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Sample records for 1-matrix metalloproteinase mt1-mmp

  1. Bilayer Membrane Modulation of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Structure and Proteolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cerofolini, Linda; Amar, Sabrina; Lauer, Janelle L.; Martelli, Tommaso; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio; Fields, Gregg B.

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface proteolysis is an integral yet poorly understood physiological process. The present study has examined how the pericellular collagenase membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and membrane-mimicking environments interplay in substrate binding and processing. NMR derived structural models indicate that MT1-MMP transiently associates with bicelles and cells through distinct residues in blades III and IV of its hemopexin-like domain, while binding of collagen-like triple-helices occurs within blades I and II of this domain. Examination of simultaneous membrane interaction and triple-helix binding revealed a possible regulation of proteolysis due to steric effects of the membrane. At bicelle concentrations of 1%, enzymatic activity towards triple-helices was increased 1.5-fold. A single mutation in the putative membrane interaction region of MT1-MMP (Ser466Pro) resulted in lower enzyme activation by bicelles. An initial structural framework has thus been developed to define the role(s) of cell membranes in modulating proteolysis. PMID:27405411

  2. Posttranslational Regulation of Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) in Mouse PTEN Null Prostate Cancer Cells: Enhanced Surface Expression and Differential O-Glycosylation of MT1-MMP1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seaho; Huang, Wei; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Sohail, Anjum; Ham, Yoon-Ah; Conley-LaComb, M. Katie; Kim, Chong Jai; Tzivion, Guri; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi; Wang, Shihua; Chen, Yong Q.; Fridman, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Membrane type 1 (MT1)-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-tethered MMP that has been shown to play a key role in promoting cancer cell invasion. MT1-MMP is highly expressed in bone metastasis of prostate cancer (PC) patients and promotes intraosseous tumor growth of PC cells in mice. The majority of metastatic prostate cancers harbor loss-of-function mutations or deletions of the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten). However, the role of PTEN inactivation in MT1-MMP expression in PC cells has not been examined. In this study, prostate epithelial cell lines derived from mice that are either heterozygous (PTEN+/-) or homozygous (PTEN-/-) for PTEN deletion or harboring a wild type PTEN (PTEN+/+) were used to investigate the expression of MT1-MMP. We found that biallelic loss of PTEN is associated with posttranslational regulation of MT1-MMP protein in mouse PC cells. PTEN-/- PC cells display higher levels of MT1-MMP at the cell surface when compared to PTEN+/+ and PTEN+/- cells and consequently exhibited enhanced migratory and collagen-invasive activities. MT1-MMP displayed by PTEN-/- cells is differentially O-glycosylated and exhibits a slow rate of turnover. MT1-MMP expression in PTEN-/- cells is under control of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, as determined using pharmacological inhibitors. Interestingly, rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, up-regulates MT1-MMP expression in PTEN+/+ cells via PI3K activity. Collectively, these data in a mouse prostate cell system uncover for the first time a novel and complex relationship between PTEN loss-mediated PI3K/AKT activation and posttranslational regulation of MT1-MMP, which may play a role in PC progression. PMID:20620173

  3. MicroRNA miR-182 cluster mediated modulation of RECK without changes in cell surface membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP).

    PubMed

    Silva, Milagros; Hernandez, Maria E; Rojas, Fausto; Li, Lihua; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wilson, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface localized membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes and its function can be regulated by proteins such as RECK. We examined the ability of miR-182 (one of the miR-183 cluster miRNAs), which can target RECK, to control cell surface MT1-MMP activity. Expression of RECK mRNA and protein was increased with anti-miRs to miR-182, miR-183 or miR-96 in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, but, decreased RECK mRNA and increased its protein in the benign prostatic hyperplasia cell line BPH-1. Treatment of BPH-1 and HT-1080 cells with the anti-miRs did not change the level of cell surface MT1-MMP activity, nor their rate of migration in an in vitro wound-healing assay. Trichostatin A (TSA) did not increase the level of RECK, but blocked cell surface MT1-MMP activity and decreased cell motility. Anti-miRs mediated increased RECK levels did not interfere with cell surface MT1-MMP function, and TSA may block cell surface localization of MT1-MMP by a mechanism independent of RECK.

  4. MicroRNA miR-182 cluster mediated modulation of RECK without changes in cell surface membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Milagros; Hernandez, Maria E; Rojas, Fausto; Li, Lihua; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wilson, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface localized membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes and its function can be regulated by proteins such as RECK. We examined the ability of miR-182 (one of the miR-183 cluster miRNAs), which can target RECK, to control cell surface MT1-MMP activity. Expression of RECK mRNA and protein was increased with anti-miRs to miR-182, miR-183 or miR-96 in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, but, decreased RECK mRNA and increased its protein in the benign prostatic hyperplasia cell line BPH-1. Treatment of BPH-1 and HT-1080 cells with the anti-miRs did not change the level of cell surface MT1-MMP activity, nor their rate of migration in an in vitro wound-healing assay. Trichostatin A (TSA) did not increase the level of RECK, but blocked cell surface MT1-MMP activity and decreased cell motility. Anti-miRs mediated increased RECK levels did not interfere with cell surface MT1-MMP function, and TSA may block cell surface localization of MT1-MMP by a mechanism independent of RECK. PMID:26609496

  5. A Membrane-Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) – Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Axis Regulates Collagen-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Assent, Delphine; Bourgot, Isabelle; Hennuy, Benoît; Geurts, Pierre; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Maquoi, Erik

    2015-01-01

    During tumour dissemination, invading breast carcinoma cells become confronted with a reactive stroma, a type I collagen-rich environment endowed with anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. To develop metastatic capabilities, tumour cells must acquire the capacity to cope with this novel microenvironment. How cells interact with and respond to their microenvironment during cancer dissemination remains poorly understood. To address the impact of type I collagen on the fate of tumour cells, human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were cultured within three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3D COL1). Using this experimental model, we have previously demonstrated that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a proteinase overexpressed in many aggressive tumours, promotes tumour progression by circumventing the collagen-induced up-regulation of BIK, a pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor, and hence apoptosis. Here we performed a transcriptomic analysis to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating 3D COL1-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Control and MT1-MMP expressing MCF-7 cells were cultured on two-dimensional plastic plates or within 3D COL1 and a global transcriptional time-course analysis was performed. Shifting the cells from plastic plates to 3D COL1 activated a complex reprogramming of genes implicated in various biological processes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a 3D COL1-mediated alteration of key cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation, RNA processing and cytoskeleton remodelling. By using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase specifically activated by collagen, as the initiator of 3D COL1-induced apoptosis. Our data support the concept that MT1-MMP contributes to the inactivation of the DDR1-BIK signalling axis through the cleavage of collagen fibres and/or the alteration of DDR1 receptor signalling unit, without triggering a

  6. SNAP23, Syntaxin4, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) mediate trafficking of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) during invadopodium formation and tumor cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karla C; McNeilly, Rachael E; Coppolino, Marc G

    2014-07-01

    Movement through the extracellular matrix (ECM) requires cells to degrade ECM components, primarily through the action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has an essential role in matrix degradation and cell invasion and localizes to subcellular degradative structures termed invadopodia. Trafficking of MT1-MMP to invadopodia is required for the function of these structures, and here we examine the role of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-activating protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane traffic in the transport of MT1-MMP to invadopodia. During invadopodium formation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, increased association of SNAP23, Syntaxin4, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) is detected by coimmunoprecipitation. Blocking the function of these SNAREs perturbs invadopodium-based ECM degradation and cell invasion. Increased level of SNAP23-Syntaxin4-VAMP7 interaction correlates with decreased Syntaxin4 phosphorylation. These results reveal an important role for SNARE-regulated trafficking of MT1-MMP to invadopodia during cellular invasion of ECM.

  7. The Oncogenic Response to MiR-335 Is Associated with Cell Surface Expression of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Fausto; Hernandez, Maria E; Silva, Milagros; Li, Lihua; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wilson, Michael J; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA miR-335 has been reported to have both tumor suppressor and oncogenic activities. In order to determine possible tissue and cell type differences in response to miR-335, we examined the effect of miR-335 on cell expression of MT1-MMP, a proteinase commonly expressed in tumors and associated with cell proliferation and migration. miR-335 increased cell surface expression of MT1-MMP in fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and benign prostate BPH-1 cells, but not in prostate LNCaP or breast MCF-7 tumor cells. miR-335 stimulated proliferation and cell migration in a wound healing in vitro assay in HT-1080, BPH-1, and U87 glioblastoma cells, cells which demonstrated significant cell surface expression of MT1-MMP. In contrast, miR-335 did not affect proliferation or migration in cells without a prominent plasma membrane associated MT1-MMP activity. Our data suggest that differences in response to miR-335 by tumor cells may lie in part in the mechanism of regulation of MT1-MMP production.

  8. Metalloproteinase MT1-MMP islets act as memory devices for podosome reemergence

    PubMed Central

    El Azzouzi, Karim; Wiesner, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Podosomes are dynamic cell adhesions that are also sites of extracellular matrix degradation, through recruitment of matrix-lytic enzymes, particularly of matrix metalloproteinases. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that the membrane-bound metalloproteinase MT1-MMP is enriched not only at podosomes but also at distinct “islets” embedded in the plasma membrane of primary human macrophages. MT1-MMP islets become apparent upon podosome dissolution and persist beyond podosome lifetime. Importantly, the majority of MT1-MMP islets are reused as sites of podosome reemergence. siRNA-mediated knockdown and recomplementation analyses show that islet formation is based on the cytoplasmic tail of MT1-MMP and its ability to bind the subcortical actin cytoskeleton. Collectively, our data reveal a previously unrecognized phase in the podosome life cycle and identify a structural function of MT1-MMP that is independent of its proteolytic activity. MT1-MMP islets thus act as cellular memory devices that enable efficient and localized reformation of podosomes, ensuring coordinated matrix degradation and invasion. PMID:27069022

  9. Role of metalloproteinases MMP-9 and MT1-MMP in CXCL12-promoted myeloma cell invasion across basement membranes.

    PubMed

    Parmo-Cabañas, Marisa; Molina-Ortiz, Isabel; Matías-Román, Salomón; García-Bernal, David; Carvajal-Vergara, Xonia; Valle, Inmaculada; Pandiella, Atanasio; Arroyo, Alicia G; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2006-01-01

    Malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma home to the bone marrow (BM), accumulate in different niches and, in late disease, migrate from the BM into blood. These migratory events involve cell trafficking across extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich basement membranes and interstitial tissues. Metalloproteinases (MMP) degrade ECM and facilitate tumour cell invasion. The chemokine CXCL12 is expressed in the BM, and it was previously shown that it triggers myeloma cell migration and activation. In the present work we show that CXCL12 promotes myeloma cell invasion across Matrigel-reconstituted basement membranes and type I collagen gels. MMP-9 activity was required for invasion through Matrigel towards CXCL12, whereas TIMP-1, a MMP-9 inhibitor that we found to be expressed by myeloma and BM stromal cells, impaired the invasion. In addition, we show that the membrane-bound MT1-MMP metalloproteinase is expressed by myeloma cells and contributes to CXCL12-promoted myeloma cell invasion across Matrigel. Increase in MT1-MMP expression, as well as induction of its membrane polarization by CXCL12 in myeloma cells, might represent potential mechanisms contributing to this invasion. CXCL12-promoted invasion across type I collagen involved metalloproteinases different from MT1-MMP. These data indicate that CXCL12 could contribute to myeloma cell trafficking in the BM involving MMP-9 and MT1-MMP activities.

  10. MT1-MMP: universal or particular player in angiogenesis?

    PubMed

    Genís, Laura; Gálvez, Beatriz G; Gonzalo, Pilar; Arroyo, Alicia G

    2006-03-01

    Tumorigenesis involves not only tumor cells that become transformed but also the peritumoral stroma which reacts inducing inflammatory and angiogenic responses. Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from preexisting vessels, is an absolute requirement for tumor growth and metastasis, and it can be induced and modulated by a wide variety of soluble factors. During angiogenesis, quiescent endothelial cells are activated and they initiate migration by degrading the basement membranes through the action of specific proteases, in particular of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Among these, the membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been identified as a key player during the angiogenic response. In this review, we will summarize the role of MT1-MMP in angiogenesis and the regulatory mechanisms of this protease in endothelial cells. Since our recent findings have suggested that MT1-MMP is not universally required for angiogenesis, we hypothesize that the regulation and participation of MT1-MMP in angiogenesis may depend on the nature of the angiogenic stimulus. Experiments aimed at testing this hypothesis have shown that similarly to the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) seems to induce the formation of capillary tubes by human or mouse endothelial cells (ECs) in an MT1-MMP-independent manner. The implications of these findings in the potential use of MT1-MMP inhibitors in cancer therapy are discussed.

  11. MT1-MMP proinvasive activity is regulated by a novel Rab8-dependent exocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Cordero, Jose J; Marrero-Diaz, Raquel; Megías, Diego; Genís, Laura; García-Grande, Aranzazu; García, Maria A; Arroyo, Alicia G; Montoya, María C

    2007-03-21

    MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is one of the most critical factors in the invasion machinery of tumor cells. Subcellular localization to invasive structures is key for MT1-MMP proinvasive activity. However, the mechanism driving this polarized distribution remains obscure. We now report that polarized exocytosis of MT1-MMP occurs during MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma cell migration into collagen type I three-dimensional matrices. Polarized trafficking of MT1-MMP is triggered by beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to collagen, and is required for protease localization at invasive structures. Localization of MT1-MMP within VSV-G/Rab8-positive vesicles, but not in Rab11/Tf/TfRc-positive compartment in invasive cells, suggests the involvement of the exocytic traffic pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rab8 mutants induce MT1-MMP exocytic traffic, collagen degradation and invasion, whereas Rab8- but not Rab11-knockdown inhibited these processes. Altogether, these data reveal a novel pathway of MT1-MMP redistribution to invasive structures, exocytic vesicle trafficking, which is crucial for its role in tumor cell invasiveness. Mechanistically, MT1-MMP delivery to invasive structures, and therefore its proinvasive activity, is regulated by Rab8 GTPase.

  12. FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) polymorphism acts as an activity switch of a membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-FGFR4 complex.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nami; Varjosalo, Markku; Meller, Pipsa; Lohi, Jouko; Chan, Kui Ming; Zhou, Zhongjun; Alitalo, Kari; Taipale, Jussi; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Lehti, Kaisa

    2010-09-07

    Tumor cells use membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) for invasion and metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms that underlie MT1-MMP regulation in cancer have remained unclear. Using a systematic gain-of-function kinome screen for MT1-MMP activity, we have here identified kinases that significantly enhance MT1-MMP activity in tumor cells. In particular, we discovered an MT1-MMP/FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) membrane complex that either stimulates or suppresses MT1-MMP and FGFR4 activities, depending on a tumor progression-associated polymorphism in FGFR4. The FGFR4-R388 allele, linked to poor cancer prognosis, increased collagen invasion by decreasing lysosomal MT1-MMP degradation. FGFR4-R388 induced MT1-MMP phosphorylation and endosomal stabilization, and surprisingly, the increased MT1-MMP in return enhanced FGFR4-R388 autophosphorylation. A phosphorylation-defective MT1-MMP was stabilized on the cell surface, where it induced simultaneous FGFR4-R388 internalization and dissociation of cell-cell junctions. In contrast, the alternative FGFR4-G388 variant down-regulated MT1-MMP, and the overexpression of MT1-MMP and particularly its phosphorylation-defective mutant vice versa induced FGFR4-G388 degradation. These results provide a mechanistic basis for FGFR4-R388 function in cancer invasion.

  13. Graded activation of the MEK1/MT1-MMP axis determines renal epithelial cell tumor phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Mahimkar, Rajeev; Alfonso-Jaume, Maria Alejandra; Cape, Leslie M.; Dahiya, Rajvir; Lovett, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of Raf/Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and elevated expression of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) are associated with von Hippel–Lindau gene alterations in renal cell carcinoma. We postulated that the degree of MEK activation was related to graded expression of MT1-MMP and the resultant phenotype of renal epithelial tumors. Madin Darby canine kidney epithelial cells transfected with a MEK1 expression plasmid yielded populations with morphologic phenotypes ranging from epithelial, mixed epithelial/mesenchymal to mesenchymal. Clones were analyzed for MEK1 activity, MT1-MMP expression and extent of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Phenotypes of the MDCK-MEK1 clones were evaluated in vivo with nu/nu mice. Tissue microarray of renal cell cancers was quantitatively assessed for expression of phosphorylated MEK1 and MT1-MMP proteins and correlations drawn to Fuhrman nuclear grade. Graded increases in the MEK signaling module were associated with graded induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition of the MDCK cells and induction of MT1-MMP transcription and synthesis. Inhibition of MEK1 and MT1-MMP activity reversed the epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Tumors generated by epithelial, mixed epithelial/mesenchymal and mesenchymal MDCK clones demonstrated a gradient of phenotypes extending from well-differentiated, fully encapsulated non-invasive tumors to tumors with an anaplastic morphology, high Fuhrman nuclear score, neoangiogenesis and invasion. Tumor microarray demonstrated a statistically significant association between the extent of phosphorylated MEK1, MT1-MMP expression and nuclear grade. We conclude that graded increases in the MEK1 signaling module are correlated with M1-MMP expression, renal epithelial cell tumor phenotype, invasive activity and nuclear grade. Phosphorylated MEK1 and MT1-MMP may represent novel, and mechanistic, biomarkers for the assessment of renal

  14. Graded activation of the MEK1/MT1-MMP axis determines renal epithelial cell tumor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mahimkar, Rajeev; Alfonso-Jaume, Maria Alejandra; Cape, Leslie M; Dahiya, Rajvir; Lovett, David H

    2011-12-01

    Activation of Raf/Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and elevated expression of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) are associated with von Hippel-Lindau gene alterations in renal cell carcinoma. We postulated that the degree of MEK activation was related to graded expression of MT1-MMP and the resultant phenotype of renal epithelial tumors. Madin Darby canine kidney epithelial cells transfected with a MEK1 expression plasmid yielded populations with morphologic phenotypes ranging from epithelial, mixed epithelial/mesenchymal to mesenchymal. Clones were analyzed for MEK1 activity, MT1-MMP expression and extent of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Phenotypes of the MDCK-MEK1 clones were evaluated in vivo with nu/nu mice. Tissue microarray of renal cell cancers was quantitatively assessed for expression of phosphorylated MEK1 and MT1-MMP proteins and correlations drawn to Fuhrman nuclear grade. Graded increases in the MEK signaling module were associated with graded induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the MDCK cells and induction of MT1-MMP transcription and synthesis. Inhibition of MEK1 and MT1-MMP activity reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Tumors generated by epithelial, mixed epithelial/mesenchymal and mesenchymal MDCK clones demonstrated a gradient of phenotypes extending from well-differentiated, fully encapsulated non-invasive tumors to tumors with an anaplastic morphology, high Fuhrman nuclear score, neoangiogenesis and invasion. Tumor microarray demonstrated a statistically significant association between the extent of phosphorylated MEK1, MT1-MMP expression and nuclear grade. We conclude that graded increases in the MEK1 signaling module are correlated with M1-MMP expression, renal epithelial cell tumor phenotype, invasive activity and nuclear grade. Phosphorylated MEK1 and MT1-MMP may represent novel, and mechanistic, biomarkers for the assessment of renal cell

  15. Functional interplay between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in migrating endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Genís, Laura; Gonzalo, Pilar; Tutor, Antonio S; Gálvez, Beatriz G; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Zaragoza, Carlos; Lamas, Santiago; Tryggvason, Karl; Apte, Suneel S; Arroyo, Alicia G

    2007-10-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for vascular homeostasis and is also a critical modulator of angiogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms of NO action during angiogenesis remain elusive. We have investigated the potential relationship between NO and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) during endothelial migration and capillary tube formation. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) colocalizes with MT1-MMP at motility-associated structures in migratory human endothelial cells (ECs); moreover, NO is produced at these structures and is released into the medium during EC migration. We have therefore addressed 2 questions: (1) the putative regulation of MT1-MMP by NO in migratory ECs; and (2) the requirement for MT1-MMP in NO-induced EC migration and tube formation. NO upregulates MT1-MMP membrane clustering on migratory human ECs, and this is accompanied by increased degradation of type I collagen substrate. MT1-MMP membrane expression and localization are impaired in lung ECs from eNOS-deficient mice, and these cells also show impaired migration and tube formation in vitro. Inhibition of MT1-MMP with a neutralizing antibody impairs NOinduced tube formation by human ECs, and NO-induced endothelial migration and tube formation are impaired in lung ECs from mice deficient in MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP thus appears to be a key molecular effector of NO during the EC migration and angiogenic processes, and is a potential therapeutic target for NO-associated vascular disorders.

  16. MT1-MMP promotes cell growth and ERK activation through c-Src and paxillin in three-dimensional collagen matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Takino, Takahisa; Tsuge, Hisashi; Ozawa, Terumasa; Sato, Hiroshi

    2010-06-11

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is essential for tumor invasion and growth. We show here that MT1-MMP induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in cancer cells cultured in collagen gel, which is indispensable for their proliferation. Inhibition of MT1-MMP by MMP inhibitor or small interfering RNA suppressed activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK in MT1-MMP-expressing cancer cells, which resulted in up-regulation of p21{sup WAF1} and suppression of cell growth in collagen gel. Cell proliferation was also abrogated by the inhibitor against ERK pathway without affecting FAK phosphorylation. MT1-MMP and integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} were shown to be involved in c-Src activation, which induced FAK and ERK activation in collagen gel. These MT1-MMP-mediated signal transductions were paxillin dependent, as knockdown of paxillin reduced cell growth and ERK activation, and co-expression of MT1-MMP with paxillin induced ERK activation. The results suggest that MT1-MMP contributes to proliferation of cancer cells in the extracellular matrix by activating ERK through c-Src and paxillin.

  17. Calpain-mediated vimentin cleavage occurs upstream of MT1-MMP membrane translocation to facilitate endothelial sprout initiation.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyeong-Il; Kang, Hojin; Dave, Jui M; Mendoza, E Adriana; Su, Shih-Chi; Maxwell, Steve A; Bayless, Kayla J

    2012-06-01

    Endothelial cells normally line the vasculature and remain quiescent. However, these cells can be rapidly stimulated to undergo morphogenesis and initiate new blood vessel formation given the proper cues. This study reports a new mechanism for initiating angiogenic sprout formation that involves vimentin, the major intermediate filament protein in endothelial cells. Initial studies confirmed vimentin was required for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)- and growth factor (GF)-induced endothelial cell invasion, and vimentin was cleaved by calpains during invasion. Calpains were predominantly activated by GF and were required for sprout initiation. Because others have reported membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is required for endothelial sprouting responses, we tested whether vimentin and calpain acted upstream of MT1-MMP. Both calpain and vimentin were required for successful MT1-MMP membrane translocation, which was stimulated by S1P. In addition, vimentin complexed with MT1-MMP in a manner that required both the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP and calpain activation, which increased the soluble pool of vimentin in endothelial cells. Altogether, these data indicate that pro-angiogenic signals converge to activate calpain-dependent vimentin cleavage and increase vimentin solubility, which act upstream to facilitate MT1-MMP membrane translocation, resulting in successful endothelial sprout formation in three-dimensional collagen matrices. These findings help explain why S1P and GF synergize to stimulate robust sprouting in 3D collagen matrices.

  18. Miniaturized antibodies for imaging membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase in cancers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Naoya; Temma, Takashi; Shimizu, Yoichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Higano, Keiichi; Takagi, Yoko; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    Since membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) plays pivotal roles in tumor progression and metastasis and holds great promise as an early biomarker for malignant tumors, a method of evaluating MT1-MMP expression levels would be valuable for molecular biological and clinical studies. Although we have previously developed a (99m) Tc-labeled anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal IgG ((99m) Tc-MT1-mAb) as an MT1-MMP imaging probe by nuclear medical techniques for this purpose, slow pharmacokinetics were a problem due to its large molecular size. Thus, in this study, our aim was to develop miniaturized antibodies, a single chain antibody fragment (MT1-scFv) and a dimer of two molecules of scFv (MT1-diabody), as the basic structures of MT1-MMP imaging probes followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluation with an (111) In radiolabel. Phage display screening successfully provided MT1-scFv and MT1-diabody, which had sufficiently high affinity for MT1-MMP (KD  = 29.8 and 17.1 nM). Both (111) In labeled miniaturized antibodies showed higher uptake in MT1-MMP expressing HT1080 cells than in non-expressing MCF7 cells. An in vivo biodistribution study showed rapid pharmacokinetics for both probes, which exhibited >20-fold higher tumor to blood radioactivity ratios (T/B ratio), an index for in vivo imaging, than (99m) Tc-MT1-mAb 6 h post-administration, and significantly higher tumor accumulation in HT1080 than MCF7 cells. SPECT images showed heterogeneous distribution and ex vivo autoradiographic analysis revealed that the radioactivity distribution profiles in tumors corresponded to MT1-MMP-positive areas. These findings suggest that the newly developed miniaturized antibodies are promising probes for detection of MT1-MMP in cancer cells.

  19. Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase is regulated by chemokines monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1/ccl2 and interleukin-8/CXCL8 in endothelial cells during angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Beatriz G; Genís, Laura; Matías-Román, Salomón; Oblander, Samantha A; Tryggvason, Karl; Apte, Suneel S; Arroyo, Alicia G

    2005-01-14

    We have investigated the putative role and regulation of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) in angiogenesis induced by inflammatory factors of the chemokine family. The absence of MT1-MMP from null mice or derived mouse lung endothelial cells or the blockade of its activity with inhibitory antibodies resulted in the specific decrease of in vivo and in vitro angiogenesis induced by CCL2 but not CXCL12. Similarly, CCL2- and CXCL8-induced tube formation by human endothelial cells (ECs) was highly dependent on MT1-MMP activity. CCL2 and CXCL8 significantly increased MT1-MMP surface expression, clustering, activity, and function in human ECs. Investigation of the signaling pathways involved in chemokine-induced MT1-MMP activity in ECs revealed that CCL2 and CXCL8 induced cortical actin polymerization and sustained activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the small GTPase Rac. Inhibition of PI3K or actin polymerization impaired CCL2-induced MT1-MMP activity. Finally, dimerization of MT1-MMP was found to be enhanced by CCL2 in ECs in a PI3K- and actin polymerization-dependent manner. In summary, we identify MT1-MMP as a molecular target preferentially involved in angiogenesis mediated by CCL2 and CXCL8, but not CXCL12, and suggest that MT1-MMP dimerization might be an important mechanism of its regulation during angiogenesis.

  20. Targeting the Warburg Effect That Arises in Tumor Cells Expressing Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takeharu; Niiya, Daigo; Seiki, Motoharu

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor required for cellular adaptation to hypoxia, although its physiological roles and activation mechanisms during normoxia have not been studied sufficiently. The Warburg effect, which is a hallmark of malignant tumors that is characterized by increased activity of aerobic glycolysis, accompanies activation of HIF-1 during normoxia. Besides tumor cells that have multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations, normal macrophages also use glycolysis for ATP production by depending upon elevated HIF-1 activity even during normoxia. We recently found that activity of factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) is specifically suppressed in macrophages by a nonproteolytic activity of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Thus, MT1-MMP expressed in macrophages plays a significant role in regulating HIF-1 activity during normoxia. In the light of this finding, we examined here whether MT1-MMP contributes to the Warburg effect of tumor cells. All the tumor cell lines that express MT1-MMP exhibit increased glycolytic activity, and forced expression of MT1-MMP in MT1-MMP-negative tumor cells is sufficient to induce the Warburg effect. The cytoplasmic tail of MT1-MMP mediates the stimulation of aerobic glycolysis by increasing the expression of HIF-1 target genes. Specific intervention of the MT1-MMP-mediated activation of HIF-1 in tumor cells retarded tumor growth in mice. Systemic administration of a membrane-penetrating form of the cytoplasmic tail peptide in mice to inhibit HIF-1 activation competitively also exhibited a therapeutic effect on tumors. PMID:21372132

  1. MT1-MMP and Type II Collagen Specify Skeletal Stem Cells and Their Bone and Cartilage Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Szabova, Ludmila; Yamada, Susan S.; Wimer, Helen; Chrysovergis, Kaliopi; Ingvarsen, Signe; Behrendt, Niels; Engelholm, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal formation is dependent on timely recruitment of skeletal stem cells and their ensuing synthesis and remodeling of the major fibrillar collagens, type I collagen and type II collagen, in bone and cartilage tissues during development and postnatal growth. Loss of the major collagenolytic activity associated with the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) results in disrupted skeletal development and growth in both cartilage and bone, where MT1-MMP is required for pericellular collagen dissolution. We show here that reconstitution of MT1-MMP activity in the type II collagen–expressing cells of the skeleton rescues not only diminished chondrocyte proliferation, but surprisingly, also results in amelioration of the severe skeletal dysplasia associated with MT1-MMP deficiency through enhanced bone formation. Consistent with this increased bone formation, type II collagen was identified in bone cells and skeletal stem/progenitor cells of wildtype mice. Moreover, bone marrow stromal cells isolated from mice expressing MT1-MMP under the control of the type II collagen promoter in an MT1-MMP–deficient background showed enhanced bone formation in vitro and in vivo compared with cells derived from nontransgenic MT1-MMP–deficient littermates. These observations show that type II collagen is not stringently confined to the chondrocyte but is expressed in skeletal stem/progenitor cells (able to regenerate bone, cartilage, myelosupportive stroma, marrow adipocytes) and in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage progeny where collagenolytic activity is a requisite for proper cell and tissue function. PMID:19419317

  2. Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase is involved in migration of human monocytes and is regulated through their interaction with fibronectin or endothelium.

    PubMed

    Matías-Román, Salomón; Gálvez, Beatriz G; Genís, Laura; Yáñez-Mó, María; de la Rosa, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Arroyo, Alicia G

    2005-05-15

    Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is involved in endothelial and tumor-cell migration, but its putative role in leukocyte migration has not been characterized yet. Here, we demonstrate that anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb) impaired monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)-stimulated monocyte migration on fibronectin (FN), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). In addition, monocyte transmigration through tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated endothelium is also inhibited by anti-MT1-MMP mAb. Therefore, regulation of MT1-MMP in human peripheral blood monocytes was investigated. First, MT1-MMP clustering was observed at motility-associated membrane protrusions of MCP-1-stimulated monocytes migrating on FN, VCAM-1, or ICAM-1 and at the leading edge, together with profilin, of monocytes transmigrating through activated endothelial cells. In addition, up-regulation of MT1-MMP expression was induced in human monocytes upon attachment to FN in a manner dependent on alpha4beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins. Binding of monocytes to TNF-alpha-activated human endothelial cells as well as to VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 also resulted in an increase of MT1-MMP expression. These findings correlated with an enhancement of MT1-MMP fibrinolytic activity in monocytes bound to FN, VCAM-1, or ICAM-1. Our data show that MT1-MMP is required during human monocyte migration and endothelial transmigration and that MT1-MMP localization, expression, and activity are regulated in monocytes upon contact with FN or endothelial ligands, pointing to a key role of MT1-MMP in monocyte recruitment during inflammation.

