Science.gov

Sample records for 1-m beam trawl

  1. Impact of discards of beam trawl fishing on the nematode community from the Tagus estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Franco, M A; Steyaert, M; Cabral, H N; Tenreiro, R; Chambel, L; Vincx, M; Costa, M J; Vanaverbeke, J

    2008-10-01

    The impact of dead discards, originating from beam trawl fishing on the nematode community from the Tagus estuary was investigated in terms of vertical distribution of the dominant nematode groups. Sediment cores were collected from a mud-flat from the Tagus estuary. Crangoncrangon (Linnaeus, 1758) carcasses were added to the surface of the cores, simulating the settling of dead discards on the sediment. The vertical distribution of the dominant nematode groups was determined up to 4cm deep at four different moments in time post deposition (0, 2, 4 and 6h) and compared to control cores. The C.crangon addition to the sediment led to the formation of black spots and therefore oxygen depleted areas at the sediment surface. The Chromadora/Ptycholaimellus group, normally dominant at the surface layer, migrated downwards due to their high sensibility to toxic conditions. Sabatieria presented the opposite trend and became the dominant group at the surface layer. Since Sabatieria is tolerant to oxygen stressed conditions and high sulphide concentrations, we suggest that it migrated opportunistically towards an unoccupied niche. Daptonema, Metachromadora and Terschellingia did not show any vertical migration, reflecting their tolerance to anoxic and high sulphidic conditions. Our study showed that an accumulation of dead discards at the sediment surface might therefore alter the nematode community vertical distribution. This effect is apparently closely related to toxic conditions in the sediment, induced by the deposition of C.crangon at the sediment surface. These alterations might be temporal and reflect an adaptation of the nematode community to dynamic intertidal environments.

  2. Femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of electron beam deposited dielectrics for 1-m class optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervy, Adrien; Gallais, Laurent; Chériaux, Gilles; Mouricaud, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In order to transport multi-petawatt (PW) femtosecond laser beams with large spectral bandwidth, specific mirrors have to be designed and manufactured. We report on an experimental study of the laser-damage resistance and other optical properties of coating materials deposited in a 1-m class coating chamber. The study is conducted on single-layer coatings deposited by electron beam evaporation at 500 fs. Based on the experience of large optics for nanosecond applications, hafnia and silica are particularly investigated. However, in the case of sub-15 fs, the spectral specifications for PW beam transport mirrors cannot be reached by classical high laser-resistant quarter-wave SiO2/HfO2 stacks. Therefore, we investigate the laser resistance of different dielectrics of interest deposited with electron-beam processes: Al2O3, Y2O3, Sc2O3, HfO2, Ta2O5, TiO2. The influence of multiple pulse irradiations and environmental conditions, such as vacuum and temperature, is studied. With the investigation of multilayer stacks, we also show that there is no difference in behavior when a film is studied as a single layer or embedded in a stack. Based on these results, we were able to optimize high reflective (>99.5%), broadband (300 nm) and high laser-induced damage threshold (2.5 J/cm2) mirrors for PW applications.

  3. Functional gains of including non-commercial epibenthic taxa in coastal beam trawl surveys: A note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brind'Amour, Anik; Rouyer, Armelle; Martin, Jocelyne

    2009-05-01

    The development of ecosystem-based indicators requires the broadening of a view of the community, from fish species to all the species (macrobenthic and fish) correctly captured by a given sampling gear. Many scientific surveys already have such integrated databases. The present note aims to demonstrate that existing databases, herein from dedicated coastal nursery surveys, are actually underexploited. Such databases contain information on non-commercial taxa, which could greatly improve our knowledge on the organisation and functioning of coastal ecosystems. Using two datasets, a "complete" dataset composed of commercial and not-commercial epibenthic trawled species (fish and invertebrate) and a "subset" dataset characterized by commercial and routinely surveyed species (mainly fish and cephalopods), different measures of functional diversity are compared to identify the functional gains of including epibenthic species. The results show that, when included in the analyses, epibenthic taxa provide gains of functional information, associated mainly with the community feeding traits, i.e. organisms composing the primary and secondary consumer levels of the coastal nursery food web. Failure to include some of the primary (zooplanktivores and suspension feeders) and secondary consumers (detritivores-scavengers) in coastal survey analyses may, for instance, hamper our understanding of energy flux between the benthic and water column compartments of these ecosystems. The results also suggest that the exclusion of some taxa associated with these two food web compartments, may lead to the underestimation of the functional redundancy in coastal ecosystems.

  4. The dynamics of small-scale patchiness of plaice and sole as reflected in the catch rates of the Dutch beam trawl fleet and its implications for the fleet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poos, Jan-Jaap; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2007-07-01

    Catch rates of sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the Dutch beam trawl fleet operating in the North Sea show spatio-temporal variation. The variation in catch rates reflects differences in abundance of the species. Up to 45% of the variation in catch rates can be explained by the time of day of the catch, the engine power of the vessel and the migration cycles of the species. Also, spatial covariance was found in the residual variation for both species using variograms and covariance functions. The ranges of the spatial structure were found to be between approximately 20 to 45 nautical miles, indicating patchy distribution of the species. No differences in the ranges of the spatial structures were found between different seasons. Cross-covariance analysis shows the patches lasted up to two weeks. The implication of the spatial pattern in flatfish for the dynamics of effort allocation is discussed.

  5. 78 FR 9024 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing to use turtle excluder devices... (77 FR 27411) that would require all skimmer trawls, pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly... trawls, pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly trawls) will be collectively referred to as...

  6. Trophic look at soft-bottom communities - Short-term effects of trawling cessation on benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannheim, Jennifer; Brey, Thomas; Schröder, Alexander; Mintenbeck, Katja; Knust, Rainer; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2014-01-01

    The trophic structure of the German Bight soft-bottom benthic community was evaluated for potential changes after cessation of bottom trawling. Species were collected with van-Veen grabs and beam trawls. Trophic position (i.e. nitrogen stable isotope ratios, δ15N) and energy flow (i.e. species metabolism approximated by body mass scaled abundance) of dominant species were compared in trawled areas and an area protected from fisheries for 14 months in order to detect trawling cessation effects by trophic characteristics. At the community level, energy flow was lower in the protected area, but we were unable to detect significant changes in trophic position. At the species level energy flow in the protected area was lower for predating/scavenging species but higher for interface feeders. Species trophic positions of small predators/scavengers were lower and of deposit feeders higher in the protected area. Major reasons for trophic changes after trawling cessation may be the absence of artificial and additional food sources from trawling likely to attract predators and scavengers, and the absence of physical sediment disturbance impacting settlement/survival of less mobile species and causing a gradual shift in food availability and quality. Our results provide evidence that species or community energy flow is a good indicator to detect trawling induced energy-flow alterations in the benthic system, and that in particular species trophic properties are suitable to capture subtle and short-term changes in the benthos following trawling cessation.

  7. Species and size selectivity of two midwater trawls used in an acoustic survey of the Alaska Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, Alex; Taylor, Kevin; Williams, Kresimir; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic-trawl (AT) survey methods are widely used to estimate the abundance and distribution of pelagic organisms. This technique relies on estimates of size and species composition from trawl catches along with estimates of the acoustic properties of these animals to convert measurements of acoustic backscatter into animal abundance. However, trawls are selective samplers, and if the catch does not represent the size and species composition of the animals in the acoustic beam the resulting abundance estimates will be biased. We conducted an experiment to quantify trawl selectivity for species encountered during an AT survey of the Alaska Arctic. The pelagic assemblage in this environment was dominated by small young-of-the-year (age-0) fishes and jellyfish, which may be poorly retained in trawls. A large midwater trawl (Cantrawl) and a smaller midwater trawl (modified Marinovich) were used during the survey. The Marinovich was equipped with 8 small-mesh recapture nets which were used to estimate the probability that an individual that enters the trawl is retained. In addition, paired hauls were made with the Cantrawl and Marinovich to estimate the difference in selectivity between the two trawls. A statistical model was developed to combine the catches of the recapture nets and the paired hauls to estimate the length-dependent selectivity of the trawls for the most abundant species (e.g., age-0 fishes and jellyfish). The analysis indicated that there was substantial size and species selectivity: although the modified Marinovich generally had a higher catch per unit effort, many of the animals encountered in this environment were poorly retained by both trawls. The observed size and species selectivity of the trawls can be used to select appropriate nets for sampling pelagic fishes, and correct survey estimates for the biases introduced in the trawl capture process.

  8. 77 FR 27411 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... skimmer trawls, pusher-head trawls, and wing nets (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing to use turtle... (butterfly trawls). For example, on May 8, 2009, NMFS published a notice of intent (NOI) to prepare an... (butterfly trawls) rigged for fishing in Mississippi and Alabama state waters. Before the emergency...

  9. Impacts of trawling on benthic macro-fauna and -flora of the Spencer Gulf prawn fishing grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, Ib; Hammett, Zoe; Lauer, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The overall effects of trawling on benthic habitats and their assemblages are dependent on the distribution and intensity of trawl effort. The benthic habitats of the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are subjected to known variable levels of trawling disturbance recorded from fisher's logbooks. These habitats have not been quantitatively investigated. The aim of the study was firstly to characterise the macro-faunal and -floral assemblages and secondly, to comparatively assess trawl impact by testing the null hypothesis of no differences between five sites exposed to different intensity of trawl effort. The distribution and abundance of benthic macro-fauna and -flora were studied at two sampling resolutions by using beam trawl sampling (˜10,000 m 2) and underwater stereophotography (˜4.5 m 2) at five sites with different levels of trawl disturbance (effort). The results showed that the Spencer Gulf prawn trawling grounds are characterised by sandy sediments with a low content of silt and clay, with the exception of one site with very fine gravel. Biomass, abundance and cover of macro-fauna and -flora were generally low throughout, but with large differences among sites. Biomass, abundance and cover were found to be negatively correlated to both trawl hours from 1994-1998 and during the period of study. ANOSIM and SIMPER analyses using biomass, abundance and percentage cover as variables showed significant differences between sites with eight species or taxonomic groups contributing more than 10% to the observed similarity within sites. The two northern sites were dominated by sponges and the bearded mussel, Trichomya hirsutus, and the southern hammer oyster, Malleus meridianus. Other species that contributed to the similarity within sites were the ascidian, Polycarpa viridis, mobile epifauna (the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and the western king prawn, Penaeus (Melicertus) latisulcatus) and demersal fish species (Degens leatherjacket, Thamnaconus

  10. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Figure 1 of part 660, subpart D. (ii) (6) Midwater (or pelagic) trawl gear. Midwater trawl gear must have... Luis, East San Lucia Bank, Point Conception, Hidden Reef/Kidney Bank (within Cowcod Conservation...

  11. A ‘Simple Anterior Fish Excluder’ (SAFE) for Mitigating Penaeid-Trawl Bycatch

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew J.; Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2015-01-01

    Various plastic strips and sheets (termed ‘simple anterior fish excluders’−SAFEs) were positioned across the openings of penaeid trawls in attempts at reducing the unwanted bycatches of small teleosts. Initially, three SAFEs (a single wire without, and with small and large plastic panels) were compared against a control (no SAFE) on paired beam trawls. All SAFEs maintained targeted Metapenaeus macleayi catches, while the largest plastic SAFE significantly reduced total bycatch by 51% and the numbers of Pomatomus saltatrix, Mugil cephalus and Herklotsichthys castelnaui by up to 58%. A redesigned SAFE (‘continuous plastic’) was subsequently tested (against a control) on paired otter trawls, significantly reducing total bycatch by 28% and P. saltatrix and H. castelnaui by up to 42%. The continuous-plastic SAFE also significantly reduced M. macleayi catches by ~7%, but this was explained by ~5% less wing-end spread, and could be simply negated through otter-board refinement. Further work is required to refine the tested SAFEs, and to quantify species-specific escape mechanisms. Nevertheless, the SAFE concept might represent an effective approach for improving penaeid-trawl selectivity. PMID:25837892

  12. Ideal free distribution or dynamic game? An agent-based simulation study of trawling strategies with varying information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecham, J. A.; Engelhard, G. H.

    2007-10-01

    An ecological economic model of trawling is presented to demonstrate the effect of trawling location choice strategy on net input (rate of economic gain of fish caught per time spent less costs). Fishing location choice is considered to be a dynamic process whereby trawlers chose from among a repertoire of plastic strategies that they modify if their gains fall below a fixed proportion of the mean gains of the fleet as a whole. The distribution of fishing across different areas of a fishery follows an approximate ideal free distribution (IFD) with varying noise due to uncertainty. The least-productive areas are not utilised because initial net input never reaches the mean yield of better areas subject to competitive exploitation. In cases, where there is a weak temporal autocorrelation between fish stocks in a specific location, a plastic strategy of local translocation between trawls mixed with longer-range translocation increases realised input. The trawler can change its translocation strategy in the light of information about recent trawling success compared to its long-term average but, in contrast to predictions of the Marginal Value Theorem (MVT) model, does not know for certain what it will find by moving, so may need to sample new patches. The combination of the two types of translocation mirrored beam-trawling strategies used by the Dutch fleet and the resultant distribution of trawling effort is confirmed by analysis of historical effort distribution of British otter trawling fleets in the North Sea. Fisheries exploitation represents an area where dynamic agent-based adaptive models may be a better representation of the economic dynamics of a fleet than classically inspired optimisation models.

  13. Bottom-trawling along submarine canyons impacts deep sedimentary regimes

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine canyons incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along canyon flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper canyon axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper canyon reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the canyon axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved canyon flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons’ morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20th century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled canyons worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities. PMID:28233856

  14. Bottom-trawling along submarine canyons impacts deep sedimentary regimes.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert

    2017-02-24

    Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine canyons incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along canyon flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper canyon axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper canyon reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the canyon axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved canyon flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons' morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20(th) century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled canyons worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities.

  15. Bottom-trawling along submarine canyons impacts deep sedimentary regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert

    2017-02-01

    Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine canyons incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along canyon flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper canyon axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper canyon reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the canyon axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved canyon flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons’ morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20th century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled canyons worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities.

  16. 50 CFR 660.130 - Trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... selective flatfish trawl net is provided as Figure 1 of part 660, subpart D. (ii) (6) Midwater (or pelagic... San Lucia Bank, Point Conception, Hidden Reef/Kidney Bank (within Cowcod Conservation Area...

  17. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY... turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced five public hearings to be held in...

  18. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl Rationalization... future trawl rationalization program under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP... participants in the Pacific Coast groundfish trawl rationalization program and announcing the databases...

  19. Double passing the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Hubbard, R.; Brault, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple technique for performing the conversion of the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer's dual input/output optical configuration to a double pass configuration that improves spectral resolution by a factor of 2. The modification is made by placing a flat mirror in the output beam from each cat's eye, retroreflecting the beams back through the cat's eyes to the first beam splitter. A single detector is placed at the second input port, which then becomes the instrument's output.

  20. Sidescan-sonar mapping of benthic trawl marks on the shelf and slope off Eureka, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, A.M.; Boehlert, G.W.; Field, M.E.; Mason, J.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Dartnell, P.

    1999-01-01

    The abundance and orientation of trawl marks was quantified over an extensive portion (>2700 km2) of the Eureka, California, outer shelf and slope, an important commercial bottom trawling ground for such high-value species as rockfish, sole, and sablefish. Fishing logbook data indicate that the entire reporting area was trawled about one and a half times on an average annual basis and that some areas were trawled over three times annually. High-resolution sidescan-sonar images of the study area revealed deep gouges on the seafloor, caused by heavy steel trawl doors that act to weigh down and spread open the bottom trawls. These trawl marks are commonly oriented parallel to bathymetric contours and many could be traced for several kilometers. Trawl marks showed a quadratic relationship in relation to water depth, with the greatest number of trawl marks observed at ~400 m. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of trawl marks observed on the sidescan images and the number of annual trawl hours logged within reporting areas. This finding indicates that acoustic remote sensing is a promising independent approach to evaluate fishing effort on a scale consistent with commercial fishing activities. Bottom trawling gear is known to modify seafloor habitats by altering benthic habitat complexity and by removing or damaging infauna and sessile organisms. Identifying the extent of trawling in these areas may help determine the effects of this type of fishing gear on the benthos and develop indices of habitat disturbance caused by fishing activities.

  1. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) trawl limited access fisheries, except American Fisheries Act (AFA) vessels using... for vessels participating in the BSAI trawl limited access fishery, except American Fisheries Act...

  2. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  3. 50 CFR 660.381 - Limited entry trawl fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Figure 1 of part 660, subpart G. (ii) (6) Midwater (or pelagic) trawl gear. Midwater trawl gear must have..., Point Sur Deep, Big Sur Coast/Port San Luis, East San Lucia Bank, Point Conception, Hidden...

  4. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BC01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Reconsideration... proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl...

  5. Size Selection of Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) in Trawls

    PubMed Central

    Krag, Ludvig A.; Herrmann, Bent; Iversen, Svein A.; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Krafft, Bjørn A.

    2014-01-01

    Trawlers involved in the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery use different trawl designs, and very little is known about the size selectivity of the various gears. Size selectivity quantifies a given trawl's ability to catch different sizes of a harvested entity, and this information is crucial for the management of a sustainable fishery. We established a morphological description of krill and used it in a mathematical model (FISHSELECT) to predict the selective potential of diamond meshes measuring 5–40 mm with mesh opening angles (oa) ranging from 10 to 90°. We expected the majority of krill to encounter the trawl netting in random orientations due to high towing speeds and the assumed swimming capabilities of krill. However, our results indicated that size selectivity of krill is a well-defined process in which individuals encounter meshes at an optimal orientation for escapement. The simulation-based results were supported by data from experimental trawl hauls and underwater video images of the mesh geometry during fishing. Herein we present predictions for the size selectivity of a range of netting configurations relevant to the krill fishery. The methods developed and results described are important tools for selecting optimal trawl designs for krill fishing. PMID:25105960

  6. Size selection of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in trawls.

    PubMed

    Krag, Ludvig A; Herrmann, Bent; Iversen, Svein A; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Krafft, Bjørn A

    2014-01-01

    Trawlers involved in the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) fishery use different trawl designs, and very little is known about the size selectivity of the various gears. Size selectivity quantifies a given trawl's ability to catch different sizes of a harvested entity, and this information is crucial for the management of a sustainable fishery. We established a morphological description of krill and used it in a mathematical model (FISHSELECT) to predict the selective potential of diamond meshes measuring 5-40 mm with mesh opening angles (oa) ranging from 10 to 90°. We expected the majority of krill to encounter the trawl netting in random orientations due to high towing speeds and the assumed swimming capabilities of krill. However, our results indicated that size selectivity of krill is a well-defined process in which individuals encounter meshes at an optimal orientation for escapement. The simulation-based results were supported by data from experimental trawl hauls and underwater video images of the mesh geometry during fishing. Herein we present predictions for the size selectivity of a range of netting configurations relevant to the krill fishery. The methods developed and results described are important tools for selecting optimal trawl designs for krill fishing.

  7. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  8. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  9. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  10. 50 CFR 660.114 - Trawl fishery-economic data collection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trawl fishery-economic data collection... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.114 Trawl fishery—economic data collection... 2009 through 2010. (b) Economic data collection program requirements. The following...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear This figure shows the location of elevating devices in the elevated section of modified nonpelagic trawl gear, as specified...

  12. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  13. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  14. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  15. 50 CFR 622.25 - Exemptions for Gulf groundfish trawling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.25 Exemptions for Gulf groundfish trawling. Gulf... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exemptions for Gulf groundfish...

  16. 50 CFR 622.47 - Gulf groundfish trawl fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf groundfish trawl fishery. 622.47 Section 622.47 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH...

  17. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  18. 50 CFR 660.111 - Trawl fishery-definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl fishery-definitions. 660.111 Section 660.111 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast...

  19. 50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. 654.23 Section 654.23 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.23 Southwest...

  20. 50 CFR 622.47 - Gulf groundfish trawl fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... closure. (b) Other provisions of this part notwithstanding, a dealer in a Gulf state is exempt from the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf groundfish trawl fishery. 622.47... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH...

  1. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2014-11-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 9.1 million liters of diesel to land 342.3 million kilograms of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.023-0.031 l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 200-900% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 6.69 GgC to the atmosphere, between 2300 and 3300 tons CO2 per year.

  2. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2016-06-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 141.5millionl of diesel to land 342.3millionkg of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.36-0.48l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 316-1025% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 104.07GgC to the atmosphere, between 36,800-49,500tons CO2 per year.

  3. Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Selectivity and its Influence on Acoustic-Based Fish Population Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kresimir

    Trawls are used extensively during fisheries abundance surveys to derive estimates of fish density and, in the case of acoustic-based surveys, to identify acoustically sampled fish populations. However, trawls are selective in what fish they retain, resulting in biased estimates of density, species, and size compositions. Selectivity of the midwater trawl used in acoustic-based surveys of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) was evaluated using multiple methods. The effects of trawl selectivity on the acoustic-based survey abundance estimates and the stock assessment were evaluated for the Gulf of Alaska walleye pollock population. Selectivity was quantified using recapture, or pocket, nets attached to the outside of the trawl. Pocket net catches were modeled using a hierarchical Bayesian model to provide uncertainty in selectivity parameter estimates. Significant under-sampling of juvenile pollock by the midwater trawl was found, with lengths at 50% retention ranging from 14--26 cm over three experiments. Escapement was found to be light dependent, with more fish escaping in dark conditions. Highest escapement rates were observed in the aft of the trawl near to the codend though the bottom panel of the trawl. The behavioral mechanisms involved in the process of herding and escapement were evaluated using stereo-cameras, a DIDSON high frequency imaging sonar, and pocket nets. Fish maintained greater distances from the trawl panel during daylight, suggesting trawl modifications such as increased visibility of netting materials may evoke stronger herding responses and increased retention of fish. Selectivity and catchability of pollock by the midwater trawl was also investigated using acoustic density as an independent estimate of fish abundance to compare with trawl catches. A modeling framework was developed to evaluate potential explanatory factors for selectivity and catchability. Selectivity estimates were dependent on which vessel was used for the survey

  4. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... permits from the groundfish trawl fishery and associated corollary fisheries of Dungeness crab and pink... audited or reviewed financial statements, worksheets, tax returns, invoices, receipts, and other...

  5. The impact of shrimp trawling and associated sediment resuspension in mud dominated, shallow estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.; Gill, Gary A.; Lehman, Ronald D.; Warnken, Kent W.

    2006-07-18

    To address the relative importance of shrimp trawling on seabed resuspension and bottom characteristics in shallow estuaries, a series of disturbance and monitoring experiments were conducted at a bay bottom mud site (2.5 m depth) in Galveston Bay, Texas in July 1998 and May 1999. Based on pre- and post-trawl sediment profiles of 7Be; pore water dissolved oxygen and sulfide concentration; and bulk sediment properties, it was estimated that the trawl rig, including the net, trawl doors, and ‘‘tickler chain,’’ excavate the seabed to a maximum depth of approximately 1.5 cm, with most areas displaying considerably less disturbance. Water column profile data in the turbid plume left by the trawl in these underconsolidated muds (85e90% porosity; <0.25 kPa undrained shear strength) demonstrate that suspended sediment inventories of up to 85e90 mg/cm2 are produced immediately behind the trawl net; an order of magnitude higher than pre-trawl inventories and comparable to those observed during a 9e10 m/s wind event at the study site. Plume settling and dispersion caused suspended sediment inventories to return to pre-trawl values about 14 min after trawl passage in two separate experiments, indicating particles re-settle primarily as flocs before they can be widely dispersed by local currents. As a result of the passage of the trawl rig across the seabed, shear strength of the sediment surface showed no significant increase, suggesting that bed armoring is not taking place and the trawled areas will not show an increase in critical shear stress.

  6. Satellite-based quantification of the bottom trawling induced sediment resuspension over an entire shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberle, F. J.; Cheriton, O. M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of bottom trawling activities on continental shelves has been a topic of interest for both fishery resource studies and ecological impact studies for a while. However, the impact of demersal fishing gear was almost exclusively studied from a perspective of its effects on benthic fauna, but recently it has also attracted attention due to its profound impact on sediments. Here we present the first study to quantify the trawling-induced sediment resuspension effect by combining satellite-based spatial patterns of bottom trawling with quantitative measurements of induced sediment plumes. This study examined high-resolution GPS vessel monitoring data from one year (2011-2012) to quantify the sedimentary budget caused by bottom trawling activity for the entire NW Iberian shelf, an area that is widely affected by chronic (continuous and intensive) commercial bottom trawling and is exemplary for many other narrow shelves worldwide. By filtering the GPS data by vessel type, vessel speed, and geometry of the trawl path, we resolved geographically detailed bottom trawling activities with varying local trawling intensities depending both on legal restrictions and bedrock geomorphology. Initial results show that trawling-induced resuspended sediments mark a significant if not dominant factor for a source to sink sedimentary budget, as they are calculated to be approximately two times as large as fluvial sedimentary input to the shelf. Ultimately, these results not only allow for a trawling affected sediment budget but also significantly help with marine management decisions by allowing to predict the mobilization and transport of sediment caused by bottom trawling gear at the level of a specific fishing fleet or ecosystem.

  7. 30 CFR 250.1741 - If I drag a trawl across a site, what requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) You must drag the trawl in a grid-like pattern as shown in the following table: For a— You must drag..., or manifold 600-foot-radius circle centered on the structure location. (b) You must trawl 100...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1741 - If I drag a trawl across a site, what requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 250.1740, you must meet all of the requirements of this section. (a) You must drag the trawl in a grid... centered on the structure location. (b) You must trawl 100 percent of the limits described in paragraph...

  9. The effects of trawling on the benthic fauna of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rostad, T; Hansen, K L

    2001-12-01

    Four van Veen grab replicates where collected to sample macrofauna (organism retained on a 500 micron mesh sieve) at four stations in the Gulf of Nicoya, during October 24, 1997, January 16 and April 30, 1998. This information was used to search for any effects of trawling on the benthic fauna. Two stations where located in a trawled area, and two stations where in a protected area. Diversity (H') varied from 2.01 to 3.52 in the trawled area and from 2.13 to 2.78 in the protected area. Diversity was generally higher in the trawled area, and this was in contradiction to what we would have expected from other studies where the trend has been that trawling reduces diversity. Brittlestars and lancelets seemed to be the groups mostly harmed by the trawling, while amphipods where more abundant in trawled areas. The multivariate analyses did not reveal the patterns of faunal change as well as we hoped. This is surely because of our lack of more replicate samples. The multivariate analyses are easily confounded when few sites are analyzed. We have found differences in the type of fauna found in trawled and protected areas and, considering the differences in environmental variables in our stations and our lack of replication, this indicates that there are differences and a larger investigation is in order to reveal its magnitude.

  10. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 679—Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area ER30NO09.000...

  15. Effects of bottom trawling on the Ebro continental shelf sedimentary system (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanques, Albert; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    A monitoring effort to address the physical effects of bottom trawling was conducted on the Ebro prodeltaic mud belt during the RESPONSE project. The monitoring was carried out for 14 months covering periods of different trawling intensities and a close season for the trawling fleet. The seabed morphology was studied by side-scan sonar and sediment texture and organic carbon content were analysed. Suspended sediment vertical distribution was recorded by CTD+turbidity hydrographic profiles and sediment transport was computed using time series from moored turbidimeters and current meters. The results show that the seabed of the fishing ground is strongly affected by scraping and ploughing induced by bottom trawling. Part of the finer fraction of the prodeltaic mud resuspended by trawling is winnowed, increasing the silt content of the settling sediment and also near-bottom turbidity. Sediment resuspended by trawling is incorporated in the bottom nepheloid layer and transported across- and along-shelf, increasing sediment fluxes. Trawling also induces an increase in the organic carbon content in the bottom sediment. All these effects induced by trawling have occurred during the last few decades, changing natural conditions in the fishing ground.

  16. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 223—TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl ER15OC99.001...

  17. Distribution of Bottom Trawling Effort in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengmao; Jin, Shaofei; Zhang, Heng; Fan, Wei; Tang, Fenghua; Yang, Shenglong

    2016-01-01

    Bottom trawling is one of the most efficient fishing activities, but serious and persistent ecological issues have been observed by fishers, scientists and fishery managers. Although China has applied the Beidou fishing vessel position monitoring system (VMS) to manage trawlers since 2006, little is known regarding the impacts of trawling on the sea bottom environments. In this study, continuous VMS data of the 1403 single-rig otter trawlers registered in the Xiangshan Port, 3.9% of the total trawlers in China, were used to map the trawling effort in 2013. We used the accumulated distance (AD), accumulated power distance (APD), and trawling intensity as indexes to express the trawling efforts in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS). Our results show that all three indexes had similar patterns in the YS and ECS, and indicated a higher fishing effort of fishing grounds that were near the port. On average, the seabed was trawled 0.73 times in 2013 over the entire fishing region, and 51.38% of the total fishing grounds were with no fishing activities. Because of VMS data from only a small proportion of Chinese trawlers was calculated fishing intensity, more VMS data is required to illustrate the overall trawling effort in China seas. Our results enable fishery managers to identify the distribution of bottom trawling activities in the YS and ECS, and hence to make effective fishery policy. PMID:27855215

  18. 76 FR 74725 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...This action implements revisions to the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program (program), a catch share program, and includes regulations that affect all commercial sectors (limited entry trawl, limited entry fixed gear, and open access) managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action includes regulatory amendments to further implement......

  19. 50 CFR 660.337 - Trawl rationalization program - data collection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.337 Trawl rationalization program - data collection... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl rationalization program - data collection requirements. 660.337 Section 660.337 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND...

  20. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.050...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.050...

  3. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 26 to Part 679 - Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear 26 Figure 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 26 Figure 26 to Part 679—Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear ER06OC10.050...

  5. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  6. 50 CFR Table 51 to Part 679 - Modified Gear Trawl Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Gear Trawl Zone 51 Table 51 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Table 51 Table 51 to Part 679—Modified Gear Trawl Zone Longitude Latitude 171 45.00 W 61 00.00 N 169...

  7. 77 FR 11412 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  8. 78 FR 18528 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  9. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... Pacific cod total allowable catch allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  10. 77 FR 19147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... cod total allowable catch (TAC) allocated to trawl catcher vessels in the BSAI. DATES: Effective...

  11. 78 FR 11790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Western Regulatory Area...

  12. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. After the effective...

  13. 76 FR 20891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  14. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) for 48 hours. This action is...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the GOA under Sec. 679.21(d)(7)(i) on September 3, 2011...

  15. 75 FR 16359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  16. 76 FR 22057 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod allocated to catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI....

  17. 75 FR 12463 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  18. 76 FR 18663 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management... cod allowable catch (TAC) specified for catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. DATES:...

  19. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY...-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully... 679. NMFS prohibited directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear in the...

  20. 77 FR 19564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using trawl gear in the Central Regulatory Area...

  1. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan. PMID:22707908

  2. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000-2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  3. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberle, Ferdinand K.J.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hanebuth, Till J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr− 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  4. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr- 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  5. Benthic microbial abundance and activities in an intensively trawled ecosystem (Thermaikos Gulf, Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Pusceddu, Antonio; Tselepides, Anastasios; Polychronaki, Thalia; Giannakourou, Antonia; Fiordelmondo, Carla; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Danovaro, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    Abundance of benthic bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates, extracellular enzymatic activities, bacterial C production, C mineralisation and sediment community oxygen consumption rates were measured in the Thermaikos Gulf (Northeastern Mediterranean), before (September 2001), and during intense trawling activities (October 2001 and February 2002). The biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter has revealed that bottom trawling had an effect on the trophic state of Thermaikos Gulf. Changes on the benthic microbial food web were also recorded, during the three sampling seasons. Even though trawling-induced sediment resuspension did not alter significantly the abundance of the microbial components, with the exception of the most impacted station, it determined changes regarding their relative importance. Thus, the ratios of bacterium to nanoflagellates and ciliate to nanoflagellates abundance increased in the trawled stations, causing a sudden increase in bacterial C production, in comparison to the non-trawled station. Four months later, the effects of trawling on the microbial food web were less evident, masked possibly by the drastic decrease in the water temperature. The results of the present work suggest that bottom trawling induces alteration of the sedimentological variables and can be considered as a factor affecting the function of the microbial food web in marine coastal ecosystems. These alterations cause faster mobilisation of organic C buried in the sediment and increase nutrient concentrations and availability in the system, thus inducing an effect that could lead to coastal eutrophication.

  6. Efficacy of a benthic trawl for sampling small-bodied fishes in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.P.; Barko, V.A.; Scheibe, J.S.; Hrabik, R.A.; Ostendorf, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study from 1998 to 2001 to determine the efficacy of a benthic trawl designed to increase species detection and reduce the incidence of zero catches of small-bodied fishes. We modified a standard two-seam slingshot balloon trawl by covering the entire trawl with a small-mesh cover. After completing 281 hauls with the modified (Missouri) trawl, we discovered that most fish passed through the body of the standard trawl and were captured in the cover. Logistic regression indicated no noticeable effect of the cover on the catch entering the standard portion of the modified trawl. However, some fishes (e.g., larval sturgeons Scaphirhynchus spp. and pallid sturgeon S. albus) were exclusively captured in the small-mesh cover, while the catch of small-bodied adult fish (e.g., chubs Macrhybopsis spp.) was significantly improved by use of the small-mesh cover design. The Missouri trawl significantly increased the number and species of small-bodied fishes captured over previously used designs and is a useful method for sampling the benthic fish community in moderate- to large-size river systems.

  7. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species.

  8. Overview of the HL-1M Tokamak Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yong; Wang Enyao; Ding Xuantong; Yan Longwen; Qian Shangjie; Yan Jiancheng

    2002-07-15

    Experimental progress with the HL-1M tokamak has been made in many areas including confinement improvement, auxiliary heating, plasma fueling, and wall conditionings. An H-mode induced by a biased electrode was obtained with the formation of an internal transport barrier at the region of r/a {approx} 0.4 to 0.5. Confinement improvement by lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) was extensively investigated. Confinement improvement seems to be related to the production of the radial electron field during LHCD. In off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), double sawteeth in soft X-ray radiation were observed, which implies that reversed magnetic shear could be formed during ECRH. At higher ECRH power, when the resonance position is near the q = 1 surface, fishbone instability was observed and investigated. An eight-shot pellet injector was used for the experiments. The pellet ablation process was investigated with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and an H{sub {alpha}} emission detector array. Clearly, asymmetry in the pellet cloud was observed in both the toroidal and poloidal directions. It has been found that the pellet velocity slows down clearly after the pellet enters the plasma. The density limit has been investigated on HL-1M at different wall conditionings with three kinds of fueling methods. It was found that a higher density limit could be achieved under the following conditions: (a) a strong reduction of the impurity content after siliconization and (b) a peaked density profile with pellet injection and/or supersonic molecular beam injection. With a neutral beam injection (NBI) system of 1 MW, preliminary results of NBI experiments were obtained with an increase of ion temperature from 450 to 700 eV.

  9. Marine litter in bottom trawls off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-10-15

    Benthic marine litter along the Portuguese coast, was recorded in 14 trips on stern trawlers covering a distance of 2117 km and an area of 56.2 km(2), average depth range 90-349 m. 2034 items of marine litter were registered, 76% were plastics and 38.6% were originated from fishing related activities. Plastic was present in all the trawls and had the highest average density of all litter categories, 50 items km(-2). The highest density of marine litter (178.9 ± 64.0 items km(-2)) was found in the proximity of the Tagus river mouth, probably related to the high population density in the Lisbon metropolitan area. This study highlights the need to raise fishermen awareness for the adoption of good environmental practices that will contribute to the reduction of marine litter.

  10. Chronic and intensive bottom trawling impairs deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Bianchelli, Silvia; Martín, Jacobo; Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Masqué, Pere; Danovaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Bottom trawling has many impacts on marine ecosystems, including seafood stock impoverishment, benthos mortality, and sediment resuspension. Historical records of this fishing practice date back to the mid-1300s. Trawling became a widespread practice in the late 19th century, and it is now progressively expanding to greater depths, with the concerns about its sustainability that emerged during the first half of the 20th century now increasing. We show here that compared with untrawled areas, chronically trawled sediments along the continental slope of the north-western Mediterranean Sea are characterized by significant decreases in organic matter content (up to 52%), slower organic carbon turnover (ca. 37%), and reduced meiofauna abundance (80%), biodiversity (50%), and nematode species richness (25%). We estimate that the organic carbon removed daily by trawling in the region under scrutiny represents as much as 60–100% of the input flux. We anticipate that such an impact is causing the degradation of deep-sea sedimentary habitats and an infaunal depauperation. With deep-sea trawling currently conducted along most continental margins, we conclude that trawling represents a major threat to the deep seafloor ecosystem at the global scale. PMID:24843122

  11. Patterns of Dolphin Bycatch in a North-Western Australian Trawl Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Simon J.; Tyne, Julian A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel - one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day – the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) - the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  12. Patterns of dolphin bycatch in a north-western Australian trawl fishery.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Tyne, Julian A; Kobryn, Halina T; Bejder, Lars; Pollock, Kenneth H; Loneragan, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    The bycatch of small cetaceans in commercial fisheries is a global wildlife management problem. We used data from skippers' logbooks and independent observers to assess common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) bycatch patterns between 2003 and 2009 in the Pilbara Trawl Fishery, Western Australia. Both datasets indicated that dolphins were caught in all fishery areas, across all depths and throughout the year. Over the entire datasets, observer reported bycatch rates (n = 52 dolphins in 4,124 trawls, or 12.6 dolphins/1,000 trawls) were ca. double those reported by skippers (n = 180 dolphins in 27,904 trawls, or 6.5 dolphins/1,000 trawls). Generalised Linear Models based on observer data, which better explained the variation in dolphin bycatch, indicated that the most significant predictors of dolphin catch were: (1) vessel--one trawl vessel caught significantly more dolphins than three others assessed; (2) time of day--the lowest dolphin bycatch rates were between 00:00 and 05:59; and (3) whether nets included bycatch reduction devices (BRDs)--the rate was reduced by ca. 45%, from 18.8 to 10.3 dolphins/1,000 trawls, after their introduction. These results indicated that differences among vessels (or skippers' trawling techniques) and dolphin behavior (a diurnal pattern) influenced the rates of dolphin capture; and that spatial or seasonal adjustments to trawling effort would be unlikely to significantly reduce dolphin bycatch. Recent skipper's logbook data show that dolphin bycatch rates have not declined since those reported in 2006, when BRDs were introduced across the fishery. Modified BRDs, with top-opening escape hatches from which dolphins might escape to the surface, may be a more effective means of further reducing dolphin bycatch. The vulnerability of this dolphin population to trawling-related mortality cannot be assessed in the absence of an ongoing observer program and without information on trawler-associated dolphin community size

  13. Spatial variability of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities in northern Sicily (Western Mediterranean): Contrasting trawled vs. untrawled areas.

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Fanelli, E; D'Anna, G; Pipitone, C; Vizzini, S; Mazzola, A; Badalamenti, F

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the impact of bottom trawl fishing on the macrobenthic communities inhabiting the coastal terrigenous mud off the northern coast of Sicily (Western Mediterranean). Two intensely trawled gulfs were compared with two gulfs from which trawling has been excluded for 15 years. The results show a significant effect of trawling on the faunal assemblage and when comparing the mean biomass and the whole isotopic composition of the benthic communities. A similar pattern, although not significant, was found for total abundance, biomass, production/biomass ratio and diversity. Higher abundance and lower biomass were found in the untrawled areas, attributable to the presence of more numerous yet smaller individuals, possibly a consequence of more abundant larger predators that are not removed by trawling, and consequent higher predatory pressure on the benthic macrofauna. The SIMPER analysis evidenced a dominance of burrowing deposit feeding worms (Paraonidae and Cossuridae) in trawled areas, as a result of increased mechanical alteration and hence more organic matter available as food. In contrast, the response to trawling as drawn by the use of trophic markers (i.e., stable isotopes) was less clear. While δ(15)N of benthic taxa did not vary significantly between untrawled and trawled areas, δ(13)C was higher in trawled areas possibly due to high sediment resuspension and consequent intense microbial activity. Mixing models confirmed higher reliance to a detritus-based food web for benthic organisms in the trawled areas. Standard Ellipse Areas (SEAc) as a measure of community niche width were slightly larger in trawled areas, likely due to higher generalism triggered by alteration/removal of the original benthic community.

  14. Deciphering the lithological consequences of bottom trawling to sedimentary habitats on the shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Nelson, Robert K.; Baasch, Benjamin; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Widespread bottom trawling on the NW Iberian shelf causes chronic sediment and habitat disturbance. The few studies that have investigated vessel-modified sedimentary-structure and texture of the seabed have typically classified their results as being either impacted by trawling or not. This study indicates that bottom trawling can result in a sequence of vastly different effects to the lithology of seabed sediment, which have in turn different ecological consequences. Here, we combined very high-resolution spatial bottom-trawling data with sedimentological (grain size, porosity) and geochemical datasets (excess 210Pb, 3D petroleum fingerprinting) to study sediment disturbance, including sorting and mixing. Our results were used to develop five conceptual disturbance scenarios: minimal seabed effects, sediment overturning, complete sediment mixing, sediment grading and layering, and loss of sediment. Considering that bottom trawling is a widespread and growing global fishing technique, such impacts need to be considered in the management of habitat conservation as well as in the reconstruction of late Holocene climate history from shallow-water deposits, not just on the NW Iberian shelf, but also globally.

  15. Trawling disturbance on the isotopic signature of a structure-building species, the sea urchin Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Irusta, José M.; Preciado, Izaskun; López-López, Lucia; Punzón, Antonio; Cartes, Joan E.; Serrano, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Bottom trawling is one of the main sources of anthropogenic disturbance in benthic habitats with important direct and indirect effects on the ecosystem functional diversity. In this study, the effect of this impact on a structure-building species, the sea urchin Gracilechinus acutus, was studied in the Central Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) comparing its isotopic signature and additional population descriptors across different trawling pressures. Trawling disturbance had a significant effect on the studied descriptors. In trawling areas, this urchin showed significantly lower values of biomass and mean size and significantly higher values of fullness index. Moreover, the trawling disturbance effect was also significant in the isotopic signature of G. acutus. Urchins inhabiting untrawled areas showed significant lower values of δ15N than urchins dwelling areas under trawling pressure. The urchins' isotopic enrichment increased along the species ontogeny regardless of the trawling effort level. Stable isotope analyses are a suitable tool to detect trawling disturbance on the trophic pathways but do not suffice to explain these changes, especially if there is a lack of baseline information.

  16. SUMMER FISH COMMUNITY OF THE COASTAL NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO: CHARACTGERIZATION OF A LARGE-SCALE TRAWL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the trawled fish assemblage collected during 1992 - 1994 at 119 locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The 367 collection sites were located adjacent to five states and represented seven estuarine categories. Fish were collected using an otter trawl durin...

  17. Trawling-induced alterations of deep-sea sediment accumulation rates during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Paradis, S.; Masque, P.; Martin, J.; Juan, X.; Palanques, A.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial bottom trawling causes direct physical disturbance of the marine sedimentary environments by scraping and ploughing the seabed, generating periodic resuspension of surface sediments. However, the quantification of the sediment that is removed by trawling and exported across the continental margin remains largely unaddressed, and the preservation of the signal of such impacts in the geological record have been mostly overlooked. The analysis of sediment cores collected along the Catalan margin (NW Mediterranean) has allowed evaluating the contribution of this anthropogenic activity to the present-day sediment dynamics. Sediment cores at intensively trawled sites are characterized by over-consolidated sediments with lower 210Pb surface concentrations and inventories that indicate widespread erosion of recent sedimentary deposits. In turn, combined 210Pb and 137Cs chronologies indicate a significant increase of sediment accumulation rates within submarine canyon environments since the 1970s, coincidently with a strong impulse in the industrialization of the trawling fleets of this region. Two sampling sites that exhibited high sediment accumulation rates (0.6-0.7 cm/y) were reoccupied 1-2 decades after the first studies and revealed a second and even larger increase of sediment accumulation rates (>2 cm/y) occurring at the beginning of the XXI century. This recent change has been attributed to a preferential displacement of the trawling fleet towards fishing grounds surrounding submarine canyons and, also, to technical improvements in trawling vessels, presumably related to financial subsidies provided to the fishing sector. The alteration of sediment accumulation rates described in this continental margin may occur in many regions of the World's oceans given the wide geographical distribution of this human activity, and therefore, it could represent a potential marker of the Anthropocene in deep-sea environments.

