157 (10 micrograms/kg bw) and their combinations (L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine) i.p. Seven animals from each group, including controls (saline 1 mL i.p.) were killed every week. Application of L-NAME caused pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in the treated chicks, which was prevented by the simultaneous application of L-arginine and BPC 157. Pathohistological examination of both acute and chronic toxicity revealed that L-NAME caused severe tissue damage (myocardial and hepatic cell necrosis, necrosis of the lymphoid cells in the spleen) while L-arginine provoked predominantly congestion, edema and hemorrhages in all organs. The effect of L-NAME was successfully inhibited by the application of L-arginine and BPC 157 but the latter substance did not cause any tissue or organ damage. Hematological analysis shows significant hemoglobin and leukocyte number decrease in the L-NAME-treated groups of chicks. PMID:9403788

  6. Effects of different levels of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seed powder and extract on serum biochemical parameters, microbiota, and immunity in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hesam; Alaw Qotbi, Ali Ahmad; Seidavi, Alireza; Norris, David; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbs and spices has gained increasing interest as feed additives and possible alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. The effects of using different levels of coriander seed powder or extract on selected blood parameters, intestinal microflora, and immune response of broiler chickens were investigated in this study. A total of 420-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 treatments with 4 replicates and fed for 42 days. Results showed that inclusion of 2.0% coriander powder in broiler diets lowered total cholesterol while blood urea was significantly higher in birds on T4 compared to T1 and T2. Furthermore, there were no treatment effects on Lactobacillus bacteria; however, the population of E. coli was significantly higher in the ileum of chickens fed T0. Noticeable significant improvements of antibody titer against Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease were observed in birds receiving coriander extract in water. Immunoglobulin G antibody against sheep red blood cells showed significant improvement in birds fed T3; likewise, immunoglobulin M was significantly higher in birds on T2 and T3 at 28 d of age. These results revealed that coriander extract or powder can be used as antibiotic alternative in broiler feeds. PMID:25614892

  7. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets. PMID:26031004

  8. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523

  9. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity and erythrocytic abnormalities induced in broiler chicks by fumonisins B1 and B2 and moniliformin from Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Javed, T; Bennett, G A; Richard, J L; Cote, L M; Buck, W B

    1993-10-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from broiler chicks that had ingested feed amended with autoclaved Fusarium proliferatum culture material containing fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and moniliformin. Lymphocyte viability was determined for birds that were placed on amended rations at day 1 or day 7 of age at three different levels of mycotoxins, ranging from 61-546 ppm FB1, 14-94 ppm FB2 and 66-367 ppm moniliformin. Reduction of the tetrazolium salt, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], to yield MTT formazan, based on mitochondrial metabolic activity, was used to assess cell viability. Lymphocyte cytotoxic effects were observed in all treatment groups on day 21; chicks that started on amended feed at day 1 of age were affected more than those that started at day 7. Abnormal erythrocytes resembling early stages of erythroblasts were observed in peripheral blood from test chicks. Abnormally shaped red cells (poikilocytes) having a spindle-shape with one or both ends pointed were present. Some red cells appeared to be undergoing mitosis. Both reduced lymphocyte viability and abnormal erythrogenesis occurred in chicks given feed amended with F. proliferatum culture material containing FB1, FB2 and moniliformin. PMID:8159217

  10. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry. PMID:26799658

  11. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry. PMID:26799658

  12. Individual and combined effects of fumonisin B1 present in Fusarium moniliforme culture material and T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Edrington, T S; Harvey, R B; Buckley, S A; Phillips, T D; Rottinghaus, G E; Casper, H H

    1997-09-01

    The individual and combined effects of feeding diets containing 300 mg fumonisin B1 (FB1), and 5 mg T-2 toxin (T-2)/kg of diet, or 15 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) from naturally contaminated wheat were evaluated in two studies in male broiler chicks from day of hatch to 19 or 21 d of age in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. When compared with controls, body weight gains were reduced 18 to 20% by FB1, 18% by T-2, 2% by DON, 32% by the FB1 and T-2 combination, and 19% by the FB1 and DON combination. The efficiency of feed utilization was adversely affected by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Mortality ranged from none for the controls to 15% for the FB1 and T-2 combination. Relative weights of the liver and kidney were significantly increased by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Serum concentrations of cholesterol were increased in chicks fed FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyltransferase were increased in chicks fed FB1 at 300 mg/kg alone and in combination with T-2 or DON, indicating possible tissue damage and leakage of the enzymes into the blood. Results indicate additive toxicity when chicks were fed diets containing 300 mg FB1 and 5 mg T-2/kg of diet and less than additive toxicity when chicks were fed 300 mg FB1 and 15 mg DON/kg of diet. Of importance to the poultry industry is the fact that toxic synergy was not observed for either of these toxin combinations and the likelihood of encountering FB1 at this concentration in finished feed is small. However, under field conditions with additional stress factors, the toxicity of these mycotoxins could be altered to adversely affect the health and performance of poultry. PMID:9276886

  13. Effect of various fiber types and choice feeding of fiber on performance, gut development, humoral immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Amin; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abasali

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fibrous materials with one single diet or by choice feeding on performance, intestinal morphology, immunity, and fiber preference in broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 240-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to one of 4 treatments, comprising 5 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included: a basal diet (control) or 30 g/kg sugar beet pulp (SBP), 30 g/kg rice hull (RH), or 30 g/kg equal combination of them (SBP/RH) added to the basal diet. Results showed SBP and SBP/RH impaired daily weight gain (DWG) in the growing period compared with control (P < 0.05). Additionally, chickens that received SBP had deteriorated FCR across the entire rearing period (P < 0.05). In comparison to control and SBP, supplementing SBP/RH significantly increased antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (NDV; P < 0.05) at 23 d of age. Furthermore, SBP reduced duodenal and ileal villus height compared with control at 21 d of age. In experiment 2, a total of 240 chicks were allotted to 4 experimental treatments of feeding: 1) control; or choice feeding between 2) control and SBP (C-SBP); 3) control and RH (C-RH); 4) control and SBP/RH (C- SBP/RH). Results indicated that chicks had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. RH was consumed lower than C-SBP/RH and C-SBP in starter and growing periods, respectively (P < 0.05). Chickens choice fed RH and SBP/RH had greater daily feed intake than control across 14 to 28 d of age (P < 0.05). However, DWG reduced in all fiber fed birds (P < 0.05) and resulted in impaired FCR in broilers of the C-SBP group (P < 0.05). In addition, choice feeding of SBP/RH increased antibody titer against NDV as compared with control and SBP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, fiber inclusion in both experiments impaired growth performance but an equal combination of fiber improved immunity. In addition, broilers had a tendency to use separate sources of fiber. PMID

  14. Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to ameliorate the adverse effects of 0.5 to 2 mg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg in broiler chicks. The study consisted of 8 dietary treatments, including 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with or without HSCAS (0.5%) fed to 8 replicate cages per diet (6 males chicks per cage) from 0 to 21 d of age. Cumulative feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.0001), and G:F (P = 0.004) of birds fed the 2 mg of AFB1/kg of diet were significantly lower in comparison with birds fed 0 to 1 mg of AFB1/kg. Relative liver weight was increased in the 2 mg of AFB1/kg group (P < 0.0001). Dietary HSCAS improved cumulative BW gain (main effect P = 0.06), particularly from 14 to 21 d of age (P = 0.037). Dietary HSCAS also reversed the increase in relative liver weight for birds fed AFB1 (P = 0.019). Dietary AFB1 negatively affected major serum parameters (albumin, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase), whereas supplementation with HSCAS partially alleviated the affected serum biochemistry. In addition, serum complement activity and liver gene expression were negatively affected by 2 mg of AFB1/kg. The HSCAS supplement increased the liver expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with HSCAS can effectively improve BW gain and partially ameliorate aflatoxicosis for broiler chicks fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. PMID:24894529

  15. Effect of different concentrations of ginger root powder and its essential oil on growth performance, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Habibi, R; Sadeghi, Gh; Karimi, A

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) feed supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks under conditions of heat stress (32 ± 2ºC for 8 h per d). 2. A total of 336 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly assigned to one of 6 dietary groups representing: basal diet with no supplement as control, basal diet containing 100 mg/kg vitamin E as positive control, basal diets containing either 7.5 or 15 g/kg of ginger root powder, and diets containing 75 or 150 mg/kg of ginger essential oil. 3. The results indicated that at 22 d of age, the group receiving 7.5 g/kg of ginger root powder experienced significantly increased body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) compared to the control group. There were no significant difference among the diet groups regarding BW, BWG, feed intake (FI) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 42 and 49 d of age. 4. The inclusion of powder and essential oil of ginger in broiler diets did not affect carcass characteristics and blood parameters of the chickens. However, in the group receiving 150 mg/kg ginger essential oil, the total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) activity in liver increased compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver also decreased in the groups receiving ginger powder and essential oil compared to that in the control group. There were no significant difference between experimental groups regarding glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), TSOD and catalase (CAT) enzymes in red blood cells. All dietary groups increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and decreased MDA concentration in serum compared to the control group. 5. The results of this study suggest that ginger powder and essential oils may be a suitable replacement for synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Results also suggest that ginger powder might be better than extracted essential oil for improving

  16. Gene expressions and metabolomic research on the effects of polyphenols from the involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume on heat-stressed broilers chicks.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Dong, S; Zhao, X; Guo, K J; Gasco, Laura; Zoccarato, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    To study the effects of polyphenolic extract from involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume ( PICB: ), a novel approach using gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction ( REAL-TIME PCR: ) coupled with metabolomic profiling technique was established to explain the mechanism of PICB on heat-stressed broiler chicks. Four thousand 28-day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 5 groups (4 replicates / group, 20 chicks / replicate), in which group 1 was normal control group fed with basic ration; groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were fed with the basic ration with a supplementation of 0.2% Vitamin C ( VC: ), or 0.2%, 0.3%, or 0.4% of PICB respectively. After 1 wk of adaptation, heat stress was applied for 7 consecutive days. On d 3 and d 7 of heat stress, the chicks were sacrificed and sampled. The mRNA expression of heat stress protein 70 (HSP70), glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-PX: ), ornithine decarboxylase ( ODC: ), epidermal growth factor ( EGF: ) and epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR: ) were detected by real-time PCR using samples from jejunum mucosa. The serum and jejunum mucosa metabolomic profiles of PICB group showing best antioxidative effects and control group at d 3 were studied using the method of the gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry ( GT-TOF-MS: ), followed by principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis. Potential biomarkers were found using Student's t-test. The results showed mRNA expressions of HSP70, GSH-Px, ODC, EGF, and EGFR were altered by the supplementation of PICB. PICB exhibited antioxidative and growth promoting effects, and 0.3% PICB supplementation level exhibited the best. Three metabolites in the serum and 5 in the jejunum mucosa were identified as potential biomarkers. They were considered to be in accordance with antioxidative and growth promoting effects of PICB, which involved in the energy metabolism (sorbitol, palmitic acid), carbohydrate metabolism, amino

  17. Effect of TEX-OE(®) treatment on the development of heat shock proteins in commercial broiler chicks and the impact on performance indicators in the grow-out period.

    PubMed

    Parker, C D; Prins, C; Saliba, C; Gutierrez, G; Serrar, M

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins, shown to protect organisms against physical and physiological stress. TEX-OE(®) is a patented total extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica, which has been demonstrated to accelerate the development of HSPs in several animal species. One-day-old commercial broiler chicks were treated with TEX-OE(®); HSP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a large commercial field trial investigated key performance indicators (KPIs) in treated versus untreated controls chicks. TEX-OE(®) significantly increased HSP concentrations in treated chicks versus controls. Final cumulative mortality, liveweight and percentage factory-rejects were better than in controls. The accelerated HSP response may enable chicks to cope with early stressors, which is reflected in improved KPIs. PMID:25181283

  18. Effect of canthaxanthin content of the maternal diet on the antioxidant system of the developing chick.

    PubMed

    Surai, A P; Surai, P F; Steinberg, W; Wakeman, W G; Speake, B K; Sparks, N H C

    2003-09-01

    1. Effects of canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet on the antioxidant system of the developing chick were investigated. 2. Three hundred and twenty female broiler breeder birds were housed in one of 4 controlled environment rooms with 3 replicates for all treatments, with the exception of the control treatment of which there were 4 replicates. All birds received one of 5 diets: control low xanthophyll diet, or the same diet supplemented with 3, 6, 12 or 24 mg/kg canthaxanthin in the form of Carophyll Red. At 30 weeks of age 60 eggs from each of the 5 groups were incubated. At d 16 of the embryo development, at d 1 and d 7 posthatch tissue samples were collected and analysed by HPLC-based methods. 3. Canthaxanthin accumulation in the egg yolk was proportional to dietary content. Furthermore, at 12 to 24 mg/kg canthaxanthin was associated with an increase in gamma-tocopherol concentration in the egg yolk. Canthaxanthin was transferred from the egg yolk to the developing embryo and, as a result, its concentration in the liver of the embryo at 16 and in 1-d-old chicks was increased. Even at d 7 posthatch canthaxanthin concentration in the chicken liver was elevated. 4. Canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet at 12 mg/kg was associated with an increased alpha-tocopherol concentration in the liver of 1-d-old chicks and resulted in decreased tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. 5. Canthaxanthin supplementation at 6 to 24 mg/kg was also associated with a delay in alpha-tocopherol depletion from the liver for 7-d posthatch. As a result of the increased canthaxanthin and vitamin E concentrations in the liver of 7-d-old chicks, tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation decreased. 6. The results support an idea that dietary carotenoids can modulate antioxidant systems of the developing chicken. PMID:14584852

  19. Reduction of ascites mortality in broilers by coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M; Yang, Y

    2004-09-01

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites were studied in broilers. One hundred eighty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates each. From d 8, the diets were supplemented with CoQ10 at levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. From d 15 to 21, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature (15 to 18 degrees C) to induce ascites. Average feed intake, BW gain, and feed conversion ratio of the broilers during 0 to 3 wk, 3 to 6 wk, and 0 to 6 wk were measured. The results showed that there were no influences observed on broilers' growth performance, but the mortality due to ascites was reduced by CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 compared with the control, but no significant changes were observed on blood packed cell volume (PCV) among the treatments. Pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure was significantly decreased on d 36, but no significant changes were observed on right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, and the maximum change ratio of right intraventricular pressure (+/- dp/ dtmax). Ascites heart index (AHI) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 supplementation (P < or = 0.05). The results of this study suggested that CoQ10 has a beneficial effect in reducing ascites mortality in broilers, and 40 mg/kg CoQ10 seems to be more effective than 20 mg/ kg CoQ10. PMID:15384911

  20. Protection conferred by live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses against variant Middle East IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like isolates in commercial broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the infectious bronchitis H120 (a Massachusetts strain) and CR88 (a 793B strain) live attenuated vaccine viruses to protect from two Middle East infectious bronchitis virus isolates, IS/885/00-like (IS/885) and IS/1494/06-like (IS/1494) in broiler chicks was investigated. Day-old chicks were separated into three groups, (I) vaccinated with H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, (II) vaccinated with H120 and CR88 simultaneously at day-old and again with CR88 at 14 days-old, (III) control unvaccinated. At 30 days-old, each of the groups was challenged with virulent IS/885 or IS/1494. Protection was evaluated based on the clinical signs, tracheal and kidney gross lesions and tracheal ciliostasis. Results showed that administering combined live H120 and CR88 vaccines simultaneously at day-old followed by CR88 vaccine at 14 days-old gave more than 80 per cent tracheal ciliary protection from both of the Middle East isolates. In addition, this programme conferred 100 per cent protection from clinical signs and tracheal or kidney lesions. The other vaccination programme, H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, the tracheal ciliary protection conferred were 60 per cent and 80 per cent from IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like, respectively. PMID:26392909

  1. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-04-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses. PMID:26743315

  2. Comparative effects of in ovo versus subcutaneous administration of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time on the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Barbosa, T M; Cummings, T S; Dickson, J; Womack, S K

    2016-09-01

    Effects of method of administration [moa; in ovo (i.o.) or s.c.] of the Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time (pht) on early post-hatch male broiler chick quality was investigated. Sixty-five Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were randomly set in each of 15 replicate trays (blocks) belonging to each of 4 pre-assigned moa and pht treatment combinations (3,900 total eggs) in a single stage Jamesway incubator. Eggs that were i.o.-vaccinated received injections at 18 d of incubation and male chicks from eggs that were not i.o.-injected were vaccinated by s.c. injection at hatch. The i.o. injections (50 μL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg injector and the s.c. injections (200 μL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic s.c. injector. Male chicks from each moa group also were subjected to either a 4 or 18 h pht. At hatch and placement total and yolk-free BW; body length; body mass index; yolk sac weight; yolk-free body and yolk sac weights as percentages of total BW; and yolk-free body and yolk moisture concentrations were determined. Chick BW also was determined at 7 d of age. Hatchability of fertile eggs was not affected by i.o. injection. However, at hatch, body length was increased and body mass index was decreased in response to i.o. injection. No main effect of moa or an interactive effect with pht was observed for the above variables at placement. However, body length was longer and body mass was lower in the 18 h than in the 4 h pht chicks. Placement yolk sac and body weights, and the 7 d BW of 18 h pht chicks was also lower than that of 4 h pht chicks. In conclusion, prolonging pht for 14 h adversely affected early chick quality, whereas i.o. injection did not negatively affect the early post-hatch quality of Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks whether or not they were held for 4 or 18 h prior to placement. PMID:27143771

  3. Effects of early neonatal development and delayed feeding immediately post-hatch on the hepatic lipogenic program in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The embryo to neonate transition is a critical period of development that has significant impact on broiler production. During this time important genetic programs governing metabolism and growth are established. The goal of this work was to study the effects of early post-hatch (PH) development and...

  4. Mortality in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or with purified fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Bennett, G A; Richard, J L; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1993-09-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight male chicks (Columbia x New Hampshire) were given feed amended with autoclaved culture material (CM) of Fusarium proliferatum Containing fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and moniliformin in 3 separate feeding trials. Purified FB1 and moniliformin were given separately and in combination in a fourth feeding trial. Birds were given amended rations at day 1 (Trial 1 and 4), day 7 (Trial 2), and day 21 (Trial 3) and their respective ration was given for 28 days (Trial 1), 21 days (Trial 2), 7 days (Trial 3), and 14 days (Trial 4). FB1 concentrations were 546, 193, and 61 ppm; FB2 were 98, 38 and 14 ppm; and moniliformin were 367, 193, and 66 ppm in the first 3 feeding trial regimens. Chicks in Trial 4 were given dietary concentrations of purified FB1 at 274 and 125 ppm, and moniliformin at 154 and 27 ppm. FB1 and moniliformin, both alone and in combination, produced dose-responsive clinical signs, reduced weight gains and mortality in chicks. Age of birds given amended feeds had little difference in the clinical response; however, those given the rations from days 7 or 21 were slightly less susceptible than those given rations beginning at 1 day of age. Additive effects were noted when the toxins were given in combination. When toxins were given separately, adverse effects took longer to occur. A system to monitor pattern and rate of defecation (RD) was developed for assessing the chicks' approach to feed, water and heat source as illness progressed. Our results indicate that chicks fed corn heavily infected with F. proliferatum under field conditions could suffer acute death similar to that described for 'spiking mortality syndrome' during the first 3 weeks of age. PMID:8302366

  5. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets. PMID:23909469

  6. Supplemental effect of probiotic Bacillus subtilis B2A on productivity, organ weight, intestinal Salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality of growing broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kim, I H

    2014-08-01

    One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were used to investigate the additive effect during growth of Bacillus subtilis B2A derived from soil samples on productivity, organ weight, intestinal Salmonella microflora, and breast meat quality. Five hundred seventy-six birds (46 ± 0.5 g) were fed 3 different levels of B. subtilis B2A (1.1 × 10(4), 1.0 × 10(5), and 1.0 × 10(6) cfu), in a basal diet based on corn-soybean meal, for 28 d. In the current study, feed intake and feed conversion during 1 to 28 d showed significant improvement as dietary B. subtilis B2A increased from 1.1 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu (linear, P < 0.05). All blood parameters, such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations, were not influenced by B. subtilis B2A added into the diet; however, the weights of the bursa of Fabricius were significantly increased linearly in B. subtilis B2A-fed groups (P < 0.05). Bacillus subtilis B2A supplementation was associated with reduced intestinal Salmonella burden (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Breast meat pH and color were not affected by B. subtilis B2A, but 1 d drip loss was decreased (linear, P < 0.05). Our observations suggest that B. subtilis B2A benefits productivity and reduces Salmonella in broilers. PMID:24902699

  7. Efficacy of a novel prebiotic and a commercial probiotic in reducing mortality and production losses due to cold stress and Escherichia coli challenge of broiler chicks 1.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; El-Gohary, F A; Zhou, Z Y; Shini, S

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics consisting of resistant starch may alter intestinal ecology, thus modulating inflammation and increasing intestinal health through increased cecal production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Probiotics may directly alter the intestinal microbiome, resulting in the same effects. We hypothesize that adding prebiotics and probiotics to feed may protect the gut of young chicks under stress. Studies 1, 2, and 3 evaluated treatments in a cold stress (CS) and Escherichia coli (EC) oral challenge to 430 day-old broiler chicks for 3 wk. In study 1, prebiotics were administered as 15% of the diet during the first week only and consisted of the following: Hi-Maize resistant starch (HM), potato starch (PS), or raw potato (RP). In studies 2 and 3, the PS treatment was identical to study 1, and an additional probiotic treatment (PRO) was administered in feed and water. In study 1, PS protected BW during the first week and decreased the mortality of CS/EC-challenged birds during the first week and wk 3, while RP decreased the mortality of warm-brooded birds challenged with EC during the first week. In study 2, PS decreased and PRO increased the main effect mean (MEM) of the first week BW. PS and PRO numerically decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 23 and 29 points, respectively, in CS/EC-challenged birds with no effects on mortality. In study 3, PS decreased and PRO increased the first week and wk 3 MEM BW. PS numerically increased FCR by 16 points, while PRO decreased FCR by 2 points. Both PS and PRO tended to increase overall mortality, and PRO significantly increased mortality in the CS/EC challenge. These results suggest that the effects of PS may be too variable in this challenge model for further study; however, the PRO treatment improved production values and may have potential as an alternative to antibiotics during the first weeks after hatch. PMID:25743418

  8. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed. PMID:25846572

  9. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  10. Cytotoxic damage of soybean agglutinin on intestinal epithelial cells of broiler chicks: in vitro protection by Bifidobacterium infantis CRL1395.

    PubMed

    Babot, Jaime D; Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Lorenzo-Pisarello, María J; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    Plant lectins, which are proteins/glycoproteins present in a wide range of vegetables, fruits, cereals and beans, are resistant to digestive enzymes and food cooking temperatures. They bind reversibly to specific glycosidic residues expressed on the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and cause anti-nutritional effects in humans and animals. Soybean lectin (SBA) has been detected in poultry diets, and its ability to bind to the intestinal epithelium has been reported. The development of new methods for removing SBA from feeds or to prevent interaction with the intestinal mucosa is of interest. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of SBA on IEC of chicks was demonstrated for the first time. The LD50, assessed after 2 h exposure of IEC to SBA, was 6.13 μg mL(-1) The ability of Bifidobacterium infantis CRL1395 to bind SBA on the bacterial envelope was confirmed, and prevention of IEC cytotoxicity by lectin removal was demonstrated. Safety of B. infantis CRL1395, resistance to gastrointestinal stress and adhesion were also determined. It was concluded that the early administration of B. infantis CRL1395 to chicks would effectively reduce the toxicity of SBA. Besides, it would favour the colonization of the gut with a beneficial microbiota. PMID:27190155

  11. Effect of dietary levan fructan supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P Y; Wang, J P; Kim, I H

    2013-11-01

    A total of 720 1-d-old male Ross broilers (BW of 48.0±0.3 g) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary levan fructan supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, cecal microflora, and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers. This experiment lasted 31 d. Broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) CON, basal diet, 2) CON+0.25% fructan (FC1), and 3) CON+0.50% fructan (FC2). Each treatment contained 16 pens with 15 chicks per pen. Broilers on levan fructan supplementation treatments (FC1+FC2) had a lower (P=0.005 for d 15 to 31) ADFI and greater (P=0.005 for d 15 to 31 and P=0.022 for d 1 to 31) G:F than those on the CON. A decreased (P=0.031) relative spleen weight was observed with levan fructan supplementation treatments compared with the CON. Cecal E. coli and C. perfringens concentrations in levan fructan treatments were decreased, while cecal Lactobacillus, as well as Bifidobacteria, concentrations in levan fructan treatments were increased compared with the CON. However, excreta NH3 concentrations were decreased (P=0.013) in levan fructan treatments compared with the CON. In conclusion, fructan supplementation improved later stage growth performance, increased cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria concentrations, and decreased cecal E. coli and C. perfringens concentrations, as well as excreta NH3 concentrations, in broilers. PMID:24045474

  12. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response. PMID:25713394

  13. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. PMID:25864115

  14. Effect of the insect growth regulator CGA-72662 (Larvadex) on broiler breeder production, hatchability, and subsequent chick performance.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Ort, J F; Carter, T A

    1984-05-01

    Broiler breeders were fed CGA -72662 ( Larvadex ) at dosages of 0, 30, 300, and 3000 mg/kg (ppm) diet in a standard breeder diet from 25 to 65 weeks of age. The 3000 ppm level was reduced stepwise to 1000 ppm from 25 to 27 weeks due to a significant increase in male and female mortality. Feed consumption did not differ significantly due to treatment. However, birds fed 300 ppm exhibited significantly improved feed conversion and increased egg production on a hen-day basis compared to those fed 0 and 30 ppm with the 1000 ppm level intermediate. On an egg per hen-housed basis, birds fed 300 ppm produced significantly more eggs than those fed 0 ppm with 30 ppm intermediate. Hens fed 1000 ppm produced significantly fewer eggs than all other treatments due to higher initial mortality. Body weight gains for males and females among treatments were similar. Mortality was significantly greater at 1000 ppm than for all other treatments. Egg specific gravity at 50 and 60 weeks was not affected significantly by any treatment. Egg weight, when compared to the 0 ppm level, was decreased significantly at the 1000 ppm level at 50 weeks and by both 300 and 1000 ppm levels at 60 weeks. Egg shell weight was not affected significantly at 50 weeks, but was decreased significantly by both 300 and 1000 ppm Larvadex at 60 weeks. There were no significant effects due to treatment level on fertility, early deads , pipped eggs, hatchability of fertile eggs, or hatchability of eggs set.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6728801

  15. Seasonal impact on the prevalence of coccidian infection in broiler chicks across poultry farms in the Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Shazia; Tanveer, Syed; Malik, Tauseef Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The information on the epidemiology and control of coccidian parasites of broilers in Kashmir valley is based on the reports available from other regions of the world. With this background, the present study was conducted to investigate the seasonal prevalence of the disease in the temperate agro-climatic conditions of Kashmir valley. A standard protocol for sampling was followed according to which five birds per 10,000 is sufficient to diagnose coccidiosis. Microscopic examination (under 10× and 40× objective lens) was used to reveal the presence of coccidial oocysts. Different species of genus Eimeria were identified on the basis of their predilection site, morphology and size. Coccidiosis was most prevalent in autumn 45.12 ± 2.55 (September 47.5 %, October 42.42 % and November 45.46 %) followed by summer 30.84 ± 6.86, spring 23.81 ± 2.81 and winter 20.29 ± 6.40. In summer, prevalence of disease was low but afterwards prevalence of disease rose up from August to October. In spite of high relative humidity in winter, disease showed low prevalence rate. Over all prevalence for the whole year was 29.87 %. Among species Eimeria tenella was the most dominant parasite showing highest prevalence of 18.13 %. Variation in incidence of coccidiosis with respect to seasons showed a strong correlation and data was found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. The results obtained would be quite useful to devise appropriate and effective control strategies and prophylactic programs for coccidiosis in poultry unique to this climatic zone and other parts of the world with similar climatic and poultry production systems. PMID:26688644

  16. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. The effect of different dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations and ratios on nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S J; Bradbury, E J; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each

  17. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-11-01

    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat. PMID:24135586

  18. Translocation of Campylobacter and Salmonella to the spleen and liver/gallbladder in 7 and 14 day old broiler chicks following oral gavage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-of-hatch broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery and orally gavaged with 0.10mL of either 103 or 106 cells of a marker strain of Campylobacter coli (CC) or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). At one and two wk after inoculation 10 broilers from the control and each treatment group were human...

  19. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  20. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  1. Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gocsik, É; Kortes, H E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most prevalent and economically relevant endemic diseases in the broiler farms. Health care costs consisted of losses and expenditures. The study investigated whether higher animal welfare standards increased health care costs, in both absolute and relative terms, and also examined which cost components (losses or expenditures) were affected and, if so, to what extent. The results show that health care costs represent only a small proportion of total production costs in each production system. Losses account for the major part of health care costs, which makes it difficult to detect the actual effect of diseases on total health care costs. We conclude that, although differences in health care costs exist across production systems, health care costs only make a minor contribution to the total production costs relative to other costs, such as feed costs and purchase of 1-d-old chicks. PMID:24879680

  2. An insight into the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of eggshells hatching broiler chicks and its effects to the hatcher environment.

    PubMed

    Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Hong, S W; Tong, Q; McGonnell, I; Demmers, T G M; Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Roulston, N; Verhelst, R; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic study of incubated eggs is an important component in the optimisation of incubation processes. However, research on the interaction of heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in eggs is rather limited and does not focus on the hatching stage of incubation. During hatch, both the recently hatched chick and the broken eggshell add extra heat and moisture contents to the hatcher environment. In this study, we have proposed a novel way to estimate thermodynamically the amount of water evaporated from a broken eggshell during hatch. The hypothesis of this study considers that previously reported drops in eggshell temperature during hatching of chicks is the result remaining water content evaporating from the eggshell, released on the inner membrane by the recently hatched wet chick, just before hatch. To reproduce this process, water was sprayed on eggshells to mimic the water-fluid from the wet body of a chick. For each sample of eggshell, the shell geometry and weight, surface area and eggshell temperature were measured. Water evaporation losses and convection coefficient were calculated using a novel model approach considering the simultaneous heat and mass transfer profiles in an eggshell. The calculated average convective coefficient was 23.9 ± 7.5 W/m(2) °C, similar to previously reported coefficients in literature as a function of 0.5-1m/s air speed range. Comparison between measured and calculated values for the water evaporation showed 68% probability accuracy, associated to the use of an experimentally derived single heat transfer coefficient. The results support our proposed modelling approach of heat and mass transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, by estimating the amount of evaporated water in an eggshell post-hatch, air humidity levels inside the hatcher can be optimised to ensure wet chicks dry properly while not dehydrating early hatching chicks. PMID:25660633

  3. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  4. Apparent metabolizable energy and prediction equations for reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler chicks from 10 to 18 days old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment consisting of two identically designed trials was conducted to determine the nutrient composition and AMEn content of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to develop prediction equations for AMEn in broilers. Fifteen samples of DDGS ranging in ether extract (EE) from 3...