  3. Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 Mediates Collagen-Induced Activation of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Majkowska, Iwona; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Ito, Noriko; Gray, Nathanael S; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2017-03-07

    Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-bound MMP that is highly expressed in cells with invading capacity including fibroblasts and invasive cancer cell. A potential physiological stimulus for MT1-MMP expression is fibrillar collagen, and it has been shown that it upregulates both MT1-MMP gene and functions in various cell types. However, the mechanisms of collagen-mediated MT1-MMP activation is not clearly understood. In this study we identified discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) as a crucial receptor that mediates this process in human fibroblasts. Knocking down DDR2, but not β1 integrin subunit, a common subunit for all collagen-binding integrins, inhibited collagen-induced activation of proMMP-2 and upregulation of MT1-MMP at the gene and protein level. Interestingly DDR2 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of DDR2 also inhibited MT1-MMP-dependent cellular degradation of collagen film, suggesting that cell surface collagen degradation by MT1-MMP involves DDR2-mediated collagen signalling. This DDR2-mediated mechanism is only present in non-transformed mesenchymal cells, as collagen-induced MT1-MMP activation in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and MT1-MMP function in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were not affected by DDR kinase inhibition. DDR2 activation was found to be noticeably more effective when cells were stimulated by collagen without non-helical telopeptides region compared to intact collagen fibrils. Those data suggest that DDR2 is a microenvironmental sensor that regulates fibroblasts migration in collagen-rich environment.

  4. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during rat skin wound healing: evidence that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase is a stromal activator of pro-gelatinase A.

    PubMed

    Okada, A; Tomasetto, C; Lutz, Y; Bellocq, J P; Rio, M C; Basset, P

    1997-04-07

    Skin wound healing depends on cell migration and extracellular matrix remodeling. Both processes, which are necessary for reepithelization and restoration of the underlying connective tissue, are believed to involve the action of extracellular proteinases. We screened cDNA libraries and we found that six matrix metalloproteinase genes were highly expressed during rat skin wound healing. They were namely those of stromelysin 1, stromelysin 3, collagenase 3, gelatinase A (GelA), gelatinase B, and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The expression kinetics of these MMP genes, the tissue distribution of their transcripts, the results of cotransfection experiments in COS-1 cells, and zymographic analyses performed using microdissected rat wound tissues support the possibility that during cutaneous wound healing pro-GelA and pro-gelatinase B are activated by MT1-MMP and stromelysin 1, respectively. Since MT1-MMP has been demonstrated to be a membrane-associated protein (Sato, H., T. Takino, Y. Okada, J. Cao, A. Shinagawa, E. Yamamoto, and M. Seiki. 1994. Nature (Lond.). 370: 61-65), our finding that GelA and MT1-MMP transcripts were expressed in stromal cells exhibiting a similar tissue distribution suggests that MT1-MMP activates pro-GelA at the stromal cell surface. This possibility is further supported by our observation that the processing of pro-GelA to its mature form correlated to the detection of MT1-MMP in cell membranes of rat fibroblasts expressing the MT1-MMP and GelA genes. These observations, together with the detection of high levels of the mature GelA form in the granulation tissue but not in the regenerating epidermis, suggest that MT1-MMP and GelA contribute to the restoration of connective tissue during rat skin wound healing.

  5. Phase Differential Enhancement of FLIM to Distinguish FRET Components of a Biosensor for Monitoring Molecular Activity of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, John Paul; Huang, He

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime-resolved imaging microscopy (FLIM) has been used to monitor the enzymatic activity of a proteolytic enzyme, Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), with a recently developed FRET-based biosensor in vitro and in live HeLa and HT1080 cells. MT1-MMP is a collagenaise that is involved in the destruction of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as well as in various cellular functions including migration. The increased expression of MT1-MMP has been positively correlated with the invasive potential of tumor cells. However, the precise spatiotemporal activation patterns of MT1-MMP in live cells are still not well-established. The activity of MT1-MMP was examined with our biosensor in live cells. Imaging of live cells was performed with full-field frequency-domain FLIM. Image analysis was carried out both with polar plots and phase differential enhancement. Phase differential enhancement, which is similar to phase suppression, is shown to facilitate the differentiation between different conformations of the MT1-MMP biosensor in live cells when the lifetime differences are small. FLIM carried out in differential enhancement or phase suppression modes, requires only two acquired phase images, and permits rapid imaging of the activity of MT1-MMP in live cells. PMID:21519891

  6. MT1-MMP collagenolytic activity is regulated through association with tetraspanin CD151 in primary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yañez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Gonzalo, Pilar; Batista, Alicia; Megías, Diego; Genís, Laura; Sachs, Norman; Sala-Valdés, Mónica; Alonso, Miguel A; Montoya, María C; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Arroyo, Alicia G; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2008-10-15

    MT1-MMP plays a key role in endothelial function, as underscored by the angiogenic defects found in MT1-MMP deficient mice. We have studied the molecular interactions that underlie the functional regulation of MT1-MMP. At lateral endothelial cell junctions, MT1-MMP colocalizes with tetraspanin CD151 (Tspan 24) and its associated partner alpha3beta1 integrin. Biochemical and FRET analyses show that MT1-MMP, through its hemopexin domain, associates tightly with CD151, thus forming alpha3beta1 integrin/CD151/MT1-MMP ternary complexes. siRNA knockdown of HUVEC CD151 expression enhanced MT1-MMP-mediated activation of MMP2, and the same activation was seen in ex vivo lung endothelial cells isolated from CD151-deficient mice. However, analysis of collagen degradation in these experimental models revealed a diminished MT1-MMP enzymatic activity in confined areas around the cell periphery. CD151 knockdown affected both MT1-MMP subcellular localization and its inclusion into detergent-resistant membrane domains, and prevented biochemical association of the metalloproteinase with the integrin alpha3beta1. These data provide evidence for a novel regulatory role of tetraspanin microdomains on the collagenolytic activity of MT1-MMP and indicate that CD151 is a key regulator of MT1-MMP in endothelial homeostasis.

  7. EphA2 cleavage by MT1-MMP triggers single cancer cell invasion via homotypic cell repulsion.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nami; Gucciardo, Erika; Tatti, Olga; Varjosalo, Markku; Hyytiäinen, Marko; Gstaiger, Matthias; Lehti, Kaisa

    2013-04-29

    Changes in EphA2 signaling can affect cancer cell-cell communication and motility through effects on actomyosin contractility. However, the underlying cell-surface interactions and molecular mechanisms of how EphA2 mediates these effects have remained unclear. We demonstrate here that EphA2 and membrane-anchored membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) were selectively up-regulated and coexpressed in invasive breast carcinoma cells, where, upon physical interaction in same cell-surface complexes, MT1-MMP cleaved EphA2 at its Fibronectin type-III domain 1. This cleavage, coupled with EphA2-dependent Src activation, triggered intracellular EphA2 translocation, as well as an increase in RhoA activity and cell junction disassembly, which suggests an overall repulsive effect between cells. Consistent with this, cleavage-prone EphA2-D359I mutant shifted breast carcinoma cell invasion from collective to rounded single-cell invasion within collagen and in vivo. Up-regulated MT1-MMP also codistributed with intracellular EphA2 in invasive cells within human breast carcinomas. These results reveal a new proteolytic regulatory mechanism of cell-cell signaling in cancer invasion.

  8. EphA2 cleavage by MT1-MMP triggers single cancer cell invasion via homotypic cell repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Nami; Gucciardo, Erika; Tatti, Olga; Varjosalo, Markku; Hyytiäinen, Marko; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Changes in EphA2 signaling can affect cancer cell–cell communication and motility through effects on actomyosin contractility. However, the underlying cell–surface interactions and molecular mechanisms of how EphA2 mediates these effects have remained unclear. We demonstrate here that EphA2 and membrane-anchored membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) were selectively up-regulated and coexpressed in invasive breast carcinoma cells, where, upon physical interaction in same cell–surface complexes, MT1-MMP cleaved EphA2 at its Fibronectin type-III domain 1. This cleavage, coupled with EphA2-dependent Src activation, triggered intracellular EphA2 translocation, as well as an increase in RhoA activity and cell junction disassembly, which suggests an overall repulsive effect between cells. Consistent with this, cleavage-prone EphA2-D359I mutant shifted breast carcinoma cell invasion from collective to rounded single-cell invasion within collagen and in vivo. Up-regulated MT1-MMP also codistributed with intracellular EphA2 in invasive cells within human breast carcinomas. These results reveal a new proteolytic regulatory mechanism of cell–cell signaling in cancer invasion. PMID:23629968

  9. Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like properties in SCC9 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tissue invasion and metastasis are acquired abilities of cancer and related to the death in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Emerging observations indicate that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with tumor progression and the generation of cells with cancer stem cells (CSCs) properties. Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a cell surface proteinase, which is involved in degrading extracellular matrix components that can promote tumor invasion and cell migration. Methods In the current study, we utilized SCC9 cells stably transfected with an empty vector (SCC9-N) or a vector encoding human MT1-MMP (SCC9-M) to study the role of MT1-MMP in EMT development. Results Upon up-regulation of MT1-MMP, SCC9-M cells underwent EMT, in which they presented a fibroblast-like phenotype and had a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, cytokeratin18 and β-catenin) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin). We further demonstrated that MT1-MMP-induced morphologic changes increased the level of Twist and ZEB, and were dependent on repressing the transcription of E-cadherin. These activities resulted in low adhesive, high invasive abilities of the SCC9-M cells. Furthermore, MT1-MMP-induced transformed cells exhibited cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics, such as low proliferation, self-renewal ability, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and apoptosis, and expression of CSCs surface markers. Conclusions In conclusion, our study indicates that overexpression of MT1-MMP induces EMT and results in the acquisition of CSC-like properties in SCC9 cells. Our growing understanding of the mechanism regulating EMT may provide new targets against invasion and metastasis in OSCC. PMID:23548172

  10. Lack of Association between Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Clinically Relevant Molecular or Morphologic Tumor Characteristics at the Leading Edge of Invasive Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Annette; Kraft, Klaus; Wardelmann, Eva; Steinestel, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the western world, but tumor biology and clinical course show great interindividual variation. Molecular and morphologic tumor characteristics, such as KRAS/BRAF mutation status, mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, tumor growth pattern, and tumor cell budding, have been shown to be of key therapeutic and/or prognostic relevance in CRC. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-anchored zinc-binding endopeptidase that is expressed at the leading edge of various invasive carcinomas and promotes tumor cell invasion through degradation of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between MT1-MMP expression and molecular tumor characteristics as well as morphologic features of tumor aggressiveness in a consecutive series of 79 CRC tissue samples. However, although MT1-MMP was expressed in 41/79 samples (52%), there was no significant association between MT1-MMP expression and KRAS/BRAF mutation status, MMR protein expression, presence of lymphovascular invasion, tumor growth pattern, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or tumor cell budding in our sample cohort (P > 0.05). Thus, we conclude that although MT1-MMP may play a role in CRC invasion, it is not of key relevance to the current models of CRC invasion and aggressiveness. PMID:26106602

  11. Modulation of the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail enhances tumor cell invasion and proliferation in three-dimensional collagen matrices.

    PubMed

    Moss, Natalie M; Wu, Yi I; Liu, Yueying; Munshi, H G; Stack, M Sharon

    2009-07-24

    Increasing evidence suggests that the cytoplasmic tail of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is subject to phosphorylation and that this modification may influence its enzymatic activity at the cell surface. In this study, phosphorylated MT1-MMP is detected using a phospho-specific antibody recognizing a protein kinase C consensus sequence (phospho-TXR), and a MT1-MMP tail peptide is phosphorylated by exogenous protein kinase C. To characterize the potential role of cytoplasmic residue Thr(567) in these processes, mutants that mimic a state of either constitutive (T567E) or defective phosphorylation (T567A) were expressed and analyzed for their functional effects on MT1-MMP activity and cellular behavior. Phospho-mimetic mutants of Thr(567) exhibit enhanced matrix invasion as well as more extensive growth within a three-dimensional type I collagen matrix. Together, these findings suggest that MT1-MMP surface action is regulated by phosphorylation at cytoplasmic tail residue Thr(567) and that this modification plays a critical role in processes that are linked to tumor progression.

  12. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    SciTech Connect

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  13. Atorvastatin suppresses glioma invasion and migration by reducing microglial MT1-MMP expression.

    PubMed

    Yongjun, Yi; Shuyun, Huang; Lei, Chen; Xiangrong, Chen; Zhilin, Yang; Yiquan, Ke

    2013-07-15

    Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, often present in large numbers in gliomas, where they promote tumor growth and invasiveness. This study found that atorvastatin reduced the pro-tumorigenic effects of microglia on glioma migration and invasion by reducing the microglial expression of membrane type 1 metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The results suggest that down-regulation of MT1-MMP is controlled by a p38 MAPK pathway in microglia. Taken together, the results support further research on atorvastatin as a candidate for glioma therapy by targeting microglia.

  14. NHE1 mediates migration and invasion of HeLa cells via regulating the expression and localization of MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yani; Wang, Jian; Jin, Weina; Wang, Lihong; Li, Huawen; Ma, Li; Li, Qinghua; Pang, Tianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), acting as an important regulator of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and extracellular pH (pH(e)), has been known to play a key role in the metastasis of many solid tumours. However, the exact mechanism underlying these processes, especially in cervical cancer, is still poorly understood. In the current study, we first showed that the inhibition of NHE1 activity by the specific inhibitor cariporide could suppress migration and invasion of HeLa cells in vitro. Moreover, cariporide also reversed the enhanced migration and invasion in HeLa cells by overexpressed membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). Subsequently, our results showed that NHE1 regulated the expression of MT1-MMP at both messenger RNA and protein levels as well as its localization. Meanwhile, we observed slight modification in the morphology of HeLa cell after treating with cariporide. The present work indicates that NHE1 mediates HeLa cell metastasis via regulating the expression and localization of MT1-MMP and provides a theoretical basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting cervical cancer.

  15. Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Are Dependent on Self-collagen, Cleaved by Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase for Their Growth

    PubMed Central

    Birukawa, Naoko Kubo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akemi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishita, Hiroki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kajiwara, Keiko; Miyazaki, Miyono; Nakashima, Yusuke; Ota, Sigenori; Murakami, Yuya; Tanaka, Yasunobu; Minomi, Kenjiro; Tamura, Yasuaki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Stellate cells are distributed throughout organs, where, upon chronic damage, they become activated and proliferate to secrete collagen, which results in organ fibrosis. An intriguing property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is that they undergo apoptosis when collagen is resolved by stopping tissue damage or by treatment, even though the mechanisms are unknown. Here we disclose the fact that HSCs, normal diploid cells, acquired dependence on collagen for their growth during the transition from quiescent to active states. The intramolecular RGD motifs of collagen were exposed by cleavage with their own membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The following evidence supports this conclusion. When rat activated HSCs (aHSCs) were transduced with siRNA against the collagen-specific chaperone gp46 to inhibit collagen secretion, the cells underwent autophagy followed by apoptosis. Concomitantly, the growth of aHSCs was suppressed, whereas that of quiescent HSCs was not. These in vitro results are compatible with the in vivo observation that apoptosis of aHSCs was induced in cirrhotic livers of rats treated with siRNAgp46. siRNA against MT1-MMP and addition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), which mainly inhibits MT1-MMP, also significantly suppressed the growth of aHSCs in vitro. The RGD inhibitors echistatin and GRGDS peptide and siRNA against the RGD receptor αVβ1 resulted in the inhibition of aHSCs growth. Transduction of siRNAs against gp46, αVβ1, and MT1-MMP to aHSCs inhibited the survival signal of PI3K/AKT/IκB. These results could provide novel antifibrosis strategies. PMID:24867951

  16. Activated hepatic stellate cells are dependent on self-collagen, cleaved by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase for their growth.

    PubMed

    Birukawa, Naoko Kubo; Murase, Kazuyuki; Sato, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akemi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishita, Hiroki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Miyuki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kajiwara, Keiko; Miyazaki, Miyono; Nakashima, Yusuke; Ota, Sigenori; Murakami, Yuya; Tanaka, Yasunobu; Minomi, Kenjiro; Tamura, Yasuaki; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-07-18

    Stellate cells are distributed throughout organs, where, upon chronic damage, they become activated and proliferate to secrete collagen, which results in organ fibrosis. An intriguing property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is that they undergo apoptosis when collagen is resolved by stopping tissue damage or by treatment, even though the mechanisms are unknown. Here we disclose the fact that HSCs, normal diploid cells, acquired dependence on collagen for their growth during the transition from quiescent to active states. The intramolecular RGD motifs of collagen were exposed by cleavage with their own membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The following evidence supports this conclusion. When rat activated HSCs (aHSCs) were transduced with siRNA against the collagen-specific chaperone gp46 to inhibit collagen secretion, the cells underwent autophagy followed by apoptosis. Concomitantly, the growth of aHSCs was suppressed, whereas that of quiescent HSCs was not. These in vitro results are compatible with the in vivo observation that apoptosis of aHSCs was induced in cirrhotic livers of rats treated with siRNAgp46. siRNA against MT1-MMP and addition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), which mainly inhibits MT1-MMP, also significantly suppressed the growth of aHSCs in vitro. The RGD inhibitors echistatin and GRGDS peptide and siRNA against the RGD receptor αVβ1 resulted in the inhibition of aHSCs growth. Transduction of siRNAs against gp46, αVβ1, and MT1-MMP to aHSCs inhibited the survival signal of PI3K/AKT/IκB. These results could provide novel antifibrosis strategies.

  17. MT1-MMP-dependent remodeling of cardiac extracellular matrix structure and function following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Gerald C; Rowe, R Grant; Day, Sharlene M; Sabeh, Farideh; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Cooke, Kenneth R; Weiss, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    The myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM), an interwoven meshwork of proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans that is dominated by polymeric fibrils of type I collagen, serves as the mechanical scaffold on which myocytes are arrayed for coordinated and synergistic force transduction. Following ischemic injury, cardiac ECM remodeling is initiated via localized proteolysis, the bulk of which has been assigned to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members. Nevertheless, the key effector(s) of myocardial type I collagenolysis both in vitro and in vivo have remained unidentified. In this study, using cardiac explants from mice deficient in each of the major type I collagenolytic MMPs, including MMP-13, MMP-8, MMP-2, MMP-9, or MT1-MMP, we identify the membrane-anchored MMP, MT1-MMP, as the dominant collagenase that is operative within myocardial tissues in vitro. Extending these observations to an in vivo setting, mice heterozygous for an MT1-MMP-null allele display a distinct survival advantage and retain myocardial function relative to wild-type littermates in an experimental model of myocardial infarction, effects associated with preservation of the myocardial type I collagen network as a consequence of the decreased collagenolytic potential of cardiac fibroblasts. This study identifies MT1-MMP as a key MMP responsible for effecting postinfarction cardiac ECM remodeling and cardiac dysfunction.

  18. The dimer interface of the membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase hemopexin domain: crystal structure and biological functions.

    PubMed

    Tochowicz, Anna; Goettig, Peter; Evans, Richard; Visse, Robert; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Palmisano, Ralf; Ito, Noriko; Richter, Klaus; Maskos, Klaus; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; Nagase, Hideaki; Bode, Wolfram; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2011-03-04

    Homodimerization is an essential step for membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) to activate proMMP-2 and to degrade collagen on the cell surface. To uncover the molecular basis of the hemopexin (Hpx) domain-driven dimerization of MT1-MMP, a crystal structure of the Hpx domain was solved at 1.7 Å resolution. Two interactions were identified as potential biological dimer interfaces in the crystal structure, and mutagenesis studies revealed that the biological dimer possesses a symmetrical interaction where blades II and III of molecule A interact with blades III and II of molecule B. The mutations of amino acids involved in the interaction weakened the dimer interaction of Hpx domains in solution, and incorporation of these mutations into the full-length enzyme significantly inhibited dimer-dependent functions on the cell surface, including proMMP-2 activation, collagen degradation, and invasion into the three-dimensional collagen matrix, whereas dimer-independent functions, including gelatin film degradation and two-dimensional cell migration, were not affected. These results shed light on the structural basis of MT1-MMP dimerization that is crucial to promote cellular invasion.

  19. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates microglia/brain macrophage MT1-MMP expression and glioma expansion

    PubMed Central

    Vinnakota, Katyayni; Hu, Feng; Ku, Min-Chi; Georgieva, Petya B.; Szulzewsky, Frank; Pohlmann, Andreas; Waiczies, Sonia; Waiczies, Helmar; Niendorf, Thoralf; Lehnardt, Seija; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Synowitz, Michael; Markovic, Darko; Wolf, Susanne A.; Glass, Rainer; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Microglia/brain macrophage accumulation in and around the tumor correlates with malignancy and poor clinical prognosis of these tumors. We have previously shown that microglia promote glioma expansion through upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP). This upregulation depends on signaling via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). Methods Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we identified TLR2 as the main TLR controlling microglial MT1-MMP expression and promoting microglia-assisted glioma expansion. Results The implantation of mouse GL261 glioma cells into TLR2 knockout mice resulted in significantly smaller tumors, reduced MT1-MMP expression, and enhanced survival rates compared with wild-type control mice. Tumor expansion studied in organotypic brain slices depended on both parenchymal TLR2 expression and the presence of microglia. Glioma-derived soluble factors and synthetic TLR2 specific ligands induced MT1-MMP expression in microglia from wild-type mice, but no such change in MT1-MMP gene expression was observed in microglia from TLR2 knockout mice. We also found evidence that TLR1 and TLR6 cofunction with TLR2 as heterodimers in regulating MT1-MMP expression in vitro. Conclusions Our results thus show that activation of TLR2 along with TLRs 1 and/or 6 converts microglia into a glioma supportive phenotype. PMID:24014382

  20. Activatable and Cell-Penetrable Multiplex FRET Nanosensor for Profiling MT1-MMP Activity in Single Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eddie Y.; Ochs, Christopher J.; Wang, Yi; Lei, Lei; Qin, Qin; Smith, Andrew M.; Strongin, Alex Y.; Kamm, Roger; Qi, Ying-Xin; Lu, Shaoying; Wang, Yingxiao

    2015-01-01

    We developed a quantum-dot-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (QD-FRET) nanosensor to visualize the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) at cell membrane. A bended peptide with multiple motifs was engineered to position the FRET pair at a close proximity to allow energy transfer, which can be cleaved by active MT1-MMP to result in FRET changes and the exposure of cell penetrating sequence. Via FRET and penetrated QD signals, the nanosensor can profile cancer cells. PMID:26203778

  1. MT1-MMP controls human mesenchymal stem cell trafficking and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changlian; Li, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Yuexian; Rowe, R Grant; Weiss, Stephen J

    2010-01-14

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) localized to bone marrow, nonhematopoietic organs, as well as perivascular niches are postulated to traffic through type I collagen-rich stromal tissues to first infiltrate sites of tissue damage, inflammation, or neoplasia and then differentiate. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms supporting the ability of hMSCs to remodel 3-dimensional (3D) collagenous barriers during trafficking or differentiation remain undefined. Herein, we demonstrate that hMSCs degrade and penetrate type I collagen networks in tandem with the expression of a 5-member set of collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Specific silencing of each of these proteases reveals that only a single membrane-tethered metalloenzyme, termed MT1-MMP, plays a required role in hMSC-mediated collagenolysis, 3D invasion, and intravasation. Further, once confined within type I collagen-rich tissue, MT1-MMP also controls hMSC differentiation in a 3D-specific fashion. Together, these data demonstrate that hMSC invasion and differentiation programs fall under the control of the pericellular collagenase, MT1-MMP.

  2. Spatial and temporal expression profiles suggest the involvement of gelatinase A and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in amphibian metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takashi; Hartman, Rebecca; Matsuda, Hiroki; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2006-04-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases capable of degrading various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Among them, the membrane type MMP-1 (MT1-MMP) has been shown to participate in the activation of MMP gelatinase A (GelA), suggesting that they may function together in development and pathogenesis. Here, we have investigated the spatiotemporal expression profiles of Xenopus laevis MT1-MMP and GelA genes during thyroid-hormone-dependent metamorphosis. We have focused our studies on two organs: (1) the intestine, which undergoes first the degeneration of the tadpole epithelium through apoptosis and then the development of adult epithelium and other tissues, and (2) the tail, which completely resorbs through programmed cell death. We show that both MT1-MMP and GelA are upregulated in the intestine and tail when both organs undergo metamorphosis. Within the organs, MT1-MMP and GelA are coexpressed in the connective tissues during both natural and thyroid-hormone-induced metamorphosis. In addition, MT1-MMP (but not GelA) is also expressed in the longitudinal muscle cells of the metamorphosing intestine. These results suggest that MT1-MMP and GelA function together in the ECM degradation or remodeling associated with metamorphosis and that MT1-MMP has additional GelA-independent roles in the development of adult longitudinal muscle in the intestine.

  3. Expression of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and activation of progelatinase A in human osteoarthritic cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, K.; Ohta, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Fujimoto, N.; Sato, H.; Seiki, M.; Okada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage and are thought to be involved in the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). Among these proteinases, MMP-2 (gelatinase A) demonstrates a wide range of substrate specificity against the ECM present in cartilage. Although MMP-2 expression increases in OA cartilage, the activation mechanism of the corresponding zymogen (pro-MMP-2) in cartilage is unknown. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) in human OA articular cartilage and its correlation with the activation of pro-MMP-2. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that MT1-MMP localizes to the chondrocytes in the superficial and transitional zones in all of the samples examined directly correlating with cartilage degradation. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the predominant expression of MT1-MMP mRNA in the OA cartilage. In situ hybridization revealed the site of expression of MT1-MMP in OA cartilage to be the chondrocytes. Through gelatin zymography and a sandwich enzyme immunoassay it was demonstrated that OA cartilage explants secrete significantly higher levels of pro-MMP-2 than normal samples. Pro-MMP-2 activation was enhanced in the OA cartilage samples and correlated with MT1-MMP expression in the cartilage. Plasma membranes prepared from cultured chondrocytes with MT1-MMP expression and those directly isolated from OA cartilage could activate pro-MMP-2. MT1-MMP gene expression in cultured chondrocytes was induced by treatment with interleukin-1 alpha and/or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These data suggest that cytokine-induced MT1-MMP in the chondrocytes may play a key role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the OA articular cartilage, leading to cartilage destruction through ECM degradation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9212749

  4. Hic-5 mediates the initiation of endothelial sprouting by regulating a key surface metalloproteinase

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jui M.; Abbey, Colette A.; Duran, Camille L.; Seo, Heewon; Johnson, Gregory A.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During angiogenesis, endothelial cells must coordinate matrix proteolysis with migration. Here, we tested whether the focal adhesion scaffold protein Hic-5 (also known as TGFB1I1) regulated endothelial sprouting in three dimensions. Hic-5 silencing reduced endothelial sprouting and lumen formation, and sprouting defects were rescued by the return of Hic-5 expression. Pro-angiogenic factors enhanced colocalization and complex formation between membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, also known as MMP14) and Hic-5, but not between paxillin and MT1-MMP. The LIM2 and LIM3 domains of Hic-5 were necessary and sufficient for Hic-5 to form a complex with MT1-MMP. The degree of interaction between MT1-MMP and Hic-5 and the localization of the complex within detergent-resistant membrane fractions were enhanced during endothelial sprouting, and Hic-5 depletion lowered the surface levels of MT1-MMP. In addition, we observed that loss of Hic-5 partially reduced complex formation between MT1-MMP and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), suggesting that Hic-5 bridges MT1-MMP and FAK. Finally, Hic-5 LIM2–LIM3 deletion mutants reduced sprout initiation. Hic-5, MT1-MMP and FAK colocalized in angiogenic vessels during porcine pregnancy, supporting that this complex assembles during angiogenesis in vivo. Collectively, Hic-5 appears to enhance complex formation between MT1-MMP and FAK in activated endothelial cells, which likely coordinates matrix proteolysis and cell motility. PMID:26769900

  5. Expression of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in papillomavirus-positive cells: role of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and HPV8 E7 gene products.

    PubMed

    Smola-Hess, Sigrun; Pahne, Jenny; Mauch, Cornelia; Zigrino, Paola; Smola, Hans; Pfister, Herbert J

    2005-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix. They are involved in cellular proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. MT-1 MMP, a membrane-bound MMP, is expressed in carcinomas of the uterine cervix in vivo. This type of cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Here it was shown that keratinocytes transformed with HPV16 or HPV18 in vitro, and HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines, constitutively expressed MT-1 MMP. Expression of the E7 protein from the mucosal and cutaneous high-risk types HPV16 and HPV8, but not from the cutaneous low-risk type HPV1, was sufficient to induce MT-1 MMP expression in primary human keratinocytes and HaCaT cells. As a consequence, MMP-2 was activated. MT-1 MMP expression might play a role in the HPV life cycle by promoting proliferation of host cells and might contribute to their invasive phenotype during malignant progression.

  6. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase cytoplasmic tail binding protein-1 (MTCBP-1) acts as an eukaryotic aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the methionine salvage pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Wakako; Gotoh, Isamu; Uekita, Takamasa; Seiki, Motoharu

    2005-06-01

    MTCBP-1 was identified as a protein that binds the cytoplasmic tail of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Since MTCBP-1 has a putative beta-barrel structure, it is presumably a member of the recently proposed cupin superfamily that contains tremendously diverged functions of proteins in spite of their well-conserved beta-barrel structure. MTCBP-1 shows significant homology to the bacterial aci-reductone dioxygenase (ARD) in the cupin family, which is an enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle). Since it is difficult to speculate the functions of cupin proteins simply based on their sequence homology, we examined whether the eukaryotic ARD homologs surely function in the methionine metabolism. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, yeast could grow when substrate of MTA cycle was provided. Disruption of the yeast ARD homolog, YMR009w gene, abolished ability of the cells to grow in this culture condition. Re-expression of either the YMR009w or MTCBP-1 gene restored the cell growth. Mutation analysis revealed that the glutamic acid residue in the beta-barrel fold and the N-terminal extension from the beta-barrel fold were found to be important for the activity to restore the growth. Thus, MTCBP-1 isolated as a binding protein for MT1-MMP was demonstrated to function as an ARD-like enzyme in the MTA cycle in yeast.