  18. Use of a fishery-independent trawl survey to evaluate distribution patterns of subadult sharks in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the utility of a fishery-independent trawl survey for assessing a potential multispecies shark nursery in Georgia's nearshore and inshore waters. A total of 234 subadult sharks from six species were captured during 85 of 216 trawls. Catch rates and size distributions for subadult sharks and the ratio of neonates to juveniles were consistent among areas. The highest concentrations of subadult sharks occurred in creeks and sounds. Species composition varied among areas. The Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae was the most abundant species in sound and nearshore stations, whereas the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo was the most abundant species in creeks. The aggregate of other species occurred with higher frequency in the sounds and nearshore. Sampling characteristics of the trawl survey were compared with those from a fishery-independent longline survey of subadult sharks to assess the similarity of the two gears. A total of 193 subadult sharks from seven species were captured during 57 of 96 longline sets, whereas 52 subadults from four species were captured during 20 of 48 trawls. Selectivity and efficiency differed between the two gears. The trawl had lower catch rates, caught smaller sharks, and encountered a different suite of species than the longline. General seasonal trends in relative abundance also differed between the two gears; the longline showed an increasing trend in abundance, whereas the trawl showed a stable trend. Although trawls were not found to be efficient for sampling subadult sharks from most species, they can be a useful source of supplemental data.

  19. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D—Diagram of Selective Flatfish...

  3. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... swinging or fanning of the tail.” (2) (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will...

  4. Evaluating ecosystem-based management options: Effects of trawling in Torres Strait, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Nick; Pantus, Francis; Welna, Andrzej; Butler, Alan

    2008-09-01

    A suite of management options for a prawn trawl fishery in Torres Strait, Australia was assessed for impacts on the benthic fauna using a dynamic management strategy evaluation approach. The specification of the management options was gained through consultation with stakeholders. Data for the model was drawn from several sources: the fleet data from fishery logbooks and satellite vessel monitoring systems, benthic depletion rates from trawl-down experiments, benthic recovery rates from post-experiment recovery monitoring studies, and benthic distribution from large-scale benthic surveys. Although there were large uncertainties in the resulting indicators, robust measures relevant to management were obtained by taking ratios relative to the status quo. The management control with the biggest effect was total effort; reducing trawl effort always led to increases in benthic faunal density of up to 10%. Spatial closures had a smaller benefit of up to 2%. The effect of closing a set of buffer zones around reefs to trawling was indistinguishable from the status quo option. Closing a larger area, however, was largely beneficial especially for sea cucumbers. When the spatial distributions of fauna prior to fishing were accounted for, fauna with distributions positively correlated with effort improved relative to those negatively correlated. The reduction in prawn catch under effort reduction scenarios could be ameliorated by introducing temporal closures over the full-moon period.

  5. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... swinging or fanning of the tail.” (2) (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will...

  6. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  7. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  8. 50 CFR 660.333 - Open access non-groundfish trawl fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... engaged in fishing for pink shrimp, ridgeback prawns, California halibut, or sea cucumbers. Trip limits for groundfish retained in the ridgeback prawn, California halibut, or sea cucumber fisheries are in... the tail.” (d) Participation in the sea cucumber fishery. A trawl vessel will be considered to...

  9. 76 FR 54887 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... non-groundfish trawl fishery for pink shrimp because regulations do not specify a requirement to... for the state to be able to collect excise taxes and fees. The ex-vessel value will be also used in... revenue and tax purposes as required by the states. Even though the first receiver site license...

  10. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...This action revises several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations in response to a court order requiring the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. Additionally, NMFS......

  11. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 660... - Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagram of Selective Flatfish Trawl 1 Figure 1 to Part 660, Subpart D Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Part 223 - TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TED Extension in Summer Flounder Trawl 6 Figure 6 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...

  14. Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples Correlate with Trawl Catches of Subarctic, Deepwater Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Møller, Peter Rask; Sigsgaard, Eva Egelyng; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Jørgensen, Ole Ankjær; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188–918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were found with both trawling and eDNA, while three families were found only with eDNA and two families were found only with trawling. Key commercial fish species for Greenland were the most abundant species in both eDNA reads and biomass catch, and interpolation of eDNA abundances between sampling sites showed good correspondence with catch sizes. Environmental DNA sequence reads from the fish assemblages correlated with biomass and abundance data obtained from trawling. Interestingly, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) showed high abundance of eDNA reads despite only a single specimen being caught, demonstrating the relevance of the eDNA approach for large species that can probably avoid bottom trawls in most cases. Quantitative detection of marine fish using eDNA remains to be tested further to ascertain whether this technique is able to yield credible results for routine application in fisheries. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that eDNA reads can be used as a qualitative and quantitative proxy for marine fish assemblages in deepwater oceanic habitats. This relates

  15. Environmental DNA from Seawater Samples Correlate with Trawl Catches of Subarctic, Deepwater Fishes.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Møller, Peter Rask; Sigsgaard, Eva Egelyng; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Jørgensen, Ole Ankjær; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    Remote polar and deepwater fish faunas are under pressure from ongoing climate change and increasing fishing effort. However, these fish communities are difficult to monitor for logistic and financial reasons. Currently, monitoring of marine fishes largely relies on invasive techniques such as bottom trawling, and on official reporting of global catches, which can be unreliable. Thus, there is need for alternative and non-invasive techniques for qualitative and quantitative oceanic fish surveys. Here we report environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding of seawater samples from continental slope depths in Southwest Greenland. We collected seawater samples at depths of 188-918 m and compared seawater eDNA to catch data from trawling. We used Illumina sequencing of PCR products to demonstrate that eDNA reads show equivalence to fishing catch data obtained from trawling. Twenty-six families were found with both trawling and eDNA, while three families were found only with eDNA and two families were found only with trawling. Key commercial fish species for Greenland were the most abundant species in both eDNA reads and biomass catch, and interpolation of eDNA abundances between sampling sites showed good correspondence with catch sizes. Environmental DNA sequence reads from the fish assemblages correlated with biomass and abundance data obtained from trawling. Interestingly, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) showed high abundance of eDNA reads despite only a single specimen being caught, demonstrating the relevance of the eDNA approach for large species that can probably avoid bottom trawls in most cases. Quantitative detection of marine fish using eDNA remains to be tested further to ascertain whether this technique is able to yield credible results for routine application in fisheries. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that eDNA reads can be used as a qualitative and quantitative proxy for marine fish assemblages in deepwater oceanic habitats. This relates

  16. Sensitivity of macrobenthic secondary production to trawling in the English sector of the Greater North Sea: A biological trait approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolam, S. G.; Coggan, R. C.; Eggleton, J.; Diesing, M.; Stephens, D.

    2014-01-01

    Demersal trawling constitutes the most significant human impact on both the structure and functioning of coastal seabed fauna. While a number of studies have assessed the impacts of trawling on faunal community structure and the degree to which different taxa are vulnerable to trawling, few have focused on how these impacts affect important ecological functions of the seabed. In this study, we use biological trait analysis (BTA) to assess the relative sensitivity of benthic macrofauna to trawling, in both the short- and long-term, and use this information to describe the spatial variation in sensitivity of secondary production for the Greater North Sea (GNS). Within the GNS, estimates of total production varied by almost three orders of magnitude, from 1.66 kJ m- 2 y- 1 to 968.9 kJ m- 2 y- 1. Large-scale patterns were observed in the proportion of secondary production derived from trawling-sensitive taxa. In the southern North Sea, total production is predominantly governed by taxa with low sensitivity to trawling, whereas production is relatively trawling-sensitive in the northern North Sea and western English Channel. In general, the more sensitive and productive regions are associated with poorly-sorted, gravelly or muddy sediments, while the less sensitive and less productive regions are associated with well-sorted, sandy substrates. These relationships between production sensitivity and environmental features are primarily due to variations in long-term recovery; total production of most assemblages is highly sensitive to the direct impacts of trawling. We discuss the implications of these findings for management 1decisions to improve the environmental sustainability of trawling.

  17. Using marine reserves to manage impact of bottom trawl fisheries requires consideration of benthic food-web interactions.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, P Daniël; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; van Kooten, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are widely used to protect exploited fish species as well as to conserve marine habitats and their biodiversity. They have also become a popular management tool for bottom trawl fisheries, a common fishing technique on continental shelves worldwide. The effects of bottom trawling go far beyond the impact on target species, as trawls also affect other components of the benthic ecosystem and the seabed itself. This means that for bottom trawl fisheries, MPAs can potentially be used not only to conserve target species but also to reduce impact of these side effects of the fishery. However, predicting the protective effects of MPAs is complicated because the side effects of trawling potentially alter the food-web interactions between target and non-target species. These changes in predatory and competitive interactions among fish and benthic invertebrates may have important ramifications for MPAs as tools to manage or mitigate the effects of bottom trawling. Yet, in current theory regarding the functioning of MPAs in relation to bottom trawl fisheries, such predatory and competitive interactions between species are generally not taken into account. In this study, we discuss how food-web interactions that are potentially affected by bottom trawling may alter the effectiveness of MPAs to protect (1) biodiversity and marine habitats, (2) fish populations, (3) fisheries yield, and (4) trophic structure of the community. We make the case that in order to be applicable for bottom trawl fisheries, guidelines for the implementation of MPAs must consider their potential food-web effects, at the risk of failing management.

  18. Technical Reliability Assessment of the Actigraph GT1M Accelerometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Mota, Jorge; Esliger, Dale; Welk, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the Actigraph GT1M (Pensacola, FL, USA) accelerometer activity count and step functions. Fifty GT1M accelerometers were initialized to collect simultaneous acceleration counts and steps data using 15-sec epochs. All reliability testing was completed using a mechanical shaker plate to…

  19. How Many Fish Need to Be Measured to Effectively Evaluate Trawl Selectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juan; Sala, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide practitioners working with trawl selectivity with general and easily understandable guidelines regarding the fish sampling effort necessary during sea trials. In particular, we focused on how many fish would need to be caught and length measured in a trawl haul in order to assess the selectivity parameters of the trawl at a designated uncertainty level. We also investigated the dependency of this uncertainty level on the experimental method used to collect data and on the potential effects of factors such as the size structure in the catch relative to the size selection of the gear. We based this study on simulated data created from two different fisheries: the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) trawl fishery and the Mediterranean Sea multispecies trawl fishery represented by red mullet (Mullus barbatus). We used these two completely different fisheries to obtain results that can be used as general guidelines for other fisheries. We found that the uncertainty in the selection parameters decreased with increasing number of fish measured and that this relationship could be described by a power model. The sampling effort needed to achieve a specific uncertainty level for the selection parameters was always lower for the covered codend method compared to the paired-gear method. In many cases, the number of fish that would need to be measured to maintain a specific uncertainty level was around 10 times higher for the paired-gear method than for the covered codend method. The trends observed for the effect of sampling effort in the two fishery cases investigated were similar; therefore the guidelines presented herein should be applicable to other fisheries. PMID:27560696

  20. How Many Fish Need to Be Measured to Effectively Evaluate Trawl Selectivity?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Bent; Sistiaga, Manu; Santos, Juan; Sala, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide practitioners working with trawl selectivity with general and easily understandable guidelines regarding the fish sampling effort necessary during sea trials. In particular, we focused on how many fish would need to be caught and length measured in a trawl haul in order to assess the selectivity parameters of the trawl at a designated uncertainty level. We also investigated the dependency of this uncertainty level on the experimental method used to collect data and on the potential effects of factors such as the size structure in the catch relative to the size selection of the gear. We based this study on simulated data created from two different fisheries: the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) trawl fishery and the Mediterranean Sea multispecies trawl fishery represented by red mullet (Mullus barbatus). We used these two completely different fisheries to obtain results that can be used as general guidelines for other fisheries. We found that the uncertainty in the selection parameters decreased with increasing number of fish measured and that this relationship could be described by a power model. The sampling effort needed to achieve a specific uncertainty level for the selection parameters was always lower for the covered codend method compared to the paired-gear method. In many cases, the number of fish that would need to be measured to maintain a specific uncertainty level was around 10 times higher for the paired-gear method than for the covered codend method. The trends observed for the effect of sampling effort in the two fishery cases investigated were similar; therefore the guidelines presented herein should be applicable to other fisheries.

  1. Influence of bottom trawling on sediment resuspension in the `Grande-Vasière' area (Bay of Biscay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengual, Baptiste; Cayocca, Florence; Le Hir, Pierre; Draye, Robin; Laffargue, Pascal; Vincent, Benoit; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Sea trials were performed on two zones with different fishing efforts on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay (`Grande-Vasière' area of muddy sand) in order to assess particulate matter resuspension and seabed disturbances (i.e., penetration, reworking, grain size changes) induced by different types of trawls. Optical and acoustic measurements made in the water column indicate a significant trawling-induced resuspension mainly due to the scraping action of doors. It manifests as a highly dynamic turbid plume confined near the seabed, where suspended sediment concentrations can reach 200 mg l-1. Concentration levels measured behind an "alternative" configuration (trawls with jumper doors instead of classical doors penetrating the sediment) are significantly lower (around 10-20 mg l-1), which indicates a potential limiting impact regarding the seabed. Grain size analyses of the surficial sediment led to highlight a potential reworking influence of bottom trawling. On the intensively trawled zone, this reworking manifests as an upward coarsening trend in the first 5 cm of the cores. A significant decrease in mud content (30 %) has been also witnessed on this zone between 1967 and 2014, which suggests an influence on the seabed evolution. The geometric analysis of bottom tracks (4-5-cm depth, 20-cm width) observed with a benthic video sledge was used to compute an experimental trawling-induced erosion rate of 0.13 kg m-2. This erosion rate was combined with fishing effort data, in order to estimate trawling-induced erosion fluxes which were then compared to natural erosion fluxes over the Grande-Vasière at monthly, seasonal and annual scales. Winter storms control the annual resuspended load and trawling contribution to annual resuspension is in the order of 1 %. However, results show that trawling resuspension can become dominant during the fishing high season (i.e., until several times the natural one in summer). In addition, the contribution of trawling

  2. Improving the design of acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification, with an application to Lake Michigan prey fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.V.; Argyle, R.L.; Fleischer, G.W.; Curtis, G.L.; Stickel, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable estimates of fish biomass are vital to the management of aquatic ecosystems and their associated fisheries. Acoustic and midwater trawl surveys are an efficient sampling method for estimating fish biomass in large bodies of water. To improve the precision of biomass estimates from combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys, sampling effort should be optimally allocated within each stage of the survey design. Based on information collected during fish surveys, we developed an approach to improve the design of combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification. Geographic strata for acoustic surveying and depth strata for midwater trawling were defined using neighbor-restricted cluster analysis, and the optimal allocation of sampling effort for each was then determined. As an example, we applied this survey stratification approach to data from lakewide acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of Lake Michigan prey fishes. Precision of biomass estimates from surveys with and without geographic stratification was compared through resampling. Use of geographic stratification with optimal sampling allocation reduced the variance of Lake Michigan acoustic biomass estimates by 77%. Stratification and optimal allocation at each stage of an acoustic and midwater trawl survey should serve to reduce the variance of the resulting biomass estimates.

  3. Vertical distribution of fish biomass in Lake Superior: Implications for day bottom trawl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Hrabik, T.R.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Holbrook, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the biases in sampling methodology is essential for understanding the limitations of abundance and biomass estimates of fish populations. Estimates from surveys that rely solely on bottom trawls may be particularly vulnerable to bias if pelagic fish are numerous. We evaluated the variability in the vertical distribution of fish biomass during the U.S. Geological Survey's annual spring bottom trawl survey of Lake Superior using concurrent hydroacoustic observations to (1) test the assumption that fish are generally demersal during the day and (2) evaluate the potential for predictive models to improve bottom trawl–determined biomass estimates. Our results indicate that the assumption that fish exhibit demersal behavior during the annual spring bottom trawl survey in Lake Superior is unfounded. Bottom trawl biomass (BBT) estimates (mean ± SE) for species known to exhibit pelagic behavior (cisco Coregonus artedi, bloater C. hoyi, kiyi C. kiyi, and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax; 3.01 ± 0.73 kg/ha) were not significantly greater than mean acoustic pelagic zone biomass (BAPZ) estimates (6.39 ± 2.03 kg/ha). Mean BAPZ estimates were 1.6- to 4.8-fold greater than mean BBT estimates over 4 years of sampling. The relationship between concurrent BAPZ and BBT estimates was marginally significant and highly variable. Predicted BAPZ estimates using cross-validation models were sensitive to adjustments for back-transforming from the logarithmic to the linear scale and poorly corresponded to observed BAPZ estimates. We conclude that statistical models to predict BAPZ from day BBT cannot be developed. We propose that night sampling with multiple gears will be necessary to generate better biomass estimates for management needs.

  4. USGS Lake Erie East Harbor bottom trawl data series, 1961-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The USGS Lake Erie Biological Station’s East Harbor sampling program began in 1961 with the commissioning of the research vessel Musky II. It is the longest known continuous trawl survey in Lake Erie. In addition to spanning over 50 years, the data series is unique for three prominent design elements: 1) sampling was conducted at three depth strata; 2) replicate trawl samples were collected at each depth stratum; and 3) sampling was conducted during both day and night. Unlike other trawl series collected in Lake Erie, and throughout the Great Lakes, the East Harbor program is the only one to combine these sampling practices in a single survey. In 2012, the original vessel used since the inception of the East Harbor program, the research vessel Musky II, was retired and replaced with a larger research vessel, Muskie. The change in vessel necessitated change in the trawl net and all of the rigging and hardware needed to tow it (LEBS, 2013). This effectively ended the time series of data, which were collected with the exact same vessel and sampling gear for 51 years. This historical data set has proven valuable for testing hypotheses about long-term ecological change and the impacts of non-native species invasions in the Great Lakes. Further, at various times through history it provided accurate predictions of recruitment for species, such as Yellow Perch, that support some of the most valuable fisheries in the Great Lakes. For future scientific endeavors, and to ensure this work is available to the public, we present here the entire data set from 1961 through 2011.

  5. The effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messieh, S. N.; Rowell, T. W.; Peer, D. L.; Cranford, P. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of current knowledge on the effects of trawling, dredging and ocean dumping on the eastern Canadian continental shelf seabed. The impact of trawling and dredging for fish and shellfish on marine habitats has recently attracted international attention among fisheries and environmental scientists. In Atlantic Canada, trawling and dredging are the principal methods of harvesting groundfish and scallops and ocean clams, respectively. It is estimated that fish trawlers and scallop dredges have swept tracks, cris-crossing the Canadian continental shelf, approximately 4.3 million km in length in 1985. In the past few years several studies were carried out by scientists from Canada, the United States and Europe to assess the impacts of trawling and dredging but results were inconclusive. Some studies showed physical damage as well as biological effects, whereas others indicated that the adverse effects were not considered to be serious. Fishermen are not the only potential users of the resources of the continental shelf. There is an increasing demand for good-quality sand and gravel aggregate and the ocean seabed is being seen as a possible source. The eastern Canadian continental shelf also exhibits hydrocarbon potential and operational and accidental discharges are an environmental concern. Increased marine transportation and expansion of the fishing fleet have resulted in a greater need for harbour dredging. Dredging and dredge spoil disposal were controlled by the Ocean Dumping Control Act and now the Canadian Environmental Protection Act which places restrictions on the composition of material that can be disposed of in the sea. Nevertheless some harbours contain contaminant concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable limits. It is concluded that the impacts of human activities on the continental shelf seabed environment are inevitable and the long-term effects, while difficult to determine, must be assessed. The sub-lethal effects

  6. Deep-sea ecosystem response to bottom trawling impacts: changes in sediment bioturbation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Martin, J.; Masque, P.; Mecho, A.; Company, J. B.; Palanques, A.

    2015-12-01

    Studies conducted in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) evidence that trawling activities along the canyon flanks cause resuspension and transport of sediments towards the canyon axis. The analysis of a sediment core collected at 1750 m in 2002 showed a doubling of the sediment accumulation rate since the 1970s, coincident with the rapid industrialization of the local trawling fleet. This occurred along with a change from bioturbated texture to well-preserved sedimentary layering, interpreted as depositional pulses of trawling-induced sediment gravity flows. The good preservation of these structures was explained as a temporary hampering of biological mixing, resulting from suffocation of bioturbating fauna. The same canyon area was revisited a decade later (2011) and new data are consistent with the sedimentary regime shift during the 1970s, but also suggest that the accumulation rate during the last decade is even greater than expected, approaching ~2.4 cm/y (compared to ~0.25 cm/y pre-1970s). The X-radiograph image from the 2011 sediment core also indicates that bioturbation, if hampered in the 2002 core, has been reactivated later. Various ichnofabrics observable in the 2011 core testify to a diverse bioturbating fauna, including a scolitia resulting from the burrowing activity of an endobenthic echinoid. Remotely operated vehicle images collected along the canyon axis seafloor evidenced a large presence and densities of the burrowing sea urchin Brissopsis lyrifera. This species has also been found in high densities in the neighbor Blanes canyon axis, while it was absent from the adjacent open slope. However, historical data indicate that B. lyrifera was present in high numbers in the slope region in previous decades, suggesting that trawling activities have modified the distribution of this burrowing species and that the canyon environment is currently functioning as refuge area that offers a suitable environment for their proliferation.

  7. Impact of natural (storm) and anthropogenic (trawling) sediment resuspension on particulate organic matter in coastal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusceddu, A.; Grémare, A.; Escoubeyrou, K.; Amouroux, J. M.; Fiordelmondo, C.; Danovaro, R.

    2005-12-01

    In order to assess the impact of natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension on quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability of particulate organic matter (POM), two field investigations were carried out in two shallow coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. In the Gulf of Lions, we investigated the impact of a storm resuspension of sediment, whereas in the Thermaikos Gulf we investigated the impact of bottom trawling. Resuspension in the Gulf of Lions determined the increase of sedimentation rates, modified the composition of the organic fraction of settling particles and decreased the labile fraction of POM, as indicated by a drop in the enzymatically hydrolysable amino acid fraction. The increase in the refractory fraction, following short-term storm-induced resuspension, increased also the contribution of glycine and decreased the contribution of aspartic acid contents to the total amino acid pools. Trawling activities in Thermaikos Gulf determined a significant increase in suspended POM concentrations and important changes in its biochemical composition. After trawling, the protein to carbohydrate ratio decreased (as a result of a major input of sedimentary carbohydrates at the water-sediment interface) and the fraction of enzymatically hydrolysable biopolymeric C decreased by ≈30%, thus reducing the bioavailability of resuspended organic particles. Results of the present study indicate that changes in suspended POM, induced by storms and trawling activities, can have similar consequences on benthic systems and on food webs. In fact, the potential benefit of increased organic particle concentration for suspension feeders, is depressed by the shift of suspended food particles towards a more refractory composition.

  8. Effect of Codend Circumference on the Size Selection of Square-Mesh Codends in Trawl Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    De Carlo, Francesco; Lucchetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that increasing mesh number in the circumference of a diamond-mesh trawl codend can reduce size selection for round fish, whereas selection for flat fish species is unaffected. This effect has also been documented in Mediterranean trawl fisheries. In contrast, no information is available with regard to the effect of increasing mesh number in the circumference of square-mesh codends on the size selection of round fish and flat fish species. A field study was devised to bridge this gap and formulate proposals aimed at improving trawl fishery management. Size selection data were collected for a round fish species, red mullet (Mullus barbatus), and two flat fish species, Mediterranean scaldfish (Arnoglossus laterna) and solenette (Buglossidium luteum). Fishing trials were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Central Mediterranean) using three square-mesh codends that differed only in mesh number around the circumference. Results demonstrated that increasing the number of meshes from 107 to 213 reduced the 50% retention length (L50) for red mullet by 2.5 cm but did not affect size selection for the two flat fish species. In some fisheries, regulatory provisions regarding the number of meshes in the circumference should therefore be carefully considered both for diamond- and square-mesh codends. PMID:27472058

  9. Effects of closed trawl fishery areas on some elasmobranch species in the Cantabrian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cabello, C.; Sánchez, F.; Serrano, A.; Olaso, I.

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the effects of certain closed areas to the trawl fishery on some Rajidae species and small-spotted catshark in the southern area of the Bay of Biscay. The results are based on abundance index (number/haul) and catch length composition obtained from a series of bottom trawl surveys carried out in the area (1993-2005). Abundance trends are similar considering or not closed areas, but with much lower values excluding closed areas. The length distributions revealed that in some of the species like Scyliorhinus canicula the larger specimens were the most affected by this decrease in number. Finally, the effects and consequences of one of these marine protected areas (MPAs), an artificial reef were examined in more detail for all the fishes and invertebrates. The analysis of the yield series showed an increase in total biomass after the placement of the reefs not only for S. canicula and rays but also teleosts fishes like Pagellus acarne, Trachurus trachurus, Mullus surmuletus and Trachinus draco and particularly invertebrates (sea urchins). On the contrary, the main target species of the trawl fishery (hake, monkfish and megrim among others) did not increase.

  10. Effect of Codend Circumference on the Size Selection of Square-Mesh Codends in Trawl Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Sala, Antonello; Herrmann, Bent; De Carlo, Francesco; Lucchetti, Alessandro; Brčić, Jure

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that increasing mesh number in the circumference of a diamond-mesh trawl codend can reduce size selection for round fish, whereas selection for flat fish species is unaffected. This effect has also been documented in Mediterranean trawl fisheries. In contrast, no information is available with regard to the effect of increasing mesh number in the circumference of square-mesh codends on the size selection of round fish and flat fish species. A field study was devised to bridge this gap and formulate proposals aimed at improving trawl fishery management. Size selection data were collected for a round fish species, red mullet (Mullus barbatus), and two flat fish species, Mediterranean scaldfish (Arnoglossus laterna) and solenette (Buglossidium luteum). Fishing trials were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Central Mediterranean) using three square-mesh codends that differed only in mesh number around the circumference. Results demonstrated that increasing the number of meshes from 107 to 213 reduced the 50% retention length (L50) for red mullet by 2.5 cm but did not affect size selection for the two flat fish species. In some fisheries, regulatory provisions regarding the number of meshes in the circumference should therefore be carefully considered both for diamond- and square-mesh codends.

  11. Identification and evaluation of shark bycatch in Georgia's commercial shrimp trawl fishery with implications for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Many US states have recreational and commercial fisheries that occur in nursery areas occupied by subadult sharks and can potentially affect their survival. Georgia is one of few US states without a directed commercial shark fishery, but the state has a large, nearshore penaeid shrimp trawl fishery in which small sharks occur as bycatch. During our 1995–1998 investigation of bycatch in fishery-dependent sampling events, 34% of 127 trawls contained sharks. This bycatch totalled 217 individuals from six species, with Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson), the most common and finetooth shark, Carcharhinus isodon (Müller & Henle) and spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle), the least common. The highest catch rates for sharks occurred during June and July and coincided with the peak months of the pupping season for many species. Trawl tow speed and tow time did not significantly influence catch rates for shark species. Gear configurations [net type, turtle excluder device (TED), bycatch reduction device] affected catch rates for shark species. Results of this study indicate gear restrictions, a delayed season opening, or reduced bar spacing on TEDs may reduce shark bycatch in this fishery.

  12. Quantifying the Escape Mortality of Trawl Caught Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba).

    PubMed

    Krafft, Bjørn A; Krag, Ludvig A; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Bruheim, Inge; Herrmann, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is an abundant fishery resource, the harvest levels of which are expected to increase. However, many of the length classes of krill can escape through commonly used commercial trawl mesh sizes. A vital component of the overall management of a fishery is to estimate the total fishing mortality and quantify the mortality rate of individuals that escape from fishing gear. The methods for determining fishing mortality in krill are still poorly developed. We used a covered codend sampling technique followed by onboard observations made in holding tanks to monitor mortality rates of escaped krill. Haul duration, hydrological conditions, maximum fishing depth and catch composition all had no significant effect on mortality of krill escaping 16 mm mesh size nets, nor was any further mortality associated with the holding tank conditions. A non- parametric Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to model the relationship between mortality rates of escapees and time. There was a weak tendency, though not significant, for smaller individuals to suffer higher mortality than larger individuals. The mortality of krill escaping the trawl nets in our study was 4.4 ± 4.4%, suggesting that krill are fairly tolerant of the capture-and-escape process in trawls.

  13. Quantifying the Escape Mortality of Trawl Caught Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba)

    PubMed Central

    Krafft, Bjørn A.; Krag, Ludvig A.; Engås, Arill; Nordrum, Sigve; Bruheim, Inge; Herrmann, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is an abundant fishery resource, the harvest levels of which are expected to increase. However, many of the length classes of krill can escape through commonly used commercial trawl mesh sizes. A vital component of the overall management of a fishery is to estimate the total fishing mortality and quantify the mortality rate of individuals that escape from fishing gear. The methods for determining fishing mortality in krill are still poorly developed. We used a covered codend sampling technique followed by onboard observations made in holding tanks to monitor mortality rates of escaped krill. Haul duration, hydrological conditions, maximum fishing depth and catch composition all had no significant effect on mortality of krill escaping 16 mm mesh size nets, nor was any further mortality associated with the holding tank conditions. A non- parametric Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to model the relationship between mortality rates of escapees and time. There was a weak tendency, though not significant, for smaller individuals to suffer higher mortality than larger individuals. The mortality of krill escaping the trawl nets in our study was 4.4 ± 4.4%, suggesting that krill are fairly tolerant of the capture-and-escape process in trawls. PMID:27622510

  14. The cooling of particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling.

  15. 1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier-envelope phase-locked pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Canova, L.; Malvache, A.; Jullien, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Durfee, C.; Papadopoulos, D.; Druon, F.

    2010-04-01

    We report the routine generation of sub-5-fs laser pulses with 1-mJ energy and stable carrier-envelope phase at 1-kHz repetition rate, obtained by compressing the multi-mJ output from a phase-locked Ti:sapphire amplifier in a rare-gas-filled hollow fiber. The dual-stage amplifier features a hybrid transmission grating/chirped mirror compressor providing 2.2-mJ, 26-fs pulses at 1 kHz with standard phase deviation of 190 mrad rms. We demonstrate hour-long phase stability without feedback control of grating position or rigorous control of the laser environment, simply by using small pulse stretching factors in the amplifier, which minimize the beam pathway in the compressor. The amplifier also integrates a versatile AOPDF (acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter) for closed-loop spectral phase optimization. The various factors influencing the overall phase stability of the system are discussed in detail. Using the optimized output, 1-mJ, 4.5-fs pulses are generated by seeding the neon gas filled hollow fiber with a circularly polarized input beam. A standard phase deviation of 230 mrad after the HCF is obtained by direct f-to-2 f detection and slow-loop feedback to the oscillator locking electronics without any additional spectral broadening.

  16. When does fishing lead to more fish? Community consequences of bottom trawl fisheries in demersal food webs.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, P Daniel; van Kooten, Tobias; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D

    2013-10-22

    Bottom trawls are a globally used fishing gear that physically disturb the seabed and kill non-target organisms, including those that are food for the targeted fish species. There are indications that ensuing changes to the benthic invertebrate community may increase the availability of food and promote growth and even fisheries yield of target fish species. If and how this occurs is the subject of ongoing debate, with evidence both in favour and against. We model the effects of trawling on a simple ecosystem of benthivorous fish and two food populations (benthos), susceptible and resistant to trawling. We show that the ecosystem response to trawling depends on whether the abundance of benthos is top-down or bottom-up controlled. Fishing may result in higher fish abundance, higher (maximum sustainable) yield and increased persistence of fish when the benthos which is the best-quality fish food is also more resistant to trawling. These positive effects occur in bottom-up controlled systems and systems with limited impact of fish feeding on benthos, resembling bottom-up control. Fishing leads to lower yields and fish persistence in all configurations where susceptible benthos are more profitable prey. Our results highlight the importance of mechanistic ecosystem knowledge as a requirement for successful management.

  17. When does fishing lead to more fish? Community consequences of bottom trawl fisheries in demersal food webs

    PubMed Central

    van Denderen, P. Daniel; van Kooten, Tobias; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2013-01-01

    Bottom trawls are a globally used fishing gear that physically disturb the seabed and kill non-target organisms, including those that are food for the targeted fish species. There are indications that ensuing changes to the benthic invertebrate community may increase the availability of food and promote growth and even fisheries yield of target fish species. If and how this occurs is the subject of ongoing debate, with evidence both in favour and against. We model the effects of trawling on a simple ecosystem of benthivorous fish and two food populations (benthos), susceptible and resistant to trawling. We show that the ecosystem response to trawling depends on whether the abundance of benthos is top-down or bottom-up controlled. Fishing may result in higher fish abundance, higher (maximum sustainable) yield and increased persistence of fish when the benthos which is the best-quality fish food is also more resistant to trawling. These positive effects occur in bottom-up controlled systems and systems with limited impact of fish feeding on benthos, resembling bottom-up control. Fishing leads to lower yields and fish persistence in all configurations where susceptible benthos are more profitable prey. Our results highlight the importance of mechanistic ecosystem knowledge as a requirement for successful management. PMID:24004941

  18. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner Crab...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner Crab Protection Area 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and... to Part 679—Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner...

  19. BEAM-BEAM 2003 SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.SEN,T.

    2003-05-19

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussions of the Beam-Beam'03 workshop, held in Montauk, Long Island, from May 19 to 23, 2003. Presentations and discussions focused on halo generation from beam-beam interactions; beam-beam limits, especially coherent limits and their effects on existing and future hadron colliders; beam-beam compensation techniques, particularly for long-range interactions; and beam-beam study tools in theory, simulation, and experiment.

  20. Retrospective analysis of Bering Sea bottom trawl surveys: regime shift and ecosystem reorganization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, M. E.; Hollowed, A. B.; Brown, E.

    2002-10-01

    This paper compiles data from bottom trawl surveys using variations on a 400-mesh eastern trawl gear into a 38-year time series (1963-2000), using a robust index of median catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an indicator of regional abundance. Time series are presented for three index sites in the southeastern Bering Sea: the inner shelf in Bristol Bay, the middle shelf north of Unimak Island, and the outer shelf near the Pribilof Islands. All three sites show strong evidence of a shift in benthic biomass and community structure in the early to mid-1980s. During this period, all three sites showed substantial increases in the abundances of walleye pollock, Pacific cod, rock sole, flathead sole, cartilaginous fishes (skates) and non-crab benthic invertebrates. Species composition, especially of flatfish, differs at the three sites, but the trend for groundfish abundance to increase was consistent at all three sites. The similarity in trends both across the region and across both commercial and unexploited groups suggests to us that a complete reorganization of benthic and demersal food webs may have taken place. The timing of change in trawl catch weight is consistent with effects of the strong regime shift observed in climate indices in 1976-1977. There is little evidence of similar biological responses to subsequent, less pronounced changes in climate. Our data are also consistent with recently documented shifts in ecosystem dynamics resulting from changes in ice cover and thermal structure in the eastern Bering Sea. Our analysis indicates that there was a much higher biomass of groundfish at all three sites during 1980-2000 than in 1960-1980. This result provides evidence against the hypothesis that the overall productivity of the eastern Bering Sea has decreased. The precipitous decline of the endangered Steller sea lion in this region from 1975-1985 was concurrent with an overall increase in abundance of groundfish prey.

  1. Flexible echolocation behavior of trawling bats during approach of continuous or transient prey cues

    PubMed Central

    Übernickel, Kirstin; Tschapka, Marco; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2013-01-01

    Trawling bats use echolocation not only to detect and classify acoustically continuous cues originated from insects at and above water surfaces, but also to detect small water-dwelling prey items breaking the water surface for a very short time, producing only transient cues to be perceived acoustically. Generally, bats need to adjust their echolocation behavior to the specific task on hand, and because of the diversity of prey cues they use in hunting, trawling bats should be highly flexible in their echolocation behavior. We studied the adaptations in the behavior of Noctilio leporinus when approaching either a continuous cue or a transient cue that disappeared during the approach of the bat. Normally the bats reacted by dipping their feet in the water at the cue location. We found that the bats typically started to adapt their calling behavior at approximately 410 ms before prey contact in continuous cue trials, but were also able to adapt their approach behavior to stimuli onsets as short as 177 ms before contact, within a minimum reaction time of 50.9 ms in response to transient cues. In both tasks the approach phase ended between 32 and 53 ms before prey contact. Call emission always continued after the end of the approach phase until around prey contact. In some failed capture attempts, call emission did not cease at all after prey contact. Probably bats used spatial memory to dip at the original location of the transient cue after its disappearance. The duration of the pointed dips was significantly longer in transient cue trials than in continuous cue trials. Our results suggest that trawling bats possess the ability to modify their generally rather stereotyped echolocation behavior during approaches within very short reaction times depending on the sensory information available. PMID:23675352

  2. Influence of dreissenid mussels on catchability of benthic fishes in bottom trawls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Stapanian, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Inferring trends in true abundance of fish populations from catch per unit effort data requires either the knowledge of capture probability or the assumption that it is constant, both of which are unlikely contingencies. We developed and validated an index of catchability (a proxy measure for capture probability) from a long-term data set describing nearshore waters of western Lake Erie, and we used the index to test the hypothesis that catchability of four abundant benthic species captured in bottom trawls changed after the invasion of dreissenid mussels. We estimated daytime and nighttime catchability for 1972–1990 (predreissenid period) and 1991–2009 (dreissenid period); we then tested for differences between nighttime and daytime catchability in the predreissenid and dreissenid periods and the nighttime–daytime differential in catchability during the dreissenid period. We also tested relationships between Secchi depth and the catchability index via linear regression. Catchability indices for white perch Morone americana, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus did not differ between daytime and nighttime during the predreissenid period. After establishment of dreissenids, all three of these species had lower daytime catchability than nighttime catchability and had positive nighttime–daytime differentials, indicating a shift toward higher nighttime catchability relative to daytime catchability. Changes in catchability indices for freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens were opposite the changes observed for the other three species, possibly because the freshwater drum is the only species that actively feeds on dreissenids. Catchability indices were negatively related to water clarity (Secchi depth) for three of the species. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that catchability of the four most common benthic fish species captured in bottom trawls within nearshore waters of western Lake Erie changed after the

  3. Note: A 1-m Foucault pendulum rolling on a ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salva, H. R.; Benavides, R. E.; Venturino, J. A.; Cuscueta, D. J.; Ghilarducci, A. A.

    2013-10-01

    We have built a short Foucault pendulum of 1-m length. The aim of this work was to increase the sensitivity to elliptical trajectories from other longer pendula. The design was a semi-rigid pendulum that rolls over a small ball. The measurements of the movements (azimuth and elliptical trajectory) were done by an optical method. The resulting pendulum works in a medium satisfactory way due to problems of the correct choice of the mass of the bob together with the diameter of the supporting ball. It is also important to keep the rolling surface very clean.

  4. Note: A 1-m Foucault pendulum rolling on a ball.

    PubMed

    Salva, H R; Benavides, R E; Venturino, J A; Cuscueta, D J; Ghilarducci, A A

    2013-10-01

    We have built a short Foucault pendulum of 1-m length. The aim of this work was to increase the sensitivity to elliptical trajectories from other longer pendula. The design was a semi-rigid pendulum that rolls over a small ball. The measurements of the movements (azimuth and elliptical trajectory) were done by an optical method. The resulting pendulum works in a medium satisfactory way due to problems of the correct choice of the mass of the bob together with the diameter of the supporting ball. It is also important to keep the rolling surface very clean.

  5. Impact of Bottom Trawling on Deep-Sea Sediment Properties along the Flanks of a Submarine Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Jacobo; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Sánchez-Gómez, Anabel

    2014-01-01

    The offshore displacement of commercial bottom trawling has raised concerns about the impact of this destructive fishing practice on the deep seafloor, which is in general characterized by lower resilience than shallow water regions. This study focuses on the flanks of La Fonera (or Palamós) submarine canyon in the Northwestern Mediterranean, where an intensive bottom trawl fishery has been active during several decades in the 400–800 m depth range. To explore the degree of alteration of surface sediments (0–50 cm depth) caused by this industrial activity, fishing grounds and control (untrawled) sites were sampled along the canyon flanks with an interface multicorer. Sediment cores were analyzed to obtain vertical profiles of sediment grain-size, dry bulk density, organic carbon content and concentration of the radionuclide 210Pb. At control sites, surface sediments presented sedimentological characteristics typical of slope depositional systems, including a topmost unit of unconsolidated and bioturbated material overlying sediments progressively compacted with depth, with consistently high 210Pb inventories and exponential decaying profiles of 210Pb concentrations. Sediment accumulation rates at these untrawled sites ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 cm y−1. Sediment properties at most trawled sites departed from control sites and the sampled cores were characterized by denser sediments with lower 210Pb surface concentrations and inventories that indicate widespread erosion of recent sediments caused by trawling gears. Other alterations of the physical sediment properties, including thorough mixing or grain-size sorting, as well as organic carbon impoverishment, were also visible at trawled sites. This work contributes to the growing realization of the capacity of bottom trawling to alter the physical properties of surface sediments and affect the seafloor integrity over large spatial scales of the deep-sea. PMID:25111298

  6. Integrating the provision of ecosystem services and trawl fisheries for the management of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Muntadas, Alba; de Juan, Silvia; Demestre, Montserrat

    2015-02-15

    The species interaction and their biological traits (BT) determine the function of benthic communities and, hence, the delivery of ecosystem services. Therefore, disturbance of benthic communities by trawling may compromise ecosystem service delivery, including fisheries' catches. In this work, we explore 1) the impact of trawling activities on benthic functional components (after the BTA approach) and 2) how trawling impact may affect the ecosystem services delivered by benthic communities. To this aim, we assessed the provision of ecosystem services by adopting the concept of Ecosystem Service Providers (ESP), i.e. ecological units that perform ecosystem functions that will ultimately deliver ecosystem services. We studied thirteen sites subjected to different levels of fishing effort in the Mediterranean. From a range of environmental variables included in the study, we found ESPs to be mainly affected by fishing effort and grain size. Our results suggested that habitat type has significant effects on the distribution of ESPs and this natural variability influences ESP response to trawling at a specific site. In order to summarize the complex relationships between human uses, ecosystem components and the demand for ecosystem services in trawling grounds, we adapted a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response) framework to the study area, emphasizing the role of society as Drivers of change and actors demanding management Responses. This integrative framework aims to inform managers about the interactions between all the elements involved in the management of trawling grounds, highlighting the need for an integrated approach in order to ensure ecosystem service provision.

  7. Rapid Changes on Sediment Accumulation Rates within Submarine Canyons Caused By Bottom Trawling Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Masque, P.; Martin, J.; Paradis, S.; Juan, X.; Toro, M.; Palanques, A.

    2014-12-01

    The physical disturbance of the marine sedimentary environments by commercial bottom trawling is a matter of concern. The direct physical effects of this fishing technique include scraping and ploughing of the seabed and increases of the near-bottom water turbidity by sediment resuspension. However, the quantification of the sediment that has been resuspended by this anthropogenic activity over years and has been ultimately exported across the margin remains largely unaddressed. The analysis of sediment accumulation rates from sediment cores collected along the axes of several submarine canyons in the Catalan margin (northwestern Mediterranean) has allowed to estimate the contribution of this anthropogenic activity to the present-day sediment dynamics. 210Pb chronologies, occasionally supported by 137Cs dating, indicate a rapid increase of sediment accumulation rates since the 1970s, in coincidence with a strong impulse in the industrialization of the trawling fleets of this region. Such increase has been associated to the enhanced delivery of sediment resuspended by trawlers from the shelves and upper slope regions towards the canyon's interior, and to the rapid technical development at that time, in terms of engine power and gear size. This change has been observed in La Fonera (or Palamós) Canyon at depths greater than 1700 m, while in other canyons it is restricted to shallower regions (~1000 m in depth) closer to fishing grounds. Two sampling sites from La Fonera and Foix submarine canyons that exhibited high sediment accumulation rates (0.6-0.7 cm/y) were reoccupied several years after the first chronological analyses. These two new cores reveal a second and more rapid increase of sediment accumulation rates in both canyons occurring circa 2002 and accounting for about 2 cm/y. This second change at the beginning of the XXI century has been attributed to a preferential displacement of the trawling fleet towards slope fishing grounds surrounding submarine

  8. Translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ohlmann, Théophile; Mengardi, Chloé; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation of the full-length mRNA of the human immunodeficiency virus can occur via several different mechanisms to maintain production of viral structural proteins throughout the replication cycle. HIV-1 viral protein synthesis can occur by the use of both a cap-dependant and IRES-driven mechanism depending on the physiological conditions of the cell and the status of the ongoing infection. For both of these mechanisms there is a need for several viral and cellular co-factors for optimal translation of the viral mRNA. In this review we will describe the mechanism used by the full-length mRNA to initiate translation highlighting the role of co-factors within this process. A particular emphasis will be given to the role of the DDX3 RNA helicase in HIV-1 mRNA translation initiation. PMID:26779410

  9. Translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Théophile; Mengardi, Chloé; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2014-09-01

    Translation initiation of the full-length mRNA of the human immunodeficiency virus can occur via several different mechanisms to maintain production of viral structural proteins throughout the replication cycle. HIV-1 viral protein synthesis can occur by the use of both a cap-dependant and IRES-driven mechanism depending on the physiological conditions of the cell and the status of the ongoing infection. For both of these mechanisms there is a need for several viral and cellular co-factors for optimal translation of the viral mRNA. In this review we will describe the mechanism used by the full-length mRNA to initiate translation highlighting the role of co-factors within this process. A particular emphasis will be given to the role of the DDX3 RNA helicase in HIV-1 mRNA translation initiation.