  5. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PMID

  6. Effects of yeast cell wall-derived mannan-oligosaccharides on jejunal gene expression in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, R; Power, R F; Mallonee, D; Routt, K; Spangler, L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Dawson, K A

    2012-07-01

    The use of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has gained in popularity in recent years due to regulatory restrictions of using AGP in food animal production. Benefits of MOS usage include improvement on animal performance, feed efficiency, and gastrointestinal health. The molecular mechanisms of these functions however are not clear. The goal of the current study was to use a transcriptomics approach to investigate the effects of MOS on the intestinal gene expression profile of young broilers and characterize biological gene pathways responsible for the actions of MOS. One hundred and twenty 1-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups and were fed either a standard wheat-soybean meal-based (control) diet or the same diet supplemented with 2.2 g/kg of MOS (Bio-Mos, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) for 3 wk, followed by jejunal gene expression profiling analysis using chicken-specific Affymetrix microarrays. Results indicated that a total of 672 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01 and fold change >1.2) in the jejunum by MOS supplementation. Association analysis indicated that differentially expressed genes are involved in diverse biological functions including energy production, cell death, and protein translation. Expression of 77 protein synthesis-related genes was differentially regulated by MOS in the jejunum. Further pathway analysis indicated that 15 genes related to oxidative phosphorylation were upregulated in the jejunum, and expression of genes important in cellular stress response, such as peroxiredoxin 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and thioredoxin, were also increased by MOS. Differential expression of genes associated with cellular immune processes, including lysozyme, lumican, β 2-microglobin, apolipoprotein A-1, and fibronectin 1, were also observed in MOS-fed broilers. In summary, this study systematically identified biological functions and gene pathways that are important in

  7. Effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal on broiler performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hu, C H; Wang, D G; Pan, H Y; Zheng, W B; Zuo, A Y; Liu, J X

    2012-09-01

    Three hundred sixty 1-d-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effects of broccoli stem and leaf meal (BSLM) on growth performance, skin pigmentation, antioxidant function, and meat quality. The chicks were fed 4 diets containing different levels (0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0%) of BSLM as partial replacement for corn and soybean meal for a period of 42 d. The results showed that dietary supplementation of BSLM had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance. As compared with control, dietary 4%, 8%, and 12% BSLM increased (P < 0.05) b value (yellowness) both in shank and breast skin, increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of xanthophylls in abdominal fat and breast skin, improved (P < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, lowered malondialdehyde concentration, and decreased drip loss percentage of breast muscle. Dietary 8% and 12% BSLM decreased (P < 0.05) shank L values (lightness), increased (P < 0.05) shank a value (redness), and increased (P < 0.05) the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase of breast muscle as compared with control. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of BSLM in broiler chickens improved the poultry products quality with the more skin pigmentation and the less drip loss percentage of breast meat. The more skin pigmentation mainly related to the high amount of xanthophylls in BSLM. The decreased meat drip loss fed BSLM may be caused by the antioxidative function of BSLM. PMID:22912457

  8. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  9. Efficacy of in-feed preparations of an anticoccidial, multienzyme, prebiotic, probiotic, and herbal essential oil mixture in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected broilers.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Aysul, N; Küçükyilmaz, K; Aypak, S; Ege, G; Catli, A U; Aksit, H; Cöven, F; Seyrek, K; Cinar, M

    2014-02-01

    The efficacies of 5 widely used dietary supplements were investigated on performance indices, fecal oocyst excretion, lesion score, and intestinal tract measurements in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected birds by using a comparative model. This study included 2,400 sexed Ross 308 broiler chicks that were equally divided in 2 groups: the infected group, experimentally infected with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. at 14 d of age, and the healthy controls. The birds in both groups were further divided equally into 6 groups, of which one was fed a basal diet and served as control without treatment and the other 5 served as experimental treatments. These 5 groups were fed 5 diets containing preparations of 60 mg/kg of anticoccidial salinomycin (SAL), 1 g/kg of multienzyme (ENZ), 1 g/kg of probiotic (PRO), 1 g/kg of prebiotic (PRE), and 40 mg/kg of an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM). Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant improvement in the infected animals, which indicates that dietary supplemental regimens with SAL, ENZ, PRO, and PRE initiated in 1-d-old chicks reduced adverse effects after challenge with coccidiosis; however, chicks that were administered EOM failed to show such improvement. Uninfected chickens showed significant improvement in FCR with supplements SAL, PRE, and EOM, which signifies significant (P < 0.01) infection by supplement interactions for BW gain and FCR. In the infected group, all of the supplements reduced the severity of coccidiosis lesions (P < 0.01) induced by mixed Eimeria spp. through the middle and lower regions of the small intestines, whereas supplementation with SAL or EOM alone was effective (P < 0.01) in reducing oocyst excretion compared with the control treatment. The data indicated that use of these subtherapeutically efficacious supplements (except EOM) in broiler production can lessen the depression in growth due to coccidial challenge. PMID:24570461

  10. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B₁ in Starter Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B₁ in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B₁ residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver's ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  11. Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Abdel-Raheem, S; Böhm, J

    2009-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of synbiotic and probiotic on broiler performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and histomorphological measurements of small intestine. Six hundred 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) basal diets supplemented with synbiotic (1 kg of Biomin IMBO/ ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets), 3) basal diets supplemented with probiotic (1 kg of a homofermentative and a heterofermentative Lacto-bacillus sp./ton of feed). The BW, average daily weight gain, carcass yield percentage, and feed conversion rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by the dietary inclusion of the synbiotic compared with the control and probiotic-fed broilers. Moreover, a slight improvement in performance traits was observed in broilers fed the probiotic compared with control birds. The absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus tended to be greater (P < 0.1) for the probiotic-supplemented group compared with the synbiotic-supplemented group. The relative liver weight was greater (P < 0.05) for probiotic-fed birds compared with synbiotic-fed birds. Additionally, the weight of small intestine was greater for either probiotic- (3.17) or synbiotic-fed birds (3.11) than the controls (2.89). Furthermore, dietary treatments influenced the histomorphological measurements of small intestinal villi. The addition of either probiotic or synbiotic increased (P < 0.05) the villus height:crypt depth ratio and villus height in both duodenum and ileum. The duodenal crypt depth remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementations compared with control. In conclusion, synbiotic or probiotic displayed a greater efficacy as growth promoters for broilers. Furthermore, the dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height and crypt depth of

  12. The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on broiler pigmentation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Rajput, N; Naeem, M; Ali, S; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L; Wang, T

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with 2 carotenoids, curcumin and lutein, on pigmentation and immunity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated broiler chicks. Two hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatment groups: a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of curcumin (CRM), or a basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg of lutein (LTN) for 42 d. The birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza on d 10. At 16, 18, and 20 d of age, half of the chicks in each group were injected in the abdominal region with either LPS (250 mg/kg of BW) or an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl. The intensity of the shank skin color (Roche color fan score) and the b* (yellow) values of the breasts and thighs were highest in lutein-supplemented broilers, followed by curcumin-supplemented and control broilers, whereas the a* (red) value of the thigh muscle was highest in curcumin-supplemented LPS-induced birds. At 42 d, the relative weight of the abdominal fat was lowest in the CRM-supplemented group, followed by the LTN-supplemented and control groups; the spleen weight was lower in the non-LPS-induced LTN-supplemented group than the LPS-induced control group. The ND and avian influenza titers were significantly higher in the CRM-supplemented group than in the other groups at 20 d; at 30 d, the ND titer was significantly higher in the LPS-induced LTN group. Supplementation with curcumin significantly promoted B and T lymphocyte proliferation in both LPS- and non-LPS-induced birds at 21 d. Curcumin also promoted B lymphocyte proliferation in non-LPS-induced birds at 42 d. Curcumin significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at 42 d in non-LPS-treated birds, whereas lutein significantly increased the activities of these enzymes in LPS-induced birds. Both carotenoids significantly

  13. Effect of an herbal essential oil mixture on growth, laying traits, and egg hatching characteristics of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Alçiçek, A; Cabuk, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Catli, A U

    2009-11-01

    The effects of supplementing a basal diet with 2 levels of an essential oil mixture and an antibiotic on the growth, laying traits, and egg hatching characteristics of broiler breeders were examined in this study. Nine hundred sixty female and 128 male breeders at an age of 1 d old were randomly allocated to 16 replicates (i.e., 4 replicates of 4 dietary treatments) in a floor pen trial. Two levels of an essential oil mixture (EOM; i.e., 24 and 48 mg of EOM/kg of diet) and an antibiotic (i.e., l0 mg of avilamycin/kg of diet) were added to the basal starter, grower, and laying diets from 0 to 45 wk of age. Daily feed allocations were adjusted to produce a target BW and egg production rate of the breeders throughout the experimental period. The BW of the males and females were determined at 12, 21, and 45 wk of age. Livability during the growing and laying period was not affected by the dietary treatments. The fertility and hatchability of total eggs set were positively affected by the supplementation of the EOM in the diet (P < 0.01). The hen-day egg production, hatching egg weight, settable egg ratio, hatching of fertile eggs, extra large egg rate, and proportion of chick weight to egg weight were not affected significantly. The higher level of EOM (48 mg/kg) added to the diet led to the hatching of the heaviest chickens; the lower level of EOM (24 mg/kg) and antibiotic treatments led to the hatching of the intermediate weight chickens, followed by the control treatment (P < 0.01). Hens given the lower level of EOM in their diets produced a higher number of settable eggs and chicks as compared with those of other treatments, whereas hens fed the control diet yielded the lowest total settable eggs and chicks throughout the experimental laying period (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that supplementing diets with EOM improved fertility, the hatchability of total eggs set, total settable eggs, total chicks, and the chick weight of broiler breeders. PMID

  14. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  15. Protein turnover in the breast muscle of broiler chicks and studies addressing chlorine dioxide sanitation of hatching eggs, poultry leg problems and wheat middling diets for laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes occurred in breast muscle Ks measured by {sup 14}C-tyrosine incorporation at 10, 16, 22 and 34 days of age. Protein synthesis rates decreased as the birds matures: 30 to 11.2%/d between 10 and 34 days of age. In a second study birds fed diets low in lysine or protein-energy had reduced fractional rates of protein synthesis and free tyrosine, branched chain and large neutral amino acid concentrations as compared to control birds the same body weight. Artificial weight loading and reduced dietary protein levels were used to study the effects of body weight on the severity of leg deformities in chicks and poults. Experiments investigating the practicality of wheat middlings as an alternate feedstuff for laying hens suggested that high levels in the diet will reduce egg production, feed conversion, hen livability and egg yolk color. Lastly, chlorine dioxide foam and dipping solutions were compared with formaldehyde fumigation for sanitizing hatching eggs.

  16. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  17. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY METHIONINE SOURCE ON VOLATILE SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN BROILER EXCRETA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the impact of methionine source on volatile sulfur compounds in broiler excreta a trial was conducted using straight run broiler chicks raised in battery cages. Chicks were randomly distributed into 3 replications of 5 treatment groups with 16 birds per pen. The treatment groups were d...

  18. Comparative pathologic changes in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or purified fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Bunte, R M; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Richard, J L; Bennett, G A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    2005-06-01

    Feed amended with autoclaved culture material (CM) of Fusarium proliferatum containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) (61-546 ppm), fumonisin B2 (FB2) (14-98 ppm) and moniliformin (66-367 ppm) was given to 228 male chicks in three separate feeding trials. In a fourth feeding trial, purified FB1 (125 and 274 ppm) and moniliformin (27 and 154 ppm) were given separately and in combination (137 and 77 ppm, respectively). Chicks that died during the trial periods, survivors and controls were subjected to postmortem examination. Specimens (liver, kidney, pancreas, lung, brain, intestine, testis, bursa of Fabricius, heart and skeletal muscle) were examined grossly and preserved for subsequent histopathologic and ultrastructural examination. Prominent gross lesions in affected birds fed diets amended with CM or purified FB1 and moniliformin included ascites, hydropericardium, hepatopathy, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, pneumonitis, gizzard ulceration, and enlarged bursa of Fabricius filled with caseous material. The various concentrations of FB1 and moniliformin in the amended rations produced well-defined dose-response lesions in all groups in all four trials. Histopathologic changes included hemorrhage, leucocytic infiltration, fatty change or infiltration, individual cell necrosis and fibrosis in liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, intestines, gizzard, bursa of Fabricius and pancreas. Edema and hemorrhage were prominent in brains of treated birds. Ultrastructural changes included cytoplasmic and nuclear enlargement of cells in affected liver, lungs, kidneys, heart and pancreas. There were thickened membranes of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum with loss of ribosomes and vacuolated or deformed mitochondria. PMID:15983742

  19. Effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on broiler performance, intestinal nutrient transport and integrity under experimental conditions with increased microbial challenge.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G R; Gabler, N K; Persia, M E

    2014-02-01

    1. The effects of Aspergillus oryzae- and Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFM) were investigated on the performance, ileal nutrient transport and intestinal integrity of broiler chickens, raised under experimental conditions, with increased intestinal microbial challenge. 2. The first study was a 3 × 2 factorial experiment, with 3 dietary treatments (control (CON), CON + DFM and CON + antibiotic growth promoter) with and without challenge. Chicks were fed experimental diets from 1 to 28 d, while the challenge was provided by vaccinating with 10 times the normal dose of commercial coccidial vaccine on d 9. In a second experiment, two groups of 1 d-old broilers, housed on built-up litter (uncleaned from two previous flocks), were fed the same CON and CON + DFM diets from 1 to 21 d. 3. The challenge in the first experiment reduced performance, but no differences were observed among dietary treatments from 8 to 28 d. The challenge reduced the ileal epithelial flux for D-glucose, L-lysine, DL-methionine and phosphorus on d 21. Epithelial flux for D-glucose, L-lysine and DL-methionine were increased by DFM. Ileal trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TER) was increased in challenged broilers fed DFM, although this was not observed in unchallenged birds as indicated by a significant interaction. 4. Ileal mucin mRNA expression and colon TER were increased, and colon endotoxin permeability was reduced by DFM on d 21 in the second experiment. 5. It was concluded that the addition of DFM in the diet improved the intestinal integrity of broiler chickens raised under experimental conditions designed to provide increased intestinal microbial challenge. PMID:24219515

  20. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets. PMID:9603354

  1. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli gyrA and parC mutants in one-day-old broiler chicks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Hachesoo, Bahman; Asasi, Keramat; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Vertical and consequently horizontal transmission of quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli clones following hatch in chickens enables a massive amplification of these clones into a large population. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of Iranian E. coli isolates (n=105) from one-day-old chicks to fluoroquinolones and the relation of this resistance with mutations in gyrA and parC genes using PCR-RFLP. For the first time, EcoRV restriction enzyme was used for rapid mutation screening in parC (Ser80Ile). The results showed that the low level of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin (0.25-4μg ml-1) and enrofloxacin (0.25-4μg ml-1) corresponded to a single mutation in gyrA, while intermediary to high level of MIC for ciprofloxacin (8 --> 64 μg ml-1) and enrofloxacin (16 --> 64 μg ml-1) were related to 2 mutations in gyrA or 3 mutations, 2 in gyrA and 1 in parC. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.93, P < 0.001) between MIC levels of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin among these isolates. The article concludes by stressing that the rising incidence of enrofloxacin resistant E. coli isolates from chicken sources may increase the potential risk of ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli acquisition by humans. PMID:24358491

  2. The Bacillus subtilis and Lactic Acid Bacteria Probiotics Influences Intestinal Mucin Gene Expression, Histomorphology and Growth Performance in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Aliakbarpour, H. R.; Chamani, M.; Rahimi, G.; Sadeghi, A. A.; Qujeq, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of commercial monostrain and multistrain probiotics in diets on growth performance, intestinal morphology and mucin gene (MUC2) expression in broiler chicks. Three hundred seventy-eight 1-d-old male Arian broiler chicks were allocated in 3 experimental groups for 6 wk. The birds were fed on a corn-soybean based diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: control-unsupplemented (C), birds supplemented with Bacillus subtilis (BS) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based probiotics. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 21 broilers each. Treatment effects on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and biomarkers such as intestinal goblet cell density, villus length, villus width, and mucin gene expression were determined. Total feed intake did not differ significantly between control birds and those fed a diet with probiotics (p>0.05). However, significant differences in growth performance were found. Final body weight at 42 d of age was higher in birds fed a diet with probiotics compared to those fed a diet without probiotic (p<0.05). Inclusion of Bacillus subtilis based probiotic in the diets also significantly affected feed conversion rate (FCR) compared with control birds (p<0.05). No differences in growth performance were observed in birds fed different types of probiotic supplemented diets. Inclusion of lactic acid bacteria based probiotic in the diets significantly increased goblet cell number and villus length (p<0.05). Furthermore, diets with Bacillus subtilis based probiotics significantly increased gene expression (p<0.05), with higher intestinal MUC2 mRNA in birds fed diet with probiotics compared to those fed the control diet. In BS and LAB probiotic fed chicks, higher growth performance may be related to higher expression of the MUC2 gene in goblet cells and/or morphological change of small intestinal tract. The higher synthesis of the mucin gene after probiotic administration may

  3. The Bacillus subtilis and Lactic Acid Bacteria Probiotics Influences Intestinal Mucin Gene Expression, Histomorphology and Growth Performance in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarpour, H R; Chamani, M; Rahimi, G; Sadeghi, A A; Qujeq, D

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of commercial monostrain and multistrain probiotics in diets on growth performance, intestinal morphology and mucin gene (MUC2) expression in broiler chicks. Three hundred seventy-eight 1-d-old male Arian broiler chicks were allocated in 3 experimental groups for 6 wk. The birds were fed on a corn-soybean based diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: control-unsupplemented (C), birds supplemented with Bacillus subtilis (BS) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based probiotics. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 21 broilers each. Treatment effects on body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and biomarkers such as intestinal goblet cell density, villus length, villus width, and mucin gene expression were determined. Total feed intake did not differ significantly between control birds and those fed a diet with probiotics (p>0.05). However, significant differences in growth performance were found. Final body weight at 42 d of age was higher in birds fed a diet with probiotics compared to those fed a diet without probiotic (p<0.05). Inclusion of Bacillus subtilis based probiotic in the diets also significantly affected feed conversion rate (FCR) compared with control birds (p<0.05). No differences in growth performance were observed in birds fed different types of probiotic supplemented diets. Inclusion of lactic acid bacteria based probiotic in the diets significantly increased goblet cell number and villus length (p<0.05). Furthermore, diets with Bacillus subtilis based probiotics significantly increased gene expression (p<0.05), with higher intestinal MUC2 mRNA in birds fed diet with probiotics compared to those fed the control diet. In BS and LAB probiotic fed chicks, higher growth performance may be related to higher expression of the MUC2 gene in goblet cells and/or morphological change of small intestinal tract. The higher synthesis of the mucin gene after probiotic administration may

  4. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  5. Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11™ Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

  6. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  7. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  8. Internal and external carriage of inoculated salmonella in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    External and internal persistence of inoculated Salmonella and spread to uninoculated broiler chicks in the same pens were studied by sampling ceca and rinses of feathered carcasses in two experiments. Half of the day-old chicks in pens were orally inoculated with a nalidixic-acid-resistant strain ...

  9. Efficacy of diclazuril in comparison with chemical and ionophorous anticoccidials against Eimeria spp. in broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Conway, D P; Mathis, G F; Johnson, J; Schwartz, M; Baldwin, C

    2001-04-01

    Two 42-d floor pen studies were conducted with commercial broiler chickens to measure the efficacy of 1 ppm diclazuril in the starter or grower diet in shuttle programs with 66 ppm salinomycin. Study 1 compared a salinomycin to diclazuril (starter to grower diet) shuttle treatment with salinomycin to salinomycin, salinomycin to 100 ppm monensin, salinomycin to 99.8 ppm lasalocid, and unmedicated treatments. Study 2 compared a diclazuril to salinomycin (starter to grower) shuttle treatment with 125 ppm nicarbazin to salinomycin, 79.2 ppm narasin + nicarbazin to salinomycin, 125 ppm zoalene to salinomycin, and unmedicated treatments. Fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly allotted to each of 10 pens per treatment in each study using a randomized complete block design. Starter (Days 0 to 21) and grower (Days 22 to 37) diets in each study contained 55 ppm bacitracin methylene disalicylate. The finisher diet (Days 38 to 42) in each study was unmedicated. Birds were inoculated via their feed on Day 22 (Study 1) or Day 15 (Study 2) with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Four birds per pen (two male and two female) were randomly selected in each study for coccidial lesion scores on Day 6 postinoculation. These studies demonstrated that the use of 1 ppm diclazuril in shuttle programs was highly efficacious against a mixed inoculum of Eimeria spp. in comparison with nicarbazin, narasin + nicarbazin, and zoalene in starter diets and salinomycin, monensin, and lasalocid in grower diets. PMID:11297280

  10. Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, zinc accumulation, and gene expression of zinc transporters in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z G; Chen, G Y; Li, L F; Wen, C; Wang, T; Zhou, Y M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated Zn-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) as a Zn supplement on performance, organ or tissue development, Zn accumulation in tissues, and gene expression of Zn transporters in the duodenum of broilers. A total of 300 1-d-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per treatment for a 21-d feeding period. The treatments comprised a basal corn–soybean meal diet without supplemental Zn (the control) or similar diets supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO4 or 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn- ZCP, respectively. Supplementation of Zn-ZCP had a positive effect on G:F (linear, P < 0.05) and had tendency difference on ADG (linear, P < 0.1) of broilers during 1 to 21 d. Incremental Zn-ZCP inclusion in the diet increased the fresh weight of the pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) and tibia (linear, P < 0.05) in broilers on d 14. The same trend to the fresh weight of the tibia (linear, P < 0.05) and pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) was observed on d 21. Increasing Zn-ZCP level showed a linear response on Zn concentration in the liver (linear, P < 0.001), pancreas (linear, P < 0.05), and tibia (linear, P < 0.05) on d 14. The same trend of Zn concentrations in pancreas (linear, P < 0.05) and tibia (linear, P < 0.001) was observed on d 21. The mRNA levels of Zn transporter 2 (ZnT-2) and Zn transporter 5 (ZnT-5) in the duodenum of chicks fed the diet with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP did not differ from those of chicks fed the control diet, but both were lower (P < 0.05) than those of chicks fed ZnSO4 diet. Metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels of broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP or ZnSO4 was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Dietary treatments did not affect the mRNA expression of Zn transporter 1 (ZnT-1) or metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). In conclusion, as a Zn supplement, Zn-ZCP was comparable to ZnSO4 for enhancing Zn accumulation

  11. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  12. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  13. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  14. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    PubMed

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available. PMID:11081418

  15. Impact of Feeding Systems and Vaccination Programs on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization and Clearance of E. Coli In Broiler Broiler Breeders Pullets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...

  16. Single and Combined Effects of Deoxynivalenol Mycotoxin and a Microbial Feed Additive on Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Ghareeb, Khaled; Dadak, Agnes; Hess, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The immune and intestinal epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON). The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of DON and/or a microbial feed additive on the DNA damage of blood lymphocytes and on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in broilers. A total of forty 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 birds per group) for 5 wk. The dietary treatments were 1) basal diet; 2) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; 3) basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg/ton of feed of Mycofix Select; 4) basal diet supplemented with Mycofix Select (2.5 kg/ton of feed). At the end of the feeding trial, blood were collected for measuring the level of lymphocyte DNA damage of blood and the TBARS level was measured in plasma, heart, kidney, duodenum and jejunum. The dietary exposure of DON caused a significant increase (P = 0.001) of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (31.99±0.89%) as indicated in the tail of comet assay. Interestingly addition of Mycofix Select to DON contaminated diet decreased (P = 0.001) the DNA damage (19.82±1.75%) induced by DON. In order to clarify the involvement of lipid peroxidation in the DNA damage of DON, TBARS levels was measured. A significant increase (P = 0.001) in the level of TBARS (23±2 nmol/mg) was observed in the jejunal tissue suggesting that the lipid peroxidation might be involved in the DNA damage. The results indicate that DON is cytotoxic and genotoxic to the chicken intestinal and immune cells and the feed additive have potential ability to prevent DNA damage induced by DON. PMID:24498242

  17. Efficacy of polymers in combination with biocides as sanitizer of salmonella inoculated broiler hatching eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of broiler hatching eggs can be carried through the hatchery and with the hatched chick into the broiler house. Commercially available chemical hatching egg sanitizers have achieved acceptable levels of eggshell decontamination of >70% reductions when applied prior to setti...

  18. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  19. Study on price transmission in China's broiler industry chain based on MCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiwei; Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin; Cui, Liguo; Kong, Fantao; Li, Ganqiong; Yu, Haipeng

    This paper studies price transmission mechanism of China's broiler industry chain with Market-chain Cooperated Model (MCM), according to the monthly price data of corn, broiler compound feed, broiler chicks, live chicken and eviscerated chicken from 1994 June to 2011 October. The result shows that the price system of China's broiler industry chain exists price transmission relationship, the price of representative products from upstream and midstream conducts obviously to downstream, and broiler compound feed price plays an important role in the price system. The result also indicates that the interior adjusting of broiler industry chain cannot guarantee that the entire price system recover to balance quickly. Therefore, the government needs to regulate timely the price system of broiler industry chain, especially the price change of feed and live broiler to maintain the price system relative stable.

  20. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet. PMID:12079050

  1. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Q. H.; Yang, Z. B.; Yang, W. R.; Li, Z.; Zhang, G. G.; Jiang, S. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  2. Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Contaminated Corn with or withoutYeast Cell Wall Adsorbent on Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Q H; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, G G; Jiang, S Z

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeds naturally contaminated with mycotoxins on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, carcass traits, and splenic heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens. The efficacy of yeast cell wall (YCW) adsorbent in preventing mycotoxicosis was also evaluated. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in completely randomized design for 42 d. Each treatment group had 5 replicate pens with 20 birds. The treatments were as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) naturally contaminated diet (NCD), and iii) NCD+0.2% YCW adsorbent (NCDD). The NCD decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) of 0 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 0 to 42 d, and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) of 22 to 42 d and 0 to 42 d. Both the breast meat percentage and thigh meat percentage of the NCD group were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the control group on d 21. The NCD group showed significantly increased levels of triglycerides (p<0.05) and cholesterol (p<0.05) on both d 21 and d 42 compared to the control group. However, the NCD significantly reduced (p<0.01) the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on d 42 compared to controls. Compared with the NCD, supplementation with YCW significantly improved (p<0.01) the ADG of 0 to 21 d and 0 to 42 d, and increased (p<0.01) concentrations of HDL on d 42, and on d 21, and triglycerides (p<0.05) on d 21 and d 42. Supplementation with YCW reduced (p<0.01) the breast meat percentage, the thigh meat percentage, the concentrations of cholesterol (p<0.01) and the low-density lipoprotein (p<0.05) on d 21, and improved (p<0.01) the splenic Hsp70 mRNA expression levels compared with the NCD group. The results of this study indicated that feeding NCD for 42 d had adverse effects on broiler chickens, and that YCW might be beneficial in counteracting the effects of mycotoxins. PMID:26954178

  3. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  4. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  5. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  6. Fumonisin mycotoxicosis in broilers: performance and pathology.

    PubMed

    Brown, T P; Rottinghaus, G E; Williams, M E

    1992-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing fumonisin B1 at 300 mg/kg was incorporated into a broiler starter ration and fed ad libitum to 1-day-old broiler chicks for 2 weeks in two experiments. Clinical features of the disease produced included diarrhea, a 19% reduction in body weight, a 30% increase in relative liver weight, and a worsening of feed conversion by 20 points at 2 weeks of age. Histologically, chicks fed fumonisin had multifocal hepatic necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, muscle necrosis, intestinal goblet-cell hyperplasia, and rickets. Simultaneous feeding of 0.5% aluminosilicate had no effect on the clinical disease or lesions. The clinical disease and lesions induced mimicked those of a viral enteritis. PMID:1627116

  7. Thy hydrolysis of phytate phosphorus by chicks and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T S

    1976-11-01

    The chromic oxide balance method was used to determine the amount of natural phytate phosphorus hydrolyzed by chicks and laying hens. Broiler chicks 4 and 9 weeks old and Single Comb White Leghorn hens were fed diets containing corn as the only grain source or diets in which wheat replaced one half of the corn. Feces were collected twice daily during the 7-day test period. The phytate phosphorus recovered in the feces of the 4 and 9 week old chicks and the laying hens fed the diet containing corn was 100, 98, and 92%. When wheat replaced one half of the corn the recovery was 92, 87 and 87%. The phytase activity in wheat was minimal in vivo; whereas, in vitro tests indicated enzyme activity. PMID:1019083

  8. Digestible isoleucine-to-lysine ratio effects in diets for broilers from 4 to 6 weeks posthatch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestible Ile:Lys ratio (%) in finisher (28 to 42 d of age) phase diets fed to broilers, based on live performance and carcass trait responses. A total of 1,248 Ross × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 8 dietary treatments varying in ...

  9. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  10. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, F.; Ronchi, A.; Castelli, P.; Sparks, N.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0–10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10–24) and finisher (d 24–42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  11. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Khattak, F; Ronchi, A; Castelli, P; Sparks, N

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0-10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10-24) and finisher (d 24-42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  12. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  13. Vertical transmission and clinical signs in broiler breeders and broilers experiencing adenoviral gizzard erosion.

    PubMed

    Grafl, Beatrice; Aigner, Franz; Liebhart, Dieter; Marek, Ana; Prokofieva, Irina; Bachmeier, Josef; Hess, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The present report documents an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion in 22 broiler flocks in Germany. The clinical picture was characterized by uneven growth of affected broilers that resulted in considerably lower than average weight at slaughtering. Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAdV-1) was isolated from gizzard lesions and histological examinations demonstrated FAdV-1-positive intranuclear inclusion bodies in gizzard epithelial cells of affected broilers by in-situ hybridization. Birds from all affected flocks originated from one broiler breeder farm. During production of affected birds, broiler breeders were between 27 and 32 weeks old. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and specific virus neutralization assay of sera from parent birds demonstrated an acute FAdV-1 infection within the first 5 weeks of the production cycle. Clinically, broiler breeders exhibited a moderate fall in the hatchability of their chicks, while egg production remained normal. No further clinical signs could be observed. Genetically identical FAdV-1 strains were isolated from gizzards of embryos at the lowest point of hatchability and from affected broiler flocks raised on independent farms. For the first time, direct detection of viable FAdV-1 from gizzards of embryos and progenies of one FAdV-1-seropositive broiler breeder farm in the course of an outbreak of adenoviral gizzard erosion could be demonstrated, highlighting the importance of vertical transmission of this disease. Additionally, growth retardation and subsequent reduced average weight at the time of slaughter of broiler chickens underline the economic impact of adenoviral gizzard erosion for poultry production. PMID:23237373

  14. Effects of an acute stressor on fear and on the social reinstatement responses of domestic chicks to cagemates and strangers.

    PubMed

    Marin, R H.; Freytes, P; Guzman, D; Bryan Jones, R

    2001-02-16

    Genetic selection for appropriate levels of sociality (motivation to be with conspecifics) could benefit poultry welfare and performance. Runway tests that require chicks to traverse a corridor in order to reach other chicks in a goal box are commonly used to measure this behavioural trait. However, we need to determine if the chicks' responses in such tests are sensitive to certain experiential variables before we can recommend possible selection criteria for future breeding programmes. The present study focused on fear and on the identity of the stimulus birds. Broiler chicks either remained undisturbed or were exposed to an acute stressor (mechanical restraint) before their tonic immobility fear responses were measured 1h later in Experiment 1. Exposure to the stressor significantly prolonged tonic immobility and, hence, presumably, underlying fear levels. In Experiment 2, the responses of stressed chicks and undisturbed controls were assessed when they were tested individually in a runway with a goal box containing either familiar or unfamiliar chicks of the same age. Our finding that stressed chicks emerged from the start box sooner and spent longer near the stimulus birds suggests that exposure to a frightening event increased social reinstatement motivation. Furthermore, social affiliation was more pronounced when the goal box contained familiar cagemates rather than strange chicks, regardless of prior treatment. This finding demonstrates that broiler chicks that were housed in groups of twelve can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics encountered in novel surroundings. Thus, sociality was positively associated with fearfulness and broilers clearly showed social discrimination in runway tests. These findings highlight the dangers of disregarding variables, such as fear and the capacity for social recognition in tests of social motivation. We strongly recommend that exposure to frightening events prior to test should be avoided and that

  15. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  16. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  17. Interactions between dietary fat type and xylanase supplementation when rye-based diets are fed to broiler chickens. 1. Physico-chemical chyme features.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, S; Simon, O; Jeroch, H; Bedford, M

    1997-12-01

    1. The interactions between fat type and xylanase supplementation of rye-based diets were investigated using a 2 x 2 factorial design in which a rye-based diet (610 g rye/kg) was combined with 100 g/kg of soya oil or beef tallow, with and without xylanase supplementation at 3000 IU/kg, and fed to 1-d-old male broilers. Food passage time, viscosity of digesta supernatant, xylanase activity and pH in different segments of the digestive tract were examined. 2. Food passage throughout the digestive tract was accelerated by enzyme addition regardless of fat type. The time taken for 50% of the marker to be excreted was reduced from 8.4 to 6.7 h in animals receiving the rye-soya oil diets and from 8.0 to 6.9 h with the rye-tallow diets. 3. Viscosity in the supernatant of the jejunal and ileal digesta was markedly decreased after enzyme addition. Viscosities were generally higher in the ileal than in the jejunal supernatant, and fell as the birds aged from 14 to 28 d. The effect of enzyme was also reduced in older chicks. There was not a clear effect of the fat source on viscosity. 4. Xylanase activity was still found at the end of the ileum in digesta of birds fed on the enzyme-supplemented diets but not in control animals. Xylanase activity was also detected in the caeca of all groups. 5. Significantly lower pH values were found in tallow-fed birds in some segments of the digestive tract. A significant increase in pH after enzyme addition was detected in the proximal ileum; this was independent of fat source. PMID:9510999

  18. Reduction of Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in 20-day-old broiler chickens by the plant derived compounds trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization in broiler chicks. In three separate experiments for each compound, day-old, chicks (N=75/experiment) were randomly assigned to five treatments (n=15/treatment): a...