  7. Evidence for a cooperative role of gelatinase A and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase during Xenopus laevis development.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takashi; Hartman, Rebecca; Fu, Liezhen; Amano, Tosikazu; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a large family of extracellular or membrane-bound proteases. Their ability to cleave extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins has implicated a role in ECM remodeling to affect cell fate and behavior during development and in pathogenesis. We have shown previously that membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP [corrected] is coexpressed temporally and spatially with the MMP gelatinase A (GelA) in all cell types of the intestine and tail where GelA is expressed during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, suggesting a cooperative role of these MMPs in development. Here, we show that Xenopus GelA and MT1-MMP interact with each other in vivo and that overexpression of MT1-MMP and GelA together in Xenopus embryos leads to the activation of pro-GelA. We further show that both MMPs are expressed during Xenopus embryogenesis, although MT1-MMP gene is expressed earlier than the GelA gene. To investigate whether the embryonic MMPs play a role in development, we have studied whether precocious expression of these MMPs alters development. Our results show that overexpression of both MMPs causes developmental abnormalities and embryonic death by a mechanism that requires the catalytic activity of the MMPs. More importantly, we show that coexpression of wild type MT1-MMP and GelA leads to a cooperative effect on embryonic development and that this cooperative effect is abolished when the catalytic activity of either MMP is eliminated through a point mutation in the catalytic domain. Thus, our studies support a cooperative role of these MMPs in embryonic development, likely through the activation of pro-GelA by MT1-MMP.

  8. Critical role of transient activity of MT1-MMP for ECM degradation in invadopodia.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ayako; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hosino, Daisuke; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichikawa, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Focal degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is the first step in the invasion of cancer cells. MT1-MMP is a potent membrane proteinase employed by aggressive cancer cells. In our previous study, we reported that MT1-MMP was preferentially located at membrane protrusions called invadopodia, where MT1-MMP underwent quick turnover. Our computer simulation and experiments showed that this quick turnover was essential for the degradation of ECM at invadopodia (Hoshino, D., et al., (2012) PLoS Comp. Biol., 8: e1002479). Here we report on characterization and analysis of the ECM-degrading activity of MT1-MMP, aiming at elucidating a possible reason for its repetitive insertion in the ECM degradation. First, in our computational model, we found a very narrow transient peak in the activity of MT1-MMP followed by steady state activity. This transient activity was due to the inhibition by TIMP-2, and the steady state activity of MT1-MMP decreased dramatically at higher TIMP-2 concentrations. Second, we evaluated the role of the narrow transient activity in the ECM degradation. When the transient activity was forcibly suppressed in computer simulations, the ECM degradation was heavily suppressed, indicating the essential role of this transient peak in the ECM degradation. Third, we compared continuous and pulsatile turnover of MT1-MMP in the ECM degradation at invadopodia. The pulsatile insertion showed basically consistent results with the continuous insertion in the ECM degradation, and the ECM degrading efficacy depended heavily on the transient activity of MT1-MMP in both models. Unexpectedly, however, low-frequency/high-concentration insertion of MT1-MMP was more effective in ECM degradation than high-frequency/low-concentration pulsatile insertion even if the time-averaged amount of inserted MT1-MMP was the same. The present analysis and characterization of ECM degradation by MT1-MMP together with our previous report indicate a dynamic nature of MT1-MMP at

  9. Establishment and validation of computational model for MT1-MMP dependent ECM degradation and intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Quaranta, Vito; Weaver, Alissa M; Seiki, Motoharu; Ichikawa, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    MT1-MMP is a potent invasion-promoting membrane protease employed by aggressive cancer cells. MT1-MMP localizes preferentially at membrane protrusions called invadopodia where it plays a central role in degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Previous reports suggested a role for a continuous supply of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation. However, the turnover rate of MT1-MMP and the extent to which the turnover contributes to the ECM degradation at invadopodia have not been clarified. To approach this problem, we first performed FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching) experiments with fluorescence-tagged MT1-MMP focusing on a single invadopodium and found very rapid recovery in FRAP signals, approximated by double-exponential plots with time constants of 26 s and 259 s. The recovery depended primarily on vesicle transport, but negligibly on lateral diffusion. Next we constructed a computational model employing the observed kinetics of the FRAP experiments. The simulations successfully reproduced our FRAP experiments. Next we inhibited the vesicle transport both experimentally, and in simulation. Addition of drugs inhibiting vesicle transport blocked ECM degradation experimentally, and the simulation showed no appreciable ECM degradation under conditions inhibiting vesicle transport. In addition, the degree of the reduction in ECM degradation depended on the degree of the reduction in the MT1-MMP turnover. Thus, our experiments and simulations have established the role of the rapid turnover of MT1-MMP in ECM degradation at invadopodia. Furthermore, our simulations suggested synergetic contributions of proteolytic activity and the MT1-MMP turnover to ECM degradation because there was a nonlinear and marked reduction in ECM degradation if both factors were reduced simultaneously. Thus our computational model provides a new in silico tool to design and evaluate intervention strategies in cancer cell invasion.

  10. Molecular signature of MT1-MMP: transactivation of the downstream universal gene network in cancer.

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Dmitri V; Savinov, Alexei Y; Williams, Roy; Liu, Kang; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Krajewski, Stan; Strongin, Alex Y

    2008-06-01

    Invasion-promoting MT1-MMP is directly linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Our studies led us to identify those genes, the expression of which is universally linked to MT1-MMP in multiple tumor types. Genome-wide expression profiling of MT1-MMP-overexpressing versus MT1-MMP-silenced cancer cells and a further data mining analysis of the preexisting expression database of 190 human tumors of 14 cancer types led us to identify 11 genes, the expression of which correlated firmly and universally with that of MT1-MMP (P < 0.00001). These genes included regulators of energy metabolism (NNT), trafficking and membrane fusion (SLCO2A1 and ANXA7), signaling and transcription (NR3C1, JAG1, PI3K delta, and CK2 alpha), chromatin rearrangement (SMARCA1), cell division (STK38/NDR1), apoptosis (DAPK1), and mRNA splicing (SNRPB2). Our subsequent extensive analysis of cultured cells, tumor xenografts, and cancer patient biopsies supported our data mining. Our results suggest that transcriptional reprogramming of the specific downstream genes, which themselves are associated with tumorigenesis, represents a distinctive "molecular signature" of the proteolytically active MT1-MMP. We suggest that the transactivation activity of MT1-MMP contributes to the promigratory cell phenotype, which is induced by this tumorigenic proteinase. The activated downstream gene network then begins functioning in unison with MT1-MMP to rework the signaling, transport, cell division, energy metabolism, and other critical cell functions and to commit the cell to migration, invasion, and, consequently, tumorigenesis.

  11. PGE2 induces angiogenesis via MT1-MMP-mediated activation of the TGFbeta/Alk5 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Alfranca, Arántzazu; López-Oliva, Juan Manuel; Genís, Laura; López-Maderuelo, Dolores; Mirones, Isabel; Salvado, Dolores; Quesada, Antonio J; Arroyo, Alicia G; Redondo, Juan Miguel

    2008-08-15

    The development of a new vascular network is essential for the onset and progression of many pathophysiologic processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 displays a proangiogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo models, mediated principally through its metabolite prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Here, we provide evidence for a novel signaling route through which PGE(2) activates the Alk5-Smad3 pathway in endothelial cells. PGE(2) induces Alk5-dependent Smad3 nuclear translocation and DNA binding, and the activation of this pathway involves the release of active TGFbeta from its latent form through a process mediated by the metalloproteinase MT1-MMP, whose membrane clustering is promoted by PGE(2). MT1-MMP-dependent transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling through Alk5 is also required for PGE(2)-induced endothelial cord formation in vitro, and Alk5 kinase activity is required for PGE(2)-induced neovascularization in vivo. These findings identify a novel signaling pathway linking PGE(2) and TGFbeta, 2 effectors involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis, and reveal potential targets for the treatment of angiogenesis-related disorders.

  12. ELK3 suppresses angiogenesis by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of ETS-1 on MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Heo, Sun-Hee; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2014-01-01

    Ets transcription factors play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Knockout of the Ets gene family members in mice resulted in disrupted angiogenesis and malformed vascular systems. In this study, the role and mechanism of ELK3, an Ets factor, in angiogenesis was investigated using ELK3-specific siRNA in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo implantation assay. The suppression of ELK3 expression resulted in the reinforcement of VEGF-induced tube formation in HUVECs. The in vivo Matrigel plug assay also showed that ELK3 knockdown resulted in increased angiogenesis. Luciferase activity of the MT1-MMP promoter induced by ETS-1 factor was attenuated ELK3 co-transfection. CHIP assay showed the binding of ELK3 on the MT1-MMP promoter. MT1-MMP knockdown in the ELK3 knockdowned cells resulted in the decrease of tube formation suggesting that MT1-MMP transcriptional repression is required for ELK3-mediated anti-angiogenesis effect. Our data also showed that the suppressive effect of ELK3 on the angiogenesis was partly due to the inhibitory effect of ELK3 to the ETS-1 transcriptional activity on the MT1-MMP promoter rather than direct suppression of ELK3 on the target gene, since the expression level of co-repressor Sin3A is low in endothelial cells. Our results suggest that ELK3 plays a negative role of VEGF-induced angiogenesis through indirectly inhibiting ETS-1 function.

  13. Targeting a Single Function of the Multifunctional Matrix Metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    PubMed Central

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte; Maertens, Ludovic; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Madsen, Daniel H.; Melander, Maria C.; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla; Noel, Agnès; Holmbeck, Kenn; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The group of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is responsible for multiple processes of extracellular matrix remodeling in the healthy body but also for matrix and tissue destruction during cancer invasion and metastasis. The understanding of the contributions from each individual MMP, both in healthy and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well-documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks the enzyme ability to activate proMMP-2 without interfering with the collagenolytic function or the general proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP. Using this antibody, we have shown that the MT1-MMP-catalyzed activation of proMMP-2 is involved in the outgrowth of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells in a collagen matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role. PMID:23413031

  14. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP: impact on lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte; Maertens, Ludovic; Jürgensen, Henrik J; Madsen, Daniel H; Melander, Maria C; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla; Noel, Agnès; Holmbeck, Kenn; Engelholm, Lars H; Behrendt, Niels

    2013-04-12

    The group of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is responsible for multiple processes of extracellular matrix remodeling in the healthy body but also for matrix and tissue destruction during cancer invasion and metastasis. The understanding of the contributions from each individual MMP, both in healthy and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well-documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks the enzyme ability to activate proMMP-2 without interfering with the collagenolytic function or the general proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP. Using this antibody, we have shown that the MT1-MMP-catalyzed activation of proMMP-2 is involved in the outgrowth of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells in a collagen matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role.

  15. 1-integrin and MT1-MMP promote tumor cell migration in 2D but not in 3D fibronectin microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corall, Silke; Haraszti, Tamas; Bartoschik, Tanja; Spatz, Joachim Pius; Ludwig, Thomas; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a crucial event for physiological processes, such as embryonic development and wound healing, as well as for pathological processes, such as cancer dissemination and metastasis formation. Cancer cell migration is a result of the concerted action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), expressed by cancer cells to degrade the surrounding matrix, and integrins, the transmembrane receptors responsible for cell binding to matrix proteins. While it is known that cell-microenvironment interactions are essential for migration, the role of the physical state of such interactions remains still unclear. In this study we investigated human fibrosarcoma cell migration in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) fibronectin (FN) microenvironments. By using antibody blocking approach and cell-binding site mutation, we determined that -integrin is the main mediator of fibrosarcoma cell migration in 2D FN, whereas in 3D fibrillar FN, the binding of - and -integrins is not necessary for cell movement in the fibrillar network. Furthermore, while the general inhibition of MMPs with GM6001 has no effect on cell migration in both 2D and 3D FN matrices, we observed opposing effect after targeted silencing of a membrane-bound MMP, namely MT1-MMP. In 2D fibronectin, silencing of MT1-MMP results in decreased migration speed and loss of directionality, whereas in 3D FN matrices, cell migration speed is increased and integrin-mediated signaling for actin dynamics is promoted. Our results suggest that the fibrillar nature of the matrix governs the migratory behavior of fibrosarcoma cells. Therefore, to hinder migration and dissemination of diseased cells, matrix molecules should be directly targeted, rather than specific subtypes of receptors at the cell membrane.

  16. NHE1 mediates MDA-MB-231 cells invasion through the regulation of MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yani; Chang, Guoqiang; Wang, Jian; Jin, Weina; Wang, Lihong; Li, Huawen; Ma, Li; Li, Qinghua; Pang, Tianxiang

    2011-08-15

    Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 (NHE1), an important regulator of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and extracellular pH (pH(e)), has been shown to play a key role in breast cancer metastasis. However, the exact mechanism by which NHE1 mediates breast cancer metastasis is not yet well known. We showed here that inhibition of NHE1 activity, with specific inhibitor Cariporide, could suppress MDA-MB-231 cells invasion as well as the activity and expression of MT1-MMP. Overexpression of MT1-MMP resulted in a distinguished increase in MDA-MB-231 cells invasiveness, but treatment with Cariporide reversed the MT1-MMP-mediated enhanced invasiveness. To explore the role of MAPK signaling pathways in NHE1-mediated breast cancer metastasis, we compared the difference of constitutively phosphorylated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK in non-invasive MCF-7 cells and invasive MDA-MB-231 cells. Interestingly, we found that the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in MDA-MB-231 cells were higher than in MCF-7 cells, but both MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells expressed similar constitutively phosphorylated JNK. Treating MDA-MB-231 cells with Cariporide led to decreased phosphorylation level of both p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in a time-dependent manner, but JNK activity was not influenced. Supplementation with MAPK inhibitor (MEK inhibitor PD98059, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and JNK inhibitor SP600125) or Cariporide all exhibited significant depression of MDA-MB-231 cells invasion and MT1-MMP expression. Furthermore, we co-treated MDA-MB-231 cells with MAPK inhibitor and Cariporide. The result showed that Cariporide synergistically suppressed invasion and MT1-MMP expression with MEK inhibitor and p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not be synergistic with the JNK inhibitor. These findings suggest that NHE1 mediates MDA-MB-231 cells invasion partly through regulating MT1-MMP in ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways dependent manner.

  17. Loss of MT1-MMP causes cell senescence and nuclear defects which can be reversed by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Soria-Valles, Clara; Osorio, Fernando G; Gutiérrez-Abril, Jesús; Garabaya, Cecilia; Aguirre, Alina; Fueyo, Antonio; Fernández-García, María Soledad; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos

    2015-07-14

    MT1-MMP (MMP14) is a collagenolytic enzyme located at the cell surface and implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Mmp14(-/-) mice present dwarfism, bone abnormalities, and premature death. We demonstrate herein that the loss of MT1-MMP also causes cardiac defects and severe metabolic changes, and alters the cytoskeleton and the nuclear lamina structure. Moreover, the absence of MT1-MMP induces a senescent phenotype characterized by up-regulation of p16(INK4a) and p21(CIP1/WAF) (1), increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, generation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, and somatotroph axis alterations. Consistent with the role of retinoic acid signaling in nuclear lamina stabilization, treatment of Mmp14(-/-) mice with all-trans retinoic acid reversed the nuclear lamina alterations, partially rescued the cell senescence phenotypes, ameliorated the pathological defects in bone, skin, and heart, and extended their life span. These results demonstrate that nuclear architecture and cell senescence can be modulated by a membrane protease, in a process involving the ECM as a key regulator of nuclear stiffness under cell stress conditions.

  18. Loss of MT1-MMP causes cell senescence and nuclear defects which can be reversed by retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Soria-Valles, Clara; Osorio, Fernando G; Gutiérrez-Abril, Jesús; Garabaya, Cecilia; Aguirre, Alina; Fueyo, Antonio; Fernández-García, María Soledad; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    MT1-MMP (MMP14) is a collagenolytic enzyme located at the cell surface and implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Mmp14−/− mice present dwarfism, bone abnormalities, and premature death. We demonstrate herein that the loss of MT1-MMP also causes cardiac defects and severe metabolic changes, and alters the cytoskeleton and the nuclear lamina structure. Moreover, the absence of MT1-MMP induces a senescent phenotype characterized by up-regulation of p16INK4a and p21CIP1/WAF1, increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, generation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, and somatotroph axis alterations. Consistent with the role of retinoic acid signaling in nuclear lamina stabilization, treatment of Mmp14−/− mice with all-trans retinoic acid reversed the nuclear lamina alterations, partially rescued the cell senescence phenotypes, ameliorated the pathological defects in bone, skin, and heart, and extended their life span. These results demonstrate that nuclear architecture and cell senescence can be modulated by a membrane protease, in a process involving the ECM as a key regulator of nuclear stiffness under cell stress conditions. PMID:25991604

  19. PDGF-D promotes dermal fibroblast invasion in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix via Snail-mediated MT1-MMP upregulation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhuo; Feng, Jinfa; Liu, Yusi; Deng, Li-Li; Lu, Changlian

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on the malignant tumor microenvironment, which plays important roles in tumor occurrence, progression and metastasis. Fibroblasts are recruited by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFs) and invade the tumor microenvironment. In the PDGF family, PDGF-B has been reported to play an important role in the recruitment and invasion programs. However, whether PDGF-D plays a role in these programs remains unclear. We generated a recombinant plasmid expressing human PDGF-D and transfected the plasmid to dermal fibroblasts to examine the effects on cell invasive activities in 3D type I collagen gels. PDGF-D plasmid transfection enhanced fibroblast invasive activities both in invasive cell numbers and invasion depth in 3D collagen gels. These effects were blocked by Snail-specific siRNA transfection. PDGF-D transfection significantly induced Snail expression at both mRNA and protein levels. PDGF-D further upregulated MT1-MMP mRNA and protein expressions and this was inhibited when Snail was knocked down by siRNA. Both Snail and MT1-MMP expressions in fibroblasts and cellular invasive activities in 3D collagen induced by PDGF-D were inhibited by LY294002, SP600125, and U1026, the inhibitors of PI3K, JNK, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, respectively. However, no effects were observed in response to the P38MAPK signaling pathway inhibitor SB203580. These effects of PDGF-D were confirmed by using the culture supernatants of the transfectants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-D plays important roles in the recruitment and invasion programs of fibroblasts via the activation of PI3K, JNK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, and upregulation of Snail and downstream effecter MT1-MMP. These findings indicate that PDGF-D is an important player in the tumor microenvironment for fibroblast recruitment.

  20. TOM1L1 drives membrane delivery of MT1-MMP to promote ERBB2-induced breast cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Clément; Collin, Guillaume; Descamps, Simon; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Simon, Valérie; Reymond, Nicolas; Fernandez, Laurent; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Georget, Virginie; Urbach, Serge; Lasorsa, Laurence; Orsetti, Béatrice; Boissière-Michot, Florence; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Theillet, Charles; Roche, Serge; Benistant, Christine

    2016-01-01

    ERBB2 overexpression in human breast cancer leads to invasive carcinoma but the mechanism is not clearly understood. Here we report that TOM1L1 is co-amplified with ERBB2 and defines a subgroup of HER2+/ER+ tumours with early metastatic relapse. TOM1L1 encodes a GAT domain-containing trafficking protein and is a SRC substrate that negatively regulates tyrosine kinase signalling. We demonstrate that TOM1L1 upregulation enhances the invasiveness of ERBB2-transformed cells. This pro-tumoural function does not involve SRC, but implicates membrane-bound membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP)-dependent activation of invadopodia, membrane protrusions specialized in extracellular matrix degradation. Mechanistically, ERBB2 elicits the indirect phosphorylation of TOM1L1 on Ser321. The phosphorylation event promotes GAT-dependent association of TOM1L1 with the sorting protein TOLLIP and trafficking of the metalloprotease MT1-MMP from endocytic compartments to invadopodia for tumour cell invasion. Collectively, these results show that TOM1L1 is an important element of an ERBB2-driven proteolytic invasive programme and that TOM1L1 amplification potentially enhances the metastatic progression of ERBB2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26899482

  1. Chaperone Nanobodies Protect Gelsolin Against MT1-MMP Degradation and Alleviate Amyloid Burden in the Gelsolin Amyloidosis Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Van Overbeke, Wouter; Verhelle, Adriaan; Everaert, Inge; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Cuvelier, Claude; Derave, Wim; Gettemans, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Gelsolin amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant incurable disease caused by a point mutation in the GSN gene (G654A/T), specifically affecting secreted plasma gelsolin. Incorrect folding of the mutant (D187N/Y) second gelsolin domain leads to a pathological proteolytic cascade. D187N/Y gelsolin is first cleaved by furin in the trans-Golgi network, generating a 68 kDa fragment (C68). Upon secretion, C68 is cleaved by MT1-MMP-like proteases in the extracellular matrix, releasing 8 kDa and 5 kDa amyloidogenic peptides which aggregate in multiple tissues and cause disease-associated symptoms. We developed nanobodies that recognize the C68 fragment, but not native wild type gelsolin, and used these as molecular chaperones to mitigate gelsolin amyloid buildup in a mouse model that recapitulates the proteolytic cascade. We identified gelsolin nanobodies that potently reduce C68 proteolysis by MT1-MMP in vitro. Converting these nanobodies into an albumin-binding format drastically increased their serum half-life in mice, rendering them suitable for intraperitoneal injection. A 12-week treatment schedule of heterozygote D187N gelsolin transgenic mice with recombinant bispecific gelsolin-albumin nanobody significantly decreased gelsolin buildup in the endomysium and concomitantly improved muscle contractile properties. These findings demonstrate that nanobodies may be of considerable value in the treatment of gelsolin amyloidosis and related diseases. PMID:25023329

  2. Functional interplay between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and membrane type 1–matrix metalloproteinase in migrating endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Genís, Laura; Gonzalo, Pilar; Tutor, Antonio S.; Gálvez, Beatriz G.; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Zaragoza, Carlos; Lamas, Santiago; Tryggvason, Karl; Apte, Suneel S.

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for vascular homeostasis and is also a critical modulator of angiogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms of NO action during angiogenesis remain elusive. We have investigated the potential relationship between NO and membrane type 1–matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) during endothelial migration and capillary tube formation. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) colocalizes with MT1-MMP at motility-associated structures in migratory human endothelial cells (ECs); moreover, NO is produced at these structures and is released into the medium during EC migration. We have therefore addressed 2 questions: (1) the putative regulation of MT1-MMP by NO in migratory ECs; and (2) the requirement for MT1-MMP in NO-induced EC migration and tube formation. NO upregulates MT1-MMP membrane clustering on migratory human ECs, and this is accompanied by increased degradation of type I collagen substrate. MT1-MMP membrane expression and localization are impaired in lung ECs from eNOS-deficient mice, and these cells also show impaired migration and tube formation in vitro. Inhibition of MT1-MMP with a neutralizing antibody impairs NOinduced tube formation by human ECs, and NO-induced endothelial migration and tube formation are impaired in lung ECs from mice deficient in MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP thus appears to be a key molecular effector of NO during the EC migration and angiogenic processes, and is a potential therapeutic target for NO-associated vascular disorders. PMID:17606763

  3. Modulation of Breast Cancer Cell Functions by Intracellular Signaling Through the Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    mutations in the ecto- and cytoplasmic domains ofMT1-MMP. For this purpose we used: 1) a mutant with a complete deletion of the cytoplasmic domain (A563...582), 2) a mutant with a point mutation (E240A) in the catalytic domain that causes loss of the proteolytic activ- ity, and 3) a mutant with a deletion ...mediate this effect: decreased expression of the uPA and! or uPA receptor (uPAR) gene , removal of uPAR-bound uPA or increased internalization and degrada

  4. Endo180 and MT1-MMP are involved in the phagocytosis of collagen scaffolds by macrophages and is regulated by interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Ye, Q; Xing, Q; Ren, Y; Harmsen, M C; Bank, R A

    2010-10-07

    Subcutaneously implanted disks of hexamethylenediisocyanate or glutaraldehyde cross-linked sheep collagen (referred to as HDSC and GDSC, respectively) in mice show large differences in degradation rate. Although comparable numbers of macrophages are seen in HDSC and GDSC, phagocytosis of collagen by macrophages occurred only in GDSC. The molecular mechanisms involved in the phagocytosis of collagen by macrophages are essentially unknown. Immunofluorescence and RT-PCR showed that Endo180 was expressed in GDSC only. TissueFaxs showed that Endo180 co-localized with MT1-MMP on F4÷80 positive cells, which is likely responsible for the phagocytosis in GDSC. RT-PCR further showed that Endo180 expression correlated with high levels of IFN-γ mRNA. In vitro, IFN-γ induced the expression Endo180 and MT1-MMP in murine macrophages cultured on collagen type I (although too high levels of IFN-γ dampened the expression of Endo180 and MT1-MMP). Moreover, the expression of Endo180 and MT1-MMP induced by IFN-γ can be inhibited through IL-10. The differences in microenvironment between GDSC and HDSC (high IFN-γ and low IL-10 levels in GDSC, low IFN-γ and high IL-10 levels in HDSC) provide an explanation why phagocytosis of collagen by macrophages is only seen in GDSC. In summary, we show for the first time that the IFN-γ dependent co-expression of Endo180 and MT1-MMP on macrophages coincides with collagen phagocytosis, thus providing evidence that the mechanism of collagen phagocytosis operating in the foreign body reaction by macrophages is comparable with the mechanism of intracellular collagen degradation by fibroblasts seen under physiological conditions.

  5. UVA-mediated down-regulation of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP coincides with impaired angiogenic phenotype of human dermal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cauchard, Jean-Hubert; Robinet, Arnaud; Poitevin, Stéphane; Bobichon, Hélene; Maziere, Jean-Claude; Bellon, Georges; Hornebeck, William

    2006-06-30

    UVA irradiation, dose-dependently (5-20 J/cm2), was shown to impair the morphogenic differentiation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) on Matrigel. Parallely, UVA down-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. On the contrary, the production of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 by HMECs increased following UVA treatment. The inhibitory effect of UVA on MMP expression and pseudotubes formation was mediated by UVA-generated singlet oxygen (1O2). The contribution of MT1-MMP, but not TIMP-1, to the regulation of HMECs' angiogenic phenotype following UVA irradiation was suggested using elastin-derived peptides and TIMP-1 blocking antibody, respectively.

  6. UVA-mediated down-regulation of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP coincides with impaired angiogenic phenotype of human dermal endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cauchard, Jean-Hubert; Robinet, Arnaud; Poitevin, Stephane; Bobichon, Helene; Maziere, Jean-Claude; Bellon, Georges; Hornebeck, William . E-mail: william.hornebeck@univ-reims.fr

    2006-06-30

    UVA irradiation, dose-dependently (5-20 J/cm{sup 2}), was shown to impair the morphogenic differentiation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) on Matrigel. Parallely, UVA down-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. On the contrary, the production of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 by HMECs increased following UVA treatment. The inhibitory effect of UVA on MMP expression and pseudotubes formation was mediated by UVA-generated singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}). The contribution of MT1-MMP, but not TIMP-1, to the regulation of HMECs' angiogenic phenotype following UVA irradiation was suggested using elastin-derived peptides and TIMP-1 blocking antibody, respectively.

  7. Protein expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Poswar, Fabiano; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Gomes, Emisael Stênio Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; de-Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2015-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are 2 skin neoplasms with distinct potentials to invasion and metastasis. Actinic keratosis (AK) is a precursor lesion of SCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in samples of BCC (n = 29), SCC (n = 12), and AK (n = 13). The ratio of positive cells to total cells was used to quantify the staining. Statistical significance was considered under the level P < .05. We found a higher expression of MMP-2 in tumor stroma and parenchyma of SCC as compared to BCC. The expression of this protein was also similar between SCC and its precursor actinic keratosis, and it was higher in the stroma of high-risk BCC when compared to low-risk BCC. MT1-MMP, which is an activator of MMP-2, was similarly expressed in all groups. Our results suggest that MMP-2 expression may contribute to the distinct invasive patterns seen in SCC and BCC.

  8. Synthesis, Kinetic Characterization and Metabolism of Diastereomeric 2-(1-(4-Phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)ethyl)thiiranes as Potent Gelatinase and MT1-MMP Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gooyit, Major; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Boggess, Bill; Oliver, Allen G.; Fridman, Rafael; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2010-01-01

    Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Hence, small molecule inhibitors of these enzymes are highly sought for use as potential therapeutic agents. 2-(4-Phenoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)thiirane (SB-3CT) has previously been demonstrated to be a potent and selective inhibitor of gelatinases, however, it is rapidly metabolized because of oxidation at the para position of the phenoxy ring and at the α-position to the sulfonyl group. α-Methyl variants of SB-3CT were conceived to improve metabolic stability and as mechanistic probes. We describe herein the synthesis and evaluation of these structural variants as potent inhibitors of gelatinases. Two (compounds 5b and 5d) among the four synthetic stereoisomers were found to exhibit slow-binding inhibition of gelatinases and MMP-14 (MT1-MMP), which is a hallmark of the mechanism of this class of inhibitors. The ability of these compounds to inhibit MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14 could target cancer tissues more effectively. Metabolism of the newly synthesized inhibitors showed that both oxidation at the α-position to the sulfonyl group and oxidation at the para position of the terminal phenyl ring were prevented. Instead oxidation on the thiirane sulfur is the only biotransformation pathway observed for these gelatinase inhibitors. PMID:19824893

  9. Structural Studies of Matrix Metalloproteinase by X-Ray Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Decaneto, Elena; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Ogata, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes whose endopeptidase activity is dependent on the presence of specific metal ions. MT1-MMP (or MMP-14), which has been implicated in tumor progression and cellular invasion, contains a membrane-spanning region located C-terminal to a hemopexin-like domain and an N-terminal catalytic domain. We recombinantly expressed the catalytic domain of human MT1-MMP in E. coli and purified it from inclusion bodies using a refolding protocol that yielded significant quantities of active protein. Crystals of MT1-MMP were obtained using the vapour diffusion method. Here, we describe the protocols used for crystallization and the data analysis together with the resulting diffraction pattern.

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9, myofibroblasts and Ki-67 in actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Bianca C; Scotti, Fernanda M; Vieira, Daniella S C; Biz, Michelle T; Castro, Renata G; Modolo, Filipe

    2015-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), myofibroblasts (MFs) and epithelial proliferation have key roles in neoplastic progression. In this study immunoexpression of MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, presence of MFs and the epithelial proliferation index were investigated in actinic cheilitis (AC), lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and mucocele (MUC). Thirty cases of AC, thirty cases of LSCC and twenty cases of MUC were selected for immunohistochemical investigation of the proteins MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Ki-67. The MMP-1 expression in the epithelial component was higher in the AC than the MUC and LSCC. In the connective tissue, the expression was higher in the LSCC. MMP-2 showed lower epithelial and stromal immunostaining in the LSCC when compared to the AC and MUC. The epithelial staining for MMP-9 was higher in the AC when compared to the LSCC. However, in the connective tissue, the expression was lower in the AC compared to other lesions. The cell proliferation rate was increased in proportion to the severity of dysplasia in the AC, while in the LSCC it was higher in well-differentiated lesions compared to moderately differentiated. There were no statistically significant differences in number of MFs present in the lesions studied. The results suggest that MMPs could affect the biological behaviour of ACs and LSCCs inasmuch as they could participate in the development and progression from premalignant lesions to malignant lesions.