  10. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  11. Comparing Trawl and Creel Fishing for Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus): Biological and Economic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Leocádio, Ana Maria; Castro, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the fishing activity and landings of the trawl and creel fisheries for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus (L.)) off the Portuguese coast, and evaluates the financial viability of two vessels typical of each fleet. Crustacean trawlers are part of an industrial fleet that, besides Nephrops, targets deep water shrimps. Creels are used by a multi-gear, multi-target artisanal fleet, fishing only in areas unavailable to trawlers and, when catching Nephrops, set specifically to target this species. Trawlers have in recent years contributed with 85% of the landings in weight, but only 74% in value (2005–2009 average). Despite smaller landings, the Nephrops creel fishery provides individuals of larger size and in better condition, thereby obtaining higher unit prices. Economic viability was also higher for the creel vessel, with trawling being only viable if major costs (such as labor and fuel) are covered by the revenue from other target species (e.g., the rose shrimp). At present, Nephrops populations on the South and SW coast are subject to intense fishing and to a recovery plan. The possibility of reallocation of some of the fishing effort directed at Nephrops from trawlers to creels is discussed in terms of the conservation of the resource and economic return. PMID:22848357

  12. Beam-beam simulations for separated beams

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel A.

    2000-04-10

    We present beam-beam simulation results from a strong-strong gaussian code for separated beams for the LHC and RHIC. The frequency spectrum produced by the beam-beam collisions is readily obtained and offers a good opportunity for experimental comparisons. Although our results for the emittance blowup are preliminary, we conclude that, for nominal parameter values, there is no significant difference between separated beams and center-on-center collisions.

  13. Beam rotation and shear in a large electron beam diode

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, C.R.; Oona, H.; Shurter, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The time averaged electron beam current distribution of one of the electron guns of the Large Aperture Module (LAM) of the Aurora laser was measured as part of a larger set of experiments designed to study the electron beam transport to and energy deposition in the LAM laser chamber. The LAM laser chamber has a 1-m {times} 1-m aperture and is pumped from two sides along a 2-m length. A 10 ga. stainless steel sheet was placed inside the laser chamber and served multiple purposes. First, it was used to convert high energy electrons into X-rays in order to make radiograms of the electron beam. Second, the sheet was used as a Faraday cup to measure the total beam current. Third, individual Faraday cups were mounted on the plate to sample the time history of the electron beam at various positions. Each of the LAM electron gun diodes produces a beam of 750 kV electrons with a total current of about 500 kA which is relatively uniform over the cathode area of 1 m {times} 2 m. An applied magnetic field of about 1300 Gauss is used to prevent pinch of the beam during beam transport.

  14. 30 CFR 250.1741 - If I drag a trawl across a site, what requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limits described in paragraph (a) of this section in two directions. (c) You must mark the area to be... shipwreck, and 500 feet from a sensitive biological feature. (g) If you trawl near an active pipeline, you...) Buried active pipelines, First contact the pipeline owner or operator to determine the condition of...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1741 - If I drag a trawl across a site, what requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limits described in paragraph (a) of this section in two directions. (c) You must mark the area to be... shipwreck, and 500 feet from a sensitive biological feature. (g) If you trawl near an active pipeline, you...) Buried active pipelines, First contact the pipeline owner or operator to determine the condition of...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1741 - If I drag a trawl across a site, what requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limits described in paragraph (a) of this section in two directions. (c) You must mark the area to be... shipwreck, and 500 feet from a sensitive biological feature. (g) If you trawl near an active pipeline, you...) Buried active pipelines, First contact the pipeline owner or operator to determine the condition of...

  17. Effects of Modified Handling on the Physiological Stress of Trawled-and-Discarded Yellowfin Bream (Acanthopagrus australis).

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian; Broadhurst, Matt Kenyon; Millar, Russell Brian

    2015-01-01

    Modified handling is often claimed to reduce (sub-)lethal impacts among organisms caught-and-released in fisheries. Improving welfare of discarded fish warrants investigation, when their survival is of both economic and ecological importance. In this study, juvenile yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis) were trawled in an Australian penaeid fishery and then discarded after on-board sorting in either dry or water-filled (modified) trays and with delays in starting sorting of either 2 or 15 mins. Blood plasma cortisol, glucose and potassium were sampled immediately from some yellowfin bream, while others were placed into cages (with controls) and sampled after five days. Irrespective of their on-board handling, all trawled fish incurred a relatively high acute stress response (i.e. an increase in Mean ± SE cortisol from a baseline of <4 to 122.0 ± 14.9 ng/mL) that was mostly attributed to the trawling process, and exacerbated by variation in key parameters (low salinity, changes in water temperature and the presence of jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus in catches). When C. mosaicus was present, the potassium concentrations of fish sampled immediately after sorting were significantly elevated, possibly due to nematocyst contact and subsequent inhibition of ion pumps or cytolysis. Stress also increased during handling in response to warmer air temperatures and longer exposure. While most fish had substantially recovered by 120 hours after discarding, deploying selective trawls (to reduce jellyfish) for short periods and then quickly sorting catches in water would benefit discard welfare.

  18. Biological and physical oceanographic observations pertaining to the trawl fishery in a region of persistent coastal upwelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. T.; Gibson, D. B.; Evans, T. O.; Breaker, L.; Wrigley, R. C.; Broenkow, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    An upwelling episode in the Point Sal region of the central California coast is examined by using data obtained by a data buoy. The episodes was interrupted by the abrupt abatement of the strong wind which promotes coastal upwelling. The mean hourly upwelling index is calculated to be higher than the 20 year mean monthly value. During 3 days of light wind commercial bottom trawl operations were possible. Shipboard estimates of chlorophyll content in surface waters during trawling show the high concentrations that are indicative of a rich biomass of phytoplankton, a result of the upwelling episode. Satellite imagery shows the extent of the upwelling water to be of the order of 100 km offshore; the result of many upwelling episodes. Shipboard echo sounder data show the presence of various delmersal species and of zooplakton; the latter graze on the phytoplankton in the upper euphotic layers. The fish catch data are recorded according to species for 2 days of trawling, and the catch per trawl hour is recorded.

  19. Estimation of Bottom Trawl Catch Efficiency for Two Demersal Fishes, Atlantic Croaker and White Perch in Chesapeake Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an efficiency analysis of a fisheries-independent demersal trawl survey in Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, that is presently being used for multi-species fisheries assessment and management. The manuscript presents an in situ analysis of demer...

  20. 77 FR 75966 - Control Date for Qualifying Landings History in the Central Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Landings History in the Central Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... permit history for an allocation-based management or catch share program in the Central Gulf of Alaska..., so that the full catch history for 2012 may be considered in any such future management actions....

  1. 78 FR 17340 - Control Date for Qualifying Landings History in the Western Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Landings History in the Western Gulf of Alaska Trawl Groundfish Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... history for an allocation-based management or catch share program in the Western Gulf of Alaska (GOA... awareness of possible rulemaking and provide notice to the public that any accumulation of landings...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  5. Visual surveys can reveal rather different 'pictures' of fish densities: Comparison of trawl and video camera surveys in the Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, F. D.; Neat, F.; Collie, N.; Stewart, M.; Fernandes, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual surveys allow non-invasive sampling of organisms in the marine environment which is of particular importance in deep-sea habitats that are vulnerable to damage caused by destructive sampling devices such as bottom trawls. To enable visual surveying at depths greater than 200 m we used a deep towed video camera system, to survey large areas around the Rockall Bank in the North East Atlantic. The area of seabed sampled was similar to that sampled by a bottom trawl, enabling samples from the towed video camera system to be compared with trawl sampling to quantitatively assess the numerical density of deep-water fish populations. The two survey methods provided different results for certain fish taxa and comparable results for others. Fish that exhibited a detectable avoidance behaviour to the towed video camera system, such as the Chimaeridae, resulted in mean density estimates that were significantly lower (121 fish/km2) than those determined by trawl sampling (839 fish/km2). On the other hand, skates and rays showed no reaction to the lights in the towed body of the camera system, and mean density estimates of these were an order of magnitude higher (64 fish/km2) than the trawl (5 fish/km2). This is probably because these fish can pass under the footrope of the trawl due to their flat body shape lying close to the seabed but are easily detected by the benign towed video camera system. For other species, such as Molva sp, estimates of mean density were comparable between the two survey methods (towed camera, 62 fish/km2; trawl, 73 fish/km2). The towed video camera system presented here can be used as an alternative benign method for providing indices of abundance for species such as ling in areas closed to trawling, or for those fish that are poorly monitored by trawl surveying in any area, such as the skates and rays.

  6. Design Concept for the Retrofit KAO 1m Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Won-Yong; Mack, Peter; Park, Jang-Hyun; Jin, Ho; Lee, Woo-Baik; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2000-12-01

    Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) is working to retrofit its 1m robotic telescope in collaboration with a company (ACE, Astronomical Consultants & Equipment). The telescope system is being totally refurbished to make a fully automatic telescope which can operate in both interactive and fully autonomous robotic modes. Progress has been made in design and manufacturing of the telescope mount, mechanics, and optical performance system tests are being made for re-configured primary and secondary mirrors. The optical system is designed to collect 80% incident light within 0.5 arcsec with f/7.5 Ritchey-Chretien design. The telescope mount is an equatorial fork with a friction drive system. The design allows fully programmable tracking speeds with typical range of 15 arcsec/sec with accuracy of +/-5 arcsec/hour. The mount system has integral pointing model software to correct for refraction, and all mechanical errors and misalignments. The pointing model will permit positioning to better than 30 arcsec RMS within 75o from zenith and 45 arcsec RMS elsewhere on the sky. The software is designed for interactive, remote and robotic modes of operation. In interactive and remote mode the user can manually enter coordinates or retrieve them from a computer file. In robotic mode the telescope controller downloads the coordinates in the order determined by the scheduler. The telescope will be equipped with a CCD camera and will be accessible via the internet.

  7. Deep vision: an in-trawl stereo camera makes a step forward in monitoring the pelagic community.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Melanie J; Rosen, Shale; Engås, Arill; Eriksen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem surveys are carried out annually in the Barents Sea by Russia and Norway to monitor the spatial distribution of ecosystem components and to study population dynamics. One component of the survey is mapping the upper pelagic zone using a trawl towed at several depths. However, the current technique with a single codend does not provide fine-scale spatial data needed to directly study species overlaps. An in-trawl camera system, Deep Vision, was mounted in front of the codend in order to acquire continuous images of all organisms passing. It was possible to identify and quantify of most young-of-the-year fish (e.g. Gadus morhua, Boreogadus saida and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and zooplankton, including Ctenophora, which are usually damaged in the codend. The system showed potential for measuring the length of small organisms and also recorded the vertical and horizontal positions where individuals were imaged. Young-of-the-year fish were difficult to identify when passing the camera at maximum range and to quantify during high densities. In addition, a large number of fish with damaged opercula were observed passing the Deep Vision camera during heaving; suggesting individuals had become entangled in meshes farther forward in the trawl. This indicates that unknown numbers of fish are probably lost in forward sections of the trawl and that the heaving procedure may influence the number of fish entering the codend, with implications for abundance indices and understanding population dynamics. This study suggests modifications to the Deep Vision and the trawl to increase our understanding of the population dynamics.

  8. Deep Vision: An In-Trawl Stereo Camera Makes a Step Forward in Monitoring the Pelagic Community

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Melanie J.; Rosen, Shale; Engås, Arill; Eriksen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem surveys are carried out annually in the Barents Sea by Russia and Norway to monitor the spatial distribution of ecosystem components and to study population dynamics. One component of the survey is mapping the upper pelagic zone using a trawl towed at several depths. However, the current technique with a single codend does not provide fine-scale spatial data needed to directly study species overlaps. An in-trawl camera system, Deep Vision, was mounted in front of the codend in order to acquire continuous images of all organisms passing. It was possible to identify and quantify of most young-of-the-year fish (e.g. Gadus morhua, Boreogadus saida and Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and zooplankton, including Ctenophora, which are usually damaged in the codend. The system showed potential for measuring the length of small organisms and also recorded the vertical and horizontal positions where individuals were imaged. Young-of-the-year fish were difficult to identify when passing the camera at maximum range and to quantify during high densities. In addition, a large number of fish with damaged opercula were observed passing the Deep Vision camera during heaving; suggesting individuals had become entangled in meshes farther forward in the trawl. This indicates that unknown numbers of fish are probably lost in forward sections of the trawl and that the heaving procedure may influence the number of fish entering the codend, with implications for abundance indices and understanding population dynamics. This study suggests modifications to the Deep Vision and the trawl to increase our understanding of the population dynamics. PMID:25393121

  9. Focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  10. Satellite Imaging with Adaptive Optics on a 1 M Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, F.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Copeland, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia, have been developing adaptive optic (AO) systems for space situational awareness applications. We report on the development and demonstration of an AO system for satellite imaging using a 1 m telescope. The system uses the orbiting object as a natural guide star to measure atmospheric turbulence, and a deformable mirror to provide an optical correction. The AO system utilised modern, high speed and low noise EMCCD technology on both the wavefront sensor and imaging camera to achieve high performance, achieving a Strehl ratio in excess of 30% at 870 nm. Images are post processed with lucky imaging algorithms to further improve the final image quality. We demonstrate the AO system on stellar targets and Iridium satellites, achieving a near diffraction limited full width at half maximum. A specialised realtime controller allows our system to achieve a bandwidth above 100 Hz, with the wavefront sensor and control loop running at 2 kHz. The AO systems we are developing show how ground-based optical sensors can be used to manage the space environment. AO imaging systems can be used for satellite surveillance, while laser ranging can be used to determine precise orbital data used in the critical conjunction analysis required to maintain a safe space environment. We have focused on making this system compact, expandable, and versatile. We are continuing to develop this platform for other space situational awareness applications such as geosynchronous satellite astrometry, space debris characterisation, satellite imaging, and ground-to-space laser communication.

  11. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Finlay N; Abraham, Edward R; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures.

  12. Cartesian beams.

    PubMed

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2007-12-01

    A new and very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in Cartesian coordinates is presented. We call such a field a Cartesian beam. The complex amplitude of the Cartesian beams is described by either the parabolic cylinder functions or the confluent hypergeometric functions, and the beams are characterized by three parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integration are studied in detail. Applying the general expression of the Cartesian beams, we also derive two new and meaningful beam structures that, to our knowledge, have not yet been reported in the literature. Special cases of the Cartesian beams are the standard, elegant, and generalized Hermite-Gauss beams, the cosine-Gauss beams, the Lorentz beams, and the fractional order beams.

  13. Evaluation of New Zealand's high-seas bottom trawl closures using predictive habitat models and quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Penney, Andrew J; Guinotte, John M

    2013-01-01

    United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105 on sustainable fisheries (UNGA 2007) establishes three difficult questions for participants in high-seas bottom fisheries to answer: 1) Where are vulnerable marine systems (VMEs) likely to occur?; 2) What is the likelihood of fisheries interaction with these VMEs?; and 3) What might qualify as adequate conservation and management measures to prevent significant adverse impacts? This paper develops an approach to answering these questions for bottom trawling activities in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) within a quantitative risk assessment and cost : benefit analysis framework. The predicted distribution of deep-sea corals from habitat suitability models is used to answer the first question. Distribution of historical bottom trawl effort is used to answer the second, with estimates of seabed areas swept by bottom trawlers being used to develop discounting factors for reduced biodiversity in previously fished areas. These are used in a quantitative ecological risk assessment approach to guide spatial protection planning to address the third question. The coral VME likelihood (average, discounted, predicted coral habitat suitability) of existing spatial closures implemented by New Zealand within the SPRFMO area is evaluated. Historical catch is used as a measure of cost to industry in a cost : benefit analysis of alternative spatial closure scenarios. Results indicate that current closures within the New Zealand SPRFMO area bottom trawl footprint are suboptimal for protection of VMEs. Examples of alternative trawl closure scenarios are provided to illustrate how the approach could be used to optimise protection of VMEs under chosen management objectives, balancing protection of VMEs against economic loss to commercial fishers from closure of historically fished areas.

  14. Identification and evaluation of shark bycatch in Georgia’s commercial shrimp trawl fishery with implications for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, C.N.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Many US states have recreational and commercial fisheries that occur in nursery areas occupied by subadult sharks and can potentially affect their survival. Georgia is one of few US states without a directed commercial shark fishery, but the state has a large, nearshore penaeid shrimp trawl fishery in which small sharks occur as bycatch. During our 1995-1998 investigation of bycatch in fishery-dependent sampling events, 34% of 127 trawls contained sharks. This bycatch totalled 217 individuals from six species, with Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson), the most common and finetooth shark, Carcharhinus isodon (Müller & Henle) and spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle), the least common. The highest catch rates for sharks occurred during June and July and coincided with the peak months of the pupping season for many species. Trawl tow speed and tow time did not significantly influence catch rates for shark species. Gear configurations [net type, turtle excluder device (TED), bycatch reduction device] affected catch rates for shark species. Results of this study indicate gear restrictions, a delayed season opening, or reduced bar spacing on TEDs may reduce shark bycatch in this fishery.

  15. Latitudinal trends and temporal shifts in the catch composition of bottom trawls conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Duane E.; Lauth, Robert R.

    2012-06-01

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients are well known in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. However, trends in relative abundance and other shifts in community structure with latitude, which can be more sensitive to environmental shifts such as climate change, have received less attention. Here we investigate latitudinal trends in the seafloor community of the eastern Bering Sea using catches of fishes and epibenthic invertebrates in bottom trawl surveys conducted from 1982 to 2010. Our results indicate that the overall biomass of the epibenthic community declines with increasing latitude in the eastern Bering Sea. This latitudinal trend is primarily driven by declining fish catches in the northern Bering Sea, which in turn reflects changes in the structure of the fish community. The fish fauna in northern latitudes is increasingly dominated by gadids, though the species composition of the gadid fauna also changes with latitude, with smaller species becoming more common in the north. The biomass of the invertebrate megafauna remains relatively consistent throughout the eastern Bering Sea, but invertebrates make up a larger proportion of the catch in bottom trawls conducted at higher latitudes. The epibenthic invertebrate megafauna in the eastern Bering Sea is composed primarily of sea stars (Asteriidae) and oregoniid crabs (Chionoecetes and Hyas), though no clear latitudinal trends in the invertebrate community are evident. Limited trawl data from the eastern Chukchi Sea indicate that the fish community farther north is even more heavily dominated by gadids, and the epibenthic invertebrate community is dominated by asteriid sea stars. Temperature data from bottom trawl surveys in the southeastern Bering Sea over the past decade indicate that there was a distinct temperature shift around 2005, and the relatively warm years of 2001-2005 were followed by five relatively cold years. This shift in the summer temperature regime of the Bering

  16. Surface trawl survey for U.S. origin Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, T F; Renkawitz, M D; Brown, R W

    2011-08-01

    A surface trawl survey (2001-2005) in Penobscot Bay, Maine, U.S.A., and the nearshore Gulf of Maine waters was conducted to investigate early marine dynamics of a hatchery-dependent Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population from a severely modified river system. Data generated were used to evaluate the effect of stocking location and time on migration success and to describe the migratory pathways and environments that post-smolts traverse. Significant differences in early migration success were detected among different stocking groups, but subsequent marine survival was independent of stocking group. While the post-smolt population was primarily composed of hatchery origin smolt-stocked fish, other life-stage stocking strategies (i.e. parr stocking) represented a higher proportion of the population than previously assumed. Catch distribution suggests evidence of an initial marine migratory pathway out of the dynamic Penobscot Bay environment. The hypothesized benefits of a predator refuge based on the co-occurring species complex is considered minimal for emigrating post-smolts given a mismatch in the size overlap among species and low abundance of other co-occurring diadromous populations. These data can be used to modify current management actions to optimize S. salar recovery and inform future research agendas.

  17. The role of juveniles in structuring demersal assemblages in trawled fishing grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, M.; Fiorentino, F.; Gancitano, V.; Massi, D.; Mirto, S.; Garofalo, G.

    2013-11-01

    The capture of large amounts of small, immature fish of commercial species is a serious problem particularly in multispecies fisheries. Moreover, considerable and increasing interest is being devoted by fishery scientists to identify the distribution and habitat needs of species throughout their life cycle. To elucidate species composition, the abundance of juveniles in the demersal assemblages and the role of different life history (juvenile and adult) stages of target species in structuring demersal communities, two bottom trawl surveys were carried out during the autumn 2003 and 2004. Multivariate analyses were performed on density indices of adults and juveniles life stages of 30 target species and total density indices for the remainder of the catch species. Juveniles represent more than 61% of the total catch in both the years investigated and their abundance and spatial distribution was strictly related to the sea bottom biocoenotic features. Most juveniles were concentrated in the coastal shelf area and in particular in the hauls performed on the Coastal Terrigenous Mud biocoenosis (CTM). The demersal assemblages located in the slope stratum showed, in general, a lower concentration of juvenile specimens; however, some facies of the Bathyal Mud biocoenosis that characterizes the deep layer of our study area showed a very high percentage of juveniles. This information improves our understanding of ecosystem functioning and represents a useful basis for providing advice on the management of multispecies demersal fisheries within an ecosystem approach.

  18. Discarding of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Danish North Sea trawl fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Niels; Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) plays an important role in the North Sea benthic ecosystem and is by weight the most important commercial flatfish species in the North Sea demersal fishery. There is a high discarding of plaice in the active demersal fisheries in the North Sea. The change in fisheries management towards a more ecosystem based approach, together with a greater focus on sustainability, has caused a severe need for action. Subsequently, the European Commission is preparing regulations to reduce or even ban discards. The trawl fisheries are commercially the most important Danish fishery targeting plaice. Here we analyse discard data collected onboard Danish vessels in the period from 1998 to 2008. We describe the general patterns in these data by dividing them into three mesh size categories: 80-99 mm, 100-119 mm and ≥ 120 mm to reflect implemented technical measures of relevance. We analyse the landed and discarded portions in these mesh size categories and link the discarding to the minimum landing size. We employed a GAM model to assess how discarding of plaice below the minimum landing size is connected to relevant factors that could be of relevance from a management perspective. We identified a statistical significant effect of mesh size category and area. We discuss the results in relation to potential mitigation measures to be implemented in future fisheries management strategies.

  19. Deep-sea crustacean trawling fisheries in Portugal: quantification of effort and assessment of landings per unit effort using a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS).

    PubMed

    Bueno-Pardo, Juan; Ramalho, Sofia P; García-Alegre, Ana; Morgado, Mariana; Vieira, Rui P; Cunha, Marina R; Queiroga, Henrique

    2017-01-18

    Mapping and quantifying bottom trawling fishing pressure on the seafloor is pivotal to understand its effects on deep-sea benthic habitats. Using data from the Vessel Monitoring System of crustacean trawlers along the Portuguese margin, we have identified the most exploited areas and characterized the most targeted habitats and water depths. We estimated a total trawling effort of 69596, 66766, and 63427 h y(-1) for the years 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively which, considering the total landings estimated for this gear, yield values of 20.76, 21.06, and 19.11 kg of landed fish per trawled hour. The main trawling pressure is exerted in the South and Southwest Portuguese margins, on muddy and muddy-sand bottoms between 200 and 700 m water depths, while in the North and Central-West coasts a minor effort, at shallower waters and across a wider range of habitats, is also applied. The most landed species are crustaceans such as rose shrimp and Norway lobster, although this varies importantly between the different regions of Portugal, being fish and cephalopods the main captures in the Northern ports. We discuss the consequences of trawling for the impacted communities as well as the characteristics of the commercialization of these captures in Portugal.

  20. Deep-sea crustacean trawling fisheries in Portugal: quantification of effort and assessment of landings per unit effort using a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno-Pardo, Juan; Ramalho, Sofia P.; García-Alegre, Ana; Morgado, Mariana; Vieira, Rui P.; Cunha, Marina R.; Queiroga, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Mapping and quantifying bottom trawling fishing pressure on the seafloor is pivotal to understand its effects on deep-sea benthic habitats. Using data from the Vessel Monitoring System of crustacean trawlers along the Portuguese margin, we have identified the most exploited areas and characterized the most targeted habitats and water depths. We estimated a total trawling effort of 69596, 66766, and 63427 h y‑1 for the years 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively which, considering the total landings estimated for this gear, yield values of 20.76, 21.06, and 19.11 kg of landed fish per trawled hour. The main trawling pressure is exerted in the South and Southwest Portuguese margins, on muddy and muddy-sand bottoms between 200 and 700 m water depths, while in the North and Central-West coasts a minor effort, at shallower waters and across a wider range of habitats, is also applied. The most landed species are crustaceans such as rose shrimp and Norway lobster, although this varies importantly between the different regions of Portugal, being fish and cephalopods the main captures in the Northern ports. We discuss the consequences of trawling for the impacted communities as well as the characteristics of the commercialization of these captures in Portugal.

  1. Deep-sea crustacean trawling fisheries in Portugal: quantification of effort and assessment of landings per unit effort using a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS)

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Pardo, Juan; Ramalho, Sofia P.; García-Alegre, Ana; Morgado, Mariana; Vieira, Rui P.; Cunha, Marina R.; Queiroga, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Mapping and quantifying bottom trawling fishing pressure on the seafloor is pivotal to understand its effects on deep-sea benthic habitats. Using data from the Vessel Monitoring System of crustacean trawlers along the Portuguese margin, we have identified the most exploited areas and characterized the most targeted habitats and water depths. We estimated a total trawling effort of 69596, 66766, and 63427 h y−1 for the years 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively which, considering the total landings estimated for this gear, yield values of 20.76, 21.06, and 19.11 kg of landed fish per trawled hour. The main trawling pressure is exerted in the South and Southwest Portuguese margins, on muddy and muddy-sand bottoms between 200 and 700 m water depths, while in the North and Central-West coasts a minor effort, at shallower waters and across a wider range of habitats, is also applied. The most landed species are crustaceans such as rose shrimp and Norway lobster, although this varies importantly between the different regions of Portugal, being fish and cephalopods the main captures in the Northern ports. We discuss the consequences of trawling for the impacted communities as well as the characteristics of the commercialization of these captures in Portugal. PMID:28098211

  2. High Degree of HIV-1 Group M (HIV-1M) Genetic Diversity within Circulating Recombinant Forms: Insight into the Early Events of HIV-1M Evolution.

    PubMed

    Tongo, Marcel; Dorfman, Jeffrey R; Martin, Darren P

    2015-12-09

    The existence of various highly divergent HIV-1 lineages and of recombination-derived sequence tracts of indeterminate origin within established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) strongly suggests that HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) diversity is not fully represented under the current classification system. Here we used a fully exploratory screen for recombination on a set of 480 near-full-length genomes representing the full known diversity of HIV-1M. We decomposed recombinant sequences into their constituent parts and then used maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of this mostly recombination-free data set to identify rare divergent sequence lineages that fall outside the major named HIV-1M taxonomic groupings. We found that many of the sequence fragments occurring within CRFs (including CRF04_cpx, CRF06_cpx, CRF11_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF25_cpx, CRF27_cpx, and CRF49_cpx) are in fact likely derived from divergent unclassified parental lineages that may predate the current subtypes, even though they are presently identified as derived from currently defined HIV-1M subtypes. Our evidence suggests that some of these CRFs are descended predominantly from what were or are major previously unidentified HIV-1M lineages that were likely epidemiologically relevant during the early stages of the HIV-1M epidemic. The restriction of these divergent lineages to the Congo basin suggests that they were less infectious and/or simply not present at the time and place of the initial migratory wave that triggered the global epidemic.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely spread to the rest of the world from the Congo basin in the mid-1900s (N. R. Faria et al., Science 346:56-61, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256739) and is today the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. Here, we show that large sequence fragments from several HIV-1M circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are derived from divergent parental lineages that cannot reasonably be classified within the nine

  3. High Degree of HIV-1 Group M (HIV-1M) Genetic Diversity within Circulating Recombinant Forms: Insight into the Early Events of HIV-1M Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The existence of various highly divergent HIV-1 lineages and of recombination-derived sequence tracts of indeterminate origin within established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) strongly suggests that HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) diversity is not fully represented under the current classification system. Here we used a fully exploratory screen for recombination on a set of 480 near-full-length genomes representing the full known diversity of HIV-1M. We decomposed recombinant sequences into their constituent parts and then used maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses of this mostly recombination-free data set to identify rare divergent sequence lineages that fall outside the major named HIV-1M taxonomic groupings. We found that many of the sequence fragments occurring within CRFs (including CRF04_cpx, CRF06_cpx, CRF11_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF25_cpx, CRF27_cpx, and CRF49_cpx) are in fact likely derived from divergent unclassified parental lineages that may predate the current subtypes, even though they are presently identified as derived from currently defined HIV-1M subtypes. Our evidence suggests that some of these CRFs are descended predominantly from what were or are major previously unidentified HIV-1M lineages that were likely epidemiologically relevant during the early stages of the HIV-1M epidemic. The restriction of these divergent lineages to the Congo basin suggests that they were less infectious and/or simply not present at the time and place of the initial migratory wave that triggered the global epidemic. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely spread to the rest of the world from the Congo basin in the mid-1900s (N. R. Faria et al., Science 346:56–61, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1256739) and is today the principal cause of the AIDS pandemic. Here, we show that large sequence fragments from several HIV-1M circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are derived from divergent parental lineages that cannot reasonably be classified within the

  4. Increasing sediment accumulation rates in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon axis and their relationship with bottom trawling activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Martín, J.; Masqué, P.; Palanques, A.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies conducted in La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) found that trawling activities along the canyon flanks cause resuspension and transport of sediments toward the canyon axis. 210Pb chronology supported by 137Cs dating applied to a sediment core collected at 1750 m in 2002 suggested a doubling of the sediment accumulation rate since the 1970s, coincident with the rapid industrialization of the local trawling fleet. The same canyon area has been revisited a decade later, and new data are consistent with a sedimentary regime shift during the 1970s and also suggest that the accumulation rate during the last decade could be greater than expected, approaching ~2.4 cm yr-1 (compared to ~0.25 cm yr-1 pre-1970s). These results support the hypothesis that commercial bottom trawling can substantially affect sediment dynamics and budgets on continental margins, eventually initiating the formation of anthropogenic depocenters in submarine canyon environments.

  5. Beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.

  6. Bottom trawl impacts on Mediterranean demersal fish diversity: Not so obvious or are we too late?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farriols, M. Teresa; Ordines, Francesc; Somerfield, Paul J.; Pasqual, Catalina; Hidalgo, Manuel; Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric

    2017-04-01

    Measures of biodiversity change may be useful as indicators if they are responsive to manageable drivers of biodiversity loss. However, there are many candidate indicators that are considered to be robust to survey artifacts and sensitive to manageable impacts. Using extensive survey data on demersal fish assemblages around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) we analyze relationships among 'traditional', taxonomic and functional diversity indices, to identify a minimum set of indices that provide a good representation of the different aspects of diversity. Secondly we model the responses of the demersal fish community diversity to bottom trawl fishing pressure. To do so, we used two different approaches: (i) considering fishing effort and depth as continuous explanatory variables; and (ii) grouping samples according to bathymetric sampling strata and contrasting levels of fishing effort. The results show that diversity can be described using different complementary aspects such as species richness, evenness, and the taxonomic and functional breadth of the species present in a given community, displaying different responses to fishing pressure. However, the changes in diversity in response to fishing may only be detectable in those communities where the levels of fishing pressure have remained relatively low. When communities have been exposed to high levels of fishing pressure for a long period, the relevant changes in diversity may have happened long before the onset of monitoring of the fishery, and hence it may be too late to detect differences between levels of fishing effort. This seems to be the case on the middle slope of the Balearic Islands, where vulnerable species have disappeared or are very infrequent, and have been replaced by species better-adapted to fishing impacts.

  7. Infaunal community responses to a gradient of trawling disturbance and a long-term Fishery Exclusion Zone in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, M. Cristina; Kaiser, Michel J.; Porporato, Erika M. D.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Rinelli, Paola; Spanò, Nunziacarla

    2014-03-01

    Historically the majority of Mediterranean trawl fisheries occur on the continental shelf with a smaller proportion focused on the shelf slope and deep sea areas. Understanding how trawl fisheries affect the wider ecosystem is an important component of the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. In this context the current study examined the impact of the otter trawl fishery on the infaunal communities found on the continental shelf and upper slope off the coast of Sicily and Calabria, Italy. A total of thirty six sites were sampled across a gradient of fishing intensity and from within a large bay from which trawling has been excluded for 22 years. Fishing intensities were ascertained post-hoc from vessel monitoring system data. Seabed characteristics of the sites studied were uniform across the continental shelf and slope areas that were studied, such that the only factor that varied was fishing intensity. The density index (DI) and total number of species (S) were significantly higher in the fishery closure area compared with other continental shelf sites. In particular, bioturbating decapod fauna occurred only within the fishery closure area. Fished sites were dominated primarily by burrowing deposit feeding worms, small bivalves and scavenging biota. In contrast, the response to fishing on the upper slope was less clear. This observation was treated with caution as the power to detect fishing effects was lower for the upper slope sites as a result of possible illegal fishing that had compromised two of the four replicate sites within the closed area. While the present study was able to quantify the effect of the demersal trawl fleet on the benthic infauna of the continental shelf, the effects of trawling on the upper shelf slope remain unclear and warrant further study.

  8. Organic biomarkers in deep-sea regions affected by bottom trawling: pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates in surface sediments from the La Fonera (Palamós) Canyon, NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañé, E.; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems are in general adapted to a limited variability of physical conditions, resulting in high vulnerability and slow recovery rates from anthropogenic perturbations such as bottom trawling. Commercial trawling is the most recurrent and pervasive of human impacts on the deep-sea floor, but studies on its consequences on the biogeochemistry of deep-sea sediments are still scarce. Pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates were analysed in sediments from the flanks of the La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea), where a commercial bottom trawling fishery has been active for more than 70 yr. More specifically, we investigated how trawling-induced sediment reworking affects the quality of sedimentary organic matter which reaches the seafloor and accumulates in the sediment column, which is fundamental for the development of benthic communities. Sediment samples were collected during two oceanographic cruises in spring and autumn 2011. The sampled sites included trawl fishing grounds as well as pristine (control) areas. We report that bottom trawling in the flanks of the La Fonera Canyon has caused an alteration of the quality of the organic matter accumulated in the upper 5 cm of the seafloor. The use of a wide pool of biochemical tracers characterized by different reactivity to degradation allowed for us to discriminate the long-term effects of trawl-induced sediment reworking from the natural variability caused by the seasonal cycle of production and sinking of biogenic particles. Differences between untrawled and trawled areas were evidenced by labile amino acids, while differences between spring and autumn samples were detected only by the more labile indicators chlorophyll a and monounsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that changes in the biochemical composition of the sedimentary organic matter caused by bottom trawling can be more relevant than those associated with natural seasonality and pose serious

  9. Organic biomarkers in deep-sea regions affected by bottom trawling: pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates in surface sediments from the La Fonera (Palamós) Canyon, NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañé, E.; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems are in general adapted to a limited variability of physical conditions, resulting in high vulnerability and slow recovery rates from anthropogenic perturbations such as bottom trawling. Commercial trawling is the most recurrent and pervasive of human impacts on the deep-sea floor, but studies on its consequences on the biogeochemistry of deep-sea sediments are still scarce. Pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates were analyzed in sediments from the flanks of the La Fonera (Palamós) submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea), where a commercial bottom trawling fishery has been active for more than 70 yr. More specifically, we investigated how trawling-induced sediment reworking affects the quality of sedimentary organic matter which reaches the seafloor and accumulates in the sediment column, which is fundamental for the development of benthic communities. Sediment samples were collected during two oceanographic cruises in spring and autumn 2011. The sampled sites included trawl fishing grounds as well as pristine (control) areas. We report that bottom trawling in the flanks of the La Fonera Canyon has caused an alteration of the quality of the organic matter accumulated in the upper 5 cm of the seafloor. The use of a wide pool of biochemical tracers characterized by different reactivity to degradation allowed us to discriminate the long-term effects of trawled-induced sediment reworking from the natural variability caused by the seasonal cycle of production and sinking of biogenic particles. Differences between untrawled and trawled areas were evidenced by labile amino acids, while differences between spring and autumn samples were detected only by the more labile indicators chlorophyll a and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that changes in the biochemical composition of the sedimentary organic matter caused by bottom trawling can be more relevant than those associated with natural seasonality and pose serious

  10. Analyses of trawling track and fishing activity based on the data of vessel monitoring system (VMS): A case study of the single otter trawl vessels in the Zhoushan fishing ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Yingbin; Zheng, Ji

    2015-02-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the application of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhoushan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels' activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels' speeds were between 2.5 kn and 5.0 kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels' activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more attention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  11. Detection probabilities of electrofishing, hoop nets, and benthic trawls for fishes in two western North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Research comparing different sampling techniques helps improve the efficiency and efficacy of sampling efforts. We compared the effectiveness of three sampling techniques (small-mesh hoop nets, benthic trawls, boat-mounted electrofishing) for 30 species in the Green (WY, USA) and Kootenai (ID, USA) rivers by estimating conditional detection probabilities (probability of detecting a species given its presence at a site). Electrofishing had the highest detection probabilities (generally greater than 0.60) for most species (88%), but hoop nets also had high detectability for several taxa (e.g., adult burbot Lota lota, juvenile northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis). Benthic trawls had low detection probabilities (<0.05) for most taxa (84%). Gear-specific effects were present for most species indicating large differences in gear effectiveness among techniques. In addition to gear effects, habitat characteristics also influenced detectability of fishes. Most species-specific habitat relationships were idiosyncratic and reflected the ecology of the species. Overall findings of our study indicate that boat-mounted electrofishing and hoop nets are the most effective techniques for sampling fish assemblages in large, coldwater rivers.

  12. Pair-Trawl Detection of PIT-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids Migrating in the Columbia River Estuary, 2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Magie, Robert J.; Morris, Matthew S.; Ledgerwood, Richard D.

    2009-06-03

    In 2008, we sampled migrating juvenile Pacific salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags using a surface pair trawl in the upper Columbia River estuary (rkm 61-83). The cod-end of the trawl was replaced with a cylindrical PIT-tag detection antenna with an 86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening and two detection coils connected in series. The pair trawl was 105 m long with a 91.5-m opening between the wings and a sample depth of 4.9 m. Also during 2008, we finalized the development of a prototype 'matrix' antenna, which was larger than previous antennas by a considerable magnitude. The matrix antenna consisted of 6 coils: a 3-coil front component and a 3-coil rear component, which were separated by 1.5-m of net mesh. The fish-passage opening was 2.5 m wide by 3.0 m tall and was attached to a standard-size pair trawl net. Intermittent sampling with a single crew began on 7 March and targeted yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. Daily sampling using two crews began on 30 April and continued through 14 June; during this period we detected 2.7% of all juvenile salmonids previously detected at Bonneville Dam--a measure of sample efficiency. Sampling with a single crew continued through 20 August and targeted subyearling Chinook salmon. We detected 7,397 yearling Chinook salmon, 2,735 subyearling Chinook salmon, 291 coho salmon O. kisutch, 5,950 steelhead, and 122 sockeye salmon O. nerka in the upper estuary. We deployed the matrix antenna system and the older, cylindrical antenna system (86-cm-diameter fish-passage opening) simultaneously in mid-May 2008 to test matrix detection efficiency. The cylindrical antenna system had been used successfully in 2007 and early 2008. Because distribution of migrating salmonids in the estuary changes rapidly, we felt that a tandem sampling effort between the two systems was the only way to truly evaluate comparative detection efficiency. We deployed both systems within 1

  13. Calculation of the satellite "Sich-1M" orientation on onboard magnetometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhorukov, A.; Kozak, L.

    2005-04-01

    The satellite "Sich-1M" was launched on 24 December 2004. It came out onto the elliptic orbit with the perigee height near 280 km except planned earlier higher near circle orbit. In addition, the satellite has gotten a non-planned rotation (about 2 rotations per turn). Later the gravitational beam had been pulled out from the satellite which partly stabilized it. A rotation of the satellite was superseded by its oscillation with a period near 2-4 swings per turn and amplitude 50 degrees. The oscillations have an unstable character. Rotations and oscillations of the satellite set inessential limitations on realization of scientific tasks of the project "Variant" because there is a possibility to determine the satellite orientation for a given time moment with the help of measurements of ferrosonde magnetometer FZM or onboard magnetometer. The device FZM measures three components of magnetic field Bx, By, Bz of the Earth in coordinate system of the satellite. To determine the satellite orientation we have used the fact that each of the component of the magnetic field at the present time moment is a function of geographical coordinates of the satellite (latitude, longitude, height over sea level), its orientation and components of a vector of Earth magnetic field in this point, calculated from magnetosphere model. Thus, having direct satellite measurements of Bx, By, Bz at given time moment in given point, orbital elements and position of the satellite on the orbit and using the standard model of Earth's magnetosphere one can calculate the satellite orientation as function of time. For the calculation we have used the magnetosphere model "The International Geomagnetic Reference Field" (IGRF) which empirically calculates the components of magnetic field of the Earth and is recommended for scientific investigations by International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). Coefficients of IGRF model are based on accessible information sources including

  14. Beam-energy inequality in the beam-beam interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnagopal, S.; Siemann, R. )

    1990-03-01

    Conditions for energy transparency,'' unequal-energy beams having the same beam-beam behavior, are derived for round beams from a Hamiltonian model of the beam-beam interaction. These conditions are equal fractional betatron tunes, equal synchrotron tunes, equal beam-beam strength parameters, equal nominal sizes, equal {beta}{sup *}'s and equal bunch lengths. With these conditions the only way to compensate for unequal energies is with the number of particles per bunch.

  15. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  16. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  17. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  18. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  19. 50 CFR Table 33 to Part 679 - Annual Apportion of Amendment 80 Species ITAC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Apportion of Amendment 80 Species ITAC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors (Except Yellowfin Sole) 33 Table 33... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 33 Table 33 to Part 679— Annual Apportion of Amendment 80 Species ITAC Between...

  20. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  1. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  2. Cistanches Herba aqueous extract affecting serum BGP and TRAP and bone marrow Smad1 mRNA, Smad5 mRNA, TGF-β1 mRNA and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels in osteoporosis disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Yu, Fang; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Liang, Wu

    2013-02-01

    We studied molecular mechanism of Cistanches Herba aqueous extract (CHAE) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, as an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female rats were either sham-operated or bilaterally OVX; and at 60 days postoperatively. The OVX group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and treatment with normal saline for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomized +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and were treated with Cistanches Herba aqueous extract of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomy +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy, and were treated with the of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. Serum BGP and TRAP, E2, FSH and LH level, bone marrow Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels were examined. Results showed that serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels were significantly increased, whereas E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels were significantly decreased in OVX rats compared to sham rats. 90 days of CHAE treatment could significantly decrease serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels, and increase E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels in OVX rats. It can be concluded that CHAE play its protective effect against OVX-induced bone degeneration partly by regulating some bone metabolism related genes, e.g. Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1.

  3. Beam tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    A program for configuring the linac, based on previously run configurations for any desired beam was used during the past year. This program uses only a small number of empirical tunes to scale resonator fields to properly accelerate a beam with a different charge-to-mass (q/A) ratio from the original tune configuration. The program worked very well for the PII linac section where we can easily match a new beam`s arrival phase and velocity to the tuned value. It was also fairly successful for the Booster and ATLAS sections of the linac, but not as successful as for the PII linac. Most of the problems are associated with setting the beam arrival time correctly for each major linac section. This problem is being addressed with the development of the capacitive pickup beam phase monitor discussed above. During the next year we expect to improve our ability to quickly configure the linac for new beams and reduce the time required for linac tuning. Already the time required for linac tuning as a percentage of research hours has decreased from 22% in FY 1993 to 15% in the first quarter of FY 1995.