  19. Chronic effects of fumonisin B1 in broilers and turkeys fed dietary treatments to market age.

    PubMed

    Broomhead, J N; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Rottinghaus, G E

    2002-01-01

    Floor pen studies were conducted with 270 broiler chicks and 144 turkey poults, all 1 wk old, to evaluate the chronic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1). A completely randomized design was used in both studies with six pen replicates of 15 chicks or eight pen replicates of six poults assigned to each of three dietary treatments from Weeks 1 to 7 (broilers) or to Week 14 (turkeys). Fusarium moniliforme (M-1325) culture material was added to a typical corn-soybean basal diet to supply 0, 25, or 50 mg FB1/kg diet. Feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion of chicks were not affected (P > 0.05) by FB1. Turkeys fed 50 mg FB1/kg had significantly (P < 0.05) lower feed intake than the controls. Compared with controls, chicks and turkeys fed FB1 diets had significantly higher liver sphinganine to sphingosine ratios (P < 0.05). Relative organ weights of chicks were not affected (P > 0.05) by FB1, other than those chicks fed 25 mg FB1/kg, which had lower (P < 0.05) relative proventriculus weights than the chicks fed 0 or 50 mg FB1/kg. Broilers fed 50 mg FB1/kg had decreased serum calcium and increased serum chloride when compared to broilers fed 0 or 25 mg FB1/kg. Hematology was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary FB1. No lesions were present in any organ examined microscopically. Results indicate that 50 mg FB1/kg diet is detrimental to turkeys but is not toxic to broilers fed to market age. PMID:11885900

  20. Sources of Salmonellae in broiler chickens in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Hacking, W C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C

    1978-01-01

    Sources of Salmonellae infecting broiler chicken flocks in Ontario were investigated from July, 1975 to April, 1976. Three broiler flocks were investigated on each of four farms which received chicks from a common hatchery. Samples of feed and new litter were preenriched in nonselective broth subcultured to Salmonella-selective enrichment broth and plated on Salmonella-selective differential agar.Samples of used litter, water, culled chicks, insects, mice, wild birds and environmental swabs were not cultured initially in the nonselective broth. Fecal samples from principal and occasional flock attendants were examined for Samonellae. Salmonella infection, as judged by contaminated flock litter was detected in six flocks on two of the farms while the flocks on the other farms remained negative. Salmonellae were isolated from 23 of 412 feed samples (nine serotypes), six of 35 new wood shaving samples (four serotypes), one of 29 pools of culled chick viscera (one serotype) and 44 of 267 used litter samples (14 serotypes). These results indicate that broiler chicken flocks were infected with diverse Salmonellae introduced in day old chicks, pelleted feeds, wood shavings and residual contamination from the preceding flock. PMID:743597

  1. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  2. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  3. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  4. Skeletal development and performance of broilers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Deeb, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of high dietary copper supplementation has been shown to promote growth rate. The results of the experiments reported herein indicated that copper supplementation of 100 ppm with zinc at the requirement level had no effect on growth rate or bone mineralization. However, when various levels of copper and zinc were added to the diet, significant changes in bone mineralization and liver zinc and copper concentrations occurred. In further studies, the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin D{sub 3} or its metabolite 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia and related bone abnormalities in broiler chicks was investigated. The results indicated that feeding 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} at 5ug/Kg diet as the sole source of vitamin D{sub 3} steroid was sufficient to maintain a calcium homeostasis in the chicks. The effect of growth hormone (GH) injections on the metabolism of tibial epiphyseal growth plant (EGP) in broiler chicks either genetically susceptible or resistant to tibial dyschondroplasia (HTD and LTD respectively) was investigated. GH injection increased {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, indicating a direct effect of GH on cell replication in EGP.

  5. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions. PMID:25990012

  6. Fumonisin mycotoxicosis in broilers: plasma proteins and coagulation modifications.

    PubMed

    Espada, Y; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Cuadradas, C; Cabañes, F J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) intoxication in chickens were evaluated in three experiments. Two-day-old broiler chicks were fed a diet containing 10 mg pure FB1/kg feed for 6 days; some chicks were necropsied at this time, and others were allowed to recover for 5 wk before necropsy. In two other experiments, 2-day-old chicks were fed a broiler starter ration prepared with Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing FB1; one group received 30 mg/kg for 2 wk, and another received 300 mg FB1/kg for 8 days. Compared with controls, intoxicated chicks exhibited decreased prothrombin time, increased plasma fibrinogen (not included for the group receiving 30 mg/kg of culture material), and increased antithrombin III activity. Simultaneously decreased serum albumin concentration and increased serum globulins could be observed in groups intoxicated with F. moniliforme culture material containing FB1. The group allowed to recover for 5 wk did not exhibit modifications in hemostasis or serum proteins compared with controls. The results indicate that low doses of pure FB1 (10 mg/kg) and FB1 from F. moniliforme culture material (30 mg/kg) may alter hemostasis and serum proteins in young chicks. PMID:9087322

  7. Fumonisin mycotoxicosis in broilers. Weights and serum chemistry modifications.

    PubMed

    Espada, Y; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Cuadradas, C; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) intoxication in chickens was evaluated in three experiments. Two-day-old broiler chicks were fed a diet containing 10 mg pure FB1/kg feed for 6 days; some chicks were necropsied at this time, and others were allowed to recover for 5 weeks before necropsy. In two other experiments, 2-day-old chicks were fed a broiler starter ration prepared with Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing FB1; one group received 30 mg/kg for 2 weeks, and another received 300 mg FB1/kg for 8 days. Compared with controls, intoxicated chicks exhibited diarrhea; decreases in body weight and in liver, spleen, and bursa absolute weights; a hepatic relative weight increase; and spleen relative weight decrease. Triglycerides, uric acid levels, and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased, and gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cholesterol increased. The results indicate that low doses of pure FB1 (10 mg/kg) and FB1 from Fusarium moniliforme culture material (30 mg/kg) are toxic to young chicks. PMID:7832697

  8. Brooding chicks with or without supplemental heat and light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kese, A. G.; Donkoh, A.; Baafi, M. F.

    1984-03-01

    The need for supplemental heat in brooding chicks in a hot humid tropical area where prevalent mean environmental temperature and relative humidity are 33°C and 60%, respectively, was tested in an experiment using 320 broiler chickens. The chicks were divided into four quadruplicate lots of 20 birds each and were brooded with or without supplemental heat and light for periods varying between zero and 28 days. Each treatment group of 80 birds was subjected to one of four heat and light treatments, namely: supplementation with heat and light for the 28-day brooding period (control), supplementation with heat and light for the first 14-days only, supplementation for the last 14-days only and non-supplementation with heat and light for the entire 28-day period. Final body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the treatments. However, chicks brooded with supplemental heat and light for 28 days consumed significantly more water than all others. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat and light for 28 days had significantly (P<0.05) higher haemoglobin and hematocrit values than all others.

  9. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  10. Utilization of choline from crude soybean lecithin by chicks. 1. Growth and prevention of perosis.

    PubMed

    Lipstein, B; Bornstein, S; Budowski, P

    1977-01-01

    Data obtained with growing chicks fed a semi-purified diet indicate that choline from crude soybean lecithin is as well utilized as synthetic choline chloride, on the basis of growth, relative liver weight and prevention of perosis. Extrapolation of the results on growth and perosis prevention, obtained between 1 and 3 weeks of age, to performance on practical-type diets yields choline requirements for broiler-type chicks ranging from 800 to 1000 mg./kg. diet (as choline chloride). The requirement seems to decrease with age. PMID:564504

  11. MSTN, mTOR and FoxO4 Are Involved in the Enhancement of Breast Muscle Growth by Methionine in Broilers with Lower Hatching Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chao; Chen, Yueping; Wu, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Broilers with lower hatching weight (HW) present poorer performance than those with high HW, but there is limited research on the growth regulation of broilers with lower HW. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary methionine (Met) levels on the growth performance and breast muscle yield of broilers with different HW and underlying mechanisms. A total of 192 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48.3±0.1 g, and light: 41.7±0.1 g) were allocated to a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 6 replicates of 8 chicks per replicate cage. Control starter (1–21 d) and finisher (22–42 d) diets were formulated to contain 0.50% and 0.43% Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high Met treatment were 0.60% and 0.53%. Light chicks had lower body weight gain (BWG) and breast muscle yield than heavy chicks when the broilers were fed the control diets. High Met diets improved BWG, gain to feed ratio and breast muscle yield in light but not heavy chicks. Decreased DNA content and increased RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios in breast muscle were induced by high Met diets only in light chicks. MSTN mRNA level was decreased by high Met diets only in light chicks, and this decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in MSTN gene exon 1 methylation. In addition, high Met diets increased mTOR phosphorylation, but decreased FoxO4 phosphorylation in breast muscle of light chicks. In conclusion, the BWG and breast muscle yield of light chicks were improved by increasing dietary Met levels probably through alterations of MSTN transcription and phosphorylation of mTOR and FoxO4. PMID:25437444

  12. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  13. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals. PMID:19226602

  14. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  15. Efficacy of combination chemicals as sanitizers of Salmonella-inoculated broiler hatching eggshells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitization of broiler hatching eggs provides an opportunity to reduce the eggshell bacterial load entering hatchery incubators, which can be subsequently carried with the chicks to the growout farm and ultimately into the processing plant. Two experiments evaluated combination chemicals containin...

  16. Inhibition of Growth of Salmonella by Native Flora of Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Some bacteria in the cecal microflora of broilers can inhibit colonization of chicks by Salmonella. Beneficial cecal bacteria may reduce Salmonella colonization by competing for nutrients and attachment sites or by producing metabolites that inhibit Salmonella growth. The purpose of th...

  17. Latency to traverse a T-maze at 2 days of age and later adrenocortical responses to an acute stressor in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Marin, R H; Jones, R B

    1999-07-01

    Latencies to escape from a T-maze, and thereby reinstate visual contact with conspecifics, were measured in broiler chicks at 2 days of age. Chicks were assigned to high- (HP) or low- (LP) performance categories if their escape latencies fell below 25 s or above 75 s, respectively. These chicks were then housed socially in 10 same-category groups (5 HP, 5 LP), each comprising eight birds. At 15 days of age, one chick was taken from each of two randomly selected cages (1 HP, 1 LP) and immediately bled (undisturbed controls). At the same time, another chick was taken from each of these boxes and immersed up to its neck in warm water (partial water immersion, PWI) for 15 min before blood was collected. All chicks were sexed after bleeding. There were no differences between the plasma corticosterone (CS) levels of undisturbed (control) HP and LP chicks. Exposure to PWI significantly increased circulating CS levels, and this elevation was more pronounced in LP than in HP chicks. Male chicks also showed higher stress-induced adrenocortical responses than did females. The present findings suggest that the T-maze responses of young chicks might predict their later adrenocortical responses to a known stressor. This relationship is discussed in terms of individual differences in fearfulness, ability to cope with challenge, and/or stress susceptibility. PMID:10405109

  18. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. PMID:26362978

  19. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Schneitz, C.; Hakkinen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 103 cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter. The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  20. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  1. Glucocorticoids inhibited hypothalamic target of rapamycin in high fat diet-fed chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4 μg/2 μL) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, glucocorticoids (GC) downregulated hypothalamic gene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. PMID:26188033

  2. Incubation temperature manipulation during fetal development reduces adiposity of broiler hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V R; Morita, V S; Sgavioli, S; Vicentini, T I; Castiblanco, D M C; Boleli, I C

    2016-02-01

    Broilers are known as an efficient source of lean meat. Genetic selection resulted in broiler strains with large body size and fast growth, but a concomitant increase in fat deposition also occurred. Other than reducing nutrient intake, there is a lack of alternative methods to control body fat composition of broilers. The present study assessed whether incubation temperature (machine temperatures: 36ºC, 37.5ºC, and 39ºC; eggshell temperatures: 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15ºC, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively.) from d 13 affects broiler hatchling fat deposition. We analyzed adipocyte hypertrophy and proliferation in 3 body regions; weight and chemical composition of yolk-free chicks and yolk sacs; and serum lipid profile. Increased incubation temperature reduced abdominal and cervical adipocyte size. Independently of temperature, cervical adipocytes were smaller and showed higher proliferation than adipocytes in the abdominal and thigh regions. Smaller cervical adipocytes were observed in birds from eggs incubated at 36ºC and 39ºC. With regard to weight and composition of chicks, ash content as a percentage of dry matter was the only variable affected by temperature; it was higher in chicks from eggs incubated at 36ºC than at 39ºC and showed no significant difference between chicks incubated at 39ºC and 37.5ºC. Absolute and relative weights of yolk sacs were higher from eggs incubated at 39ºC than at 36ºC, and these two treatments did not differ from the 37.5ºC control. Absolute measures of yolk sac lipids, moisture, dry matter, and crude protein content were lower in chicks from eggs incubated at 36ºC, and no significant differences were found for these variables between chicks from eggs incubated at 37.5ºC and 39ºC. Hatchlings from eggs incubated at 36°C had significantly higher cholesterol levels than chicks incubated at the other 2 temperatures, but no additional effects on blood lipids were detected. Incubation temperature manipulation during

  3. Effect of Litter Moisture on the Development of Footpad Dermatitis in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    TAIRA, Kazuyo; NAGAI, Toshimune; OBI, Takeshi; TAKASE, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broiler chicks were reared on either wet litter or dry litter to compare the development of footpad dermatitis (FPD). Broilers reared on wet litter first developed FPD at 14 days of age. Their FPD scores increased sharply after 21 days of age, reaching 2.92 at 42 days. In broilers reared on dry litter, FPD was first observed at 28 days of age, and the FPD score was only 0.70 at 42 days. When 21- or 28-day-old broilers that had been reared on wet litter and had developed FPD were moved to dry litter, the progression of FPD was suppressed or delayed. These results suggest that reducing litter moisture is effective in preventing FPD and suppressing disease progression. PMID:24366153

  4. Effect of Lonicera japonica extract on Mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Müştak, H K; Torun, E; Özen, D; Yücel, G; Akan, M; Diker, K S

    2015-01-01

    1. In this study, the effect of chlorogenic acid extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections and the performance of broiler flocks was investigated. 2. A total of 360 Ross-308 broiler chicks taken from M. gallisepticum seropositive flocks were divided equally into three groups designated as control (nothing administered), antibiotic (Tylosin tartrate given for the first 3 d and d 20-22) and test group (chlorogenic acid extract given twice a day on d 16 and 22). 3. Broiler performance analysis, serological tests (slide agglutination), molecular identification (polymerase chain reaction) and histopathological examination were performed to detect M. gallisepticum. 4. The results show that chlorogenic acid not only increases live body weight but is also an alternative treatment option in M. gallisepticum-infected broiler flocks. PMID:25731588

  5. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  6. Distribution and possible transmission of ampicillin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli within the broiler industry.

    PubMed

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Bisgaard, Magne; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2010-05-19

    This study was performed to determine the origin and transmission of beta-lactam- and (fluoro)quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in healthy, untreated broiler flocks. We focused on the dynamics of bacteria resistant to critically important antimicrobials for public and veterinary health in view of the possible link between antimicrobial resistant bacteria in farm animals and humans. By processing faecal samples collected with the sock method in broiler parent and broiler flocks, E. coli resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid were frequently isolated, while resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected at a very low frequency, and resistance to cephalosporins was not detected. Similarly, resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid were the only phenotypes detected in a collection of clinical E. coli isolates associated with first-week-mortality in broiler parent chicks. Although antimicrobial resistant E. coli were genetically diverse by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) typing, indistinguishable isolates were present in different flocks, including isolates from broiler parent chicks, broiler parents and broilers. In the absence of apparent selective pressure, the genotypic heterogeneity that we describe is likely the consequence of multiple introductions of antimicrobial resistant bacteria into the production system. The confinement under which broilers are raised limits the possibilities of bacterial transmission among different flocks. Our findings are consistent with vertical transmission of ampicillin- and nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli through the broiler production system. The persistence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli in healthy, untreated chicken flocks emphasises the need of careful evaluation of therapeutic options at any level of the broiler production. PMID:19945232

  7. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens. PMID:24628388

  8. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES FOR BROILER CHICKENS SUBJECTED TO SHORT-TERM ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate growth responses, blood chemistry and heart characteristics of broiler chicks subjected to progressive concentrations (0, 3,000, 6,000, 9,000 ppm) of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from 1 to 14 days of age, which were then discontinued throughout the remainder of th...

  9. Phytate utilization and phosphorus excretion by broiler chickens fed diets containing cereal grains varying in phytate and phytase content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor digestibility of phytate P by poultry leads to supplementation of poultry diets with inorganic P thereby increasing feed costs and also increasing the excretion of P by the birds. In order to quantify phytate utilization and P excretion by poultry, eighty, 12 day-old, male broiler chicks, weig...

  10. Effects of in ovo injection of organic zinc, manganese, and copper on the hatchability and bone parameters of broiler hatchlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent containing supplemental microminerals (Zn, Mn, and Cu) on hatchability and hatching chick quality variables in Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation (doi) eggs were subjected to 1 of 4 treatments using a commercial multi-e...

  11. STUDIES OF SUBGROUP J AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS INFECTION AND TUMORS IN A NATURALLY INFECTED COMMERCIAL BROILER BREEDER FLOCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens were pedigree hatched from a commercial broiler breeder flock that had been identified by the company to have a relatively high incidence (20% - 60%) of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection. Unexpectedly, only one of 175 (0.6%) of chicks hatched at our laboratory tested positiv...

  12. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-03-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  13. Effect of Dietary Beta-Glucan on the Performance of Broilers and the Quality of Broiler Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sun Hee; Lee, Inyoung; Feng, Xi; Lee, Hyun Yong; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A total of 400, one day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided into five diet groups (negative control, positive control group with 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin, 15 ppm β-glucan, 30 ppm β-glucan, and 60 ppm β-glucan) and fed for six weeks. Ten broilers were allotted to each of 40 floor pens. Eight floor pens were randomly assigned to one of the 5 diets. Each diet was fed to the broilers for 6 weeks with free access to water and diet. The survival rate, growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate of the broilers were calculated. At the end of the feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered, breast muscles deboned, and quality parameters of the breast meat during storage were determined. The high level of dietary β-glucan (60 ppm) showed better feed conversion ratio and survival rate than the negative control. The survival rate of 60 ppm β-glucan-treated group was the same as that of the antibiotic-treated group, which showed the highest survival rate among the treatments. There was no significant difference in carcass yield, water holding capacity, pH, color, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of chicken breast meat among the 5 treatment groups. Supplementation of 60 ppm β-glucan to broiler diet improved the survival rate and feed conversion rate of broilers to the same level as 55 ppm Zn-bacitracin group. The result indicated that use of β-glucan (60 ppm) can be a potential alternative to antibiotics to improve the survival and performance of broilers. However, dietary β-glucan showed no effects on the quality parameters of chicken breast meat. PMID:26950870

  14. Risk factors associated with Salmonella status of broiler flocks delivered to grow-out farms.

    PubMed

    Volkova, V V; Bailey, R H; Hubbard, S A; Magee, D L; Byrd, J A; Robert, W W

    2011-06-01

    In a prospective field observational study in the southeastern USA, we sampled gastrointestinal (GI) tracts from chicks of 65 broiler flocks delivered to conventional grow-out farms for rearing. The flocks were hatched at seven broiler hatcheries. The mean within-flock prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples was 6.5% and ranged from 0% to 86.7%. Of the 65 flocks studied, 25 (38.5%) had at least one Salmonella-positive sample. Accounting for confounding variability among the hatcheries and broiler companies, we tested whether the probability of detecting Salmonella in GI tracts of the chicks delivered was associated with certain characteristics of parent breeder flocks; hatchery production volume; hatchery ventilation system; hatchery egg-room conditions; egg incubation, candling, hatching, eggshell and bird separation, and bird-processing procedures; management of hatchery-to-farm transportation; day of week of hatch; weather conditions during transportation; or season of the hatch. Two risk factor models were adopted. The first model indicated that a greater number of parent flocks, manual separation of eggshell and bird, and a greater amount of fluff and feces on tray liners used during hatchery-to-farm transportation at delivery were associated with increased probability of detecting Salmonella in chick GI tracts, whereas a greater number of birds in the delivery vehicle was associated with decreased probability. The second model indicated that broiler flocks hatched on Tuesdays versus either Mondays or Thursdays (with no hatches on Wednesdays, Fridays or week-ends), increased average hatchability of the eggs from the parent flocks, and greater amounts of fluff and feces on the transport tray liners at delivery were all associated with increased probability of detecting Salmonella in chick GI tracts. The results of this study suggest potential management decisions to lessen Salmonella contamination of broilers supplied by commercial hatcheries and areas for

  15. Lysine and sulfur amino acid utilization in Eimeria acervulina-infected chicks as affected by narasin.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, O A; Parsons, C M; Baker, D H

    1987-10-01

    The effects of supplemental narasin (80 mg/kg) on several dietary factors were investigated in chicks infected with Eimeria acervulina. In Trial 1, chicks were fed a lysine-deficient corn-corn gluten meal diet containing graded increments of crystalline L-lysine.HCl with or without narasin. Supplemental narasin increased weight gain and feed efficiency at all lysine levels fed. Based upon slope-ratio methodology, efficiency of L-lysine utilization was virtually the same in both narasin-fed and control chicks. Trials 2 and 3 evaluated the effect of narasin on methionine utilization in crossbred chicks fed a methionine-deficient soy-feather meal diet supplemented with graded levels of DL-methionine. Narasin supplementation increased weight gain, feed efficiency, and utilization of supplemental methionine in chicks infected with E. acervulina (Trial 2), but had no effect on any of the performance parameters in uninfected chicks (Trial 3). The effects of dietary protein level and source and dietary electrolyte balance on the narasin response of commercial broiler chicks infected with E. acervulina were studied in Trials 4 and 5, respectively. In Trial 4, narasin supplementation increased performance in all cases, and protein source or level had no effect on the narasin response. In Trial 5, rate and efficiency of gain were improved as the electrolyte balance (meq Na + K-Cl/kg diet) increased from 100 to 250, with no further improvement being observed from 250 to 350 meq. Supplemental narasin improved performance and no interaction between electrolyte balance and narasin was observed. PMID:3124089

  16. Human-Friendly Light-Emitting Diode Source Stimulates Broiler Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Dai, Wenhua; Yu, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Previous study and our laboratory have reported that short-wavelength (blue and green) light and combination stimulate broiler growth. However, short-wavelength stimuli could have negative effects on poultry husbandry workers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human-friendly yellow LED light, which is acceptable to humans and close to green light, on broiler growth. We also aimed to investigate the potential quantitative relationship between the wavelengths of light used for artificial illumination and growth parameters in broilers. After hatching, 360 female chicks (“Meihuang” were evenly divided into six lighting treatment groups: white LED strips (400–700 nm, WL); red LED strips (620 nm, RL); yellow LED strips (580 nm, YL); green LED strips (514 nm, GL); blue LED strips (455 nm, BL); and fluorescent strips (400–700 nm, FL). From 30 to 72 days of age, broilers reared under YL and GL were heavier than broilers treated with FL (P < 0.05). Broilers reared under YL obtained the similar growth parameters with the broilers reared under GL and BL (P > 0.05). Moreover, YL significantly improved feeding efficiency when compared with GL and BL at 45 and 60 days of age (P < 0.05). In addition, we found an age-dependent effect of light spectra on broiler growth and a quantitative relationship between LED light spectra (455 to 620 nm) and the live body weights of broilers. The wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be negatively related (R2 = 0.876) to live body weight at an early stage of development, whereas the wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be positively correlated with live body weight (R2 = 0.925) in older chickens. Our results demonstrated that human-friendly yellow LED light (YL), which is friendly to the human, can be applied to the broilers production. PMID:26270988

  17. Human-Friendly Light-Emitting Diode Source Stimulates Broiler Growth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinming; Yang, Yefeng; Yang, Bo; Dai, Wenhua; Yu, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Previous study and our laboratory have reported that short-wavelength (blue and green) light and combination stimulate broiler growth. However, short-wavelength stimuli could have negative effects on poultry husbandry workers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human-friendly yellow LED light, which is acceptable to humans and close to green light, on broiler growth. We also aimed to investigate the potential quantitative relationship between the wavelengths of light used for artificial illumination and growth parameters in broilers. After hatching, 360 female chicks ("Meihuang" were evenly divided into six lighting treatment groups: white LED strips (400-700 nm, WL); red LED strips (620 nm, RL); yellow LED strips (580 nm, YL); green LED strips (514 nm, GL); blue LED strips (455 nm, BL); and fluorescent strips (400-700 nm, FL). From 30 to 72 days of age, broilers reared under YL and GL were heavier than broilers treated with FL (P < 0.05). Broilers reared under YL obtained the similar growth parameters with the broilers reared under GL and BL (P > 0.05). Moreover, YL significantly improved feeding efficiency when compared with GL and BL at 45 and 60 days of age (P < 0.05). In addition, we found an age-dependent effect of light spectra on broiler growth and a quantitative relationship between LED light spectra (455 to 620 nm) and the live body weights of broilers. The wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be negatively related (R2 = 0.876) to live body weight at an early stage of development, whereas the wavelength of light (455 to 620 nm) was found to be positively correlated with live body weight (R2 = 0.925) in older chickens. Our results demonstrated that human-friendly yellow LED light (YL), which is friendly to the human, can be applied to the broilers production. PMID:26270988

  18. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion (FC) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  19. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  20. The chemical characteristics of organic iron sources and their relative bioavailabilities for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-four organic Fe sources were evaluated by polarographic analysis and via solubility in buffers (pH 5 and 2) and deionized water. Organic Fe sources included 6 Fe-Met complexes (Fe-Met), 10 Fe-Gly complexes, 1 Fe-Lys complex, 4 Fe proteinates, and 3 Fe-AA complexes (Fe-AA). Sources varied considerably in chemical characteristics. Chelation strengths (quotient of formation [Q] values) ranged from weak (Q = 1.08) to extremely strong strength (Q = 8,590). A total of 1,170 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 6 replicate cages (15 chicks/cage) for each of 13 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 Fe sources × 3 added Fe levels) plus a control with no added Fe. Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; 55.8 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, or 60 mg Fe/kg as iron sulfate (FeSO∙7HO); an Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; Q = 1.37; 14.7% Fe); an iron proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Q = 43.6; 14.2% Fe); or an iron proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Q = 8,590; 10.2% Fe). The growth performance, Fe concentrations, hematological indices, and activities and gene expressions of 2 Fe-containing enzymes in tissues of broilers at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were determined in the present study. Transferrin saturation in plasma on 14 d; bone Fe on d 7 and 14; liver Fe on d 7, 14, and 21; kidney Fe on d 14; succinate dehydrogenase activities in the liver on d 21 and in the kidney on d 7 and 21; mRNA levels in the kidney and heart on d 14; and mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21 linearly increased ( < 0.05) as added Fe levels increased. However, differences in bioavailabilities among Fe sources were detected ( < 0.05) only for the mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of mRNA level in the liver or kidney of

  1. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance. PMID:25542197

  2. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Latif, M A; Morris, T R; Miah, A H; Hewitt, D; Ford, J E

    1979-01-01

    1. A flour was prepared from rhizomes of shoti(Curcuma zedoaria) in such a way that most of the protein was retained. The crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) content in this product was 155 g/kg, compared with approximately 10 g/kg in commercial shoti flour. 2. The high-protein flour proved highly toxic to 5-week-old rats and caused 100% mortality within 6 d when given at 320 g/kg diet. 3. Fresh rhizomes were minced and dried, and the resulting meal was given to weanling rats at 400 g/kg diet. All the animals lost weight rapidly, and two of the five rats died within 4 d. 4. This same shoti meal was given to 1-d-old chicks at 100 and 200 g/kg diet. All the chicks survived the test period (20 d), but body-weight, food intake and efficiency of food conversion decreased with increase in the level of shoti meal in the diet. 5. The traditional method of preparing shoti involves prolonged washing in changes of water, which removes most of the protein and other water-soluble nutrients and, presumably, a toxic constituent. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic principle, and to discover a less wasteful procedure for removing it. PMID:420761

  3. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P < 0.05). The OEO groups showed less shift (62.7% similarity coefficient) between these 2 compartments versus the control groups (53.7% similarity coefficient). A reduction of 59% in mortality from ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers. PMID:25071230

  4. Caffeine causes pulmonary hypertension syndrome (ascites) in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kamely, M; Torshizi, M A Karimi; Rahimi, S; Wideman, R F

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), or ascites, is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Experimental models are required for triggering PHS to study the pathogenesis of this syndrome and to select resistant genetic lines. Caffeine increases vascular resistance and promotes systemic hypertension in mammals, but a similar effect of caffeine on the pulmonary circulation had not previously been demonstrated. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of caffeine alone (Exp. 1) or in combination with cold temperature (Exp. 2) on parameters associated with PHS in young broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 288 chicks were distributed among 24 pens and brooded at standard environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 2, 192 chicks were distributed among 16 pens and brooded at cool environmental temperatures, and on d 3 through 42 caffeine was added to the water at doses of 0 (control), 15, 30, and 45 mg/(kg BW·d). In Exp. 1 caffeine administered at or above 12.5 mg/(kg BW·d) induced severe PHS and resulted in acute mortality and RVH ( < 0.05). Hematocrit also slightly increased by caffeine supplementation ( = 0.07). In Exp. 2 caffeine-treated broilers exposed to cold temperatures remarkably exhibited PHS incidences and developed RVH with right ventricular to total ventricular weight ratios of 30% or greater. Moreover, hematocrit significantly increased because of caffeine supplementation in cool ambient temperature ( = 0.002). Our data demonstrate that caffeine induces high incidences of PHS in broilers, which is exacerbated by exposure to low temperatures. PMID:27136008

  5. Use of four types of litter for rearing broilers.

    PubMed

    Anisuzzaman, M; Chowdhury, S D

    1996-07-01

    1. One hundred and forty four Shaver broiler chicks (Starbro 15) were reared from 4 d to 56 d of age on 4 types of litter: sawdust, paddy straw, sand and rice husk each spread to a depth of 75 mm. 2. Birds reared on rice husk litter showed the greatest food consumption, greatest weight gain, best food conversion efficiency and scored highest in production number. 3. Survivability was also highest with rice husk group (94.4%) but differences in this variable were not thought to be attributable to types of litter. 4. Breast blisters were found only in birds reared on sand (8.3%). 5. It was concluded that rice husk is a suitable litter for rearing broilers on the floor, particularly in paddy-growing countries. PMID:8842460

  6. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  7. Epidemiological studies of congo red Escherichia coli in broiler chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, M E; Berkhoff, H A; Corbett, W T

    1992-01-01

    This prospective cohort study was designed to confirm the association between Congo red binding Escherichia coli (CREC) and E. coli air sacculitis in commercial broilers. It was also designed to evaluate CREC as an air sacculitis risk factor and to explore the CREC relationship to other air sacculitis risk factors (poultry house temperature, air-ammonia levels, and presence of other diseases). In addition, this study was used to assess a possible role of the broiler-breeder flocks and hatchers in the spread of CREC air sacculitis. Congo red E. coli-associated airsacculitis risk was based on CREC exposure of the chicks in the hatchers. Breeder flocks with greater than 30 CREC colonies/plate from hatcher air sampling tests were placed in the high risk group; flocks with less than five CREC colonies/plate were placed in the low risk group. Increased risks of death due to air sacculitis (RR = 2.26), and increased death rates due to CREC air sacculitis (RR = 9.45) in high-risk flocks, identified CREC as an important air sacculitis risk factor. The attributable risk percent of CREC airsacculitis from hatcher exposure of CREC was 89.4%, pointing to the hatcher as the source of CREC infection. The association of specific broiler-breeder flocks to high levels of CREC in the hatchers, and subsequent air sacculitis, suggests that the broiler-breeders are the ultimate source of CREC. PMID:1423058

  8. Generation of hydroxyl radicals during ascites experimentally induced in broilers.

    PubMed

    Arab, H A; Jamshidi, R; Rassouli, A; Shams, G; Hassanzadeh, M H

    2006-04-01

    Increased metabolic rates, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac dysfunction are the most important features of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. However, the mechanism of cell injury causing the pathogenesis of the syndrome is not clearly understood. Our study aimed to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in broiler chickens experiencing ascites. The hundred and fifty 1-d-old chickens were purchased from a local hatchery and reared in an open poultry house for 46 d. They were divided at random into three groups and ascites was induced in two groups by exposing them to low temperature or administration of triiodothyronine (T(3)). The third group served as control and was reared normally. Haematological, biochemical and pathological tests were used to determine the incidence of ascites: including total red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), release of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and ratio of right ventricular weight to total ventricular weight (RV/TV). A salicylate hydroxylation method was used to examine the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH*) in treated groups. TWo hydroxylated salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (2,3- and 2,5-DHBA), were measured by HPLC to detect the generation of OH*. An ascites syndrome was observed in T(3) and low-temperature treated groups, as shown by necropsy changes and increases in f RBC, PCV, ALT, AST and the ratio of RV/TV. Concentrations of 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA were increased in groups experiencing ascites compared to control group. It is suggested that reactive oxygen species that is OH* ions, may be involved in the pathogenesis of the ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. PMID:16641033

  9. Effect of starvation-refeeding and an exogenous glucocorticoid on carbohydrate metabolism in chick liver.

    PubMed

    Rosebrough, R W; McMurtry, J P; Richards, M P; Steele, N C

    1984-12-01

    Broiler chicks, 4 weeks of age, were subjected to a regimen of 48-hr starvation and 24-hr refeeding as a means of inducing hepatic glycogen supercompensation. A synthetic glucocorticoid (prednisolone) and transcription inhibitor (actinomycin D) treatment were superimposed on the starvation-refeeding regimen to examine the effect of an exogenous glucocorticoid and the necessity for de novo protein synthesis during glycogen supercompensation. Starvation decreased plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin and liver glycogen. These parameters returned to, or overshot prefasting levels after a 48-hr refeeding period. Prednisolone magnified the overshoot response but some de novo protein synthesis was required. Glycogen synthase a activity was opposite that of liver glycogen content. A possible nonhormone stimulated glycogen synthetic mechanism in the starvation-refeeding response of the chick was noted. PMID:6442419

  10. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-10-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of (14C)HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis.