  11. Cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NF-κB-MT1MMP in activating proMMP-2 by ET-1 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chowdhury, Animesh; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused an increase in the expression and activation of proMMP-2 in the cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in this scenario. We demonstrated that (i) pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin; PKC-α inhibitor, Go6976; p(38)MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and NF-κB inhibitor, Bay11-7082 inhibited the expression and activation of proMMP-2 induced by ET-1; (ii) ET-1 treatment to the cells stimulated NADPH oxidase and PKCα activity, p(38)MAPK phosphorylation as well as NF-κB activation by translocation of NF-κBp65 subunit from cytosol to the nucleus, and subsequently by increasing its DNA-binding activity; (iii) ET-1 increases MT1-MMP expression, which was inhibited upon pretreatment with apocynin, Go6976, SB293580, and Bay 11-7082; (iv) ET-1 treatment to the cells downregulated TIMP-2 level. Although apocynin and Go6976 pretreatment reversed ET-1 effect on TIMP-2 level, yet pretreatment of the cells with SB203580 and Bay 11-7082 did not show any discernible change in TIMP-2 level by ET-1. Overall, our results suggest that ET-1-induced activation of proMMP-2 is mediated via cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NFκB-MT1MMP signaling pathways along with a marked decrease in TIMP-2 expression in the cells.

  12. Pyrogallol abates VSMC migration via modulation of Caveolin-1, matrix metalloproteinase and intima hyperplasia in carotid ligation mouse.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Dong; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Lue, Sheng-I; Chia, Yi-Chen; Shyue, Song-Kun; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to intimal hyperplasia and other vascular diseases. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been recognized as a proliferative inhibitor of VSMCs and is likely to be an important regulator of VSMC migration. The underlying mechanism of pyrogallol on the VSMC migration is not fully understood. This study attempted to dissect the role of Cav-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in VSMC migration and to investigate the effect of pyrogallol on VSMC mobility during carotid artery ligation mice. The mRNA expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was down-regulated in cultured VSMC prepared from Cav-1-deficient (Cav-1 KO) mice whereas MMP-14 expression was up-regulated. Pyrogallol effectively inhibited the migration of Cav-1 KO VSMC by promoting the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2. Pyrogallol also inhibited the migration of Cav-1 wild type (WT) VSMC, however, by increasing TIMP-1 expression and repressing MMP-2 activity. In a parallel in vivo study, intra-peritoneal (ip) of pyrogallol to carotid artery ligated mice significantly suppressed intima formation in mice carotid artery. Furthermore, the proMMP-9 activity in pyrogallol-treated mice serum significantly increased from Day 0 to Day 2 and decreased from Day 2 to Day 7 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, WT mice treated with pyrogallol had significantly reduced neointima formation, whereas no differences were observed in Cav-1 knock out (KO) mice. These results suggest that pyrogallol not only inhibited VSMC migration but also effectively diminishes the severity of neointima hyperplasia, implying that pyrogallol possesses potential anti-atherogenic effects for the treatment of vascular diseases.

  13. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition by Heterotrimeric Triple-Helical Peptide Transition State Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Manishabrata; Stawikowska, Roma; Tokmina-Roszyk, Dorota; Fields, Gregg B.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in numerous pathologies. An overall lack of selectivity has rendered active site targeted MMP inhibitors problematic. The present study describes MMP inhibitors that function by binding both secondary binding sites (exosites) and the active site. Heterotrimeric triple-helical peptide transition-state analog inhibitors (THPIs) were assembled utilizing click chemistry. Three different heterotrimers were constructed, allowing for the inhibitory phosphinate moiety to be present uniquely in the leading, middle, or trailing strand of the triple-helix. All heterotrimeric constructs had sufficient thermally stability to warrant analysis as inhibitors. The heterotrimeric THPIs were effective against MMP-13 and MT1-MMP, with Ki spanning 100–400 nM. Unlike homotrimeric THPIs, the heterotrimeric THPIs offered complete selectivity between MT1-MMP and MMP-1. Exosite-based approaches are providing inhibitors with desired MMP selectivities. PMID:25766890

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 both sheds cell surface neuronal glial antigen 2 (NG2) proteoglycan on macrophages and governs the response to peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Tasuku; Remacle, Albert G; Angert, Mila; Shubayev, Igor; Shiryaev, Sergey A; Liu, Huaqing; Dolkas, Jennifer; Chernov, Andrei V; Strongin, Alex Y; Shubayev, Veronica I

    2015-02-06

    Neuronal glial antigen 2 (NG2) is an integral membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed by vascular pericytes, macrophages (NG2-Mφ), and progenitor glia of the nervous system. Herein, we revealed that NG2 shedding and axonal growth, either independently or jointly, depended on the pericellular remodeling events executed by membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14). Using purified NG2 ectodomain constructs, individual MMPs, and primary NG2-Mφ cultures, we demonstrated for the first time that MMP-14 performed as an efficient and unconventional NG2 sheddase and that NG2-Mφ infiltrated into the damaged peripheral nervous system. We then characterized the spatiotemporal relationships among MMP-14, MMP-2, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 in sciatic nerve. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2-free MMP-14 was observed in the primary Schwann cell cultures using the inhibitory hydroxamate warhead-based MP-3653 fluorescent reporter. In teased nerve fibers, MMP-14 translocated postinjury toward the nodes of Ranvier and its substrates, laminin and NG2. Inhibition of MMP-14 activity using the selective, function-blocking DX2400 human monoclonal antibody increased the levels of regeneration-associated factors, including laminin, growth-associated protein 43, and cAMP-dependent transcription factor 3, thereby promoting sensory axon regeneration after nerve crush. Concomitantly, DX2400 therapy attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity associated with nerve crush in rats. Together, our findings describe a new model in which MMP-14 proteolysis regulates the extracellular milieu and presents a novel therapeutic target in the damaged peripheral nervous system and neuropathic pain.

  15. Exosite Interactions Impact Matrix Metalloproteinase Collagen Specificities*

    PubMed Central

    Robichaud, Trista K.; Steffensen, Bjorn; Fields, Gregg B.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family selectively cleave collagens in vivo. However, the substrate structural determinants that facilitate interaction with specific MMPs are not well defined. We hypothesized that type I–III collagen sequences located N- or C-terminal to the physiological cleavage site mediate substrate selectivity among MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-14/membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP. The enzyme kinetics for hydrolysis of three fluorogenic triple-helical peptides (fTHPs) was evaluated herein. The first fTHP contained consensus residues 769–783 from type I–III collagens, the second inserted α1(II) collagen residues 763–768 N-terminal to the consensus sequence, and the third inserted α1(II) collagen residues 784–792 C-terminal to the consensus sequence. Our analyses showed that insertion of the C-terminal residues significantly increased kcat/Km and kcat for MMP-1. MMP-13 showed the opposite behavior with a decreased kcat/Km and kcat and a greatly improved Km in response to the C-terminal residues. Insertion of the N-terminal residues enhanced kcat/Km and kcat for MMP-8 and MT1-MMP. For MMP-2, the C-terminal residues enhanced Km and dramatically decreased kcat, resulting in a decrease in the overall activity. These changes in activities and kinetic parameters represented the collagen preferences of MMP-8, MMP-13, and MT1-MMP well. Thus, interactions with secondary binding sites (exosites) helped direct the specificity of these enzymes. However, MMP-1 collagen preferences were not recapitulated by the fTHP studies. The preference of MMP-1 for type III collagen appears to be primarily based on the flexibility of the hydrolysis site of type III collagen compared with types I and II. Further characterization of exosite determinants that govern interactions of MMPs with collagenous substrates should aid the development of pharmacotherapeutics that target individual MMPs. PMID:21896477

  16. General and specific host responses to bacterial infection in Peyer's patches: a role for stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3) during Salmonella enterica infection.

    PubMed

    Handley, Scott A; Miller, Virginia L

    2007-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) and Yersinia enterocolitica are enteric pathogens capable of colonizing and inducing inflammatory responses in Peyer's patches (PPs) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Although the tissue colonization pattern is similar between these two pathogens, their pathogenic lifestyles are quite different. For example, while S. typhimurium is primarily an intracellular pathogen, Y. enterocolitica survives primarily extracellularly. We determined and compared the transcriptional changes occurring in response to S. typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica colonization of PP using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. Both pathogens elicited a general inflammatory response indicated by the upregulation of cytokines and chemokines. However, specific differences were also observed, most notably in the transcriptional regulation of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and IFN-gamma-regulated genes in response to S. typhimurium but not Y. enterocolitica. Of particular note, a group of genes encoding matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) had increased transcript numbers in the PPs following infection with both pathogens. The experiments described here compare oral S. typhimurium or Y. enterocolitica infection in stromelysin-1 (MMP-3)-deficient mice (mmp-3(-/-)) with mice possessing functional MMP-3 (mmp-3(+/+)). There was little difference in the survival of MMP-3-deficient mice infected with Y. enterocolitica when compared with littermate controls. Surprisingly though, mmp-3(-/-) mice were markedly more resistant to S. typhimurium infection than the control mice. S. typhimurium was able to colonize mmp-3(-/-) mice, albeit in a delayed fashion, to equivalent levels as mmp-3(+/+) mice. Nevertheless, significantly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines were detected in tissues and serum in the mmp-3(-/-) mice in comparison with mmp-3(+/+) mice. We hypothesize that MMP-3 is involved in initiating an early and lethal cytokine response to S. typhimurium

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity in human airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Elshaw, Shona R; Henderson, Neil; Knox, Alan J; Watson, Susan A; Buttle, David J; Johnson, Simon R

    2004-01-01

    Airway remodelling is a feature of chronic asthma comprising smooth muscle hypertrophy and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) breakdown ECM, are involved in tissue remodelling and have been implicated in airway remodelling. Although mesenchymal cells are an important source of MMPs, little data are available on airway smooth muscle (ASM) derived MMPs. We therefore investigated MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) production and activity in human ASM cells.MMPs and TIMPs were examined using quantitative real-time RT–PCR, Western blotting, zymography and a quench fluorescence (QF) assay of total MMP activity.The most abundant MMPs were pro-MMP-2, pro- MMP-3, active MMP-3 and MT1-MMP. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression was low in cell lysates but high in conditioned medium. High TIMP secretion was confirmed by the ability of ASM-conditioned medium to inhibit recombinant MMP-2 in a QF assay. Thrombin increased MMP activity by activation of pro-MMP-2 independent of the conventional smooth muscle thrombin receptors PAR 1 and 4.In conclusion, ASM cells express pro-MMP-2, pro and active MMP-3, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP. Unstimulated cells secrete excess TIMP 1 and 2, preventing proteolytic activity. MMP-2 can be activated by thrombin which may contribute to airway remodelling. PMID:15265805

  18. Neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (NAM).

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ellen E; Hymowitz, Michelle; Schmidt, Cathleen E; Montana, Steve; Foda, Hussein; Zucker, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a novel soluble factor(s), neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinases (NAM), secreted by unstimulated normal human peripheral blood neutrophils that causes the activation of cell secreted promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2). Partially purified preparations of NAM have been isolated from the conditioned media of neutrophils employing gelatin-Sepharose chromatography and differential membrane filter centrifugation. NAM activity, as assessed by exposing primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or HT1080 cells to NAM followed by gelatin zymography, was seen within one hour. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and hydroxamic acid derived inhibitors of MMPs (CT1746 and BB94) abrogated the activation of proMMP-2 by NAM, while inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteases showed no effect. NAM also produced an increase in TIMP-2 binding to HUVEC and HT1080 cell surfaces that was inhibited by TIMP-2, CT1746, and BB94. Time-dependent increases in MT1-MMP protein and mRNA were seen following the addition of NAM to cells. These data support a role for NAM in cancer dissemination.

  19. Role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and MMP inhibitors on intracranial aneurysms: a review article

    PubMed Central

    Maradni, Azam; Khoshnevisan, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Hamzeh; Emamirazavi, Seyed Hasan; Noruzijavidan, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world, and about one-fourth of cerebrovasculardeaths are due to ruptured cerebral aneurysms (CA). Hence it is important to find a way to reduce aneurysmformation and its subsequent morbidity and mortality. Proteolytic activity capable of lysing gelatin hasbeen shown to be increased in aneurysm tissue and expression of plasmin, membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1(MT1-MMP), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in aneurysmal wall is more than what we observein normal cerebral arteries. MMP inhibitors such as doxycycline and statins may prohibit aneurysm formationand growth. MMPs are important in tissue remodeling associated with various physiological and pathologicalprocesses such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, apoptosis and tissue repair. In this article we review therole of MMPs and MMP inhibitors in formation of aneurysm. PMID:24926188

  20. Transient Collagen Triple-Helix Binding to a Key Metalloproteinase in Invasion and Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingchu; Marcink, Thomas C.; Gari, Raghavendar Reddy Sanganna; Marsh, Brendan P.; King, Gavin M.; Stawikowska, Roma; Fields, Gregg B.; Van Doren, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Skeletal development and invasion by tumor cells depends on proteolysis of collagen by the pericellular metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Its hemopexin-like (HPX) domain binds to collagen substrates to facilitate their digestion. Spin labeling and paramagnetic NMR detection have revealed how the HPX domain docks to collagen I-derived triple-helix. Mutations impairing triple-helical peptidase activity corroborate the interface. Saturation transfer difference NMR suggests rotational averaging around the longitudinal axis of the triple-helical peptide. Part of the interface emerges as unique and potentially targetable for selective inhibition. The triple-helix crosses the junction of blades I and II at a 45° angle to the symmetry axis of the HPX domain, placing the scissile Gly~Ile bond near the HPX domain and shifted ~25 Å from MMP-1 complexes. This raises the question of the MT1-MMP catalytic domain folding over the triple-helix during catalysis, a possibility accommodated by the flexibility between domains suggested by AFM images. PMID:25651059

  1. Transient collagen triple helix binding to a key metalloproteinase in invasion and development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingchu; Marcink, Thomas C; Sanganna Gari, Raghavendar Reddy; Marsh, Brendan P; King, Gavin M; Stawikowska, Roma; Fields, Gregg B; Van Doren, Steven R

    2015-02-03

    Skeletal development and invasion by tumor cells depends on proteolysis of collagen by the pericellular metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Its hemopexin-like (HPX) domain binds to collagen substrates to facilitate their digestion. Spin labeling and paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection have revealed how the HPX domain docks to collagen I-derived triple helix. Mutations impairing triple-helical peptidase activity corroborate the interface. Saturation transfer difference NMR suggests rotational averaging around the longitudinal axis of the triple-helical peptide. Part of the interface emerges as unique and potentially targetable for selective inhibition. The triple helix crosses the junction of blades I and II at a 45° angle to the symmetry axis of the HPX domain, placing the scissile Gly∼Ile bond near the HPX domain and shifted ∼25 Å from MMP-1 complexes. This raises the question of the MT1-MMP catalytic domain folding over the triple helix during catalysis, a possibility accommodated by the flexibility between domains suggested by atomic force microscopy images.

  2. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities toward Peptomeric Triple-Helical Substrates.

    PubMed

    Stawikowski, Maciej J; Stawikowska, Roma; Fields, Gregg B

    2015-05-19

    Although collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) possess common domain organizations, there are subtle differences in their processing of collagenous triple-helical substrates. In this study, we have incorporated peptoid residues into collagen model triple-helical peptides and examined MMP activities toward these peptomeric chimeras. Several different peptoid residues were incorporated into triple-helical substrates at subsites P3, P1, P1', and P10' individually or in combination, and the effects of the peptoid residues were evaluated on the activities of full-length MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-14/MT1-MMP. Most peptomers showed little discrimination between MMPs. However, a peptomer containing N-methyl Gly (sarcosine) in the P1' subsite and N-isobutyl Gly (NLeu) in the P10' subsite was hydrolyzed efficiently only by MMP-13 [nomenclature relative to the α1(I)772-786 sequence]. Cleavage site analysis showed hydrolysis at the Gly-Gln bond, indicating a shifted binding of the triple helix compared to the parent sequence. Favorable hydrolysis by MMP-13 was not due to sequence specificity or instability of the substrate triple helix but rather was based on the specific interactions of the P7' peptoid residue with the MMP-13 hemopexin-like domain. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer triple-helical peptomer was constructed and found to be readily processed by MMP-13, not cleaved by MMP-1 and MMP-8, and weakly hydrolyzed by MT1-MMP. The influence of the triple-helical structure containing peptoid residues on the interaction between MMP subsites and individual substrate residues may provide additional information about the mechanism of collagenolysis, the understanding of collagen specificity, and the design of selective MMP probes.

  3. The developmental and acute phases of insulin-induced laminitis involve minimal metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    de Laat, M A; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Nourian, A R; McGowan, C M; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2011-04-15

    Metalloproteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of equine laminitis and other inflammatory conditions, through their role in the degradation and remodelling of the extracellular matrix environment. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors are present in normal equine lamellae, with increased secretion and activation of some metalloproteinases reported in horses with laminitis associated with systemic inflammation. It is unknown whether these enzymes are involved in insulin-induced laminitis, which occurs without overt systemic inflammation. In this study, gene expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, ADAMTS-4 and TIMP-3 was determined in the lamellar tissue of normal control horses (n=4) and horses that developed laminitis after 48 h of induced hyperinsulinaemia (n=4), using quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Protein concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also examined using gelatin zymography in horses subject to prolonged hyperinsulinaemia for 6h (n=4), 12h (n=4), 24h (n=4) and 48 h (n=4), and in normal control horses (n=4). The only change in gene expression observed was an upregulation of MMP-9 (p<0.05) in horses that developed insulin-induced laminitis (48 h). Zymographical analysis showed an increase (p<0.05) in pro MMP-9 during the acute phase of laminitis (48 h), whereas pro MMP-2 was present in similar concentration in the tissue of all horses. Thus, MMP-2, MT1-MMP, TIMP-3 and ADAMTS-4 do not appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of insulin-induced laminitis. The increased expression of MMP-9 may be associated with the infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, or may be a direct result of hyperinsulinaemia. The exact role of MMP-9 in basement membrane degradation in laminitis is uncertain as it appears to be present largely in the inactive form.

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor enhances the invasion of mesothelioma cell lines and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, P; Clark, I M; Jaurand, M-C; Warn, R M; Edwards, D R

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a multifunctional factor involved both in development and tissue repair, as well as pathological processes such as cancer and metastasis. It has been identified in vivo in many types of tumours together with its tyrosine kinase receptor, Met. We show here that exogenous HGF/SF acts as a strong chemoattractant for human mesothelioma cell lines. The factor also enhanced cell adhesion to and invasion into Matrigel. The mesothelioma cell lines synthesized a panel of matrix metalloproteinases critical for tumour progression such as MMP-1, 2, 3, 9 and membrane-bound MT1-MMP. HGF/SF stimulated the expression of MMP-1, 9 and MT1-MMP and had a slight effect on expression of the MMP inhibitor TIMP-1 but not TIMP-2. However, there was no simple correlation between the levels of MMPs and TIMPs of the cell lines and their different invasion properties or between HGF/SF stimulatory effects on MMP expression and invasion. In addition, effects of protease inhibitors on invasion suggested that serine proteases were also expressed in human mesothelioma cell lines and were involved in HGF/SF-induced invasion. The results show a predominant role for HGF/SF in mesothelioma cell invasion, stimulating simultaneously adhesion, motility, invasion and regulation of MMP and TIMP levels. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027427

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-mediated disruption of tight junction proteins in cerebral vessels is reversed by synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor in focal ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Estrada, Eduardo Y; Thompson, Jeffrey F; Liu, Wenlan; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2007-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during reperfusion. Occludin and claudins are recently described tight junction proteins (TJPs) that form the BBB. We hypothesized that the opening of the BBB was because of the degradation of TJPs by the MMPs. Spontaneously hypertensive rats had a 90 mins middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion for 2, 3, or 24 h. Matrix metalloproteinases were measured by immunohistochemistry and in situ and gel zymography. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measured mRNAs of MMP-2 and -9, furin, membrane-type MMP (MT1-MMP), occludin, and claudin-5. There was opening of the BBB in the piriform cortex after 3 h of reperfusion, and an MMP inhibitor, BB-1101 (30 mg/kg), prevented the opening. At 3 h, in situ zymograms showed gelatinase activity. Zymography and PCR showed greater increases in MMP-2 than in MMP-9. There were increased mRNA and immunohistochemistry for MT1-MMP and furin, which activate MMP-2. Claudin-5 and occludin mRNA expression decreased at 2 h in both hemispheres with fragments of both proteins seen on Western blot by 3 h on the ischemic side; treatment with BB-1101 reversed the degradation of the TJPs. Immunohistochemistry at 3 h showed fragmented TJPs within the endothelial cell clefts. By 24 h, in situ zymography showed gelatinase activity and gel zymography showed elevated levels of MMP-9. Disrupted TJPs previously seen in endothelial cells appeared in the surrounding astrocytes. Our results provide direct evidence that MMPs open the BBB by degrading TJPs and that an MMP inhibitor prevents degradation of the TJPs by MMPs.

  6. Purification of matrix metalloproteinases by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazushi; Okada, Yasunori

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc endopeptidases composed of 23 members in humans, which belong to a subfamily of the metzincin superfamily. They play important roles in many pathophysiological events including development, organogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and destruction, and cancer cell proliferation and progression by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and non-ECM proteins and interaction with various molecules. Here, we present standard protocols for purification of native proMMPs (proMMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9 and -10) and recombinant MT1-MMP (MMP-14) using conventional column chromatography. Purification steps comprise the initial common step [diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, Green A Dyematrex gel and gelatin-Sepharose columns], the second step for removal of nontarget proMMPs by immunoaffinity columns (anti-MMP-1 and/or anti-MMP-3 IgG-Sepharose columns) and the final step for further purification (IgG-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Zn2+-chelate-Sepharose and/or gel filtration columns). Purified proMMPs and MMP are functionally active and suitable for biochemical analyses. The basic protocol for the purification from culture media takes approximately 7-10 d.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in both type I (apoptosis) and type II (autophagy) cell death induced by sodium phenylacetate in MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Sébastien; Berard, Madeleine; Kellaf, Sabine; Peyri, Nicole; Fauvel-Lafève, Françoise; Legrand, Chantal; He, Lu; Crépin, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPa), an antitumoral molecule, on cell death and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and synthesis were investigated in two metastatic breast tumour cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, cultured on three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3-D cultures). In both cell lines, NaPa inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptotic cell death as measured by TUNEL assay, with an IC(30) of 20 mM and 10 mM for MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, respectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, NaPa also induced (i) an autophagic process evidenced by the appearance of autophagic vacuoles and an increased phosphatase acid activity, (ii) the formation of pseudopodia and (iii) an increase in MMP-1 and MMP-9 secretion without affecting MT1-MMP. In NaPa-treated MDA-MB-435 cells, no autophagic vacuoles were formed but F-actin depolymerisation was observed. MMP-1, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP levels were strongly enhanced in these cells but MMPs were not secreted and accumulated intracellularly. When breast cancer cells were treated with NaPa in the presence of an MMP inhibitor (GM6001), apoptotic cell death decreased and the induction of autophagic vacuoles in MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that MMPs are involved in the autophagic cell death and/or apoptosis of breast tumour cells.

  8. Probing the infiltrating character of brain tumors: inhibition of RhoA/ROK-mediated CD44 cell surface shedding from glioma cells by the green tea catechin EGCg.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Borhane; Bouzeghrane, Mounia; Moumdjian, Robert; Moghrabi, Albert; Béliveau, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Glioma cell-surface binding to hyaluronan (HA), a major constituent of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, is regulated through a complex membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)/CD44/caveolin interaction that takes place at the leading edges of invading cells. In the present study, intracellular transduction pathways required for the HA-mediated recognition by infiltrating glioma cells in brain was investigated. We show that the overexpression of the GTPase RhoA up-regulated MT1-MMP expression and triggered CD44 shedding from the U-87 glioma cell surface. This potential implication in cerebral metastatic processes was also observed in cells overexpressing the full-length recombinant MT1-MMP, while the overexpression of a cytoplasmic domain truncated from of MT1-MMP failed to do so. This suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP transduces intracellular signaling leading to RhoA-mediated CD44 shedding. Treatment of glioma cells with the Rho-kinase (ROK) inhibitor Y27632, or with EGCg, a green tea catechin with anti-MMP and anti-angiogenesis activities, antagonized both RhoA- and MT1-MMP-induced CD44 shedding. Conversely, overexpression of recombinant ROK stimulated CD44 release. Taken together, our results suggest that RhoA/ROK intracellular signaling regulates MT1-MMP-mediated CD44 recognition of HA. These molecular processes may partly explain the diffuse brain-infiltrating character of glioma cells within the surrounding parenchyma and thus be a target for new approaches to anti-tumor therapy.

  9. Actin-associated protein palladin promotes tumor cell invasion by linking extracellular matrix degradation to cell cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    von Nandelstadh, Pernilla; Gucciardo, Erika; Lohi, Jouko; Li, Rui; Sugiyama, Nami; Carpen, Olli; Lehti, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    Basal-like breast carcinomas, characterized by unfavorable prognosis and frequent metastases, are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. During this process, cancer cells undergo cytoskeletal reorganization and up-regulate membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), which functions in actin-based pseudopods to drive invasion by extracellular matrix degradation. However, the mechanisms that couple matrix proteolysis to the actin cytoskeleton in cell invasion have remained unclear. On the basis of a yeast two-hybrid screen for the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic tail-binding proteins, we identify here a novel Src-regulated protein interaction between the dynamic cytoskeletal scaffold protein palladin and MT1-MMP. These proteins were coexpressed in invasive human basal-like breast carcinomas and corresponding cell lines, where they were associated in the same matrix contacting and degrading membrane complexes. The silencing and overexpression of the 90-kDa palladin isoform revealed the functional importance of the interaction with MT1-MMP in pericellular matrix degradation and mesenchymal tumor cell invasion, whereas in MT1-MMP-negative cells, palladin overexpression was insufficient for invasion. Moreover, this invasion was inhibited in a dominant-negative manner by an immunoglobulin domain-containing palladin fragment lacking the dynamic scaffold and Src-binding domains. These results identify a novel protein interaction that links matrix degradation to cytoskeletal dynamics and migration signaling in mesenchymal cell invasion.

  10. The interrelationship of alpha4 integrin and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Graesser, D; Mahooti, S; Haas, T; Davis, S; Clark, R B; Madri, J A

    1998-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that surface expression of alpha4 integrin by autoreactive T-cell clones is necessary for the clones to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for human multiple sclerosis. To provide direct evidence for this phenomenon, we have transfected alpha4 integrin into C19alpha4-LO, a myelin basic protein-reactive T-cell clone that does not express alpha4 integrin and does not induce EAE when adoptively transferred into a susceptible mouse strain. Transfection of alpha4 integrin converted this clone to an alpha4 integrin-expressing clone that induced EAE. We then examined potential mechanisms by which alpha4 integrin may facilitate the disease process. C19 T-cell clones adhered equally to a monolayer of microvascular endothelial cells, regardless of level of alpha4 integrin expression. However, in contrast to T-cell clones that do not express alpha4 integrin, T-cell clones that express alpha4 integrin (endogenously or by transfection) transmigrated through an endothelial cell layer and subendothelial matrix at an enhanced rate and adhered to recombinant vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (rVCAM-1) and the CS1 fragment of fibronectin, and after adhesion to these ligands, a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP-2) was induced and activated. The clones were also shown to constitutively express the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), an enzyme that activates MMP-2. GM6001 and UK-221,316, inhibitors of metalloproteinases, reduced alpha4 integrin-mediated transmigration and EAE induction by C19 T-cell clones. In addition, we studied a second EAE-inducing T-cell clone, MM4, which constitutively expresses alpha4 integrin and MMP-2. Engagement of alpha4 integrin on the MM4 clone up-regulated the expression and activation of MMP-2, without changing the expression of MT1-MMP. MMP inhibitors also reduced transmigration of and EAE induction by the MM4 T-cell clone. These studies demonstrate directly that

  11. Diurnal Variation of Tight Junction Integrity Associates Inversely with Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Xenopus laevis Corneal Epithelium: Implications for Circadian Regulation of Homeostatic Surface Cell Desquamation

    PubMed Central

    Wiechmann, Allan F.; Ceresa, Brian P.; Howard, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The corneal epithelium provides a protective barrier against pathogen entrance and abrasive forces, largely due to the intercellular junctional complexes between neighboring cells. After a prescribed duration at the corneal surface, tight junctions between squamous surface cells must be disrupted to enable them to desquamate as a component of the tissue homeostatic renewal. We hypothesize that matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) are secreted by corneal epithelial cells and cleave intercellular junctional proteins extracellularly at the epithelial surface. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of specific MMPs and tight junction proteins during both the light and dark phases of the circadian cycle, and to assess their temporal and spatial relationships in the Xenopus laevis corneal epithelium. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2), membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-4 were examined by confocal double-label immunohistochemistry on corneas obtained from Xenopus frogs at different circadian times. Occludin and claudin-4 expression was generally uniformly intact on the surface corneal epithelial cell lateral membranes during the daytime, but was frequently disrupted in small clusters of cells at night. Concomitantly, MMP-2 expression was often elevated in a mosaic pattern at nighttime and associated with clusters of desquamating surface cells. The MMP-2 binding partners, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP were also localized to surface corneal epithelial cells during both the light and dark phases, with TIMP-2 tending to be elevated during the daytime. Conclusions/Significance MMP-2 protein expression is elevated in a mosaic pattern in surface corneal epithelial cells during the nighttime in Xenopus laevis, and may play a role in homeostatic surface cell desquamation by disrupting intercellular junctional proteins. The sequence of MMP secretion and

  12. Importance of the Linker Region in Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Domain Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Warispreet; Fields, Gregg B.; Christov, Christo Z.; Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G.