  4. Development of a new multiple sampling trawl with autonomous opening/closing net control system for sampling juvenile pelagic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oozeki, Yoshioki; Hu, Fuxiang; Tomatsu, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    A new multiple layer sampling trawl with an autonomous net opening/closing control system was developed to sample pelagic juvenile fish quantitatively. The new trawl system, based on the Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu Trawl (MOHT), has a rigid-frame 3.3 m high and 2.35 m wide and five nets of 11.0 m length with a rectangular mouth of 2.22 m×1.81 m (4 m2 mouth area; large-scale prototype). A cambered V-shape depressor is hung below the frame and two bridles are attached at the midpoint of the side frames. A net-release controller is used, which not only controls the net release mechanism but also records the net depth, temperature and flow rate during net towing. The controller sends stored command signals to the net release mechanism as depth settings and/or time settings and does not require any commands from the surface through a conducting cable or by acoustic signals. Two other models were constructed before the construction of the large-scale prototype, which are a small-scale prototype (2 m2 mouth area) for testing the net release mechanism and a 1/4-scale model of the large-scale prototype for flume tank tests. Flume tank tests with the 1/4-scale model showed that the frame leaned forward at a tilt angle from 5 to 15 degrees at towing speeds from 0.8 to 1.4 m s-1. Opened nets closed smoothly and sequentially nets were completely opened when the trigger was released by the command. Net depth rarely changed even during changes in towing speed. Sea trials both by the small-scale and the large-scale prototype demonstrated the same towing characteristics expected from the flume tank tests. The newly developed multiple layer opening/closing MOHT (MOC-MOHT) is considered to be suitable for quantitative layer sampling of juvenile fish.

  5. The occupation of trawl fishing and the medical aid available to the Grimsby deep sea fisherman1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S. R. W.

    1969-01-01

    Moore, S. R. W. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 1-24. The occupation of trawl fishing and the medical aid available to the Grimsby deep sea fisherman. The mortality of fishermen is twice that of coalminers. Because of the method of fishing the mortality of the trawlerman is probably higher. Outside the industry little is known about the occupation of trawl fishing. Its size, the number of men employed, and the number and distribution of trawlers are therefore described, with particular reference to the port of Grimsby. As near, middle, and deep water trawlers sail from Grimsby, its industry gives a good representation of conditions in the industry as a whole. The port and the fishing grounds are described. The composition of the trawler crew, their conditions of work, accommodation, and remuneration are explained. A description is given of the trawl apparatus, fishing operations, and the hazards involved, and extracts from the writer's diary of a fishing voyage are appended. The United Kingdom has ratified the Accommodation of Crews (Fishermen) Convention 1966 of the International Labour Organisation, and an informal survey of a modern trawler fleet showed that it fell short of the requirements of this Convention. Accommodation is confined and the crew live and work in close proximity and in conditions of physical discomfort. Trawlermen work for long hours under conditions which would not be tolerated by the shore worker. The method of payment is such that trawlermen may take unnecessary risks. Earnings depend on team work so that illness and injury are often not reported with consequent deterioration of the condition. Physical fatigue and lack of sleep contribute to an increased accident rate. It is therefore recommended that more men per trawler should be employed to allow shorter working hours. As the skipper and mate are paid wholly on a share basis, the remainder of the crew receiving, in addition, a basic wage, it `pays' the trawlermen to take risks. A

  6. Foldable beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.; Coyner, J. V.; Crawford, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A foldable beam possessing superior qualities of light weight, compactness for transportation, quick deployment with minimum use of force, and high strength is described. These qualities are achieved through the use of a series of longitudinally rigid segments, hinged along one side and threaded by one or two cables along the opposite side. Tightening the cables holds the beam extended. Loosening the cables permits the segments to fold away from the threaded side. In one embodiment the segments are connected by canted hinges with the result that the beam may be folded in a helix-like configuration around a cylinder. In another embodiment the segments themselves may be hinged to fold flat laterally as the beam is folded, resulting in a configuration that may be helixed around a shorter cylinder.

  7. 114. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 1M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 1M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; PLAN - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 5. JOB NO. 1347B, SHEET 1M, 1927, OIL HOUSE; FORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. JOB NO. 1347-B, SHEET 1M, 1927, OIL HOUSE; FORD MOTOR COMPANY; FOUNDATION, PLOT PLAN AND DETAILS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Oil House, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. VIEW OF THE ORBITER WHEEL STORAGE DEVICES, ROOM 1M8, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE ORBITER WHEEL STORAGE DEVICES, ROOM 1M8, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Wall-to-Wall 1-m Topographic Coverage of the Mars Science Laboratory Candidate Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Galuszka, D.; Redding, B.; Antonsen, J.; Coker, K.; Foster, E.; Hopkins, M.; Licht, A.; Fennema, A.; Calef, F.; Nuti, S.; Parker, T. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    2011-03-01

    Nearly complete 1 m/post-topographic models of the MSL landing ellipses contain more height points than the MOLA global dataset, supporting site safety validation, rover traverse planning, and assessment of the accuracy of HiRISE stereo mapping.

  11. Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for elliptic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, V.

    1990-10-22

    In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary elliptic beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to ellipticity or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Amniotic fluid LPCAT1 mRNA correlates with the lamellar body count.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert A; Shaw, Michael K; Welch, Kathryn C

    2016-07-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) is required in the biosynthesis of pulmonary surfactant. This short communication describes our assessment of LPCAT1 mRNA levels in human amniotic fluid. We found a direct correlation between LPCAT1 mRNA copies and the amniotic fluid lamellar body count (LBC). This finding corroborates an association between LPCAT1 and surfactant phospholipid biosynthesis in humans. It may provide a model for future research in perinatal medicine.

  13. A1M, an extravascular tissue cleaning and housekeeping protein: a possible drug candidate.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Gram; Bo, Åkerström

    2014-10-01

    Alpha-1-microglobulin (A1M) is a small protein found intra- and extracellularly in all tissues of vertebrates. The protein was discovered 40 years ago and its physiological role remained unknown for a long time. A series of recent publications have demonstrated that A1M is a vital part of tissue housekeeping. A strongly electronegative free thiol group forms the structural basis of heme-binding, reductase- and radical-trapping properties. A rapid flow of liver-produced A1M through blood and extravascular compartments ensures clearing of biological fluids from heme and free radicals and repair of oxidative lesions. After binding, both the radicals and A1M are electroneutral and therefore do not present any further oxidative stress to tissues. The biological cleaning cycle is completed by glomerular filtration, renal degradation and urinary excretion of A1M heavily modified by covalently linked radicals and heme-groups. Based on its role as a tissue housekeeping cleaning factor, A1M constitutes a potential therapeutic drug candidate in treatment or prophylaxis of diseases or conditions that are associated with pathological oxidative stress elements.

  14. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down.

  15. SmeltCam: underwater video codend for trawled nets with an application to the distribution of the imperiled delta smelt.

    PubMed

    Feyrer, Frederick; Portz, Donald; Odum, Darren; Newman, Ken B; Sommer, Ted; Contreras, Dave; Baxter, Randall; Slater, Steven B; Sereno, Deanna; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Studying rare and sensitive species is a challenge in conservation biology. The problem is exemplified by the case of the imperiled delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a small delicate fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary, California. Persistent record-low levels of abundance and relatively high sensitivity to handling stress pose considerable challenges to studying delta smelt in the wild. To attempt to overcome these and other challenges we have developed the SmeltCam, an underwater video camera codend for trawled nets. The SmeltCam functions as an open-ended codend that automatically collects information on the number and species of fishes that pass freely through a trawled net without handling. We applied the SmeltCam to study the fine-scale distribution of juvenile delta smelt in the water column in the upper San Francisco Estuary. We learned that during flood tides delta smelt were relatively abundant throughout the water column and that during ebb tides delta smelt were significantly less abundant and occurred only in the lower half and sides of the water column. The results suggest that delta smelt manipulate their position in the water column to facilitate retention in favorable habitats. With the application of the SmeltCam we increased the survival of individual delta smelt by 72% compared to using a traditional codend, where all of the fish would have likely died due to handling stress. The SmeltCam improves upon similar previously developed silhouette photography or video recording devices and demonstrates how new technology can be developed to address important questions in conservation biology as well as lessen the negative effects associated with traditional sampling methods on imperiled species.

  16. Relationship between mid-water trawling effort and catch composition uncertainty in two large lakes (Huron and Michigan) dominated by alosines, osmerids, and coregonines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Yule, Daniel L.; Hrabik, Tom R.; Peintka, Bernie; Rudstam, Lars G.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Because it is not possible to identify species with echosounders alone, trawling is widely used as a method for collecting species and size composition data for allocating acoustic fish density estimates to species or size groups. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, data from midwater trawls are commonly used for such allocations. However, there are no rules for how much midwater trawling effort is required to adequately describe species and size composition of the pelagic fish communities in these lakes, so the balance between acoustic sampling effort and trawling effort has been unguided. We used midwater trawl data collected between 1986 and 2008 in lakes Michigan and Huron and a variety of analytical techniques to develop guidance for appropriate levels of trawl effort. We used multivariate regression trees and re-sampling techniques to i. identify factors that influence species and size composition of the pelagic fish communities in these lakes, ii. identify stratification schemes for the two lakes, iii. determine if there was a relationship between uncertainty in catch composition and the number of tows made, and iv. predict the number of tows required to reach desired uncertainty targets. We found that depth occupied by fish below the surface was the most influential explanatory variable. Catch composition varied between lakes at depths <38.5 m below the surface, but not at depths ≥38.5 m below the surface. Year, latitude, and bottom depth influenced catch composition in the near-surface waters of Lake Michigan, while only year was important for Lake Huron surface waters. There was an inverse relationship between RSE [relative standard error = 100 × (SE/mean)] and the number of tows made for the proportions of the different size and species groups. We found for the fifth (Lake Huron) and sixth (Lake Michigan) largest lakes in the world, 15–35 tows were adequate to achieve target RSEs (15% and 30%) for ubiquitous species, but rarer species required much

  17. Coherent beam-beam interaction with four colliding beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, B.; Siemann, R. H.

    1995-09-01

    The coherent beam-beam interaction in the absence of Landau damping is studied with a computer simulation of four space-charge-compensated colliding beams. Results are presented for the modes, phase space structures, widths, and growth rates of coherent beam-beam resonances. These results are compared with solutions of the Vlasov equation, and with measurements made at the Dispositif de Collisions dans l'Igloo (DCI) storage ring in Orsay, France, which operated with space-charge-compensated colliding beams.

  18. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters.

  19. Neutral Beam Injection in the Electric Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.; Taylor, R. J.; White, A. E.; Yates, T. F.

    2004-11-01

    The Electric Tokamak (ET) at UCLA (Bt=0.25T, R=5m, a=1m, Te(0)=300eV, tau(0)=1s) is now running long shots (5s). A new development program was started last year to include a neutral beam in the daily operations of the machine. As a result, a 10kV neutral beam injector was built to deal with plasma and measurement issues. The design and parameters of the beam are discussed. The source is based on an RF generated plasma, with a single extraction grid providing an accel-decel configuration. Plasma neutralization efficiency is also presented. Co- or counter injection is now possible using a single beam. The construction of a second beam is planned for simultaneous co- and counter injections for toroidal momentum input control. Plasma toroidal and poloidal rotation, particle diffusion and current drive effects will be presented.

  20. Great lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of prey fish stocks in the Great Lakes have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using bottom trawls, they differ among the lakes in the proportion of the lake covered, seasonal timing, bottom trawl gear used, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique in one or more important aspects, direct comparison of prey fish catches among lakes is not straightforward. However, all of the assessments produce indices of abundance or biomass that can be standardized to facilitate comparisons of status and trends across all the Great Lakes. In this report, population indices were standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake for the following principal prey species: cisco (Coregonus artedi), bloater (C. hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Indices were also provided for round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive fish that has proliferated throughout the basin over the past 18 years. These standardized indices represent the best available long-term indices of relative abundance for these fishes across all of the Great Lakes. In this report, standardized indices are presented in graphical form along with synopses to provide a short, informal cross-basin summary of the status and trends of principal prey fishes. In keeping with this intent, tables, references, and a detailed discussion were omitted.

  1. Evaluation of changes in macrobenthic standing stock and polychaete community structure along the south eastern Arabian Sea shelf during the monsoon trawl-ban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Jaleel, K. U.; Parameswaran, Usha V.; Gopal, Aiswarya; Khader, Chippy; Ganesh, T.; Sanjeevan, V. N.; Shunmugaraj, T.; Vijayan, Anil Kumar; Gupta, G. V. M.

    2015-07-01

    The south eastern Arabian Sea is characterized by moderate coastal upwelling, high biological production and subsurface oxygen depletion during the southwest monsoon (June-September). Concurrently, a seasonal closure to trawling activities (15th June-31st July) is implemented here, as a sustainable ecosystem management practise. The effects of monsoon driven environmental changes and consequences of trawling cessation on macrofauna were assessed, based on surveys at 12 sites (30-200 m) preceding and during different phases of the southwest monsoon. Macrofaunal density and biomass increased considerably towards the mid and late monsoon along the inner shelf (30-50 m) where trawling is intense, while no temporal changes were observed along the outer shelf (100-200 m). Density increased four-folds at the 30 m contour and three-folds at 50 m, while biomass nearly doubled at both depths, reflecting a marked increase in density of polychaetes (61-87% of macrofauna). The disproportionate increase in faunal density and biomass along the inner shelf (30-50 m) was due to abundance of juvenile polychaetes and dominance of small-sized opportunists towards late monsoon (August-September). A concurrent hike in nominal species count of polychaetes was also observed in the study area. The increase in polychaete standing stock and high density of planktonic larvae during onset and peak monsoon, coupled with occurrence of juveniles as well as gamete-bearing adults in sediments, indicates that the southwest monsoon is a peak breeding season for the dominant polychaetes in the region. The trawl-ban during this period facilitates the recoupment of benthos by maximising spawning success and larval settlement, thereby enhancing overall ecosystem integrity.

  2. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  3. Transit & RV Observations of Exoplanets by the 1-m Telescope at Weihai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chen; Ren, Dayong; Gao, Dongyang; Zhang, Jicheng; Song, Nan; Wang, Feige

    2014-04-01

    By using the 1-m reflecting telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University, the transit observations of seven stars are carried out to accurately estimate the physical parameters of extrasolar planets. Besides, a new high-resolution spectrograph (WES) was installed on this telescope for radial velocity measurements on exoplanets, we will show some preliminary results.

  4. Coherent beam-beam effects, theory & observations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuri I Alexahin

    2003-07-16

    Current theoretical understanding of the coherent beam-beam effect as well as its experimental observations are discussed: conditions under which the coherent beambeam modes may appear, possibility of their resonant interaction (coherent resonances), stability of beam-beam oscillations in the presence of external impedances. A special attention is given to the coherent beam-beam modes of finite length bunches: the synchro-betatron coupling is shown to provide reduction in the coherent tuneshift and--at the synchrotron tune values smaller than the beam-beam parameter--Landau damping by overlapping synchrotron satellites.

  5. Epibenthic assemblages of the Tail of the Grand Bank and Flemish Cap (northwest Atlantic) in relation to environmental parameters and trawling intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Alberto; Kenchington, Ellen; Mora, José

    2016-03-01

    The structure, composition and distribution of epibenthic invertebrate assemblages on the Tail of the Grand Bank of Newfoundland and Flemish Cap (northwest Atlantic) were sampled using depth-stratified trawls. Faunal analysis of 152 uniquely identified taxa produced hierarchical synoptic tables of species associations with diagnostic indicators based on species fidelity. Twelve spatially coherent epibenthic megafaunal assemblages were identified, each with relatively sharp faunal boundaries and unique species attributes. These assemblages were shown a posteriori through ANOSIM to have statistically different species compositions, and were nested within three major regional-scale faunal groups: (I) the continental shelf of the Tail of the Grand Bank, typified by the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma; (II) the upper slope of the Grand Bank and top of Flemish Cap, typified by the sponges Radiella hemisphaerica and Iophon piceum and the sea star Ceramaster granularis; and (III) the lower slope of the Grand Bank and Flemish Cap, typified by the sea urchin Phormosoma placenta, and the sea pens Anthoptilum grandiflorum and Funiculina quadrangularis. Comparisons with literature on benthic species associations from a half century ago suggest that the assemblages identified herein have persisted in the area at least for decades. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) identified a well-defined biological gradient along the first axis with very high species turn-over. Ten environmental variables (including Trawling Intensity) were significantly correlated with the ordinated data. At one extreme the continental shelf faunal group (I) was associated with shallow depth (mostly, less than 200 m), coarse sediments and cold and fresh water associated with the Labrador Current. At the other extreme the lower slope faunal group (III; stations below 500-600 m throughout the study area) was strongly associated with deep water, muddy sediments, and

  6. DigiCam: fully digital compact camera for SST-1M telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Pruchniewicz, R.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rameez, M.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowski, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Żychowski, P.

    2014-08-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescopes (SST-1M), being built by a sub-consortium of Polish and Swiss Institutions of the CTA Consortium, will be equipped with a fully digital camera with a compact photodetector plane based on silicon photomultipliers. The internal trigger signal transmission overhead will be kept at low level by introducing a high level of integration. It will be achieved by massively deploying state-of-the-art multi-gigabit transceivers, beginning from the ADC flash converters, through the internal data and trigger signals transmission over backplanes and cables, to the camera's server 10Gb/s Ethernet links. Such approach will allow fitting the size and weight of the camera exactly to the SST-1M needs, still retaining the flexibility of a fully digital design. Such solution has low power consumption, high reliability and long lifetime. The concept of the camera will be described, along with some construction details and performance results.

  7. Malignant extracellular vesicles carrying MMP1 mRNA facilitate peritoneal dissemination in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Akira; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Ikeda, Shun-ichi; Kato, Tomoyasu; Kiyono, Tohru; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Advanced ovarian cancers are highly metastatic due to frequent peritoneal dissemination, resulting in dismal prognosis. Here we report the functions of cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are emerging as important mediators of tumour metastasis. The EVs from highly metastatic cells strongly induce metastatic behaviour in moderately metastatic tumours. Notably, the cancer EVs efficiently induce apoptotic cell death in human mesothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, thus resulting in the destruction of the peritoneal mesothelium barrier. Whole transcriptome analysis shows that MMP1 is significantly elevated in mesothelial cells treated with highly metastatic cancer EVs and intact MMP1 mRNAs are selectively packaged in the EVs. Importantly, MMP1 expression in ovarian cancer is tightly correlated with a poor prognosis. Moreover, MMP1 mRNA-carrying EVs exist in the ascites of cancer patients and these EVs also induce apoptosis in mesothelial cells. Our findings elucidate a previously unknown mechanism of peritoneal dissemination via EVs. PMID:28262727

  8. A purple-colored 1M mica clay from Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tien, P.-L.

    1969-01-01

    A purple-colored clay of 1M mica polymorph in association with lead-zinc ore was collected from an abandoned mine dump near Silverton, Colorado. Electron micrographs show that the crystallites of the clay are less than 2?? in size and have poorly developed hexagonal outlines. Differential thermal and i.r. absorption analyses indicate similarity with those of muscovite. The structural formula of the 1M mica polymorph is (K1??45Na0??02) (Al3??75Mg0??19) (Si6??90Al1??10) O20(OH)4. The purple color may be related to trace amounts of manganese in the clay. ?? 1969.

  9. Toward a large lightweight mirror for AO: development of a 1m Ni coated CFRP mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Brooks, D.; Strangwood, M.

    2008-07-01

    We present our recent developments towards the construction of a large, thin, single-piece mirror for adaptive optics (AO). Our current research program aims to have completed fabrication and testing of a 1m diameter, nickel coated carbon-fibre reinforced cyanate ester resin mirror by the last quarter of 2009. This composite mirror material is being developed to provide a lightweight and robust alternative to thin glass shell mirrors, with the challenge of future large deformable mirrors such as the 2.5m M4 on the E-ELT in mind. A detailed analysis of the material properties of test mirror samples is being performed at the University of Birmingham (UK), the first results of which are discussed and presented here. We discuss the project progress achieved so far, including fabrication of the 1m flat moulds for the replication process, manufacturing and testing methods for 20 cm diameter sample mirrors and system simulations.

  10. Analysis of the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1-m Telescope using Annular Zernike Polynomials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    University in Flag- staff. From 1993 to 2000 he was an optical engineer and manager of the telescope optics group at Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea , Hawaii...Analysis of the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1-m telescope using annular Zernike polynomials Sergio R. Restaino Naval Research Laboratory...Mining and Technology Electrical Engineering Department 801 Leroy Place Socorro, New Mexico 87801 Michael DiVittorio U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff

  11. Engineering changes to the 0.1m cryogenic wind tunnel at Southampton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The more important changes to the 0.1 m cryogenic wind tunnel since its completion in 1977 are outlined. These include detailed improvements in the fan drive to allow higher speeds, and the provision of a test section leg suitable for use with a magnetic suspension and balance system. The instrumentation, data logging, data reduction and tunnel controls were also improved and modernized. A tunnel performance summary is given.

  12. Simplex-coded BOTDA fiber sensor with 1 m spatial resolution over a 50 km range.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marcelo A; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio; Thévenaz, Luc

    2010-01-15

    In this Letter, we propose the use of optical pulse coding techniques for long-range distributed sensors based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). Compared to conventional BOTDA sensors, optical coding provides a significant sensing-range enhancement, allowing for temperature and strain measurements with 1 m spatial resolution over 50 km of standard single-mode fiber, with an accuracy of 2.2 degrees C/44 muepsilon, respectively.

  13. Berberine as a natural source inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M H 2SO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Peng; Liang, Qiang; Hou, Baorong

    2005-12-01

    Berberine was abstracted from coptis chinensis and its inhibition efficiency on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H 2SO 4 was investigated through weight loss experiment, electrochemical techniques and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) with energy disperse spectrometer (EDS). The weight loss results showed that berberine is an excellent corrosion inhibitor for mild steel immersed in 1 M H 2SO 4. Potentiodynamic curves suggested that berberine suppressed both cathodic and anodic processes for its concentrations higher than 1.0 × 10 -4 M and mainly cathodic reaction was suppressed for lower concentrations. The Nyquist diagrams of impedance for mild steel in 1 M H 2SO 4 containing berberine with different concentrations showed one capacitive loop, and the polarization resistance increased with the inhibitor concentration rising. A good fit to Flory-Huggins isotherm was obtained between surface coverage degree and inhibitor concentration. The surface morphology and EDS analysis for mild steel specimens in sulfuric acid in the absence and presence of the inhibitor also proved the results obtained by the weight loss and electrochemical experiments. The correlation of inhibition effect and molecular structure of berberine was then discussed by quantum chemistry study.

  14. The single mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Favre, Y.; Heller, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E., Jr.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Zietara, K.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Lalik, K.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Michałowski, J.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Stawarz, L.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Walter, R.; WiÈ©cek, M.; Zagdański, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Small Size Telescope with Single Mirror (SST-1M) is one of the proposed types of Small Size Telescopes (SST) for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The CTA south array will be composed of about 100 telescopes, out of which about 70 are of SST class, which are optimized for the detection of gamma rays in the energy range from 5 TeV to 300 TeV. The SST-1M implements a Davies-Cotton optics with a 4 m dish diameter with a field of view of 9°. The Cherenkov light produced in atmospheric showers is focused onto a 88 cm wide hexagonal photo-detection plane, composed of 1296 custom designed large area hexagonal silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a fully digital readout and trigger system. The SST-1M camera has been designed to provide high performance in a robust as well as compact and lightweight design. In this contribution, we review the different steps that led to the realization of the telescope prototype and its innovative camera.

  15. Detection of MDR1 mRNA expression with optimized gold nanoparticle beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiumei; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2016-03-01

    MDR1 (multidrug resistance gene) mRNA expression is a promising biomarker for the prediction of doxorubicin resistance in clinic. However, the traditional technical process in clinic is complicated and cannot perform the real-time detection mRNA in living single cells. In this study, the expression of MDR1 mRNA was analyzed based on optimized gold nanoparticle beacon in tumor cells. Firstly, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) was modified by thiol-PEG, and the MDR1 beacon sequence was screened and optimized using a BLAST bioinformatics strategy. Then, optimized MDR1 molecular beacons were characterized by transmission electron microscope, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The cytotoxicity of MDR1 molecular beacon on L-02, K562 and K562/Adr cells were investigated by MTT assay, suggesting that MDR1 molecular beacon was low inherent cytotoxicity. Dark field microscope was used to investigate the cellular uptake of hDAuNP beacon assisted with ultrasound. Finally, laser scanning confocal microscope images showed that there was a significant difference in MDR1 mRNA expression in K562 and K562/Adr cells, which was consistent with the results of q-PCR measurement. In summary, optimized MDR1 molecular beacon designed in this study is a reliable strategy for detection MDR1 mRNA expression in living tumor cells, and will be a promising strategy for in guiding patient treatment and management in individualized medication.

  16. Development of Lunar Highland REgolith Simulants, NU-LHT-1M,-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Wilson, S. A.; Fikes, J.; McLemore, C.; Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaborative agreement between the U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lunar highland simulants are being produced to support engineers and scientists in developing the technologies required to put a base on the moon by 2024. Two simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M and -2M (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type-l & 2 Medium-grained). Using starting material chiefly collected from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, blending protocols were developed based on normative mineralogy calculated from average chemistry, for the Apollo 16 regolith. New technologies using a high temperature remotely coupled plasma melter were developed to generate both high quality and agglutinitic glasses that simulate the glassy components of the regolith. Detailed chemical, mineralogical and physical properties analysis of NU-LHT-1M indicate that it is overall a good surrogate for highlands lunar regolith (our new simulant LHT-2M has not be analyzed yet). The primary difference between 1M and 2M was the inclusion of trace mineralogy (phosphates and sulfide). Plans will also be presented on the future direction of the simulant project.

  17. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements mediate masking and unmasking of cyclin B1 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    de Moor, C H; Richter, J D

    1999-01-01

    During oocyte maturation, cyclin B1 mRNA is translationally activated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. This process is dependent on cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. To determine whether a titratable factor might be involved in the initial translational repression (masking) of this mRNA, high levels of cyclin B1 3' UTR were injected into oocytes. While this treatment had no effect on the poly(A) tail length of endogenous cyclin B1 mRNA, it induced cyclin B1 synthesis. A mutational analysis revealed that the most efficient unmasking element in the cyclin 3' UTR was the CPE. However, other U-rich sequences that resemble the CPE in structure, but which do not bind the CPE-binding polyadenylation factor CPEB, failed to induce unmasking. When fused to the chloramphenical acetyl transferase (CAT) coding region, the cyclin B1 3' UTR inhibited CAT translation in injected oocytes. In addition, a synthetic 3' UTR containing multiple copies of the CPE also inhibited translation, and did so in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, efficient CPE-mediated masking required cap-dependent translation. During the normal course of progesterone-induced maturation, cytoplasmic polyadenylation was necessary for mRNA unmasking. A model to explain how cyclin B1 mRNA masking and unmasking could be regulated by the CPE is presented. PMID:10205182

  18. Differential expression of IGF-1 mRNA isoforms in colorectal carcinoma and normal colon tissue.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Szaflarski, Witold; Szmeja, Jacek; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Przybyszewska, Wiesława; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Koczorowska, Maria; Kościński, Tomasz; Zabel, Maciej; Drews, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 gene consists of 6 exons resulting in the expression of 6 variant forms of mRNA (IA, IB, IC, IIA, IIB and IIC) due to an alternative splicing. The mechanisms of IGF-1 gene splicing and the role of local expression manifested by IGF-1 mRNA variants in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) have not been extensively investigated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse the expression of IGF-1 mRNA isoforms [A, B, C, P1 (class I) and P2 (class II)], as well as the protein expression in CRC and control samples isolated from 28 patients. The expression of Ki-67 was also analysed and clinical data were obtained. For this purpose, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunocytochemistry. The expression of mRNAs coding for all splicing isoforms of IGF-1 was observed in every tissue sample studied, with a significantly lower expression noted in the CRC as compared to the control samples. The cytoplasmic expression of IGF-1 protein was found in 50% of the CRC and in ~40% of the non-tumor tissues; however, no significant quantitative inter-group differences were observed. The expression of the IGF-1 gene in the 2 groups of tissues was controlled by the P1 and P2 promoters in a similar manner. No significant differences were detected in the expression of the IGF-1 A and B isoforms; however, their expression was significantly higher compared to that of isoform C. No significant differences were observed between the expression of Ki-67 mRNA in the CRC and control tissue even though the expression of the Ki-67 protein was higher in the CRC compared to the control samples. Ki-67 protein expression was associated with the macroscopic and microscopic aspects of CRC. A significant positive correlation was found between the local production of total mRNA and isoform A and the expression of Ki-67 mRNA, although only in the non-tumor tissues. In CRC samples, the local expression of the total IGF-1 mRNA and all splicing isoforms of IGF-1 m

  19. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    SciTech Connect

    Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  20. Determination of orientation of space vehicle Sich-1M from the date of ferroprobe magnetometers and Solar detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, L.; Suhorukov, A.

    On 24 December 2004 a launch of the satellite Sich-1M was made Unfortunately instead of the planned orbit with the altitude of near 670 km the satellite went up to the elliptical orbit with the altitude 280 km In addition the satellite got some swing The motion of the satellite in such dense atmosphere layers decreases its lifetime down to one year At the end of December the gravitational beam was pulled out from the satellite which partly stabilized its motion Oscillations of the satellite set inessential limitations on realization of scientific tasks of the project Variant because there is a possibility to determine the satellite orientation for a given time moment with the help of measurements of ferroprobe magnetometer FZM or onboard magnetometer The device FZM measures three components of magnetic field Bx By Bz of the Earth in coordinate system of the satellite To determine the satellite orientation we have used the fact that each of the component of the magnetic field at the present time moment is a function of geographical coordinates of the satellite latitude longitude height over sea level its orientation and components of a vector of Earth magnetic field in this point calculated from magnetosphere model Thus having direct satellite measurements of Bx By Bz at given time moment in given point orbital elements and position of the satellite on the orbit and using the standard model of Earth s magnetosphere one can calculate the satellite orientation as function of time For the calculation we have used the magnetosphere model The

  1. Detection of cyclin D1 mRNA by hybridization sensitive NIC-oligonucleotide probe.

    PubMed

    Kovaliov, Marina; Segal, Meirav; Kafri, Pinhas; Yavin, Eylon; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Fischer, Bilha

    2014-05-01

    A large group of fluorescent hybridization probes, includes intercalating dyes for example thiazole orange (TO). Usually TO is coupled to nucleic acids post-synthetically which severely limits its use. Here, we have developed a phosphoramidite monomer, 10, and prepared a 2'-OMe-RNA probe, labeled with 5-(trans-N-hexen-1-yl-)-TO-2'-deoxy-uridine nucleoside, dU(TO), (Nucleoside bearing an Inter-Calating moiety, NIC), for selective mRNA detection. We investigated a series of 15-mer 2'-OMe-RNA probes, targeting the cyclin D1 mRNA, containing one or several dU(TO) at various positions. dU(TO)-2'-OMe-RNA exhibited up to 7-fold enhancement of TO emission intensity upon hybridization with the complementary RNA versus that of the oligomer alone. This NIC-probe was applied for the specific detection of a very small amount of a breast cancer marker, cyclin D1 mRNA, in total RNA extract from cancerous cells (250 ng/μl). Furthermore, this NIC-probe was found to be superior to our related NIF (Nucleoside with Intrinsic Fluorescence)-probe which could detect cyclin D1 mRNA target only at high concentrations (1840 ng/μl). Additionally, dU(T) can be used as a monomer in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, thus avoiding the need for post-synthetic modification of oligonucleotide probes. Hence, we propose dU(TO) oligonucleotides, as hybridization probes for the detection of specific RNA in homogeneous solutions and for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  2. The Xenopus ELAV protein ElrB represses Vg1 mRNA translation during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Colegrove-Otero, Lucy J; Devaux, Agathe; Standart, Nancy

    2005-10-01

    Xenopus laevis Vg1 mRNA undergoes both localization and translational control during oogenesis. We previously characterized a 250-nucleotide AU-rich element, the Vg1 translation element (VTE), in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of this mRNA that is responsible for the translational repression. UV-cross-linking and immunoprecipitation experiments, described here, revealed that the known AU-rich element binding proteins, ElrA and ElrB, and TIA-1 and TIAR interact with the VTE. The levels of these proteins during oogenesis are most consistent with a possible role for ElrB in the translational control of Vg1 mRNA, and ElrB, in contrast to TIA-1 and TIAR, is present in large RNP complexes. Immunodepletion of TIA-1 and TIAR from Xenopus translation extract confirmed that these proteins are not involved in the translational repression. Mutagenesis of a potential ElrB binding site destroyed the ability of the VTE to bind ElrB and also abolished translational repression. Moreover, multiple copies of the consensus motif both bind ElrB and support translational control. Therefore, there is a direct correlation between ElrB binding and translational repression by the Vg1 3'-UTR. In agreement with the reporter data, injection of a monoclonal antibody against ElrB into Xenopus oocytes resulted in the production of Vg1 protein, arguing for a role for the ELAV proteins in the translational repression of Vg1 mRNA during early oogenesis.

  3. Northern Hemisphere storminess in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Erlend M.; Walsh, John E.

    2016-07-01

    Metrics of storm activity in Northern Hemisphere high and midlatitudes are evaluated from historical output and future projections by the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M) coupled global climate model. The European Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a global climate model of the same vintage as NorESM1-M, provide benchmarks for comparison. The focus is on the autumn and early winter (September through December) - the period when the ongoing and projected Arctic sea ice retreat is the greatest. Storm tracks derived from a vorticity-based algorithm for storm identification are reproduced well by NorESM1-M, although the tracks are somewhat better resolved in the higher-resolution ERA-Interim and CCSM4. The tracks show indications of shifting polewards in the future as climate changes under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) forcing scenarios. Cyclones are projected to become generally more intense in the high latitudes, especially over the Alaskan region, although in some other areas the intensity is projected to decrease. While projected changes in track density are less coherent, there is a general tendency towards less frequent storms in midlatitudes and more frequent storms in high latitudes, especially the Baffin Bay/Davis Strait region in September. Autumn precipitation is projected to increase significantly across the entire high latitudes. Together with the projected loss of sea ice and increases in storm intensity and sea level, this increase in precipitation implies a greater vulnerability to coastal flooding and erosion, especially in the Alaskan region. The projected changes in storm intensity and precipitation (as well as sea ice and sea level pressure) scale generally linearly with the RCP value of the forcing and with time through the 21st century.

  4. Detection of WIPI1 mRNA as an indicator of autophagosome formation.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Satoshi; Takabayashi, Mei; Kawazu, Manami; Kudo, Kousei; Watanabe, Akari; Nagata, Yoshiki; Kusama, Yusuke; Yoshida, Kenichi

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is a cellular bulk degradation system for long-lived proteins and organelles that operates during nutrient starvation and is thus a type of recycling system. In recent years, a series of mammalian orthologs of yeast autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been identified; however, the importance of the transcriptional regulation of ATG genes underlying autophagosome formation is poorly understood. In this study, we identified several ATG genes, including the genes ULK1, MAP1LC3B, GABARAPL1, ATG13, WIPI1, and WDR45/WIPI4, with elevated mRNA levels in thapsigargin-, C2-ceramide-, and rapamycin-treated as well as amino acid-depleted HeLa cells except for MAP1LC3B mRNA in rapamycin-treated HeLa cells. Rapamycin had a weaker effect on the expressions of ATG genes. The increase in WIPI1 and MAP1LC3B mRNA was induced prior to the accumulation of the autophagy marker protein MAP1LC3 in the thapsigargin- and C2-ceramide-treated A549 cells. By counting the puncta marked with MAP1LC3B in HeLa cells treated with different autophagy inducers, we revealed that the time-dependent mRNA elevation of a specific set of ATG genes was similar to that of autophagosome accumulation. The transcriptional attenuation of WIPI1 mRNA using RNA interference inhibited the puncta number in thapsigargin-treated HeLa cells. Remarkably, increases in the abundance of WIPI1 mRNA were also manifested in thapsigargin- and C2-ceramide-treated human fibroblasts (WI-38 and TIG-1), human cancer cells (U-2 OS, Saos-2, and MCF7), and rodent fibroblasts (Rat-1). Taken together, these results suggest that the detection of WIPI1 mRNA is likely to be a convenient method of monitoring autophagosome formation in a wide range of cell types.

  5. New corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether for mild steel in 1 M HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Shan, Mingli; Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Tang, Qunwei

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of good inhibition performance has been a persistent objective for advanced inhibitor industry. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of a new corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether (AAME) from N-Methylol acrylamide (N-MAM) for mild steel in 1 M HCl. The resultant adsorption films have inhibition efficiency as high as 96.2%. Moreover, a theoretical investigation is also launched to demonstrate the potential mechanism behind the promising corrosion behaviors. This work represents a significant step forward, as it demonstrates how to make scalable AAME inhibitors as well as to enhance inhibition performances for high-efficiency and cost-effective corrosion inhibition platforms.

  6. Turnover mechanisms of the stable yeast PGK1 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Muhlrad, D; Decker, C J; Parker, R

    1995-01-01

    The first step in the decay of several yeast mRNAs is the shortening of the poly(A) tail, which for the MFA2 transcript triggers decapping and 5'-to-3' degradation. To understand the basis for differences in mRNA decay rates, it is important to determine if deadenylation-dependent decapping is specific to the unstable MFA2 transcript or is a general mechanism of mRNA degradation. To this end, we analyzed the turnover of the stable PGK1 mRNA by monitoring the decay of a pulse of newly synthesized transcripts while using two strategies to trap decay intermediates. First, we used strains deleted for the XRN1 gene, which encodes a major 5'-to-3' exonuclease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In xrn1 delta cells, PGK1 transcripts lacking the 5' cap structure and a few nucleotides at the 5' end were detected after deadenylation. Second, we inserted into the PGK1 5' untranslated region strong RNA secondary structures, which can slow exonucleolytic digestion and thereby trap decay intermediates. These secondary structures led to the accumulation of PGK1 mRNA fragments, following deadenylation, trimmed from the 5' end to the site of the secondary structure. The insertion of strong secondary structures into the 5' untranslated region also inhibited translation of the mRNA and greatly stimulated the decay of the PGK1 transcripts, suggesting that translation of the PGK1 mRNA is required for its normally slow rate of decay. These results suggest that one mechanism of degradation of the PGK1 transcript is deadenylation followed by decapping and subsequent 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation. In addition, by blocking the 5'-to-3' degradation process, we observed PGK1 mRNA fragments that are consistent with a 3'-to-5' pathway of mRNA turnover that is slightly slower than the decapping/5'-to-3' decay pathway. These observations indicate that there are multiple mechanisms by which an individual transcript can be degraded following deadenylation. PMID:7891709

  7. Calibration of an astrophysical spectrograph below 1 m/s using a laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David F; Glenday, Alexander G; Li, Chih-Hao; Cramer, Claire; Furesz, Gabor; Chang, Guoqing; Benedick, Andrew J; Chen, Li-Jin; Kärtner, Franz X; Korzennik, Sylvain; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2012-06-18

    We deployed two wavelength calibrators based on laser frequency combs ("astro-combs") at an astronomical telescope. One astro-comb operated over a 100 nm band in the deep red (∼ 800 nm) and a second operated over a 20 nm band in the blue (∼ 400 nm). We used these red and blue astro-combs to calibrate a high-resolution astrophysical spectrograph integrated with a 1.5 m telescope, and demonstrated calibration precision and stability sufficient to enable detection of changes in stellar radial velocity < 1 m/s.

  8. Soil map of the Russian Arctic on a 1 : 1 M scale: Contents and compilation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. S.

    2016-04-01

    A new soil map of the Russian Arctic on a scale of 1 : 1 M shows the soil cover in the north of Eurasia and on the islands of the Arctic Ocean to the north of 68° N. This map has been developed in a geoinformation system in the vector format with the wide use of remote sensing data. The delineated soil polygons show dominant and accompanying soils and the structure of soil cover patterns with indication of soil associations and soil complexes, the character of parent materials, and the topographic conditions. The map of the soil-geographic zoning of the Russian Arctic developed on the basis of the soil map differs from its earlier analogues in a greater degree of detail. The soil map of the Russian Arctic on a scale of 1 : 1 M displays the most detailed information on the soil cover patterns and can be used for solving various problems related to the exploration and development of this territory. Soil names from the new classification system of Russian soils [10] have been introduced into the legend of the map. New soil information and the use of remote sensing data have made it possible to enlarge the number of soil polygons shown on the map and to correct their boundaries in comparison with previous soil maps of the Russian Arctic.

  9. Trawled megafaunal invertebrate assemblages from bathyal depth of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (48°-54°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Claudia H. S.; Rogacheva, Antonina; Boorman, Benjamin; Alan Hughes, J.; Billett, David S. M.; Gooday, Andrew J.; Jones, Daniel O. B.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of contrasting surface primary production on the benthic invertebrate megafauna at four sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The sites, designated NW, NE, SW and SE, were located to the west and east of the Ridge axis and to the north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Benthic megafauna were sampled in 2007 and 2009 with a semi-balloon otter trawl, at a target depth of 2,500 m. The total biomass and density of major taxonomic groups did not differ significantly between sites, despite those to the north being characterised by greater surface productivity than those to the south. However, the density and biomass of individual taxonomic groups, as well as diversity and body size, all showed significant differences between sites. Diversity was highest at the SE, and lowest at the NE site. Most species were larger to the north. Community composition was significantly different between all sites, with the greatest number of unique species found at the SE, and noticeably fewer unique species at the northern sites. There was no clear correlation between the surface productivity and community structure, suggesting complex ecological controls on the communities. It is speculated that, in addition to the energy supply, drivers such as strong currents and sediment characteristics, play an important role in shaping the communities at the different sites. To what extent the ridge acts as a dispersal barrier for benthic invertebrate fauna remains unclear. However, high numbers of species unique to the southern site suggest a limited dispersal between the northern and southern areas.

  10. The Seascape of Demersal Fish Nursery Areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a First Step Towards the Implementation of Spatial Planning for Trawl Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Colloca, Francesco; Garofalo, Germana; Bitetto, Isabella; Facchini, Maria Teresa; Grati, Fabio; Martiradonna, Angela; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Nikolioudakis, Nikolaos; Ordinas, Francesc; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Tugores, M. Pilar; Valavanis, Vasilis; Carlucci, Roberto; Fiorentino, Fabio; Follesa, Maria C.; Iglesias, Magdalena; Knittweis, Leyla; Lefkaditou, Eugenia; Lembo, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Chiara; Massutí, Enric; Pace, Marie Louise; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Sartor, Paolo; Smith, Christopher J.; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%). This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006) aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy applying the ecosystem

  11. The seascape of demersal fish nursery areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a first step towards the implementation of spatial planning for trawl fisheries.

    PubMed

    Colloca, Francesco; Garofalo, Germana; Bitetto, Isabella; Facchini, Maria Teresa; Grati, Fabio; Martiradonna, Angela; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Nikolioudakis, Nikolaos; Ordinas, Francesc; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Tugores, M Pilar; Valavanis, Vasilis; Carlucci, Roberto; Fiorentino, Fabio; Follesa, Maria C; Iglesias, Magdalena; Knittweis, Leyla; Lefkaditou, Eugenia; Lembo, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Chiara; Massutí, Enric; Pace, Marie Louise; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Sartor, Paolo; Smith, Christopher J; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%). This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006) aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy applying the ecosystem

  12. Spatial overlap of Black-browed albatrosses with longline and trawl fisheries in the Patagonian Shelf during the non-breeding season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copello, Sofía; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo; Favero, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Incidental mortality in fisheries is the main at-sea threat albatrosses are facing nowadays. In this study we used remote sensing techniques to model the degree of spatial overlapping between the Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) and Argentine fisheries, assuming this as a proxy of risk for albatrosses. Eleven tags were deployed on albatrosses during the non-breeding seasons 2011 and 2012 in the Patagonian Shelf. Their distribution overlapped to different extents with the two coastal trawl, three offshore trawl and one demersal longline fisheries. The overlap index showed highest values with both coastal fleets, followed by the ice-chilling trawl fleet. These intersections were located in the Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone, in coastal areas of the SE of Buenos Aires province, El Rincón estuary and over the shelf break. The analysis of intersections of focal areas from albatrosses and all fisheries allowed the identification of thirty-four fishing management units (1° by 1° grid within the Argentine EEZ) classified as of medium, high or very high conservation priority. Very high priority units were placed between 35 and 38°S in the external mouth of Rio de la Plata, and between 45 and 47°S in neighboring waters East to the hake fishing closure. Although there were possible biases due to the limited number of tracked birds and the locations where albatrosses were captured and instrumented, the information presented in this study provides a comprehensive picture of important areas of overlapping during winter that could be used by the fishery administration to prioritize conservation actions under limited resource scenarios.