  11. Plexogenic arteriopathy in broiler lungs: Evaluation of line, age, and sex influences1

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, R. F.; Mason, J. G.; Anthony, N. B.; Cross, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform lesions form in the terminal pulmonary arterioles of human patients suffering from prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. Plexiform lesions also develop in broiler lungs, but lesion incidences are not strongly correlated with sustained pulmonary hypertension as reflected by right to total ventricular weight (RVTV) ratios. The present study was conducted to assess plexiform lesion incidences in broiler lines that have been divergently selected for susceptibility or resistance to pulmonary hypertension. Broilers from susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) lines were reared together and only clinically healthy (nonascitic, noncyanotic) individuals were evaluated to minimize potential line differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. The objective was to determine if an innate genetic predisposition for plexogenic arteriopathy would be exposed in SUS broilers when compared with RES broilers in the absence of extreme differences in cardiopulmonary hemodynamics. Broilers up to 12 wk age from the SUS and RES lines had essentially equivalent BW, indices of cardiopulmonary function (left ventricle + septum weight, total ventricle weight, and RVTV ratios), and lung volumes within a sex. Average RVTV ratios for broilers from both lines were indicative of normal pulmonary arterial pressures at all ages sampled. Nevertheless, plexiform lesions were detected in SUS and RES broiler lungs immediately posthatch and thereafter at all ages sampled. Lesion incidences were consistently low and did not differ between the lines within any of the sampling ages. This evidence demonstrates that plexiform lesions develop extremely rapidly in broiler chicks, apparently without the prerequisite for vascular stress caused by severe, prolonged pulmonary arterial hypertension. No innate genetic predisposition for complex vascular lesion development appeared to exist in the SUS line when compared with the RES line. PMID:25681478

  12. Physiological relationships of the early posthatch performance of broilers to their embryo and eggshell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Bennett, L W; Gerard, P D

    2012-07-01

    Relationships between physiological parameters of early posthatch chicks with their corresponding egg and embryo parameters were examined in progeny of young broiler breeders. Four hundred and 80 broiler hatching eggs that were obtained from a 29-wk-old Ross 308 breeder flock were incubated on 8 replicate tray levels of an incubator until hatch. Between 10.5 and 18.5 d of incubation, internal (T(emb)) and external (T(ext)) egg temperatures were recorded twice daily using temperature transponders. Beginning at 18.5 d, the eggs were individually monitored for hatch every 12 h. Average T(emb), T(ext), and average daily incubational egg weight loss (EWL) for the 10.5- to 18.5-d incubation period were used to calculate eggshell water vapor conductance (G(H2O)), specific G(H2O) (g(H2O); G(H2O) adjusted to 100 g of set egg weight basis), and a G(H2O) constant (K(H2O)) for each egg. Chicks were grown out for 10 d in pens of a single battery brooder. In each pen, on d 3 posthatch, carcasses, yolk sac, liver, and pipping muscle samples were collected from at least 2 chicks that hatched from eggs implanted with transponders for determination of their relative weights and moisture concentrations. Livers and pipping muscles were also analyzed for glucose, glycogen, fat, and protein concentrations. Yolk sac weight as a percentage of chick BW (YW) and its moisture concentration (YSM) were positively correlated with T(emb). Egg g(H2O) was positively correlated with chick carcass moisture concentration and its relative weight as a percentage of set egg weight, but it was negatively correlated with YW. The positive functional relationship between T(emb) and incubation length may be mediated via their common positive relationships to YSM. A negative correlation was observed between percentage EWL and relative BW on d 0 and 0.5 posthatch for chicks hatched from unimplanted eggs. The results suggest that a higher g(H2O) results in an increased metabolism of the broiler embryo, which

  13. Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liao, X D; Ma, G; Cai, J; Fu, Y; Yan, X Y; Wei, X B; Zhang, R J

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers, 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of 5 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design for 42 d. The 5 treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 2.5×10(8) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB1), basal diet supplemented with 5×10(8) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB2), basal diet supplemented with 1×10(9) cfu C. butyricum/kg (CB3), and basal diet supplemented with 150 mg aureomycin/kg (antibiotic). The results showed that all C. butyricum-supplemented groups during d 1 to 21 and the CB2 group during d 22 to 42 had higher ADG compared with the control (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB3 diet had higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity (P<0.05), and chicks fed the CB2 diet had a higher glutathione (GSH) concentration in duodenal and ileal mucosa at 21 d of age than those in the control group (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB3 diet had a lower malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in duodenal mucosa than those in the control and CB1 groups (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic diets had a lower MDA concentration in ileal mucosa than those in the control and CB1 groups (P<0.05). Broilers fed the CB3 diet had greater superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the ileal mucosa on d 21 and in jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the other groups (P<0.05). Chicks fed the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic diets had a higher GSH concentration in duodenal and jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the control group (P<0.05). Broilers fed the CB2 and CB3 diets had a lower MDA concentration in the jejunal mucosa on d 42 than those in the control and CB1 groups. Chicks fed diets supplemented with C. butyricum had a higher IgM concentration than those in the control group at 21 and 42 d of age (P<0.05). The results indicate that C. butyricum improves broilers' growth performance, antioxidation, and immune

  14. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration. PMID:27087091

  15. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin receptor (LPR) genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for real time RT-PCR analysis with custom-designed primers and probes. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chick...

  16. Evaluation of the addition of charcoals to broiler diets on the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out and processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control, 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charco...

  17. Recovery of Campylobacter and Salmonella serovars from the spleen, liver and gallbladder, and ceca of six and eight week old commercial broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that when Campylobacter or Salmonella were either orally or intracloacally inoculated into day old broiler chicks, within 1hr these bacteria moved rapidly to the lymphoid organs. These bacteria were still present 1 wk after inoculation. Two different market age (...

  18. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  19. Effect of supplementation of prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic mixture on growth performance of broilers subjected to chronic heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and probiotic mixture (PM) on growth performance, intestinal histology, and corticosterone concentrations in broilers kept under chronic heat stress (HS). Four hundred and fifty day-old chicks were...

  20. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of three- and six-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid, a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In two separate 3- and 6-wk trials, day-old straight run (N=70 per trial), chicks were assigned to 5 treatment groups ...

  1. Effect of Yeast Probiotic on Growth, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Malondialdehyde Concentration of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Aluwong, Tagang; Kawu, Mohammed; Raji, Moshood; Dzenda, Tavershima; Govwang, Felix; Sinkalu, Victor; Ayo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200). Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T1, T2 and T3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T1 had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher body weight at 4th week of age when compared with the control. SOD activity in all treatment groups was not significantly (p > 0.05) different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T1, when compared with the control. GPx activity in T2 was higher (p < 0.01) when compared with the control. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens. PMID:26784468

  2. Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Bolder, Nico M; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F

    2008-11-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses. PMID:18791034

  3. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  4. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost. PMID:27107748

  5. Effects of clinoptilolite on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Wu, Qiujue; Zhou, Yanmin; Ahmad, Hussain; Wang, Tian

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of natural clinoptilolite and modified clinoptilolite on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into three treatments, each of which had eight replicates. Each replicate contains 10 chicks. Control (CON) group fed with the basal diets, natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) group fed basal diets with 2 % natural clinoptilolite, and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) group fed basal diets with 2 % modified clinoptilolite for 42 days. The results showed that the 2 % supplementation of natural clinoptilolite and modified clinoptilolite had no adverse effect on growth performance of broilers at 42 days of age. Relative weights of organs were not influenced by dietary treatments at 21 and 42 days. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in MCLI group than CON group at 21 days of age. At 21 and 42 days, the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, total superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in NCLI and MCLI groups than the CON group while there was no difference in T-AOC between CON and NCLI groups. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in NCLI and MCLI groups than the CON group. It was concluded that the addition of 2 % natural clinoptilolite and modified clinoptilolite to diet can improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, although their effects on growth performance was negligible. PMID:23949793

  6. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Defu; Hao, Shengyan; Liu, Guohua; Nian, Fang; Ru, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4) and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP) and B (Avizyme 1502). Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks). Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p<0.05). Apparent ileal crude protein digestibility coefficient of M2 was higher than that of M3 (p<0.05). Apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn) of M1 were significant higher than those of M4 (p<0.05). Supplementation of the basal diets with enzyme A or B improved the BWG by 8.6% (p<0.05) and 4.1% (p>0.05), respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05). Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets. PMID:25358370

  7. Maternal energy and protein affect subsequent growth performance, carcass yield, and meat color in Chinese Yellow broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C; Jiang, Z Y; Jiang, S Q; Zhou, G L; Lin, Y C; Chen, F; Hong, P

    2012-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of maternal ME and CP levels on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broiler offspring. A total of 1,134 thirty-week-old Chinese Yellow broiler breeders was randomly assigned to 3 dietary ME levels (11.09, 11.51, and 11.92 MJ/kg) and 3 CP levels (15.5, 16.5, and 17.5%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with 21 hens per replicate. At 39 wk of age, 30 settable eggs per replicate were selected for hatching. All broiler offspring were fed the same diets. There were significant ME×CP interactions in egg CP and ether extract (EE) contents, BW at d 1, 22 to 42 d ADG, ADFI during 1 to 21 d and 43 to 63 d, shear force, plasma albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides contents of broiler offspring. Dietary ME at 11.92 MJ/kg increased average egg weight, egg EE content, and broiler 1-d-old BW compared with 11.09 MJ/kg group at 16.5%, 15.5%, and 17.5% CP levels, respectively (P<0.05). Maternal 11.51 and 11.92 MJ/kg of ME increased 1 to 21-d ADFI, and 11.51 MJ/kg of ME decreased lightness (L*) value of broiler offspring compared with 11.09 MJ/kg group at 17.5 and 16.5% CP levels, respectively (P<0.05). Broiler breeder dietary CP at 17.5% decreased egg EE content, increased average egg weight, egg CP content, BW at d 1, and 1 to 21-d ADFI of broiler offspring compared with 15.5% CP group at 11.92 MJ/kg of ME level (P<0.05). Maternal dietary 15.5% CP increased dressing percentage and decreased yellowness (b*) value of broiler offspring compared with 16.5% and 17.5% CP groups at 11.51 MJ/kg of ME level, respectively (P<0.05). Collectively, the results indicate that maternal diets composed of 11.51 to 11.92 MJ/kg of ME and 17.5% CP at 39 wk of age increased growth performance during 1 to 21 d in Chinese Yellow broiler, whereas 11.51 MJ/kg of ME and 15.5% CP improved carcass dressing percentage and meat color of their offspring. PMID:22802180

  8. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr. PMID:25002554

  9. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and lameness in broilers: a review.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    This review focuses on a specific cause of lameness known as bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in broilers. Rapid increases in body weight impose excessive torque and shear stress on structurally immature epiphyseal and physeal cartilage, primarily in the proximal femora, proximal tibiae, and flexible thoracic vertebrae. Excessive mechanical stress creates osteochondrotic clefts among the chondrocytes of susceptible growth plates. These wound sites are colonized by hematogenously distributed opportunistic bacteria, culminating in the gross abscesses and necrotic voids that are pathognomonic for terminal BCO. Lameness attributable to characteristic BCO lesions can be reproduced by rearing broilers on wire flooring to create persistent footing instability and physiological stress, without the need to inoculate the birds with pathogenic bacteria that presumably are present but quiescent within the bird's microbial communities or in the environment. Experiments using the wire-flooring model revealed innate differences in the susceptibility of broiler lines to BCO, and demonstrated that BCO incidences can be reduced by prophylactically providing probiotics in the feed, by prophylactically adding 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 to the drinking water, or by therapeutically adding the antibiotic enrofloxacin to the drinking water. Hatchery and chick quality issues clearly influence the susceptibility of broilers to BCO. When broilers remain in a sitting posture for prolonged periods, the major arteries supplying their legs may be compressed. These episodes of inadequate blood flow may prevent chondrocyte maturation and trigger focal necrosis, thereby making the epiphyseal and physeal cartilage highly susceptible to osteochondrosis and BCO. Much remains to be revealed regarding the pathogenesis of BCO. Further revelations will be facilitated by the availability of the now-validated wire-flooring models that consistently trigger high incidences of BCO in experimental

  10. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-11-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment. PMID:26580288

  11. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Qaisrani, S. N.; van Krimpen, M. M.; Kwakkel, R. P.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (P < 0.001), BW gain (P = 0.001), and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.001) positively. Broilers fed the coarse diets had, on average, 14% heavier gizzards and 11, 7, 5, and 6% lower relative empty weights of the crop, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively, compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in, on average, 6% greater ileal protein digestibility, 20% lower gizzard pH, 19% greater villus height, 18% lower crypt depth, and 23% reduced cecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) compared with chickens fed the fine diets. Broilers fed BA-supplemented diets had an improved FCR (P = 0.004) and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.001) compared with those fed diets without BA. Fermentable carbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P > 0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P = 0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet. PMID:26175052

  12. Use of fly ash in diets of cage and floor broilers

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, C.L.; Andrews, L.D.

    1980-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare limestone to fly ash from a coal-fired generator station as a calcium source for broilers. In experiment 1, 5 male and 5 female broiler chicks were placed in each of 32 cages. Sixteen cages of birds were fed a ration with limestone supplying 30% of the total calcium and 16 cages were fed a ration with 30% of the total calcium supplied by fly ash. The total calcium and phosphorus levels of the rations were 1.0% and .5%, respectively. In this experiment no significant difference was found for 8-week body weight between diets where the added calcium was from limestone or fly ash. In experiment 2 a group of 40 male and 40 female cage reared broilers and 40 male and 40 female floor reared broilers were fed a basal diet of limestone providing 33% of the total calcium. Three diets with increasing fly ash levels were fed to three cage groups of 40 male and 40 female broilers providing 33, 46, and 45% of the total calcium of .9, 1.1, and 1.8%, respectively. Broilers fed the highest fly ash level weighed significantly less at 8 weeks than the caged controls but did not differ from the other treatments. Bone breaking strength as measured by the Allo Kramer Shear Press was similar between the basal and low level fly ash group and increased with higher fly ash levels. In experiment 3 four groups of 40 male broilers in cages were fed limestone diets with graded levels of limestone for the calcium source. Another four groups of 40 caged male broilers were fed fly ash diets with equivalent graded levels of fly ash for the calcium source. Both limestone and fly ash diets provided .17, .34, .51, and .68% calcium of a total calcium content of .28, .45, .62, and .79%, respectively.

  13. Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome in Broilers Caused by Enterococcus faecalis†

    PubMed Central

    Tankson, J. D.; Thaxton, J. P.; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A field strain of Enterococcus faecalis was administered to broiler chicks at doses of 0, 3 × 106, 1.5 × 107, and 2 × 107 bacteria/bird either intra-abdominally or intravenously. In trials 1 to 3, birds were reared communally in a broiler house on pine shaving litter. In trial 4, challenged and control birds were maintained in separate isolation rooms in metal cages with raised wire floors. Challenged birds exhibited a characteristic cavity or depression in the external wall of the right ventricle. A subjective scoring system was devised to quantify challenge effects by assigning each heart a score of 1 to 4. The average number of birds, over all trials and over all dose levels, exhibiting the ventricular cavity was 93%. This value in controls was 5%. The average heart score for challenged birds was 3.1, and that for controls was 0.20. Heart scores of challenged and control chicks were not different in birds reared communally or in separate isolation rooms. Additionally, both routes of administration were equally effective. Results suggest that challenge with E. faecalis caused pulmonary hypertension. PMID:11553576

  14. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  15. Effect of Terminalia catappa Fruit Meal Fermented by Aspergillus niger as Replacement of Maize on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Apata, David Friday

    2011-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented Terminalia catappa fruit meal (FTCM) with Aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary maize was replaced by FTCM at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. One hundred and eighty one-day-old Shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the feed intake, weight gain, and feed; gain ratio between the broilers fed on 40% FTCM diet and the control group. The apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, crude fibre, and fat decreased significantly in broilers fed higher levels (>40%) of FTCM replacement diets compared with the control or lower FTCM diets. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin were decreased (P < .05) on 80% FTCM fed broilers. Serum cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose were not significantly (P > .05) altered among treatments. The activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were significantly (P < .05) increased with higher FTCM replacement. The results indicate that FTCM could replace up to 40% of dietary maize in the diets of broiler chickens without adverse effect on growth performance or serum constituents. PMID:21350670

  16. Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Kocher, A.; Choct, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal), a positive control (Zn-bacitracin) and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and acidifier. Two holding times included (a) immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED) and (b) access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD). Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE), whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05) proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05) IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05). All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05). The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05). The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics. PMID:25049595

  17. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  18. Antioxidants safeguard telomeres in bold chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Velando, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Telomeres are sensitive to damage induced by oxidative stress, and thus it is expected that dietary antioxidants may support the maintenance of telomere length in animals, particularly those with a fast rate of life (e.g. fast metabolism, activity and growth). We tested experimentally the effect of antioxidant supplements on telomere length during early development in wild gull chicks with natural individual variations in behaviour pattern and growth rate. Proactive chicks had shorter telomeres than reactive chicks, but the penalty for the bold behaviour pattern was reduced by antioxidant supplementation. Chicks growing faster had longer telomeres during early growth, suggesting that inherited quality supports a fast life history. PMID:25948570

  19. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks. PMID:27011291

  20. Hatching system and time effects on broiler physiology and posthatch growth.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Debonne, M; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2011-06-01

    A multilevel housing system for broilers was developed, named Patio (Vencomatic BV, Eersel, the Netherlands), in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined. In a Patio system, climate conditions differ from those provided in the hatchers currently in use. We compared the physiology of broilers hatched in a hatcher or in a Patio system, and included the effects of hatching time. Eggs from 1 breeder flock were incubated until embryonic d 18 in a setter and subsequently placed in a hatcher or the Patio until the end of incubation. From each hatching system, 154 chicks were collected per hatching time, at 465 h (early), 480 h (midterm), and 493 h (late) of incubation, from which 24 chicks/group were decapitated for analyses of blood plasma and organ weights. The remaining 130 chicks in each group from both systems were individually labeled and placed together in the Patio system. All chicks were given access to feed and water directly after hatch and were housed up to d 45 to monitor growth. From embryonic d 18 until the end of incubation, average ambient temperature and RH were 38.1°C and 50.8% in the hatcher and 35.2°C and 29.7% in the Patio system. Glucose and corticosterone were slightly higher in hatcher chicks, whereas organ weights were not affected by the hatching system. Although hatchling weights were lower in hatchery chicks, growth from d 0 to 45 was not affected by the hatching system. In both systems, glucose increased with hatching time, whereas lactate and triiodothyronine levels decreased. Yolk weights decreased with hatching time, whereas absolute and relative weights of the yolk-free body, intestines, stomach, lungs, and heart increased, indicating more advanced maturation of organs. Growth up to d 21 was depressed in chicks in the late group, which was possibly related to lower thyroid hormone levels at hatching. We conclude that the hatching system had minor effects on hatchling physiology and that posthatch growth and livability were not

  1. The effect of supplemental glutamine on growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract, and humoral immune response of broilers.

    PubMed

    Bartell, S M; Batal, A B

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental Gln on growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract, and humoral immune response of broilers. Immediately after hatch 6 replicate pens of 6 chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 (experiment 1) or 5 (experiment 2) dietary treatments for 21 d. On d 4, 7, 14, and 21, twelve chicks per treatment (2 chicks/pen) were killed for thymus, spleen, bursa, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, bile, and blood sample collections and weights. In experiment 1, the effect of 1 or 4% Gln addition to the feed, water, or both was compared with a corn-soybean meal (SBM) control diet. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Weight gain improved significantly (P < 0.05) when chicks were fed diets with 1% Gln as compared with chicks fed the control diet (11% average improvement). The addition of 4% Gln to the diet or water depressed (P < 0.05) growth performance. Based on the results from experiment 1, 1% Gln supplementation to the diet was determined to be ample and most practical. Thus in experiment 2, diets supplemented with 1% Gln were fed for 4, 7, 14, or 21 d after which time chicks were fed the corn-SBM control diet until the experiment was terminated at 21 d. Weight gain improved significantly (P < 0.05) when chicks were fed diets supplemented with 1% Gln throughout the 21-d study. In both experiments, chicks fed diets supplemented with 1% Gln for 21 d had higher concentrations of bile, intestinal, and sera IgA and sera IgG (P < 0.05). Chicks fed diets with 1% Gln had heavier intestinal relative weights and longer intestinal villi (P < 0.05) as compared with the chicks fed the corn-SBM diet. Our results indicate that the addition of 1% Gln to the diet of broiler chicks improves growth performance and may stimulate development of the gastrointestinal tract and humoral immune response. PMID:17704382

  2. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( < 0.05) greater than that in CON and CAP throughout the feeding period, whereas the ratio of feed to gain (G:F) was significantly ( < 0.05) lower. Broilers in P1, P2, CAPP1, and CAPP2 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater levels of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, IgG, and cluster of differentiation 3 than those in CON. Furthermore, broilers in CAPP1 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater richness and diversity of intestinal microorganisms, particularly of , than those in all other dietary treatments. In summary, our results indicate that large-scale microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can

  3. Effects of trehalose supplementation on the growth performance and intestinal innate immunity of juvenile chicks.

    PubMed

    Kikusato, M; Nanto, F; Mukai, K; Toyomizu, M

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose is composed of two molecules of D-glucose joined by an α,α-1,1 glucosidic linkage and has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effect of feeding a trehalose-supplemented diet on the growth performance, as well as the oxidative status and the intestinal innate immunity of juvenile chicks. A total of 16 d-old male broiler chicks were used in this study: two groups of 8 birds were fed on a 0% (control) or 0.5% trehalose-supplemented diet for 18 d. The mean body weight of the trehalose group was significantly greater than that of the control group, but feed efficiency was not altered by feeding the trehalose-supplemented diet. No differences in the levels of lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle, liver and plasma were observed between the control and trehalose-supplemented groups. The mRNA levels of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-like ligand 1A, interleukin-10, NADPH oxidase 4 and inducible NO synthase were significantly reduced by the trehalose supplementation. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with trehalose after hatching may have beneficial effects on the growth performance of juvenile chicks, probably by improving their intestinal innate immunity. PMID:26986698

  4. Effect of light intensity on broiler production, processing characteristics, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Deep, A; Schwean-Lardner, K; Crowe, T G; Fancher, B I; Classen, H L

    2010-11-01

    Manipulation of light intensity is an important management tool affecting broiler production and well being. Despite considerable research on light intensity, there is still a debate on the optimum level to be used for intensively housed broilers. Two trials were conducted with the objective of investigating the effect of light intensity, within the practical levels at confinement barns (1, 10, 20, and 40 lx), on production, processing characteristics, and welfare of broilers raised to 35 d of age. Each light intensity treatment was replicated in 2 environmentally controlled rooms in each trial with 950 Ross × Ross 308 chicks per room. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with trial serving as a block. All chicks were exposed to 40 lx of light intensity and 23 h of light for the first 7 d followed by treatment light intensity and 17 h of day length thereafter. Body weight and feed consumption were determined at 7, 14, and 35 d of age. At the end of each trial, 60 birds per treatment were processed to determine the detailed meat yield. Skeletal and footpad and ocular health were monitored at 31 and 32 d of age, respectively. Body weight, feed consumption, feed:gain ratio, and mortality were unaffected by light intensity. Carcass, thigh, and drum yield as a percentage of live weight decreased linearly with increasing light intensity. The 1 lx treatment resulted in heavier wings as a percentage of live weight. Light intensity had no effect on skeletal health, but ulcerative footpad lesions decreased linearly with increasing light intensity. Birds exposed to the 1 lx treatment had heavier and larger eyes. In conclusion, light intensity did not affect broiler production and mortality but did affect carcass characteristics. The 1 lx light intensity treatment had a negative effect on broiler welfare as demonstrated by increased ulcerative footpad lesions and eye size. PMID:20952694

  5. Lipid synthesis in chick epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lavker, R M

    1975-07-01

    Lipid synthesis in newborn chick epidermis was studied by electron microscopic autoradiography after injection of tritiated palmitate. The labeled lipid product in the tissue was identified as mostly triglyceride. At the earliest time after injection (6 hr), the radioactive precursor was taken up by all viable cells of the epidermis. Grain density was heaviest over basal cells, moderate over spinous cells, and slight over granular cells; thus lipid incorporation is highest in the basal and spinous regions of the chick epidermis. As time after injection progressed, the increasing amounts of grains over the granular and horny cells and decreasing amounts over the basal and spinous cells reflected the continuous upward displacement of cells from one layer into the next. From the distribution of silver grains within the epidermal cells, it has been concluded that, with the passage of time, triglycerides synthesized by the epidermal cells were mainly located in lipid droplets. The numerous grains associated with the elements of the endoplasmic reticulum indicated that this organelle is involved in aggregating triglyceride molecules into lipid droplets. The fact that grains were seen within the horny cells indicated that part of the horny cell consists of lipid probably derived from the lipid droplets retained by the cells during keratinization. PMID:1151110

  6. In ovo carbohydrate supplementation modulates growth and immunity-related genes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bhanja, S K; Goel, A; Pandey, N; Mehra, M; Majumdar, S; Mandal, A B

    2015-02-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the role of in ovo administrated carbohydrates on the expression pattern of growth and immune-related genes. In ovo injections (n = 400) were carried out on the 14th day of incubation into the yolk sac/amnion of the broiler chicken embryos. Expression of growth-related genes: chicken growth hormone (cGH), insulin-like growth factor-I & II (IGF-I & II) and mucin were studied in hepatic and jejunum tissues of late-term embryo and early post-hatch chicks. Expression of candidate immune genes: Interleukin-2, 6, 10 and 12 (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12), Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were studied in peripheral blood monocyte cells of in ovo-injected and control birds following antigenic stimulation with sheep RBC (SRBC) or mitogen concanavalin A (Con-A). Glucose injection significantly increased the expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic period and both cGH and IGF-II in early post-hatch period, while ribose-injected chicks had higher expression of IGF-II gene during embryonic stage. Enhanced mucin gene expression was also observed in fructose-injected chicks during embryonic age. Glucose-injected chicks had higher expression of IL-6 or IL-10, while those injected with fructose or ribose had higher expression of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN gamma. It is concluded that in ovo supplementation of carbohydrates might help in improving the growth of late-term embryos and chicks. In ovo glucose could modulate humoral-related immunity, while fructose or ribose might help in improving the cellular immunity in broiler chickens. PMID:24797673

  7. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  8. Effect of aging on bioactive amines, microbial flora, physico-chemical characteristics, and tenderness of broiler breast meat.

    PubMed

    Moreira, A P S; Giombelli, A; Labanca, R A; Nelson, D L; Glória, M B A

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the levels of bioactive amines, microbial flora, physico-chemical characteristics, and tenderness of broiler breast. Forty-five 1-d-old Cobb broilers were aged at temperatures from 1.0 to 5.7 degrees C for 8 h. Nonaged broiler breast contained spermine, spermidine, and low levels of putrescine. There was prevalence of aerobic mesophiles followed by Pseudomonas. Mean pH, nonprotein N, weight loss after roasting, and shear force were 5.92, 0.46 g of N/100 g, 19.4%, and 5.57 kg, respectively. During aging, there was a significant increase in Pseudomonas and on the levels of amines. Two different amines were detected - tyramine and histamine. Aging resulted in a significant increase in tenderness without affecting pH, non-protein N, and weight loss after roasting. There was significant correlation between aging temperature and total bioactive amine levels. Aging above 4.9 degrees C induced the formation of histamine; therefore, aging should be performed at temperatures < or = 4.9 degrees C to prevent the formation of this amine, which has been associated with human health hazards. During storage of aged broiler breast at -18 +/- 1 degrees C for 89 d, there was no significant difference on pH, nonprotein N, and weight loss after roasting; however, there was a significant decrease on spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and tyramine levels. On the 89th day of storage, histamine was detected, and the shear force was significantly lower when compared with the samples immediately after aging. Therefore, the storage time of aged breast should not exceed 64 d to prevent histamine formation and to avoid excessive softening of the meat. Histamine in aged broiler breast could be used as an index of aging temperatures above 4.9 degrees C and also of frozen storage for more than 64 d. PMID:18753456

  9. Influence of probiotic supplementation on blood parameters and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalf, A.; Alhaj, M.; Al-homidan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of commercial probiotic (Bactocell®) on growth performance and blood parameters were evaluated. A total of 800 one day-old Ross broiler chicks were raised over 42 days. Chicks were wing-banded, weighed individually and randomly allocated into four equally major groups each having two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that did not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the control starter and finisher diets supplemented with 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg feed, respectively. Weekly body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion were measured. Blood parameters at 1, 4 and 6 weeks of age including packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total protein, albumin, total lipid and cholesterol were determined. All birds were kept under similar environmental, managerial and hygienic conditions. The results of the current study revealed that there was no significant change for Hb and PCV concentrations among different groups at all studied times. Also, total protein, lipids and albumin concentrations were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Chicken fed a diet containing various levels of probiotic showed a significant decrease (p ⩽ 0.05) in cholesterol concentration compared to control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the body weight and daily weight gain of broiler chicks at late ages (3–6 weeks). Also, the birds fed on probiotic levels 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet exhibited higher body weight among chicken groups at 6 weeks of age. Improved feed conversion was noticed in birds fed a diet supplemented with probiotic. There was no significant difference in mortality rate among groups. We concluded that use of selected commercial probiotic resulted in improved performance parameters and reduced serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. Moreover, supplementation of the probiotic to broilers in the levels of 1 and 0.8 g/kg diet was found

  10. Acute and chronic eggshell temperature manipulations during hatching term influence hatchability, broiler performance, and ascites incidence.

    PubMed

    Sozcu, A; Ipek, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine how a control temperature and acute and chronic high eggshell temperatures during the last three days of incubation, can affect hatchability, chick quality, and organ development on day of hatch as well as broiler performance and ascites incidence in later life. The eggshell temperature manipulations were applied during hatching term (days 19 to 21) as follows: control EST (37.3 to 38.0°C), acute high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4- to 39.0°C for three hours daily) and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4 to 39.0°C). The lowest hatchability and the highest cull chick rate were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. Lower chick quality parameters correlated with lower chick weights and heavier residual yolk sac weights that were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group depending on hatch time. The live weights on the 1(st) day of the growing period were higher in the control and acute high eggshell temperature manipulations groups than the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. At 6 wk of age, live weights of broilers were the highest in the control than in the acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups. The total mortality was 2.5, 9.2, and 13.3%, the mortality due to ascites was 2.1, 8.3, and 12.9% in the control, acute ,and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups, respectively. The right ventricular/total ventricular ratios for the control, acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups were 0.22, 0.28, and 0.30%, respectively. In conclusion, short-term and long-term higher temperatures during the hatching term affect embryo development, incubation results, broiler performance, and ascites incidence. Although the acute high eggshell temperature manipulations did not affect the chick quality parameters at hatch, it negatively affected incubation results and broiler performance

  11. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  12. Darkling Beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Their Larvae as Potential Vectors for the Transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java between Successive Broiler Flocks ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Bolder, Nico M.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F.