    2016-01-01

    Collagenolysis is catalyzed by enzymes from the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, where one of the most studied is MMP-1. The X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP) provided important atomistic information, but few details on the effects of the conformational flexibility on catalysis. In addition, the role of the linker region between the catalytic (CAT) and hemopexin-like (HPX) domains was not defined. In order to reveal the dynamics and correlations of MMP-1 comprehensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of an MMP-1•THP complex was performed. To examine the role of the linker region for MMP-1 function simulations with linker regions from MT1-MMP/MMP-14 and MMP-13 replacing the MMP-1 linker region were performed. The MD studies were in good agreement with the experimental observation that in the MMP-1•THP X-ray crystallographic structure MMP-1 is in a “closed” conformation. MD revealed that the interactions of the THP with the both the CAT and HPX domains of MMP-1 are dynamic in nature, and the linker region of MMP-1 influences the interactions and dynamics of both the CAT and HPX domains and collagen binding to MMP-1. PMID:26998255

  13. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Inflammatory Regulators of Cell Behaviors in Vascular Formation and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qishan; Jin, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Jianhua; Xiao, Qingzhong; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling contribute to pathogenesis of a number of disorders such as tumor, arthritis, atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, and neurodegeneration. During angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, behaviors of stem/progenitor cells, endothelial cells (ECs), and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in the processes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), well-known inflammatory mediators are a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that degrade various components of ECM and non-ECM molecules mediating tissue remodeling in both physiological and pathological processes. MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MT1-MMP, are stimulated and activated by various stimuli in vascular tissues. Once activated, MMPs degrade ECM proteins or other related signal molecules to promote recruitment of stem/progenitor cells and facilitate migration and invasion of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, vascular cell proliferation and apoptosis can also be regulated by MMPs via proteolytically cleaving and modulating bioactive molecules and relevant signaling pathways. Regarding the importance of vascular cells in abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, regulation of vascular cell behaviors through modulating expression and activation of MMPs shows therapeutic potential. PMID:23840100

  14. Targeting of Breast Cancer through MT1-MMP/Tetraspanin Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    breast cancer cells compared to normal breast cells, makes a major contribution towards breast cancer growth , invasion and metastasis. Another...that perturbation of tetraspanin proteins may provide an unconventional approach towards limiting the growth , invasion and metastasis of breast cancer...upregulated on the surface of breast cancer cells compared to normal breast cells, makes a major contribution towards breast cancer growth , invasion and

  15. A Membrane Protease Regulates Energy Production in Macrophages by Activating Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 via a Non-proteolytic Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takeharu; Seiki, Motoharu

    2010-01-01

    Most cells produce ATP in the mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation. However, macrophages, which are major players in the innate immune system, use aerobic glycolysis to produce ATP. HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) regulates expression of glycolysis-related genes and maintains macrophage glycolytic activity. However, it is unclear how HIF-1 activity is maintained in macrophages during normoxia. In this study, we found that macrophages lacking membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14), a potent invasion-promoting protease, exhibited considerably lower ATP levels than wild-type cells. HIF-1 was activated by an unanticipated function of MT1-MMP, which led to the stimulation of ATP production via glycolysis. The cytoplasmic tail of MT1-MMP bound to FIH-1 (factor inhibiting HIF-1), which led to the inhibition of the latter by its recently identified inhibitor, Mint3/APBA3. We have thus identified a new function of MT1-MMP to mediate production of ATP so as to support energy-dependent macrophage functions by a previously unknown non-proteolytic mechanism. PMID:20663879

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 involvement in breast cancer progression: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Jezierska, Agnieszka; Motyl, Tomasz

    2009-02-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an enzyme that degrades components of the extracellular matrix and thus plays a pivotal role in cell migration during physiological and pathological processes (e.g. gastric, pancrcreatic, prostate, and breast cancer). MMP-2 expression is dependent on extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), Her2/neu, growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Pro-MMP-2 activation needs MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 contribution. The active forms of MMPs subsequently release a cascade of activation of the remaining pro-MMPs. Inactivation of the physiological function of MMPs, or even pro-MMPs, is accomplished by non-covalent TIMP binding. The detection of active MMP-2 alone or the rate of pro-MMP-2 and active MMP-2 is considered a very sensitive indicator of cancer metastasis. Modulation of MMP-2 expression and activation through specific inhibitors and activators may thus provide a new mechanism for breast cancer treatment. Degradation of the cellular network established by adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin or ALCAM/CD166 causes tumor tissue relaxation, increases metastasis, and correlates with shortened survival in patients with primary breast carcinoma. A low level of MMP-2 is linked to favorable prognosis in patients with a hormone receptor-negative tumor, usually associated with high risk. Blocking MMP-2 secretion and activation during breast carcinoma development may decrease metastasis. Besides zoledronic acid and bisphosphonates, the new synthetic metalloproteinase blockers (MMPIs) batimastat, marimastat, and tetracycline derivates have been investigated in anticancer therapy. Recent research shows that modified synthetic siRNA targeting TIMP-2 may also regulate the balance between MMPs and TIMP-2 and thus decrease the degradation of extracellular matrix and prevent distant metastasis.

  17. Inhibitory effect of penta-acetyl geniposide on C6 glioma cells metastasis by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression involved in both the PI3K and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Pei; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lai, Po-Ju; Hung, Chi-Nan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2009-09-14

    Penta-acetyl geniposide [(Ac)(5)GP], an acetylated geniposide product from Gardenia fructus, has been known to have hepatoprotective properties and recent studies have revealed its anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect on C6 glioma cells. In this study, we first report the anti-metastastic effect of (Ac)(5)GP in the rat neuroblastoma line: C6 glioma cells. First (Ac)(5)GP exhibited an inhibitory effect on abilities of adhesion and motility by cell-matrix adhesion assay, wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Second, the decreasing activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was noted by gelatin zymography assay. Further analysis with semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed the mRNA levels of MMP-2 and membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) were significantly reduced, while the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was elevated by (Ac)(5)GP treatment. Further (Ac)(5)GP also exerted an inhibitory effect on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) protein expression, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and inhibition of activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), c-Fos, c-Jun. These findings proved (Ac)(5)GP is highly likely to be a inhibiting cancer migration agent to be further developed in the future.

  18. Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity by COX-2-PGE2-pAKT Axis Promotes Angiogenesis in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Amlan K.; DasMahapatra, Pramathes; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic development of the endometrium which relies on angiogenesis. Although studies have identified the involvement of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in endometriosis, no study has yet investigated the role of MMP-2 in endometriosis-associated angiogenesis. The present study aims to understand the regulation of MMP-2 activity in endothelial cells and on angiogenesis during progression of ovarian endometriosis. Histological and biochemical data showed increased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, cycloxygenase (COX)-2, von Willebrand factor along with angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. Women with endometriosis showed decreased MMP-2 activity in eutopic endometrium as compared to women without endometriosis. However, ectopic ovarian endometrioma showed significantly elevated MMP-2 activity with disease severity. In addition, increased MT1MMP and decreased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 expressions were found in the late stages of endometriosis indicating more MMP-2 activation with disease progression. In vitro study using human endothelial cells showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly increased MMP-2 activity as well as tube formation. Inhibition of COX-2 and/or phosphorylated AKT suppressed MMP-2 activity and endothelial tube formation suggesting involvement of PGE2 in regulation of MMP-2 activity during angiogenesis. Moreover, specific inhibition of MMP-2 by chemical inhibitor significantly reduced cellular migration, invasion and tube formation. In ovo assay showed decreased angiogenic branching upon MMP-2 inhibition. Furthermore, a significant reduction of lesion numbers was observed upon inhibition of MMP-2 and COX-2 in mouse model of endometriosis. In conclusion, our study establishes the involvement of MMP-2 activity via COX-2-PGE2-pAKT axis in promoting angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. PMID:27695098

  19. Cleavage of metastasis suppressor gene product KiSS-1 protein/metastin by matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Takino, Takahisa; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Miyamori, Hisashi; Tanaka, Motohiro; Sasaki, Takuma; Okada, Yasunori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sato, Hiroshi

    2003-07-24

    A human placenta cDNA library was screened by the expression cloning method for gene products that interact with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and we isolated a cDNA whose product formed a stable complex with pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9. The cDNA encoded the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1. KiSS-1 protein was shown to form a complex with pro-MMP. KiSS-1 protein is known to be processed to peptide ligand of a G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) named metastin, and suppresses metastasis of tumors expressing the receptor. Active MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, MT3-MMP and MT5-MMP cleaved the Gly118-Leu119 peptide bond of not only full-length KiSS-1 protein but also metastin decapeptide. Metastin decapeptide induced formation of focal adhesion and actin stress fibers in cells expressing the receptor, and digestion of metastin decapeptide by MMP abolished its ligand activity. Migration of HT1080 cells expressing hOT7T175 that harbor a high-level MMP activity was only slightly suppressed by either metastin decapeptide or MMP inhibitor BB-94 alone, but the combination of metastin decapeptide and BB-94 showed a synergistic effect in blocking cell migration. We propose that metastin could be used as an antimetastatic agent in combination with MMP inhibitor, or MMP-resistant forms of metastin could be developed and may also be efficacious.

  20. Decreased demand for olfactory periglomerular cells impacts on neural precursor cell viability in the rostral migratory stream

    PubMed Central

    Langenfurth, Anika; Gu, Song; Bautze, Verena; Zhang, Caiyi; Neumann, Julia E.; Schüller, Ulrich; Stock, Kristin; Wolf, Susanne A.; Maier, Anna-Maria; Mastrella, Giorgia; Pak, Andrew; Cheng, Hongwei; Kälin, Roland E.; Holmbeck, Kenn; Strotmann, Jörg; Kettenmann, Helmut; Glass, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) provides a constant supply of new neurons to the olfactory bulb (OB). Different studies have investigated the role of olfactory sensory input to neural precursor cell (NPC) turnover in the SVZ but it was not addressed if a reduced demand specifically for periglomerular neurons impacts on NPC-traits in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We here report that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) deficient mice have reduced complexity of the nasal turbinates, decreased sensory innervation of the OB, reduced numbers of olfactory glomeruli and reduced OB-size without alterations in SVZ neurogenesis. Large parts of the RMS were fully preserved in MT1-MMP-deficient mice, but we detected an increase in cell death-levels and a decrease in SVZ-derived neuroblasts in the distal RMS, as compared to controls. BrdU-tracking experiments showed that homing of NPCs specifically to the glomerular layer was reduced in MT1-MMP-deficient mice in contrast to controls while numbers of tracked cells remained equal in other OB-layers throughout all experimental groups. Altogether, our data show the demand for olfactory interneurons in the glomerular layer modulates cell turnover in the RMS, but has no impact on subventricular neurogenesis. PMID:27573347

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase-10/TIMP-2 structure and analyses define conserved core interactions and diverse exosite interactions in MMP/TIMP complexes.

    PubMed

    Batra, Jyotica; Soares, Alexei S; Mehner, Christine; Radisky, Evette S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play central roles in vertebrate tissue development, remodeling, and repair. The endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate proteolytic activity by binding tightly to the MMP active site. While each of the four TIMPs can inhibit most MMPs, binding data reveal tremendous heterogeneity in affinities of different TIMP/MMP pairs, and the structural features that differentiate stronger from weaker complexes are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the comparatively weakly bound human MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex at 2.1 Å resolution. Comparison with previously reported structures of MMP-3/TIMP-1, MT1-MMP/TIMP-2, MMP-13/TIMP-2, and MMP-10/TIMP-1 complexes offers insights into the structural basis of binding selectivity. Our analyses identify a group of highly conserved contacts at the heart of MMP/TIMP complexes that define the conserved mechanism of inhibition, as well as a second category of diverse adventitious contacts at the periphery of the interfaces. The AB loop of the TIMP N-terminal domain and the contact loops of the TIMP C-terminal domain form highly variable peripheral contacts that can be considered as separate exosite interactions. In some complexes these exosite contacts are extensive, while in other complexes the AB loop or C-terminal domain contacts are greatly reduced and appear to contribute little to complex stability. Our data suggest that exosite interactions can enhance MMP/TIMP binding, although in the relatively weakly bound MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex they are not well optimized to do so. Formation of highly variable exosite interactions may provide a general mechanism by which TIMPs are fine-tuned for distinct regulatory roles in biology.

  2. Characterisation of matrix metalloproteinases and the effects of a broad-spectrum inhibitor (BB-1101) in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Demestre, M; Wells, G M; Miller, K M; Smith, K J; Hughes, R A C; Gearing, A J; Gregson, N A

    2004-01-01

    The effect of treatment with a broad-spectrum inhibitor (BB1101) of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on nerve regeneration and functional recovery after nerve crush was examined. Drug treatment had no effect on latency but from 63 days the compound muscle action potential was significantly increased and was no different to that in the sham-operated controls at 72 days. Levels of MMP mRNA expression, and the localisation and activity of MMP proteins, were examined in rats for a 2 month period following a nerve crush injury, and compared with sham-operated controls. The mRNA of all the MMPs studied was up-regulated by 5-10 days after nerve crush, and they remained up-regulated for 40-63 days, except for MMP-9 which was down-regulated by 10 days. MMP immunoreactivity was localised to Schwann cells, macrophages and endothelial cells, and with the exception of membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP), it was more intense after nerve crush compared with sham-operated controls. Regenerating axons showed immunoreactivity for MMP-2 and MMP-3. In situ zymography confirmed that the activity of MMPs in the nerve was increased following crush but that the activity was greatly reduced in rats treated with BB-1101. Thus despite the inhibition of MMPs by BB-1101, the drug did not appear to essentially affect nerve degeneration or regeneration following nerve crush but that it could be beneficial in promoting the more effective reinnervation of muscles possibly by actions at the level of the muscles.

  3. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2011-11-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate

  4. Molecular signaling in live cells studied by FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2012-03-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables visualization of signaling events in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have used FRET to assess temporal and spatial characteristics for signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinases Src and FAK, small GTPase Rac, calcium, and a membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Activations of Src and Rac by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) led to distinct subcellular patterns during cell migration on micropatterned surface, and these two enzymes interact with each other to form a feedback loop with differential regulations at different subcellular locations. We have developed FRET biosensors to monitor FAK activities at rafts vs. non-raft regions of plasma membrane in live cells. In response to cell adhesion on matrix proteins or stimulation by PDGF, the raft-targeting FAK biosensor showed a stronger FRET response than that at non-rafts. The FAK activation at rafts induced by PDGF is mediated by Src. In contrast, the FAK activation at rafts induced by adhesion is independent of Src activity, but rather is essential for Src activation. Thus, Src is upstream to FAK in response to chemical stimulation (PDGF), but FAK is upstream to Src in response to mechanical stimulation (adhesion). A novel biosensor has been developed to dynamically visualize the activity of membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which proteolytically remodels the extracellular matrix. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed active MT1-MMP to the leading edge of migrating live cancer cells with local accumulation of EGF receptor via a process dependent on an intact cytoskeletal network. In summary, FRET-based biosensors enable the elucidation of molecular processes and hierarchies underlying spatiotemporal regulation of biological and pathological processes, thus advancing our knowledge on how cells perceive mechanical/chemical cues in space and time to coordinate

  5. [Metalloproteinases in meningoencephalitis].

    PubMed

    Pastuszka, Ewa; Pabin, Agata; Radkowski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Meningoencephalitis remains a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in antibiotic treatment and critical care, mortality rate in bacterial meningoencephalitis is close to 25%. Moreover, neurological and neuropsychological sequelae emerge in up to 50% of survivors. Adverse outcome is significantly associated with events secondary to meningitis and damage of the blood-brain barrier. Several studies conducted on animals confirmed that matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP), a family of enzymes with major actions in the remodeling of exracellural matrix components facilitate this process which results in acute neurological complications. Gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), the most complex family member, through degradation of gelatine and collagen IV play an important role in the pathogenesis of brain's inflamatory diseases (e.g. Guillian-Barre syndrom) and contribute to spreading the disease beyond the central nervous system. Infection (bacterial, viral or fungal) can lead to increased concentration and activity of metalloproteinases due to excessive enzyme's secretion or decrease in level of its natural inhibitors. A detailed analysis of those enzymes could help in developing new diagnostic and prognostic markers for meningoencephalitis and could facilitate new treatment approaches.

  6. Metalloproteinases and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Caley, Matthew P.; Martins, Vera L.C.; O'Toole, Edel A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are present in both acute and chronic wounds. They play a pivotal role, with their inhibitors, in regulating extracellular matrix degradation and deposition that is essential for wound reepithelialization. The excess protease activity can lead to a chronic nonhealing wound. The timed expression and activation of MMPs in response to wounding are vital for successful wound healing. MMPs are grouped into eight families and display extensive homology within these families. This homology leads in part to the initial failure of MMP inhibitors in clinical trials and the development of alternative methods for modulating the MMP activity. MMP-knockout mouse models display altered wound healing responses, but these are often subtle phenotypic changes indicating the overlapping MMP substrate specificity and inter-MMP compensation. Recent Advances: Recent research has identified several new MMP modulators, including photodynamic therapy, protease-absorbing dressing, microRNA regulation, signaling molecules, and peptides. Critical Issues: Wound healing requires the controlled activity of MMPs at all stages of the wound healing process. The loss of MMP regulation is a characteristic of chronic wounds and contributes to the failure to heal. Future Directions: Further research into how MMPs are regulated should allow the development of novel treatments for wound healing. PMID:25945285

  7. Myocardial structure and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Aggeli, C; Pietri, P; Felekos, I; Rautopoulos, L; Toutouzas, K; Tsiamis, E; Stefanadis, C

    2012-01-01

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes which enhance proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. The pathophysiologic and prognostic role of MMPs has been demonstrated in numerous studies. The present review covers a wide a range of topics with regards to MMPs structural and functional properties, as well as their role in myocardial remodeling in several cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the clinical and therapeutic implications from their assessment are highlighted.

  8. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in canine oronasal tumors.

    PubMed

    Nakaichi, Munekazu; Yunuki, Toshi; Okuda, Masaru; Une, Satoshi; Taura, Yasuho

    2007-04-01

    Activity of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and the expression of its related molecules were examined in spontaneous canine oronasal tumors. Tissue samples from melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma possessed higher MMP-2 activity, as shown in gelatin zymography, in comparison with acanthomatous epulis and nasal adenocarcinoma. Regional lymph node invasion and distant metastases were more frequently observed in the MMP-2 positive cases. There were no significant differences by RT-PCR examination in the expression of the genes encoding MMP-2, MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 among the tumor histological types. However, the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio showed a significantly higher level of the genes in the malignant oral melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio was also positively correlated with MMP-2 activity in gelatin zymography. These results indicate that the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio may be of value in evaluating the prognosis in canine oronasal cavity tumors.

  9. Regulated Delivery of Molecular Cargo to Invasive Tumor-derived Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, James W.; Sedgwick, Alanna; Rosse, Carine; Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Raposo, Graca; Method, Michael; Chavrier, Philippe; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2015-01-01

    Cells release multiple, distinct, forms of extracellular vesicles including structures known as microvesicles which are known to alter the extracellular environment. Despite growing understanding of microvesicle biogenesis, function, and contents, mechanisms regulating cargo delivery and enrichment remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in amoeboid-like invasive tumor cell lines, the v-SNARE, VAMP3, regulates delivery of microvesicle cargo such as the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) to shedding microvesicles. MT1-MMP delivery to nascent microvesicles depends on the association of VAMP3 with the tetraspanin CD9 and facilitates the maintenance of amoeboid cell invasion. VAMP3-shRNA expression depletes shed vesicles of MT1-MMP and decreases cell invasiveness when embedded in cross-linked collagen matrices. Finally, we describe functionally similar microvesicles isolated from bodily fluids of ovarian cancer patients. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of microvesicle cargo sorting in matrix degradation and disease progression. PMID:25897521

  10. Riding the Metalloproteinase Roller Coaster.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian

    2017-03-15

    To many of us in the field, working on Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) has felt like riding a roller coaster, traveling through times of both excitement and despair. I was fortunate to join the ride when it was a mere carousel of three activities thought to target the proteins that comprise the extracellular matrix (ECM). New technologies brought the thrills of discovery, as we uncovered specific proteinase genes and defined specialised activities in different cellular processes. The MMPs and the sister families of 'A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase' (ADAMs), ADAMs with ThromboSpondin domains (ADAM-TS) and Astacins are now recognised as key signalling 'scissors' that drive rapid changes in a plethora of cellular pathways. My many excellent colleagues and collaborators and I were enthused to contribute to the early development of the field and continue to be amazed at its growth and sophistication. In contrast, the hype and failure of early inhibitor discovery have dogged our standing with the pharmaceutical industry and grant giving bodies. However, the true believers have kept going, and knowledge of particular functions of MMPs and their contributions to disease progression has progressed. Recognition of the strategic importance of proteinase function should inspire more work harnessing new technologies such as imaging, proteomics and gene editing to generate a more precise understanding of individual situations. New approaches to inhibitor design and assessment are possible and the consequent ability to precisely abrogate specific MMP activity could contribute to the fight against a number of pathologies with unmet needs. What a ride it could be!

  11. Clinical implications of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Malay; Mandal, Amritlal; Das, Sudip; Chakraborti, Tapati; Sajal, Chakraborti

    2003-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of neutral proteinases that are important for normal development, wound healing, and a wide variety of pathological processes, including the spread of metastatic cancer cells, arthritic destruction of joints, atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema and neuroinflammation. In the central nervous system (CNS), MMPs have been shown to degrade components of the basal lamina, leading to disruption of the blood brain barrier and to contribute to the neuroinflammatory responses in many neurological diseases. Inhibition of MMPs have been shown to prevent progression of these diseases. Currently, certain MMP inhibitors have entered into clinical trials. A goal to the future should be to design selective synthetic inhibitors of MMPs that have minimum side effects. MMP inhibitors are designed in such a way that these can not only bind at the active site of the proteinases but also to have the characteristics to bind to other sites of MMPs which might be a promising route for therapy. To name a few: catechins, a component isolated from green tea; and Novastal, derived from extracts of shark cartilage are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of MMP-mediated diseases.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hopps, E; Caimi, G

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is commonly accompanied by an elevated cardiovascular risk with high morbidity and mortality. The alterations of the arterial vasculature begin with endothelial dysfunction and lead to micro- and macrovascular complications. The remodeling of the endothelial basal membrane, that promotes erosion and thrombosis, has a multifactorial pathogenesis that includes leukocyte activation, increased oxidative stress and also an altered matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression. MMPs are endopeptidases which degrade extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, gelatins, fibronectin and laminin. They can be secreted by several cells within the vascular wall, but macrophages are determinant in the atherosclerotic plaques. Their activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs) and also by other molecules, such as plasmin. MMPs could be implicated in plaque instability predisposing to vascular complications. It has been demonstrated that an impaired MMP or TIMP expression is associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. A large number of studies evaluated MMPs pattern in obesity, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, all of which define metabolic syndrome according to several Consensus Statement (i.e. IDF, ATP III, AHA). However, few research have been carried out on subjects with metabolic syndrome. The evidences of an improvement in MMP/TIMP ratio with diet, exercise and medical therapy should encourage further investigations with the intent to contrast the atherosclerotic process and to reduce morbidity and mortality of this kind of patients.

  13. Comparison of Metalloproteinase Protein and Activity Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Giricz, Orsi; Lauer, Janelle L.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family have been shown to take part in processes crucial in disease progression. The present study used the ExcelArray Human MMP/TIMP Array to quantify MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) production in the lysates and media of 14 cancer and one normal cell line. The overall patterns were very similar in terms of which MMPs and TIMPs were secreted in the media versus associated with the cells in the individual samples. However, more MMP was found in the media, both in amount and in variety. TIMP-1 was produced in all cell lines. MMP activity assays with three different FRET substrates were then utilized to determine if protein production correlated with function for the WM-266-4 and BJ cell lines. Metalloproteinase activity was observed for both cell lines with a general MMP substrate (Knight SSP), consistent with protein production data. However, although both cell lines promoted the hydrolysis of a more selective MMP substrate (NFF-3), metalloproteinase activity was only confirmed in the BJ cell line. The use of inhibitors to confirm metalloproteinase activities pointed to the strengths and weaknesses of in situ FRET substrate assays. PMID:20920458

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinases, Synaptic Injury, and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Arek; Conant, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system in which immune mediated damage to myelin is characteristic. For an overview of this condition and its pathophysiology, please refer to one of many excellent published reviews (Sorensen and Ransohoff, 1998; Weiner, 2009). To follow, is a discussion focused on the possibility that synaptic injury occurs in at least a subset of patients, and that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in such. PMID:21423441

  15. CD147, CD44, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway cooperate to regulate breast epithelial cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Grass, G Daniel; Tolliver, Lauren B; Bratoeva, Momka; Toole, Bryan P

    2013-09-06

    The immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein CD147 (emmprin; basigin) is associated with an invasive phenotype in various types of cancers, including malignant breast cancer. We showed recently that up-regulation of CD147 in non-transformed, non-invasive breast epithelial cells is sufficient to induce an invasive phenotype characterized by membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent invadopodia activity (Grass, G. D., Bratoeva, M., and Toole, B. P. (2012) Regulation of invadopodia formation and activity by CD147. J. Cell Sci. 125, 777-788). Here we found that CD147 induces breast epithelial cell invasiveness by promoting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-ERK signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44 interaction. Furthermore, CD147 promotes assembly of signaling complexes containing CD147, CD44, and EGFR in lipid raftlike domains. We also found that oncogenic Ras regulates CD147 expression, hyaluronan synthesis, and formation of CD147-CD44-EGFR complexes, thus forming a positive feedback loop that may amplify invasiveness. Last, we showed that malignant breast cancer cells are heterogeneous in their expression of surface-associated CD147 and that high levels of membrane CD147 correlate with cell surface EGFR and CD44 levels, activated EGFR and ERK1, and activated invadopodia. Future studies should evaluate CD147 as a potential therapeutic target and disease stratification marker in breast cancer.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases in destructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Houghton, A McGarry

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play essential physiologic roles in numerous processes ranging from development to wound repair. Unfortunately, given the broad substrate specificity of the MMP family as a whole, aberrant degradation of extracellular matrix proteins can result in destructive disease. Emphysema, the result of destroyed lung elastin and collagen matrix, is the prototypical example of such a destructive process. More recent data has highlighted that MMPs play much more elaborate physiologic and pathophysiologic roles than simple matrix protein cleavage. Key pathophysiological roles for MMPs in emphysema will be discussed herein.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinases in plants: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Marino, Giada; Funk, Christiane

    2012-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases belonging to the metzincin clan. MMPs have been characterized in detail in mammals, and they have been shown to play key roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Plant MMP-like proteases exist, but relatively few have been characterized. It has been speculated that plant MMPs are involved in remodeling of the plant extracellular matrix during growth, development and stress response. However, the precise functions and physiological substrates in higher plants remain to be determined. In this brief overview, we summarize the current knowledge of MMPs in higher plants and algae.

  18. Calculation of Radiative Corrections to E1 matrix elements in the Neutral Alkalis

    SciTech Connect

    Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

    2004-09-28

    Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkalis but significantly larger for the heavier alkalis, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.

  19. Regulation of reactionary dentin formation by odontoblasts in response to polymicrobial invasion of dentin matrix

    PubMed Central

    Charadram, Nattida; Farahani, Ramin M; Harty, Derek; Rathsam, Catherine; Swain, Michael V; Hunter, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Odontoblast synthesis of dentin proceeds through discrete but overlapping phases characterized by formation of a patterned organic matrix followed by remodelling and active mineralization. Microbial invasion of dentin in caries triggers an adaptive response by odontoblasts, culminating in formation of a structurally altered reactionary dentin, marked by biochemical and architectonic modifications including diminished tubularity. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen framework in reactionary dentin revealed a radically modified yet highly organized meshwork as indicated by fractal and lacunarity analyses. Immuno-gold labelling demonstrated increased density and regular spatial distribution of dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in reactionary dentin. DSP contributes putative hydroxyapatite nucleation sites on the collagen scaffold. To further dissect the formation of this altered dentin matrix, the associated enzymatic machinery was investigated. Analysis of extracted dentin matrix indicated increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the reactionary zone referenced to physiologic dentin. Likewise, gene expression analysis of micro-dissected odontoblast layer revealed up-regulation of MMP-2. Parallel up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and membrane type 1- matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) was observed in response to caries. Next, modulation of odontoblastic dentinogenic enzyme repertoire was addressed. In the odontoblast layer expression of Toll-like receptors was markedly altered in response to bacterial invasion. In carious teeth TLR-2 and the gene encoding the corresponding adaptor protein MyD88 were down-regulated whereas genes encoding TLR-4 and adaptor proteins TRAM and Mal/TIRAP were up-regulated. TLR-4 signalling mediated by binding of bacterial products has been linked to up-regulation of MMP-2. Further, increased expression of genes encoding components of the TGF-β signalling pathway, namely SMAD-2 and SMAD-4

  20. Calculation of radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements in the neutral alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Sapirstein, J.; Cheng, K.T.

    2005-02-01

    Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali-metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkali metals but significantly larger for the heavier alkali metals, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase interactions with collagen and elastin

    PubMed Central

    Van Doren, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Most abundant in the extracellular matrix are collagens, joined by elastin that confers elastic recoil to the lung, aorta, and skin. These fibrils are highly resistant to proteolysis but can succumb to a minority of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Considerable inroads to understanding how such MMPs move to the susceptible sites in collagen and then unwind the triple helix of collagen monomers have been gained. The essential role in unwinding of the hemopexin-like domain of interstitial collagenases or the collagen binding domain of gelatinases is highlighted. Elastolysis is also facilitated by the collagen binding domain in the cases of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and remote exosites of the catalytic domain in the case of MMP-12. PMID:25599938

  2. Chemical Biology for Understanding Matrix Metalloproteinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Knapinska, Anna; Fields, Gregg B.

    2013-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family has long been associated with normal physiological processes such as embryonic implantation, tissue remodeling, organ development, and wound healing, as well as multiple aspects of cancer initiation and progression, osteoarthritis, inflammatory and vascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of chemically designed MMP probes has advanced our understanding of the roles of MMPs in disease in addition to shedding considerable light on the mechanisms of MMP action. The first generation of protease-activated agents has demonstrated proof of principle as well as providing impetus for in vivo applications. One common problem has been a lack of agent stability at nontargeted tissues and organs due to activation by multiple proteases. The present review considers how chemical biology has impacted the progress made in understanding the roles of MMPs in disease and the basic mechanisms of MMP action. PMID:22933318

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Periodontal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernández-Ríos; Timo, Sorsa; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernández

    2017-02-17

    Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the 'protease web' is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling molecules-such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among others-regulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation.

  4. OVARIAN CANCER: INVOLVEMENT OF THE MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alem, Linah; Curry, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Reasons for the high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer include a late diagnosis at which time the cancer has metastasized throughout the peritoneal cavity. Cancer metastasis is facilitated by the remodeling of the extracellular tumor matrix by a family of proteolytic enzymes known as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). There are 23 members in the MMP family, many of which have been reported to be associated with ovarian cancer. In the current paradigm, ovarian tumor cells and the surrounding stromal cells stimulate the synthesis and/or activation of various MMPs to aid in tumor growth, invasion, and eventual metastasis. This review sheds light on the different MMPs in the various types of ovarian cancer and their impact on the progression of this gynecologic malignancy. PMID:25918438

  5. Ovarian cancer: involvement of the matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Al-Alem, Linah; Curry, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. One of the reasons for the high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer is its late diagnosis, which often occurs after the cancer has metastasized throughout the peritoneal cavity. Cancer metastasis is facilitated by the remodeling of the extracellular tumor matrix by a family of proteolytic enzymes known as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). There are 23 members of the MMP family, many of which have been reported to be associated with ovarian cancer. In the current paradigm, ovarian tumor cells and the surrounding stromal cells stimulate the synthesis and/or activation of various MMPs to aid in tumor growth, invasion, and eventual metastasis. The present review sheds light on the different MMPs in the various types of ovarian cancer and on their impact on the progression of this gynecologic malignancy.