  13. Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Kyren A.; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C.; To, Sarah Q.; Chand, Ashwini L.; Clyne, Colin D.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER−ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER− and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E{sub 2}), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER− cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER− cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER− breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER− compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E{sub 2}, showed increased mRNA stability in ER− versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E{sub 2} treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER− cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER− cells as well as ER− tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER− tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER− and ER+ breast cancer.

  14. Functional mapping of the translation-dependent instability element of yeast MATalpha1 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hennigan, A N; Jacobson, A

    1996-01-01

    The determinants of mRNA stability include specific cis-acting destabilizing sequences located within mRNA coding and noncoding regions. We have developed an approach for mapping coding-region instability sequences in unstable yeast mRNAs that exploits the link between mRNA translation and turnover and the dependence of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay on the activity of the UPF1 gene product. This approach, which involves the systematic insertion of in-frame translational termination codons into the coding sequence of a gene of interest in a upf1delta strain, differs significantly from conventional methods for mapping cis-acting elements in that it causes minimal perturbations to overall mRNA structure. Using the previously characterized MATalpha1 mRNA as a model, we have accurately localized its 65-nucleotide instability element (IE) within the protein coding region. Termination of translation 5' to this element stabilized the MATalpha1 mRNA two- to threefold relative to wild-type transcripts. Translation through the element was sufficient to restore an unstable decay phenotype, while internal termination resulted in different extents of mRNA stabilization dependent on the precise location of ribosome stalling. Detailed mutagenesis of the element's rare-codon/AU-rich sequence boundary revealed that the destabilizing activity of the MATalpha1 IE is observed when the terminal codon of the element's rare-codon interval is translated. This region of stability transition corresponds precisely to a MATalpha1 IE sequence previously shown to be complementary to 18S rRNA. Deletion of three nucleotides 3' to this sequence shifted the stability boundary one codon 5' to its wild-type location. Conversely, constructs containing an additional three nucleotides at this same location shifted the transition downstream by an equivalent sequence distance. Our results suggest a model in which the triggering of MATalpha1 mRNA destabilization results from establishment of an interaction

  15. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  16. Laser beam monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Wetherington, Jr., Grady R.

    1985-01-01

    Laser beam monitoring systems include laser-transparent plates set at an angle to the laser beam passing therethrough and light sensor for detecting light reflected from an object on which the laser beam impinges.

  17. E1, M1, E2 transition energies and probabilities of W54+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Sun, Rui; Liu, Jia-xin; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study of the E1, M1, E2 transitions of a Ca-like tungsten ion is presented. Using the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock (MCDF) method with a restricted active space treatment, the wavelengths and probabilities of the M1 and E2 transitions between the multiplets of the ground state configuration ([Ne]3s23p63d2) and of the E1 transitions between [Ne]3s23p53d3 and [Ne]3s23p63d2 have been calculated. The results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The present E1 and M1 calculations are compared with previous theoretical values. For E2 transitions, the importance of electron correlation from 3s and 3p orbitals is pointed out. Several strong E1 transitions are predicted, which have potential advantages for plasma diagnostics.

  18. J1-M267 Y lineage marks climate-driven pre-historical human displacements.

    PubMed

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Ferri, Gianmarco; Bulayeva, Kazima; Caciagli, Laura; Onofri, Valerio; Taglioli, Luca; Bulayev, Oleg; Boschi, Ilaria; Alù, Milena; Berti, Andrea; Rapone, Cesare; Beduschi, Giovanni; Luiselli, Donata; Cadenas, Alicia M; Awadelkarim, Khalid Dafaallah; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Elwali, Nasr Eldin; Verginelli, Fabio; Pilli, Elena; Herrera, Rene J; Gusmão, Leonor; Paoli, Giorgio; Capelli, Cristian

    2009-11-01

    The present day distribution of Y chromosomes bearing the haplogroup J1 M267(*)G variant has been associated with different episodes of human demographic history, the main one being the diffusion of Islam since the Early Middle Ages. To better understand the modes and timing of J1 dispersals, we reconstructed the genealogical relationships among 282 M267(*)G chromosomes from 29 populations typed at 20 YSTRs and 6 SNPs. Phylogenetic analyses depicted a new genetic background consistent with climate-driven demographic dynamics occurring during two key phases of human pre-history: (1) the spatial expansion of hunter gatherers in response to the end of the late Pleistocene cooling phases and (2) the displacement of groups of foragers/herders following the mid-Holocene rainfall retreats across the Sahara and Arabia. Furthermore, J1 STR motifs previously used to trace Arab or Jewish ancestries were shown unsuitable as diagnostic markers for ethnicity.

  19. Polysaccharide from Plantago as a green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1M HCl solution.

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mohammad; Rizvi, Marziya

    2017-03-15

    Polysaccharide from Plantago ovata was investigated for its inhibition characteristics for carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl. The mucilage of the Plantago is comprised of a highly branched polysaccharide, arabinosyl (galaturonic acid) rhamnosylxylan (AX), which is mainly responsible for the corrosion inhibition of the carbon steel. The techniques that were used to assess the inhibition and adsorption properties of the AX in the acid solution are gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy and FTIR. Thermodynamic and activation parameters revealed that the spontaneous adsorption of AX on carbon steel was mixed type and predominantly chemical in nature. Quantum chemical analysis supports the proposed mechanism of inhibition. AX from Plantago could serve as a green corrosion inhibitor for the carbon steel in hydrochloric medium with good inhibition efficiency but low risk of environmental pollution.

  20. M1/M2 Macrophage Polarity in Normal and Complicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mary B.; von Chamier, Maria; Allam, Ayman B.; Reyes, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Tissue macrophages play an important role in all stages of pregnancy, including uterine stromal remodeling (decidualization) before embryo implantation, parturition, and post-partum uterine involution. The activation state and function of utero-placental macrophages are largely dependent on the local tissue microenvironment. Thus, macrophages are involved in a variety of activities such as regulation of immune cell activities, placental cell invasion, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Disruption of the uterine microenvironment, particularly during the early stages of pregnancy (decidualization, implantation, and placentation) can have profound effects on macrophage activity and subsequently impact pregnancy outcome. In this review, we will provide an overview of the temporal and spatial regulation of utero-placental macrophage activation during normal pregnancy in human beings and rodents with a focus on more recent findings. We will also discuss the role of M1/M2 dysregulation within the intrauterine environment during adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25505471

  1. Beam imaging sensor

    DOEpatents

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  2. Tunable beam displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  3. Oestradiol reduces liver receptor homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Kyren A; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C; To, Sarah Q; Chand, Ashwini L; Clyne, Colin D

    2013-08-30

    The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E2), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER- cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER- cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER- breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER- compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E2, showed increased mRNA stability in ER- versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E2 treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER- cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER- cells as well as ER- tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER- tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER- and ER+ breast cancer.

  4. Does HIV-1 mRNA 5'-untranslated region bear an internal ribosome entry site?

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Victoria V; Terenin, Ilya M; Khutornenko, Anastasia A; Andreev, Dmitri E; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2016-02-01

    Unspliced human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mRNA is capped and therefore can be translated via conventional scanning mechanism. In addition, its 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) is thought to function as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) during G2/M-phase of cell cycle or when cap-dependent translation is inhibited. Recently, customary methods of internal initiation demonstrating have been challenged, and consequently existence of certain IRESs of cellular origin has been put under question. Since a precise knowledge of translation initiation mechanism used by HIV may be important for cure development, presence of the IRES in HIV-1 mRNA demands a careful reexamination using contemporary stringent criteria. The key point of our strategy is to compare translation efficiency of bicistronic mRNA bearing HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5' UTR in the intercistronic position to that of the corresponding capped monocistronic mRNA. This approach allows determination of internal initiation contribution into the overall level of particular mRNA translation. We found that both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells monocistronic mRNA with HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is translated significantly better than bicistronic one. Importantly, it is also true for G2/M-phase stalled cells or for cells under conditions of inhibited cap-dependent translation. Thus, in our hands contribution of internal ribosome entry into the overall level of translation driven by HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is negligible, and 5'-dependent scanning is a primary mechanism of its translation initiation.

  5. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    PubMed

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  6. BEAM INSTRUMENTATION FOR HIGH POWER HADRON BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will describe developments in the beam diagnostics which support the understanding and operation of high power hadron accelerators. These include the measurement of large dynamic range transverse and longitudinal beam profiles, beam loss detection, and non-interceptive diagnostics.

  7. Propagation-invariant beams with quantum pendulum spectra: from Bessel beams to Gaussian beam-beams.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Mark R; Ring, James D

    2013-09-01

    We describe a new class of propagation-invariant light beams with Fourier transform given by an eigenfunction of the quantum mechanical pendulum. These beams, whose spectra (restricted to a circle) are doubly periodic Mathieu functions in azimuth, depend on a field strength parameter. When the parameter is zero, pendulum beams are Bessel beams, and as the parameter approaches infinity, they resemble transversely propagating one-dimensional Gaussian wave packets (Gaussian beam-beams). Pendulum beams are the eigenfunctions of an operator that interpolates between the squared angular momentum operator and the linear momentum operator. The analysis reveals connections with Mathieu beams, and insight into the paraxial approximation.

  8. Structural and functional significance of the FGL sequence of the periplasmic chaperone Caf1M of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D A; Zavialov, A V; Chernovskaya, T V; Karlyshev, A V; Zav'yalova, G A; Vasiliev, A M; Dudich, I V; Abramov, V M; Zav'yalov, V P; MacIntyre, S

    1999-04-01

    The periplasmic molecular chaperone Caf1M of Yersinia pestis is a typical representative of a subfamily of specific chaperones involved in assembly of surface adhesins with a very simple structure. One characteristic feature of this Caf1M-like subfamily is possession of an extended, variable sequence (termed FGL) between the F1 and subunit binding G1 beta-strands. In contrast, FGS subfamily members, characterized by PapD, have a short F1-G1 loop and are involved in assembly of complex pili. To elucidate the structural and functional significance of the FGL sequence, a mutant Caf1M molecule (dCaf1M), in which the 27 amino acid residues between the F1 and G1 beta-strands had been deleted, was constructed. Expression of the mutated caf1M in Escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of high levels of dCaf1M. The far-UV circular dichroism spectra of the mutant and wild-type proteins were indistinguishable and exhibited practically the same temperature and pH dependencies. Thus, the FGL sequence of Caf1M clearly does not contribute significantly to the stability of the protein conformation. Preferential cleavage of Caf1M by trypsin at Lys-119 confirmed surface exposure of this part of the FGL sequence in the isolated chaperone and periplasmic chaperone-subunit complex. There was no evidence of surface-localized Caf1 subunit in the presence of the Caf1A outer membrane protein and dCaf1M. In contrast to Caf1M, dCaf1M was not able to form a stable complex with Caf1 nor could it protect the subunit from proteolytic degradation in vivo. This demonstration that the FGL sequence is required for stable chaperone-subunit interaction, but not for folding of a stable chaperone, provides a sound basis for future detailed molecular analyses of the FGL subfamily of chaperones.

  9. Structural and Functional Significance of the FGL Sequence of the Periplasmic Chaperone Caf1M of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David A. G.; Zavialov, Anton V.; Chernovskaya, Tatiana V.; Karlyshev, Andrey V.; Zav’yalova, Galina A.; Vasiliev, Anatoly M.; Dudich, Igor V.; Abramov, Vyacheslav M.; Zav’yalov, Vladimir P.; MacIntyre, Sheila

    1999-01-01

    The periplasmic molecular chaperone Caf1M of Yersinia pestis is a typical representative of a subfamily of specific chaperones involved in assembly of surface adhesins with a very simple structure. One characteristic feature of this Caf1M-like subfamily is possession of an extended, variable sequence (termed FGL) between the F1 and subunit binding G1 β-strands. In contrast, FGS subfamily members, characterized by PapD, have a short F1-G1 loop and are involved in assembly of complex pili. To elucidate the structural and functional significance of the FGL sequence, a mutant Caf1M molecule (dCaf1M), in which the 27 amino acid residues between the F1 and G1 β-strands had been deleted, was constructed. Expression of the mutated caf1M in Escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of high levels of dCaf1M. The far-UV circular dichroism spectra of the mutant and wild-type proteins were indistinguishable and exhibited practically the same temperature and pH dependencies. Thus, the FGL sequence of Caf1M clearly does not contribute significantly to the stability of the protein conformation. Preferential cleavage of Caf1M by trypsin at Lys-119 confirmed surface exposure of this part of the FGL sequence in the isolated chaperone and periplasmic chaperone-subunit complex. There was no evidence of surface-localized Caf1 subunit in the presence of the Caf1A outer membrane protein and dCaf1M. In contrast to Caf1M, dCaf1M was not able to form a stable complex with Caf1 nor could it protect the subunit from proteolytic degradation in vivo. This demonstration that the FGL sequence is required for stable chaperone-subunit interaction, but not for folding of a stable chaperone, provides a sound basis for future detailed molecular analyses of the FGL subfamily of chaperones. PMID:10198004

  10. Antenna Beam Coverage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The strawman Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) design calls for the use of a CONUS beam for transmission between the supplier and the satellite and for fixed beams for transmission between the basic personal terminal and the satellite. The satellite uses a 3 m main reflector for transmission at 20 GHz and a 2 m main reflector for reception at 30 GHz. There are several types of spot beams under consideration for the PASS system besides fixed beams. The beam pattern of a CONUS coverage switched beam is shown along with that of a scanning beam. A switched beam refers to one in which the signal from the satellite is connected alternatively to various feed horns. Scanning beams are taken to mean beams whose footprints are moved between contiguous regions in the beam's coverage area. The advantages and disadvantages of switched and/or scanning beams relative to fixed beams. The consequences of using switched/scanning in lieu of fixed beams in the PASS design and attempts are made to evaluate the listed advantages and disadvantages. Two uses of switched/scanning beams are examined. To illustrate the implications of switched beams use on PASS system design, operation at two beam scan rates is explored.

  11. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Bathyal demersal fishes of Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone region (49-54°N) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, I: Results from trawl surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Crockard, Deborah; Priede, Imants G.

    2013-12-01

    Demersal fishes were sampled by single-warp otter trawl (OTSB) at three sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), to the northeast (NE), northwest (NW) and southeast (SE) of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone at approximately 2500 m depth. The mean abundance was 4109 fish km-2 (SD 3714) and biomass 897.1 kg km-2 (SD 842.9) compared with 1996 fish km-2 (SD 1497) and 721.2 kg km-2 (SD 387) at the same depth on the Porcupine Seabight (PSB) segment of the NE Atlantic Ocean margin from previous studies. There was no significant difference in biomass or abundance between the three sites on the MAR, nor in comparison with the ocean margin. A total of fish 22 species were recorded at the three MAR sites with evidence of highest species richness at the SE site. No unique species were found on the ridge; but there were differences in species composition between the PSB and the MAR. Coryphaenoides brevibarbis and Antimora rostrata were important at both the NE and NW trawl sites on the MAR whereas Halosauropsis macrochir was most important in the SE. We conclude that the MAR is an important habitat for species otherwise confined to narrow strips of appropriate depth around the North Atlantic Ocean margins. The MAR supports similar population densities to ocean margin settings but with differences in relative importance of different species between regions.

  13. Great Lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, Owen T.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of Great Lakes prey fish stocks have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using bottom trawls, they differ among the lakes in the proportion of the lake covered, seasonal timing, trawl gear used, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique, population indices were standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake for the following prey species: Cisco (Coregonus artedi), Bloater (C. hoyi), Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax), Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus). In this report, standardized indices are presented in graphical form along with synopses to provide a short, informal cross-basin summary of the status and trends of principal prey fishes. There was basin-wide agreement in the trends of age-1 and older biomass for all prey species, with the highest concordance occurring for coregonids and Rainbow Smelt, and weaker concordance for Alewife. For coregonids, the highest biomass occurred from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. Rainbow Smelt biomass declined slowly and erratically during the last quarter century. Alewife biomass was generally higher from the early 1980s through 1990s across the Great Lakes, but since the early 1990s, trends have been divergent across the lakes, though there has been a downward trend in all lakes since 2005. Recently, Lake Huron has shown resurgence in biomass of Bloater, achieving 75% of its maximum record in 2012 due to recruitment of a succession of strong and moderate year classes that appeared in 2005-2011. Also, strong recruitment of the 2010 year class of Alewife has led to a sharp increase in biomass of Alewife in

  14. Cooperation between scientists, NGOs and industry in support of sustainable fisheries: the South African hake Merluccius spp. trawl fishery experience.

    PubMed

    Field, J G; Attwood, C G; Jarre, A; Sink, K; Atkinson, L J; Petersen, S

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines the increasingly close interaction between natural and social scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and industry, in pursuit of responsible ecosystem-based management of fisheries. South Africa has committed to implementing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Management advice stems from multi-stakeholder representation on government-led scientific and management working groups. In the hake Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus fishery, the primary management measure is an annual total allowable catch (TAC), the level of which is calculated using a management procedure (MP) that is revised approximately every 4 years. Revision of the MP is a consultative process involving most stakeholders, and is based on simulation modelling of projected probable scenarios of resource and fishery dynamics under various management options. NGOs, such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature in South Africa (WWF-SA), have played an important role in influencing consumers, the fishing industry and government to develop responsible fishing practices that minimize damage to marine ecosystems. Cooperation between industry, government and scientists has helped to improve sustainability and facilitated the meeting of market-based incentives for more responsible fisheries. Research includes ecosystem modelling, spatial analysis and ecosystem risk assessment with increasing research focus on social and economic aspects of the fishery. A four-year cooperative experiment to quantify the effect of trawling on benthic community structure is being planned. The food requirements of top predators still need to be included in the TAC-setting formulae and more social and economic research is needed. This paper also demonstrates how NGO initiatives such as Marine Stewardship Council certification and the Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative, a traffic light system of classifying seafood for consumers, have contributed to responsible fishing

  15. The 1 × 1 m hypersonic wind tunnel Kochel/Tullahoma 1940-1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Dietrich

    2015-03-01

    Peenemünde and Cape Canaveral mark cornerstones of space history. Kochel in Southern Germany and Tullahoma in Tennessee, USA also belong in this category. The technically unique Kochel wind tunnel was part of the German long-distance missile development strategy, planned and prepared in secret before the beginning of World War II. A 57 MW closed-circuit wind tunnel facility with 1 × 1 m measuring section was planned for continuous-flow simulation at high Mach numbers Ma 7-10. In the early 1940 s a site beside the Walchensee Power Station at Kochel am See in Upper Bavaria, Germany was chosen to provide the required altitude difference of 200 m for the hydraulic turbine drives. The preparatory activities for the erection of this impressive hypersonic wind tunnel facility were pushed ahead until an enforced temporary pause in September 1944. In early May 1945 US troops occupied the area and, in due course, scientists of General Arnold's Scientific Advisory Group, the `von Kármán team', ordered the transfer to the USA of available equipment, design materials and other paperwork. Here, at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Tullahoma, TN this `Tunnel A' was built to begin operation around 1957. The testing was conducted on the Mach 7 experimental aircraft X-15, space shuttle developments and still secret investigations on unmanned hypersonic vehicles.

  16. The leader region of Laminin B1 mRNA confers cap-independent translation.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Kozina, Daniela; Huber, Heidemarie; Siwiec, Tanja; Seipelt, Joachim; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs generally occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning. However, certain mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) allowing cap-independent translation. Several of these IRES-competent transcripts and their corresponding proteins are involved in tumourigenesis. This study focused on IRES-driven translation control during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes that reflects crucial aspects of carcinoma progression. Expression profiling of EMT revealed Laminin B1 (LamB1) to be translationally upregulated. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of LamB1 was potent to direct IRES-dependent mRNA utilization of a bicistronic reporter construct. Stringent assays for cryptic promoter and splice sites showed no aberrantly expressed transcripts, suggesting that the reporter activity provided by the leader region of LamB1 mRNA exclusively depends on IRES. In accordance, LamB1 expression increased upon negative interference with cap-dependent translation by expression of human rhinovirus 2A protease or heat shock of cells. Finally, the enhanced expression of LamB1 during EMT correlated with an elevated IRES activity. Together, these data provide first evidence that the 5'-UTR of LamB1 contains a bona fide IRES that directs translational upregulation of LamB1 during stress conditions and neoplastic progression of hepatocytes.

  17. Silicic ash beds bracket Emeishan Large Igneous province to < 1 m.y. at ~ 260 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Cawood, Peter A.; Hou, Ming-Cai; Yang, Jiang-Hai; Ni, Shi-Jun; Du, Yuan-Sheng; Yan, Zhao-Kun; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Claystone beds directly below and above the Emeishan basalts in SW China formed around the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G - L) boundary. Zircons from both levels give U-Pb ages of 260 Ma, and are identical within-error to ages reported for the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP). The claystones lack Nb - Ta anomalies on primitive mantle normalized elemental diagrams; zircons from these claystones have a geochemical affinity to within-plate-type magmas. These features, combined with the strong negative Eu anomalies in the zircons and high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios, indicate that claystones around the G - L boundary have a silicic volcanic component related to Emeishan LIP. Zircons from the underlying claystone bed have much higher U/Yb and Th/Nb ratios and lower εHf(t) values than those overlying the LIP, suggesting that early-stage silicic volcanic rocks had a higher crustal contamination or assimilation during magmatic processes. In terms of stratigraphic correlation, our data demonstrate that silicic eruptions occurred not only at the end, but also at the beginning of the Emeishan LIP, and the overall duration of the main basaltic phase was short (< 1 m.y).

  18. Recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu₁).

    PubMed

    Owen, Dafydd R

    2011-08-17

    This Review summarizes the medicinal chemistry found in publications on both orthosteric and allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu(1)) from 2005 to the present. The time period covered by the scope of this current review has been particularly rich in mGlu(1)-related publications with numbers quadrupling when compared to the preceding five year period of 2000-2005. Publications in the field peaked in 2007 with over 35 articles appearing in the peer reviewed literature in the course of that year. Given that glutamate is one of the primary excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), it is unsurprising that it acts upon several receptors that are considered to be of potential therapeutic interest for many indications. Orthosteric and allosteric modulation of the receptor is possible, with a logical extrapolation to the chemotypes used for each strategy. The last five years of publications have yielded many mGlu(1) selective antagonist chemotypyes, most of which have shown efficacy in pain in vivo models. However, the primary impact of these compounds has been to highlight the mechanistic safety risks of mGlu(1) antagonism, independent of chemotype. As a review in medicinal chemistry, the primary focus of this paper will be on the design and, to a lesser degree, synthetic strategies for the delivery of subtype selective, CNS penetrant, druglike compounds through a "medchem" program, targeting modulators of the mGlu(1) receptor.

  19. Phospholipase D Mediates Nutrient Input to Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Limei; Salloum, Darin; Medlin, Phil S.; Saqcena, Mahesh; Yellen, Paige; Perrella, Benjamin; Foster, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical sensor of nutritional sufficiency. Although much is known about the regulation of mTOR in response to growth factors, much less is known about the regulation of mTOR in response to nutrients. Amino acids have no impact on the signals that regulate Rheb, a GTPase required for the activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Phospholipase D (PLD) generates a metabolite, phosphatidic acid, that facilitates association between mTOR and the mTORC1 co-factor Raptor. We report here that elevated PLD activity in human cancer cells is dependent on both amino acids and glucose and that amino acid- and glucose-induced increases in mTORC1 activity are dependent on PLD. Amino acid- and glucose-induced PLD and mTORC1 activity were also dependent on the GTPases RalA and ARF6 and the type III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase hVps34. Thus, a key stimulatory event for mTORC1 activation in response to nutrients is the generation of phosphatidic acid by PLD. PMID:21622984

  20. Calorimetric measurement of heat load in full non-inductive LHCD plasmas on TRIAM-1M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, K.; Shinoda, N.; Sugata, T.; Sasaki, K.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K. N.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Triam Group

    2007-06-01

    Calorimetric measurements using the temperature increment of cooling-water were carried out to estimate the heat load distribution on the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the limiter discharges on TRIAM-1M. Line averaged electron density, ne, and LH power, PLH, dependences of the heat load on PFCs were measured. The heat load on the limiters was proportional to ne1.5 in the range of ne = 0.2-1.0 × 1019 m-3 and PLH1 in the range of PLH = 0.005-0.09 MW. For PLH > 0.1 MW, the plasma transition to an enhanced current drive (ECD) mode appeared and the ne dependences on the heat load on the limiter moderated. This indicates that the heat flux to scrape-off layer (SOL) region was reduced due to the improvement of the plasma confinement. The up-down asymmetry of the heat load on the vacuum vessel was enhanced in the ECD mode, which may be caused by the increasing of the direct loss of energetic electrons.

  1. BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2 induces clustering of phosphoinositides to recruit its downstream partner dynamin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picas, Laura; Viaud, Julien; Schauer, Kristine; Vanni, Stefano; Hnia, Karim; Fraisier, Vincent; Roux, Aurélien; Bassereau, Patricia; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frédérique; Payrastre, Bernard; Laporte, Jocelyn; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Goud, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Phosphoinositides play a central role in many physiological processes by assisting the recruitment of proteins to membranes through specific phosphoinositide-binding motifs. How this recruitment is coordinated in space and time is not well understood. Here we show that BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2, a protein involved in T-tubule biogenesis in muscle cells and frequently mutated in centronuclear myopathies, clusters PtdIns(4,5)P2 to recruit its downstream partner dynamin. By using several mutants associated with centronuclear myopathies, we find that the N-BAR and the SH3 domains of BIN1 control the kinetics and the accumulation of dynamin on membranes, respectively. We show that phosphoinositide clustering is a mechanism shared by other proteins that interact with PtdIns(4,5)P2, but do not contain a BAR domain. Our numerical simulations point out that clustering is a diffusion-driven process in which phosphoinositide molecules are not sequestered. We propose that this mechanism plays a key role in the recruitment of downstream phosphoinositide-binding proteins.

  2. The auditory evoked-gamma response and its relation with the N1m.

    PubMed

    Witton, Caroline; Eckert, Mark A; Stanford, Ian M; Gascoyne, Lauren E; Furlong, Paul L; Worthen, Siân F; Hillebrand, Arjan

    2017-02-22

    This study explored the patterns of oscillatory activity that underpin the N1m auditory evoked response. Evoked gamma activity is a small and relatively rarely-reported component of the auditory evoked response, and the objective of this work was to determine how this component relates to the larger and more prolonged changes in lower frequency bands. An event-related beamformer analysis of MEG data from monaural click stimulation was used to reconstruct volumetric images and virtual electrode time series. Group analysis of localisations showed that activity in the gamma band originated from a source that was more medial than those for activity in the theta-to-beta band, and virtual-electrode analysis showed that the source of the gamma activity could be statistically dissociated from the lower-frequency response. These findings are in accordance with separate functional roles for the activity in each frequency band, and provide evidence that the oscillatory activity that underpins the auditory evoked response may contain important information about the physiological basis of the macroscopic signals recorded by MEG in response to auditory stimulation.

  3. The New Control System for the 1 m Cassegrain Telescope at the Hoher List Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, P.; Reif, K.; Müller, Ph.

    The 1m Cassegrain (f/14.5) telescope of the Hoher List Observatory -- operated by the Sternwarte of Bonn University -- is the largest instrument on site. It was built in 1965 and its ancient electro-mechanical control had been in use until the end of last year. During the course of the last year, a new computer based control system has been developed in order to improve the pointing/tracking performance and as the basic step towards remote control and maintenance. It provides corrections for various effects, e.g. refraction, polar motion, and mechanical imperfections - -- which could not be addressed by the old control system. The new system is operational since the end of 1999 in preliminary form. The telescope control system is based on high performance encoders and general purpose industrial automation motor control units. A CAN bus connects the motor control (and eventually autoguider and dome control) units to a Linux PC running the control software. This control PC is integrated in the Hoher List LAN together with other instrumentation control and data reduction computers. The poster explains the system design and describes the current status with results from pointing and tracking tests obtained using a first telescope pointing model.

  4. Telecommunication using muon beams

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  5. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  6. Beam Loss Monitoring for LHC Machine Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Eva Barbara; Dehning, Bernd; Effnger, Ewald; Emery, Jonathan; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Hajdu, Csaba; Jackson, Stephen; Kurfuerst, Christoph; Marsili, Aurelien; Misiowiec, Marek; Nagel, Markus; Busto, Eduardo Nebot Del; Nordt, Annika; Roderick, Chris; Sapinski, Mariusz; Zamantzas, Christos

    The energy stored in the nominal LHC beams is two times 362 MJ, 100 times the energy of the Tevatron. As little as 1 mJ/cm3 deposited energy quenches a magnet at 7 TeV and 1 J/cm3 causes magnet damage. The beam dumps are the only places to safely dispose of this beam. One of the key systems for machine protection is the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system. About 3600 ionization chambers are installed at likely or critical loss locations around the LHC ring. The losses are integrated in 12 time intervals ranging from 40 μs to 84 s and compared to threshold values defined in 32 energy ranges. A beam abort is requested when potentially dangerous losses are detected or when any of the numerous internal system validation tests fails. In addition, loss data are used for machine set-up and operational verifications. The collimation system for example uses the loss data for set-up and regular performance verification. Commissioning and operational experience of the BLM are presented: The machine protection functionality of the BLM system has been fully reliable; the LHC availability has not been compromised by false beam aborts.

  7. SUMMARY OF BEAM BEAM OBSERVATIONS DURING STORES IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.

    2003-05-19

    During stores, the beam-beam interaction has a significant impact on the beam and luminosity lifetimes in RHIC. This was observed in heavy ion, and even more pronounced in proton collisions. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. In addition, RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. Coherent beam-beam modes were observed, and suppressed by tune changes. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made during stores so far.

  8. Partially coherent nonparaxial beams.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kailiang; Lü, Baida

    2004-04-15

    The concept of a partially coherent nonparaxial beam is proposed. A closed-form expression for the propagation of nonparaxial Gaussian Schell model (GSM) beams in free space is derived and applied to study the propagation properties of nonparaxial GSM beams. It is shown that for partially coherent nonparaxial beams a new parameter f(sigma) has to be introduced, which together with the parameter f, determines the beam nonparaxiality.

  9. Automated beam builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muench, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for the space fabrication of large space structures are considered with emphasis on the design, development, manufacture, and testing of a machine which automatically produces a basic building block aluminum beam. Particular problems discussed include those associated with beam cap forming; brace storage, dispensing, and transporting; beam component fastening; and beam cut-off. Various critical process tests conducted to develop technology for a machine to produce composite beams are also discussed.

  10. 50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  11. 50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10ⲠN. Lat. 3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  12. Long-term impact of bottom trawling on pelagic-benthic coupling in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine; Janssen, Felix; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Holtappels, Moritz; Schueckel, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The southern North Sea, and the German Bight, has been systematically bottom-trawled at least since the late 19th century (Christiansen, 2009; Reiss et al., 2009; Kröncke 2011; Emeis et al., 2015, Neumann et al., 2016). As a result, benthic habitats and benthic biogenic structures created by bivalves, polychaetes and hydroids where destroyed or reduced. The parallel removal of hard substrate (gravel and boulders) avoids the resettlement of hard-substrate depended species. For example, the Oyster ground, a huge oyster bank a hundred years ago (Olsen, 1883), turned into a muddy depression today. In addition, shallow depth of max 40 m, strong tidal currents and frequent storms result in a high-energy environment with low sedimentation rates and recurrent sediment resuspension. The decrease in benthic filtering capacity by disturbance in epifauna and bottom roughness (Callaway et al., 2007) apparently influence pelagic-benthic coupling of biogeochemical fluxes. Heip et al. (1995) indicate that benthic respiration at depths prevailing in the German Bight accounts for 10-40% of total respiration, whereas pelagic respiration accounts for 60-90%. Previous estimates are in the middle of this range (Heip et al., 1995). To test these hypotheses and to assess the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes, and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization, we measured pelagic production and respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic fluxes using chamber landers, we did ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores and analysed still images from a towed benthic video sled. In addition, O2 fluxes in permeable sediments were estimated by integrating the volumetric rate measurements of the upper sediment layer over in-situ microsensor-measured O2 penetration depth. Our current results show significant seasonality in benthic respiration, with highest rates in summer and lowest rates in winter. No significant differences in total benthic respiration rates

  13. M1/M2-macrophage phenotypes regulate renal calcium oxalate crystal development

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Okada, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Unno, Rei; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Ando, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Kentaro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous report, M2-macrophage (Mφs) deficient mice showed increased renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation; however, the role of Mφs-related-cytokines and chemokines that affect kidney stone formation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of M1/M2s in crystal development by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. The crystal phagocytic rate of bone marrow-derived M2Mφs was higher than that of bone marrow-derived Mφs and M1Mφs and increased on co-culture with renal tubular cells (RTCs). However, the amount of crystal attachment on RTCs reduced on co-culture with M2Mφs. In six hyperoxaluric C57BL/6J mice, M1Mφ transfusion and induction by LPS and IFN-γ facilitated renal crystal formation, whereas M2Mφ transfusion and induction by IL-4 and IL-13 suppressed renal crystal formation compared with the control. These M2Mφ treatments reduced the expression of crystal-related genes, such as osteopontin and CD44, whereas M1Mφ treatment increased the expression of pro-inflammatory and adhesion-related genes such as IL-6, inducible NOS, TNF-α, C3, and VCAM-1. The expression of M2Mφ-related genes was lower whereas that of M1Mφ-related genes was higher in papillary tissue of CaOx stone formers. Overall, our results suggest that renal crystal development is facilitated by M1Mφs, but suppressed by M2Mφs. PMID:27731368

  14. Cytoplasmic inositol hexakisphosphate production is sufficient for mediating the Gle1-mRNA export pathway.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aimee L; Suntharalingam, Mythili; Johnson, Sylvia L; Audhya, Anjon; Emr, Scott D; Wente, Susan R

    2004-12-03

    Production of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) by Ipk1, the inositol-1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase, is required for Gle1-mediated mRNA export in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. To examine the network of interactions that require IP6 production, an analysis of fitness defects was conducted in mutants harboring both an ipk1 null allele and a mutant allele in genes encoding nucleoporins or transport factors. Enhanced lethality was observed with a specific subset of mutants, including nup42, nup116, nup159, dbp5, and gle2, all of which had been previously connected to Gle1 function. Complementation of the nup116Deltaipk1Delta and nup42Deltaipk1Delta double mutants did not require the Phe-Gly repeat domains in the respective nucleoporins, suggesting that IP6 was acting subsequent to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein targeting to the nuclear pore complex. With Nup42 and Nup159 localized exclusively to the nuclear pore complex cytoplasmic side, we speculated that IP6 may regulate a cytoplasmic step in mRNA export. To test this prediction, the spatial requirements for the production of IP6 were investigated. Restriction of Ipk1 to the cytoplasm did not block IP6 production. Moreover, coincident sequestering of both Ipk1 and Mss4 (an enzyme required for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate production) to the cytoplasm also did not block IP6 production. Given that the kinase required for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate production (Ipk2) is localized in the nucleus, these results indicated that soluble inositides were diffusing between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Additionally, the cytoplasmic production of IP6 by plasma membrane-anchored Ipk1 rescued a gle1-2 ipk1-4 synthetic lethal mutant. Thus, cytoplasmic IP6 production is sufficient for mediating the Gle1-mRNA export pathway.

  15. Comparison between ROV video and Agassiz trawl methods for sampling deep water fauna of submarine canyons in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea with observations on behavioural reactions of target species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayma, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Bahamon, N.; Mecho, A.; Company, J. B.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present a comparison between Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Agassiz trawling methods for sampling deep-water fauna in three submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and describe the behavioural reactions of fishes and crustacean decapods to ROV approach. 10 ROV dives, where 3583 individuals were observed and identified to species level, and 8 Agassiz trawls were carried out in a depth range of 750-1500 m. As noticed in previous studies, abundances of fishes and decapod crustaceans were much higher in the ROV videos than in Agassiz trawl samples, as the latter are designed for the retrieval of benthic, less motile species in permanent contact with the bottom. In our observations fish abundance was one order of magnitude higher with ROV (4110.22 ind/km2) than with Agassiz trawl (350.88 ind/km2), whereas decapod crustaceans were six times more abundant in ROV videos (6362.40 ind/km2) than in Agassiz samples (1364.52 ind/km2). The behaviour of highly motile fishes was analysed in terms of stationary positioning over the seafloor and avoidance or attraction to ROV approach. The most frequently occurring fish species Coelorinchus mediterraneus, Nezumia aequalis, Bathypterois dubius, Lepidion lepidion, Trachyrincuss scabrus and Polyacanthonotus rissoanus did not react to the presence of the ROV in most cases (>50%). Only B. dubius (11%), Lepidion lepidion (14.8%), P. rissoanus (41%) and T. scabrus (14.3%) reacted to ROV approach. More than 60% of less motile species, such as crustacean decapods, did not respond to ROV presence either. Only 33.3% of Geryon longipes, 36.2% of Munida spp. and 29.79% of Pagurus spp. were observed avoiding or defensively reacting to the ROV. The comparison of results obtained with ROV and trawl sampling is of ecological relevance since ROV can report observations in areas where trawling is technically unfeasible. The lack of reaction by most fish and crustacean decapod specimens further confirms that ROV

  16. Tevatron beam-beam compensation project progress

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Zhang, X.L.; Kuznetsov, G.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Tiunov, M.; Bishofberger, K.; Bogdanov, I.; Kashtanov, E.; Kozub, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tkachenko, L.; /Serpukhov, IHEP

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we report the progress of the Tevatron Beam-Beam Compensation (BBC) project [1]. Electron beam induced proton and antiproton tuneshifts have been reported in [2], suppression of an antiproton emittance growth has been observed, too [1]. Currently, the first electron lens (TEL1) is in operational use as the Tevatron DC beam cleaner. We have made a lot of the upgrades to improve its stability [3]. The 2nd Tevatron electron lens (TEL2) is under the final phase of development and preparation for installation in the Tevatron.

  17. Reviving astrometry on the McDonald observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J.; Riddle, A.

    2014-07-01

    The first regular observations of asteroids at McDonald observatory started in 1950 with a 10-inch telescope as part of the Yerkes-McDonald survey, which was followed by a long lull after its completion in 1952. Astrometric observations resumed in the early 70s using the 2.1-m telescope, but were mainly of faint outer solar system satellites to support the emerging planetary space program. Observation of asteroids was later added to the program in order to refine the fundamental reference frame and to aid Hubble Space Telescope astrometry. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been the main emphasis since 1995 using a 0.76 m telescope, which worked very well while the surveys concentrated on objects 1 km or larger. However, NASA's mission to discover and catalogue NEOs has been extended down to objects 140 m in size. Most of these new NEO candidates are outside the reach of the 0.76-m telescope. In 2011, the Otto Struve telescope has received a new instrument, the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse, or CQUEAN (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams, as it provides measurable images of a 19th magnitude source with a single 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.8' by 4.8', with 0.281 arcsec/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the point-spread function for precision astrometry. Although this telescope is 75 years old, we are getting circular stellar images for exposures up to 240 seconds with the CQUEAN auto-guider. We obtained images of M71 at three different air masses during two nights in the Sloan i and r filter bands. The σ of the standard coordinate residuals is a little under 0.07 seconds of arc for both cases. We have also looked at the field of view for systematic errors both in direction and magnitude, and we found it to be satisfactorily uniform. The overall quality of our data is improved due to better angular resolution and dome seeing. Based on

  18. Characterization and commissioning of the SST-1M camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Borkowski, J.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Curyło, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Medina Miranda, L. D.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E., Jr.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Żychowski, P.

    2017-02-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-rays observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The SSTs are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and a few hundreds of TeV. The SST array is expected to have 70 telescopes of different designs. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1 M) is one of the proposed telescope designs under consideration for the SST array. It will be equipped with a 4 m diameter segmented mirror dish and with an innovative camera based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The challenge is not only to build a telescope with exceptional performance but to do it foreseeing its mass production. To address both of these challenges, the camera adopts innovative solutions both for the optical system and readout. The Photo-Detection Plane (PDP) of the camera is composed of 1296 pixels, each made of a hollow, hexagonal light guide coupled to a hexagonal SiPM designed by the University of Geneva and Hamamatsu. As no commercial ASIC would satisfy the CTA requirements when coupled to such a large sensor, dedicated preamplifier electronics have been designed. The readout electronics also use an innovative approach in gamma-ray astronomy by adopting a fully digital approach. All signals coming from the PDP are digitized in a 250 MHz Fast ADC and stored in ring buffers waiting for a trigger decision to send them to the pre-processing server where calibration and higher level triggers will decide whether the data are stored. The latest generation of FPGAs is used to achieve high data rates and also to exploit all the flexibility of the system. As an example each event can be flagged according to its trigger pattern. All of these features have been demonstrated in laboratory measurements on realistic elements and the results of these measurements will be presented in this contribution.

  19. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingjie; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-09-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ► SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ► SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ► SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  20. An all-optical velocity filter and beam splitter for generating cold molecular beams: a proposal and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingjia; Liu, Runqin; Yin, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    In order to generate one or two cold molecular beams that have neither a permanent electric dipole moment nor a magnetic dipole one, a controllable scheme to form an all-optical velocity filter and molecular beam splitter by using two red-detuned, crossing and cavity-enhanced guiding laser beams is proposed, and both the dynamic velocity filtering and beam splitting processes of the guided cold I2 molecular beam are studied by using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo method. Our study shows that by adjusting the laser power difference between the two guiding laser beams from -124 W to 124 W, a splitting ratio of the two-arm output molecular beams from about 10.3% to 89.7% can be obtained. Also, by adjusting the intersection angle between the two standing wave cavities from 80° to 10°, an adjustable splitting ratio from about 1.6% to 98.4% can be obtained. If the intersection angle between the guided oblique beam and the guided straight beam is set to 80°, a cold I2 molecular beam with a full-width at half-maximum longitudinal velocity of 1 m s-1 and a longitudinal temperature of 8 mK can be generated by using an all-optical velocity filter.

  1. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  2. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2000-09-21

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  4. Pyramid beam splitter

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.; Fairer, George

    1992-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides means for obtaining accurate, dependable, measurement of bearings and directions for geologic mapping in subterranean shafts, such as, for example, nuclear waste storage investigations. In operation, a laser beam is projected along a reference bearing. A pyramid is mounted such that the laser beam is parallel to the pyramid axis and can impinge on the apex of the pyramid thus splitting the beam several ways into several beams at right angles to each other and at right angles to the reference beam. The pyramid is also translatable and rotatable in a plane perpendicular to the reference beam.

  5. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  6. MBE-4, a heavy ion multiple-beam experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.; Chavis, C.S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Gough, D.E.; Henderson, T.F.; Keefe, D.; Meneghetti, J.R.; Pike, C.D.; Vanecek, D.L.; Warick, A.I.

    1985-10-01

    MBE-4, a heavy-ion multiple beam induction linac being built at LBL in FY85/86, will model many features of a much longer device. It will accelerate four spacecharge-dominated Cesium ion beams from, for example, 0.2 MeV, 5 mA/beam, 3.0 sec, 1.6 m length at injection to about0.8 MeV, 15 mA/beam, 1.0 sec, 1.1 m length at the exit. It will permit study of simultaneous focussing, acceleration, current amplification and emittance growth of multiple space-charge-dominated ion beams. Some features of this accelerator are described.

  7. MBE-4, a heavy ion multiple-beam experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.; Chavis, C.S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Gough, D.E.; Henderson, T.F.; Keefe, D.; Meneghetti, J.R.; Pike, C.D.; Vanecek, D.L.; Warwick, A.I.