    2008-01-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses. PMID:18791034

  13. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  14. The effect of monochromatic light on broiler growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rozenboim, I; Biran, I; Uni, Z; Robinzon, B; Halevy, O

    1999-01-01

    Artificial illumination, including light quality, is crucial in modem broiler management. In the present study, a new, highly efficient, monochromatic light system has been developed for broilers. One hundred and eighty male broiler chicks (Anak) were divided into four light treatment groups (n = 45) in three replicates each. All birds were housed in a single room previously divided by wooden bars into 12 sealed cells of 1 m2. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. Light intensity was 0.1 W/m2 at the height of birds' heads and was scheduled for 23 h of light and 1 h of dark during the entire experimental period. Light treatments were: control white (mini-incandescent light bulbs), blue (480 nm), green (560 nm), and red (660 nm). Body weight was recorded periodically, feed consumption was measured daily, and feed efficiency was calculated. Blood samples were taken at 1, 9, and 32 d of age and plasma testosterone was determined. Two necropsies were conducted, at 23 and 35 d of age, and selected glands and organs were weighed. In the group reared under green light, a significant enhancement in weight gain was observed as early as 3 d of age; this gain was maintained during the entire experimental period. Broilers reared under blue light had a later onset of growth enhancement and were significantly heavier than those reared under white and red light at 20 d of age. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly higher in birds reared under blue light. Breast muscle weights were significantly higher in the birds reared under green light at 23 and 35 d of age. These results suggest that green and blue light stimulate growth. PMID:10023760

  15. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. PMID:26188030

  16. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Mucin Expression and Suppresses the Mucosal Immune Function of the Respiratory Tract in Chicks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Shaoqiong; Liu, Guanhua; Zhao, Jingpeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Zhigang; Lin, Hai

    2015-01-01

    The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A supplement levels on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of three replicates of 10 broilers and subjected to dietary vitamin A supplement levels of 0, 1,500, 6,000, or 12,000 IU/kg for seven days. Compared with control birds, vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the mucin and IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the IgA level in serum. In the lungs, vitamin A supplementation downregulated TNF-α and EGFR mRNA expression. The TGF-β and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were upregulated by vitamin A supplementation at a dose of 6,000 IU/kg, and the IL-13 mRNA expression level was increased at the 12,000 IU/kg supplement level. Vitamin A deficiency (control) significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of MUC2, IgA, EGFR, IL-13 and TGF-β in trachea tissue. Histological section analysis revealed that the number of goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium was less in the 0 and 12,000 IU/kg vitamin A supplement groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency suppressed the immunity of the airway by decreasing the IgA and mucin concentrations in neonatal chicks. This study suggested that a suitable level of vitamin A is essential for the secretion of IgA and mucin in the respiratory tract by regulating the gene expression of cytokines and epithelial growth factors. PMID:26422233

  17. Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Mucin Expression and Suppresses the Mucosal Immune Function of the Respiratory Tract in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guanhua; Zhao, Jingpeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Zhigang; Lin, Hai

    2015-01-01

    The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin A supplement levels on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of three replicates of 10 broilers and subjected to dietary vitamin A supplement levels of 0, 1,500, 6,000, or 12,000 IU/kg for seven days. Compared with control birds, vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the mucin and IgA levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as the IgA level in serum. In the lungs, vitamin A supplementation downregulated TNF-α and EGFR mRNA expression. The TGF-β and MUC5AC mRNA expression levels were upregulated by vitamin A supplementation at a dose of 6,000 IU/kg, and the IL-13 mRNA expression level was increased at the 12,000 IU/kg supplement level. Vitamin A deficiency (control) significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of MUC2, IgA, EGFR, IL-13 and TGF-β in trachea tissue. Histological section analysis revealed that the number of goblet cells in the tracheal epithelium was less in the 0 and 12,000 IU/kg vitamin A supplement groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency suppressed the immunity of the airway by decreasing the IgA and mucin concentrations in neonatal chicks. This study suggested that a suitable level of vitamin A is essential for the secretion of IgA and mucin in the respiratory tract by regulating the gene expression of cytokines and epithelial growth factors. PMID:26422233

  18. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function. PMID:26123162

  19. Investigation of a chronic feed-passage problem on a broiler farm in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Apple, R O; Skeeles, J K; Houghten, G E; Beasley, J N; Kim, K S

    1991-01-01

    A commercial broiler farm with a history of poor feed conversion and chronic feed-passage problems was chosen for investigation. Chickens were taken from the broiler flock at specified intervals during growout and tested by virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for avian reovirus. Abnormal tissue pathology was first seen in the broilers at 9 days of age and continued sporadically throughout the growout period. Antireovirus antibody levels began to increase at 24 days of age. Avian reovirus and avian adenovirus was recovered at different intervals starting at 17 and 31 days of age, respectively. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks housed in filtered-air positive-pressure isolation units were inoculated with two inocula recovered from the field study. Avian reovirus was recovered from the tissues of both treatment groups using chick kidney cells. Significant weight differences were seen in one of the two treatment groups. This avian reovirus was given the name SS-412. PMID:1649595

  20. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  1. Growth performance and hematological traits of broiler chickens reared under assorted monochromatic light sources.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-06-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of different monochromatic lights on growth performance and hematological response of growing broiler chickens. A total of 360 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 lighting treatments, which were replicated 6 times with 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light treatments include incandescent bulbs (as a control) and light-emitting diode white light, blue light, red light, green light, and yellow light (YL). The birds were provided with similar nutritional specifications and environmental management facilities, except for the lights throughout the experimental period. Growth performance was evaluated in terms of BW, BW gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at weekly intervals. At the end of 5 wk, 2 birds from each replicate were randomly selected for blood collection to determine hematological response. The BW and feed intake was numerically higher in YL at 5 wk of age. But interestingly, this did not result in improved feed conversion ratio in YL; nevertheless, numerical values were lower in YL at 5 wk (P > 0.05). Red blood cells, blood platelet count, and percent hematocrit were numerically higher under YL, whereas white blood cell counts and percent hemoglobin remained unaffected due to light treatments. It was concluded that monochromatic light is a potential light source that might provide a beneficial effect on growth performance but is inconclusive for hematological measures of broilers. PMID:23687140

  2. Temperature during the last week of incubation. II. Effects on first week broiler development and performance.

    PubMed

    Maatjens, C M; van Roovert-Reijrink, I A M; van den Anker, I; Engel, B; van der Pol, C W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about applying various eggshell temperatures (EST) during the last week of incubation. In particular, the effect of an EST below 37.8°C during the last week of incubation is poorly investigated. Therefore, we investigated effects of EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, or E19 on first week broiler development and performance. A total of 2,850 first grade eggs of a 43 wk old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15. From E15, E17, or E19 onward, eggs were incubated at an EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C. Chick quality was determined at placement in the broiler house and organ development was measured at d 7. BW was determined at placement, d4, and d7. Feed intake (FI) was measured at d4 and d7 and G:F was calculated between placement and d4, and between d4 and d7. Chick quality at placement was higher at an EST of 35.6°C compared to all other EST treatments, expressed by a longer chick length and highest prevalence of closed navels. BW d 7 was higher at an EST of 36.7°C compared to all other EST treatments, which was not caused by a higher FI during the first week. A higher G:F between d 0 and d 7 was found at an EST of 36.7°C compared to 35.6 and 38.9°C. At d 7, a higher relative heart weight was found at an EST of 35.6 compared to 38.9°C. This study indicates that an EST of 38.9°C applied from E15 onward negatively affected chick quality, organ development, and G:F until d 7 compared to 37.8°C. Moreover, an EST of 36.7°C had a clear positive effect on chick quality, organ development, G:F, and growth performance until d 7. An EST of 35.6°C resulted in equal or higher chick quality and organ weights compared to 36.7°C, but this was not reflected in performance parameters. PMID:27118862

  3. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins.

    PubMed

    Langhout, D J; Schutte, J B

    1996-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of feeding high-methylated (HM) and low-methylated (LM) pectin on performance and physiological characteristics in broiler chicks. Two levels each (1.5 and 3%) of HM citrus pectin (HMC), LM citrus pectin (LMC), or HM sugar beet pectin (HMS) were added to a semi-purified basal diet. The experiment was conducted in battery brooders, and chicks received the diets as pellets from 6 to 27 d of age. The inclusion of LMC or HMS in the diet had little or no effect on the performance of chicks; however, when HMC was added to the diet growth and feed utilization were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Water intake and water:feed ratio were increased (P < 0.05) after inclusion of all three pectin products in the diet. The effect on water consumption was more pronounced in the HMC-containing diets than in the LMC or HMS diets, and was dose-dependent. In vitro viscosity was increased significantly by incorporating HMC or LMC into the diet, whereas HMS had no effect on this parameter. Waterholding capacity of the diets and the excreta were increased significantly by including one (P < 0.05) of the three pectin products in the diet. The concentration of some of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the cecal chyme was markedly decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding HMC, whereas LMC had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of VFA. In contrast, inclusion of HMS in the diet significantly increased the concentration of VFA in the cecal content (P < 0.05) dose-dependently. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the effect of dietary pectin on chick performance is dependent on the degree of carboxyl groups that is esterified, the origin of the pectin product, and the amount added to the diet. PMID:8893300

  4. Individual and combined effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide and fumonisin B1 in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rauber, R H; Dilkin, P; Mallmann, A O; Marchioro, A; Mallmann, C A; Borsoi, A; Nascimento, V P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) and fumonisin B(1) (FB) on performance, relative weight of liver, biological parameters, and histological evaluation of several tissues from four hundred thirty-two 1-d-old male broiler chickens divided into 9 treatments according to the dose of FB (0, 100, or 200 mg/kg, from d 1 to d 28) and sLPS (0, 250, or 500 µg/application per bird, every other day, from d 15 to 27) administered. At the end of the experiment (28 d), significant effects caused by sLPS, FB, and the interaction of sLPS × FB were observed on several parameters. Histopathological evaluations showed significant lesions in liver and kidney caused by sLPS, FB, and their association. According to these results, both sLPS and FB (isolated or in association) cause significant effects on performance and biological parameters of broilers at 28 d of age. PMID:23091133

  5. By-product of Tropical Vermicelli Waste as a Novel Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Diets

    PubMed Central

    Rungcharoen, P.; Therdthai, N.; Dhamvithee, P.; Attamangkune, S.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Ferket, P. R.; Amornthewaphat, N.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW) and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF), and 0.57% ether extract (EE), as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen) were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn) of VW. The AMEn of VW was 1,844.7±130.71 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (p<0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with those fed the control diet. No difference was observed during grower and finisher phase (19 to 42 d). Chicks fed VW diets had lower relative weight of abdominal fat (p<0.001) but higher relative weight of gizzard (p<0.05) than those of chicks fed the control diet. Increasing VW inclusion levels increased ileal digesta viscosity (p<0.05) and intestinal villus height of chicks (p< 0.001). For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay) in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF. PMID:25049764

  6. By-product of Tropical Vermicelli Waste as a Novel Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Diets.

    PubMed

    Rungcharoen, P; Therdthai, N; Dhamvithee, P; Attamangkune, S; Ruangpanit, Y; Ferket, P R; Amornthewaphat, N

    2013-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW) and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF), and 0.57% ether extract (EE), as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen) were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn) of VW. The AMEn of VW was 1,844.7±130.71 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (p<0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with those fed the control diet. No difference was observed during grower and finisher phase (19 to 42 d). Chicks fed VW diets had lower relative weight of abdominal fat (p<0.001) but higher relative weight of gizzard (p<0.05) than those of chicks fed the control diet. Increasing VW inclusion levels increased ileal digesta viscosity (p<0.05) and intestinal villus height of chicks (p< 0.001). For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay) in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF. PMID:25049764

  7. Effect of repetitive acute cold exposures during the last phase of broiler embryogenesis on cold resistance through the life span.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Rusal, M; Giloh, M; Yahav, S

    2009-03-01

    The time just before hatch is critical, because the embryo shifts toward internal and external pipping. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effect of repeated acute reductions of the incubation temperature during the last phase of broiler embryogenesis on posthatch cold tolerance and on the development of ascites syndrome. Fertile eggs were incubated at 37.8 degrees C and 56% RH. At 18 and 19 d of incubation, 3 treatments were conducted, comprising 2 or 3 exposures to 15 degrees C for 30 or 60 min each. During these cold exposures, egg temperature was measured by infrared thermography to determine sensible heat loss from the eggs. At hatch, BW and body temperature were measured. At 3 and 14 d of age, chicks were challenged by cold exposure to 10 degrees C for 3 h. From 14 d of age onward, three-quarters of the chicks were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the others were raised under regular conditions. The sensible heat loss from the eggs was 512 +/- 66 cal and 718 +/- 126 cal for 30 and 60 min of cold exposure, respectively. No effect of treatment on hatchability was observed, but body temperature and BW were greater to significantly greater in the treated chicks. Cold challenges at 3 and 14 d of age revealed a relative thermoregulatory advantage of embryos exposed to cold for 60 min. Under AIC, fewer treated chickens than controls developed ascites. At 38 d of age, BW and relative breast muscle weight were numerically to significantly greater in the treated chicks than in the control chicks when both were raised under regular conditions, whereas no differences were observed among the chicks raised under AIC. Repeated brief acute cold exposures during the last phase of embryogenesis appeared to improve the ability of growing broilers to withstand low ambient temperatures during their life span. Moreover, chickens treated during embryogenesis improved their performance under regular growth conditions. PMID:19211536

  8. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  9. Effects of different limestone particle sizes in the diet of broiler breeders post molting on their performance, egg quality, incubation results, and pre-starter performance of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Bueno, I J M; Surek, D; Rocha, C; Schramm, V G; Muramatsu, K; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse limestone diet improves productivity, reproductive performance and the calcium utilization of molted broiler breeders. In total, 640 broiler breeder females, 73-week-old and sixty-four 27-week-old cockerels, Cobb 500, were evaluated during 10 weeks, according to a randomized block design composed of 4 treatments with 8 replicates each. Treatments consisted of diets with the inclusion of 100% fine limestone-fine PS (0.2 mm GMD-geometric mean diameter); PS1: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 1.0 mm GMD; PS2: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 2.0 mm GMD; and PS3: 30% fine limestone+70% limestone with 3.0 mm GMD. Calcium retention in the gizzard of the breeders, bone characteristics, and breeder performance, egg characteristics, eggshell quality, incubation performance, chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were determined. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the rate of lay, percentage of non-settable eggs, egg weight, egg shape index, egg specific gravity, eggshell weight, thickness, and percentage hatchability and egg weight loss of broiler breeders fed with diets with different limestone particle sizes. The chick quality and yield, chick pre-starter live performance, and chick bone characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by any of the limestone particle sizes. It was concluded that live and reproductive performance parameters of broiler breeders post molting is not affected by limestone particle size in the feed. PMID:26769267

  10. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in crops of challenged birds, significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio, and increased weight gain compared with controls. The 0.025% and 0.015% EO in drinking water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed. PMID:23436536

  11. The Selenium Deficiency Disease Exudative Diathesis in Chicks Is Associated with Downregulation of Seven Common Selenoprotein Genes in Liver and Muscle123

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-01-01

    Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 μg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental α-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of 7 common selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx4, Sepw1, Sepn1, Sepp1, Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing α-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo. PMID:21795426

  12. Subtherapeutic tylosin phosphate in broiler feed affects Campylobacter on carcasses during processing.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2007-06-01

    Tylosin phosphate is an antimicrobial drug approved for use in broiler feed at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion. Erythromycin is often the drug of choice for treating humans with campylobacteriosis. Both tylosin and erythromycin are classified as macrolide drugs and cross-resistance between these antimicrobials occurs. Commercial broiler chicks were placed in isolation grow-out chambers and colonized with Campylobacter jejuni. From 14 d of age through grow-out, broilers were fed ad libitim a diet that included 22 ppm of tylosin phosphate (20 g/ton). Control broilers received the same diet without tylosin phosphate. At 42 d of age, broilers were processed in a pilot plant with equipment that closely modeled commercial conditions. Carcass rinses were collected after feather removal, after inside and outside washing, and after immersion chilling. Campylobacter numbers recovered from carcasses after feather removal did not differ according to feed type (3.53 log cfu/mL of rinse for control carcasses, and 3.60 log cfu/mL of rinse for those fed medicated feed). Likewise, medicated feed did not affect Campylobacter numbers on carcasses after inside-outside washing (3.11 and 3.07 log cfu/mL of rinse). However, carcasses of broilers fed tylosin phosphate had lower numbers of Campylobacter after chilling (1.45 log cfu/mL of rinse) than control carcasses (2.31 log cfu/mL of rinse). No Campylobacter isolated from control carcasses were resistant to erythromycin; all Campylobacter recovered from carcasses fed tylosin phosphate were resistant to erythromycin. Application of tylosin phosphate in feed results in lower numbers of Campylobacter on chilled carcasses; however, the Campylobacter that do remain are resistant to erythromycin. PMID:17495097

  13. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  14. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  15. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  16. The presence of lysylpyridinoline in the hypertrophic cartilage of newly hatched chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, M. W.; Martinez, D. A.; Cook, M. E.; Vailas, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a nonreducible cross-link in appreciable quantities has primarily been limited to the mineralized tissues, bone and dentin. However, the results reported here show that LP is not only present in the hypertrophic cartilage of the tibiotarsus isolated from newly hatched broiler chicks, but it is approx. 4-fold as concentrated as hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP). Bone and articular cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic cartilage do not contain measurable quantities of LP. Purified LP has a fluorescent scan similar to purified HP and literature values, confirming that we indeed were measuring LP. Also, the cartilage lesion produced by immature chondrocytes from birds with tibial dyschondroplasia had LP but the HP:LP ratio was > 1. Thus, the low HP:LP ratio could be a marker for hypertrophic cartilage in avians.

  17. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, R L; Yin, Y L; Wu, G Y; Zhang, Y G; Li, T J; Li, L L; Li, M X; Tang, Z R; Zhang, J; Wang, B; He, J H; Nie, X Z

    2005-09-01

    The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance. PMID:16206559

  18. Influence of post hatch dietary supplementation of fat on performance, carcass cuts and biochemical profile in Ven Cobb broiler

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Komal Prasad; Gendley, M. K.; Tiwari, S. P.; Sahu, Tarini; Naik, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of post hatch dietary fat supplementation on performance of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 30 chicks in each (three replicates of 10 birds/treatment). The trial lasted for 35 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Four types of diet were formulated for 1st week: T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained control diet with no added fat, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% fat, respectively. After 1st week post-hatch period chicks were fed ad libitum with the normal basal diet as per Bureau of Indian Standard recommendations till completion of the experiment (8-35 days). Results: Significantly higher (p<0.05) body weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded in birds fed 5% dietary fat at the end of the experiment whereas, feed intake was not significantly affected. Significantly (p<0.05) higher dressed weight was observed due to 5% fat supplementation than other groups whereas, it was not significant for other carcass cuts. No significant differences were observed in moisture, protein and lipid content of breast and thigh muscle of broiler due to supplemented fat whereas, 2.5% dietary fat significantly (p<0.05) increase the serum HI titer on day 28th. In biochemical profile, higher serum albumin (g/dl) was recorded due to 5% fat supplementation whereas other biochemical components did not show any significance difference among treatments. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of fat in broilers diet improves the overall FCR, dressing percentage and gain more body weight. PMID:27047070

  19. Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins, and cecal microflora composition.

    PubMed

    Mountzouris, K C; Tsitrsikos, P; Palamidi, I; Arvaniti, A; Mohnl, M; Schatzmayr, G; Fegeros, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of inclusion levels of a 5-bacterial species probiotic in broiler nutrition. Five hundred twenty-five 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were allocated in 5 experimental treatments for 6 wk. The experimental treatments received a corn-soybean coccidiostat-free basal diet and depending on the addition were labeled as follows: no addition (C), 10(8) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P1), 10(9) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P2), 10(10) cfu probiotic/kg of diet (P3), and 2.5 mg of avilamycin/kg of diet (A). Each treatment had 3 replicates of 35 broilers each. Treatment effects on broiler growth performance and biomarkers such as ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, plasma Ig concentration, and cecal microflora composition were determined. Differences among treatments were considered significant when P < or = 0.05. Overall BW gain was significantly higher in treatment P1 (2,293 g) compared with P2 (2,163 g), C (2,165 g), and P3 (2,167 g), with A (2,230 g) being intermediate and not different from P1. Overall feed conversion ratio values were similar and significantly better for P1 (1.80) and A (1.80) compared with P2 (1.87), C (1.89), and P3 (1.92). Ileal apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of CP and ether extract were higher in A. Generally, treatments A and P1 showed an improved total tract ADC for DM, organic matter, ash, ether extract, and AME(n) values. The total tract ADC of CP was higher in P1, C, and P2. There were no differences between treatments regarding plasma Ig in 14- and 42-d-old broilers. Treatments P2 and P3 were effective at beneficially modulating cecal microflora composition. In particular, the lower cecal coliform concentration (log cfu/g of wet digesta) was seen in P2 (6.12) and P3 (4.90) in 14- and 42-d-old broilers, respectively, whereas at 42 d, P3 and P2 had the highest Bifidobacterium (8.31; 8.08) and Lactobacillus concentrations (8.20; 7.86), respectively. It is concluded that probiotic inclusion

  20. Effect of thermal manipulation during embryogenesis on liver heat shock protein expression in chronic heat stressed colored broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vinoth, A; Thirunalasundari, T; Tharian, Jenny Anne; Shanmugam, M; Rajkumar, U

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has been shown to improve thermo tolerance in broilers. Heat shock proteins are a family of proteins produced in response to variety of stress and protect cells from damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis on HSP gene and protein expression in the embryos and in chronic heat stressed 42nd day old chicks. On 15th day of incubation, fertile eggs from two breeds-Naked neck (NN) and Punjab Broiler-2 (PB-2) were randomly divided in to two groups, namely Control (C) eggs were incubated under standard incubation conditions and Thermal Conditioning (TC) eggs were exposed to higher incubation temperature (40.5°C) for 3h on 15th, 16th and 17th day of incubation. The chicks so obtained from each group were further subdivided and reared from 15th-42nd day as normal (N; 25±1°C, 70% RH) and heat exposed (HE; 35±1°C, 50% RH) resulting in four treatment groups (CN, CHE, TCN and TCHE). Embryos of two groups (C and TC) on 17th day and birds from four treatment groups on 42nd day were sacrificed. Liver was collected for analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR and protein expression by Western blot of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP 90 alpha, HSP 90 beta, HSP 70, HSP 60, HSP 27 and ubiquitin). The plasma collected on 42nd day was analyzed for biochemical parameters. Thermal challenging of embryos of both the breeds caused significant (P≤0.05) increase in all the HSPs gene and protein expression. The TCHE chicks had significantly (P≤0.05) lower HSPs gene and protein expressions and oxidative stress compared to CHE groups in both NN and PB-2. Based on these findings it can be concluded that TM during incubation provides adaptation to broiler chicks during chronic heat stress. PMID:26590469

  1. Effects of feeding different lipid sources on hepatic histopathology features and growth traits of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Perillo, Antonella; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth traits and hepatic histopathology of broiler chickens were investigated. Hubbard strain one-day old chickens (n=120) were kept in pens and were fed one of the three corn-soybean meal-based diets until 49 days of age. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: SFO diet containing sunflower oil; LRD diet containing lard, and EVOO diet containing extra-virgin olive oil. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly body weight and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed the other treatments. Based on our findings, after the whole experimental feeding period it was possible to observe relevant injuries to the liver of the chicks fed with lard, whereas the hepatic histopathological changes appeared less marked or absent in the chicks fed vegetable oils from sunflower or olive. Thus, we can conclude that dietary lipid source affected chicks performance and hepatic histopathology especially when chicks fed diet containing animal fats; whereas feeding extra-virgin olive oil supported positively growth traits and did not result in hepatic histopathological effects. PMID:26277050

  2. Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females. PMID:22167309

  3. Consequences of different growth rates in broiler breeder and layer hens on embryogenesis, metabolism and metabolic rate: A review.

    PubMed

    Buzała, M; Janicki, B; Czarnecki, R

    2015-04-01

    Intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens for economically important production traits, which has been carried out for almost a century, resulted in considerable differences in the mechanisms of growth and development and, thus, in avian metabolism, both during embryogenesis and after hatching. Selection for meat production (broiler breeders) and eggs (layer hens) led to increased productivity but also brought about metabolic disorders. That intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens is effective is seen, for example, in the differences in growth and development, metabolism of the yolk sac, hormones and lipids, gas exchange, and thermogenesis. Due to genetic proximity and different developmental mechanisms in broiler breeders and layer hens, avian embryos and chicks serve as excellent models for fundamental scientific research. This review paper discusses the consequences of different growth rates as a result of long-term genetic selection on embryonic development and metabolic rate of broilers and layers. The evidence presented herein indicates that it would be worth comparing these issues in a meta-analysis. PMID:25691756

  4. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation: Effects on performance and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers.

    PubMed

    Afsarian, O; Shahir, M H; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfolahian, H; Hoseini, A; Lourens, A

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (16 replicates of 75 eggs per treatment). The eggs were incubated at a constant eggshell temperature (EST) of 37.8ºC throughout the incubation period (CON) or were periodically exposed to 15°C for one hour on days 11, 13, 15, and 17 of incubation and the EST was measured (periodical low EST; PLE). After hatching, 240 one-day-old male broiler chicks from both treatment groups were reared for 42 d with or without dietary arginine supplementation in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. In order to induce ascites, all chicks were exposed to a 15°C room temperature from 14 d onwards. Results showed that second grade chicks and yolk sac weight were decreased, and final body weight was increased in the PLE group. Ascites mortality rate was decreased only in the PLE group and dietary arginine supplementation had no apparent effect. In the PLE group, the packed cell volume (PCV) percentage and red blood cell (RBC) count were decreased. In conclusion, the results showed that the PLE treatment during incubation was associated with improved hatchability, chick quality, and productive performance of broilers and decreased ascites incidence during post hatch cold exposure. Dietary arginine supplementation had no beneficial effects in cold exposed broilers. PMID:27287379

  5. Effect of Dietary Nutrient Density on Small Intestinal Phosphate Transport and Bone Mineralization of Broilers during the Growing Period.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791

  6. Effect of Dietary Nutrient Density on Small Intestinal Phosphate Transport and Bone Mineralization of Broilers during the Growing Period

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791

  7. Effect of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella growth factor on growth performance, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung-Ki; Kim, Kwan-Eung; Jeon, Jin-Young; Lee, Kyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dried chlorella powder (Chlorella vulgaris; DCP) and chlorella growth factor (CGF) on growth performance, serum characteristics, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 1050 day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 35 pens (30 chicks/pen) and subjected to one of seven dietary treatments. A non-medicated corn-soybean meal base diet was considered as negative control (NC) and added with either antibiotic (PC), three levels of DCP (NC diets added with 0.05, 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP) or two levels of CGF (NC diets added with 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF). The final body weight and daily weight gain in PC and groups fed diets with 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP were heavier (p < 0.001) than those of NC and CGF-treated groups. Serum total lipid concentrations were lower (p = 0.001) in groups fed diets with 0.5 % DCP and 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF compared with PC group. The levels of serum IgG (p = 0.050) and IgM (p = 0.010) were elevated in chicks fed diets with DCP and CGF compared with the PC or NC group. Meat qualities such as cooking loss, meat color, and pH, of edible meats were not altered by dietary treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary DCP, but not CGF, exerted growth-promoting effect, and both DCP and CGF affected humoral immune response in broiler chicks. PMID:27375987

  8. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16. PMID:26723190

  9. Effects of manganese deficiency on the microstructure of proximal tibia and OPG/RANKL gene expression in chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Jin, Cong; Wang, Zhenyong; Wang, Zhaojun; Wang, Jian; Wang, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency can result in perosis in chicks, but the mechanism of Mn deficiency on tibia development remains poorly understood. Ninety one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens administered with control diet (60 mg Mn/kg) and Mn-deficient diets (40 mg Mn/kg, 8.7 mg Mn/kg) to investigate the effects of Mn deficiency on morphology of tibia and related signal transduction pathways in broiler chickens. At the age of 42 days, the bone trabecula, damaged osteoblasts and OPG/RANKL mRNA expression levels were investigated by histological assessment, electron microscopic examination and real-time quantitative PCR analysis, respectively. Results of histological observations showed that decreased trabecular thickness, trabecular number and trabecular bone area (%) together with increased trabecular bone separation were involved in perosis induced by Mn deficiency. The most striking ultrastructural modifications involved disruption of nuclear membrane and mitochondria outer membrane, loss of mitochondrion cristae and alteration in endoplasmic reticulum in osteoblasts of the Mn-deficient groups. Likewise, Mn deficiency results in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the relative mRNA expression levels of OPG and RANKL with a significantly higher RANKL/OPG ratio (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Mn deficiency can affect the development of tibia in broiler chickens, leading to metaphyseal osteoporosis which may be due to decreased OPG/RANKL mRNA expression. PMID:25634035

  10. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth, carcass characteristics, redox status, and mitochondria metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Samuel, K G; Long, C; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-02-01

    The potential benefits of supplementing pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ·Na2) in the diet of broiler chicks were explored. We first examined the effect of different levels of dietary PQQ·Na2 on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and plasma biochemical parameters (trial 1). A total of 490 1-day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 5 dietary groups supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg PQQ·Na2/kg feed. As the 0.2 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 supplement gave the best performance, we then investigated whether this level of PQQ·Na2 influenced the redox status of plasma samples and mitochondrial-related metabolism (trial 2). A total of 120 1-day-old male AA chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups supplemented with 0 or 0.2 mg PQQ·Na2/kg diet. In trial 1, birds fed a diet containing 0.2 mg PQQ·Na2/kg showed lower feed conversion ratio compared with those fed the control diet in the overall study (d 1 to 42, P=0.039). Breast muscle yield (d 42) increased quadratically in response to dietary PQQ·Na2 supplementation (P=0.021). Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters revealed that feeding broiler chicks with ≤0.4 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 did not cause adverse health effects. In trial 2, birds fed 0.2 mg/kg PQQ·Na2 again showed improved feed efficiency than the control birds in the grower and overall phases (P=0.038 and 0.016, respectively). In addition, dietary PQQ·Na2 supplementation resulted in a higher anti-oxidative capacity (P=0.001), lower redox potential (P=0.008), and higher hepatic citrate synthase activity (P=0.002). In contrast, no difference in hepatic mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed between the 2 experimental groups (P>0.1). These results indicate that PQQ·Na2 is a potentially effective feed additive for improving feed efficiency, stimulating breast muscle development, and maintaining redox status in broiler chicks. Enhancement of mitochondria efficiency, rather than modulating mitochondria numbers

  11. Effect of fiber and phytate source and of calcium and phosphorus level on phytate hydrolysis in the chick.

    PubMed

    Ballam, G C; Nelson, T S; Kirby, L K

    1984-02-01

    Broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet or a corn-soybean meal diet containing either 15% rice bran, 15% wheat bran, 15% alfalfa meal, 10% cellulose, or 10% cottonseed hulls. All diets contained 3190 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, 22.8% protein, and either 1.0% calcium and .5% nonphytate phosphorus (Pnp) or .85% calcium and .42% Pnp. The diets were fed for 3 weeks at which time a digestion trial was conducted to determine the amount of phytate hydrolyzed. Chicks consuming diets containing the lower levels of calcium and Pnp hydrolyzed more phytate than those fed the higher levels of calcium and Pnp except when the diet contained rice bran. Less phytate was hydrolyzed in the rice bran diet at the lower calcium and Pnp levels. Phytate hydrolysis was not affected by wheat bran but was reduced by cottonseed hulls. At the lower levels of calcium and Pnp, alfalfa meal and cellulose significantly increased phytate hydrolysis by chicks. The hydrolysis of phytate was influenced more by calcium and by source than by fiber or by level of phytate fed. PMID:6324157

  12. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  13. Evaluation of Salmonella serotype distributions from commercial broiler hatcheries and grower houses.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J A; DeLoach, J R; Corrier, D E; Nisbet, D J; Stanker, L H

    1999-01-01

    By conventional trayliner (hatcheries) and drag swab assembly (broiler houses) culture methods, the isolation distribution of Salmonella serotypes from five commercial broiler hatcheries (three sample times) and 13 broiler farms (eight sample times) was evaluated. A total of 11 different Salmonella serotypes were isolated from hatcheries, with Salmonella heidelberg (9/30) and Salmonella kentucky (6/30) accounting for 50% of the total isolations. Of 700 chick paperpad trayliners sampled, regardless of lot (breeder flock source) or hatchery, 12% were positive for Salmonella. When 10 individual trayliners were cultured from individual lots (same breeder flock source), Salmonella was detected in 24/57 lots (42%). Multiple serotypes were simultaneously isolated from the same lot on three occasions (6%). Of the 21 lots that were serially sampled, the Salmonella serotype detected was different within lots eight times (38%) on at least one occasion of two or more sampling times. Of the 196 individual broiler houses sampled, 44 were positive for Salmonella (42%). Twelve different serotypes were isolated from broiler houses during this study. The serotypes isolated most frequently were S. heidelberg (34/94) and S. kentucky (22/94). These two serotypes accounted for 59.6% (56/94) of the total broiler house isolations. Of the 38 houses that were serially sampled, two or more serotypes were detected in the same broiler house on 20 occasions (53%). Of the 38 serially sampled houses (four or more times), a consistent Salmonella serotype was detected in five houses (13%). In only 5 of the 38 (13%) serially sampled houses did we fail to detect Salmonella on four or more samplings. No significant difference in Salmonella isolation frequency was observed between poultry houses using new or used litter. These data support previous findings indicating that paratyphoid Salmonella serotypes are prevalent in some broiler hatcheries and houses. Further, the observation of multiple

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    PubMed Central

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80 ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  15. Mortality of Mississippi Sandhill Crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) are a highly endangered species that live in the wild in 1 county in Mississippi. As part of a large effort to restore these endangered cranes, we are conducting a project to look at the causes of mortality in crane chicks on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge in Gautier, MS, USA. This includes surgically implanting miniature radio transmitters in crane chicks to gather data on mortality. This article describes some of the practical difficulties in conducting this type of project in a savannah and swamp location along the Gulf Coast of the USA.