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Periodontal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernández-Ríos; Timo, Sorsa; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the ‘protease web’ is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling molecules—such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among others—regulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation. PMID:28218665

  7. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases: lessons from the study of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Willenbrock, Frances; Thomas, Daniel A; Amour, Augustin

    2010-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are a group of highly potent inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and disintegrin metalloproteinases (ADAMs). The high affinity and "tight-binding" nature of the inhibition of MMPs or ADAMs by TIMPs presents challenges for the determination of both equilibrium and dissociation rate constants of these inhibitory events. Methodologies that enable some of these challenges to be overcome are described in this chapter and represent valuable lessons for the in vitro assessment of MMP or ADAM inhibitors within a drug discovery context.

  8. HIV-1 matrix protein p17: a candidate antigen for therapeutic vaccines against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Simona; Giagulli, Cinzia; Caccuri, Francesca; Magiera, Anna K; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2010-12-01

    The success in the development of anti-retroviral therapies (HAART) that contain human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is challenged by the cost of this lifelong therapy and by its toxicity. Immune-based therapeutic strategies that boost the immune response against HIV-1 proteins or protein subunits have been recently proposed to control virus replication in order to provide protection from disease development, reduce virus transmission, and help limit the use of anti-retroviral treatments. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 is a structural protein that is critically involved in most stages of the life cycle of the retrovirus. Besides its well established role in the virus life cycle, increasing evidence suggests that p17 may also be active extracellularly in deregulating biological activities of many different immune cells that are directly or indirectly involved in AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, p17 might represent a promising target for developing a therapeutic vaccine as a contribution to combating AIDS. In this article we review the biological characteristics of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 and we describe why a synthetic peptide representative of the p17 functional epitope may work as a vaccine molecule capable of inducing anti-p17 neutralizing response against p17 derived from divergent HIV-1 strains.

  9. Robust validation of approximate 1-matrix functionals with few-electron harmonium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy; Piris, Mario; Matito, Eduard

    2015-12-01

    A simple comparison between the exact and approximate correlation components U of the electron-electron repulsion energy of several states of few-electron harmonium atoms with varying confinement strengths provides a stringent validation tool for 1-matrix functionals. The robustness of this tool is clearly demonstrated in a survey of 14 known functionals, which reveals their substandard performance within different electron correlation regimes. Unlike spot-testing that employs dissociation curves of diatomic molecules or more extensive benchmarking against experimental atomization energies of molecules comprising some standard set, the present approach not only uncovers the flaws and patent failures of the functionals but, even more importantly, also allows for pinpointing their root causes. Since the approximate values of U are computed at exact 1-densities, the testing requires minimal programming and thus is particularly suitable for rapid screening of new functionals.

  10. Robust validation of approximate 1-matrix functionals with few-electron harmonium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, Jerzy; Piris, Mario; Matito, Eduard

    2015-12-07

    A simple comparison between the exact and approximate correlation components U of the electron-electron repulsion energy of several states of few-electron harmonium atoms with varying confinement strengths provides a stringent validation tool for 1-matrix functionals. The robustness of this tool is clearly demonstrated in a survey of 14 known functionals, which reveals their substandard performance within different electron correlation regimes. Unlike spot-testing that employs dissociation curves of diatomic molecules or more extensive benchmarking against experimental atomization energies of molecules comprising some standard set, the present approach not only uncovers the flaws and patent failures of the functionals but, even more importantly, also allows for pinpointing their root causes. Since the approximate values of U are computed at exact 1-densities, the testing requires minimal programming and thus is particularly suitable for rapid screening of new functionals.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinases in exercise and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs’ functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27471391

  12. Examination of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Cerofolini, Linda; Fields, Gregg B.; Fragai, Marco; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Ravera, Enrico; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Teixeira, João M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Catalysis of collagen degradation by matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) has been proposed to critically rely on flexibility between the catalytic (CAT) and hemopexin-like (HPX) domains. A rigorous assessment of the most readily accessed conformations in solution is required to explain the onset of substrate recognition and collagenolysis. The present study utilized paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to calculate the maximum occurrence (MO) of MMP-1 conformations. The MMP-1 conformations with large MO values (up to 47%) are restricted into a relatively small conformational region. All conformations with high MO values differ largely from the closed MMP-1 structures obtained by x-ray crystallography. The MO of the latter is ∼20%, which represents the upper limit for the presence of this conformation in the ensemble sampled by the protein in solution. In all the high MO conformations, the CAT and HPX domains are not in tight contact, and the residues of the HPX domain reported to be responsible for the binding to the collagen triple-helix are solvent exposed. Thus, overall analysis of the highest MO conformations indicated that MMP-1 in solution was poised to interact with collagen and then could readily proceed along the steps of collagenolysis. PMID:24025334

  13. Inhibitors of the Metalloproteinase Anthrax Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Allison B.; Turk, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, a rod shaped, spore forming, gram positive bacteria, is the etiological agent of anthrax. B. anthracis virulence is partly attributable to two secreted bipartite protein toxins, which act inside host cells to disrupt signaling pathways important for host defense against infection. These toxins may also directly contribute to mortality in late stage infection. The zinc-dependent metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical component of one of these protein toxins and a prime target for inhibitor development to produce anthrax therapeutics. Here, we describe recent efforts to identify specific and potent LF inhibitors. Derivatization of peptide substrate analogs bearing zinc-binding groups has produced potent and specific LF inhibitors, and X-ray crystallography of LF-inhibitor complexes has provided insight into features required for high affinity binding. Novel inhibitor scaffolds have been identified through several approaches, including fragment-based drug discovery, virtual screening, and high-throughput screening of diverse compound libraries. Lastly, efforts to discover LF inhibitors have led to the development of new screening strategies, such as the use of full-length proteins as substrates, that may prove useful for other proteases as well. Overall, these efforts have led to a collection of chemically and mechanistically diverse molecules capable of inhibiting LF activity in vitro and in cells, as well as in animal models of anthrax infection. PMID:27072692

  14. Matrix metalloproteinases in wound repair (review).

    PubMed

    Ravanti, L; Kähäri, V M

    2000-10-01

    Wound repair is initiated with the aggregation of platelets, formation of a fibrin clot, and release of growth factors from the activated coagulation pathways, injured cells, platelets, and extracellular matrix (ECM), followed by migration of inflammatory cells to the wound site. Thereafter, keratinocytes migrate over the wound, angiogenesis is initiated, and fibroblasts deposit and remodel the granulation tissue. Cell migration, angiogenesis, degradation of provisional matrix, and remodeling of newly formed granulation tissue, all require controlled degradation of the ECM. Disturbance in the balance between ECM production and degradation leads to formation of chronic ulcers with excessive ECM degradation, or to fibrosis, for example hypertrophic scars or keloids characterized by excessive accumulation of ECM components. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which as a group can degrade essentially all ECM components. So far, 20 members of the human MMP family have been identified. Based on their structure and substrate specificity, they can be divided into subgroups of collagenases, stromelysins, stromelysin-like MMPs, gelatinases, membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs), and other MMPs. In this review, the role of MMPs in normal wound repair as well as in chronic ulcers is discussed. In addition, the role of signaling pathways, in particular, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in regulating MMP expression is discussed as possible therapeutical targets for wound healing disorders.

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinases-7 and Kidney Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ben; Fan, Chuqiao; Yang, Liping; Fang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is a secreted zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase that degrades a broad range of extracellular matrix substrates and additional substrates. MMP-7 playsa crucial role in a diverse array of cellular processes and appears to be a key regulator of fibrosis in several diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, and cystic fibrosis. In particular, the relationship between MMP-7 and kidney fibrosis has attracted significant attention in recent years. Growing evidence indicates that MMP-7 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis. Here, we summarize the recent progress in the understanding of the role of MMP-7 in kidney fibrosis. In particular, we discuss how MMP-7 contributes to kidney fibrotic lesions via the following three pathways: epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Further dissection of the crosstalk among and regulation of these pathways will help clinicians and researchers develop effective therapeutic approaches for treating chronic kidney disease. PMID:28239354

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases in exercise and obesity.

    PubMed

    Jaoude, Jonathan; Koh, Yunsuk

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs' functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic) on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Non-Neoplastic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tokito, Akinori; Jougasaki, Michihisa

    2016-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. There are at least 23 members of MMPs ever reported in human, and they and their substrates are widely expressed in many tissues. Recent growing evidence has established that MMP not only can degrade a variety of components of extracellular matrix, but also can cleave and activate various non-matrix proteins, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, contributing to both physiological and pathological processes. In normal conditions, MMP expression and activity are tightly regulated via interactions between their activators and inhibitors. Imbalance among these factors, however, results in dysregulated MMP activity, which causes tissue destruction and functional alteration or local inflammation, leading to the development of diverse diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, neurodegenerative disease, as well as cancer. This article focuses on the accumulated evidence supporting a wide range of roles of MMPs in various non-neoplastic diseases and provides an outlook on the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MMP action. PMID:27455234

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases in Inflammation and Fibrosis of Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Hala S.; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    In skeletal muscles, levels and activity of Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of MetalloProteinases (TIMPs) have been involved in myoblast migration, fusion and various physiological and pathological remodeling situations including neuromuscular diseases. This has opened perspectives for the use of MMPs’ overexpression to improve the efficiency of cell therapy in muscular dystrophies and resolve fibrosis. Alternatively, inhibition of individual MMPs in animal models of muscular dystrophies has provided evidence of beneficial, dual or adverse effects on muscle morphology or function. We review here the role played by MMPs/TIMPs in skeletal muscle inflammation and fibrosis, two major hurdles that limit the success of cell and gene therapy. We report and analyze the consequences of genetic or pharmacological modulation of MMP levels on the inflammation of skeletal muscles and their repair in light of experimental findings. We further discuss how the interplay between MMPs/TIMPs levels, cytokines/chemokines, growth factors and permanent low-grade inflammation favor cellular and molecular modifications resulting in fibrosis. PMID:27911334

  19. Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Status and Scope from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Marine environment has been the source of diverse life forms that produce different biologically active compounds. Marine organisms are consistently contributing with unparalleled bioactive compounds that have profound applications in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. In this process, screening of natural products from marine organisms that could potentially inhibit the expression of metalloproteinases has gained a huge popularity, which became a hot field of research in life sciences. Metalloproteinases, especially, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of structurally similar enzymes that contribute to the extracellular matrix degradation and play major role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling. Imbalance in the expression of MMPs leads to severe pathological condition that could initiate cardiac, cartilage, and cancer-related diseases. Three decades of endeavor for designing potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory substances (MMPIs) with many not making upto final clinical trials seek new resources for devising MMPIs. Umpteen number of medicinally valuable compounds being reported from marine organisms, which encourage current researchers to screen potent MMPIs from marine organisms. In this paper, we have made an attempt to report the metalloproteinase inhibiting substances from various marine organisms. PMID:21197102

  20. Metalloproteinase inhibitors: status and scope from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Marine environment has been the source of diverse life forms that produce different biologically active compounds. Marine organisms are consistently contributing with unparalleled bioactive compounds that have profound applications in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. In this process, screening of natural products from marine organisms that could potentially inhibit the expression of metalloproteinases has gained a huge popularity, which became a hot field of research in life sciences. Metalloproteinases, especially, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of structurally similar enzymes that contribute to the extracellular matrix degradation and play major role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling. Imbalance in the expression of MMPs leads to severe pathological condition that could initiate cardiac, cartilage, and cancer-related diseases. Three decades of endeavor for designing potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory substances (MMPIs) with many not making upto final clinical trials seek new resources for devising MMPIs. Umpteen number of medicinally valuable compounds being reported from marine organisms, which encourage current researchers to screen potent MMPIs from marine organisms. In this paper, we have made an attempt to report the metalloproteinase inhibiting substances from various marine organisms.

  1. Expression and Activity of Metalloproteinases in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bobińska, Kinga; Szemraj, Janusz; Czarny, Piotr; Gałecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and often co-exists with somatic diseases. The most probable cause of comorbidity is a generalized inflammatory process that occurs in both depression and somatic diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases MMPs play a role in modulating inflammation and their impact in many inflammatory diseases has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gene expression for selected polymorphisms of MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), and MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T), which have been confirmed to participate in development of depression, and TIMP-2 (G-418C, tissue inhibitor of MMP). Activity variability of pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 was measured in a group of people with depression and a group of healthy individuals. Material/Methods The examined population comprised 142 individuals suffering from depression and 100 individuals who formed a control group (CG). Designations were carried out for MMP-2 (C-735T), MMP-7 (A-181G), MMP-9 (T-1702A, C1562T), and TIMP-2 (G-418C). Results For all examined and tested MMPs and for TIMP-2, gene expression at the mRNA level was higher in patients with depression than in the CG. Similar results were recorded for gene expression at the protein level, while expression on the protein level for TIMP-2 was higher in the CG. Change in activity of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2 was statistically more significant in the group with depression. The opposite result was recorded for MMP-9 and pro-MMP-9, in which the change in activity was statistically more significant in the CG. Conclusions Changes in MMPs and TIMP expression may be a common element in, or perhaps even a marker for, recurrent depressive disorders and somatic diseases. PMID:27098106

  2. Fibrin glue mixed with gelatin/hyaluronic acid/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer for articular cartilage tissue engineering: the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Hung; Cheng, Winston T K; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Lin, Feng-Huei; Tsai, Jui-Che

    2007-09-01

    Autologous fibrin glue has been demonstrated as a potential scaffold with very good biocompatibility for neocartilage formation. However, fibrin glue has been reported not to provide enough mechanical strength, but with many growth factors to interfere the tissue growth. Gelatin/hyaluronic acid/chondroitin-6-sulfate (GHC6S) tri-copolymer sponge has been prepared as scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering and showed very good results, but problems of cell seeding and cell distribution troubled the researchers. In this study, GHC6S particles would be added into the fibrin glue to provide better mechanical strength, better cell distribution, and easier cell seeding, which would be expected to improve cartilage regeneration in vitro. Porcine cryo-precipitated fibrinogen and thrombin prepared from prothrombin activated by 10% CaCl(2) solution were used in two groups. One is the fibrin glue group in which porcine chondrocytes were mixed with thrombin-fibrinogen solution, which was then converted into fibrin glue. The other is GHC6S-fibrin glue in which GHC6S particles were added into the thrombin-fibrinogen solution with porcine chondrocytes. After culturing for 1-2 weeks, the chondrocytes cultured in GHC6S-fibrin glue showed a round shape with distinct lacuna structure and showed positive in S-100 protein immunohistochemical stain. The related gene expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, MT1-MMP, aggrecan, decorin, type I, II, X collagen, interleukin-1 beta, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and Fas-associating death domain were checked by real-time PCR. The results indicated that the chondrocytes cultured in GHC6S-fibrin glue would effectively promote extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and inhibit ECM degradation. The evidence could support that GHC6S-fibrin glue would be a promising scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  3. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 resides in cell nuclei in association with genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Bukrinskaya, A G; Vorkunova, G K; Tentsov YYu

    1992-10-01

    We have shown previously that HIV-1 matrix protein p17 is transported to the nucleus of Jurkat-tat and H9 cells soon after infection. As shown in this combination, gag polyprotein p55 synthesized 48 h after cell infection is cleaved in cytosol rapidly after its synthesis, and nascent p17 enters the nuclei and gradually accumulates there. Uncleaved p55 molecules and intermediate precursors are rapidly transported to the membranes and are also found in nuclei. Mature gag proteins are seen in membranes only after prolonged period of labelling or chase (4 or more hours later). To determine whether the nascent p17 is associated with viral genomic RNA in the nuclei, the cells were fractionated, the viral complexes were immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against gag proteins, and RNA was extracted and analyzed by slot and blot hybridization. MAb against p17 precipitated all the viral RNA from the nuclei including full-size genomic RNA and essential parts from membranes while MAb against p24 did not precipitate any viral RNA from the nuclei. These data suggest that matrix protein is linked to genomic RNA in the nuclei and raise the possibility that p17 may transfer viral nucleocapsids from the nuclei to plasma membranes, the site of virus assembly.

  4. Cellular aspartyl proteases promote the unconventional secretion of biologically active HIV-1 matrix protein p17

    PubMed Central

    Caccuri, Francesca; Iaria, Maria Luisa; Campilongo, Federica; Varney, Kristen; Rossi, Alessandro; Mitola, Stefania; Schiarea, Silvia; Bugatti, Antonella; Mazzuca, Pietro; Giagulli, Cinzia; Fiorentini, Simona; Lu, Wuyuan; Salmona, Mario; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    The human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein p17 (p17), although devoid of a signal sequence, is released by infected cells and detected in blood and in different organs and tissues even in HIV-1-infected patients undergoing successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Extracellularly, p17 deregulates the function of different cells involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The mechanism of p17 secretion, particularly during HIV-1 latency, still remains to be elucidated. A recent study showed that HIV-1-infected cells can produce Gag without spreading infection in a model of viral latency. Here we show that in Gag-expressing cells, secretion of biologically active p17 takes place at the plasma membrane and occurs following its interaction with phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and its subsequent cleavage from the precursor Gag (Pr55Gag) operated by cellular aspartyl proteases. These enzymes operate a more complex Gag polypeptide proteolysis than the HIV-1 protease, thus hypothetically generating slightly truncated or elongated p17s in their C-terminus. A 17 C-terminal residues excised p17 was found to be structurally and functionally identical to the full-length p17 demonstrating that the final C-terminal region of p17 is irrelevant for the protein’s biological activity. These findings offer new opportunities to identify treatment strategies for inhibiting p17 release in the extracellular microenvironment. PMID:27905556

  5. Rabbit models of arthritis: immunolocalization of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in synovium and cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Hembry, R. M.; Bagga, M. R.; Murphy, G.; Henderson, B.; Reynolds, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of the matrix metalloproteinases, collagenase, stromelysin, gelatinases A and B, and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases in cartilage and synovium removed from rabbits up to 27 days after induction of two models of arthritis was investigated by immunolocalization. Following intra-articular injection of poly-D-lysine/hyaluronic acid coacervate, collagenase and stromelysin were found bound to cartilage matrix, but there was little increase in chondrocyte synthesis of these enzymes. The synovium underwent a complex wound healing response involving invagination and encapsulation of the coacervate and inflammatory cell debris, during which all four metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase could be immunolocalized. The second model, intra-articular injection of ovalbumin into sensitized rabbits, caused considerable chondrocyte necrosis; collagenase was found bound to cartilage matrix on day 13, although again there was little evidence of synthesis by chondrocytes. Inflammatory cell infiltration of meniscoid synovia took place initially, followed by fibrosis involving macrophagelike cells secreting gelatinase A. In both models there was rapid loss of glycosaminoglycan metachromasia from the cartilage matrix. These results are discussed in relation to current knowledge of metalloproteinase involvement in the chronic rheumatoid synovial pannus erosion of cartilage in humans. The data suggest that there are considerable differences between rheumatoid arthritis and these models, and their use must therefore be carefully defined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8342606

  6. Distribution of pancreatic elastase and metalloproteinase in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaka, R; Sato, M; Tsuchiya, N; Ikeda, S

    1986-01-01

    Elastase-like enzymes were detected as zymogens in all of the pancreatic extracts from the gummy shark, bullhead shark, angel shark, smooth hammerhead, bestel, rainbow trout, carp, eel, Japanese mackerel, yellowtail, sea bass, parrotfish, bullfrog, chicken, bluewhite dolphin, hog, rat, cat, and dog. The distribution of pancreatic elastase and metalloproteinase was examined on the basis of the effect of specific inhibitors on elastase like-activity in each extract. The results indicate that pancreatic elastases are present in all the species examined and pancreatic metalloproteinases are present only in the teleost fishes.

  7. Catechol-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors with additional antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Marilena; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Piemontese, Luca; Caradonna, Alessia; Capelli, Davide; Montanari, Roberta; Pochetti, Giorgio; Di Pizio, Antonella; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tortorella, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    New catechol-containing chemical entities have been investigated as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as antioxidant molecules. The combination of the two properties could represent a useful feature due to the potential application in all the pathological processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity and radical oxygen species (ROS) production, such as inflammation and photoaging. A series of catechol-based molecules were synthesized and tested for both proteolytic and oxidative inhibitory activity, and the detailed binding mode was assessed by crystal structure determination of the complex between a catechol derivative and the matrix metalloproteinase-8. Surprisingly, X-ray structure reveals that the catechol oxygens do not coordinates the zinc atom.

  8. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer and matrix metalloproteinases during mouse embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Nakai, Masaaki; Belton, Robert J; Nowak, Romana A

    2007-02-01

    Mouse embryo implantation is a highly invasive and controlled process that involves remodeling and degradation of the extracellular matrix of the uterus. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main proteinases facilitating this process. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) can stimulate the production of MMPs and is required for successful implantation in the mouse. The aims of the present study were to examine the expression profiles of mRNA and proteins for EMMPRIN and MMPs in the developing mouse embryo in vitro, and to study whether EMMPRIN protein induces the production of MMPs by mouse blastocysts. EMMPRIN mRNA, detected by RT-PCR, was present at all stages of embryo development from the one-cell to the blastocyst outgrowth. EMMPRIN protein, observed by confocal microscopy, was present on the cell surface at the same stages of development as was the mRNA. Of seven MMPs studied, murine collagenase-like A (Mcol-A), murine collagenase-like B (Mcol-B) and gelatinase A (MMP-2) mRNAs were detected only in blastocyst outgrowths by RT-PCR. Gelatinase B (MMP-9) mRNA was detected both in expanded blastocysts and blastocyst outgrowths. MMP-2 and -9 proteins were detected in the cytoplasm of outgrowing trophoblast cells. Collagenase-2 (MMP-8), collagenase-3 (MMP-13), or stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) mRNAs were not present at any stage of pre- or peri-implantation mouse embryo development. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that recombinant EMMPRIN protein did not stimulate MMP-2 or -9 expression by mouse blastocyst outgrowths. These data suggest that EMMPRIN may regulate physiological functions other than MMP production by mouse embryos during implantation.

  9. Altered expression of metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in cervical disc herniation patients.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H M; Xu, G T; Wen, S F; Guo, Y Y; Huang, Q

    2016-04-26

    The aim of the current study was to examine matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) expression in patients with cervical disc herniation (CDH). A total of 127 specimens from CDH patients undergoing posterior spinal surgery were obtained for the case group, which was divided into three subgroups: lateral protrusion (N = 102), median protrusion (N = 18), and paramedian protrusion (N = 7). Another 55 specimens from subjects who had cervical spine trauma and underwent spinal canal decompression were obtained for the control group. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for pathological diagnosis. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was used to determine MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expression. Under light microscopy, MMP-2-positive cells presented brown-yellow or dark brown staining in the cell membrane or cytoplasm. MMP-2 expression in the case group was significantly higher than that in controls (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MMP-2 expression in the lateral and median protrusion groups was significantly higher compared to that in the paramedian protrusion group (both P < 0.05), while there was no apparent difference in MMP-2 expression between the lateral and median protrusion groups (P > 0.05). IHC results showed that TIMP-2 expression in cases was significantly lower than that in controls (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis indicated that MMP- 2 was negatively correlated with TIMP-2 expression (r = -0.418, P < 0.001). In conclusion, MMP-2 expression increased, whereas TIMP- 2 expression decreased in CDH patients, suggesting that MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expression may contribute to CDH development.

  10. Inhibition of pro-/active MMP-2 by green tea catechins and prediction of their interaction by molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Nandy, Suman Kumar; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2017-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in developing different types of lung diseases, e.g., pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Green tea polyphenolic catechins such as EGCG and ECG have been shown to ameliorate various types of diseases including PAH. Our present study revealed that among the four green tea catechins (EGCG, ECG, EC, and EGC), EGCG and ECG inhibit pro-/active MMP-2 activities in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) culture supernatant. Based on the above, we investigated the interactions of pro-/active MMP-2 with the green tea catechins by computational methods. In silico analysis revealed a strong interaction of pro-/active MMP-2 with EGCG/ECG, and galloyl group has been observed to be responsible for this interaction. The in silico analysis corroborated our experimental observation that EGCG and ECG are active in preventing both the proMMP-2 and MMP-2 activities. Importantly, these two catechins appeared to be better inhibitors for proMMP-2 in comparison to MMP-2 as revealed by gelatin zymogram and also by molecular docking studies. In many type of cells, activation of proMMP-2 occurs via an increase in the level of MT1-MMP (MMP-14). We, therefore, determined the interactions of MT1-MMP with the green tea catechins by molecular docking analysis. The study revealed a strong interaction of MT1-MMP with EGCG/ECG, and galloyl group has been observed to be responsible for the interaction.

  11. Secreted Metalloproteinase ADAMTS-3 Inactivates Reelin.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Himari; Hisanaga, Arisa; Kohno, Takao; Kondo, Yuta; Okumura, Kyoko; Kamei, Takana; Sato, Tempei; Asahara, Hiroshi; Tsuiji, Hitomi; Fukata, Masaki; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2017-03-22

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin regulates embryonic brain development and adult brain functions. It has been suggested that reduced Reelin activity contributes to the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease; however, noninvasive methods that can upregulate Reelin activity in vivo have yet to be developed. We previously found that the proteolytic cleavage of Reelin within Reelin repeat 3 (N-t site) abolishes Reelin activity in vitro, but it remains controversial as to whether this effect occurs in vivo Here we partially purified the enzyme that mediates the N-t cleavage of Reelin from the culture supernatant of cerebral cortical neurons. This enzyme was identified as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-3 (ADAMTS-3). Recombinant ADAMTS-3 cleaved Reelin at the N-t site. ADAMTS-3 was expressed in excitatory neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. N-t cleavage of Reelin was markedly decreased in the embryonic cerebral cortex of ADAMTS-3 knock-out (KO) mice. Importantly, the amount of Dab1 and the phosphorylation level of Tau, which inversely correlate with Reelin activity, were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of ADAMTS-3 KO mice. Conditional KO mice, in which ADAMTS-3 was deficient only in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain, showed increased dendritic branching and elongation in the postnatal cerebral cortex. Our study shows that ADAMTS-3 is the major enzyme that cleaves and inactivates Reelin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Therefore, inhibition of ADAMTS-3 may be an effective treatment for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT ADAMTS-3 was identified as the protease that cleaves and inactivates Reelin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. ADAMTS-3 was expressed in the excitatory neurons of the embryonic and postnatal cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cleavage by ADAMTS-3 is the major

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 promoter variability in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Vasku, Vladimir; Bienertova Vasku, Julie; Slonková, Veronika; Kanková, Katerina; Vasku, Anna

    2009-07-01

    The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 was observed to be significantly upregulated in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to associate the DNA polymorphic variants in MMP-2 promoter gene with psoriasis and/or with psoriasis phenotypes related to psoriasis and comorbid heredity. In the total of 582 Czech Caucasian individuals (386 patients with psoriasis and 196 controls of similar age and sex distribution without personal or family history of chronic disease of the skin), four MMP-2 promoter polymorphisms (-1575G/A, -1306C/T, -790T/G and -735C/T) were detected by PCR methods. A significant association of GG genotype of -790 MMP-2 polymorphism with psoriasis was observed (Pcorr = 0.04). Although no significant case-control differences in frequency of associated GG(-1575)CC(-1306)TT(-790) MMP-2 promoter genotype were observed, the genotype was found to be significantly less frequent in patients with family history of psoriasis (close as well as distant), family history of diabetes and personal history of allergy (2/11 vs. 55/32, odds ratio (OR) for GGCCTT 0.11, 95% confidential interval 0.02-0.50, Pcorr = 0.01). The significant difference between psoriatic patients with positive anamnestic data on diabetes, psoriasis and allergy compared with psoriatic patients that have only positive family history of diabetes was also observed (2/11 vs. 38/31, P = 0.009, Pcorr = 0.04; OR 0.15, 95% CI = 0.03-0.72 for psoriatic patients with GGCCTT genotype and family history of psoriasis, diabetes and personal history of allergy). To conclude, the associated GGCCTT genotype in the promoter of MMP-2 gene was less frequent in patients with positive family history of psoriasis, diabetes and personal history of allergy compared with psoriatic patients without them (2/11 vs. 68/57, P = 0.007, Pcorr = 0.04; OR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.03-0.72 for psoriatic patients with family history of psoriasis and diabetes and with allergy). Based on our results, we suggest that the MMP-2 located in

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIβ negatively regulates invadopodia formation and suppresses an invasive cellular phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Alli-Balogun, Ganiyu Olabanji; Gewinner, Christina A.; Jacobs, Ruth; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Waugh, Mark G.; Minogue, Shane

    2016-01-01

    The type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KII) enzymes synthesize the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P), which has been detected at the Golgi complex and endosomal compartments and recruits clathrin adaptors. Despite common mechanistic similarities between the isoforms, the extent of their redundancy is unclear. We found that depletion of PI4KIIα and PI4KIIβ using small interfering RNA led to actin remodeling. Depletion of PI4KIIβ also induced the formation of invadopodia containing membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). Depletion of PI4KII isoforms also differentially affected trans-Golgi network (TGN) pools of PI(4)P and post-TGN traffic. PI4KIIβ depletion caused increased MT1-MMP trafficking to invasive structures at the plasma membrane and was accompanied by reduced colocalization of MT1-MMP with membranes containing the endosomal markers Rab5 and Rab7 but increased localization with the exocytic Rab8. Depletion of PI4KIIβ was sufficient to confer an aggressive invasive phenotype on minimally invasive HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Mining oncogenomic databases revealed that loss of the PI4K2B allele and underexpression of PI4KIIβ mRNA are associated with human cancers. This finding supports the cell data and suggests that PI4KIIβ may be a clinically significant suppressor of invasion. We propose that PI4KIIβ synthesizes a pool of PI(4)P that maintains MT1-MMP traffic in the degradative pathway and suppresses the formation of invadopodia. PMID:27798239

  14. Membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease-independent activation of pro-matrix metalloprotease-2 by proprotein convertases.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon-Hun; Kim, Hee-Hyun; Park, Michael Y; Jeon, Ok-Hee; Kim, Doo-Sik

    2009-11-01

    Matrix metalloprotease-2 is implicated in many biological processes and degrades extracellular and non-extracellular matrix molecules. Matrix metalloprotease-2 maintains a latent state through a cysteine-zinc ion pairing which, when disrupted, results in full enzyme activation. This pairing can be disrupted by a conformational change or cleavage within the propeptide. The best known activation mechanism for pro-matrix metalloprotease-2 occurs via cleavage of the propeptide by membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease. However, significant residual activation of pro-matrix metalloprotease-2 is seen in membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease knockout mice and in fibroblasts treated with metalloprotease inhibitors. These findings indicate the presence of a membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease-independent activation mechanism for pro-matrix metalloprotease-2 in vivo, which prompted us to explore an alternative activation mechanism for pro-matrix metalloprotese-2. In this study, we demonstrate membrane type-1 matrix metalloprotease-independent propeptide processing of matrix metalloprotease-2 in HEK293F and various tumor cell lines, and show that proprotein convertases can mediate the processing intracellularly as well as extracellularly. Furthermore, processed matrix metalloprotease-2 exhibits enzymatic activity that is enhanced by intermolecular autolytic cleavage. Thus, our experimental data, taken together with the broad expression of proprotein convertases, suggest that the proprotein convertase-mediated processing may be a general activation mechanism for pro-matrix metalloprotease-2 in vivo.