    1985-05-01

    MBE-4, a heavy-ion multiple beam induction linac being built at LBL in FY85/86, will model many features of a much longer device. It will accelerate four space-charge-dominated cesium ion beams from, for example, 0.2 MeV, 5 mA/beam, 3.0 ..mu..sec, 1.6 m length at injection to approx.0.8 MeV, 15 mA/beam, 1.0 ..mu..sec, 1.1 m length at the exit. It will permit study of simultaneous focussing, acceleration, current amplification and emittance growth of multiple space-charge-dominated ion beams. Some features of this accelerator are described. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Thermal-Hydraulic Simulations of Single Pin and Assembly Sector for IVG- 1M Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, A.; Garner, P.; Hanan, N.

    2015-01-15

    Thermal-hydraulic simulations have been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the highly-enriched uranium (HEU) design of the IVG.1M reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) at the National Nuclear Center (NNC) in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Steady-state simulations were performed for both types of fuel assembly (FA), i.e. the FA in rows 1 & 2 and the FA in row 3, as well as for single pins in those FA (600 mm and 800 mm pins). Both single pin calculations and bundle sectors have been simulated for the most conservative operating conditions corresponding to the 10 MW output power, which corresponds to a pin unit cell Reynolds number of only about 7500. Simulations were performed using the commercial code STAR-CCM+ for the actual twisted pin geometry as well as a straight-pin approximation. Various Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models gave different results, and so some validation runs with a higher-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code were performed given the lack of experimental data. These singled out the Realizable Two-Layer k-ε as the most accurate turbulence model for estimating surface temperature. Single-pin results for the twisted case, based on the average flow rate per pin and peak pin power, were conservative for peak clad surface temperature compared to the bundle results. Also the straight-pin calculations were conservative as compared to the twisted pin simulations, as expected, but the single-pin straight case was not always conservative with regard to the straight-pin bundle. This was due to the straight-pin temperature distribution being strongly influenced by the pin orientation, particularly near the outer boundary. The straight-pin case also predicted the peak temperature to be in a different location than the twisted-pin case. This is a limitation of the straight-pin approach. The peak temperature pin was in a different location from the peak power pin in every case simulated, and occurred at an

  9. Aerosol–climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model – NorESM1-M

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkevåg, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, Ø.; Hoose, C.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Ghan, S.; Griesfeller, J.; Nilsson, E. D.; Schulz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to document and evaluate recent changes and updates to the module for aerosols and aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions in the atmospheric module CAM4-Oslo of the core version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), NorESM1-M. Particular attention is paid to the role of natural organics, sea salt, and mineral dust in determining the gross aerosol properties as well as the anthropogenic contribution to these properties and the associated direct and indirect radiative forcing. The aerosol module is extended from earlier versions that have been published, and includes life-cycling of sea salt, mineral dust, particulate sulphate, black carbon, and primary and secondary organics. The impacts of most of the numerous changes since previous versions are thoroughly explored by sensitivity experiments. The most important changes are: modified prognostic sea salt emissions; updated treatment of precipitation scavenging and gravitational settling; inclusion of biogenic primary organics and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from oceans; almost doubled production of land-based biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA); and increased ratio of organic matter to organic carbon (OM/OC) for biomass burning aerosols from 1.4 to 2.6. Compared with in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, the new treatments of sea salt and dust aerosols give smaller biases in near-surface mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth than in the earlier model version. The model biases for mass concentrations are approximately unchanged for sulphate and BC. The enhanced levels of modeled OM yield improved overall statistics, even though OM is still underestimated in Europe and overestimated in North America. The global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere has changed from a small positive value to -0.08 W m-2 in CAM4-Oslo. The sensitivity tests suggest that this change can be attributed to the new treatment of biomass

  10. Aerosol-climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model - NorESM1-M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkevåg, A.; Iversen, T.; Seland, Ø.; Hoose, C.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Struthers, H.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Ghan, S.; Griesfeller, J.; Nilsson, E. D.; Schulz, M.

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to document and evaluate recent changes and updates to the module for aerosols and aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in the atmospheric module CAM4-Oslo of the core version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM), NorESM1-M. Particular attention is paid to the role of natural organics, sea salt, and mineral dust in determining the gross aerosol properties as well as the anthropogenic contribution to these properties and the associated direct and indirect radiative forcing. The aerosol module is extended from earlier versions that have been published, and includes life-cycling of sea salt, mineral dust, particulate sulphate, black carbon, and primary and secondary organics. The impacts of most of the numerous changes since previous versions are thoroughly explored by sensitivity experiments. The most important changes are: modified prognostic sea salt emissions; updated treatment of precipitation scavenging and gravitational settling; inclusion of biogenic primary organics and methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from oceans; almost doubled production of land-based biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA); and increased ratio of organic matter to organic carbon (OM/OC) for biomass burning aerosols from 1.4 to 2.6. Compared with in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, the new treatments of sea salt and dust aerosols give smaller biases in near-surface mass concentrations and aerosol optical depth than in the earlier model version. The model biases for mass concentrations are approximately unchanged for sulphate and BC. The enhanced levels of modeled OM yield improved overall statistics, even though OM is still underestimated in Europe and overestimated in North America. The global anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere has changed from a small positive value to -0.08 W m-2 in CAM4-Oslo. The sensitivity tests suggest that this change can be attributed to the new treatment of biomass

  11. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  12. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  13. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Video Gallery

    Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) is a process by which NASA hopes to build metal parts in zero gravity environments. It's a layer-additive process that uses an electron beam and a solid wi...

  14. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  15. A potential role for NF1 mRNA editing in the pathogenesis of NF1 tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cappione, A.J.; French, B.L.; Skuse, G.R.

    1997-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a common disorder that predisposes to neoplasia in tissues derived from the embryonic neural crest. The NF1 gene encodes a tumor suppressor that most likely acts through the interaction of its GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) with the product of the ras protooncogene. We have previously identified a site in the NF1 mRNA, within the first half of the NF1 GRD, which undergoes base-modification editing. Editing at that site changes a C to a U, thereby introducing an in-frame stop codon. NF1 RNA editing has been detected in all cell types studied, to date. In order to investigate the role played by editing in NF1 tumorigenesis, we analyzed RNA from 19 NF1 and 4 non-NF1 tumors. We observed varying levels of NF1 mRNA editing in different tumors, with a higher range of editing levels in more malignant tumors (e.g., neurofibrosarcomas) compared to benign tumors (cutaneous neurofibromas). Plexiform neurofibromas have an intermediate range of levels of NF1 mRNA editing. We also compared tumor and nontumor tissues from several NF1 individuals, to determine the extent of variability present in the constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing and to determine whether higher levels are present in tumors. The constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing varied slightly but were consistent with the levels observed in non-NF1 individuals. In every case, there was a greater level of NF1 mRNA editing in the tumor than in the nontumor tissue from the same patient. These results suggest that inappropriately high levels of NF1 mRNA editing does play a role in NF1 tumorigenesis and that editing may result in the functional equivalent of biallelic inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. A potential role for NF1 mRNA editing in the pathogenesis of NF1 tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cappione, A J; French, B L; Skuse, G R

    1997-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a common disorder that predisposes to neoplasia in tissues derived from the embryonic neural crest. The NF1 gene encodes a tumor suppressor that most likely acts through the interaction of its GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) with the product of the ras protooncogene. We have previously identified a site in the NF1 mRNA, within the first half of the NF1 GRD, which undergoes base-modification editing. Editing at that site changes a C to a U, thereby introducing an in-frame stop codon. NF1 RNA editing has been detected in all cell types studied, to date. In order to investigate the role played by editing in NF1 tumorigenesis, we analyzed RNA from 19 NF1 and 4 non-NF1 tumors. We observed varying levels of NF1 mRNA editing in different tumors, with a higher range of editing levels in more malignant tumors (e.g., neurofibrosarcomas) compared to benign tumors (cutaneous neurofibromas). Plexiform neurofibromas have an intermediate range of levels of NF1 mRNA editing. We also compared tumor and nontumor tissues from several NF1 individuals, to determine the extent of variability present in the constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing and to determine whether higher levels are present in tumors. The constitutional levels of NF1 mRNA editing varied slightly but were consistent with the levels observed in non-NF1 individuals. In every case, there was a greater level of NF1 mRNA editing in the tumor than in the nontumor tissue from the same patient. These results suggest that inappropriately high levels of NF1 mRNA editing does play a role in NF1 tumorigenesis and that editing may result in the functional equivalent of biallelic inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9012403

  17. Standardization of CPUE for Chilean jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) from Chinese trawl fleets in the high seas of the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Zou, Xiaorong; Chen, Xinjun; Zhou, Yinqi; Zhang, Min

    2013-09-01

    The generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel from Chinese factory trawl fishing fleets in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2010 by removing the operational, environmental, spatial and temporal impacts. A total of 9 factors were selected to build the GLM and GAM, i.e., Year, Month, Vessel, La Niña and El Niño events (ELE), Latitude, Longitude, Sea surface temperature (SST), SST anomaly (SSTA), Nino3.4 index and an interaction term between Longitude and Latitude. The first 5 factors were significant components in the GLM, which in combination explained 27.34% of the total variance in nominal CPUE. In the stepwise GAM, all factors explained 30.78% of the total variance, with Month, Year and Vessel as the main factors influencing CPUE. The higher CPUE occurred during the period April to July at a SST range of 12-15°C and a SSTA range of 0.2-1.0°C. The CPUE was significantly higher in normal years compared with that in La Niña and El Niño years. The abundance of Chilean jack mackerel declined during 2001 and 2010, with an increase in 2007. This work provided the relative abundance index of Chilean jack mackerel for stock assessment by standardizing catch and effort data of Chinese trawl fisheries and examined the influence of temporal, spatial, environmental and fisheries operational factors on Chilean jack mackerel CPUE.

  18. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  19. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  20. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr.

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  1. Study of beam-beam effects in eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2010-05-23

    Beam-beam effects in eRHIC have a number of unique features, which distinguish them from both hadron and lepton colliders. Due to beam-beam interaction, both electron and hadron beams would suffer quality degradation or beam loss from without proper treatments. Those features need novel study and dedicate countermeasures. We study the beam dynamics and resulting luminosity of the characteristics, including mismatch, disruption and pinch effects on electron beam, in additional to their consequences on the opposing beam as a wake field and other incoherent effects of hadron beam. We also carry out countermeasures to prevent beam quality degrade and coherent instability.

  2. Dual beam optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A dual beam interferometer device is disclosed that enables moving an optics module in a direction, which changes the path lengths of two beams of light. The two beams reflect off a surface of an object and generate different speckle patterns detected by an element, such as a camera. The camera detects a characteristic of the surface.

  3. Cooling of Stored Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.

    1986-06-10

    Beam cooling methods developed for the accumulation of antiprotons are being employed to assist in the performance of experiments in Nuclear and Particle Physics with ion beams stored in storage rings. The physics of beam cooling, and the ranges of utility of stochastic and electron cooling are discussed in this paper.

  4. Electromagnetic nonuniformly correlated beams.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhisong; Korotkova, Olga

    2012-10-01

    A class of electromagnetic sources with nonuniformly distributed field correlations is introduced. The conditions on source parameters guaranteeing that the source generates a physical beam are derived. It is shown that the new sources are capable of producing beams with polarization properties that evolve on propagation in a manner much more complex compared to the well-known electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams.

  5. Electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Beckner, E.H.; Clauser, M.J.

    1975-08-12

    This patent pertains to an electron beam device in which a hollow target is symmetrically irradiated by a high energy, pulsed electron beam about its periphery and wherein the outer portion of the target has a thickness slightly greater than required to absorb the electron beam pulse energy. (auth)

  6. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  7. ATA beam director experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

    1986-06-23

    This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

  8. Ultrasmall PdmMn1-mOx binary alloyed nanoparticles on graphene catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Park, Dongchul; Jeon, Seungwon

    2016-03-01

    A rare combination of graphene (G)-supported palladium and manganese in mixed-oxides binary alloyed catalysts (BACs) have been synthesized with the addition of Pd and Mn metals in various ratios (G/PdmMn1-mOx) through a facile wet-chemical method and employed as an efficient anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline fuel cells. The as prepared G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been characterized by several instrumental techniques; the transmission electron microscopy images show that the ultrafine alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are excellently monodispersed onto the G. The Pd and Mn in G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been alloyed homogeneously, and Mn presents in mixed-oxidized form that resulted by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performances, kinetics and stability of these catalysts toward EOR have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. Among all G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs, the G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox catalyst has shown much superior mass activity and incredible stability than that of pure Pd catalysts (G/Pd1Mn0Ox, Pd/C and Pt/C). The well dispersion, ultrafine size of NPs and higher degree of alloying are the key factor for enhanced and stable EOR electrocatalysis on G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox.

  9. Beam-beam interaction working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1995-03-01

    The limit in hadron colliders is understood phenomenologically. The beam-beam interaction produces nonlinear resonances and makes the transverse tunes amplitude dependent. Tune spreads result from the latter, and as long as these tune spreads do not overlap low order resonances, the lifetime and performance is acceptable. Experience is that tenth and sometimes twelfth order resonances must be avoided, and the hadron collider limit corresponds roughly to the space available between resonances of that and lower order when operating near the coupling resonance. The beam-beam interaction in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders is not understood well. This affects the performance of existing colliders and could lead to surprises in new ones. For example. a substantial amount of operator tuning is usually required to reach the performance limit given above, and this tuning has to be repeated after each major shutdown. The usual interpretation is that colliding beam performance is sensitive to small lattice errors, and these are being reduced during tuning. It is natural to ask what these errors are, how can a lattice be characterized to minimize tuning time, and what aspects of a lattice should receive particular attention when a new collider is being designed. The answers to this type of question are not known, and developing ideas for calculations, simulations and experiments that could illuminate the details of the beam-beam interaction was the primary working group activity.

  10. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji

    2003-05-23

    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  11. Changes of expression of stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA and protein in hypertrophic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Longxian; Su, Fengcheng; Ripen, Nsenga; Fan, Hong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Min; Peng, Hongyu; Mei, Chunli; Zhao, Fang; Liao, Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    The expression of stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA and protein of hypertrophic myocardium was measured. Using a model of hypertrophy induced by coarctation of abdominal aorta in male Wistar rats, the expression of TREK-1 mRNA and protein was detected by using semi-quantitative RT PCR and Western blot respectively. At 4th and 8th week after constriction of the abdominal aorta, rats developed significant left ventricular hypertrophy. As compared to sham-operated group, stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA was strongly expressed and protein was up-regulated in operation groups (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the expression of TREK-1 was up-regulated in hypertrophic myocardium induced by chronic pressure overload in Wistar rats.

  12. BEAM CONTROL PROBE

    DOEpatents

    Chesterman, A.W.

    1959-03-17

    A probe is described for intercepting a desired portion of a beam of charged particles and for indicating the spatial disposition of the beam. The disclosed probe assembly includes a pair of pivotally mounted vanes moveable into a single plane with adjacent edges joining and a calibrated mechanical arrangement for pivoting the vancs apart. When the probe is disposed in the path of a charged particle beam, the vanes may be adjusted according to the beam current received in each vane to ascertain the dimension of the beam.

  13. Initiation of translation can occur only in a restricted region of the CYC1 mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yun, D F; Sherman, F

    1995-01-01

    The steady-state levels and half-lives of CYC1 mRNAs were estimated in a series of mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing (i) TAA nonsense codons, (ii) ATG initiator codons, or (iii) the sequence ATA ATG ACT TAA (denoted ATG-TAA) at various positions along the CYC1 gene, which encodes iso-1-cytochrome c. These mutational alterations were made in backgrounds lacking all internal in-frame and out-of-frame ATG triplets or containing only one ATG initiator codon at the normal position. The results revealed a "sensitive" region encompassing approximately the first half of the CYC1 mRNA, in which nonsense codons caused Upf1-dependent degradation. This result and the stability of CYC1 mRNAs lacking all ATG triplets, as well as other results, suggested that degradation occurs unless elements associated with this sensitive region are covered with 80S ribosomes, 40S ribosomal subunits, or ribonucleoprotein particle proteins. While elongation by 80S ribosomes could be prematurely terminated by TAA codons, the scanning of 40S ribosomal units could not be terminated solely by TAA codons but could be disrupted by the ATG-TAA sequence, which caused the formation and subsequent prompt release of 80S ribosomes. The ATG-TAA sequence caused degradation of the CYC1 mRNA only when it was in the region spanning nucleotide positions -27 to +37 but not in the remaining 3' distal region, suggesting that translation could initiate only in this restricted initiation region. CYC1 mRNA distribution on polyribosomes confirmed that only ATG codons within the initiation region were translated at high efficiency. This initiation region was not entirely dependent on the distance from the 5' cap site and was not obviously dependent on the short-range secondary structure but may simply reflect an open structural requirement for initiation of translation of the CYC1 mRNA. PMID:7823918

  14. Beam-beam experience in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Heimerle, M.

    2010-07-29

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC consists of two superconducting storage rings that intersect at six locations around the ring circumference. Two of these interaction regions are currently equipped with experiment detectors, namely STAR at the “6 o’clock” interaction point (IP), and PHENIX at “8 o’clock”. The two beams collide only at these two interaction regions, while they are vertically separated by typically 6-10mm at the other IPs. Together with the separator dipoles located at roughly 10m from the IP, and a distance between bunches of 30m, this avoids any parasitic beam-beam collisions. RHIC is capable of colliding any ion species at magnetic rigidities up to B × r = 830T × m , corresponding to 250 GeV for proton beams, or 100 GeV/n for fully stripped gold ions.

  15. Beam envelope matching for beam guidance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.L.

    1980-08-01

    Ray optics and phase ellipse optics are developed as tools for designing charged particle beam guidance systems. Specific examples of basic optical systems and of phase ellipse matching are presented as illustrations of these mathematical techniques.

  16. Refractive beam shapers for focused laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2016-09-01

    Focusing of laser radiation is most often used approach in various industrial micromachining applications like scribing, PCB drilling, and is important in scientific researches like laser heating in geophysics experiments with diamond anvil cells (DAC). Control of intensity distribution in focal spot is important task since optimum intensity profiles are rather flat-top, doughnut or "inverse-Gauss" than typical for lasers Gaussian profile. Because of high intensity of modern CW and pulsed lasers it is advisable to use refractive beam shaping optics with smooth optical surfaces providing high radiation resistance. Workable optical solutions can be built on the base of diffraction theory conclusion that flat-top intensity profile in focal plane of a lens is created when input beam has Airy-disk intensity distribution. It is suggested to apply refractive beam shapers converting, with minimum wavefront deformation, Gaussian profile of TEM00 beam to a beam with Airy disk intensity distribution, thereby optimizing conditions of interference near the focal plane of a lens after the beam shaper and providing flat-top, doughnut, "inverse-Gauss" profiles. This approach allows operation with CW and ultra-short pulse lasers, using F-theta lenses and objectives, mirror scanners, provides extended depth of field similar to Rayleigh length of comparable TEM00 beam, easy integration in industrial equipment, simple adjustment procedure and switching between profiles, telescope and collimator implementations. There will be considered design basics of beam shapers, analysis of profile behaviour near focal plane, examples of implementations in micromachining systems and experimental DAC setups, results of profile measurements and material processing.

  17. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.; Bilskie, J.R.; van Dyck, O.B.V.

    1985-01-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  18. Wide dynamic range beam profile monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.M.; van Dyck, O.B.; Bilskie, J.R.; Brown, D.; Hardekopf, R.

    1985-10-01

    An economical harp multiplexer system has been developed to achieve a wide dynamic range. The harp system incorporates a pneumatically actuated harp detector with ceramic boards and carbon wires; a high-sensitivity multiplexer packaged in a double-wide NIM module; and flat, shielded ribbon cable consisting of individual twisted pairs. The system multiplexes 30 wires in each of the x and y planes simultaneously and operates with or without computer control. The system has operated in beams of 100 nA to 1 mA, 1- to 120-Hz repetition rate, with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10/1.

  19. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  20. USE OF VIDEO TO ACCESS JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITIES AND HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and a GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat in Narragansett Bay, RI. The YSI sonde measured te...

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER AND MULTIPLE-SCALE HABITAT VARIATION IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid random-sampling method was used to relate densities of juvenile winter flounder to multiple scales of habitat variation in Narragansett Bay and two nearby coastal lagoons in Rhode Island. We used a 1-m beam trawl with attached video camera, continuous GPS track overlay, ...

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT ARRANGEMENT AND JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER DENSITY IN NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used aerial photography in conjunction with a 1-m beam trawl attached to a videocamera with GPS overwrite and a YSI water quality logger to quantify fish densities and characterize habitats in Narragansett Bay and in Rhode Island's coastal lagoons. We compared fish counts fro...

  3. Effect of electrolyte water content on the anodic passivation of lithium in 1m lic104-propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.; Nagao, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    This work deals with the effect of aqueous contamination on the anode passivation of Li in 1M LiC10/sup 4/-propylene carbonate. Passivation occurs more readily with increasing electrolyte water content. Preliminary evidence suggests that anodic passivation may be due to anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of LiC10/sup 4/ in the superficial anolyte layer.

  4. Dosimetric study of total skin irradiation with a scanning beam electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.C.; Wilson, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    The Therac 20 6-MeV scanned electron beam may be used for partial or total skin therapy. The maximum field size at 1 m is 30 x 30 cm defined by a set of primary photon collimators in conjunction with secondary trimmers. We have studied electron beam profiles with and without trimmers at the nominal source--skin distance of 1 m versus extended distances of 3--5 m. We find that the trimmers limit the field size and add little to the beam uniformity at extended distances. Beam energy, dose distributions, and output factors at extended distances were measured for single and multiple field arrangements with and without trimmers. Beam parameters were measured after introducing a degrader that lowered the energy to 3.7 MeV.

  5. Dosimetric study of total skin irradiation with a scanning beam electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Wilson, D L

    1987-01-01

    The Therac 20 6-MeV scanned electron beam may be used for partial or total skin therapy. The maximum field size at 1 m is 30 X 30 cm defined by a set of primary photon collimators in conjunction with secondary trimmers. We have studied electron beam profiles with and without trimmers at the nominal source-skin distance of 1 m versus extended distances of 3-5 m. We find that the trimmers limit the field size and add little to the beam uniformity at extended distances. Beam energy, dose distributions, and output factors at extended distances were measured for single and multiple field arrangements with and without trimmers. Beam parameters were measured after introducing a degrader that lowered the energy to 3.7 MeV.

  6. Runaway electron beams in the gas discharge for UV nitrogen laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Khomich, V. Yu.; Yamschikov, V. A.

    2011-12-15

    The review of the methods for obtaining the runaway electron beams in the gas discharge is performed. The new method is offered, using which the beam is first formed in a narrow gap ({approx}1 mm) between the cathode and the grid and then it is accelerated by the field of the plasma column of the anomalous self-sustained discharge in the main gap (10-20 mm long). The electron beams with an energy of about 10 keV and current density of 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} at a molecular nitrogen pressure of up to 100 Torr have been obtained experimentally. The results of research of the UV nitrogen laser with an excitation via runaway electron beam and radiation of energy of {approx}1 mJ are given. The UV nitrogen laser generation with the energy of {approx}1 mJ has been obtained by the runaway electron beams.

  7. Bolt beam propagation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokair, I. R.

    BOLT (Beam on Laser Technology) is a rocket experiment to demonstrate electron beam propagation on a laser ionized plasma channel across the geomagnetic field in the ion focused regime (IFR). The beam parameters for BOLT are: beam current I(sub b) = 100 Amps, beam energy of 1--1.5 MeV (gamma =3-4), and a Gaussian beam and channel of radii r(sub b) = r(sub c) = 1.5 cm. The N+1 ionization scheme is used to ionize atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This scheme utilizes 130 nm light plus three IR lasers to excite and then ionize atomic oxygen. The limiting factor for the channel strength is the energy of the 130 nm laser, which is assumed to be 1.6 mJ for BOLT. At a fixed laser energy and altitude (fixing the density of atomic oxygen), the range can be varied by adjusting the laser tuning, resulting in a neutralization fraction axial profile of the form: f(z) = f(sub 0) e(exp minus z)/R, where R is the range. In this paper we consider the propagation of the BOLT beam and calculate the range of the electron beam taking into account the fact that the erosion rates (magnetic and inductive) vary with beam length as the beam and channel dynamically respond to sausage and hose instabilities.

  8. Hypothalamic kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin immunoreactivity are reduced in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Brown, Russell E; Wilkinson, Diane A; Imran, Syed A; Caraty, Alain; Wilkinson, Michael

    2012-07-27

    An intact hypothalamic kiss1/kisspeptin/kiss1r complex is a prerequisite for reproductive competence, and kisspeptin treatment could be a practical therapeutic approach to some problems of infertility. One such disorder is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common cause of infertility affecting more than 100 million women. A rodent model of PCOS is the prepubertal female rat treated for a prolonged period with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which induces many of the metabolic characteristics of the syndrome. We hypothesized that hypothalamic kiss1 mRNA levels, and kisspeptin immunoreactivity (ir), would be abnormal in these rats. Prepubertal female rats were exposed to DHT for 60 days. Rats were killed in two groups: at 26 and 60 days of DHT exposure. Kiss1 mRNA was quantified in hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary and visceral adipose tissue. Separate groups of rats provided brain tissue for immunohistochemical analysis of kisspeptin-ir. At 26 days of DHT exposure, hypothalamic kiss1 mRNA was severely depleted. In contrast DHT had no effect on pituitary kiss1 expression but it significantly increased levels of kiss1 mRNA in fat (+9-fold; p<0.01) and in ovary (+3-fold; p<0.05). At 60days, kiss1 expression had reverted to normal in hypothalamus and ovary but remained elevated in fat (+4-fold; p<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that after 26 days of exposure to DHT, kisspeptin-ir was almost completely absent in the arcuate nucleus and a large depletion in kisspeptin +ve fibers was also seen in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and in the anteroventral periventricular area. At 60 days, despite restored normal levels of kiss1 mRNA, hypothalamic kisspeptin-ir remained depleted in the treated rats. In summary Kiss1 gene expression is differentially affected in various tissues by chronic exposure to dihydrotestosterone in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. In hypothalamus, specifically, kiss1 mRNA, and levels of kisspeptin immunoreactivity, are

  9. Cytoplasmic deadenylase Ccr4 is required for translational repression of LRG1 mRNA in the stationary phase

    PubMed Central

    Duy, Duong Long; Suda, Yasuyuki; Irie, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Ccr4 is a major cytoplasmic deadenylase involved in mRNA poly(A) tail shortening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have previously shown that Ccr4 negatively regulates expression of LRG1 mRNA encoding a GTPase-activating protein for the small GTPase Rho1, a component of cell wall integrity pathway, and deletion of LRG1 suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth defect of the ccr4Δ mutant. We have also shown that the slow growth of the ccr4Δ mutant is suppressed by deletion of another gene, PBP1, encoding a poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1)-binding protein 1; however, the underlying mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated how ccr4Δ and pbp1Δ mutations influence on the length of poly(A) tail and LRG1 mRNA and protein levels during long-term cultivation. In the log-phase ccr4Δ mutant cells, LRG1 poly(A) tail was longer and LRG1 mRNA level was higher than those in the log-phase wild-type (WT) cells. Unexpectedly, Lrg1 protein level in the ccr4Δ mutant cells was comparable with that in WT. In the stationary-phase ccr4Δ mutant cells, LRG1 poly(A) tail length was still longer and LRG1 mRNA level was still higher than those in WT cells. In contrast to the log phase, Lrg1 protein level in the stationary-phase ccr4Δ mutant cells was maintained much higher than that in the stationary-phase WT cells. Consistently, active translating ribosomes still remained abundant in the stationary-phase ccr4Δ mutant cells, whereas they were strongly decreased in the stationary-phase WT cells. Loss of PBP1 reduced the LRG1 poly(A) tail length as well as LRG1 mRNA and protein levels in the stationary-phase ccr4Δ mutant cells. Our results suggest that Ccr4 regulates not only LRG1 mRNA level through poly(A) shortening but also the translation of LRG1 mRNA, and that Pbp1 is involved in the Ccr4-mediated regulation of mRNA stability and translation. PMID:28231297

  10. Comparison of PA imaging by narrow beam scanning and one-shot broad beam excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jinjun; Wei, Chen-Wei; Huang, Lingyun; Pelivanov, I. M.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Current systems designed for deep photoacoustic (PA) imaging typically use a low repetition rate, high power pulsed laser to provide a ns-scale pulse illuminating a large tissue volume. Acoustic signals recorded on each laser firing can be used to reconstruct a complete 2-D (3-D) image of sources of heat release within that region. Using broad-beam excitation, the maximum frame rate of the imaging system is restricted by the pulse repetition rate of the laser. An alternate illumination approach is proposed based on fast scanning by a low energy (~ 1 mJ) high repetition rate (up to a few kHz) narrow laser beam (~1 mm) along the tissue surface over a region of interest. A final PA image is produced from the summation of individual PA images reconstructed at each laser beam position. This concept can take advantage of high repetition rate fiber lasers to create PA images with much higher frame rates than current systems, enabling true real-time integration of photoacoustics with ultrasound imaging. As an initial proof of concept, we compare conventional broad beam illumination to a scanned beam approach in a simple model system. Two transparent teflon tubes with diameters of 1.6 mm and 0.8 mm were filled with ink having an absorption coefficient of 5 cm-1. These tubes were buried inside chicken breast tissue acting as an optical scattering medium. They were separated by 3 mm or 10 mm to test spatial and contrast resolution for the two scan formats. The excitation wavelength was 700 nm. The excitation source is a traditional OPO pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with doubler. Photoacoustic images were reconstructed using signals from a small, scanned PVDF transducer acting as an acoustic array. Two different illumination schemes were compared: one was 15 mm x 10 mm in cross section and acted as the broad beam; the other was 5 mm x 2 mm in cross section (15 times smaller than the broad beam case) and was scanned over an area equivalent to broad beam illumination

  11. Increased litter size and suckling intensity inhibit KiSS-1 mRNA expression in rat arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Tamadon, Amin; Akhlaghi, Amir; Tanideh, Nader; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The effect of litter size and suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of rats were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty two pregnant and four non-lactating ovariectomized (as control group) rats were used in this experiment. Lactating rats were allotted to eight equal groups. In three groups, litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition and allowed to suckle their pups continuously by 8 days postpartum. In the other three groups, litter size was adjusted to five upon birth; the pups were separated from the dams for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 min prior to killing the dams. Two groups of lactating rats with either 10 or 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 min before the dams were killed on day 8 postpartum. The ARC was removed and the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was evaluated, using real-time PCR. Results: The expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the ARC was decreased as the litter size and intensity of suckling stimulus were increased. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was more pronounced than that of litter size. Conclusion: Increased litter size and suckling intensity decreased KiSS-1 mRNA expression in the ARC which may contribute to lactation anestrus in rat. PMID:25422754

  12. Craft Stick Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karplus, Alan K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this exercise is to provide a phenomenological 'hands-on' experience that shows how geometry can affect the load carrying capacity of a material used in construction, how different materials have different failure characteristics, and how construction affects the performance of a composite material. This will be accomplished by building beams of a single material and composite beams of a mixture of materials (popsicle sticks, fiberboard sheets, and tongue depressors); testing these layered beams to determine how and where they fail; and based on the failure analysis, designing a layered beam that will fail in a predicted manner. The students will learn the effects of lamination, adhesion, and geometry in layered beam construction on beam strength and failure location.

  13. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  14. Focused Bessel beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P V

    2000-04-30

    The diffraction broadening of a focused beam with a Bessel amplitude distribution is examined. Calculations are reported not only of the traditional differential characteristics (radial distributions of the electric-energy densities and of the axial total electromagnetic energy flux in the beam), but also of integral quantities characterising the degree of transverse localisation of the radiation in a tube of specified radius within the beam. It is shown that in a large-aperture Bessel beam only a very small fraction of the total beam power is concentrated in its central core and that a focal point is also observed on intense focusing of the Bessel beam. This spot is not in the geometric-optical focal plane but is displaced from the latter by a certain distance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  16. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  17. Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.; Foosland, D. W.; Smith, C. W.; Lee, M. A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The linear theory of electromagnetic instabilities driven by an energetic ion beam streaming parallel to a magnetic field in a homogeneous Vlasov plasma is considered. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation are presented. At propagation parallel to the magnetic field, there are four distinct instabilities. A sufficiently energetic beam gives rise to two unstable modes with right-hand polarization, one resonant with the beam, the other nonresonant. A beam with sufficiently large T (perpendicular to B)/T (parallel to B) gives rise to the left-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability at relatively small beam velocities, and a sufficiently hot beam drives unstable a left-hand beam resonant mode. The parametric dependences of the growth rates for the three high beam velocity instabilities are presented here. In addition, some properties at oblique propagation are examined. It is demonstrated that, as the beam drift velocity is increased, relative maxima in growth rates can arise at harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance for both right and left elliptically polarized modes.

  18. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

  19. Power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rather, John D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Some large scale power beaming applications are proposed for the purpose of stimulating research. The first proposal is for a combination of large phased arrays on the ground near power stations and passive reflectors in geostationary orbit. The systems would beam excess electrical power in microwave form to areas in need of electrical power. Another proposal is to build solar arrays in deserts and beam the energy around the world. Another proposal is to use lasers to beam energy from earth to orbiting spacecraft.

  20. Plasma Beam Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    GUN PLASMA BEAM / ,I 21 cm diameter = 0 GLASS DRIFT TUBE 50 cm diameter MCP CAMERA CLASS CROSSES (a) Gun muzzle /"- PLASA BEAM / TAROT z = 10 m MCP...discusses some of the hydrodynamic issues related to the calcula- tions. The reader may well wonder why hydrodynamics should be an issue in a 116 WL-TR-90...answer is yes for the slow beam cases and no for the fast beam cases. This is explained further. 118 WL-TR-90-83 The reader will recall the

  1. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-10-08

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes. 6 figs.

  2. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  3. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  4. (Pulsed electron beam precharger)

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on electron beam guns: Precharger Modification; Installation of Charge vs. Radius Apparatus; High Concentration Aerosol Generation; and Data Acquisition and Analysis System.

  5. Advanced ion beam calorimetry for the test facility ELISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocentini, R.; Bonomo, F.; Pimazzoni, A.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The negative ion source test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) is in operation since beginning of 2013 at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Garching bei München. The large radio frequency driven ion source of ELISE is about 1×1 m2 in size (1/2 the ITER source) and can produce a plasma for up to 1 h. Negative ions can be extracted and accelerated by an ITER-like extraction system made of 3 grids with an area of 0.1 m2, for 10 s every 3 minutes. A total accelerating voltage of up to 60 kV is available, i.e. a maximum ion beam power of about 1.2 MW can be produced. ELISE is equipped with several beam diagnostic tools for the evaluation of the beam characteristics. In order to evaluate the beam properties with a high level of detail, a sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter has been installed in the test facility at the end of 2013, starting operation in January 2014. The diagnostic calorimeter is split into 4 copper plates with separate water calorimetry for each of the plates. Each calorimeter plate is made of 15×15 copper blocks, which act as many separate inertial calorimeters and are attached to a copper plate with an embedded cooling circuit. The block geometry and the connection with the cooling plate are optimized to accurately measure the time-averaged power of the 10 s ion beam. The surface of the blocks is covered with a black coating that allows infrared (IR) thermography which provides a 2D profile of the beam power density. In order to calibrate the IR thermography, 48 thermocouples are installed in as many blocks, arranged in two vertical and two horizontal rows. The paper describes the beam calorimetry in ELISE, including the methods used for the IR thermography, the water calorimetry and the analytical methods for beam profile evaluation. It is shown how the maximum beam inhomogeneity amounts to 13% in average. The beam divergence derived by IR thermography ranges between 1° and 4° and correlates

  6. cAMP analogs and their metabolites enhance TREK-1 mRNA and K+ current expression in adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, Judith A; Liu, Haiyan; Enyeart, John J

    2010-03-01

    bTREK-1 K(+) channels set the resting membrane potential of bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells and function pivotally in the physiology of cortisol secretion. Adrenocorticotropic hormone controls the function and expression of bTREK-1 channels through signaling mechanisms that may involve cAMP and downstream effectors including protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein 2 directly activated by cAMP (Epac2). Using patch-clamp and Northern blot analysis, we explored the regulation of bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current expression by cAMP analogs and several of their putative metabolites in bovine AZF cells. At concentrations sufficient to activate both PKA and Epac2, 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP enhanced the expression of both bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current. N(6)-Benzoyladenosine-cAMP, which activates PKA but not Epac, also enhanced the expression of bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current measured at times from 24 to 96 h. An Epac-selective cAMP analog, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP), potently stimulated bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current expression, whereas the nonhydrolyzable Epac activator 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP, Sp-isomer was ineffective. Metabolites of 8CPT-2'-OMe-cAMP, including 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-5'-O-monophosphate and 8CPT-2'-OMe-adenosine, promoted the expression of bTREK-1 transcripts and ion current with a temporal pattern, potency, and effectiveness resembling that of the parent compound. Likewise, at low concentrations, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8CPT-cAMP; 30 microM) but not its nonhydrolyzable analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP, Sp-isomer, enhanced the expression of bTREK-1 mRNA and current. 8CPT-cAMP metabolites, including 8CPT-adenosine and 8CPT-adenine, also increased bTREK-1 expression. These results indicate that cAMP increases the expression of bTREK-1 mRNA and K(+) current through a cAMP-dependent but Epac2-independent mechanism. They further demonstrate that one or more metabolites of 8

  7. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Junita D.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Frandsen, Rikke Petri

    2015-01-01

    Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i) aboard the fishing vessel; ii) at the Fishermen’s Collection Central, and iii) in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i) newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii) landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii) fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper codend of the

  8. Partitioning the contributions of mega-, macro- and meiofauna to benthic metabolism on the upper continental slope of New Zealand: Potential links with environmental factors and trawling intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Daniel; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Nodder, Scott D.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and predicting change in deep-sea benthic ecosystem function remains a major challenge. Here, we conducted analyses combining data on the abundance and biomass of benthic fauna and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) on New Zealand's continental margin to estimate and compare the contributions of meio-, macro-, and megafauna to total benthic metabolism and identify potential links with environmental factors and trawling intensity. We focussed on two regions in close proximity-the high surface primary productivity Chatham Rise and low surface productivity Challenger Plateau. Mean megafauna biomass was twenty times greater on Chatham Rise than Challenger Plateau, likely reflecting differences in food supply between the two regions; this contrast in megafaunal biomass was mainly due to differences in mean body weight rather than abundance. Meio- and macrofauna made similar contributions to SCOC and together accounted for 12% of benthic metabolism on average. In contrast, the estimated contribution of megafauna never exceeded 1.5%. Significant positive correlations between faunal respiration and food availability indicate a link between food supply and benthic community function. Our analyses also show that fauna made a greater contribution to SCOC in conditions of high food availability, and that microorganisms (i.e., the proportion of SCOC not accounted for by the fauna) tended to be more dominant at sites with low food availability. These findings provide support for the concept that large organisms are more strongly affected by a reduction in food resources than small organisms, which in turn underlies one of the most widely described patterns in the deep-sea benthos, i.e., the reduction in organism body size with depth. Because metabolism in deep-sea sediments is typically dominated by microorganisms and small fauna, the absence of a relationship between bottom trawling intensity and the respiration of benthic fauna in the present study may

  9. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Junita D; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Frandsen, Rikke Petri

    2015-01-01

    Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i) aboard the fishing vessel; ii) at the Fishermen's Collection Central, and iii) in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i) newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii) landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii) fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper codend of the

  10. Electron diffraction study of 1M illites with interstratified trans- and cis-vacant 2 : 1 layers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukhlistov, A. P. Vikent'ev, I. V.; Rusinova, O. V.

    2012-03-15

    Illites from the volcanogenic Zn-Au-Ag sulfide deposit Galkinskoe (Northern Urals) have been investigated using oblique-texture electron diffraction patterns in combination with the simulation of diffraction effects. Along with single-phase tv/cv1M illites, the structures of which are formed by statistically interstratified dioctahedral 2: 1 layers with vacant trans- or cis-octahedra, illites in the form of a mixture of two interstratified tv/cv1M phases, with the dominance of tv- or cv layers, are identified. It is shown that in the latter case the diffraction pattern can also be interpreted within the single-phase tv/cv model, provided that the tv- and cv layers are distributed with some tendency to segregate. The structural features indicating the preference of the two-phase model are analyzed.

  11. Evidence for a common scale O(0.1) m that controls seabed scattering and reverberation in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Holland, Charles W

    2012-10-01

    Analysis of the spectral content of long-range reverberation yields two observations. First, there is a remarkably similar scale, O(0.1) m, between three diverse continental shelf regions. This is surprising given the complexity and diversity of geologic processes. Second, there is strong evidence that the scale is associated with heterogeneities within the sediment. Thus, sediment volume scattering, not interface scattering, controls long-range reverberation from a few hundred hertz to several kilohertz. This is also unexpected given that at long ranges the vertical grazing angles are less than the critical angle, and hence the penetration of the acoustic field into the sub-bottom is expected to be modest. The consistency of the scale, O(0.1) m, suggests an underlying feature or mechanism that is consistent across many ostensibly diverse geological settings. Neither the feature nor mechanism is known at this time.

  12. ASH1 mRNP-core factors form stable complexes in absence of cargo RNA at physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Franziska T; Niedner, Annika; Niessing, Dierk

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric ASH1 mRNA transport during mitosis of budding yeast constitutes one of the best-studied examples of mRNA localization. Recently, 2 studies used in vitro motility assays to prove that motile ASH1 mRNA-transport complexes can be reconstituted entirely from recombinant factors. Both studies, however, differed in their conclusions on whether cargo RNA itself is required for particle assembly and thus activation of directional transport. Here we provide direct evidence that stable complexes do assemble in absence of RNA at physiologic conditions and even at ionic strengths above cellular levels. These results directly confirm the previous notion that the ASH1 transport machinery is not activated by the cargo RNA itself, but rather through protein-protein interactions.

  13. MiR-506 suppresses liver cancer angiogenesis through targeting sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) mRNA.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhanping; Zhang, Weiying; Gao, Shan; Jiang, Qiulei; Xiao, Zelin; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    MicroRNAs acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes play crucial roles in human cancers. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) and its metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to tumor angiogenesis. We have reported that the down-regulation of miR-506 targeting YAP mRNA results in the hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, we report a novel function of miR-506, which suppresses tumor angiogenesis through targeting SPHK1 mRNA in liver cancer. Bioinformatics analysis showed that miR-506 might target 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of SPHK1 mRNA. Then, we validated that by luciferase reporter gene assays. MiR-506 was able to reduce the expression of SPHK1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis in hepatoma HepG2 cells. Functionally, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation assays demonstrated that the forced miR-506 expression remarkably inhibited the production of S1P in the supernatant of hepatoma cells. The supernatant resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Interestingly, the supernatant with overexpression of SPHK1 could rescue the inhibition of angiogenesis of liver cancer mediated by miR-506. Anti-miR-506 increased the production of S1P in the supernatant of hepatoma cells, but the supernatant with silencing of SPHK1 abolished anti-miR-506-induced acceleration of tumor angiogenesis. Clinically, we observed that the levels of miR-506 were negatively related to those of SPHK1 mRNA in liver cancer tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-506 depresses the angiogenesis of liver cancer through targeting 3'UTR of SPHK1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of tumor angiogenesis.