  16. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  17. Estimation of standardized phosphorus retention for inorganic phosphate sources in broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, S B; Xie, J J; Lu, L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Jiang, Y; Luo, X G

    2013-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate standardized P retention (SPR) values of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and monopotassium phosphate (MKP) in broilers. In total, ninety-six 22-d-old male broilers with similar BW (780 g average) were used in each experiment. The chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments (P-free, DCP, MCP, or MKP diets) with 6 replicate cages of 4 chicks each in a completely randomized design. After 3-d acclimation, chicks were fasted for 24 h and then fed P-free, DCP, MCP, or MKP diets for 4 h in Exp. 1 or 72 h in Exp. 2. Excreta samples were collected for a total of 28 or 52 h (24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal) in Exp. 1 and 96 or 120 h (24 or 48 h after feed withdrawal) in Exp. 2, respectively. The excreta collection time of 52 h in Exp. 1 or 96 h in Exp. 2 was adequate for the estimation of SPR. The estimated basal endogenous P losses (EPL) in chicks fed the P-free diet were 109 ± 4 mg/52 h per bird and 49.2 ± 4.0 mg/96 h per bird in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. The SPR values of inorganic phosphate sources corrected by the above basal EPL differed (P < 0.001) in Exp. 2 but not in Exp. 1. However, these SPR values were very similar between the 2 experiments with 68.7, 69.8, or 76.6% in Exp. 1 and 71.8, 70.6, or 78.3% in Exp. 2 for DCP, MCP, or MKP, respectively. The results from the current study indicated that, compared with the 72-h feeding and 96-h excreta collection procedure, the 4-h feeding and 52-h excreta collection procedure was a relatively quicker time- and labor-saving method for estimating the SPR values of inorganic P sources in broilers. The estimated SPR values of commonly used inorganic P sources (MCP and DCP) were about 70%. PMID:23736054

  18. Development and nutrient metabolism of embryos from two modern broiler strains.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-10-01

    A progressive selection for broiler live and processing performance traits has changed broiler growth patterns during the post hatch period. However, limited information is available to understand whether changes have also occurred during the embryonic stages. This study aims to examine influences of broiler strain on nutrient availability, embryonic development, and nutrient metabolism during incubation. Hatching eggs of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 fast feathering were selected from breeder flocks aged 43 to 46 weeks at an egg weight range of 60 to 63 g. Eggs were obtained in 2 batches, 120 eggs per strain per batch. For each batch, 20 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition and nutrient availability. The remaining eggs were incubated separately in one of 2 climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that Ross 308 eggs had a higher yolk:albumen ratio with 0.9 g more yolk and 0.7 g less albumen than Cobb 500. Albumen + yolk of Ross 308 eggs had a higher dry matter (Δ = 0.24 g) and crude fat (Δ = 0.23 g) than that of Cobb 500 eggs, but a similar amount of crude protein. Albumen and yolk of Ross 308 eggs had a higher energy content (Δ = 8.9 kJ) compared to Cobb 500 eggs. At 3 h after hatch, Ross 308 chicks were 0.2 cm longer and had a 0.6 g heavier yolk free body mass (YFBM) than Cobb 500 chicks. During incubation, Ross 308 embryos used 13.9 kJ more energy than Cobb 500, and the efficiency of converting energy used to YFBM (EYFB) was approximately 7.6% lower compared to Cobb 500. Ross 308 chicks hatched approximately 4 h later and had less hepatic glycogen (Δ = 5 mg) than Cobb 500 chicks. It can be concluded that, Cobb 500 and Ross 308 differ in egg nutrient availability and have different trajectories for embryonic development and nutrient metabolism during incubation. PMID:26240395

  19. Access to Barrier Perches Improves Behavior Repertoire in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Beth A.; Siewerdt, Frank; Estevez, Inma

    2012-01-01

    Restriction of behavioral opportunities and uneven use of space are considerable welfare concerns in modern broiler production, particularly when birds are kept at high densities. We hypothesized that increased environmental complexity by provision of barrier perches would help address these issues by encouraging perching and enhancing use of the pen space across a range of stocking densities. 2,088 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the following barrier and density treatment combinations over four replications: simple barrier, complex barrier, or control (no barrier) and low (8 birds/m2), moderate (13 birds/m2), or high (18 birds/m2) density. Data were collected on focal birds via instantaneous scan sampling from 2 to 6 weeks of age. Mean estimates per pen for percent of observations seen performing each behavior, as well as percent of observations in the pen periphery vs. center, were quantified and submitted to an analysis of variance with week as the repeated measure. Barrier perches, density and age affected the behavioral time budget of broilers. Both simple and complex barrier perches effectively stimulated high perching rates. Aggression and disturbances were lower in both barrier treatments compared to controls (P<0.05). Increasing density to 18 birds/m2 compared to the lower densities suppressed activity levels, with lower foraging (P<0.005), decreased perching (P<0.0001) and increased sitting (P = 0.001) earlier in the rearing period. Disturbances also increased at higher densities (P<0.05). Use of the central pen area was higher in simple barrier pens compared to controls (P<0.001), while increasing density above 8 birds/m2 suppressed use of the central space (P<0.05). This work confirms some negative effects of increasing density and suggests that barrier perches have the potential to improve broiler welfare by encouraging activity (notably by providing accessible opportunities to perch), decreasing aggression and disturbances

  20. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  1. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.

    PubMed

    Kitaysky, Alexander S; Romano, Marc D; Piatt, John F; Wingfield, John C; Kikuchi, Motoshi

    2005-05-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. PMID:15811363

  2. The Impact of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on the Health and Performance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Michael; Twarużek, Magdalena; Grajewski, Jan; Kosicki, Robert; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on morphometric indices of jejunum and to follow the passage of deoxynivalenol (DON) through subsequent segments of the digestive tract of broilers. A total of 45 1-d-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 males) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (15 birds/treatment): (1) control diet; (2) diet contaminated with 1 mg DON/kg feed; (3) diet contaminated with 5 mg DON/kg feed for five weeks. None of the zootechnical traits (body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion) responded to increased DON levels in the diet. However, DON at both dietary levels (1 mg and 5 mg DON/kg feed) significantly altered the small intestinal morphology. In the jejunum, the villi were significantly (P < 0.01) shorter in both DON treated groups compared with the controls. Furthermore, the dietary inclusion of DON decreased (P < 0.05) the villus surface area in both DON treated groups. The absolute or relative organ weights (liver, heart, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, spleen, pancreas, colon, cecum, bursa of Fabricius and thymus) were not altered (P > 0.05) in broilers fed the diet containing DON compared with controls. DON and de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1) were analyzed in serum, bile, liver, feces and digesta from consecutive segments of the digestive tract (gizzard, cecum, and rectum). Concentrations of DON and its metabolite DOM-1 in serum, bile, and liver were lower than the detection limits of the applied liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Only about 10 to 12% and 6% of the ingested DON was recovered in gizzard and feces, irrespective of the dietary DON-concentration. However, the DON recovery in the cecum as percentage of DON-intake varied between 18 to 22% and was not influenced by dietary DON-concentration. Interestingly, in the present trial, DOM-1 did not appear in the large intestine

  3. Effect of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplementation on performance, immune responses, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations in broilers.

    PubMed

    Salehimanesh, A; Mohammadi, M; Roostaei-Ali Mehr, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic (Primalac), prebiotic (TechnoMos) and synbiotic (Primalac + TechnoMos) supplementation on performance, immune responses, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations of ileum in broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups which included 60 birds. Control group did not receive any treatment. The chicks in the second, third and fourth groups were fed probiotic (0.9 g/kg), prebiotic (0.9 g/kg) and probiotic (0.9 g/kg) plus probiotic (0.9 g/kg; synbiotic), respectively, at entire period. Daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were evaluated. The birds were immunized by sheep red blood cell (SRBC) on days 12 and 29 of age and serum antibody titres were measured on days 28, 35 and 42. Newcastle vaccines administered on days 9, 18 and 27 to chicks and blood samples were collected on day 42. Intestinal morphometric assessment and enumeration of intestinal bacterial populations were performed on day 42. The results indicated that consumption of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic had no significant effect on daily feed intake, daily body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass traits, intestinal morphology and bacterial populations of ileum (p > 0.05). Consumption of prebiotic increased total and IgM anti-SRBC titres on days 28 and 42 and antibody titre against Newcastle virus disease on day 42 (p < 0.05). Synbiotic increased only total anti-SRBC on day 28 (p < 0.05). It is concluded that consumption of prebiotic increased humoral immunity in broilers. Therefore, supplementation of diet with prebiotic for improvement of humoral immune responses is superior to synbiotic supplementation. PMID:26847817

  4. Study on inclusion of probiotic, prebiotic and its combination in broiler diet and their effect on carcass characteristics and economics of commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Saiyed, M. A.; Joshi, R. S.; Savaliya, F. P.; Patel, A. B.; Mishra, R. K.; Bhagora, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200) were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1), probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2), prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3), probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4) and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5). The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium), Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI) was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight) were recorded significant (p<0.05) difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05) higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05) lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5) than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level) was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level) in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone. PMID:27047078

  5. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  6. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Rice, Brittany Breon; Cline, Mark Andrew; Gilbert, Elizabeth Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Selection of broiler chickens for growth has led to increased adipose tissue accretion. To investigate the post-hatch development of adipose tissue, the abdominal, clavicular, and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots were collected from broiler chicks at 4 and 14 days post-hatch. As a percent of body weight, abdominal fat increased (P<0.001) with age. At day 4, clavicular and subcutaneous fat depots were heavier (P<0.003) than abdominal fat whereas at day 14, abdominal and clavicular weighed more (P<0.003) than subcutaneous fat. Adipocyte area and diameter were greater in clavicular and subcutaneous than abdominal fat at 4 and 14 days post-hatch (P<0.001). Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity increased (P<0.001) in all depots from day 4 to 14, and at both ages was greatest in subcutaneous, intermediate in clavicular, and lowest in abdominal fat (P<0.05). In clavicular fat, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP)α, CEBPβ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and NPY receptor 5 (NPYR5) mRNA increased and NPYR2 mRNA decreased from day 4 to 14 (P<0.001). Thus, there are site-specific differences in broiler chick adipose development, with larger adipocytes and greater G3PDH activity in subcutaneous fat at day 4, more rapid growth of abdominal fat, and clavicular fat intermediate for most traits. Adipose tissue expansion was accompanied by changes in gene expression of adipose-associated factors. PMID:26263851

  7. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers. PMID:21076106

  8. Nutritional Value of electron beam irradiated cottonseed meal in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Nayefi, M; Salari, S; Sari, M; Behgar, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam-irradiated cottonseed meal on performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Treatments were cottonseed meal (CSM) at levels of 12% and 24% (raw and irradiated at 30 kGy) and corn-soya bean meal diet (as control, without CSM and without irradiation) that used with five dietary treatments, four replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were recorded weekly. At 42 days of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for the determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. BWG decreased with increasing levels of dietary CSM during the experiment (p < 0.05). In addition, radiation had significant positive effect in broilers fed 12% compared with those fed 24% CSM. FI in chicks fed control and diet containing 24% CSM were increased significantly in starter period. But FI was significantly decreased in broilers consumed CSM compare to the control in grower and during the experiment. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diets. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreas, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased by increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p < 0.05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride and phosphorous concentrations increased, and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p < 0.05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM, but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve performance of chickens. PMID:26621476

  9. UK survey of broiler ascites and sudden death syndromes in 1993.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, M H; Robertson, G W

    1998-05-01

    1. The mean incidence of deaths from ascites in the UK in 1993 was 1.4% (0.7% in 1991 and 0.9% in 1992) and 0.8% from sudden death syndrome (SDS). In total, the economic loss to the UK Broiler Industry in 1993 as a result of these 2 conditions was 24 Pounds M. 2. Clear geographical differences emerged in the occurrence of ascites, with, not only the lowest incidences being observed in Northern Ireland, but also the peak of the mortality from ascites occurring much later in the rearing cycle than in other regions on the mainland. 3. In all regions the incidence of SDS was lower than that of ascites but the reason for this disparity remains to be established. 4. Some of the variables associated with the road transportation of day-old chicks from the hatchery to the farm appeared to influence the incidence of ascites. These included distance or time travelled, stocking density, internal lorry temperature and the length of time the lorry was heated before transport as well as the time the shed was heated before chick arrival. Temperature was also an important factor during growth (brooding and finishing). 5. Negative pressure-powered ventilation was preferred in most organisations but more ascites was seen with positive pressure ventilation. However, the lowest incidence of ascites occurred with natural ventilation. There was more ascites relative to shed orientation when the wind direction was from the west compared to the east. 6. This survey identifies the extent of the problem of broiler ascites in the UK and also highlights the importance of good management control of day-old chicks, not only following placement, but even before their arrival on the farm. PMID:9649872

  10. The effect of a green and blue monochromatic light combination on broiler growth and development.

    PubMed

    Rozenboim, I; Biran, I; Chaiseha, Y; Yahav, S; Rosenstrauch, A; Sklan, D; Halevy, O

    2004-05-01

    Previous reports have suggested that green light enhances broiler growth at an early age, whereas blue light enhances growth at older ages. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a switch in monochromatic light at 2 ages on growth and development of broilers. Male chicks (Anak, n = 640) were used. After hatch, chicks were weighed, wing-banded, and blocked into treatment groups. Chicks were grown in 1-m2 pens in 8 isolated light-proof rooms (20 birds/pen). The light treatments were (1) Control white (mini-incandescent lamps), 2) blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, 3) green LED lamps, 4) blue LED switching to green at 10 d of age, 5) blue LED switching to green at 20 d of age, 6) green LED switching to blue at 10 d of age, and 7) green LED switching to blue at 20 d of age. There were 8 pens for treatment 1, and 4 pens for each of the other treatments. The light schedule was 23L:1D, and intensity was 0.1 watts/m2. BW and feed consumption were recorded. Green light birds were significantly heavier at 4 d of age. Switching light at 10 d of age from green to blue caused a further increase in BW. This improved growth was maintained until the end of the experiment. Light switching from blue to green at 20 d of age also improved growth as compared with white light. Average feed efficiency and mortality rate did not differ between groups. No association was observed among light treatment, performance, and plasma triiodothyronine concentration. We suggest that green light stimulated growth of birds at early age, and shifting birds to a different light environment at 10 or 20 d of age might further stimulate growth. PMID:15141845

  11. The Protective Effects of Different Sources of Maternal Selenium on Oxidative Stressed Chick Embryo Liver.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Yuan, Dong; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2016-07-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the protective effects of different sources of maternal selenium (Se) on oxidative stressed chick embryo. A total of 270 Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly allocated into three treatments with five replicates for 18 birds each. Breeders were fed with basal diet (BD) including 0.04 mg/kg Se or BD supplemented with sodium selenite (SS) or selenomethionine (SM) at a level of 0.15 mg Se/kg. The rearing experiment lasted for 8 weeks after an 8-week pre-test. Twenty eggs were collected from each replicate during the last 10-day, then incubated in a commercial incubator. On embryonic 17th, fertile eggs were transferred into 39.5 °C temperature stimulation for 6 h. Afterward, five eggs were randomly selected from each replicate for collecting chick embryo sample. The results showed that Se supplementation in the diet of breeders resulted in lower reactive oxygen species (ROS), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations and higher glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in heat stress treated chick embryo (P < 0.05), and ROS, MDA, carbonyl, 8-OHdG concentrations in SM treatment were lower than those in SS treatment (P < 0.05). Se supplementation elevated cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) mRNA level and activity, cytoplasmic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) activity and selenoprotein P (SelP) mRNA and protein level (P < 0.05), and maternal SM showed a higher value than maternal SS in upregulating GPx1, TrxR1, and SelP mRNA levels as well as GPx1 and TrxR1 activities or SelP protein level (P < 0.05). This study indicated that maternal Se can enhance antioxidative capacity and reduce ROS concentration and oxidative damage by upregulating the expression of antioxidative selenoprotein, and maternal SM is superior to SS in heat stress treated chick embryo. PMID:26554950

  12. Effect of dietary probiotic and high stocking density on the performance, carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Özcan; Köksal, Bekir H; Tatlı, Onur; Sevim, Ömer; Ahsan, Umair; Üner, Aykut G; Ulutaş, Pınar A; Beyaz, Devrim; Büyükyörük, Sadık; Yakan, Akın; Önol, Ahmet G

    2015-10-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic supplementation and stocking density on the performance, relative carcass yield, gut microflora, and stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 480) were allocated to 4 experimental groups for 42 d. Each treatment had 8 replicates of 15 chicks each. Two groups were subjected to a high stocking density (HSD) of 20 birds/m² and the other 2 groups were kept at low stocking density (LSD) of 10 birds/m². A basal diet supplemented with probiotic 1 and 0.5 g/kg of diet (in starter and finisher diets, respectively) was fed to 2 treatments, one with HSD and the other with LSD, thereby making a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between stocking density (LSD and HSD) and dietary probiotic (supplemented and unsupplemented) for all the variables. Feed intake and weight gain were significantly low and feed conversion ratio was poor in broilers at HSD. Dietary probiotic significantly enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in starter phase only. Dietary probiotic supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on total aerobs, Salmonella sp., and Lactobacilli populations in the intestines of broilers. However, HSD reduced the Lactobacilli population only (P < 0.05). Relative breast yields were significantly higher in broilers reared at LSD than HSD. Thigh meat yield was higher in broilers in HSD group compared to LSD. Dietary probiotic did not affect the relative carcass yield and weight of lymphoid organs. Serum malondialdehyde, corticosterone, nitric oxide, and plasma heterophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected either by stocking density or dietary probiotic supplementation. In conclusion, HSD negatively affected the performance and intestinal Lactobacilli population of broilers only, whereas probiotic supplementation enhanced the performance of broilers during the starter phase only. Total aerobes, Salmonella, Lactobacilli carcass yield, and stress indicators

  13. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:26632976

  14. Prevalence and Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in Small-Scale Broiler Operations.

    PubMed

    Tangkham, Wannee; Janes, Marlene; LeMieux, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. Previous studies have focused on the transmission routes of C. jejuni from commercial flock farms to the final retail product. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. in eggshells, live birds, feed, drinking water, and the rearing environment in a small-scale broiler operation. Broilers were raised under two different production systems: (i) environmentally controlled housing and (ii) open-air housing with two replications. Each week, samples were collected from eggshells, bird feces, feed, drinking water, enclosures (vertical walls of bird housing), and feed troughs for enumeration and isolation testing. All samples were plated on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar to determine the log CFU per gram and percent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Isolation of C. jejuni was verified with latex agglutination and hippurate hydrolysis tests. The results from this study suggest that vertical transmission of these bacteria from egg surfaces to newly hatched chicks is not a significant risk factor. The results also suggest that the prevalence of C. jejuni at time of harvest (week 6) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the open-air housing broilers than in those in the environmentally controlled housing. Elevated levels of cross-contaminants, especially water and feed, may have played a role in this outcome. PMID:26735032

  15. A Longitudinal Study Simultaneously Exploring the Carriage of APEC Virulence Associated Genes and the Molecular Epidemiology of Faecal and Systemic E. coli in Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kemmett, Kirsty; Humphrey, Tom; Rushton, Steven; Close, Andrew; Wigley, Paul; Williams, Nicola J.

    2013-01-01

    Colibacillosis is an economically important syndromic disease of poultry caused by extra-intestinal avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) but the pathotype remains poorly defined. Combinations of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) have aided APEC identification. The intestinal microbiota is a potential APEC reservoir. Broiler chickens are selectively bred for fast, uniform growth. Here we simultaneously investigate intestinal E. coli VAG carriage in apparently healthy birds and characterise systemic E. coli from diseased broiler chickens from the same flocks. Four flocks were sampled longitudinally from chick placement until slaughter. Phylogrouping, macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on an isolate subset from one flock to investigate the population structure of faecal and systemic E. coli. Early in production, VAG carriage among chick intestinal E. coli populations was diverse (average Simpson's D value  = 0.73); 24.05% of intestinal E. coli (n = 160) from 1 day old chicks were carrying ≥5 VAGs. Generalised Linear models demonstrated VAG prevalence in potential APEC populations declined with age; 1% of E. coli carrying ≥5 VAGs at slaughter and demonstrated high strain diversity. A variety of VAG profiles and high strain diversity were observed among systemic E. coli. Thirty three new MLST sequence types were identified among 50 isolates and a new sequence type representing 22.2% (ST-2999) of the systemic population was found, differing from the pre-defined pathogenic ST-117 at a single locus. For the first time, this study takes a longitudinal approach to unravelling the APEC paradigm. Our findings, supported by other studies, highlight the difficulty in defining the APEC pathotype. Here we report a high genetic diversity among systemic E. coli between and within diseased broilers, harbouring diverse VAG profiles rather than single and/or highly related pathogenic clones

  16. Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Choo, Won-Don; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether dietary lycopene (LP) could prevent the copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and affect growth performance, relative organ weights, plasma and meat lipid profiles, and LP contents in plasma and tissues in broiler chickens. A total of 160 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 16 pens with rice husk as a bedding material. Each experiment had 4 replicates, 10 chicks per replicate (n = 4 per treatment). A corn-soybean meal base diet was used as a control diet (CONT). To formulate the experimental diets, the base diet was added with LP at the levels of 10 (LP10) or 20 mg/kg (LP20), or 17 g/kg of tomato paste (TP17) which was equivalent to 5 ppm of LP. The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Growth performance and relative organ weights were not affected (p > 0.05) by any of dietary treatments. Dietary LP significantly lowered (p < 0.05) triglyceride and LDL cholesterol at 2 weeks of age, but did not affect them at 4 weeks of age. Total cholesterol in thigh meats was not altered by dietary treatments. LP was not detected in leg meats in all chicks, nor in liver or plasma of the CONT group. LP was found in liver and plasma, being the former greater in the concentration, of the chicks fed diets containing LP10, LP20, or TP17. At 2 and 4 weeks, the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL was delayed (p < 0.05) in either LP- or TP-fed chickens compared with the CONT group. In conclusion, LP lowers triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, is deposited into serum and liver, and prevents the LDL oxidation in broiler chickens, confirming the role of LP in the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties in broiler chickens. PMID:27047715

  17. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  18. Nutritional Evaluation of Distillery Sludge and Its Effect as a Substitute of Canola Meal on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, M.; Shahzad, M. A.; Rehman, S.; Khan, S.; Ali, R.; Khan, M. L.; Khan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of distillery yeast sludge and its inclusion in broiler diets to replace canola meal. Raw distillery yeast sludge was washed with water using water and sludge in the ratio 6:1, respectively. Proximate analysis of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge was carried out for crude protein (CP), true protein (TP), ether extract (EE), ash, acid insoluble ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) determination. Mineral contents and amino acid profile of raw distillery yeast sludge and washed distillery sludge were also determined. After chemical evaluation, four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler starter and finisher diets were prepared in mash form using 0 (control), 4, 8 and 12% levels of washed distillery sludge replacing canola meal. One hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units in such a way that each diet was offered to three experimental units, each comprising of 10 chicks. It was observed that washing affected the nutrients either by decreasing or increasing their concentration. It decreased the total mineral contents whereas CP, TP, EE and NFE contents increased. Washing also increased amino acid profile. Average feed intake and weight gain were higher in birds fed diet containing 8% washed distillery sludge and lower in birds fed diet containing 0% washed distillery sludge. Feed cost per kg live weight gain decreased significantly as the level of washed distillery sludge was increased in the diet. Average heart, liver and pancreas weights decreased with increased level of washed distillery sludge in the diet. The study revealed that after washing, distillery yeast sludge can be used successfully in broiler diets up to the level of 8% without any adverse effect on broiler’s performance. PMID:25049579

  19. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat

    PubMed Central

    Murali, P.; George, S. K.; Ally, K.; Dipu, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1) and treatment group (T2) were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2) was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g), cumulative feed intake (g) and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day) were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers. PMID:27047119

  20. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Guo, Jiang; Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  1. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1–21 days and 61.0% during 22–42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  2. Morpholinos: studying gene function in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anneliese; Streit, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The use of morpholinos for perturbing gene function in the chick, Gallus gallus, has led to many important discoveries in developmental biology. This technology makes use of in vivo electroporation, which allows gain and loss of function in a temporally, and spatially controlled manner. Using this method, morpholinos can be transfected into embryonic tissues from early to late developmental stages. In this article, we describe the methods currently used in our laboratory to knock down gene function using morpholinos in vivo. We also detail how morpholinos are used to provide consistency of the results, and describe two protocols to visualise the morpholino after electroporation. In addition, we provide guidance on avoiding potential pitfalls, and suggestions for troubleshooting solutions. These revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating gene function in the chick. PMID:24184187

  3. Chick development and high dose of bendiocarb.

    PubMed

    Petrovova, Eva; Sedmera, David; Luptakova, Lenka; Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Developmental data of carbamate pesticides are scarce although they generally possess low toxicity for vertebrates. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of bendiocarb to liver and central nervous system of chick embryos. Bendiocarb (1600 μg/egg) was administered to the embryo through membrana papyracea on embryonic day 3 and 10. In the liver and central nervous system we observed no macroscopic or microscopic changes. These organs were also investigated for caspase activity in regard to application of bendiocarb and no differences in the caspase immunopositivity were observed in comparison with the control. The embryolethality after bendiocarb respective dose was high (94 %) on the embryonic day 3, though following results indicated no toxicity to investigated organs and no increase in the number of apoptotic cells in survived chick embryos on both the early (day 3 of incubation) and the later (day 10 of incubation) developmental stage. PMID:22540656

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES OF PLASMA INSULIN, GLUCAGON, INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS, THYROID HORMONES AND GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN CHICK EMBRYOS AND HATCHED CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The developmental hormonal changes in Cobb 500 chick embryos and hatched chicks were determined by measuring plasma insulin, glucagon, IGF-I, IGF-II, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and glucose concentrations at different ages of chick embryos and hatched chicks. Plasma samples were obtained daily fro...

  5. {Delta}-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: A sensitive indicator of lead exposure in broiler chicks: (Gallus domesticus)

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalli, R.I.; Pesti, G.M.; Konjufca, V.

    1995-12-01

    Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, EC 4.2.1.24 (ALAD) is one of the enzymes participating in heme synthesis. The study reported in this paper was designed to determine the activity of erythrocyte ALAD anbd the relationship between this enzyme and tissue lead levels in chickens, during Pb intake and after withdrawing Bv from the feed. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids which have a greater potential for peroxidat...

  7. The effect of several organic acids on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liem, A; Pesti, G M; Edwards, H M

    2008-04-01

    Supplementation of some organic acids to a P-deficient diet has been shown to improve phytate P utilization. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 16 d in battery brooders to determine the effect of various organic acids supplementation on phytate P utilization. In both experiments, birds were fed P-deficient corn and soybean meal-based diets. In experiment 1, citric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and EDTA were supplemented. Experiment 2 had a 2 x 2 factorial design with 2 sources of Met, 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) and dl-Met, with or without 500 U/kg of phytase. In experiment 1, the addition of citric, malic, and fumaric acids increased percentage of bone ash, but only the effect of citric acid was significant. The addition of citric and malic acids also significantly increased the retention of P and phytate P (P<0.05). In experiment 2, the addition of phytase to the diet significantly increased 16-d BW gain, feed intake, percentage of bone ash, milligrams of bone ash, phytate P disappearance, and decreased the incidence of P-deficiency rickets. Methionine source did not affect 16-d BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, milligrams of bone ash, or P rickets incidence. However, the birds fed HMB had a higher percentage of bone ash and phytate P disappearance compared with the groups fed dl-Met only when phytase was added to the diets. The additions of citric acid and HMB improved phytate P utilization. However, the reason why some organic acids are effective whereas others are not is not apparent. PMID:18339989

  8. The effect of a galactoglucomannan-arabinoxylan complex on Eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable carbohydrates enhance the gastrointestinal tract’s ability to defend itself against a pathogenic infection. It was hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan-arabinoxylan (GGM-AX) complex high in mannose would positively impact the immune status of the intestinal tract and prevent weight lo...

  9. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  10. The effect of gamma irradiation on the viscosity of two barley cultivars for broiler chicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Mohammed, Mahmoud A.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammed, Manal H.

    2002-03-01

    Seeds of two barley cultivars (Local Black and Shoaa) were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses using Cobalt-60 source to decrease the viscosity. The viscosity was determined in the flour of the seeds using Ostwald U-tube viscometer. The viscosity values were reduced by 25%, 50%, 65%, 72% and 74% in Local Black barley cultivar, while, in Shoaa cultivar the reductions were 15%, 30%, 52%, 69% and 67% at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy, respectively. The chemical compositions of the seeds were determined in all treatments.

  11. Effect of feeding fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Cao, F L; Zhang, X H; Yu, W W; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2012-05-01

    Aspergillus niger-fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FR) and its comparative effect with vitamin E (VE) and nonfermented (NF) Ginkgo leaves on growth, lipid metabolism, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chicks were investigated. In total, 360 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 6 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as control group (basal diet), VE group (containing respectively 15 and 30 IU/kg of all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate in the starter and grower phase), NF group (containing respectively 0.35% and 0.7% NF in the starter and grower phase), and FR1, FR2, and FR3 groups containing respectively 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5% FR in the starter and 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0% FR in the grower phase. The results on performance showed that a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of feed:gain ratio of birds in the FR2 group (22-42 d and 1-42 d) was observed when compared with that of the control and NF groups. With dietary FR increasing, the serum α-tocopherol concentration increased linearly (P = 0.001). Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, total superoxide dismutase activities, and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with the FR2 and FR3 diet. Whereas the low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in broilers from FR2 or FR3 groups. As the dietary FR increased, abdominal fat (P = 0.002) and muscle malondialdehyde (P = 0.001) concentrations decreased. Furthermore, 24-h pH, 24-h drip loss, and cooking loss were greatly improved (P < 0.05) as the levels of FR increased. Birds fed with FR had a lower (P < 0.05) C16:0 and C18:0 concentrations but a greater (P = 0.001) concentration of C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 than that of the control. In conclusion, FR can improve the growth performance and lipid metabolism of broilers with decreased abdominal fat deposition. Also, the antioxidant capacity and meat quality improving effects

  12. Selenium deposition kinetics of different selenium sources in muscle and feathers of broilers.

    PubMed

    Couloigner, Florian; Jlali, Maamer; Briens, Mickael; Rouffineau, Friedrich; Geraert, Pierre-André; Mercier, Yves

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine selenium (Se) deposition kinetics in muscles and feathers of broilers in order to develop a rapid method to compare bioavailability of selenium sources. Different Se sources such as 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA, SO), sodium selenite (SS) and seleno-yeast (SY) were compared for their kinetics on Se deposition in muscles and feathers in broiler chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. A total of 576 day-old broilers were divided into four treatments with 8 replicates of 18 birds per pen. The diets used in the experiment were a negative control (NC) not supplemented with Se and 3 diets supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg as SS, SY or SO. Total Se content in breast muscle and feathers were assessed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. At 7 d of age, SO increased muscle Se content compared to D0 (P < 0.05), whereas with the other treatments, muscle Se concentration decreased (P < 0.05). After 21 days, organic Se sources maintained (SY) or increased (SO) (P < 0.05) breast muscle Se concentration compared to hatch value whereas inorganic source (SS) or non-supplemented group (NC) showed a significant decrease in tissue Se concentration (P < 0.05). At D21, Se contents of muscle and feathers were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.927; P < 0.0001). To conclude, these results indicate that efficiency of different Se sources can be discriminated through a 7 d using muscle Se content in broiler chickens. Muscle and feathers Se contents were highly correlated after 21 days. Also feather sampling at 21 days of age represents a reliable and non-invasive procedure for Se bioefficacy comparison. PMID:26500270

  13. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Lane; Chwalibog, Andrè; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda; Elnif, Jan; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Filip; Gao, Yuhong; Ali, Abdalla; Moghaddam, Heshmat Sepehri

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNano) as an antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens. One hundred forty-four seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly to AgNano treatments at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg (Control, Group AgNano10, and Group AgNano20, respectively) provided via the drinking water from day 7 to 36 post-hatching. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. In addition, balance and respiration experiments were carried out to determine nitrogen (N) utilisation and energy retention. At days 22 and 36, blood samples and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism of broiler chickens. However, in Group AgNano10 N intake (p = 0.05) and retention (p = 0.03) was increased, but N excretion and efficiency of utilisation was not affected. The populations of bacteria in the intestinal samples were not affected by AgNano supplementation. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth performance of chickens. PMID:22889095

  14. Effects of subcutaneous transmitter implants on behavior, growth, energetics, and survival of common loon chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Meyer, M.W.; Fournier, F.; Karasov, W.H.; Elfessi, A.; Gutreuter, S.