  15. Unraveling the processing and activation of snake venom metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Portes-Junior, José A; Yamanouye, Norma; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Knittel, Paloma S; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Nogueira, Fabio C S; Junqueira, Magno; Magalhães, Geraldo S; Domont, Gilberto B; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M

    2014-07-03

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for most symptoms of human envenoming. Like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins, SVMPs are synthesized as zymogens, and enzyme activation is regulated by hydrolysis of their prodomain, but the processing of SVMPs is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to identify the presence of prodomain in different compartments of snake venom glands as zymogens or in the free form to elucidate some mechanism involved in SVMP activation. Using antibodies obtained by immunization with a recombinant prodomain, bands of zymogen molecular mass and prodomain peptides were detected mostly in gland extracts all along the venom production cycle and in the venom collected from the lumen at the peak of venom production. Prodomain was detected in secretory cells mostly in the secretory vesicles near the Golgi. We hypothesize that the processing of SVMPs starts within secretory vesicles and continues in the lumen of the venom gland just after enzyme secretion and involves different steps compared to ADAMs and MMPs but can be used as a model for studying the relevance of peptides resulting from prodomain processing and degradation for controlling the activity of metalloproteinases.

  16. Metalloproteinase-mediated release of human Fas ligand

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Fas ligand (FasL) is a type II integral membrane protein homologous with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Recent studies indicate that TNF is processed to yield the soluble cytokine by metalloproteinases at the cell surface of activated macrophages and T cells. In the present study, we investigated whether FasL is also released by metalloproteinases. Treatment with hydroxamic acid inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases specifically led to accumulation of membrane-type FasL (p40) on the surface of human FasL cDNA transfectants and activated human T cells, as estimated by surface immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation with newly established anti-human FasL monoclonal antibodies. This surface accumulation of mFasL was associated with the decrease of soluble FasL (p27) in the supernatant as estimated by quantitative ELISA and immunoprecipitation with anti-human FasL monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that human FasL is efficiently released from the cell surface by metalloproteinases like TNF. PMID:7500022

  17. Chicken bile Matrix metalloproteinase; its characterization and significance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies from our lab had shown that the avian bile was rich in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), enzymes implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrices (ECM) such as collagens and proteoglycans. We hypothesized that bile MMP may be evolutionarily associated with the digestion of ECM ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of chicken bile matrix metalloproteinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian bile is rich in matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), the enzymes that cleave extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagens and proteoglycans. Changes in bile MMP expression have been correlated with hepatic and gall bladder pathologies but the significance of their expression in normal, he...

  19. Trimer Enhancement Mutation Effects on HIV-1 Matrix Protein Binding Activities

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Ayna; Mack, Andrew; Ritchie, Christopher; Cylinder, Isabel; Harper, Logan; Tedbury, Philip R.; Freed, Eric O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein is the amino-terminal domain of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (Pr55Gag) protein. MA binds to membranes and RNAs, helps transport Pr55Gag proteins to virus assembly sites at the plasma membranes of infected cells, and facilitates the incorporation of HIV-1 envelope (Env) proteins into virions by virtue of an interaction with the Env protein cytoplasmic tails (CTs). MA has been shown to crystallize as a trimer and to organize on membranes in hexamer lattices. MA mutations that localize to residues near the ends of trimer spokes have been observed to impair Env protein assembly into virus particles, and several of these are suppressed by the 62QR mutation at the hubs of trimer interfaces. We have examined the binding activities of wild-type (WT) MA and 62QR MA variants and found that the 62QR mutation stabilized MA trimers but did not alter the way MA proteins organized on membranes. Relative to WT MA, the 62QR protein showed small effects on membrane and RNA binding. However, 62QR proteins bound significantly better to Env CTs than their WT counterparts, and CT binding efficiencies correlated with trimerization efficiencies. Our data suggest a model in which multivalent binding of trimeric HIV-1 Env proteins to MA trimers contributes to the process of Env virion incorporation. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 Env proteins assemble as trimers, and incorporation of the proteins into virus particles requires an interaction of Env CT domains with the MA domains of the viral precursor Gag proteins. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the mechanisms by which MA facilitates the virion incorporation of Env proteins. To help elucidate this process, we examined the binding activities of an MA mutant that stabilizes MA trimers. We found that the mutant proteins organized similarly to WT proteins on membranes, and that mutant and WT proteins revealed only slight differences in their binding to RNAs or lipids. However, the mutant proteins showed

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in invasive pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Gu, Wei-Jun; Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Ji, Xiao-Jian; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The extracellular matrix is important for tumor invasion and metastasis. Normal function of the extracellular matrix depends on the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 and invasion of pituitary adenomas. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and the Chinese Biomedical Database up to October 2015. RevMan 5.1 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark) was used for statistical analysis. We calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) for data expressed as mean ± standard deviation because of the difference in the detection method. Twenty-four studies (1320 patients) were included. MMP-9 expression was higher in the patients with invasive pituitary adenomas (IPAs) than patients with noninvasive pituitary adenomas (NIPAs) with detection methods of IHC [odds ratio (OR) = 5.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.61–11.50, P < 0.00001), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (SMD = 2.28, 95% CI = 0.91–3.64, P = 0.001). MMP-2 expression was also increased in patients with IPAs at the protein level (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.63–7.87, P = 0.001), and RNA level (SMD = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.52–6.29, P = 0.001). Meta-analysis showed that there was no difference in TIMP-2 expression between invasive and NIPAs at the protein level (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.06–2.26, P = 0.29). MMP-9 expression in prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas was also no difference (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.48–2.20, P = 0.95). The results indicated that MMP-9 and -2 may be correlated with invasiveness of pituitary adenomas, although their relationship with functional status of pituitary adenomas is still not clear. TIMP-2 expression in IPAs needs to be investigated further. PMID:27310993

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and blood-brain barrier: Versatile breakers and makers.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Ralf G; Hartz, Anika Ms; Bauer, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are versatile endopeptidases with many different functions in the body in health and disease. In the brain, matrix metalloproteinases are critical for tissue formation, neuronal network remodeling, and blood-brain barrier integrity. Many reviews have been published on matrix metalloproteinases before, most of which focus on the two best studied matrix metalloproteinases, the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their role in one or two diseases. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the role various matrix metalloproteinases play in brain disorders. We summarize and review current knowledge and understanding of matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and at the blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammation, multiple sclerosis, cerebral aneurysms, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain cancer. We discuss the detrimental effects matrix metalloproteinases can have in these conditions, contributing to blood-brain barrier leakage, neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, demyelination, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. We also discuss the beneficial role matrix metalloproteinases can play in neuroprotection and anti-inflammation. Finally, we address matrix metalloproteinases as potential therapeutic targets. Together, in this comprehensive review, we summarize current understanding and knowledge of matrix metalloproteinases in the brain and at the blood-brain barrier in brain disorders.

  2. Electrochemical Proteolytic Beacon for Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Wunschel, David S.; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-09-27

    This communication describes a novel method for detecting of matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity using a peptide substrate labeled with a ferrocene reporter. The substrate serves as a selective ‘electrochemical proteolytic beacon’ (EPB) for this metalloproteinase. The EPB is immobilized on a gold electrode surface to enable ‘on-off’ electrochemical signaling capability for uncleaved and cleaved events. The EPB is efficiently and selectively cleaved by MMP-7 as measured by the rate of decrease in redox current of ferrocene. Direct transduction of a signal corresponding to peptide cleavage events into an electronic signal thus provides a simple, sensitive route for detecting the MMP activity. The new method allows for identification of the activity of MMP-7 in concentrations as low as 3.4 pM. The concept can be extended to design multiple peptide substrate labeled with different electroactive reporters for assaying multiple MMPs activities.

  3. Characterization of matrix metalloproteinase-26, a novel metalloproteinase widely expressed in cancer cells of epithelial origin.

    PubMed Central

    Marchenko, G N; Ratnikov, B I; Rozanov, D V; Godzik, A; Deryugina, E I; Strongin, A Y

    2001-01-01

    Identification of expanding roles for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in complex regulatory processes of tissue remodelling has stimulated the search for genes encoding proteinases with unique functions, regulation and expression patterns. By using a novel cloning strategy, we identified three previously unknown human MMPs, i.e. MMP-21, MMP-26 and MMP-28, in comprehensive gene libraries. The present study is focused on the gene and the protein of a novel MMP, MMP-26. Our findings show that MMP-26 is specifically expressed in cancer cells of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of lung, prostate and breast. Several unique structural and regulatory features, including an unusual 'cysteine-switch' motif, discriminate broad-spectrum MMP-26 from most other MMPs. MMP-26 efficiently cleaves fibrinogen and extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, vitronectin and denatured collagen. Protein sequence, minimal modular domain structure, exon-intron mapping and computer modelling demonstrate similarity between MMP-26 and MMP-7 (matrilysin). However, substrate specificity and transcriptional regulation, as well as the functional role of MMP-26 and MMP-7 in cancer, are likely to be distinct. Despite these differences, matrilysin-2 may be a suitable trivial name for MMP-26. Our observations suggest an important specific function for MMP-26 in tumour progression and angiogenesis, and confirm and extend the recent findings of other authors [Park, Ni, Gerkema, Liu, Belozerov and Sang (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 20540--20544; Uría and López-Otín (2000) Cancer Res. 60, 4745--4751; de Coignac, Elson, Delneste, Magistrelli, Jeannin, Aubry, Berthier, Schmitt, Bonnefoy and Gauchat (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267, 3323--3329]. PMID:11389678

  4. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-sun; Kang, Changkeun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-09-01

    The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains a multitude of enzyme components with molecular weights between 17 and 130 kDa. These four jellyfish venoms demonstrated a huge variation in their proteolytic activities in quantitative and qualitative manner depending on the species. Most of these enzymatic activities were disappeared by the treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they might be belonged to metalloproteinases. Toxicological significance of these venom proteases was examined by comparing their proteolytic activity and the cytotoxicity in NIH 3T3 cells. The relative cytotoxic potency was C. nozakii > N. nomurai > A. aurita > R. esculenta. The cytotoxicity of jellyfish venom shows a positive correlation with its overall proteolytic activity. The metalloproteinases appear to play an important role in the induction of jellyfish venom toxicities. In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity.

  5. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2, -8, -13, -26, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Korpi, Jarkko T; Hagström, Jaana; Lehtonen, Niko; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Sorsa, Timo; Salo, Tuula; Laitinen, Minna

    2011-03-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is among most common malignant tumour of bone. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are predominantly associated with poor prognosis of several cancers, although some of them, like MMP-8, seem to have a protective role in some cancers. We analyzed the distribution patterns of MMP-2, -8, -13, -26, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in 25 OS patients. MMP-2, -8, -13, -26 and TIMP-1 were mostly detected in sarcoma cells. Response to chemotherapy affected the amount of MMP-2, -8, and -13 in resection sections when compared to biopsies: patients with excellent or good response had less positivity to MMP-2 in chemotherapy samples than those with moderate or poor response. We conclude that MMP-2, -8, -13, -26, and TIMP-1 are expressed in OS tissue, and all, except protective MMP-8, were also found in metastases indicating that MMPs and TIMP-1 can participate in the OS progression.

  6. Variance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) concentrations in activated, concentrated platelets from healthy male donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of autologous blood concentrates, such as activated, concentrated platelets, in orthopaedic clinical applications has had mixed results. Research on this topic has focused on growth factors and cytokines, with little directed towards matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are involved in post-wound tissue remodeling. Methods In this study, the authors measured the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13), in activated platelets derived from blood of healthy, male volunteers (n = 92), 19 to 60 years old. The levels of the natural inhibitors of these proteases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 were also assessed. Results Notably, there was no significant change in concentration with age in four of six targets tested. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 demonstrated a statistically significant increase in concentration for subjects older than 30 years of age compared to those 30 years and younger (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 are global inhibitors of MMPs, including MMP-2 (Gelatinase A). MMP-2 targets native collagens, gelatin and elastin to remodel the extracellular matrix during wound healing. A decreased availability of pharmacologically active MMP-2 may diminish the effectiveness of the use of activated, concentrated platelets from older patients, and may also contribute to longer healing times in this population. PMID:24766991

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Aqueous Humor of Diabetic Macular Edema Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin A.; Jee, Donghyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humor of diabetic macular edema (DME) patients. Method The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humors of 15 cataract patients and 25 DME patients were compared. DME patients were analyzed according to the diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) treatment, recurrence within 3 months, HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) level, and axial length. Results The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 of the DME groups were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively). There was a significant difference in MMP-1 concentration between the mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group and the proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group (p = 0.012). MMP-1 concentrations were elevated in PRP-treated patients (p = 0.005). There was a significant difference in MMP-9 concentrations between the mild NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001), and between the moderate and severe NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001). The MMP-9 concentrations in PRP treated patients, DM patients with diabetes ≥ 10 years and recurrent DME within 3months were elevated (p = 0.023, p = 0.011, and p = 0.027, respectively). In correlation analyses, the MMP-1 level showed a significant correlation with age (r = -0.48, p = 0.01,), and the MMP-9 level showed significant correlations with axial length (r = -0.59, p < 0.01) and DM duration (r = 049, p = 0.01). Conclusions Concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 were higher in the DME groups than in the control group. MMP-9 concentrations also differed depending on DR staging, DM duration, PRP treatment, and degree of axial myopia. MMP-9 may be more important than MMP-1 in the induction of DM complications in eyes. PMID:27467659

  8. Metalloproteinase-9 contributes to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis via protease activated receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Florence, Jon M.; Booshehri, Laela M.; Allen, Timothy C.; Kurdowska, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process begins when vascular endothelial cells undergo pro-inflammatory changes such as aberrant activation to dysfunctional phenotypes and apoptosis, leading to loss of vascular integrity. Our laboratory has demonstrated that exposure of mice to second hand smoke triggers an increase in expression of metalloproteinase-9. Further, metalloproteinase-9 released by second hand smoke—activated leukocytes may propagate pro-atherogenic alterations in endothelial cells. We have shown that levels of metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the plasma from apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice exposed to second hand smoke relative to non-exposed controls. Moreover, we have collected data from two different, but complementary, treatments of second hand smoke exposed atherosclerotic mice. Animals received either cell specific metalloproteinase-9 directed siRNA to minimize metalloproteinase-9 expression in neutrophils and endothelial cells, or a pharmacological inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase which indirectly limits metalloproteinase-9 production in neutrophils. These treatments reduced atherosclerotic changes in mice and improved overall vascular health. We also demonstrated that metalloproteinase-9 could activate endothelial cells and induce their apoptosis via cleavage of protease activated receptor-1. In summary, better understanding of metalloproteinase-9’s pathogenic capabilities as well as novel signaling pathways involved may lead to development of treatments which may provide additional benefits to atherosclerosis patients with a history of second hand smoke exposure. PMID:28166283

  9. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 RNA expression in rat and human liver fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, H.; Wege, T.; Milani, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Orzechowski, H. D.; Bechstein, W. O.; Neuhaus, P.; Gressner, A. M.; Schuppan, D.

    1997-01-01

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix during chronic liver disease may partially be attributed to altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Expression of TIMP-1 and -2 was studied by in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry in rat (acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication and secondary biliary fibrosis) and human livers and on isolated rat hepatic stellate cells. TIMP-1 and -2 transcripts appeared in rat livers within 1 to 3 hours after intoxication, pointing to a role in the protection against accidental activation of matrix metalloproteinases, and were present at high levels in all fibrotic rat and human livers predominantly in stellate cells. TIMP-2 RNA distribution largely matched with previously reported patterns of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (72-kd gelatinase) expression, suggesting generation of a TIMP-2/matrix metalloproteinase-2 complex (large inhibitor of metalloproteinases). Isolated stellate cells expressed TIMP-1 and -2 RNA. Addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 enhanced TIMP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 RNA levels in vitro, whereas TIMP-2-specific signals were reduced, likely to result in a stoichiometric excess of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 over TIMP-2. In the context of previous demonstrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vivo, these patterns suggest an intrahepatic environment permitting only limited matrix degradation, ultimately resulting in redistribution of extracellular matrix with relative accumulation of collagen type 1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9137090

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 refines pathological staging of precancerous colorectal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wernicke, Anna-Katharina; Churin, Yuri; Sheridan, Diana; Windhorst, Anita; Tschuschner, Annette; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke

    2016-01-01

    An exact classification of precancerous stages of colorectal polyps might improve therapy and patients' outcome. Here we investigate the association between grade of dysplasia and Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression in 137 biopsies from patients with cancerous and non-cancerous colorectal adenomas. A reproducible staining procedure for histologic MMP-13 analysis in routinely fixed colorectal biopsy specimens has been established. A newly adopted immunoreactive scoring system for MMP-13 was demonstrated as reliable readout. The strength of the association between pathologic stage and immunoreactive MMP-13 scoring emphasizes its eligibility for diagnosis in precancerous colorectal lesions. PMID:27716617

  11. Structural bases for substrate and inhibitor recognition by matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Loretta; Gioia, Magda; Cerbara, Ilaria; Monaco, Susanna; Fasciglione, Giovanni Francesco; Marini, Stefano; Ascenzi, Paolo; Topai, Alessandra; Coletta, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases which are involved in the proteolytic processing of several components of the extracellular matrix. As a consequence, MMPs are implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, like skeletal growth and remodelling, wound healing, cancer, arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, raising a very widespread interest toward this class of enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. Here, structure-function relationships are discussed to highlight the role of different MMP domains on substrate/inhibitor recognition and processing and to attempt the formulation of advanced guidelines, based on natural substrates, for the design of inhibitors more efficient in vivo.

  12. Monocyte ADAM17 promotes diapedesis during transendothelial migration: identification of steps and substrates targeted by metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Yoshiaki; Frey, Jeremy M; Tai, Phillip W L; Welikson, Robert E; Raines, Elaine W

    2013-04-15

    Despite expanded definition of the leukocyte adhesion cascade and mechanisms underlying individual steps, very little is known about regulatory mechanisms controlling sequential shifts between steps. We tested the hypothesis that metalloproteinases provide a mechanism to rapidly transition monocytes between different steps. Our study identifies diapedesis as a step targeted by metalloproteinase activity. Time-lapse video microscopy shows that the presence of a metalloproteinase inhibitor results in a doubling of the time required for human monocytes to complete diapedesis on unactivated or inflamed human endothelium, under both static and physiological-flow conditions. Thus, diapedesis is promoted by metalloproteinase activity. In contrast, neither adhesion of monocytes nor their locomotion over the endothelium is altered by metalloproteinase inhibition. We further demonstrate that metalloproteinase inhibition significantly elevates monocyte cell surface levels of integrins CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), specifically during transendothelial migration. Interestingly, such alterations are not detected for other endothelial- and monocyte-adhesion molecules that are presumed metalloproteinase substrates. Two major transmembrane metalloproteinases, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)17 and ADAM10, are identified as enzymes that control constitutive cleavage of Mac-1. We further establish that knockdown of monocyte ADAM17, but not endothelial ADAM10 or ADAM17 or monocyte ADAM10, reproduces the diapedesis delay observed with metalloproteinase inhibition. Therefore, we conclude that monocyte ADAM17 facilitates the completion of transendothelial migration by accelerating the rate of diapedesis. We propose that the progression of diapedesis may be regulated by spatial and temporal cleavage of Mac-1, which is triggered upon interaction with endothelium.

  13. The regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian M; Swingler, Tracey E; Sampieri, Clara L; Edwards, Dylan R

    2008-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of 23 enzymes in man. These enzymes were originally described as cleaving extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates with a predominant role in ECM homeostasis, but it is now clear that they have much wider functionality. Control over MMP and/or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) activity in vivo occurs at different levels and involves factors such as regulation of gene expression, activation of zymogens and inhibition of active enzymes by specific inhibitors. Whilst these enzymes and inhibitors have clear roles in physiological tissue turnover and homeostasis, if control of their expression or activity is lost, they contribute to a number of pathologies including e.g. cancer, arthritis and cardiovascular disease. The expression of many MMPs and TIMPs is regulated at the level of transcription by a variety of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, though post-transcriptional pathways may contribute to this regulation in specific cases. The contribution of epigenetic modifications has also been uncovered in recent years. The promoter regions of many of these genes have been, at least partly, characterised including the role of identified single nucleotide polymorphisms. This article aims to review current knowledge across these gene families and use a bioinformatic approach to fill the gaps where no functional data are available.

  14. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate as an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rodrigo V; Ogliari, Fabrício A; de Souza, Ana P; Silva, Adriana F; Petzhold, Cesar L; Line, Sergio R P; Piva, Evandro; Etges, Adriana

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in vitro. Mouse gingival explants were cultured overnight in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal essential medium, following which the expression of secreted enzymes was analyzed by gelatin zymography and the effects of different amounts of HEMA on enzyme activity were investigated. The gelatinolytic proteinases present in the conditioned media were characterized as being matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by means of specific chemical inhibition. The MMPs present in the conditioned media were identified, using immunoprecipitation, as MMP-2. Three major bands were detected in the zymographic assays and were characterized, according to their respective molecular weights, into the following forms of MMP-2: zymogene (72 kDa), intermediate (66 kDa), and active (62 kDa). All forms of MMP-2 were inhibited by HEMA in a dose-dependent manner, implying that MMP-2 may be inhibited by HEMA in vivo.

  15. Sequence-specific interaction between HIV-1 matrix protein and viral genomic RNA revealed by in vitro genetic selection.

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, P; Dupont, S; Stevenson, M; Green, M R

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 matrix protein (HIV-1 MA) is a multifunctional structural protein synthesized as part of the Pr55 gag polyprotein. We have used in vitro genetic selection to identify an RNA consensus sequence that specifically interacts with MA (Kd = 5 x 10(-7) M). This 13-nt MA binding consensus sequence bears a high degree of homology (77%) to a region (nt 1433-1446) within the POL open reading frame of the HIV-1 genome (consensus sequence from 38 HIV-1 strains). Chemical interference experiments identified the nucleotides within the MA binding consensus sequence involved in direct contact with MA. We further demonstrate that this RNA-protein interaction is mediated through a stretch of basic amino acids within MA. Mutations that disrupt the interaction between MA and its RNA binding site within the HIV-1 genome resulted in a measurable decrease in viral replication. PMID:11345436

  16. Expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 and association with B-cell lymphoma in HIV-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Virginia A.; Lafferty, Mark K.; Marchionni, Luigi; Bryant, Joseph L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk for B-cell lymphomas. How HIV infection promotes the development of lymphoma is unclear, but it may involve chronic B-cell activation, inflammation, and/or impaired immunity, possibly leading to a loss of control of oncogenic viruses and reduced tumor immunosurveillance. We hypothesized that HIV structural proteins may contribute to lymphomagenesis directly, because they can persist long term in lymph nodes in the absence of viral replication. The HIV-1 transgenic mouse Tg26 carries a noninfectious HIV-1 provirus lacking part of the gag-pol region, thus constituting a model for studying the effects of viral products in pathogenesis. Approximately 15% of Tg26 mice spontaneously develop leukemia/lymphoma. We investigated which viral proteins are associated with the development of leukemia/lymphoma in the Tg26 mouse model, and performed microarray analysis on RNA from spleen and lymph nodes to identify potential mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. Of the viral proteins examined, only expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 was associated with leukemia/lymphoma development and was highly expressed in bone marrow before disease. The tumor cells resembled pro-B cells, and were CD19+IgM−IgD−CD93+CD43+CD21−CD23−VpreB+CXCR4+. Consistent with the pro-B-cell stage of B-cell development, microarray analysis revealed enrichment of transcripts, including Rag1, Rag2, CD93, Vpreb1, Vpreb3, and Igll1. We confirmed RAG1 expression in Tg26 tumors, and hypothesized that HIV-1 matrix protein p17 may directly induce RAG1 in B cells. Stimulation of human activated B cells with p17 enhanced RAG1 expression in three of seven donors, suggesting that intracellular signaling by p17 may lead to genomic instability and transformation. PMID:27799525

  17. Circulating Total and Active Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythomatosus

    PubMed Central

    Robak, Ewa; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Chmiela, Magdalena; Kulczycka, Liliana; Sysa-Jędrejowska, Anna; Robak, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the serum concentration of total metalloproteinase-9 (tMPP-9), active MMP-9 (aMMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in a group of 41 patients with SLE and 20 healthy controls. Serum levels of tMMP-9 and TIMP-1 were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and aMMP-9 by fluorometric assay. The tMMP-9 level was lower in SLE patients (mean 262 ng/mL) than in healthy volunteers (mean 325 ng/mL) (P = .048). Similarly, aMMP-9 level was lower in SLE patients (mean 121 ng/mL) than in control group (mean 169 ng/mL) (P = .0355) and lower in active SLE (mean 54 ng/mL) than in inactive disease (mean 99 ng/mL) (P = .033). TIMP-1 level was also lower in SLE patients (mean 181 ng/mL) than in control group (mean 233 ng/mL) (P = .004). In SLE patients, a positive correlation was found between tMMP-9 and aMMP-9 (ρ = 0.568; P = .001). We also found a positive correlation of tMMP-9 and TIMP-1 with VEGF concentrations (ρ = 0.450, P = .005 and ρ = 0.387; P = .018, resp). tMMP-9, aMMP-9, and TIMP-1 serum levels are lower in SLE patients than in healthy control group. PMID:16864898

  18. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mieczkowska, J.; Rutkowska, E.; Mosiewicz, B.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8) and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1) levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: 54 ± 3.6). There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce's protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity. PMID:28115790

  19. Fine Tuning Cell Migration by a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is an instrumental process involved in organ development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes and also in numerous pathologies. Both basic cell migration and migration towards chemotactic stimulus consist of changes in cell polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell detachment from, invasion through, and reattachment to their neighboring cells, and numerous interactions with the extracellular matrix. The different steps of immune cell, tissue cell, or cancer cell migration are tightly coordinated in time and place by growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, adhesion molecules, and receptors for these ligands. This review describes how a disintegrin and metalloproteinases interfere with several steps of cell migration, either by proteolytic cleavage of such molecules or by functions independent of proteolytic activity. PMID:28260841

  20. The paradox of matrix metalloproteinases in infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, PTG; O'Kane, CM; Friedland, JS

    2005-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that perform multiple roles in the normal immune response to infection. MMPs facilitate leucocyte recruitment, cytokine and chemokine processing, defensin activation and matrix remodelling. However, excess MMP activity following infection may lead to immunopathology that causes host morbidity or mortality and favours pathogen dissemination or persistence. Here, we review the normal functions of MMPs in immunity and then discuss viral and bacterial infections where excess MMP activity has been implicated in pathology, specifically examining HIV, HTLV-1, hepatitis B, endotoxin shock, Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tissue destruction may be exacerbated further by bacterial-derived enzymes which activate the host pro-MMPs. Finally, the potential for therapeutic targeting of excess MMP activity in infection is considered. PMID:16178851

  1. ADAMTS-12: A Multifaced Metalloproteinase in Arthritis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianlu; Richbourgh, Brendon; Jia, Tanghong; Liu, Chuanju

    2014-01-01

    ADAMTS-12 is a member of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) family of proteases, which were known to play important roles in various biological and pathological processes, such as development, angiogenesis, inflammation, cancer, arthritis, and atherosclerosis. In this review, we briefly summarize the structural organization of ADAMTS-12; concentrate on the emerging role of ADAMTS-12 in several pathophysiological conditions, including intervertebral disc degeneration, tumorigenesis and angioinhibitory effects, pediatric stroke, gonad differentiation, trophoblast invasion, and genetic linkage to schizophrenia and asthma, with special focus on its role in arthritis and inflammation; and end with the perspective research of ADAMTS-12 and its potential as a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target in various kinds of diseases and conditions. PMID:24876675

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Update

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Shane; Gilmer, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory conditions, but while their involvement is clear, their role in many settings has yet to be determined. Studies of the involvement of MMPs in IBD since 2006 have revealed an array of immune and stromal cells which release the proteases in response to inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Through digestion of the extracellular matrix and cleavage of bioactive proteins, a huge diversity of roles have been revealed for the MMPs in IBD, where they have been shown to regulate epithelial barrier function, immune response, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and wound healing. For this reason, MMPs have been recognised as potential biomarkers for disease activity in IBD and inhibition remains a huge area of interest. This review describes new roles of MMPs in the pathophysiology of IBD and suggests future directions for the development of treatment strategies in this condition. PMID:25948887

  3. Virtual High-Throughput Screening for Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Yong; Fuerst, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) is a common method for the fast identification of hit structures at the beginning of a medicinal chemistry program in drug discovery. The SBVS, described in this manuscript, is focused on finding small molecule hits that can be further utilized as a starting point for the development of inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) via structure-based molecular design. We intended to identify a set of structurally diverse hits, which occupy all subsites (S1'-S3', S2, and S3) centering the zinc containing binding site of MMP-13, by the virtual screening of a chemical library comprising more than ten million commercially available compounds. In total, 23 compounds were found as potential MMP-13 inhibitors using Glide docking followed by the analysis of the structural interaction fingerprints (SIFt) of the docked structures.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinases as biomarkers of disease: updates and new insights.

    PubMed

    Galliera, Emanuela; Tacchini, Lorenza; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M

    2015-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role in remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are therefore of interest for new diagnostic tools for the clinical management of diseases involving ECM disruption. This setting ranges from the classical areas of MMP studies, such as vascular disease, cancer progression or bone disorders, to new emerging fields of application, such as neurodegenerative disease or sepsis. Increasing the knowledge about the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of diseases where a clear diagnostic panel is still lacking could provide new insight and improve the identification and the clinical treatment of these human diseases. This review focuses on the latest descriptions of the clinical use of MMP as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of different diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and metastasis, neurodegenerative disorders and sepsis.

  5. Roles and regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase system in parturition.

    PubMed

    Geng, Junnan; Huang, Cong; Jiang, Siwen

    2016-04-01

    Significant tissue destruction, repair, and remodeling are involved in parturition, which involves fetal membrane rupture, cervical ripening, and uterine contraction and its subsequent involution. Extracellular matrix degradation and remodeling by proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are required for the final steps of parturition. MMPs participate in physiological degradation and remodeling through their proteolytic activities on specific substrates, and are balanced by the action of their inhibitors. Disruption to this balance can result in pathological stress that ends with preterm or post-term birth or pre-eclampsia. In this review, we examine the roles and regulation of the MMP system in physiological and pathological labor, and propose a model that illustrates the mechanisms by which the MMP system contributes to these processes.