  14. Development of M1 mAChR Allosteric and Bitopic Ligands: Prospective Therapeutics for the Treatment of Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the cholinergic hypothesis of memory dysfunction was first reported, extensive research efforts have focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which this intricate system contributes to the regulation of processes such as learning, memory, and higher executive function. Several cholinergic therapeutic targets for the treatment of cognitive deficits, psychotic symptoms, and the underlying pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia, have since emerged. Clinically approved drugs now exist for some of these targets; however, they all may be considered suboptimal therapeutics in that they produce undesirable off-target activity leading to side effects, fail to address the wide variety of symptoms and underlying pathophysiology that characterize these disorders, and/or afford little to no therapeutic effect in subsets of patient populations. A promising target for which there are presently no approved therapies is the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR). Despite avid investigation, development of agents that selectively activate this receptor via the orthosteric site has been hampered by the high sequence homology of the binding site between the five muscarinic receptor subtypes and the wide distribution of this receptor family in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. Hence, a plethora of ligands targeting less structurally conserved allosteric sites of the M1 mAChR have been investigated. This Review aims to explain the rationale behind allosterically targeting the M1 mAChR, comprehensively summarize and critically evaluate the M1 mAChR allosteric ligand literature to date, highlight the challenges inherent in allosteric ligand investigation that are impeding their clinical advancement, and discuss potential methods for resolving these issues. PMID:23659787

  15. Development of M1 mAChR allosteric and bitopic ligands: prospective therapeutics for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Davie, Briana J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Scammells, Peter J

    2013-07-17

    Since the cholinergic hypothesis of memory dysfunction was first reported, extensive research efforts have focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which this intricate system contributes to the regulation of processes such as learning, memory, and higher executive function. Several cholinergic therapeutic targets for the treatment of cognitive deficits, psychotic symptoms, and the underlying pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, have since emerged. Clinically approved drugs now exist for some of these targets; however, they all may be considered suboptimal therapeutics in that they produce undesirable off-target activity leading to side effects, fail to address the wide variety of symptoms and underlying pathophysiology that characterize these disorders, and/or afford little to no therapeutic effect in subsets of patient populations. A promising target for which there are presently no approved therapies is the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR). Despite avid investigation, development of agents that selectively activate this receptor via the orthosteric site has been hampered by the high sequence homology of the binding site between the five muscarinic receptor subtypes and the wide distribution of this receptor family in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. Hence, a plethora of ligands targeting less structurally conserved allosteric sites of the M1 mAChR have been investigated. This Review aims to explain the rationale behind allosterically targeting the M1 mAChR, comprehensively summarize and critically evaluate the M1 mAChR allosteric ligand literature to date, highlight the challenges inherent in allosteric ligand investigation that are impeding their clinical advancement, and discuss potential methods for resolving these issues.

  16. Electrochemical and Morphological Study of Steel in 1 M HCl in the Presence of Task Specific Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Sarabi, A. A.; Kowsari, E.; Eivaz Mohammadloo, H.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, corrosion inhibition influence of novel cationic surfactant (CS) with imidazole structure (1-methyl-3-octadecane imidazolium hydrogen sulfate) on low carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by implementing weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Increasing the amount of surfactant adequately leads to an increment of the inhibition efficiency of novel CS. According to the obtained results from EIS measurements, inhibition efficiency was about 34% in the presence of 1 ppm surfactant, increasing to about 96.8% at the 25 ppm (near critical micelle concentration) surfactant concentration. Also the effects of temperature and the synergistic effect between surfactant and NaHSO4 salt were studied. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase of NaHSO4 concentration and reached the maximum value near 0.1 M and experienced a plummet in the temperature range of 30-50 °C. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the surfactant acts as mixed-type inhibitors. Results obtained from weight loss, polarization, and impedance measurements are in proper agreement and confirmed the fact that this surfactant is an excellent inhibitor for low carbon steel in 1 M HCl environment. The surface morphology of inhibited and uninhibited metal samples was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM).

  17. Localising the auditory N1m with event-related beamformers: localisation accuracy following bilateral and unilateral stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascoyne, Lauren; Furlong, Paul L.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Worthen, Siân F.; Witton, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The auditory evoked N1m-P2m response complex presents a challenging case for MEG source-modelling, because symmetrical, phase-locked activity occurs in the hemispheres both contralateral and ipsilateral to stimulation. Beamformer methods, in particular, can be susceptible to localisation bias and spurious sources under these conditions. This study explored the accuracy and efficiency of event-related beamformer source models for auditory MEG data under typical experimental conditions: monaural and diotic stimulation; and whole-head beamformer analysis compared to a half-head analysis using only sensors from the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation. Event-related beamformer localisations were also compared with more traditional single-dipole models. At the group level, the event-related beamformer performed equally well as the single-dipole models in terms of accuracy for both the N1m and the P2m, and in terms of efficiency (number of successful source models) for the N1m. The results yielded by the half-head analysis did not differ significantly from those produced by the traditional whole-head analysis. Any localisation bias caused by the presence of correlated sources is minimal in the context of the inter-individual variability in source localisations. In conclusion, event-related beamformers provide a useful alternative to equivalent-current dipole models in localisation of auditory evoked responses.

  18. Activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotube based electrochemical capacitor in 1 M LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, M.A.; Jantan, N.H.; Dorah, N.; Seman, R.N.A.R.; Manaf, N.S.A.; Kudin, T.I.T.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon and single-walled CNT based electrochemical capacitor. • Electrochemical analysis by means of CV, charge/discharge and impedance. • 1 M LiPF{sub 6} non-aqueous solution as an electrolyte. • AC/SWCNT electrode exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes have been extensively studied because of their wide range of potential application such as in nanoscale electric circuits, textiles, transportation, health, and the environment. Carbon nanotubes feature extraordinary properties, such as electrical conductivities higher than those of copper, hardness and thermal conductivity higher than those of diamond, and strength surpassing that of steel, among others. This research focuses on the fabrication of an energy storage device, namely, an electrochemical capacitor, by using carbon materials, i.e., activated carbon and single-walled carbon nanotubes, of a specific weight ratio as electrode materials. The electrolyte functioning as an ion carrier is 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate. Variations in the electrochemical performance of the device, including its capacitance, charge/discharge characteristics, and impedance, are reported in this paper. The electrode proposed in this work exhibits a maximum capacitance of 60.97 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}.

  19. Localising the auditory N1m with event-related beamformers: localisation accuracy following bilateral and unilateral stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Lauren; Furlong, Paul L.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Worthen, Siân F.; Witton, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory evoked N1m-P2m response complex presents a challenging case for MEG source-modelling, because symmetrical, phase-locked activity occurs in the hemispheres both contralateral and ipsilateral to stimulation. Beamformer methods, in particular, can be susceptible to localisation bias and spurious sources under these conditions. This study explored the accuracy and efficiency of event-related beamformer source models for auditory MEG data under typical experimental conditions: monaural and diotic stimulation; and whole-head beamformer analysis compared to a half-head analysis using only sensors from the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation. Event-related beamformer localisations were also compared with more traditional single-dipole models. At the group level, the event-related beamformer performed equally well as the single-dipole models in terms of accuracy for both the N1m and the P2m, and in terms of efficiency (number of successful source models) for the N1m. The results yielded by the half-head analysis did not differ significantly from those produced by the traditional whole-head analysis. Any localisation bias caused by the presence of correlated sources is minimal in the context of the inter-individual variability in source localisations. In conclusion, event-related beamformers provide a useful alternative to equivalent-current dipole models in localisation of auditory evoked responses. PMID:27545435

  20. TAK1 mRNA expression in the tumor tissue of locally advanced head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Beatriz; Alcalde, Juan; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Zabalegui, Natalia; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús

    2008-02-14

    Resistance to radio and chemotherapy is one of the major drawbacks in the progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) patients, evidencing the importance of finding optimum molecular prognosis markers to develop personalized treatment schedules. TGF-beta effector TAK1 activity has been related to a greater aggressiveness in several types of cancer (Kondo et al. 1998; Edlund et al. 2003; Kaur et al. 2005) and, although there has been described no significant implication of TAK1 in HNSCC development, we have further examined the role of its mRNA expression as a marker of prognosis in HNSCC. Fifty-nine advanced HNSCC patients were recruited for the study. The tumor expression of TAK1 mRNA was analyzed with RT-PCR using Taqman technology and its relationship with the clinical outcome of the patients studied. TAK1 mRNA expression was lower in patients that relapsed than in those that did not, but the difference was only significant between the patients that showed response to treatment (p < 0.001). ROC curve analyses pointed a 0.5 expression ratio TAK1/B2M value as an optimum cut-off point for relapse and response. Our data suggest the TAK1 mRNA analysis by Taqman RT-PCR can predict the risk of relapse in HNSCC patients.

  1. TAK1 mRNA Expression in the Tumor Tissue of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Honorato, Beatriz; Alcalde, Juan; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Zabalegui, Natalia; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to radio and chemotherapy is one of the major drawbacks in the progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) patients, evidencing the importance of finding optimum molecular prognosis markers to develop personalized treatment schedules. TGF-β effector TAK1 activity has been related to a greater aggressiveness in several types of cancer (Kondo et al. 1998; Edlund et al. 2003; Kaur et al. 2005) and, although there has been described no significant implication of TAK1 in HNSCC development, we have further examined the role of its mRNA expression as a marker of prognosis in HNSCC. Fifty-nine advanced HNSCC patients were recruited for the study. The tumor expression of TAK1 mRNA was analyzed with RT-PCR using Taqman technology and its relationship with the clinical outcome of the patients studied. TAK1 mRNA expression was lower in patients that relapsed than in those that did not, but the difference was only significant between the patients that showed response to treatment (p < 0.001). ROC curve analyses pointed a 0.5 expression ratio TAK1/B2M value as an optimum cut-off point for relapse and response. Our data suggest the TAK1 mRNA analysis by Taqman RT-PCR can predict the risk of relapse in HNSCC patients. PMID:19787075

  2. Picosecond beam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Schutt, D.W.; Beck, G.O.

    1974-01-01

    The current in the beam of a particle accelerator is monitored with picosecond resolution by causing the beam to impinge upon the center conductor of a coaxial line, generating a pulse of electromagnetic energy in response thereto. This pulse is detected by means such as a sampling oscilloscope. (Official Gazette)

  3. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  4. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  5. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  6. Experiments with isomeric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfützner, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Rykaczewski, K.

    1997-02-01

    The results of the search for μs-isomers performed with 112Sn and 86Kr beams at 60 MeV/nucleon with the LISE3 spectrometer at GANIL are summarized. Planned extension of these studies to high energy fragmentation reactions with the FRS separator at GSI is described. Some perspectives for experiments with isomeric beams at GSI are mentioned.

  7. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  8. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  9. Vowels and Consonants in the Brain: Evidence from Magnetoencephalographic Studies on the N1m in Normal-Hearing Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Manca, Anna Dora; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex. Indeed, localization of auditory fields maps in animals and humans suggested two levels of sound coding, a tonotopy dimension for spectral properties and a tonochrony dimension for temporal properties of sounds. When the stimulus is a complex speech sound, tonotopy and tonochrony data may give important information to assess whether the speech sound parsing and decoding are generated by pure bottom-up reflection of acoustic differences or whether they are additionally affected by top-down processes related to phonological categories. Hints supporting pure bottom-up processing coexist with hints supporting top-down abstract phoneme representation. Actually, N1m data (amplitude, latency, source generators, and hemispheric distribution) are limited and do not help to disentangle the issue. The nature of these limitations is discussed. Moreover, neurophysiological studies on animals and neuroimaging studies on humans have been taken into consideration. We compare also the N1m findings with the investigation of the magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) component and with the analogous electrical components, the N1 and the MMN. We conclude that N1 seems more sensitive to capture lateralization and hierarchical processes than N1m, although the data are very preliminary. Finally, we suggest that MEG data should be integrated with EEG data in the

  10. Vowels and Consonants in the Brain: Evidence from Magnetoencephalographic Studies on the N1m in Normal-Hearing Listeners.

    PubMed

    Manca, Anna Dora; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex. Indeed, localization of auditory fields maps in animals and humans suggested two levels of sound coding, a tonotopy dimension for spectral properties and a tonochrony dimension for temporal properties of sounds. When the stimulus is a complex speech sound, tonotopy and tonochrony data may give important information to assess whether the speech sound parsing and decoding are generated by pure bottom-up reflection of acoustic differences or whether they are additionally affected by top-down processes related to phonological categories. Hints supporting pure bottom-up processing coexist with hints supporting top-down abstract phoneme representation. Actually, N1m data (amplitude, latency, source generators, and hemispheric distribution) are limited and do not help to disentangle the issue. The nature of these limitations is discussed. Moreover, neurophysiological studies on animals and neuroimaging studies on humans have been taken into consideration. We compare also the N1m findings with the investigation of the magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) component and with the analogous electrical components, the N1 and the MMN. We conclude that N1 seems more sensitive to capture lateralization and hierarchical processes than N1m, although the data are very preliminary. Finally, we suggest that MEG data should be integrated with EEG data in the

  11. Laser beam alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Kasner, William H.; Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.

    1984-01-01

    A plurality of pivotal reflectors direct a high-power laser beam onto a workpiece, and a rotatable reflector is movable to a position wherein it intercepts the beam and deflects a major portion thereof away from its normal path, the remainder of the beam passing to the pivotal reflectors through an aperture in the rotating reflector. A plurality of targets are movable to positions intercepting the path of light traveling to the pivotal reflectors, and a preliminary adjustment of the latter is made by use of a low-power laser beam reflected from the rotating reflector, after which the same targets are used to make a final adjustment of the pivotal reflectors with the portion of the high-power laser beam passed through the rotating reflector.

  12. Entangled vector vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.

  13. Multisegment coherent beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Tucker, Steve D.; Morgan, R.; Smith, Tony G.; Warren, Mial E.; Gruetzner, James K.; Rosenthal, R. R.; Bentley, A. E.

    1995-08-01

    Scaling laser systems to large sizes for power beaming and other applications can sometimes be simplified by combining a number of smaller lasers. However, to fully utilize this scaling, coherent beam combination is necessary. This requires measuring and controlling each beam's pointing and phase relative to adjacent beams using an adaptive optical system. We have built a sub-scale brass-board to evaluate various methods for beam-combining. It includes a segmented adaptive optic and several different specialized wavefront sensors that are fabricated using diffractive optics methods. We have evaluated a number of different phasing algorithms, including hierarchical and matrix methods, and have demonstrated phasing of several elements. The system is currently extended to a large number of segments to evaluate various scaling methodologies.

  14. Beam director design report

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  15. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  16. Demography of a deep-sea lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) caught in trawl fisheries of the northeastern Atlantic: Application of Leslie matrices with incorporated uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Rui; Alpizar-Jara, Russell; Erzini, Karim

    2015-05-01

    The deep-sea lantern shark Etmopterus spinax occurs in the northeast Atlantic on or near the bottoms of the outer continental shelves and slopes, and is regularly captured as bycatch in deep-water commercial fisheries. Given the lack of knowledge on the impacts of fisheries on this species, a demographic analysis using age-based Leslie matrices was carried out. Given the uncertainties in the mortality estimates and in the available life history parameters, several different scenarios, some incorporating stochasticity in the life history parameters (using Monte Carlo simulation), were analyzed. If only natural mortality were considered, even after introducing uncertainties in all parameters, the estimated population growth rate (λ) suggested an increasing population. However, if fishing mortality from trawl fisheries is considered, the estimates of λ either indicated increasing or declining populations. In these latter cases, the uncertainties in the species reproductive cycle seemed to be particularly relevant, as a 2-year reproductive cycle indicated a stable population, while a longer (3-year cycle) indicated a declining population. The estimated matrix elasticities were in general higher for the survivorship parameters of the younger age classes and tended to decrease for the older ages. This highlights the susceptibility of this deep-sea squaloid to increasing fishing mortality, emphasizing that even though this is a small-sized species, it shows population dynamics patterns more typical of the larger-sized and in general more vulnerable species.

  17. Diffraction of a Laser Beam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodoin, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effect of the nonuniform irradiance across a laser beam on diffraction of the beam, specifically the Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam with a Gaussian irradiance profile as it passes through a circular aperture. (GA)

  18. Stability of cooled beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosser, J.; Carli, C.; Chanel, M.; Madsen, N.; Maury, S.; Möhl, D.; Tranquille, G.

    2000-02-01

    Because of their high density together with extremely small spreads in betatron frequency and momentum, cooled beams are very vulnerable to incoherent and coherent space-charge effects and instabilities. Moreover, the cooling system itself, i.e. the electron beam in the case of e-cooling, presents large linear and non-linear "impedances" to the circulating ion beam, in addition to the usual beam-environment coupling impedances of the storage ring. Beam blow-up and losses, attributed to such effects, have been observed in virtually all the existing electron cooling rings. The adverse effects seem to be more pronounced in those rings, like CELSIUS, that are equipped with a cooler capable of reaching the presently highest energy (100-300 keV electrons corresponding to 180-560 MeV protons). The stability conditions will be revisited with emphasis on the experience gained at LEAR. It will be argued that for all present coolers, three conditions are necessary (although probably not sufficient) for the stability of intense cold beams: (i) operation below transition energy, (ii) active damping to counteract coherent instability, and (iii) careful control of the e-beam neutralisation. An extrapolation to the future "medium energy coolers", planned to work for (anti)protons of several GeV, will also be attempted.

  19. CRYSTALLINE BEAMS AT HIGH ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; OKAMOTO, H.; YURI, Y.; SESSLER, A.; MACHIDA, S.

    2006-06-23

    Previously it was shown that by crystallizing each of the two counter-circulating beams, a much larger beam-beam tune shift can be tolerated during the beam-beam collisions; thus a higher luminosity can be reached for colliding beams [1]. On the other hand, crystalline beams can only be formed at energies below the transition energy ({gamma}{sub T}) of the accelerators [2]. In this paper, we investigate the formation of crystals in a high-{gamma}{sub T} lattice that also satisfies the maintenance condition for a crystalline beam [3].

  20. Selenium requirements are higher for glutathione peroxidase-1 mRNA than gpx1 activity in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Schriever, Sonja C; Barnes, Kimberly M; Evenson, Jacqueline K; Raines, Anna M; Sunde, Roger A

    2009-05-01

    Selenium (Se) plays a critical role in testis, sperm, and reproduction, and testis Se levels are remarkably maintained in Se deficiency. In most other tissues, Se levels decrease dramatically as do levels of most selenoproteins and levels of a subset of Se-regulated selenoprotein mRNAs. Because of the recent identification of key molecules in the targeted trafficking of Se to the testis, we examined the hierarchy of Se regulation in testis by determining the dietary Se regulation of the full testis selenoproteome in rats fed graded levels of Se (0 to 0.8 microg Se/g) as Na2SeO3 for 28 d. Se status did not significantly affect testis weight or glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) activity (P>0.05). qRT-PCR analysis of selenoprotein mRNA expression revealed that 21 of the 24 selenoprotein mRNAs and ApoER2 mRNA (the selenoprotein P [Sepp1] receptor) were also not regulated significantly by dietary Se status. In contrast, Gpx1 activity decreased to 28% of Se-adequate levels, and mRNA levels for Gpx1, Sepp1, and Sepw1 (selenoprotein W) decreased significantly in Se-deficient rats to 45, 46, and 55%, respectively, of Se-adequate plateau levels. Overlap of hyperbolic Gpx4 activity and Sepw1 mRNA response curves with testis Se concentration, all with minimum dietary Se requirements<0.016 microg Se/g, showed the priority for synthesis of Gpx4. Higher minimum dietary Se requirements of 0.04 microg Se/g for Gpx1 activity and Sepp1 mRNA, and the even higher minimum dietary Se requirement of 0.08 microg Se/g for Gpx1 mRNA, suggest that the hierarchy of these biomarkers reflects distinct, lower priority pools, cell types, and roles for Se within the testis.

  1. Neurodevelopmental Expression Profile of Dimeric and Monomeric Group 1 mGluRs: Relevance to Schizophrenia Pathogenesis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jeremy S.; Fernandez, Francesca; Matosin, Natalie; Andrews, Jessica L.; Huang, Xu-Feng; Ooi, Lezanne; Newell, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/mGluR5) play an integral role in neurodevelopment and are implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. mGluR1 and mGluR5 are expressed as homodimers, which is important for their functionality and pharmacology. We examined the protein expression of dimeric and monomeric mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus throughout development (juvenile/adolescence/adulthood) and in the perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. Under control conditions, mGluR1α dimer expression increased between juvenile and adolescence (209–328%), while monomeric levels remained consistent. Dimeric mGluR5 was steadily expressed across all time points; monomeric mGluR5 was present in juveniles, dramatically declining at adolescence and adulthood (−97–99%). The mGluR regulators, Homer 1b/c and Norbin, significantly increased with age in the PFC and hippocampus. Perinatal PCP treatment significantly increased juvenile dimeric mGluR5 levels in the PFC and hippocampus (37–50%) but decreased hippocampal mGluR1α (−50–56%). Perinatal PCP treatment also reduced mGluR1α dimer levels in the PFC at adulthood (−31%). These results suggest that Group 1 mGluRs have distinct dimeric and monomeric neurodevelopmental patterns, which may impact their pharmacological profiles at specific ages. Perinatal PCP treatment disrupted the early expression of Group 1 mGluRs which may underlie neurodevelopmental alterations observed in this model. PMID:27721389

  2. Enhancing effect of taurine on CYP7A1 mRNA expression in Hep G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, N V; Chen, W; Suruga, K; Nishimura, N; Goda, T; Yokogoshi, H

    2006-02-01

    Taurine has been reported to enhance cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA expression in animal models. However, no in vitro studies of this effect have been reported. The Hep G2 human hepatoma cell line has been recognized as a good model for studying the regulation of human CYP7A1. This work characterizes the effects of taurine on CYP7A1 mRNA levels of Hep G2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the dose-dependent experiment, Hep G2 cells were treated with 0, 2, 10 or 20 mM taurine in the presence or absence of cholesterol 0.2 mM for 48 h. In the time-dependent experiment, Hep G2 cells were treated with 0 or 20 mM taurine for 4, 24 and 48 h with and without cholesterol 0.2 mM. Our data revealed that taurine showed time- and dose-response effects on CYP7A1 mRNA levels in Hep G2 cells. However, glycine - a structural analogue of taurine - did not have an effect on CYP7A1 gene expression. These results show that, in agreement to previous studies on animal models, taurine induces the mRNA levels of CYP7A1 in Hep G2 cells, which could enhance cholesterol conversion into bile acids. Also, Hep G2 cell line may be an appropriate model to study the effects of taurine on human cholesterol metabolism.

  3. Anxiolytic activity of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2: behavioral analysis using rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sedláčková, Natália; Ponechalová, Veronika; Ujházy, Eduard; Dubovický, Michal; Mach, Mojmír

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have become very significant affections in the last decades. According to WHO at least one mental disease occurred per year in 27% of EU inhabitants (more than 82 mil. people). It is estimated that by 2020, depression will be the main cause of morbidity in the developed countries. These circumstances call for research for new prospective drugs with anxiolytic and antidepressive properties exhibiting no toxicity and withdrawal effect and possessing beneficial properties, like antioxidant and/or neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to obtain information about psychopharmacological properties of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2, using non-invasive behavioral methods in rats. The battery of ethological tests (open field, elevated plus-maze, light/dark box exploration, forced swim test) was used to obtain information about anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of the pyridoindole derivatives. The substances were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the tests at doses of 1, 10 and 25 mg/kg. In the behavioral tests, SMe1EC2 was found to exert anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze with no affection of locomotor activity. The highest dose of SMe1M2 increased the time spent in the lit part of the Light/Dark box, however this result was influenced by inhibition of motor activity of the rats. Similar findings were observed also in elevated plus-maze, although these results were not statistically significant. In conclusion, from the results of our study it is evident that both pyridoindoles acted on the CNS. In the highest dose, SMe1M2 was found to possess rather sedative than anxiolytic or antidepressant activity. PMID:22319256

  4. Beam distributions beyond RMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, F.-J.

    1995-05-01

    The beam is often represented only by its position (mean) and the width (rms=root mean squared) of its distribution. To achieve these beam parameters in a noisy condition with high backgrounds, a Gaussian distribution with offset (4 parameters) is fitted to the measured beam distribution. This gives a very robust answer and is not very sensitive to background subtraction techniques. To get higher moments of the distribution, like skew or kurtosis, a fitting function with one or two more parameters is desired which would model the higher moments. In this paper we will concentrate on an Asymmetric Gaussian and a Super Gaussian function that will give something like the skew and the kurtosis of the distribution. This information is used to quantify special beam distribution. Some are unwanted like beam tails (skew) from transverse wakefields, higher order dispersive aberrations or potential well distortion in a damping ring. A negative kurtosis of a beam distribution describes a more rectangular, compact shape like with an over-compressed beam in z or a closed to double-horned energy distribution, while a positive kurtosis looks more like a ``Christmas tree'' and can quantify a beam mismatch after filamentation. Besides the advantages of the quantification, there are some distributions which need a further investigation like long flat tails which create background particles in a detector. In particle simulations on the other hand a simple rms number might grossly overestimate the effective size (e.g. for producing luminosity) due to a few particles which are far away from the core. This can reduce the practical gain of a big theoretical improvement in the beam size.

  5. Beam distributions beyond RMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, F. J.

    1994-09-01

    The beam is often represented only by its position (mean) and the width (rms = root mean squared) of its distribution. To achieve these beam parameters in a noisy condition with high backgrounds, a Gaussian distribution with offset (4 parameters) is fitted to the measured beam distribution. This gives a very robust answer and is not very sensitive to background subtraction techniques. To get higher moments of the distribution, like skew or kurtosis, a fitting function with one or two more parameters is desired which would model the higher moments. In this paper we will concentrate on an Asymmetric Gaussian and a Super Gaussian function that will give something like the skew and the kurtosis of the distribution. This information is used to quantify special beam distribution. Some are unwanted like beam tails (skew) from transverse wakefields, higher order dispersive aberrations or potential well distortion in a damping ring. A negative kurtosis of a beam distribution describes a more rectangular, compact shape like with an over-compressed beam in z or a closed to double-homed energy distribution, while a positive kurtosis looks more like a 'Christmas tree' and can quantify a beam mismatch after filamentation. Besides the advantages of the quantification, there are some distributions which need a further investigation like long flat tails which create background particles in a detector. In particle simulations on the other hand a simple rms number might grossly overestimate the effective size (e.g. for producing luminosity) due to a few particles which are far away from the core. This can reduce the practical gain of a big theoretical improvement in the beam size.

  6. Beam distributions beyond RMS

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.J.

    1994-09-01

    The beam is often represented only by its position (mean) and the width (rms = root mean squared) of its distribution. To achieve these beam parameters in a noisy condition with high backgrounds, a Gaussian distribution with offset (4 parmeters) is fitted to the measured beam distribution. This gives a very robust answer and is not very sensitive to background subtraction techniques. To get higher moments of the distribution, like skew or kurtosis, a fitting function with one or two more parameters is desired which would model the higher moments. In this paper we will concentrate on an Asymmetric Gaussian and a Super Gaussian function that will give something like the skew and the kurtosis of the distribution. This information is used to quantify special beam distribution. Some are unwanted like beam tails (skew) from transverse wakefields, higher order dispersive aberrations or potential well distortion in a damping ring. A negative kurtosis of a beam distribution describes a more rectangular, compact shape like with an over-compressed beam in z or a closed to double-homed energy distribution, while a positive kurtosis looks more like a ``Christmas tree`` and can quantify a beam mismatch after filamentation. Besides the advantages of the quantification, there are some distributions which need a further investigation like long flat tails which create background particles in a detector. In particle simulations on the other hand a simple rms number might grossly overestimate the effective size (e.g. for producing luminosity) due to a few particles which are far away from the core. This can reduce the practical gain of a big theoretical improvement in the beam size.

  7. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  8. Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Dragin, Nadine; Miller, Marian L; Dalton, Timothy P; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nebert, Daniel W

    2008-02-15

    The CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 enzymes are inducible by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); metabolism of BaP by these enzymes leads to electrophilic intermediates and genotoxicity. Throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, we systematically compared basal and inducible levels of the CYP1 mRNAs by Q-PCR, and localized the CYP1 proteins by immunohistochemistry. Cyp1(+/+) wild-type were compared with the Cyp1a1(-/-), Cyp1a2(-/-), and Cyp1b1(-/-) single-knockout and Cyp1a1/1b1(-/-) and Cyp1a2/1b1(-/-) double-knockout mice. Oral BaP was compared with intraperitoneal TCDD. In general, maximal CYP1A1 mRNA levels were 3-10 times greater than CYP1B1, which were 3-10 times greater than CYP1A2 mRNA levels. Highest inducible concentrations of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 occurred in proximal small intestine, whereas the highest basal and inducible levels of CYP1B1 mRNA occurred in esophagus, forestomach, and glandular stomach. Ablation of either Cyp1a2 or Cyp1b1 gene resulted in a compensatory increase in CYP1A1 mRNA - but only in small intestine. Also in small intestine, although BaP- and TCDD-mediated CYP1A1 inductions were roughly equivalent, oral BaP-mediated CYP1A2 mRNA induction was approximately 40-fold greater than TCDD-mediated CYP1A2 induction. CYP1B1 induction by TCDD in Cyp1(+/+) and Cyp1a2(-/-) mice was 4-5 times higher than that by BaP; however, in Cyp1a1(-/-) animals CYP1B1 induction by TCDD or BaP was approximately equivalent. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins were generally localized nearer to the lumen than CYP1B1 proteins, in both squamous and glandular epithelial cells. These GI tract data suggest that the inducible CYP1A1 enzyme, both in concentration and in location, might act as a "shield" in detoxifying oral BaP and, hence, protecting the animal.

  9. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, I. I.; Balega, Y. Y.; Maksimov, A. F.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Shkhagosheva, Z. U.; Vasyuk, V. A.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary stars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m Big Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89 observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on the smaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. The measured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTA diffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

  11. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  12. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  13. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  14. Beam Purification by Photodetachment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Beene, James R; Havener, Charles C; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Andersson, P.; Lindahl, A. O.; Hanstorp, D.; Forstner, Dr. Oliver; Gottwald, T.; Wendt, K.

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam purity is of crucial importance to many basic and applied studies. Selective photodetachment has been proposed to suppress unwanted species in negative ion beams while preserving the intensity of the species of interest. A highly efficient technique based on photodetachment in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole ion cooler has been demonstrated. In off-line experiments with stable ions, up to 104 times suppression of the isobar contaminants in a number of interesting radioactive negative ion beams has been demonstrated. For selected species, this technique promises experimental possibilities in studies on exotic nuclei, accelerator mass spectrometry, and fundamental properties of negative atomic and molecular ions.

  15. Ion beam thruster shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion thruster beam shield is provided that comprises a cylindrical housing that extends downstream from the ion thruster and a plurality of annular vanes which are spaced along the length of the housing, and extend inwardly from the interior wall of the housing. The shield intercepts and stops all charge exchange and beam ions, neutral propellant, and sputter products formed due to the interaction of beam and shield emanating from the ion thruster outside of a fixed conical angle from the thruster axis. Further, the shield prevents the sputter products formed during the operation of the engine from escaping the interior volume of the shield.

  16. Observation of weakly and strongly diverging ion beams in a magnetically expanding plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Fujiwara, T.

    2009-02-09

    The spatial distribution of an ion beam created in a magnetically expanding plasma using permanent magnets is experimentally investigated for 0.35 and 1 mTorr, where the magnetic-field strength is about 100 G in the plasma source and is decreasing into a few gauss in the diffusion chamber. The beam profile for 0.35 mTorr is weakly divergent. On the other hand, the strongly diverging beam is detected for 1 mTorr. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of the plasma-potential structures and imply the beam divergence caused by the radial electric fields in the ion acceleration region and the diffusion chamber.

  17. Caution -- Beam Crossing Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, Kenneth L.

    2008-04-02

    There are times when a laser beam needs to cross between tables or even go from one room to another. This presents an interesting traffic-flow and safety challenge to both the laser safety officer and laser user. Fortunately it is a challenge that has several solutions But the simplest solution may not be the best one. For example, the simplest way to get a beam from one optical table to another is just to put a sturdy tube around it. That's a permanent solution, and it completely contains the laser beam. While this is laser safe, there can be egress issues if it blocks a walkway. One comment this author often hears is, 'We can just duck under the tube.' The fire marshal, as well as the laser safety officer, might have issues with this. Especially in the case of a darkened lab, a blocked walkway can present a hazard of its own. One good solution is to transport the beam from Point A to Point B through a fiberoptic cable, when that is possible. One should easily be able to run the fiber up and over any walkway or down through a conduit on the floor. An important concern often overlooked with fibers is a label at the termination end indicating disconnection may expose one to laser radiation. Suppose there's an experiment that is usually confined to a single optical table, but sometimes needs to expand to a second table. It's inconvenient to install a permanent tube between the tables, so some sort of temporary arrangement is desirable. I have often seen people casually lay a beam tube across support arms, and remove it when it's not needed. The problem with this approach is that there's no mechanism to prevent the beam from crossing if somebody's forgotten the tube, or if the tube gets knocked out of place. A better solution is a mechanism that only allows the beam to cross when the beam protection is in place. A swing shutter, or a guillotine and swing arm, are examples (Figures 1 and 2). Another alternative is a sensor, maybe a little microswitch, that activates a

  18. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    SciTech Connect

    D. BARR; ET AL

    2000-05-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  19. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  20. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  1. LDOC1 mRNA is differentially expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and predicts overall survival in untreated patients

    PubMed Central

    Duzkale, Hatice; Schweighofer, Carmen D.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Barron, Lynn L.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William G.; Pfeifer, John; Majewski, Tadeusz; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Freireich, Emil J; Keating, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified LDOC1 as one of the most significantly differentially expressed genes in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with respect to the somatic mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes. However, little is known about the normal function of LDOC1, its contribution to the pathophysiology of CLL, or its prognostic significance. In this study, we have investigated LDOC1 mRNA expression in a large cohort of untreated CLL patients, as well as in normal peripheral blood B-cell (NBC) subsets and primary B-cell lymphoma samples. We have confirmed that LDOC1 is dramatically down-regulated in mutated CLL cases compared with unmutated cases, and have identified a new splice variant, LDOC1S. We show that LDOC1 is expressed in NBC subsets (naive > memory), suggesting that it may play a role in normal B-cell development. It is also expressed in primary B-cell lymphoma samples, in which its expression is associated with somatic mutation status. In CLL, we show that high levels of LDOC1 correlate with biomarkers of poor prognosis, including cytogenetic markers, unmutated somatic mutation status, and ZAP70 expression. Finally, we demonstrate that LDOC1 mRNA expression is an excellent predictor of overall survival in untreated CLL patients. PMID:21310924

  2. Microscopic description of fission in nobelium isotopes with the Gogny-D1M energy density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Constrained mean-field calculations, based on the Gogny-D1M energy density functional, have been carried out to describe fission in the isotopes 250-260No . The even-even isotopes have been considered within the standard Hartree-Fock-Bogoliobov (HFB) framework while for the odd-mass ones the Equal Filling Approximation (HFB-EFA) has been employed. Ground state quantum numbers and deformations, pairing energies, one-neutron separation energies, inner and outer barrier heights as well as fission isomer excitation energies are given. Fission paths, collective masses and zero-point quantum vibrational and rotational corrections are used to compute the systematic of the spontaneous fission half-lives t_SF both for even-even and odd-mass nuclei. Though there exists a strong variance of the predicted fission rates with respect to the details involved in their computation, it is shown that both the specialization energy and the pairing quenching effects, taken into account within the self-consistent HFB-EFA blocking procedure, lead to larger t_SF values in odd-mass nuclei as compared with their even-even neighbors. Alpha decay lifetimes have also been computed using a parametrization of the Viola-Seaborg formula. The high quality of the Gogny-D1M functional regarding nuclear masses leads to a very good reproduction of Q_{α} values and consequently of lifetimes.

  3. Tocotrienol Attenuates Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions via Activation of Prostaglandin and Upregulation of COX-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Kamisah, Yusof; Chua, Kien Hui; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to distinguish the effect of tocotrienol on an important gastric protective factor, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in stress-induced gastric injury. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups of seven rats each. Two control groups were fed commercial rat diet, and two treatment groups were fed the same diet but with additional dose of omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg). After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to water-immersion restraint stress for 3.5 hours once. The rats were then sacrificed, their stomach isolated and gastric juice collected, lesions examined, and gastric PGE2 content and cyclooxygenase (COX) mRNA expression were determined. Both the regimes significantly attenuated the total lesion area in the stomach compared to the control. Gastric acidity, which was increased in stress, was significantly reduced in rats supplemented with omeprazole and tocotrienol. The PGE2 content was also significantly higher in the rats given tocotrienol supplementation compared to the control followed by an increase in COX-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that tocotrienol supplementation protected rat gastric mucosa against stress-induced lesions possibly by reducing gastric acidity and preserving gastric PGE2 by increasing COX-1 mRNA. PMID:23970937

  4. The fail-safe mechanism of post-transcriptional silencing of unspliced HAC1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Rachael; Aboulhouda, Soufiane; Weinberg, David E

    2016-01-01

    HAC1 encodes a transcription factor that is the central effector of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in budding yeast. When the UPR is inactive, HAC1 mRNA is stored as an unspliced isoform in the cytoplasm and no Hac1 protein is detectable. Intron removal is both necessary and sufficient to relieve the post-transcriptional silencing of HAC1 mRNA, yet the precise mechanism by which the intron prevents Hac1 protein accumulation has remained elusive. Here, we show that a combination of inhibited translation initiation and accelerated protein degradation—both dependent on the intron—prevents the accumulation of Hac1 protein when the UPR is inactive. Functionally, both components of this fail-safe silencing mechanism are required to prevent ectopic production of Hac1 protein and concomitant activation of the UPR. Our results provide a mechanistic understanding of HAC1 regulation and reveal a novel strategy for complete post-transcriptional silencing of a cytoplasmic mRNA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20069.001 PMID:27692069

  5. B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2}: Factorization, charming penguins, strong phases, and polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Christian W.; Pirjol, Dan; Stewart, Iain W.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2004-09-01

    Using the soft-collinear effective theory we derive the factorization theorem for the decays B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2} with M{sub 1,2}={pi},K,{rho},K*, at leading order in {lambda}/E{sub M} and {lambda}/m{sub b}. The results derived here apply even if {alpha}{sub s}(E{sub M}{lambda}) is not perturbative, and we prove that the physics sensitive to the E{lambda} scale is the same in B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2} and B{yields}M form factors. We argue that cc penguins could give long-distance effects at leading order. Decays to two transversely polarized vector mesons are discussed. Analyzing B{yields}{pi}{pi} we find predictions for B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and vertical bar V{sub ub} vertical bar f{sub +}{sup B0}{yields}{pi}(0) as a function of {gamma}.

  6. The structure of the Myo4p globular tail and its function in ASH1 mRNA localization.

    PubMed

    Heuck, Alexander; Fetka, Ingrid; Brewer, Daniel N; Hüls, Daniela; Munson, Mary; Jansen, Ralf-Peter; Niessing, Dierk

    2010-05-03

    Type V myosin (MyoV)-dependent transport of cargo is an essential process in eukaryotes. Studies on yeast and vertebrate MyoV showed that their globular tails mediate binding to the cargo complexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MyoV motor Myo4p interacts with She3p to localize asymmetric synthesis of HO 1 (ASH1) mRNA into the bud of dividing cells. A recent study showed that localization of GFP-MS2-tethered ASH1 particles does not require the Myo4p globular tail, challenging the supposed role of this domain. We assessed ASH1 mRNA and Myo4p distribution more directly and found that their localization is impaired in cells expressing globular tail-lacking Myo4p. In vitro studies further show that the globular tail together with a more N-terminal linker region is required for efficient She3p binding. We also determined the x-ray structure of the Myo4p globular tail and identify a conserved surface patch important for She3p binding. The structure shows pronounced similarities to membrane-tethering complexes and indicates that Myo4p may not undergo auto-inhibition of its motor domain.

  7. A Novel Role for Protein Kinase Kin2 in Regulating HAC1 mRNA Translocation, Splicing, and Translation

    PubMed Central

    Anshu, Ashish; Mannan, M. Amin-ul; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Saikat

    2014-01-01

    A signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR) resolves the protein-folding defects in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from yeasts to humans. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the UPR activation involves (i) aggregation of the ER-resident kinase/RNase Ire1 to form an Ire1 focus, (ii) targeting HAC1 pre-mRNA toward the Ire1 focus that cleaves out an inhibitory intron from the mRNA, and (iii) translation of Hac1 protein from the spliced mRNA. Targeting HAC1 mRNA to the Ire1 focus requires a cis-acting bipartite element (3′BE) located at the 3′ untranslated leader. Here, we report that the 3′BE plays an additional role in promoting translation from the spliced mRNA. We also report that a high dose of either of two paralogue kinases, Kin1 and Kin2, overcomes the defective UPR caused by a mutation in the 3′BE. These results define a novel role for Kin kinases in the UPR beyond their role in cell polarity and exocytosis. Consistently, targeting, splicing, and translation of HAC1 mRNA are substantially reduced in the kin1Δ kin2Δ strain. Furthermore, we show that Kin2 kinase domain itself is sufficient to activate the UPR, suggesting that Kin2 initiates a signaling cascade to ensure an optimum UPR. PMID:25348718

  8. Tangent map analysis of the beam-beam interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Tepikian, S.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the tangent map of the beam-beam interaction and found no evidence of beam-beam instability for /epsilon/ = 0.04. Tracking study with tune modulation shows however large emittance growth due to the sum resonances. The emittance growth is due to the multiple crossing of the sum resonances. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Beam-beam tuneshift during the TEVATRON squeeze

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.

    1988-11-01

    We calculate the beam-beam tuneshift during the squeeze of the beam in the Tevatron from injection to mini-beta. We find that for the beam emittances typically used, there is little variation of the tuneshift, in either plane, during the squeeze. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Beam-foil spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Hass, M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief survey of some applications of beam-foil spectroscopy is presented. Among the topics covered are lifetime and magnetic moment measurements, nuclear alignment, and polarized light production. (AIP)

  11. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  12. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  13. Ion beam texturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture is created by sputter etching a surface while simultaneously sputter depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion beam source has been used to perform this texturing process on samples as large as three centimeters in diameter. Ion beam textured surface structures have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, Stainless steel, Au, and Ag. Surfaces have been textured using a variety of low sputter yield materials - Ta, Mo, Nb, and Ti. The initial stages of the texture creation have been documented, and the technique of ion beam sputter removal of any remaining deposited material has been studied. A number of other texturing parameters have been studied such as the variation of the texture with ion beam power, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  14. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  15. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  16. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  17. Test beams and polarized fixed target beams at the NLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Lewis; Pitthan, Rainer; Rokni, Sayed; Thompson, Kathleen; Kolomensky, Yury

    2001-07-01

    A conceptual program to use NLC beams for test beams and fixed target physics is described. Primary undisrupted polarized beams would be the most simple to use, but for NLC, the disrupted beams are of good enough quality that they could also be used, after collimation of the low energy tails, for test beams and fixed target physics. Pertinent issues are: what is the compelling physics, what are the requirements on beams and running time, and what is the impact on colliding beam physics running. A list of physics topics is given; one topic (Mo/ller Scattering) is treated in more depth.

  18. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaupa, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2016-11-01

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  19. Beam/seam alignment control for electron beam welding

    DOEpatents

    Burkhardt, Jr., James H.; Henry, J. James; Davenport, Clyde M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a dynamic beam/seam alignment control system for electron beam welds utilizing video apparatus. The system includes automatic control of workpiece illumination, near infrared illumination of the workpiece to limit the range of illumination and camera sensitivity adjustment, curve fitting of seam position data to obtain an accurate measure of beam/seam alignment, and automatic beam detection and calculation of the threshold beam level from the peak beam level of the preceding video line to locate the beam or seam edges.

  20. Test Beams and Polarized Fixed Target Beams at the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Pitthan, Rainer

    2001-01-17

    A conceptual program to use NLC beams for test beams and fixed target physics is described. Primary undisrupted polarized beams would be the most simple to use, but for NLC, the disrupted beams are of good enough quality that they could also be used, after collimation of the low energy tails, for test beams and fixed target physics. Pertinent issues are: what is the compelling physics, what are the requirements on beams and running time, and what is the impact on colliding beam physics running. A list of physics topics is given; one topic (Moeller Scattering) is treated in more depth.

  1. Batten augmented triangular beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.

  2. Intense ion beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, Jr., Stanley; Sudan, Ravindra N.

    1977-08-30

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation.

  3. High intensity neutrino beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, A. K.

    2015-07-15

    High-intensity proton accelerator complex enabled long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with a precisely controlled neutrino beam. The beam power so far achieved is a few hundred kW with enourmorous efforts of accelerator physicists and engineers. However, to fully understand the lepton mixing structure, MW-class accelerators are desired. We describe the current intensity-frontier high-energy proton accelerators, their plans to go beyond and technical challenges in the neutrino beamline facilities.

  4. Betatrons with kiloampere beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Although the magnetic-induction method of acceleration used in the betatron is inherently capable of accelerating intense particle beams to high energy, many beam-instability questions arise when beams in the kilo-ampere range are considered. The intense electromagnetic fields produced by the beam, and by the image currents and charges induced in the surrounding walls, can produce very disruptive effects. Several unstable modes of collective oscillation are possible; the suppression of any one of them usually involves energy spread for Landau damping and careful design of the electrical character of the vacuum chamber. The various design criteria are often mutually incompatible. Space-charge detuning can be severe unless large beam apertures and high-energy injection are used. In order to have an acceptably low degree of space-charge detuning in the acceleration of a 10-kilo-ampere electron beam, for example, an injection energy on the order of 50 MeV seems necessary, in which case the forces due to nearby wall images can have a larger effect than the internal forces of the beam. A method of image compensation was invented for reducing the net image forces; it serves also to decrease the longitudinal beam impedance and thus helps alleviate the longitudinal instability as well. In order to avoid the ion-electron collective instability a vacuum in the range of 10/sup -8/ torr is required for an acceleration time of 1 millisecond. A multi-ring betatron system using the 50-MeV Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL as an injector was conceptually designed.