    2003-01-01

    High rates of Common Loon (Gavia immer) chick mortality have been documented in Wisconsin, especially on acidic lakes, but causes and timing of chick mortality are poorly understood. We modified and evaluated a subcutaneous transmitter implant technique for Common Loon chicks using wild and captive reared chicks. Results indicated that behavior, growth, energy expenditure, and survival did not differ significantly between chicks marked with miniature transmitters (mass 0.76 g, representing <0.8% of body mass at hatching) and unmarked chicks.

  15. Changing the incubation temperature during embryonic myogenesis influences the weight performance and meat quality of male and female broilers.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Sharifi, A R; Wicke, M; Krischek, C

    2015-10-01

    Eggs of broilers were initially incubated at 37.8°C, then at 38.8°C (group H) and 36.8°C (group L) between embryonic days 7 to 10 (time A) and days 10 to 13 (time B) and further incubated at 37.8°C until hatching. The chicks were fattened until day 35 and then slaughtered. The effect of treatment, time, and sex and their interactions on carcass and meat quality traits were determined. No significant impact of the "treatment time" was analysed, but "treatment" and "sex" and their interactions influenced (P < 0.05) the different parameters. After hatching, group L broilers were heavier (P < 0.05), followed by slower growth compared to group H chicken. At slaughter day, body, carcass, and leg weights of group H broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and yield results lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L animals. pH, drip loss, shear force, and lightness values of group H broiler breast muscles were higher (P < 0.05) and grill loss and redness values lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). Body, carcass, MPS, and leg weights, leg yields and grill loss and lightness values of the male broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and drip loss results lower (P < 0.05) than the female birds. Male group H broiler showed lower (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS yields compared to the control and group L males, whereas females group H birds had higher (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS weights and lower leg yields (P < 0.05) than the female group L animals. The study shows that an increasing incubation temperature during early embryogenesis positively influences the growth and carcass traits of the broilers, accompanied with a partly negative impact on meat quality (drip loss, shear force, lightness). The growth effects were sex-dependent, as significant weight differences could be only found in female broilers. The results indicate that incubation temperature alteration influences molecular mechanisms in the muscle and other tissues with an impact on growth after

  16. Broiler litter: Waste or resource?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the turn of the 21st century, Georgia has ranked 1st in the country in the number of broiler chickens, with about 1.4 billion sold each year. At the Watkinsville Research Center, several field experiments have been and are currently being conducted in collaboration with scientists at the Univ...

  17. Transmission dynamics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in a broiler flock without antibiotic use.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Patricia M C; Graat, Elisabeth A M; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Veenman, Christiaan; de Jong, Mart C M; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2016-09-01

    Extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) are found throughout the broiler production pyramid. Transmission of resistance between broilers and humans could occur at any point, representing a potential public health issue. Insight in farm transmission dynamics could provide a basis for control, leading to fewer contaminated broilers. The aim was quantifying transmission rates and routes of ESBL/AmpC-EC, and specific phylogenetic groups, in an organic broiler flock without antibiotic use. In each of two consecutive production rounds, 80 randomly chosen broilers were followed individually. Cloacal swabs from these, 20 other randomly chosen broilers, and 11 environmental samples were taken at several moments from arrival till slaughter. ESBL/AmpC-EC were isolated by selective pre-enrichment, and ESBL/AmpC-genes and E. coli phylogenetic groups were determined. Transmission parameters (β) were estimated using a Generalised Linear Model with a susceptible-infectious-susceptible model. Effect of direct broiler contact as compared to contact through the environment and previous carriage c.q. infectious status and their interaction were included as explanatory variables. Multiplying β by the length of the infectious period gives the reproduction ratio (R). On day 1, prevalence was 28.8% (95%CI 19.2-40.0%) and 0.0% (95%CI 0.0-4.5%) among individually followed broilers, in round 1 and 2 respectively. In round 2, the environment was positive before arrival of day-old chicks. After 3 days, almost 100% of broilers and environmental samples were positive in both rounds. Most samples were positive for CTX-M-1 group genes, and A1 and B1 were predominant phylogenetic groups. From day 3 there was a shift towards more phylogenetic groups. R was 1.70 (95%CI 0.55-5.25) for total ESBL/AmpC-EC. Risk for broilers to become infectious was lower if previously infectious (βpreviously infectious=0.02 vs. βnot previously infectious=3.41; P<0.0001). For

  18. Effects of dietary vitamin E on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhifar, Seyed Hamid; Ali Jafari, Ramezan; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Fatemi Tabatabaee, Seyed Reza; Mayahi, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E levels on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in broiler chickens were studied in the present study. One hundred and eighty of male day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 strain) were randomly assigned into five groups, each with three replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate. Chickens in group A were fed corn-soy- based diet, while those in groups B, C, D and E were fed the same diet with 20, 60, 180, and 540 mg kg-1 vitamin E supplement (d-alpha tocopherol), respectively. Six birds were randomly chosen from each group, and were euthanized on days 10, 21, 32, and 42 of age. One segment of small intestine outset was homogenized and mucosal ALP and maltase activity were measured. Moreover, mucosal lipid peroxidate amount was measured to reveal the impact of vitamin E on oxidative stress. Maltase activity was increased with the increase of vitamin E up to 60 mg kg-1 of diet while with further levels, it was decreased. Addition of 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E to the diet significantly increased ALP enzyme activity (p ≤ 0.001). Addition of 540 mg kg-1 of vitamin E supplement to the diet led to the minimum amount of MDA at 32 days of age. It may be concluded that supplementation of broiler's diet with 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E can increase mucosal maltase and ALP enzyme activity. PMID:25568675

  19. Efficacy of beer fermentation residue containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bovo, F; Franco, L T; Kobashigawa, E; Rottinghaus, G E; Ledoux, D R; Oliveira, C A F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) binding capacity of a beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the efficacy of BFR to ameliorate the toxic effects of AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, and histology of broilers. The BFR was collected from a microbrewery, and the yeast cells were counted, dried, and milled before it was used in the study. In vitro evaluation of the BFR was conducted using different concentrations of AFB1 (2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, and 32.0 μg AFB1/mL) and 100 mg/10 mL of BFR at pH 3.0 or 6.0. Two hundred 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to chick batteries and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with 5 replicate pens of 5 chicks assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments from hatch to 21 d, which included: 1) basal diet (BD), with no BFR or AFB1; 2) BD supplemented with 1% BFR; 3) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg of feed; and 4) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg feed and 1% BFR. Performance variables were determined weekly, while serum analyses were performed on d 14 and 21. At the end of the study, chicks were anesthetized with carbon dioxide, euthanized by cervical dislocation, and the kidney, liver, and bursa of Fabricius were removed for determination of relative weights, and for histological evaluation. In vitro assays showed that the higher the initial AFB1 concentration in solution, the greater the AFB1 amount adsorbed by BFR at both pHs tested. Feed intake, BW gain, and concentrations of albumin, total protein, and globulin increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed BFR+AFB1 (Diet 4), when compared to the birds receiving only AFB1 (Diet 2). Although BFR was not able to reduce or prevent the effects of AFB1 on relative weights of kidneys and liver, it reduced the severity of histological changes in the liver and kidney caused by AFB1. PMID:25743420

  20. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  1. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. PMID:26976912

  2. Melatonin Mediates Monochromatic Light-induced Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Secretion of Chick Liver: Involvement of Membrane Receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Suqi; Cao, Jing; Wang, Zixu; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Wenli; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-07-01

    Monochromatic lights influenced the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal satellite cells in broilers by the enhancement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) secretion. However, whether melatonin (MEL)-mediated monochromatic lights influenced the IGF-1 secretion remains unclear. Newly hatched broilers, including intact, sham operation and pinealectomy groups, were exposed to blue (BL), green (GL), red (RL) and white light (WL) from a light-emitting diode system for 14 days. The results showed that GL effectively promoted the secretion of MEL and IGF-1, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and MEL receptor subtypes Mel1a, Mel1b and Mel1c in the liver compared to BL and RL in vivo. Moreover, those was a positive correlation between MEL and IGF-1 (r = 0.834). After pinealectomy, however, these parameters declined, and there were no differences between GL and other monochromatic light treatments. In vitro, exogenous MEL increased hepatocyte proliferation and IGF-1 secretion. Meanwhile, the MEL enhancements were suppressed by prazosin (selective Mel1c antagonist), followed by luzindole (nonselective Mel1a/Mel1b antagonist), but not suppressed by 4-phenyl-2-propionamideotetralin (selective Mel1b antagonist). These findings demonstrated that MEL mediated the monochromatic light-induced secretion of IGF-1 in chicks' livers by Mel1c and that Mel1a may be involved in this process. PMID:27128575

  3. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality of Broilers Under Heat Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanling; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Fang; Lloyd, Karen; Lin, Xi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental chromium (Cr) on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broilers reared under heat stress. A total of 252 1-d-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate, CrPro; Cr picolinate, CrPic; Cr chloride, CrCl3) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4, or 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control group. Feed and distilled-deionized water were available ad libitum for an experimental phase of 42 days. For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 33 ± 2 °C from 15 to 42 days of age. Results showed that birds supplemented with Cr, regardless of Cr source, had increased ADG (P = 0.032) than controls. Birds fed 2.0 mg Cr/kg diet had greater ADG (P = 0.005) than birds fed 0.4 mg Cr/kg diet. Compared to controls, birds fed with Cr had greater dressing percentage (P = 0.021). Percentage of abdominal fat decreased (P = 0.013), whereas, breast intramuscular fat (IMF) remained unaffected (P = 0.147) in Cr supplemented vs control broilers. Broilers supplemented Cr had decreased b* values of meat color (P = 0.042) in breast muscle. B*values were also lesser (P = 0.049) in birds fed CrPro than birds supplemented with CrCl3 or CrPic. Regardless of Cr source, the percentage of cooking loss was decreased (P = 0.025) with Cr supplementation in breast muscle when compared to controls. Results from this study indicate that Cr supplementation, independent of its source, could promote growth and improve carcass traits and meat quality of broilers under heat stress conditions. Chromium propionate seems to have greater beneficial effects on meat color in comparison with CrPic and CrCl3. PMID:26184120

  4. Chromium propionate in broilers: effect on insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Brooks, M A; Grimes, J L; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K; Lamptey, A; Spears, J W

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr), as chromium propionate, on measures of insulin sensitivity. Liver and muscle glycogen, and plasma glucose and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were used as indicators of insulin sensitivity. In total, 288 newly hatched male Ross broilers were divided into 4 dietary treatments consisting of 0 (control diet analyzed 0.43 to 0.45 mg Cr/kg), 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg supplemental Cr/kg diet, resulting in 4 treatments with 9 replicate pens per treatment containing eight birds per pen. At d 21, 2 birds per cage were removed based on the greatest deviation from pen mean BW, resulting in each pen containing 6 birds for the final analyses. Final BW were taken on d 40, and on d 42 two birds from each pen were sampled for plasma NEFA, glucose, and muscle and liver glycogen determination at the initiation and termination of a 22 h fast. The remaining 2 fasted birds were sampled after a 30 min refeeding period. No differences were observed in feed intake, BW gain, or feed efficiency on d 21 or d 40. Liver glycogen tended (P=0.10) to be greater in Cr-supplemented chicks in the fed state, and muscle glycogen concentrations tended (P=0.07) to be greater in Cr-supplemented chicks compared with controls following fasting and refeeding. Plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by dietary Cr in the fed, fasted, or refed state. Plasma NEFA levels were not affected by treatment in fed or fasted birds. However, plasma NEFA concentrations were lower (P<0.01) in chicks supplemented with Cr than in controls following fasting and refeeding, suggesting that Cr increased insulin sensitivity. No differences were detected among birds supplemented with 0.2 or 0.4 mg Cr/kg, and among those receiving 0.4 or 0.6 mg Cr/kg. Results of this study indicate that Cr propionate supplementation of a control diet containing 0.43 to 0.45 mg Cr/kg enhanced insulin sensitivity. PMID:26933236

  5. Efficient ectopic gene expression targeting chick mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kerby C; Pira, Charmaine U; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Ratz, Beate; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Eichele, Gregor

    2002-07-01

    The chick model has been instrumental in illuminating genes that regulate early vertebrate development and pattern formation. Targeted ectopic gene expression is critical to dissect further the complicated gene interactions that are involved. In an effort to develop a consistent method to ectopically introduce and focally express genes in chick mesoderm, we evaluated and optimized several gene delivery methods, including implantation of 293 cells laden with viral vectors, direct adenoviral injection, and electroporation (EP). We targeted the mesoderm of chick wing buds between stages 19 and 21 (Hamburger and Hamilton stages) and used beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to document gene transfer. Expression constructs using the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, the beta-actin promoter, and vectors with an internal ribosomal entry sequence linked to GFP (IRES-GFP) were also compared. After gene transfer, we monitored expression for up to 3 days. The functionality of ectopic expression was demonstrated with constructs containing the coding sequences for Shh, a secreted signaling protein, or Hoxb-8, a transcription factor, both of which can induce digit duplication when ectopically expressed in anterior limb mesoderm. We identified several factors that enhance mesodermal gene transfer. First, the use of a vector with the beta-actin promoter coupled to the 69% fragment of the bovine papilloma virus yielded superior mesodermal expression both by markers and functional results when compared with several CMV-driven vectors. Second, we found the use of mineral oil to be an important adjuvant for EP and direct viral injection to localize and contain vector within the mesoderm at the injection site. Lastly, although ectopic expression could be achieved with all three methods, we favored EP confined to the mesoderm with insulated microelectrodes (confined microelectroporation- CMEP), because vector construction is rapid, the method is efficient, and results

  6. Evaluation of bacteriophage supplementation on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, breast muscle characteristics and excreta microbial shedding in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Yan, L; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2013-04-01

    A total of 720 1-d-old male broilers (Arbor Acres) with the initial BW = 45±2 g were used in a 32-d experiment. Birds were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely random block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+0.5 g antibiotics/kg feed (bacitracin methylene disalicylate)), iii) BP1 (CON+0.25 bacteriophage/kg feed), and iv) BP2 (CON+0.5 g bacteriophage/kg feed). The BWG and FI were not affected by dietary treatments throughout the whole experiment, whereas BP2 treatment reduced (p<0.05) the feed conversion ratio compared with the CON treatment during 0 to 14 d. The birds fed bacteriophages at the level of 0.25 g/kg increased (p<0.05) the relative liver weight. The inclusion of antibiotic and bacteriophage significantly reduced (p<0.05) the Escherichia coli and Salmonella concentration in the excreta compared with the NC group. Broilers fed the BP2 treatment had higher (p<0.05) lactobacillus counts compared with those fed NC and PC treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.5 g/kg bacteriophages increased feed efficiency and liver weight without effects on the breast muscle properties; also pathogens were inhibited by addition of bacteriophages. PMID:25049825

  7. Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

  8. Performance, immunity, and physiological responses of broilers to dietary energy and protein sequential variations.

    PubMed

    Ale Saheb Fosoul, S S; Toghyani, M; Gheisari, A; Tabeidiyan, S A; Mohammadrezaei, M; Azarfar, A

    2016-09-01

    The current trial was designed to examine effects of sequential feeding of diets varying in energy and protein contents on performance, gut development, welfare indices, and immune responses of broiler chicks. A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 5 replicates in a completely randomized design. Sequential feeding was evaluated in 48-h cycles during 8 to 28 d of age. Diets varied in energy (E+ = 3,210 kcal/kg and E- = 2,790 kcal/kg) and protein (P+ = 25.14% CP and P- = 16.76% CP) contents. The 4 feeding programs were: control (ME: 3,000 kcal/kg, CP: 20.95%); P+/P- (P+ followed by P- containing 3,000 kcal/kg energy); E-/E+ (E- followed by E+ containing 20.95% CP), and E-P+ / E+P- (E-P+ followed by E+P-). The experiment lasted 42 d and birds were fed by a standard finishing diet from d 28 to 42. Broilers fed on E-/E+ and E-P+/E+P- had lower daily feed intake than control ones during 8 to 28 d of age (P < 0.05), while daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected significantly. Footpad dermatitis was lower in birds sequentially fed E-/E+ and E-P+/E+P- at 35 d of age (P < 0.05). Sequential feeding of diets varying in either energy or protein or both increased duration of tonic immobility at d 39 of age (P < 0.05). Feeding with E-/E+ regime decreased jejunal crypt depth, while feeding P+/P- regime increased villus height and crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05). However, no relationship was found between intestinal morphology and growth performance of broiler chickens. Antibody production against sheep red blood cells as well as Newcastle and influenza disease viruses was not affected by sequential feeding. In conclusion, digestive organs and intestinal morphology might be adjusted to energy and protein variations. Sequential feeding increased the fear level in chickens. PMID:26994199

  9. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B1 in broiler model

    PubMed Central

    Amiridumari, Halimeh; Sarir, Hadi; Afzali, Nazar; FaniMakki, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS), as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB1. Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design) was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1), 250 ppb AFB1 (T2), 500 ppb AFB1 (T3), 0.5% MTS (T4), 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T5), 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6), 1.0% MTS (T7), 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB1 (T8), and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T9). The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid), lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), and High density lipoprotein (HDL)) and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT) in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010) were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65), Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13), and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42) compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively), (P < 0.05). In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011) and AST (244.51 ± 4.91). Using MTS together with AFB1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on broiler chicks. PMID:24381623

  10. Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.

    PubMed

    Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρL, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  11. Measurement of the Photoreceptor Pointing in the Living Chick Eye

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Maria K.; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S.; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in-vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (gallus gallus domestie beled) chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particul chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρl, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17 mm−2 for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20 mm−2 for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders. PMID:25722105

  12. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  13. Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

    PubMed

    Williams, M C; Smith, M C

    1984-03-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Leaves of K daigremontiana, K tubiflora, and K fedtschenkoi were toxic to chicks at dosage levels of 8 to 12 mg/g of body weight. Toxic signs included depression, muscular incoordination, twitching and spiraling of the neck, tremors, convulsions, paralysis, and death. Kalanchoe tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were nontoxic at the highest dosage levels tested. Aliphatic nitro compounds and cyanogenic glycosides were not detected in any species. Alkaloids, nitrates, and soluble oxalates were present only in nontoxic concentrations. The toxic principle in K daigremontiana was soluble in 50%, 80%, and 100% ethanol, slightly soluble in water and acetone, and insoluble in benzene, chloroform, and ether. PMID:6711983

  14. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0 mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6 μmol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5 μmol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  15. Molecular characterization and clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains isolated from broiler chickens with colisepticemia.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; de Oliveira, Aline Luísa; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; Pavanelo, Daniel Brisotto; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pinheiro, Sandra Regina Schincariol; Vaz, Tânia Mara Ibelli; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized 52 Escherichia coli isolates from distinct diseased organs of 29 broiler chickens with clinical symptoms of colibacillosis in the Southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Thirty-eight isolates were highly virulent and 14 were virtually avirulent in 1-day-old chicks, yet all isolates harbored virulence factors characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), including those related to adhesion, iron acquisition, and serum resistance. E. coli reference collection phylogenetic typing showed that isolates belonged mostly to group D (39%), followed by group A (29%), group B1 (17%), and group B2 (15%). Phylogenetic analyses using the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis and pulse-field gel electrophoresis methods were used to discriminate among isolates displaying the same serotype, revealing that five birds were infected with two distinct APEC strains. Among the 52 avian isolates, 2 were members of the pandemic E. coli O25:H4-B2-ST131 clone. PMID:25514382

  16. Broiler Growers. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Maurice Layton family, broiler (chicken) growers in Mississippi. Beginning with early morning chores, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical day while explaining how a broiler farm operates. Although the booklet focuses on broiler…

  17. Photoperiod effects on broiler behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 photoperiod regimes on behavior of commercial broilers. The photoperiods were 23h for all treatments from 1-6d. Treatments 1 and 2, 20L:4D and 18L:6D respectively, were applied from 7-36d and increased to 23L:1D at 37d. Treatment 3 was a step-down/step-up pro...

  18. Influence of graded inclusion of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal on performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Hejdysz, M; Kubiś, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal (WLM) addition on the intestinal viscosity, bird performance, nutrient utilisation and villi morphology of growing broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted with 480 broiler chicks divided into 6 dietary treatments, including a maize-soybean meal control diet (CON) and 5 experimental diets containing 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 g/kg WLM. During the period from d 0 to 35, birds fed on 200 or higher WLM/kg were characterised by lower body weight gain and feed intake than CON. The use of 150 g of WLM/kg increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and starch, linearly decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. There was a quadratic effect of WLM dose on sialic acid excretion. A strong negative linear correlation was found between the excretion of sialic acid and AMEN. The viscosity of ileal digesta was linearly increased as WLM increased. The effect of WLM dose on ileum villus height (VH) was linear, while that on ileum villus area (VA) was quadratic. Both parameters decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. In conclusion, the use of over 150 g/kg of WLM in broiler diets depressed performance results. However, depression of nutrient utilisation was only observed when 250 or 300 g/kg of WLM was used. PMID:27025275

  19. Evaluation in broilers of the probiotic properties of Pichia pastoris and a recombinant P. pastoris containing the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene.

    PubMed

    Gil de los Santos, João Rodrigo; Storch, Otávio Brod; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Gil-Turnes, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The probiotic properties of Pichia pastoris and of a recombinant P. pastoris containing the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene were evaluated in broilers. One-day-old chicks randomly divided in four groups were fed with commercial feed devoid of antibacterials. The control group (1) received plain food, while the other groups were supplemented with either P. pastoris (2), the recombinant P. pastoris (3) or Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi (4). At day 49, live weights, feed efficiency and seroconversions were higher (P<0.05) in the supplemented groups than in the control groups. Group 3 showed the best results, while group 2 had lower weight gain than groups 3 and 4 although food conversion was better than in group 4. Seroconversions were not different (P>0.05) among the supplemented groups. Adverse reactions were not observed in histopathologic evaluation. We concluded that P. pastoris and the recombinant P. pastoris could be used as probiotics in broilers. PMID:22176763

  20. Reduced incidence of Clostridium perfringens-associated lesions and improved performance in broiler chickens treated with normal intestinal bacteria from adult fowl.

    PubMed

    Kaldhusdal, M; Schneitz, C; Hofshagen, M; Skjerve, E

    2001-01-01

    The dosing of young chicks with cultures of normal gut flora has been termed "competitive exclusion" (CE). This study was undertaken to examine, under field conditions, the effect of CE treatment on counts of intestinal Clostridium perfringens (CP) and on the occurrence of CP-associated disease in broiler chickens. A farm having recurrent CP-associated health problems was selected as study site. The study comprised four broiler houses, with one treated and one untreated flock per house. Treated birds were sprayed with the CE product Broilact upon arrival at the farm. All flocks were offered feed containing the ionophorous anticoccidial agent narasin. The feed did not contain growth promoters. Treatment was associated with positive but statistically nonsignificant effects on gut health. Delayed intestinal proliferation of CP and delayed appearance of CP-associated gut lesions were found in CE-treated flocks. This delay was associated with improved production performance at slaughter. PMID:11332476

  1. Object Individuation in 3-Day-Old Chicks: Use of Property and Spatiotemporal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Object individuation was investigated in newborn domestic chicks. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of familiar objects was exploited in a series of five experiments. In the first experiment newborn chicks were reared for 3 days with objects differing in either colour, shape or size. At test, each chick was presented with…

  2. In vivo antimicrobial potentials of garlic against Clostridium perfringens and its promotant effects on performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jimoh, A A; Ibitoye, E B; Dabai, Y U; Garba, S

    2013-12-15

    This study was conducted to investigate in vivo antimicrobial potential of garlic against Clostridium perferinges and resultant promotant effects on performance of the broiler chickens. Garlic powder was used as an alternative to GPAs (Growth Promotant Antibiotics) to prevent subclinical Necrotic Enteritis (NE) due to C. perferinges. 120 day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed to six treatment groups of 20 chicks each (2 replicates(-10) chicks). Six isonutrient diets supplemented with garlic at graded levels of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g kg(-1) were fed to the birds for seven weeks. Data were collected weekly on performance parameters including feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Also, on the 21 35 and 49th days of the study, two birds per group were randomly selected, slaughtered and dissected. 1 g of caecal contents per each bird were sampled into labelled sterile sample bottles. The samples were subjected to culturing, bacterial identification and colony counting. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. Results showed that garlic significantly (p > 0.05) depressed feed intake (3310 g feed/bird at 1.0 g kg(-1) supplementation) but improved FCR. The supplement has no significant effect on weight gain but C. perfringens colony counts in the treated groups, were numerically reduced (lowest count, 0.93 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) at 1.0 g kg(-1) supplementation), as compared to the control. It is therefore concluded that diets could be supplemented with garlic at dose range of 1.0 to 1.5 g kg(-1) to prevent subclinical NE and achieve improved performance in birds. PMID:24517015

  3. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a slightly better antioxidant capacity was found in the blood of broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared

  4. Effects of dietary L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 supplementation on performance and ascites mortality of broilers.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ailian; Guo, Yuming; Yuan, Jianmin

    2004-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites mortality of broilers. A 3 x 3 factorial arrangement was employed with three levels (0, 75 and 150 mg/kg) of L-carnitine and three levels of CoQ10 (0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) supplementation during the experiment. Five hundred and forty one-day-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into nine groups with six replicates each. All birds were fed with the basal diets from day 1 to 7 and changed to the experimental diets from day 8. During day 15 to 21 all the birds were exposed to low ambient temperature (15-18 degrees C) to induce ascites. The results showed that under this condition, growth performance of broilers were not significantly affected by CoQ10 or L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation during week 0-3 and 0-6, but body weight gain (BWG) of broilers was significantly reduced by 150 mg/ kg L-carnitine during week 0-6. Packed cell volume (PCV) of broilers was significantly decreased by L-carnitine and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation (P < 0.05). Erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), ascites heart index (AHI) and ascites mortality of broilers were significantly decreased by L-carnitine, CoQ10 and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation. Though no significant changes were observed in total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) was increased by L-carnitine, CoQ10 and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation (P < 0.05). Malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased by CoQ10 and L-carnitine + CoQ10 supplementation. The results indicate that dietary L-carnitine and CoQ10 supplementation reduce ascites mortality of broilers; the reason may be partially associated with their antioxidative effects. PMID:15732580

  5. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Chen, Y. P.; Wu, D. W.; Wen, C.; Zhou, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  6. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Chen, Y P; Wu, D W; Wen, C; Zhou, Y M

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of

  7. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies. PMID:10479083

  8. Behavioral responses of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Furuse, M

    2009-05-01

    Research has shown that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, mitochondrial fatty acid transport, and oxidation enzymes. Various behavioral abnormalities may also decrease the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate behavioral irregularities in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C) neonatal chicks, we studied behavioral responses when compared with the control kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Two-day-old chicks (n = 5) were exposed to either low or thermoneutral temperature for 3 h and were then immediately placed in an acrylic monitoring cage (40 x 30 x 20 cm). The monitoring cage was fitted with a 3-dimensional mirror (to prevent isolation-induced stress) and maintained either at 20 or 30 degrees C. Behavioral responses were monitored for 10 min. Behavioral observations revealed that low-temperature exposure decreased distress vocalizations and spontaneous activity. Low-temperature exposure induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks; active wakefulness was decreased while standing or sitting motionless with eyes closed or open and sleeping posture was significantly increased. In conclusion, there is evidence that on exposure to low-temperature, neonatal chicks decrease behavioral activity. Increased sleep-like behavior and decreased activity may reduce heat production in low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks and could potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19359677

  9. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual numbers of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) chicks stranded on Oahu (Hawaii, USA) in 1994. Compared to healthy wedge-tailed shearwater (WTSW) chicks, stranded chicks were underweight, dehydrated, leukopenic, lymphopenic, eosinopenic, and heterophilic; some birds were toxemic and septic. Stranded chicks also were hypoglycemic and had elevated aspartate amino transferase levels. Most chicks apparently died from emaciation, dehydration, or bacteremia. Because many birds with bacteremia also had severe necrosis of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa associated with bacteria, we suspect the GI tract to be the source of disseminated bacterial infection. The identity of the bacteria was not confirmed. The daily number of chicks stranded was significantly related to average wind speeds, and the mortality coincided with the fledging period for WTSW. Strong southeasterly winds were a distinguishing meteorologic factor in 1994 and contributed to the distribution of stranded chicks on Oahu. More objective data on WTSW demographics would enhance future efforts to determine predisposing causes of WTSW wrecks and their effects on seabird colonies.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  11. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  12. Effect of feeding cottonseed meal on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalaisamy, G.; Purushothaman, M. R.; Kumar, P. Vasantha; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the effect of feeding cottonseed meal (CSM) on performance of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: A 6-week biological trial was carried out with 432-day-old Cobb 400 broiler chicks distributed to nine experimental diets with six replicates, each containing eight chicks. The experimental diets were formulated based on total amino acids (BTAA) or based on digestible amino acids (BDAA) with or without iron supplementation with two levels of CSM (2% and 4%) and control diet based on maize – soybean. The whole blood was subjected to hematological studies. The serum samples were analyzed for protein fractions and lipid profiles. Results: The packed cell volume (PCV) value, red blood cell (RBC) numbers, and hemoglobin (Hb) were lower in iron unsupplemented CSM BTAA or BDAA diets than the control (33.86-35.54 vs. 36.41%, 2.78-2.87 vs. 2.98 × 106/μl, and 10.30-10.70 vs. 10.88%). Supplementation of iron in CSM diets improved the PCV, RBC numbers, and Hb, and the values were comparable to the control. White blood cell numbers, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration values were comparable to the control. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was poor in birds fed diets containing up to 4% CSM BTAA or CSM BDAA without iron supplementation (32.02-32.57 vs. 28.77%). Supplementation of iron improved the EOF. The serum cholesterol level did not change with or without iron supplementation. Conclusion: This study suggested that feeding of CSM BTAA or BDAA up to 4% level voiding iron supplementation lowers the hematological parameters, whereas supplementation of iron did not alter serum protein fractions and cholesterol profile; however, it had lowered some hematological parameters, which was rectified by iron supplementation. PMID:27536033

  13. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  14. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production. PMID:25746622

  15. Prophylactic action of lipoic acid on oxidative stress and growth performance in broilers at risk of developing ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, Antonio; Serret, Maurilio; Ramírez, Guadalupe; Avila, Ernesto; Guinzberg, Raquel; Piña, Enrique

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with lipoic acid (LA) on broilers maintained at 2235 m above sea level with high risk to develop ascites syndrome (AS). A total of 2040 chicks were fed under commercial conditions with water and specific diets ad libitum during 7 weeks in two consecutive experiments. Mortality and indicators of performance and oxidative stress were compared weekly in broilers fed a basal diet plus 0, 10, 20, or 40 parts/10(6) LA. The effects of LA at 40 parts/10(6) were also studied during the initial 3 weeks or the last 4 weeks of the production cycle. Diets supplemented with 40 parts/10(6) of LA during 7 weeks significantly improved feed conversion, decreased general mortality and mortality attributable to AS, and lowered thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroxyl radicals in liver, and increased total glutathione pool. Smaller doses or shorter periods of exposure to LA were partially effective. In conclusion, LA under our experimental conditions has a prophylactic action in broilers with high risk to develop AS due to oxygen availability limitation. PMID:14676017

  16. Calcium antagonists, diltiazem and nifedipine, protect broilers against low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Mingyu; Guo, Yuming; Qiao, Jian

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to determine whether calcium antagonists, diltiazem and nifedipine, can depress low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in broilers (also known as ascites) and to characterize their efficacy on hemodynamics and pulmonary artery function. Chicks were randomly allocated into six experimental groups and orally administered with vehicle, 5.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)/12 h nifedipine or 15.0 mg/kg BW/12 h diltiazem from 16 to 43 days of age under low temperature. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), the ascites heart index (AHI), the erythrocyte packed cell volume (PCV) and the relative percentage of medial pulmonary artery thickness were examined on days 29, 36 and 43. The data showed that administration of diltiazem protected broilers from low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. Although nifedipine prevented mPAP from increasing during the early stage, it did not suppress the development of PH during the late stage and did not keep heart rate (HR), PCV, AHI and the thickness of pulmonary small artery smooth muscle layer at the normal levels. Taken together, our results showed that diltiazem can effectively prevent low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension in broilers with fewer side-effects and may be a potential compound for the prevention of this disease in poultry industry. PMID:20662820

  17. Supplemental arginine administered in ovo or in the feed reduces the susceptibility of broilers to pulmonary hypertension syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saki, A; Haghighat, M; Khajali, F

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine if in ovo and in-feed arginine (ARG) supplementation is effective in the prevention of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens reared at high altitude. 2. In Experiment I, a total of 300 fertile eggs were divided into two equal groups. On d 5 of incubation, one group was injected with 0.5 ml of ARG (20 mg/ml) and the other remained untreated and served as controls. After hatching, male chicks (64 chickens per treatment) were selected and given a commercial maize-soyabean meal diet up to 48 d of age. 3. In Experiment II, a total of 128 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to two treatments, a control group that were fed on a basal diet that met ARG requirements and the second was fed on the basal diet supplemented with 1.5 g ARG per kg of diet. 4. Cumulative mortality from ascites was recorded in both experiments. Results from Experiment I indicated that in ovo injection of ARG significantly decreased ascites mortality of broilers (18.8 vs. 43.8%). Results from Experiment II showed a similar effect so that ascites mortality in the group that were given Arg supplement was significantly lower than the control (28.1 vs. 43.8%). PMID:24286504

  18. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  19. Effect of dietary selenium (Se) on the development of fusarium-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (FITD) in broiler chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, M.M.; Levander, O.A.