  5. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  6. Neutron beam imaging with GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, G.; Croci, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Cavenago, M.; Claps, G.; Muraro, A.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-04-01

    Neutron GEM-based detectors represent a new frontier of devices in neutron physics applications where a very high neutron flux must be measured such as future fusion experiments (e.g. ITER Neutral beam Injector) and spallation sources (e.g. the European Spallation source). This kind of detectors can be properly adapted to be used both as beam monitors but also as neutron diffraction detectors that could represent a valid alternative for the 3He detectors replacement. Fast neutron GEM detectors (nGEM) feature a cathode composed by one layer of polyethylene and one of aluminium (neutron scattering on hydrogen generates protons that are detected in the gas) while thermal neutron GEM detectors (bGEM) are equipped with a borated aluminium cathode (charged particles are generated through the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction). GEM detectors can be realized in large area (1 m2) and their readout can be pixelated. Three different prototypes of nGEM and one prototype of bGEM detectors of different areas and equipped with different types of readout have been built and tested. All the detectors have been used to measure the fast and thermal neutron 2D beam image at the ISIS-VESUVIO beamline. The different kinds of readout patterns (different areas of the pixels) have been compared in similar conditions. All the detectors measured a width of the beam profile consitent with the expected one. The imaging property of each detector was then tested by inserting samples of different material and shape in the beam. All the samples were correctly reconstructed and the definition of the reconstruction depends on the type of readout anode. The fast neutron beam profile reconstruction was then compared to the one obtained by diamond detectors positioned on the same beamline while the thermal neutron one was compared to the imaged obtained by cadmium-coupled x-rays films. Also efficiency and the gamma background rejection have been determined. These prototypes represent the first step towards the

  7. High power beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  8. Obtaining an equivalent beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1990-01-01

    In modeling a complex structure the researcher was faced with a component that would have logical appeal if it were modeled as a beam. The structure was a mast of a robot controlled gantry crane. The structure up to this point already had a large number of degrees of freedom, so the idea of conserving grid points by modeling the mast as a beam was attractive. The researcher decided to make a separate problem of of the mast and model it in three dimensions with plates, then extract the equivalent beam properties by setting up the loading to simulate beam-like deformation and constraints. The results could then be used to represent the mast as a beam in the full model. A comparison was made of properties derived from models of different constraints versus manual calculations. The researcher shows that the three-dimensional model is ineffective in trying to conform to the requirements of an equivalent beam representation. If a full 3-D plate model were used in the complete representation of the crane structure, good results would be obtained. Since the attempt is to economize on the size of the model, a better way to achieve the same results is to use substructuring and condense the mast to equivalent end boundary and intermediate mass points.

  9. Electron beam dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Hogstrom, K R; Mills, M D; Almond, P R

    1981-05-01

    Electron beam dose distributions in the presence of inhomogeneous tissue are calculated by an algorithm that sums the dose distribution of individual pencil beams. The off-axis dependence of the pencil beam dose distribution is described by the Fermi-Eyges theory of thick-target multiple Coulomb scattering. Measured square-field depth-dose data serve as input for the calculations. Air gap corrections are incorporated and use data from'in-air' measurements in the penumbra of the beam. The effective depth, used to evaluate depth-dose, and the sigma of the off-axis Gaussian spread against depth are calculated by recursion relations from a CT data matrix for the material underlying individual pencil beams. The correlation of CT number with relative linear stopping power and relative linear scattering power for various tissues is shown. The results of calculations are verified by comparison with measurements in a 17 MeV electron beam from the Therac 20 linear accelerator. Calculated isodose lines agree nominally to within 2 mm of measurements in a water phantom. Similar agreement is observed in cork slabs simulating lung. Calculations beneath a bone substitute illustrate a weakness in the calculation. Finally a case of carcinoma in the maxillary antrum is studied. The theory suggests an alternative method for the calculation of depth-dose of rectangular fields.

  10. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  11. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  12. Methodological demonstration of laser beam pointing control for space gravitational wave detection missions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu-Hui; Liu, He-Shan; Luo, Zi-Ren; Li, Yu-Qiong; Jin, Gang

    2014-07-01

    In space laser interferometer gravitational wave (G.W.) detection missions, the stability of the laser beam pointing direction has to be kept at 10 nrad/√Hz. Otherwise, the beam pointing jitter noise will dominate the noise budget and make the detection of G.W. impossible. Disturbed by the residue non-conservative forces, the fluctuation of the laser beam pointing direction could be a few μrad/√Hz at frequencies from 0.1 mHz to 10 Hz. Therefore, the laser beam pointing control system is an essential requirement for those space G.W. detection missions. An on-ground test of such beam pointing control system is performed, where the Differential Wave-front Sensing technique is used to sense the beams pointing jitter. An active controlled steering mirror is employed to adjust the beam pointing direction to compensate the jitter. The experimental result shows that the pointing control system can be used for very large dynamic range up to 5 μrad. At the interested frequencies of space G.W. detection missions, between 1 mHz and 1 Hz, beam pointing stability of 6 nrad/√Hz is achieved.

  13. Improved Morphable Beam Device for Equipping Camera at Beam End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizunuma, Shintaro; Matunaga, Saburo; Kisa, Nobuhiro

    To conduct remote inspection missions, the authors has proposed Morphable Beam Device (MBD) and developed an experimental device using a bendable beam without any articulated joints. In the device, a beam is deployed, enabling a wide range of shapes and lengths. In this paper, a prototype of an MBD is introduced and a beam shaping theory for two beam shaping mechanisms of slide and rotation types is discussed and verified with experiments.

  14. Holographic memory using beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  15. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. [Livermore, CA; Frank, Alan M. [Livermore, CA

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process.

  16. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment is disclosed. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process. 2 figs.

  17. Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. Andrew

    2013-05-01

    pBEAM (Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module) is a finite element code for beam-like structures. The methodology uses Euler? Bernoulli beam elements with 12 degrees of freedom (3 translation and 3 rotational at each end of the element).

  18. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Shukui; Michelle D. Shinn

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  19. Head-on beam-beam compensation in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Heimerle, M.; Luo, Y.; Pikin, A.; Beebe, E.; Bruno, D.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R. C.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Lambiase, R.; Mapes., M.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Oerter, B.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, w.

    2010-07-29

    Head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses had been proposed for the SSC, LHC, and the Tevatron [1,2]. Two electron lenses are installed in the Tevatron [2-4], where they are routinely used as gap cleaner and have been tested in many other configurations. In RHIC there are 2 head-on beam-beam interactions at IP6 and IP8, and 4 long-range beam-beam interactions with large separation (10 mm) at the other IPs. We consider the partial indirect compensation of the head-on beam-beam effect with one electron lens in each ring. Together with intensity and emittance upgrades [5,6] our goal is to approximately double the luminosity over what can be achieved without these upgrades. A RHIC electron lens consists of: a DC electron gun, an electron beam transport to the main solenoid, the superconducting main solenoid in which the interaction with the hadron beam occurs, an electron beam transport to the collector, and an electron collector. The 2 electron lenses are located in IR10 between the DX beam separation dipoles. The proton beams pass through the main solenoids of both electron lenses, and interact head-on with one of them. The following is a slightly modified version of Ref. [7]. The table shows the main parameters of the proton beam and the electron lenses. References [8-11] present simulations for and discuss beam dynamics problems.

  20. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; Carmichael, Linden Ralph; Neswold, Richard; Yuan, Zongwei

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  1. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  2. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOEpatents

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  3. Indexing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons in an impoundment of the lower Columbia River from highly skewed trawling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Parsley, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The development of recruitment monitoring programs for age-0 white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus is complicated by the statistical properties of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data. We found that age-0 CPUE distributions from bottom trawl surveys violated assumptions of statistical procedures based on normal probability theory. Further, no single data transformation uniformly satisfied these assumptions because CPUE distribution properties varied with the sample mean (??(CPUE)). Given these analytic problems, we propose that an additional index of age-0 white sturgeon relative abundance, the proportion of positive tows (Ep), be used to estimate sample sizes before conducting age-0 recruitment surveys and to evaluate statistical hypothesis tests comparing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons among years. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that Ep was consistently more precise than ??(CPUE), and because Ep is binomially rather than normally distributed, surveys can be planned and analyzed without violating the assumptions of procedures based on normal probability theory. However, we show that Ep may underestimate changes in relative abundance at high levels and confound our ability to quantify responses to management actions if relative abundance is consistently high. If data suggest that most samples will contain age-0 white sturgeons, estimators of relative abundance other than Ep should be considered. Because Ep may also obscure correlations to climatic and hydrologic variables if high abundance levels are present in time series data, we recommend ??(CPUE) be used to describe relations to environmental variables. The use of both Ep and ??(CPUE) will facilitate the evaluation of hypothesis tests comparing relative abundance levels and correlations to variables affecting age-0 recruitment. Estimated sample sizes for surveys should therefore be based on detecting predetermined differences in Ep, but data necessary to calculate ??(CPUE) should also be

  4. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  5. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium in bycatch fishes Diapterus peruvianus, Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, and Trachinotus kennedyi from shrimp trawling in the continental shelf of Guerrero, México.

    PubMed

    Spanopoulos-Zarco, Pamela; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Jara-Marini, Martín Enrique; Meza-Montenegro, Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    With the aim of determining arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) concentrations in bycatch fishes from SW Mexico and comparing elemental concentrations with limits for human consumption set in the national and international legislation, three fish species (Diapterus peruvianus, Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, and Trachinotus kennedyi) were collected from Guerrero state during trawling operations. Additionally, As and Se levels in muscle tissue were compared with similar species from diverse areas. The order of As and Se concentrations was T. kennedyi>P. grandisquamis>D. peruvianus. In Mexico, there is no regulation of As and Se levels in fish. In comparison to the legal limit (0.1 μg g(-1) wet weight) set by legislation in Venezuela, As levels in the edible portion of T. kennedyi (0.632 μg g(-1) wet weight), P. grandisquamis (0.166 μg g(-1) wet weight), and D. peruvianus (0.157 μg g(-1) wet weight) were above this limit. In the case of Se, average concentrations in T. kennedyi (0.323 μg g(-1) wet weight) were above the maximum permissible limit (0.30 μg g(-1) wet weight) set in the Chilean legislation. Se concentrations in Carangoides bajad from Saudi Arabia were comparable to values in T. kennedyi (this study). In relation to As, concentrations varied in magnitude orders; the highest As concentration (range 10.35 to 23.71 μg g(-1) wet weight) corresponded to Mullus barbatus from the Iberian Mediterranean.

  6. Haematozoans from deep water fishes trawled off the Cape Verde Islands and over the Porcupine Seabight, with a revision of species within the genus Desseria (Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae).

    PubMed

    Davies, Angela J; Hosein, Shazia; Merrett, Nigel R

    2012-02-01

    Archived blood smears from 32 of 113 fishes in 18 families and 12 orders, trawled from deep North Atlantic waters off the Cape Verde Islands in 1999 and over the Porcupine Seabight in 2001 were found to harbour haematozoans. These included four species of haemogregarines (Adeleorina, Haemogregarinidae) and a species of trypanosome (Trypanosomatina, Trypanosomatidae) located in Porcupine Seabight fishes. Also present were Haemohormidium-like structures of uncertain status found in samples from this location and from the Cape Verde Islands. Although material was limited, two of the haemogregarines were provisionally named Desseria harriottae sp. n. from Harriotta raleighana Goode et Bean (Chimaeriformes, Rhinochimaeridae), and Haemogregarina bathysauri sp. n. from Bathysaurus ferox Günther (Aulopiformes, Bathysauridae). The two remaining haemogregarines were identified as Desseria marshalllairdi (Khan, Threlfall et Whitty, 1992) from Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther) (Notacanthiformes, Halosauridae), and Haemogregarina michaeljohnstoni (Davies et Merrett, 2000) from Cataetyx laticeps Koefoed (Ophidiformes, Bythitidae). The name H. michaeljohnstoni was proposed to replace Haemogregarinajohnstoni Davies et Merrett, 2000 from C. laticeps and to avoid confusion with Hepatozoon johnstoni (Mackerras, 1961) Smith, 1996 from varanid lizards, originally named Haemogregarina johnstoni Mackerras, 1961. The trypanosome formed a mixed parasitaemia with D. harriottae in H. raleighana and was provisionally named Trypanosoma harriottae sp. n. No blood parasites had been described previously from cartilaginous fishes of the Holocephali, making the finds in H. raleighana unique. Haemohormidium-like structures were located in erythrocytes in one fish, Coryphaenoides armatus (Hector), among the Cape Verde Islands samples and in 12 species of fishes from the Porcupine Seabight; all these hosts were bony fishes. Finally, the haemogregarine species listed in the genus Desseria Siddall

  7. The crystal structure of human protein α1M reveals a chromophore-binding site and two putative protein–protein interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yangli; Gao, Zengqiang; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Luo, Miao; Hou, Haifeng; Huang, Ailong; Dong, Yuhui; Wang, Deqiang

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •We determined the first structure of human α1M with heavy electron density of the chromophore. •We proposed a new structural model of the chromophore. •We first revealed that the two conserved surface regions of α1M are proposed as putative protein–protein interface sites. -- Abstract: Lipocalin α1-microglobulin (α1M) is a conserved glycoprotein present in plasma and in the interstitial fluids of all tissues. α1M is linked to a heterogeneous yellow–brown chromophore of unknown structure, and interacts with several target proteins, including α1-inhibitor-3, fibronectin, prothrombin and albumin. To date, there is little knowledge about the interaction sites between α1M and its partners. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human α1M. Due to the crystallization occurring in a low ionic strength solution, the unidentified chromophore with heavy electron density is observed at a hydrophobic inner tube of α1M. In addition, two conserved surface regions of α1M are proposed as putative protein–protein interface sites. Further study is needed to unravel the detailed information about the interaction between α1M and its partners.

  8. Increased intermediate M1-M2 macrophage polarization and improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment patients on ω-3 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Famenini, Sam; Rigali, Elizabeth A; Olivera-Perez, Henry M; Dang, Johnny; Chang, Michael To; Halder, Ramesh; Rao, Rammohan V; Pellegrini, Matteo; Porter, Verna; Bredesen, Dale; Fiala, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3s). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1-42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3s, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype [the ratio of inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206], and Aβ1-42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). At baseline, the median MMSE score in patients in both the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε3/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε4 groups was 26.0 and macrophage Aβ1-42 phagocytosis was defective. The MMSE rate of change increased in the ApoE ε3/ε3 group a median 2.2 points per year (P = 0.015 compared to 0) but did not change in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group (P = 0.014 between groups). In the ApoE ε3/ε3 group, all patients remained cognitively stable or improved; in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group, 1 recovered from dementia, but 3 lapsed into dementia. The macrophage phenotype polarized in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε3 to an intermediate (green zone) M1-M2 type at the rate of 0.226 U/yr, whereas in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε4, polarization was negative (P = 0.08 between groups). The baseline M1M2 type in the extreme M1 (red zone) or M2 (white zone) was unfavorable for cognitive outcome. Aβ1-42 phagocytosis increased in both ApoE groups (P = 0.03 in each groups). In vitro, the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) down regulated the M1 type in patients with ApoE ε3/ε3 but in some patients with ε3/ε4, paradoxically up-regulated the M1 type. Antioxidant/ω-3/resveratrol supplementation was associated with favorable immune and cognitive responses in ApoE ε3/ε3

  9. Increased intermediate M1-M2 macrophage polarization and improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment patients on ω-3 supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Famenini, Sam; Rigali, Elizabeth A.; Olivera-Perez, Henry M.; Dang, Johnny; Chang, Michael To; Halder, Ramesh; Rao, Rammohan V.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Porter, Verna; Bredesen, Dale; Fiala, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid β1–42 (Aβ1–42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3s). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1–42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3s, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype [the ratio of inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206], and Aβ1–42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). At baseline, the median MMSE score in patients in both the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε3/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε4 groups was 26.0 and macrophage Aβ1–42 phagocytosis was defective. The MMSE rate of change increased in the ApoE ε3/ε3 group a median 2.2 points per year (P = 0.015 compared to 0) but did not change in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group (P = 0.014 between groups). In the ApoE ε3/ε3 group, all patients remained cognitively stable or improved; in the ApoE ε3/ε4 group, 1 recovered from dementia, but 3 lapsed into dementia. The macrophage phenotype polarized in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε3 to an intermediate (green zone) M1-M2 type at the rate of 0.226 U/yr, whereas in patients bearing ApoE ε3/ε4, polarization was negative (P = 0.08 between groups). The baseline M1M2 type in the extreme M1 (red zone) or M2 (white zone) was unfavorable for cognitive outcome. Aβ1–42 phagocytosis increased in both ApoE groups (P = 0.03 in each groups). In vitro, the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) down regulated the M1 type in patients with ApoE ε3/ε3 but in some patients with ε3/ε4, paradoxically up-regulated the M1 type. Antioxidant/ω-3/resveratrol supplementation was associated with favorable immune and cognitive responses in

  10. The formin DIAPH1 (mDia1) regulates megakaryocyte proplatelet formation by remodeling the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiajia; Lordier, Larissa; Meyran, Deborah; Rameau, Philippe; Lecluse, Yann; Kitchen-Goosen, Susan; Badirou, Idinath; Mokrani, Hayat; Narumiya, Shuh; Alberts, Arthur S; Vainchenker, William; Chang, Yunhua

    2014-12-18

    Megakaryocytes are highly specialized precursor cells that produce platelets via cytoplasmic extensions called proplatelets. Proplatelet formation (PPF) requires profound changes in microtubule and actin organization. In this work, we demonstrated that DIAPH1 (mDia1), a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous that works as an effector of the small GTPase Rho, negatively regulates PPF by controlling the dynamics of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Moreover, we showed that inhibition of both DIAPH1 and the Rho-associated protein kinase (Rock)/myosin pathway increased PPF via coordination of both cytoskeletons. We provide evidence that 2 major effectors of the Rho GTPase pathway (DIAPH1 and Rock/myosin II) are involved not only in Rho-mediated stress fibers assembly, but also in the regulation of microtubule stability and dynamics during PPF.

  11. Near-complete 1-m topographic models of the MSL candidate landing sites: Site safety and quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Galuszka, D.; Redding, B.; Antonsen, J.; Coker, K.; Foster, E.; Hopkins, M.; Licht, A.; Fennema, A.; Calef, F., III; Nuti, S.; Parker, T. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    To support landing site selection for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) we have produced digital topographic models (DTMs) of the candidate sites with 1-m grid spacing from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) stereo image pairs. The delivered DTMs cover 75-95% of each landing uncertainty ellipse plus key traverse areas outside the ellipse containing science targets that the MSL rover would be likely to visit. Rover-scale slopes derived from these DTMs are in the range of 1-2 times those at the roughest past landing site, but meet the criteria for MSL landing safety at all sites. The extensive overlaps between neighboring stereo DTMs in the MSL sites provide a unique opportunity to assess the quality (accuracy, precision, resolution) of our stereo DTM. The results of such assessment agree closely with theoretical estimates of quality based on the image resolution and geometry.

  12. Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

    2013-04-01

    The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

  13. The effect of zeolite and diatomite on the corrosion of reinforcement steel in 1 M HCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerengi, Husnu; Kurtay, Mine; Durgun, Hatice

    The greatest disadvantage of reinforced concrete structures is the corrosion occurring in the reinforcement which, over time, causes a reduction in the reinforcement-concrete adherence and eventual sectional loss. The purpose of this study was to reveal the corrosion mechanism of ribbed reinforcement inside additive-free (reference), 20% zeolite-doped and 20% diatomite-doped concrete samples after exposure to 1 M HCl over 240 days. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were made every 10 days. Consequently, it was determined that the 20% zeolite-doped concrete samples had higher concrete and reinforcement resistance compared to the 20% diatomite-doped and the reference concrete, i.e. they exhibited less corrosion.

  14. Corrosion inhibition of Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri leaf extracts on cast iron surface in 1 M HCl medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Poonkuzhali, Kaliyaperumal; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and corrosion inhibition activities of Eleusine aegyptiaca (E. aegyptiaca) and Croton rottleri (C. rottleri) leaf extracts on cast iron corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution were studied first time by weight loss and electrochemical techniques viz., Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the weight loss and electrochemical methods showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the extracts acted as mixed-type inhibitors. The addition of halide additives (KCl, KBr, and KI) on the inhibition efficiency has also been investigated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on cast iron surface both in the presence and absence of halides follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The inhibiting nature of the inhibitors was supported by FT-IR, UV-vis, Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and SEM methods.

  15. ALDH1A1 mRNA expression in association with prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Baglia, Michelle; Zheng, Ying; Blot, William; Bao, Ping-Ping; Cai, Hui; Nechuta, Sarah; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2015-12-01

    ALDH1 is a crucial element in the retinoic acid signaling pathway regulating the self-renewal and differentiation of normal stem cells, and may play an important role in cancer progression. However, research on ALDH1 gene expression and breast cancer prognosis has yielded conflicting results. We evaluated the association between tumor tissue ALDH1A1/ALDH1A3 mRNA expression and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) prognosis in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS, N=463), Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS, N=86), and Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS, N=47). Gene expression was measured in RNA isolated from breast cancer tissues. In the SBCSS, higher ALDH1A1 mRNA level was associated with improved disease-free (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95, per log unit change) and overall survival (HR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.93 per log unit change) independent of age at diagnosis, TNM stage and treatment. We replicated the findings for overall survival in the NBHS and SCCS (HR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73) and for disease-free survival by a meta-analysis of four publicly-available gene expression datasets (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.97). No significant association was found for ALDH1A3.Our study suggests high expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA in tumor tissues may be an independent predictor of a favorable TNBC outcome.

  16. Troposphere - ionosphere coupling: results of the ground based observations in Antarctica and perspective for "Sich-1M" satellite experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizunov, G.; Yampolski, Yu.; Korepanov, V.; Lytvynenko, L.; Zalizovsky, A.

    The impact of meteorological processes upon the ionosphere cannot be ignored in conceptual space weather models. The giant energy stored in motion of tropospheric air masses (weather fronts, cyclones, stream jets, penetrating convection, etc) serves as a powerful source of upward energy fluxes propagating from the lower to upper atmosphere. The prospective energy carrier might be associated with the middle-scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) traveling upwards to the ionospheric heights and producing the effects known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's). We present the results of detailed experimental and theoretical study of these phenomena. The original data had been provided by experiments in the region of high meteorological activity, namely Antarctic coast of the Drake Passage, where the Ukrainian Antarctic station " Akademik Vernadsky" is located (UK's "Michael Faraday" till 1996). The permanent data sets were collected over the seven years from 1996 till 2002. The passing atmospheric fronts were in most cases accompanied by excitation of middle-scale AGW's and quasiperiodic variations of magnetic field components, showing the same time periods as the atmospheric pressure. As follows from the cross-correlation analysis of the magnetic field and pressure variations, the magnetic field normally lagged behind the pressure by few tens minutes. On this base we elaborate a quantitative model describing the AGW excitation by weather fronts, AGW propagation to the upper atmosphere and generation of geomagnetic pulsation in the ionospheric dynamo-region. We expect to carry out further experiments onboard Ukrainian remote sensing satellite "Sich-1M" (launch in 2004), which payload contains optical and radar equipment allowing to detect weather systems as well as a set of electromagnetic sensors ("Variant" experiment" for registration of the fine structure of fields and currents in the ionosphere. We are going to compare a ground based meteorological and

  17. Arginase-1 mRNA expression correlates with myeloid-derived suppressor cell levels in peripheral blood of NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Heuvers, Marlies E; Muskens, Femke; Bezemer, Koen; Lambers, Margaretha; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Groen, Harry J M; Smit, Egbert F; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Hegmans, Joost P J J; Aerts, Joachim G J V

    2013-09-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature and progenitor myeloid cells with immunosuppressive activity that are increased in cancer patients. Until now, the characterization of MDSC in humans was very challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the characterization and optimal assessment of MDSC and to investigate their presence and function in blood of advanced-stage NSCLC patients. We determined MDSC and lymphocyte populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) samples of 185 treatment-naïve NSCLC patients and 20 healthy controls (HC). NSCLC patients had an increased population of PMN-MDSC compared to HC (p < 0.0001). Frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells were significantly decreased in NSCLC patients (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.05). We found that PMN-MDSC were able to suppress T-cell proliferation in vitro. qRT-PCR showed that arginase-1 (Arg-1) mRNA is mainly expressed by MDSC and that the level of Arg-1 in PBMC correlates with the frequency of MDSC in PBMC (Spearman's rho: 0.797). There were significant differences in MDSC and lymphocyte populations between NSCLC patients and HC. We found that MDSC frequencies are stable up to six hours at room temperature after blood was drawn and that cryopreservation leads to a strong decrease of MDSC in PBMC. We show that Arg-1 mRNA expression is a valuable method to determine the levels of MDSC in peripheral blood of cancer patients. This method is therefore a useful alternative for the complex flowcytometric analysis in large multicenter patient studies.

  18. ALDH1A1 mRNA expression in association with prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Baglia, Michelle; Zheng, Ying; Blot, William; Bao, Ping-Ping; Cai, Hui; Nechuta, Sarah; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2015-01-01

    ALDH1 is a crucial element in the retinoic acid signaling pathway regulating the self-renewal and differentiation of normal stem cells, and may play an important role in cancer progression. However, research on ALDH1 gene expressionand breast cancer prognosis has yielded conflicting results. We evaluated the association between tumor tissue ALDH1A1/ALDH1A3 mRNA expression and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) prognosis in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS, N=463), Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS, N=86), and Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS, N=47). Gene expression was measured in RNA isolated from breast cancer tissues. In the SBCSS, higher ALDH1A1 mRNA level was associated with improved disease-free (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95, per log unit change) and overall survival (HR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.93 per log unit change) independent of age at diagnosis, TNM stage and treatment. We replicated the findings for overall survival in the NBHS and SCCS (HR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73) and for disease-free survival by a meta-analysis of four publicly-available gene expression datasets (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.97). No significant association was found for ALDH1A3. Our study suggests high expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA in tumor tissues may be an independent predictor of a favorable TNBC outcome. PMID:26462023

  19. Effects of 12 Ca2+ antagonists on multidrug resistance, MDR1-mediated transport and MDR1 mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kohji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Nishiguchi, Kohshi; Ohmoto, Nobuko; Horinouchi, Masanori; Komada, Fusao; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2002-08-01

    The effects of 12 Ca(2+) antagonists on MDR1 were examined by two independent models: the inhibitory effect on MDR1-mediated transport of [(3)H]digoxin using MDR1-overexpressing LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayers and the reversal effect on cytotoxicity of vinblastine or paclitaxel using MDR1-overexpressing Hvr100-6 cells. The inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport were assessed as the 50% inhibitory concentration during 4 h exposure, and the values were the lowest for nicardipine (4.54 microM), manidipine (4.65 microM) and benidipine (4.96 microM), followed by bepridil (10.6 microM), barnidipine (12.6 microM), efonidipine (13.0 microM), verapamil (13.2 microM) and nilvadipine (18.0 microM). The reversal effect on cytotoxicity was assessed by the 50% growth inhibitory concentration after 3 days exposure, and the resistance to vinblastine or paclitaxel in Hvr100-6 cells was reversed by manidipine, verapamil, benidipine, barnidipine, and nicardipine, in that order. Bepridil, barnidipine, efonidipine, verapamil and nilvadipine showed similar inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport, but barnidipine and verapamil showed a stronger effect in reversal of cytotoxicity. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay indicated a decrease in MDR1 mRNA expression by barnidipine and verapamil. It is concluded that Ca(2+) antagonists cannot only be direct inhibitors of MDR1 but that some may at the same time act as inhibitors of expression of MDR1 via down-regulation of MDR1 mRNA.

  20. Characterization of Laser Beam Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    proposed a lens-less method to determine beam divergence of Gaussian -shaped laser beams. The propagation of a Gaussian beam is shown in figure 8. Given...irradiance profile of laser beams, a numerical model was developed to simulate the propagation of nondif- fraction-limited laser beams. The function of...In developing the computer model , the incident field 30 *°" [(x, 12. :h e--27,1, is assumed to be Gaussian in intensity, truncated by an aper- ture

  1. Review of nondiffracting Bessel beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of nondiffracting beam propagation and experimental evidence for nearly-nondiffractive Bessel beam propagation are reviewed. The experimental results are reinterpreted using simple optics formulas, which show that the observed propagation distances are characteristic of the optical systems used to generate the beams and do not depend upon the initial beam profiles. A set of simple experiments are described which support this interpretation. It is concluded that nondiffracting Bessel beam propagation has not yet been experimentally demonstrated.

  2. Advanced ion beam calorimetry for the test facility ELISE

    SciTech Connect

    Nocentini, R. Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.; Wünderlich, D.; Bonomo, F.; Pimazzoni, A.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2015-04-08

    The negative ion source test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) is in operation since beginning of 2013 at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Garching bei München. The large radio frequency driven ion source of ELISE is about 1×1 m{sup 2} in size (1/2 the ITER source) and can produce a plasma for up to 1 h. Negative ions can be extracted and accelerated by an ITER-like extraction system made of 3 grids with an area of 0.1 m{sup 2}, for 10 s every 3 minutes. A total accelerating voltage of up to 60 kV is available, i.e. a maximum ion beam power of about 1.2 MW can be produced. ELISE is equipped with several beam diagnostic tools for the evaluation of the beam characteristics. In order to evaluate the beam properties with a high level of detail, a sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter has been installed in the test facility at the end of 2013, starting operation in January 2014. The diagnostic calorimeter is split into 4 copper plates with separate water calorimetry for each of the plates. Each calorimeter plate is made of 15×15 copper blocks, which act as many separate inertial calorimeters and are attached to a copper plate with an embedded cooling circuit. The block geometry and the connection with the cooling plate are optimized to accurately measure the time-averaged power of the 10 s ion beam. The surface of the blocks is covered with a black coating that allows infrared (IR) thermography which provides a 2D profile of the beam power density. In order to calibrate the IR thermography, 48 thermocouples are installed in as many blocks, arranged in two vertical and two horizontal rows. The paper describes the beam calorimetry in ELISE, including the methods used for the IR thermography, the water calorimetry and the analytical methods for beam profile evaluation. It is shown how the maximum beam inhomogeneity amounts to 13% in average. The beam divergence derived by IR thermography ranges between 1° and 4° and

  3. LHC beam-beam compensation studies at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer,W.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Luo, Y.; Montag, C.

    2009-05-04

    Long-range and head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. To mitigate long-range effects current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. To reduce the head-on beam-beam effect electron lenses were proposed for both the LHC and RHIC. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program and report on head-on compensations studies at RHIC, which are based on simulations.

  4. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; White, S.

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  5. Electron beam polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1998-12-01

    Along with its well known charge and mass, the electron also carries an intrinsic angular momentum, or {ital spin}. The rules of quantum mechanics allow us to measure only the probability that the electron spin is in one of two allowed spin states. When a beam carries a net excess of electrons in one of these two allowed spin states, the beam is said to be {ital polarized}. The beam polarization may be measured by observing a sufficient number of electrons scattered by a spin-dependent interaction. For electrons, the useful scattering processes involve Coulomb scattering by heavy nuclei, or scattering from either polarized photons or other polarized electrons (known as Mott, Compton, and Mo/ller scattering, respectively). In this tutorial, we will briefly review how beam polarization is measured through a general scattering process, followed by a discussion of how the three scattering processes above are used to measure electron beam polarization. Descriptions of electron polarimeters based on the three scattering processes will be given. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Electron beam polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Charles K.

    1998-12-01

    Along with its well known charge and mass, the electron also carries an intrinsic angular momentum, or spin. The rules of quantum mechanics allow us to measure only the probability that the electron spin is in one of two allowed spin states. When a beam carries a net excess of electrons in one of these two allowed spin states, the beam is said to be polarized. The beam polarization may be measured by observing a sufficient number of electrons scattered by a spin-dependent interaction. For electrons, the useful scattering processes involve Coulomb scattering by heavy nuclei, or scattering from either polarized photons or other polarized electrons (known as Mott, Compton, and Mo/ller scattering, respectively). In this tutorial, we will briefly review how beam polarization is measured through a general scattering process, followed by a discussion of how the three scattering processes above are used to measure electron beam polarization. Descriptions of electron polarimeters based on the three scattering processes will be given.

  7. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  8. BEAM Technology Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, David

    2005-01-01

    As technologies advance, their growing complexity makes them harder to maintain. Detection methods for isolating and identifying impending problems are needed to balance this complexity. Through comparison of signal pairs from onboard sensors, the Beacon-based Exception Analysis For Multimissions (BEAM) algorithm can identify and help classify deviations in system operation from a data-trained statistical model. The goal of this task is to mature BEAM and validate its performance on a flying test bed. A series of F-18 flight demonstrations with BEAM monitoring engine parameters in real time was used to demonstrate in-the-field readiness. Captured F-18 and simulated F-18 engine data were used in model creation and training. The algorithm was then ported to the embedded system with a data buffering, file writing, and data-time-stamp monitoring shell to reduce the impact of embedded system faults on BEAM'S ability to correctly identify engine faults. Embedded system testing identified hardware related restrictions and contributed to iterative improvements in the code's runtime performance. The system was flown with forced engine flameouts and other pilot induced faults to simulate operation out of the norm. Successful detection of these faults, confirmed through post-flight data analysis, helped BEAM achieve TRL6.

  9. Beam Profile Measurement in MTA Beam Line for High Pressure RF Cavity Beam Test

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, M.R.; Bross, A.; Chung, M.; Greer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwartz, T.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /PDT, Torino

    2012-05-15

    Recent High Pressure RF (HPRF) cavity experiment at MuCool Test Area (MTA) has used 400 MeV Linac proton beam to study the beam loading effect. When the energetic proton beam passes through the cavity, it ionizes the inside gas and produces the electrons. These electrons consume RF power inside the cavity. Number of electrons produced per cm inside the cavity (at 950 psi Hydrogen gas) per incident proton is {approx} 1200. The measurement of beam position and profile are necessary. MTA is flammable gas (Hydrogen) hazard zone so we have developed a passive beam diagnostic instrument using Chromox-6 scintillation screen and CCD camera. This paper presents quantitative information about beam position and beam profile. Neutral density filter was used to avoid saturation of CCD camera. Image data is filtered and fitted with Gaussian function to compute the beam size. The beam profile obtained from scintillation screen shall be compared with multi-wire beam profile.

  10. Beam Profile Monitor With Accurate Horizontal And Vertical Beam Profiles

    DOEpatents

    Havener, Charles C [Knoxville, TN; Al-Rejoub, Riad [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-26

    A widely used scanner device that rotates a single helically shaped wire probe in and out of a particle beam at different beamline positions to give a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is modified by the addition of a second wire probe. As a result, a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a first beamline position, and a second pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a second beamline position. The simple modification not only provides more accurate beam profiles, but also provides a measurement of the beam divergence and quality in a single compact device.

  11. Beamed energy propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Beamed energy concepts offer an alternative for an advanced propulsion system. The use of a remote power source reduces the weight of the propulsion system in flight and this, combined with the high performance, provides significant payload gains. Within the context of this study's baseline scenario, two beamed energy propulsion concepts are potentially attractive: solar thermal propulsion and laser thermal propulsion. The conceived beamed energy propulsion devices generally provide low thrust (tens of pounds to hundreds of pounds); therefore, they are typically suggested for cargo transportation. For the baseline scenario, these propulsion system can provide propulsion between the following nodes: (1) low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit; (2) low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit; (3) low lunar orbit to low Mars orbit--only solar thermal; and (4) lunar surface to low lunar orbit--only laser thermal.

  12. Grazing incidence beam expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkapeddi, P. R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  13. Strong potential profile fluctuations and effective localization process in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on (10-1m) faceted surface GaN template

    SciTech Connect

    Haffouz, S.; Tang, H.; Bardwell, J. A.; Lefebvre, P.; Bretagnon, T.; Riemann, T.; Christen, J.

    2006-07-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy were used to investigate the relation between the surface morphology and emission efficiency in 10x InGaN(3 nm)/GaN(4 nm) quantum wells (QWs) deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). For this study, two QWs with peak emission around 405 nm but grown on different surface morphologies have been investigated. A strong increase in the emission efficiency was observed in the QWs grown on (10-1m) faceted surface GaN template (m>2) as compared to those grown on an atomically smooth template. CL mapping and temperature-dependent PL studies revealed that the QWs grown on the faceted surface GaN epilayer exhibit much stronger in-plane indium content fluctuations and larger width PL peak in the temperature range of 8-300 K. We found that the use of (10-1m) faceted surface GaN template resulted in strong potential profile fluctuations (PPFs) inducing different localization centers at different energy levels. We found that the deeper the corresponding fluctuation of the energy level, the weaker the decrease of the PL intensity with increasing temperature, the higher the PL decay time ({tau}{sub PL}) in the whole temperature range and the slower the collapse of {tau}{sub PL}. Our results demonstrate that the use of (10-1m) faceted surface morphology GaN template is an amplifying process of the PPFs which favors a regime dominated by the recombination of localized carriers.

  14. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams

    SciTech Connect

    Paynter, D.; Weston, S. J.; Cosgrove, V. P.; Evans, J. A.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare “matched” FFF beams to both “unmatched” FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. Methods: For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. Results: No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field

  15. Landslide Processes of the Ventura Anticline, Viewed from the Field and from 1-m LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. D.; Reid, M.; Wieczorek, G.; Godt, J.

    2006-12-01

    The southern California Ventura anticline is a package of poorly indurated, Neogene clastic rocks, actively uplifting at rates up to ~~5 mm/a during the Late Pleistocene. The evolution of this steep topography since it broached water <200 ka ago has been strongly influenced by a broad range of mass failures in weak sand-, silt- and mudstones. Episodic intense rainstorms and strong earthquakes promote mass failure in the region. We acquired 1-m resolution aerial LiDAR with the University of Texas, Austin, to map and quantify a diverse range of hazardous mass flows over a ~~250 km2 portion of the anticline. We focused on an area east of the Ventura River, where failures have the potential to impact urban areas of the City of Ventura. Combinations of 1-m orthoimagery and 1-m LiDAR topography allow detailed mapping of processes transporting sediment from these steeplands. Large, steep areas of high-albedo represent exposed bedrock that is currently comminuted into cm-sized blocks by hydration shattering, and carried downslope by a combination of gravity and overland flow. These areas may have begun as shallow landslides, but are now dominated by overland flow and rilling on very steep slopes (100-200%), identifiable on the orthoimagery and LiDAR topography; the steepness of these slopes may exceed that of nearby shallow landslide failure planes. In adjacent areas, shallow translational slides (commonly 0.3-0.5 m thick and several meters wide) have failure surfaces in shattered, fragmental B-horizons beneath more cohesive A-horizon soils, and above lower permeability bedrock. This type of sliding was widespread during recent storms of January, 2005, which reached nearby daily rainfall totals of 100-160 mm. The same storms also reactivated deeper translational slides (commonly 100's of meters long and tens of meters wide) with failure surfaces that sole in bedrock m's to tens of meters deep. These slide masses tend to break up into blocks as they

  16. Tectonic and Volcanic Character of the Endeavour Ridge Axis From 1-m Resolution AUV Multibeam Mapping Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Thomas, H.; Thompson, D.; Calarco, M.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution seafloor mapping surveys were conducted on the Endeavour Ridge using the MBARI AUV D. Allan. B. during R/V Atlantis cruise AT15-36. The four surveys had a combined bottom time of about 46 hours, collected data along 238 km of trackline, and mapped roughly 35 km2 with 200 kHz multibeam bathymetry and 100 kHz chirp sidescan. The bathymetry data have a 1-m lateral resolution and 0.1-m vertical precision. The surveys focused on the axial valley from 48°0.0' to 47°53.1'N or from 4.3 km south of the Mothra vent field to 0.5 km north of the Sasquatch vent field. We also mapped the western flank of the ridge between the Mothra and High Rise vent fields. The AUV is navigated using an inertial navigation system (INS) aided by Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) estimates of velocity over bottom. For these deep-water surveys, the initial AUV location derives from USBL fixes communicated to the vehicle by acoustic modem. Cross- correlation of bathymetric features in overlapping or crossing swaths allowed solution for an optimal navigation model that is internally self-consistent and accurate to the bathymetric resolution of 1 m. The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is characterized by a 300 m to 1500 m wide and 70 m to 140 m deep axial valley. This segment has long been interpreted as a currently tectonically dominated end member of intermediate rate spreading centers, which are thought to undergo cycles of tectonically and volcanically dominated spreading. The new surveys provide high-resolution bathymetry of the axial valley along a 13.5 km long section of the spreading center, and of the axis flanks along a 4.5 km section. The axial valley is highly dissected by fissures and normal faults throughout the survey length. There is no evidence for recent constructional volcanism south of the Mothra vent field. From Mothra northward to the Sasquatch vent field, six recognizable lava flows and drained lava lakes are found along the axis, most partly fissured

  17. Construction of Eukaryotic Expression Vector with mBD1-mBD3 Fusion Genes and Exploring Its Activity against Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanyi; Feng, Yan; Kuang, Yu; Zeng, Wei; Yang, Yuan; Li, Hong; Jiang, Zhonghua; Li, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    Influenza (flu) pandemics have exhibited a great threat to human health throughout history. With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza A virus (IAV), it is necessary to look for new agents for treatment and transmission prevention of the flu. Defensins are small (2–6 kDa) cationic peptides known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Beta-defensins (β-defensins) are mainly produced by barrier epithelial cells and play an important role in attacking microbe invasion by epithelium. In this study, we focused on the anti-influenza A virus activity of mouse β-defensin 1 (mBD1) and β defensin-3 (mBD3) by synthesizing their fusion peptide with standard recombinant methods. The eukaryotic expression vectors pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 were constructed successfully by overlap-PCR and transfected into Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The MDCK cells transfected by pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 were obtained by G418 screening, and the mBD1-mBD3 stable expression pattern was confirmed in MDCK cells by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay. The acquired stable transfected MDCK cells were infected with IAV (A/PR/8/34, H1N1, 0.1 MOI) subsequently and the virus titers in cell culture supernatants were analyzed by TCID50 72 h later. The TCID50 titer of the experimental group was clearly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001). Furthermore, BALB/C mice were injected with liposome-encapsulated pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 through muscle and then challenged with the A/PR/8/34 virus. Results showed the survival rate of 100% and lung index inhibitory rate of 32.6% in pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3group; the TCID50 titer of lung homogenates was clearly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that mBD1-mBD3 expressed by the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)/mBD1-mBD3 could inhibit influenza A virus replication both in vitro and in vivo. These observations suggested that the recombinant mBD1-mBD3 might be developed into an agent for influenza

  18. Primer on Beam Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Inc. San Diego, California Table of Contents Page 1 . Introduction 1 1.1 Organization of Primer 1 1.2 Introduction to Neutral Particle Beam...Optical Systems 3 2. Fundamentals of Charged Particle Optics 10 2.1 Introduction 1 ° 2.2 Phase Space and Nonlinear Motion 10 2.3 Linear Maps 22 2.4...102 Figures Figure Pag© 1 . Generic Neutral Particle Beam Device 4 2. An orthogonal three dimensional coordinate system 11 3. Trajectory of a

  19. Dealing with megawatt beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The next generation of accelerators for MegaWatt proton, electron and heavy-ion beams puts unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine, target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in code developments are described for the critical modules related to these challenges. Examples are given for the most demanding areas: targets, collimators, beam absorbers, radiation shielding, induced radioactivity and radiation damage.

  20. Composite beam builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poveromo, L. M.; Muench, W. K.; Marx, W.; Lubin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The building block approach to large space structures is discussed, and the progress made in constructing aluminum beams is noted. It is pointed out that composites will also be required in space structures because they provide minimal distortion characteristics during thermal transients. A composite beam builder currently under development is discussed, with attention given to cap forming and the fastening of cross-braces. The various composite materials being considered are listed, along with certain of their properties. The need to develop continuous forming stock up to 300 m long is stressed.