    1986-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of low and high levels of dietary Se on the pathogenesis of FITD and to use the findings to assess the applicability of FITD as an animal model of Kashin-Beck disease. Day-old female broiler chickens were assigned to 1 or 3 diets: low Se (0.02 ppm), normal Se (0.15 ppm), and high Se (0.5 ppm). At 1 week of age, dosing of 15 of 26 chicks in each dietary group with TDP-1, the toxic component of fusarium roseum Graminearum was begun. Chicks were terminated from 24 to 30 days of age. The mortality rate of the TDP-1-treated chicks on the high Se diet was significantly less than that in the other TDP-treated groups. There were no differences in the incidence, severity, or character of the FITD lesions among the dietary groups. Neither diet nor TDP-1 treatment affected hematocrit levels. Plasma Se and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly lower in the low Se dietary group than in other groups. The nature of the lesion of FITD and the time course of its development are distinct from the features of Kashin-Beck disease. Administration of a high dietary level of Se did not affect the development of FITD.

  20. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

    2011-04-01

    1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed. PMID:21491246

  1. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140

  2. Growth performance and immune response of two commercial broiler strains fed diets containing Lactobacillus cultures and oxytetracycline under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, I; Abdulllah, N; Azrin, N M; Ho, Y W

    2000-12-01

    1. Hubbard x Hubbard (HH) and Shaver x Shaver (SS) chicks given a dietary supplement of either 50 mg/kg oxytetracycline (OTC) or 1 g/kg Lactobacillus culture (LC) were exposed to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 3 h daily from day (d) 21 to 42. 2. Prior to heat treatment, body weight (d 21) and weight gain (d 1 to d 21) of OTC and LC birds were greater than those fed the control diet. Chicks given LC had the best food efficiency followed by OTC and control birds during d 1 to d 21. Body weight (d 1 and d 21) and weight gain (d 1 to d 21) were greater for HH tlhan SS chicks. 3. After 3 weeks of heat exposure, birds receiving the LC diet had greater body weight and weight gain, higher food intake and lower food efficiency than OTC and control chicks. 4. Antibody production against Newcastle discase vaccine on d 21 was not affected by strain or diet. On d 42, while diet had negligible effect on this variable among the SS broilers, HH birds fed LC had higher antibody production than those on the control diet. 5. Neither strain nor diet had a significant effect on mortality. PMID:11201439

  3. Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals. PMID:22085616

  4. Expression of Wise in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Y; Itasaki, N

    2007-08-01

    We have performed in situ hybridization to study the expression of Wise in early chick embryos. Wise expression is first detectable in the ectoderm at posterior levels of late neurula. As development proceeds, Wise expression is seen in specific patterns in the ectoderm of the trunk region, pharyngeal arches, limb buds, and feather buds. In addition to these areas, particular cartilages such as the ones in the maxillary process and limbs start to express Wise at the late pharyngula stage, and the expression in these cartilages becomes stronger than that in epidermal components at later stages. Importantly, Wise is expressed in regions where other signaling molecules such as Wnt, Bmp, and Shh are known to function in morphogenesis and differentiation. Direct comparisons of the expression of Wise and these genes are also demonstrated. PMID:17654720

  5. Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Caddemi, A.; Tamburello, C.C.; Zanforlin, L.; Torregrossa, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of microwaves on the electric activity of hearts as a means of elucidating interactive mechanisms of nonionizing radiation with cardiac tissue. Experiments were performed on isolated hearts of 9-12-day-old chick embryos placed in small petri dishes. Oxygenated isotonic Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C permitted heart survival. Samples were irradiated at 2.45 GHz with a power density of 3 mW/cm2. The heart signal was detected with a glass micropipet inserted into the sinoatrial node and examined by means of a Berg-Fourier analyzer. Pulsed microwaves caused the locking of the heartbeat to the modulation frequency, whereas continuous wave irradiation might have induced slight bradycardia. Pulsed fields induced stimulation or regularization of the heartbeat in arrhythmia, fibrillation, or arrest of the heart.

  6. Effects of peach palm oil on performance, serum lipoproteins and haemostasis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Baldizán, G; Oviedo, M; Michelangeli, C; Vargas, R E

    2010-12-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the comparative effects of peach palm oil (PPO, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K), crude palm oil (CPO, Elaeis guinenesis), maize oil (MO) and beef tallow (BT) on serum total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels and haemostatic factors in broiler chickens. 2. Four experimental diets were formulated to be isocaloric (14·2 MJ AME(N)/kg) and isonitrogenous (230 g CP/kg). PPO was extracted from the whole dry fruit with hexane. Each fat was added to the diet in an amount equivalent to 25% of total dietary calories. Six replicate groups of eight male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to each dietary treatment. Diets were fed on ad libitum basis. The experiment lasted 42 d. 3. At 42 d, birds were fasted overnight and three chickens/dietary treatment were utilised to draw blood for lipoprotein separation. Various haemostatic factors were determined in thrombocyte-poor plasma. Thrombocyte aggregation was assayed in whole blood. 4. No significant differences were detected in body-weight gain or feed efficiency between the chickens fed on the PPO diet and those receiving the CPO, MO or BT diets. Total serum cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)) were not significantly affected after consuming the PPO, CPO and MO diets. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) was reduced only by the MO diet. Birds fed on the PPO diet had a significantly lower [corrected] LDLC/HDLC ratio compared with other dietary treatments 5. Thrombocyte count and thrombin time were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Dietary oils significantly affected prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and thrombocyte aggregation. PPO and MO diets elicited the lowest fibrinogen levels compared to the CPO and BT diets. Thrombocyte aggregation in broilers fed on the PPO diet was similar to that of the CPO, MO and BT diets. 6. The results suggest that PPO might efficiently provide up to

  7. Curled toes and perosis-like leg abnormalities in cage reared broilers.

    PubMed

    Rizk, S W; Stake, P E; Simmons, R W

    1980-02-01

    A high incidence of perosis-curled toe type of leg disorder has consistently developed in both cage- and floor pen-reared male broiler chicks of two different genetic strains within 5 to 7 days when fed a nutritionally complete corn-soybean meal diet. Postmortem analysis of affected birds indicate classic perosis as seen in dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency. Ration modifications, such as inclusion of 50 ppm additional Mn or .5 mg/kg vitamin B-2 did not prevent or reduce the development of this leg problem. Birds reared in floor-pens had a reduced incidence (12 to 13%) of perosis-curled toe problem compared with incidence of leg disorders of battery-reared birds (20 to 60%). In most instances, a positive relationship between rate of weight gain and severity of leg abnormalities was apparent. Reduction in photoperiod from 24 hr/day to 12 hr/day substantially reduced incidence of leg disorders; however, growth rate was also reduced. The practical basal diet employed in all experiments promotes satisfactory rate of growth and feed efficiency and may be an excellent assay diet for experimentation into perosis-like broiler leg problems. PMID:6774323

  8. Efficacy of Nigella sativa in alleviating benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Latif, I K; Karim, A J; Zuki, A B Z; Zamri-Saad, M; Niu, J P; Noordin, M M

    2011-06-01

    The immune response of broiler chickens exposed to intra-tracheal (i.t.) administration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with and without Nigella sativa (Ns) supplementation was investigated. A total of 120 day-old chicks were divided into four groups comprising 30 birds each, into a control, Ns, BaP, and BaP+Ns group. Immune responses to Newcastle disease (ND) were evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin test and carbon clearance assay (CCA). In most instances, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the ND-HI antibody titers, PHA skin-swelling response and phagocytic activity in the BaP + Ns group compared to that of the BaP group. Likewise, organ weight and indices of the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus of birds from the BaP + Ns group were also higher (p<0.05) than that of the BaP group from day 1 until day 21. It is concluded that exposure to BaP may exert adverse effects on the immune system of broilers which may increase their susceptibility to disease, and Ns supplementation significantly reduces these alterations. PMID:21472685

  9. Interaction of T-2 fusariotoxin and monensin in broiler chickens infected with Coccidia.

    PubMed

    Ványi, A; Sályi, G; Majoros, G; Glávits, R; Sándor, G; Bagó, G

    1989-01-01

    Field observations suggest that coccidiosis is a common cause of death in broiler chicken flocks fed diets containing sufficient amounts of ionophore antibiotics (monensin, narasin, etc.) and contaminated with mycotoxins, particularly with T-2 fusariotoxin. To study this phenomenon, broiler chickens fed diets containing different amounts of T-2 toxin and free from monensin, or containing a preventive dose (100 mg/kg of feed) of monensin, were infected experimentally with coccidian oocysts. In all groups fed a diet containing monensin plus T-2 toxin severe clinical symptoms of coccidiosis (blood-stained faeces etc). occurred. Deaths and retarded growth depended on the toxin dose and were considerable. The body mass gain of chicks fed a diet containing monensin and T-2 toxin but not infected with coccidia was inferior to that of groups fed diets which contained either monensin or T-2 toxin (experiment 2). On the basis of these findings a negative interaction of the two compounds is assumed. This seems to be supported by the results of experiment 3, i. e. the finding that the lethal dose of narasin, a compound closely related to monensin both in chemical structure and mechanism of action, proved to be much lower (LD50 = 102 mg/kg body mass) for chickens fed a diet supplemented with T-2 toxin than for the control chickens (LD50 = 176 mg/kg body mass). The present results suggest that the feeding of diets severely contaminated with T-2 toxin may alter the anticoccidial efficacy of monensin. PMID:2638811

  10. Developmental study of rectum in broiler chicken: A stereological and morphometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Fatahian Dehkordi, Rahmat-Allah; Ghahremani, Poria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of the weight and the morphological development of the rectum in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used in this experiment and they were 12, 20, 35 and 44 days of age. Samples from the rectum of chicks were sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. In addition, the weight of both body (BW) and rectum and also rectum weight as a proportion of BW, height and width of the villi and thickness of rectum wall were measured. The results revealed that the body and rectum weight were increased with age. The greatest rectum weight as a proportion of BW was observed on day 20. An increase in height and width of the villi during the study period were obtained. The increase was more significant on days 35 and 44 than on days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). There were significant difference in thickness of tunica mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer of the rectum on day 20 compared to day 35 (p < 0.05). The increase in the volume density of the wall, tunica mucosa and tunica muscular was greater on day 20 than on day 35. However, significant differences were observed in volume density of this layers between days 35 and 44 compared to days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). PMID:27226886

  11. Effect of Dietary Lead on Intestinal Nutrient Transporters mRNA Expression in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine. PMID:25695048

  12. Higher inclusion rate of canola meal under high ambient temperature for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Aljuobori, A; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Mujahid, A

    2016-06-01

    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature. PMID:26944983

  13. Graded atmospheric oxygen level effects on performance and ascites incidence in broilers.

    PubMed

    Beker, A; Vanhooser, S L; Swartzlander, J H; Teeter, R G

    2003-10-01

    The effects of graded atmospheric O2 concentration (12, 14, 16, 18, and 20.6%) on chick performance and propensity to develop ascites were investigated using commercial male broilers. Chicks were housed in calorimetry chambers for 2 wk with incoming air diluted with N to provide the desired O2 concentration at thermoneutral (TN) ambient temperature. Day 14 body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, and gain-to-feed ratio increased (P < 0.01) as O2 concentration incrementally rose from 12 to 20.6%. Body weight was 138 g for the lowest atmospheric O2 level compared to 371 g for 20.6% O2. The greatest treatment difference occurred between the 12 and 14% O2 concentrations. Growth depression appeared related to feed consumption. Ascites heart ratio (AHR), ascites score (AS), right ventricular mass (RVM), and hematocrit (HCT) all increased (P < 0.01) as O2 concentration decreased. Blood HCT appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physiological change attributable to atmospheric O2 than AHR, AS, or RVM. The data reported herein suggests that 19.6% atmospheric O2 is the minimal allowable level for housing birds within a relatively stress-free, TN environment to avoid cardiac and HCT changes related to ascites. PMID:14601731

  14. 23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. The impact of supplemental dietary methionine sources on volatile compound concentrations in broiler excreta.

    PubMed

    Chavez, C; Coufal, C D; Carey, J B; Lacey, R E; Beier, R C; Zahn, J A

    2004-06-01

    The impact of different Met sources on broiler fecal odor volatiles was determined by evaluating the types of sulfur compounds produced in broiler excreta. Two experiments were conducted using straight-run broiler chicks randomly distributed in battery cages, with 3 replicate pens of 16 birds each. The treatment groups were 1) dry Met hydroxy analogue (dry MetHA), 2) sodium methioninate aqueous solution (NaMet), 3) liquid Met hydroxy analogue (Liq MetHA), 4) D,L- Met, and 5) no supplemental Met (control group). The Met activities of each Met source were 52, 45.9, 88, and 98%, respectively. All diets were formulated to contain either 0.8% (experiment 1) total Met activity or 0.5% Met activity in the starter and 0.38% Met activity in the grower (experiment 2) (except the control group, 0.35% Met activity), but otherwise met NRC nutrient requirements (NRC, 1994). Diets were fed ad libitum from d 1 to 6 wk of age. There were no significant differences in BW among the treatments. All excreta were collected in litter pans lined with aluminum foil. In experiment 1, at wk 6, broiler excreta were collected for a 24-h period, and 4.5 g of broiler excreta from each treatment group was collected into 15-mL headspace vials. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The volatile sulfur compounds that were identified and quantified in the broiler excreta were H2S, carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl disulfide (CH3SSCH3), and dimethyl trisulfide (CH3SSSCH3). The NaMet treatment group had significantly higher concentrations of H2S, COS, and CH3SSCH3 compared with all other treatment groups. The Liq MetHA group had significantly lower concentrations of H2S, COS, CH3SH, and CH3SSCH3 compared with the other treatment groups. The dry MetHA group significantly had the highest concentration of CH4SH. The D,L-Met treatment group had the significantly highest concentration of CH3SSSCH3 and the lowest concentration of H2S. The control

  16. Protection Against Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens by Regulated Delayed Lysis Salmonella Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-12-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions. PMID:26629620

  17. Dietary Nisin Modulates the Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology and Enhances Growth Performance of the Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI900 and NI2700 groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement for broiler

  18. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  19. The contribution of systemic Escherichia coli infection to the early mortalities of commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kemmett, K; Williams, N J; Chaloner, G; Humphrey, S; Wigley, P; Humphrey, T

    2014-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are a substantial burden to the global poultry industry. APEC cause a syndromic poultry infection known as colibacillosis, which has been previously associated with broiler chickens over 2 weeks old. We recently reported that the intestinal tract of 1-day-old broilers harbours a rich reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli. Prior infections of the reproductive tract of breeders, egg hygiene and transportation all contribute to early colonization of the neonatal gut. Up to one-half of all flock deaths occur in the first week of production, but few data are available describing the contribution of E. coli. In the present study, all dead birds collected on the first daily welfare walk 48 and 72 h after chick placement underwent post-mortem examination. Diseased tissues were selectively cultured for E. coli and isolates subsequently virulotyped using 10 APEC virulence-associated genes (VAGs): astA, iss, irp2, iucD, papC, tsh, vat, cvi, sitA and ibeA. Approximately 70% of birds displayed signs of colibacillosis. Thirty distinct virulence profiles were identified among 157 E. coli. Isolates carried between zero and seven VAGs; ∼ 30% of E. coli isolates carried five to seven VAGs, with 12.7% sharing the same VAG profile (astA, iss, irp2, iucD, tsh, cvi and sitA). Overall, this study demonstrates the significant contribution of E. coli infections to early broiler mortalities. The identification of a diverse E. coli population is unsurprising based on our previous findings. This work emphasizes the need for an effective vaccination programme and provides preliminary data for vaccine production. PMID:24328462

  20. Early-age cold conditioning of broilers: effects of timing and temperature.

    PubMed

    Shahir, M H; Dilmagani, S; Tzschentke, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of early-age cold conditioning (CC) on performance, ascites mortality, thyroid hormones status and immune response (leucocytes count) of broiler chickens. 2. A total of 336 chicks at 2 and 3 d of age were exposed to 20 or 25°C (for 3 or 6 h) in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, while a control group was kept under normal temperature conditions (30°C). Thereafter, both control and cold conditioned birds were reared under standard conditions until 42 d of age. 3. The results showed that performance (weight gain and feed efficiency) was improved by CC at the end of the rearing period. Carcase traits (breast, thigh and abdominal fat percentage) were not affected by different treatments. Heart weight was lower in cold conditioned birds accompanied with lower ascites mortality. Total leucocyte count was higher in CC birds. Higher concentrations of thyroxin (T(4)) were found in plasma of treated groups, while triiodothyronine (T(3)) to T(4) ratio was decreased. 4. In conclusion, it seems that early age CC improves performance and reduces ascites mortality of broilers through altered thyroid hormones metabolism and leucocyte function. According to the results, the best timing for CC of broilers was 20°C for 6 h at the age of 2 d, and no significant benefit was observed by repeated CC. PMID:23130589

  1. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens. PMID:19096064

  2. Effect of dietary fibres on small intestine histomorphology and lipid metabolism in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rahmatnejad, E; Saki, A A

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary fibres on small intestine histomorphology and lipid metabolism in broilers from 1 to 21 day of age. In experiment 1, diets containing insoluble [cellulose (CEL); 2% and 4%] or soluble [carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); 2% and 4%] fibre were fed to broilers from day 1 to 21 post-hatch and ileal tissue was collected at day 21 of age for histological evaluation. In experiment 2, broilers diet was supplemented with 0%, 1% or 2% insoluble fibre (Arbocel) during day 7 to 21 post-hatch and plasma and liver lipid metabolism were evaluated at day 21. In experiment 1, inclusion of CMC reduced body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with others. Intestinal histomorphology was unaffected by CEL, but CMC led to an increase in crypt depth (CD) and serosa thickness and a decrease in villus height (VH), villus width (VW), VH:CD ratio and villus surface area (VSA), rather than control and CEL groups. Treatment did not affect goblet cell type. Moreover, the CMC-fed birds had greater total goblet cell count (GCC) as compared with others. In experiment 2, fibre inclusion was associated with increases in BWG from 7 to 14 day of age and an improvement in FCR, whereas FI was not influenced by treatments. Inclusion of fibre in the diet decreased the weight of the abdominal fat and cholesterol concentrations of liver and plasma. No significant effects on fatty acid composition of liver lipid were observed by fibre supplementation. These findings suggest dietary fibre affects performance, intestinal histomorphology and lipid metabolism in young chicks, which may directly affect poultry feeding strategies. PMID:26667363

  3. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2 = 0.7664, P = 0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2 = 0.6406, P = 0.0001) and food intake (R2 = 0.784, P = 0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  4. Influence of antimicrobial feed additives on broiler commensal posthatch gut microbiota development and performance.

    PubMed

    Torok, Valeria A; Allison, Gwen E; Percy, Nigel J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Hughes, Robert J

    2011-05-01

    The effects of avilamycin, zinc bacitracin, and flavophospholipol on broiler gut microbial community colonization and bird performance in the first 17 days posthatch were investigated. Significant differences in gut microbiota associated with gut section, dietary treatment, and age were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), although no performance-related differences between dietary treatments were detected. Similar age-related shifts in the gut microbiota were identified regardless of diet but varied between the ilea and ceca. Interbird variabilities in ileal bacterial communities were reduced (3 to 7 days posthatch) in chicks fed with feed containing antimicrobial agents. Avilamycin and flavophospholipol had the most consistent effect on gut microbial communities. Operational taxonomic units (OTU) linked to changes in gut microbiota in birds on antimicrobial-supplemented diets were characterized and identified. Some OTUs could be identified to the species level; however, the majority could be only tentatively classified to the genus, family, order, or domain level. OTUs 140 to 146 (Lachnospiraceae), OTU 186/188 (Lactobacillus johnsonii), OTU 220 (Lachnospiraceae), OTUs 284 to 288 (unclassified bacterial spp. or Ruminococcaceae), OTU 296/298 (unclassified bacterium or Clostridiales), and OTU 480/482 (Oxalobacteraceae) were less prevalent in the guts of chicks fed antimicrobial-supplemented diets. OTU 178/180 (Lactobacillus crispatus), OTU 152 (Lactobacillus reuteri or unclassified Clostridiales), OTU 198/200 (Subdoligranulum spp.), and OTU 490/492 (unclassified bacterium or Enterobacteriaceae) were less prevalent in the gut of chicks raised on the antimicrobial-free diet. The identification of key bacterial species influenced by antimicrobial-supplemented feed immediately posthatch may assist in the formulation of diets that facilitate beneficial gut microbial colonization and, hence, the development of alternatives to current

  5. Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Serum Biochemical Variables and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, F. Z.; Zeng, X. G.; Ding, X. L.

    2012-01-01

    This trial was performed to study the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with fermented rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, serum biochemistry variable and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 640 d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments, 4 pens per treatment and 40 birds per pen for a 6-wk feeding trial. In the four treatment groups, fermented RSM replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, and 15%, respectively. On 21 d and 42 d, two birds from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered. Blood samples and sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for measurement of serum biochemical variables and intestinal morphology, respectively. Results showed that body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion (FC) were significantly (p<0.01) poorer for birds fed the 15% fermented RSM diet than those fed with 0, 5 and 10% fermented RSM diets during all periods. Compared with 0 and 5% fermented RSM groups, IgG content in the serum of birds in 10 and 15% fermented RSM groups was improved (p<0.01) urea nitrogen content of serum was reduced (p<0.01) during both growing and finishing periods. However, IgM, phosphorus and calcium levels increased (p<0.05) only during the growing period. Increased (p<0.05) villus height was observed in the duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM. In addition, villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was significantly higher (p<0.01) for birds fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM than for those fed diets with 0, 5 and 15% fermented RSM. The present results suggest that RSM fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative protein source and that it could be safely used replace up to 10% SBM in broiler diets. PMID:25049539

  6. Impact of dietary supplemental methionine sources on sensory measurement of odor-related compounds in broiler excreta.

    PubMed

    Chavez, C; Coufal, C D; Niemeyer, P L; Carey, J B; Lacey, R E; Miller, R K; Beier, R C

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to detect differences in odor characteristics of broiler excreta due to utilization of different supplementary Met sources by a trained human descriptive aroma attribute sensory panel. The 5 treatment groups were no supplemental Met (control group), sodium methioninate aqueous solution, dry Met hydroxy analogue, liquid Met hydroxy analogue, and DL-Met. Two trials were conducted consisting of 5 treatment groups with 3 replications of 13 randomly distributed straight run broiler chicks per pen reared in battery cages. Starter and grower diets were formulated to contain 0.5 and 0.38% Met activity, respectively (except control group, 0.35% Met activity). Excreta were collected for 24 h in litter pans lined with aluminum foil at wk 4, 5, and 6 and analyzed by a trained sensory panel (7 people). Each panelist was given 25 g of manure heated at 27 degrees C for 5 min for sensory analysis. The 13 odor attributes used to determine differences in broiler excreta by the trained sensory panel were ammonia, dirty socks, wet poultry, fermented rotten fruit, hay, musty wet, sharp, sour, urinous, rotten eggs, irritating, pungent, and nauseating. Panelist marked intensities for each attribute ranging from 0 = none and 15 = extremely intense. Each panelist was given 2 replications of each treatment group in a random order each week (total of 10 samples per wk). All data were evaluated by ANOVA using the general linear model procedure of SAS software. No significant differences were observed in BW, feed consumption, or feed conversion among the treatments. The attributes of ammonia, wet poultry, rotten fruit, musty wet, sharp, and pungent differed (P < 0.05) across treatment groups. These findings demonstrate that supplemental Met sources significantly influence odor production in broiler excreta. PMID:15510549

  7. Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.

    PubMed

    Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens. PMID:22912451

  8. Influence of different prebiotics and mode of their administration on broiler chicken performance.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (P<0.05), especially during the first 21 days of life. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were increased upon prebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching. PMID:26936310

  9. A comparison of the effects of different yeast products and antibiotic on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Owens, B; McCracken, K J

    2007-02-01

    1. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the effects of different yeast products, with different nucleotide contents and inclusion rates, on broiler performance and to compare the effects to those observed with an antibiotic growth promoter. 2. Two experiments were carried out over two time replicates, one in individual wire cages and one in group pens. 3. Birds were given a diet based on a commercial formulation, which was split into 7 batches. One batch (C) contained no growth promoter and acted as a negative control, another (AV) contained the antibiotic growth promoter Avilomycin (5 g/tonne) and acted as the positive control. The other batches contained yeast extract 2012 at 100 g/tonne (Y21), yeast extract 2012 at 500 g/tonne (Y25), standard yeast 18 at 100 g/tonne (Y81), standard yeast 18 enriched in nucleotides at 100 g/tonne (Y8N1) and standard yeast 18 enriched in nucleotides at 500 g/tonne (Y8N5). 4. In the penned experiment, 280 Cobb broiler chicks (40 birds/treatment) were randomised to diet and pen position on day of hatch. Birds were fed ad libitum until slaughter at 28 d. Bird performance was monitored during the experimental period. 5. In the individual cage experiment, 63 Cobb broiler chicks (9 birds/treatment) were taken from the pens at 7 d of age and randomised to diet and cage position. Birds were fed ad libitum from d 7 to d 28. A 7-d excreta collection was carried out to determine apparent metabolisable energy (AME) content and nutrient digestibility between d 14 and d 21. Bird intake and weight were monitored weekly during the experimental period. At 28 d the birds were killed and viscosity of jejunal digesta supernatant was determined. 6. In the penned experiment, diet had no significant effect on dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) or gain:feed values during any individual week of the experiment or for the entire experimental period. In the caged experiment, DMI was numerically highest for birds fed Y25 diet over

  10. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  11. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn–soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  12. Phytogenic Feed Additives as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Syed, Basharat; Haldar, Sudipto; Pender, Chasity

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen). The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control (CON), CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g), or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom(®) Poultry) until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the PFA-fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05). Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05). The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA-fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA-fed birds. Overall, both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05). Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy

  13. Quality Assessment of the Breast Meat from WoorimatdagTM and Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Samooel; Lee, Kyung Haeng; Nam, Ki Chang; Jeon, Hee Jun; Choe, Jun Ho

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics that define the quality of WoorimatdagTM (WM, a certified meat-type commercial Korea indigenous chicken breed) and a commercial broiler breed (Ross, CB). Two hundred WM and 200 CB chickens that were 1-d-old and mixed sex were obtained from a commercial hatchery and randomly assigned to floor pens (20 chickens per pen, 3.0×2.0 m) and raised under the same environmental conditions. WM breast meat contained significantly higher crude protein and ash as well as lower crude fat than CB breast meat (p<0.05). WM breast meat had slightly higher alanine, histidine, isoleucine, and glycine as well as lower phenylalanine content than CB breast meat (p<0.05), and the WM breast meat had a low ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid composition (p<0.05). However, arachidonic acid composition was higher in the WM than the CB breast meat. In addition, the inosin-5’-monophosphate content was also higher in the WM compared with the CB breast (p<0.05). The WM breast meat had higher total collagen content compared with CB breast meat. WM soup taste received higher scores with regard to sensory evaluation compared with CB soup (p<0.05). From these results, we conclude that higher amount of protein and flavor precursors and lower amount of fat in the breast meat of WM could be attractive by consumer when compared with CB. PMID:26761506

  14. Evaluation of XPC and prototypes on aflatoxin-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Osweiler, G D; Jagannatha, S; Trampel, D W; Imerman, P M; Ensley, S M; Yoon, I; Moore, D T

    2010-09-01

    Various products and prototypes were added to poultry diets during an aflatoxin challenge on growth and histological parameters. Male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups with 8 replicates/treatment and 3 birds/replicate. Treatments were as follows: 1) negative control containing no aflatoxin (NC); 2) positive control containing aflatoxin (PC); 3) 0.1% glucomannan mycotoxin standard industry ameliorator (STD); 4) 0.1% prototype A, a proprietary mixture of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae product and diatomaceous clay; 5) 0.2% prototype A; 6) 0.15% prototype B, a proprietary mixture of a S. cerevisiae product and diatomaceous clay (PB); 7) 0.0625% XPC (S. cerevisiae fermentation product); and 8) 0.125% XPC (XPC2). All treatments except NC contained 2,280 +/- 102 ng/g of aflatoxin and were fed for 28 d. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly. Livers were collected on d 28, weighed, and used for histopathological evaluation. Beginning weights were similar across treatments, but BW were lower (P /= 0.05) different among the treatment groups. Liver weights relative to BW were higher (P /= 0.05) compared with NC. Overall, BW gain in treatment groups PB and XPC2 was not different from NC and that corresponded to protective effects against liver lesions. Benefits observed during an aflatoxin challenge when broilers were supplemented with XPC, a fermentation product that does not contain any adsorbents, may be attributed to something other than adsorption as a primary

  15. Dietary sodium selenite affects host intestinal and systemic immune response and disease susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Z; Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Bravo, D

    2015-01-01

    1. This study was to evaluate the effects of supplementary dietary selenium (Se) given as sodium selenite on host immune response against necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial broiler chickens. 2. Chicks were fed from hatching on a non-supplemented diet or diets supplemented with different levels of Se (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 Se mg/kg). To induce NE, broiler chickens were orally infected with Eimeria maxima at 14 d of age and then with Clostridium perfringens 4 d later using our previously established NE disease model. 3. NE-associated clinical signs and host protective immunity were determined by body weight changes, intestinal lesion scores, and serum antibodies against α-toxin and necrotic enteritis B (NetB) toxin. The effects of dietary Se on the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8LITAF (lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα-factor), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) SF15, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7), and avian β-defensins (AvBD) 6, 8, and 13 (following NE infection) were analysed in the intestine and spleen. 4. The results showed that dietary supplementation of newly hatched broiler chicks with 0.25 Se mg/kg from hatch significantly reduced NE-induced gut lesions compared with infected birds given a non-supplemented diet. The levels of serum antibody against the NetB toxin in the chicks fed with 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg Se were significantly higher than the non-supplemented control group. The transcripts for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, LITAF, and GPx7, as well as AvBD6, 8, and 13 were increased in the intestine and spleen of Se-supplemented groups, whereas transcript for TNFSF15 was decreased in the intestine. 5. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with optimum levels of Se exerted beneficial effects on host immune response to NE and reduced negative consequence of NE-induced immunopathology. PMID:25387235

  16. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination on growth performance, small intestine morphology, and resident Lactobacillus of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Farnell, Y Z; Peebles, E D; Kiess, A S; Wamsley, K G S; Zhai, W

    2016-06-01

    Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a co