  6. Venous aneurysm complicating arteriovenous fistula access and matrix metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; Grande, Raffaele; Placida, Girolamo Domenico; Rubino, Paolo; Settimio, Ugo Francesco; Quarto, Gennaro; Amato, Maurizio; Furino, Ermenegildo; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Bruno; Gallelli, Luca; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for placed for hemodialysis may be burdened by one particular complication—the formation of a venous aneurysm. It has been shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) could represent markers of disease in both venous and arterial vessels. Materials and methods This case study reports a rare case of enormous venous aneurysm-correlated MMP and NGAL levels in a woman with an AVF. Results Significantly higher levels of plasma MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and NGAL were detected in this patient during aneurysmal evaluation before the surgery; these levels significantly decreased 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Conclusion MMP and NGAL levels could represent a marker of aneurysmal disease, and their plasma evaluation could help physicians to stratify the risk of complications in patients with an AVF. PMID:28352747

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Regulates Neuronal Circuit Development and Excitability.

    PubMed

    Murase, Sachiko; Lantz, Crystal L; Kim, Eunyoung; Gupta, Nitin; Higgins, Richard; Stopfer, Mark; Hoffman, Dax A; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

    2016-07-01

    In early postnatal development, naturally occurring cell death, dendritic outgrowth, and synaptogenesis sculpt neuronal ensembles into functional neuronal circuits. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of the extracellular proteinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) affects each of these processes, resulting in maladapted neuronal circuitry. MMP-9 deletion increases the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons but decreases dendritic length and complexity. Parallel changes in neuronal morphology are observed in primary visual cortex and persist into adulthood. Individual CA1 neurons in MMP-9(-/-) mice have enhanced input resistance and a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Additionally, deletion of MMP-9 significantly increases spontaneous neuronal activity in awake MMP-9(-/-) mice and enhances response to acute challenge by the excitotoxin kainate. Our data document a novel role for MMP-9-dependent proteolysis: the regulation of several aspects of circuit maturation to constrain excitability throughout life.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases and gastrointestinal cancers: Impacts of dietary antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sugreev; Kesh, Kousik; Ganguly, Nilanjan; Jana, Sayantan; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis is tightly regulated by antioxidant enzymes and matrix degrading enzymes, namely, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins like collagen, proteoglycan, laminin, elastin and fibronectin is considered to be the prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis. MMPs can degrade essentially all of the ECM components and, most MMPs also substantially contribute to angiogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Hence, MMPs are important regulators of tumor growth both at the primary site and in distant metastases; thus the enzymes are considered as important targets for cancer therapy. The implications of MMPs in cancers are no longer mysterious; however, the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Herein, our major interest is to clarify how MMPs are tied up with gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer is a variety of cancer types, including the cancers of gastrointestinal tract and organs, i.e., esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The activity of MMPs is regulated by its endogenous inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) which bind MMPs with a 1:1 stoichiometry. In addition, RECK (reversion including cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) is a membrane bound glycoprotein that inhibits MMP-2, -9 and -14. Moreover, α2-macroglobulin mediates the uptake of several MMPs thereby inhibit their activity. Cancerous conditions increase intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to altered protease/anti-protease balance. ROS, an index of oxidative stress is also involved in tumorigenesis by activation of different MAP kinase pathways including MMP induction. Oxidative stress is involved in cancer by changing the activity and expression of regulatory proteins especially MMPs. Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruits that rich in antioxidants is

  9. Meprins, membrane-bound and secreted astacin metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Sterchi, Erwin E.; Stöcker, Walter; Bond, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    The astacins are a subfamily of the metzincin superfamily of metalloproteinases. The first to be characterized was the crayfish enzyme astacin. To date more than 200 members of this family have been identified in species ranging from bacteria to humans. Astacins are involved in developmental morphogenesis, matrix assembly, tissue differentiation and digestion. Family members include the procollagen C-proteinase (BMP1, bone morphogenetic protein 1), tolloid and mammalian tolloid-like, HMP (Hydra vulgaris metalloproteinase), sea urchin BP10 (blastula protein) and SPAN (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus astacin), the ‘hatching’ subfamily comprising alveolin, ovastacin, LCE, HCE (‘low’ and ‘high’ choriolytic enzymes), nephrosin (from carp head kidney), UVS.2 from frog, and the meprins. In the human and mouse genomes, there are six astacin family genes (two meprins, three BMP1/tolloid-like, one ovastacin), but in Caenorhabditis elegans there are 40. Meprins are the only astacin proteinases that function on the membrane and extracellularly by virtue of the fact that they can be membrane-bound or secreted. They are unique in their domain structure and covalent subunit dimerization, oligomerization propensities, and expression patterns. They are normally highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, localize to specific membranes or extracellular spaces, and can hydrolyse biologically active peptides, cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and cell-surface proteins. The in vivo substrates of meprins are unknown, but the abundant expression of these proteinases in the epithelial cells of the intestine, kidney and skin provide clues to their functions. PMID:18783725

  10. Timing and duration of nursing from birth affect neonatal porcine uterine matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1.

    PubMed

    Ho, T Y; Rahman, K M; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2017-04-01

    Nursing for 2 d from birth supports neonatal porcine uterine and cervical development. However, it is not clear how timing or duration of lactocrine signaling from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) affects development of neonatal female reproductive tract tissues. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine effects of age at first nursing and duration of nursing from birth on specific elements of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) system in uterine and cervical tissues at PND 2. When nursing was initiated at 0 h or 30 min of age, targeted proteins, including proMMP9 and MMP9, were detected in uterine and cervical tissues on PND 2, as was uterine TIMP1. However, these proteins were undetectable when nursing was delayed for 12 h and when gilts were fed milk replacer for 48 h from birth. Increasing the duration of nursing from 30 min to 12 h from birth increased uterine (P < 0.05) and cervical (P < 0.001) MMP9 levels to those observed in gilts nursed for 48 h. Similarly, uterine TIMP1 levels increased with duration of nursing. Uterine MMP2 levels were detectable but unaffected by age at first nursing or duration of nursing from birth. Uterine MMP2 and MMP9 activities, monitored by zymography, reflected immunoblotting data. Results provide evidence for the utility of MMP9 and TIMP1 as markers of age- and lactocrine-sensitive porcine female reproductive tract development.

  11. Role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in the development of autoimmune lymphoproliferation

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Elena; Indelicato, Manuela; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Mazzarino, Maria Clorinda; Campagnoli, Maria Francesca; Ramenghi, Ugo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    Background Inherited defects decreasing function of the Fas death receptor cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and its variant Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease. Analysis of the lymphocyte transcriptome from a patient with this latter condition detected striking over-expression of osteopontin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. Since previous work on osteopontin had detected increased serum levels in these patients, associated with variations of its gene, the aim of this work was to extend the analysis to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1. Design and Methods Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels were evaluated in sera and culture supernatants from patients and controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activation- and Fas-induced cell death were induced, in vitro, using anti-CD3 and anti-Fas antibodies, respectively. Results Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels were higher in sera from 32 patients (11 with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and 21 with Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease) than in 50 healthy controls (P<0.0001), unassociated with variations of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 gene. Both groups of patients also had increased serum levels of osteopontin. In vitro experiments showed that osteopontin increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 secretion by peripheral blood monocytes. Moreover, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 significantly inhibited both Fas- and activation-induced cell death of lymphocytes. Conclusions These data suggest that high osteopontin levels may support high tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and Dianzani’s autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease, and hence worsen the apoptotic defect in these diseases. PMID:20595097

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinases as a Therapeutic Target to Improve Neurologic Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0797 TITLE: Matrix metalloproteinases as a therapeutic target to improve neurologic recovery after spinal cord injury...after spinal cord injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0797 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Linda J. Noble, Alpa...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: We are evaluating efficacy of GM6001, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in a murine model of spinal cord

  13. ADAM and ADAMTS Family Proteins and Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: A Structural Overview

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family proteins constitute a major class of membrane-anchored multidomain proteinases that are responsible for the shedding of cell-surface protein ectodomains, including the latent forms of growth factors, cytokines, receptors and other molecules. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are major components in most viper venoms. SVMPs are primarily responsible for hemorrhagic activity and may also interfere with the hemostatic system in envenomed animals. SVMPs are phylogenetically most closely related to ADAMs and, together with ADAMs and related ADAM with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) family proteinases, constitute adamalysins/reprolysins or the M12B clan (MEROPS database) of metalloproteinases. Although the catalytic domain structure is topologically similar to that of other metalloproteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases, the M12B proteinases have a modular structure with multiple non-catalytic ancillary domains that are not found in other proteinases. Notably, crystallographic studies revealed that, in addition to the conserved metalloproteinase domain, M12B members share a hallmark cysteine-rich domain designated as the “ADAM_CR” domain. Despite their name, ADAMTSs lack disintegrin-like structures and instead comprise two ADAM_CR domains. This review highlights the current state of our knowledge on the three-dimensional structures of M12B proteinases, focusing on their unique domains that may collaboratively participate in directing these proteinases to specific substrates. PMID:27196928

  14. The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs): An ancient family with structural and functional diversity

    PubMed Central

    Brew, Keith; Nagase, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are widely distributed in the animal kingdom and the human genome contains four paralogous genes encoding TIMPs 1 to 4. TIMPs were originally characterized as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), but their range of activities has now been found to be broader as it includes the inhibition of several of the disintegrin-metalloproteinases, ADAMs and ADAMTSs. TIMPs are therefore key regulators of the metalloproteinases that degrade the extracellular matrix and shed cell surface molecules. Structural studies of TIMP–MMP complexes have elucidated the inhibition mechanism of TIMPs and the multiple sites through which they interact with target enzymes, allowing the generation of TIMP variants that selectively inhibit different groups of metalloproteinases. Engineering such variants is complicated by the fact that TIMPs can undergo changes in molecular dynamics induced by their interactions with proteases. TIMPs also have biological activities that are independent of metalloproteinases; these include effects on cell growth and differentiation, cell migration, anti-angiogenesis, anti- and pro-apoptosis, and synaptic plasticity. Receptors responsible for some of these activities have been identified and their signaling pathways have been investigated. A series of studies using mice with specific TIMP gene deletions has illuminated the importance of these molecules in biology and pathology. PMID:20080133

  15. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase and its tissue inhibitor in haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shan; Yang, Guohua; Xia, Cong; Duanlian, Zhang; Shan, Shengguo

    2009-10-01

    The action mechanism of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) in the genesis, development and degeneration of haemangioma was investigated by detecting their expression in the tissue of haemangioma in different phases by using the immunohistochemistry. Fifty paraffin-embedded specimens of skin capillary haemangioma were collected, which were documented in the Department of Pathology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2000 to 2006. All samples were stained by regular HE method, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was tested by immunohistochemical S-P method. The samples were classified according to the Mulliken criteria and the expression pattern of PCNA. Immunohistochemical S-P method was applied to detect the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in proliferative and degenerative phases of cutaneous capillary haemangioma, and in normal skin tissues. In combination with the detection of the expression of factor VIII-related antigen, it was verified that in haemangioma tissues, the cells expressing MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were vascular endothelial cells. The MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expression was quantitatively analyzed by image analysis system (HPIAS-1000), and one-way ANOVA(107) and SNK(q) test were done to analyze average absorbance (A) and positive area rate of immunohistochemically positive particles by using SPSS11.5. The results showed: (1) Among 50 samples of haemangioma, there were 26 proliferative haemangiomas, and 24 degenerative haemangiomas, respectively; (2) The expression of MMP-2 was weak in normal vascular endothelial cells, cytoplasm of connective tissues and extracellular matrix around blood vessels. The expression of MMP-2 in proliferative group was significantly higher than in degenerative group and control group (normal skin) (P<0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between the latter two groups; (3) TIMP-2 was highly expressed in normal tissues, degenerative vascular

  16. Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Hyun Hee; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Se-Rah; Shin, Mi-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

    2014-07-01

    Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated.

  17. Molecular models of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) venom metalloproteinases reveal a structural basis for differences in hemorrhagic activities.

    PubMed

    Dagda, Ruben K; Gasanov, Sardar E; Zhang, Boris; Welch, William; Rael, Eppie D

    2014-03-01

    Rattlesnake venom can differ in composition and in metalloproteinase-associated activities. The molecular basis for this intra-species variation in Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) remains an enigma. To understand the molecular basis for intra-species variation of metalloproteinase-associated activities, we modeled the three-dimensional structures of four metalloproteinases based on the amino acid sequence of four variations of the proteinase domain of the C. s. scutulatus metalloproteinase gene (GP1, GP2, GP3, and GP4). For comparative purposes, we modeled the atrolysin metalloproteinases of C. atrox as well. All molecular models shared the same topology. While the atrolysin metalloproteinase molecular models contained highly conserved substrate binding sites, the Mojave rattlesnake metalloproteinases showed higher structural divergence when superimposed onto each other. The highest structural divergence among the four C. s. scutulatus molecular models was located at the northern cleft wall and the S'1-pocket of the substrate binding site, molecular regions that modulate substrate selectivity. Molecular dynamics and field potential maps for each C. s. scutulatus metalloproteinase model demonstrated that the non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (GP2 and GP3) contain highly basic molecular and field potential surfaces while the hemorrhagic metalloproteinases GP1 and atrolysin C showed extensive acidic field potential maps and shallow but less dynamic active site pockets. Hence, differences in the spatial arrangement of the northern cleft wall, the S'1-pocket, and the physico-chemical environment surrounding the catalytic site contribute to differences in metalloproteinase activities in the Mojave rattlesnake. Our results provide a structural basis for variation of metalloproteinase-associated activities in the rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinases as breast cancer drivers and therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Radisky, Evette S.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family have been identified as poor prognosis markers for breast cancer patients and as drivers of many facets of the tumor phenotype in experimental models. Early enthusiasm for MMPs as therapeutic targets was tempered following disappointing clinical trials that utilized broad spectrum, small molecule catalytic site inhibitors. However, subsequent research has continued to define key roles for MMPs as breast cancer promoters, to elucidate the complex roles that that these proteins play in breast cancer development and progression, and to identify how these roles are linked to specific and unique biochemical features of individual members of the MMP family. Here, we provide an overview of the structural features of the MMPs, then discuss clinical studies identifying which MMP family members are linked with breast cancer development and new experimental studies that reveal how these specific MMPs may play unique roles in the breast cancer microenvironment. We conclude with a discussion of the most promising avenues for development of therapeutic agents capable of targeting the tumor-promoting properties of MMPs. PMID:25961550

  19. Matrix metalloproteinases in neural development: a phylogenetically diverse perspective

    PubMed Central

    Small, Christopher D.; Crawford, Bryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases originally characterized as secreted proteases responsible for degrading extracellular matrix proteins. Their canonical role in matrix remodelling is of significant importance in neural development and regeneration, but emerging roles for MMPs, especially in signal transduction pathways, are also of obvious importance in a neural context. Misregulation of MMP activity is a hallmark of many neuropathologies, and members of every branch of the MMP family have been implicated in aspects of neural development and disease. However, while extraordinary research efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involving MMPs, methodological constraints and complexities of the research models have impeded progress. Here we discuss the current state of our understanding of the roles of MMPs in neural development using recent examples and advocate a phylogenetically diverse approach to MMP research as a means to both circumvent the challenges associated with specific model organisms, and to provide a broader evolutionary context from which to synthesize an understanding of the underlying biology. PMID:27127457

  20. A Glimpse of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.; Xiao, L.; Xiao, P.; Yang, S.; Chen, G.; Liu, F.; Kanwar, Y.Y.; Sun, L.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes belonging to the family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading almost all the proteinaceous components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is known that MMPs play a role in a number of renal diseases, such as, various forms of glomerulonephritis and tubular diseases, including some of the inherited kidney diseases. In this regard, ECM accumulation is considered to be a hallmark morphologic finding of diabetic nephropathy, which not only is related to the excessive synthesis of matrix proteins, but also to their decreased degradation by the MMPs. In recent years, increasing evidence suggest that there is a good correlation between the activity or expression of MMPs and progression of renal disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy in humans and in various experimental animal models. In such a diabetic milieu, the expression of MMPs is modulated by high glucose, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), TGF-β, reactive oxygen species (ROS), transcription factors and some of the microRNAs. In this review, we focused on the structure and functions of MMPs, and their role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25039784

  1. Biophysical studies of matrix metalloproteinase/triple-helix complexes.

    PubMed

    Fields, Gregg B

    2014-01-01

    Several members of the zinc-dependent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family catalyze collagen degradation. The structures of MMPs, in solution and solid state and in the presence and absence of triple-helical collagen models, have been assessed by NMR spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and X-ray crystallography. Structures observed in solution exhibit flexibility between the MMP catalytic (CAT) and hemopexin-like (HPX) domains, while solid-state structures are relatively compact. Evaluation of the maximum occurrence (MO) of MMP-1 conformations in solution found that, for all the high MO conformations, the CAT and HPX domains are not in tight contact, and the residues of the HPX domain reported to be responsible for the binding to the collagen triple-helix are solvent exposed. A mechanism for collagenolysis has been developed based on analysis of MMP solution structures. Information obtained from solid-state structures has proven valuable for analyzing specific contacts between MMPs and the collagen triple-helix.

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Multiple Roles in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Xiang; Tan, Meng-Shan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia. Pathological changes in the AD brain include amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as neuronal death and synaptic loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role as inflammatory components in the pathogenesis of AD. MMP-2 might be assumed to have a protective role in AD and is the major MMP which is directly linked to Aβ in the brain. Synthesis of MMP-9 can be induced by Aβ, and the enzymes appear to exert multiple effects in AD in senile plaque homoeostasis. The proaggregatory influence on tau oligomer formation in strategic brain regions may be a potential neurotoxic side effect of MMP-9. MMP-3 levels are correlated to the duration of AD and correlate with the CSF T-tau and P-tau levels in the elderly controls. Elevated brain levels of MMP-3 might result in increased MMP-9 activity and indirectly facilitate tau aggregation. At present, the clinical utility of these proteins, particularly in plasma or serum, as potential early diagnostic biomarkers for AD remains to be established. More research is needed to understand the diverse roles of these proteases to design specific drugs and devise therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:25050378

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Accelerates Wound Healing following Dental Pulp Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li; Amano, Kazuharu; Iohara, Koichiro; Ito, Masataka; Imabayashi, Kiyomi; Into, Takeshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Misako

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including morphogenesis, wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer. Angiogenesis is essential for reparative dentin formation during pulp wound healing. The mechanism of angiogenesis, however, still remains unclear. We hypothesized that certain MMPs expressed during pulp wound healing may support recovery processes. To address this issue, a rat pulp injury model was established to investigate expression of MMPs during wound healing. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that expression MMP-3 and MMP-9 (albeit lower extent) was up-regulated at 24 and 12 hours after pulp injury, respectively, whereas expression of MMP-2 and MMP-14 was not changed. MMP-3 mRNA and protein were localized in endothelial cells and/or endothelial progenitor cells in injured pulp in vivo. In addition, MMP-3 enhanced proliferation, migration, and survival of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the topical application of MMP-3 protein on the rat-injured pulp tissue in vivo induced angiogenesis and reparative dentin formation at significantly higher levels compared with controls at 24 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Inhibition of endogenous MMP-3 by N-Isobutyl-N-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)-glycylhydroxamic acid resulted in untoward wound healing. These results provide suggestive evidence that MMP-3 released from endothelial cells and/or endothelial progenitor cells in injured pulp plays critical roles in angiogenesis and pulp wound healing. PMID:19834065

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase 13-containing exosomes promote nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    You, Yiwen; Shan, Ying; Chen, Jing; Yue, Huijun; You, Bo; Shi, Si; Li, Xingyu; Cao, Xiaolei

    2015-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is an endemic type of head and neck cancer with a high rate of cervical lymph node metastasis. Metastasis is the major cause of death in NPC patients. Increasing evidence indicates that exosomes play a pivotal role in promoting cancer metastasis by enhancing angiogenesis and ECM degradation. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 is an important kind of matrix proteinase that is often overexpressed in various tumors and increases the risk of metastasis. However, little is known about the potential role of MMP13-containing exosomes in NPC. In this study, we found that MMP13 was overexpressed in NPC cells and exosomes purified from conditioned medium (CM) as well as NPC patients' plasma. Transwell analysis revealed that MMP13-containing exosomes facilitated the metastasis of NPC cells. Furthermore, siRNA inhibited the effect of MMP13-containing exosomes on tumor cells metastasis as well as angiogenesis. The current findings provided novel insight into the vital role of MMP13-containing exosomes in NPC progression which might offer unique insights for potential therapeutic strategies for NPC progressions.

  5. Two Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors from Scrophularia Striata Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Monsef–Esfahani, Hamid Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Mohsen; Hajiaghaee, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Many species belonging to the Scrophularia genus have been used since ancient times as folk remedies for many medical conditions such as scrofulas, scabies, tumors, eczema, psoriasis, inflammations. The aim of this study was to characterize the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitor compounds of the Scrophularia striata extract by bio-guide fractionation. The aerial parts of S. striata were collected and different extracts were sequentially prepared with increasingly polar solvents. The MMPs inhibitory activity of the crude extract and its fractions were evaluated by the Zymoanalysis method. The pure compounds were purified from the active fraction by chromatography methods. Chemical structures were deduced by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Two active compounds (acteoside and nepitrin) were identified by bio-guide fractionation. The inhibitory effects of nepitrin and acteoside at 20 µg/mL were about 56 and 18 percent, respectivly. The inhibitory effects of acteoside at 80 µg/mL were increased to about 73 percent. In summary, the results suggest that nepitrin effectively inhibited MMPs inhibitory activity at low concentrations, whereas acteoside showed inhibition at high concentrations. PMID:24734066

  6. Important role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Konopacki, Filip A.; Wilczek, Ewa; Lasiecka, Zofia; Gorlewicz, Adam; Michaluk, Piotr; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Malinowska, Monika; Okulski, Pawel; Kolodziej, Lukasz R.; Konopka, Witold; Duniec, Kamila; Mioduszewska, Barbara; Nikolaev, Evgeni; Walczak, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Dorota; Gorecki, Dariusz C.; Zuschratter, Werner; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating disease in which aberrant synaptic plasticity plays a major role. We identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 as a novel synaptic enzyme and a key pathogenic factor in two animal models of TLE: kainate-evoked epilepsy and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling–induced epilepsy. Notably, we show that the sensitivity to PTZ epileptogenesis is decreased in MMP-9 knockout mice but is increased in a novel line of transgenic rats overexpressing MMP-9. Immunoelectron microscopy reveals that MMP-9 associates with hippocampal dendritic spines bearing asymmetrical (excitatory) synapses, where both the MMP-9 protein levels and enzymatic activity become strongly increased upon seizures. Further, we find that MMP-9 deficiency diminishes seizure-evoked pruning of dendritic spines and decreases aberrant synaptogenesis after mossy fiber sprouting. The latter observation provides a possible mechanistic basis for the effect of MMP-9 on epileptogenesis. Our work suggests that a synaptic pool of MMP-9 is critical for the sequence of events that underlie the development of seizures in animal models of TLE. PMID:18332222

  7. Degradation of basement membranes by human matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysin).

    PubMed Central

    Bejarano, P A; Noelken, M E; Suzuki, K; Hudson, B G; Nagase, H

    1988-01-01

    Connective tissue cells synthesize and secrete a group of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), all of which are capable of degrading the extracellular-matrix components. One of them, MMP-3 (stromelysin) has been shown to degrade purified basement-membrane components, collagen IV and laminin [Okada, Y., Nagase, H. & Harris, E. D., Jr. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 14245-14255]. Here we report that MMP-3 degrades collagen IV and laminin in intact basement membranes from bovine glomeruli (GBM) and bovine anterior-lens capsules (LBM). Degradation products were analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to determine the number and sizes of polypeptide fragments. Immunoblotting techniques were used to identify the origins of the fragments, i.e. collagen IV or laminin. The fragments of collagen IV were further mapped using specific antibodies that recognize the N-terminal (7 S) domain, the C-terminal (NC-1) domain, or the major triple-helical region between the terminal domains. Degradation of collagen IV was extensive; many fragments were found, from both GBM and LBM, in the Mr range 25,000-380,000. A large fragment of laminin (Mr greater than 380,000) was found in the GBM digests without reduction, but it dissociated into 220,000-Mr chains upon reduction. The results suggest that MMP-3 plays an important role in the catabolism of basement membranes. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3223920

  8. Blocking human fear memory with the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Bach, D R; Tzovara, A; Vunder, J

    2017-04-04

    Learning to predict threat is a fundamental ability of many biological organisms, and a laboratory model for anxiety disorders. Interfering with such memories in humans would be of high clinical relevance. On the basis of studies in cell cultures and slice preparations, it is hypothesised that synaptic remodelling required for threat learning involves the extracellular enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9. However, in vivo evidence for this proposal is lacking. Here we investigate human Pavlovian fear conditioning under the blood-brain barrier crossing MMP inhibitor doxycyline in a pre-registered, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We find that recall of threat memory, measured with fear-potentiated startle 7 days after acquisition, is attenuated by ~60% in individuals who were under doxycycline during acquisition. This threat memory impairment is also reflected in increased behavioural surprise signals to the conditioned stimulus during subsequent re-learning, and already late during initial acquisition. Our findings support an emerging view that extracellular signalling pathways are crucially required for threat memory formation. Furthermore, they suggest novel pharmacological methods for primary prevention and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.65.

  9. The role of inflammation and matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Benali, Silvia; Giannuzzi, Diana; Mantovani, Roberto; Castagnaro, Massimo; Falomo, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Equine endometriosis is a multifactorial disease considered to be a major cause of equine infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of histomorphological grading for biopsy-like samples compared to entire uterine wall samples, to examine the association between the degree of endometriosis with animal age, and to investigate the role of inflammation in endometriosis and the expression of different matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometrium. Histomorphological lesions in 35 uterine samples were examined while comparing biopsy-like samples and entire-wall samples. Seventeen uterine samples were stained with antibodies against MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-2. The morphologic evaluation results of the biopsy-like tissue and entire-wall samples were significantly correlated. Endometriosis in older mares (>12 years of age) was more severe than in young mares (2~4 years of age), confirming the positive correlation between animal age and disease severity, while inflammation was poorly related to the degree of endometriosis. MMP-2 and MMP-14 were detected in stromal cells, while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were both found in stromal and glandular epithelial cells. There were no significant differences in MMPs expression between the two groups (young vs. old mares). Additional studies on the activity of MMPs could further define the role of these enzymes in equine endometriosis. PMID:22705739

  10. Therapeutic potential of matrix metalloproteinases in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are secreted proteinases that have physiologic roles in degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in almost all tissues. However, their excessive production in disease conditions leads to many pathological features including tissue breakdown, inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscle disorder caused by partial or complete loss of cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Progressive muscle wasting in DMD is accompanied by myofiber necrosis followed by cycles of regeneration and degeneration and inflammation that eventually result in replacement of myofiber by connective and adipose tissues. Emerging evidence suggests that gene expression and the activity of various MMPs are aberrantly regulated in muscle biopsies from DMD patients and in skeletal muscle of animal models of DMD. Moreover, a few studies employing genetic mouse models have revealed that different MMPs play distinct roles in disease progression in DMD. Modulation of the activity of MMPs improves myofiber regeneration and enhances the efficacy of transplantation and engraftment of muscle progenitor cells in dystrophic muscle in mouse models of DMD. Furthermore, recent reports also suggest that some MMPs especially MMP-9 can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of DMD. In this article, we provide a succinct overview of the regulation of various MMPs and their therapeutic importance in DMD. PMID:25364719

  11. Study of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vizoso, F J; González, L O; Corte, M D; Rodríguez, J C; Vázquez, J; Lamelas, M L; Junquera, S; Merino, A M; García-Muñiz, J L

    2007-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue microarrays and specific antibodies against matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and their tisullar inhibitors (TIMPs) 1, 2, and 3. More than 2600 determinations on cancer specimens from 131 patients with primary ductal invasive tumours of the breast (65 with and 66 without distant metastasis) and controls were performed. Staining results were categorised using a score based on the intensity of the staining and a specific software program calculated the percentage of immunostained cells automatically. We observed a broad variation of the total immunostaining scores and the cell type expressing each protein. There were multiple and significant associations between the expression of the different MMPs and TIMPs evaluated and some parameters indicative of tumour aggressiveness, such as large tumour size, advanced tumour grade, high Nottinham prognostic index, negative oestrogen receptor status, peritumoural inflammation, desmoplastic reaction, and infiltrating tumoural edge. Likewise, the detection of elevated immunohistochemical scores for MMP-9, 11, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, was significantly associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. The expression of MMP-9 or TIMP-2 by tumour cells, MMP-1, 7, 9, 11, 13, or TIMP-3 by fibroblastic cells, and MMP-7, 9, 11, 13, 14, TIMP-1, or TIMP-2 by mononuclear inflammatory cells, was also significantly associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. PMID:17342087

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Nagasupriya, Alapati; Rao, Donimukkala Bheemalingeswara; Ravikanth, Manyam; Kumar, Nalabolu Govind; Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor Rajmani; Saraswathi, Thillai Rajashekaran

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a complex integrated system responsible for the physiologic properties of connective tissue. Collagen is the major extracellular component that is altered in pathologic conditions, mainly periodontitis. The destruction involves proteolytic enzymes, primarily matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a key role in mediating and regulating the connective tissue destruction in periodontitis. The study group included 40 patients with clinically diagnosed chronic periodontitis. The control group included 20 patients with clinically normal gingiva covering impacted third molars undergoing extraction or in areas where crown-lengthening procedures were performed. MMP-13 expression was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry in all the gingival biopsies, and the data were analyzed statistically. MMP-13 expression was observed more in chronic periodontitis when compared with normal gingiva. MMP-13 expression was expressed by fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, and basal cells of the sulcular epithelium. Comparative evaluation of all the clinical and histologic parameters with MMP-13 expression showed high statistical significance with Spearman correlation coefficient. Elevated levels of MMP-13 may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. There is a direct correlation of increased expression of MMP-13 with various clinical and histologic parameters in disease severity.

  13. German cockroach frass proteases cleave pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Valerie S; Page, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, secreted as pro-MMP-9, is cleaved by serine proteases at the N-terminus to generate active MMP-9. Pro-MMP-9 has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma. Because many inhaled aeroallergens contain active proteases, the authors sought to determine whether German cockroach (GC) fecal remnants (frass) and house dust mite (HDM) were able to cleave pro-MMP-9. Treatment of recombinant human (rh) pro-MMP-9 with GC frass resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cleavage. This was abrogated by pretreating frass with an inhibitor of serine, but not cysteine protease activity. GC frass also induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9 from primary human neutrophils dependent on the active serine proteases in GC frass. HDM was less potent at cleaving pro-MMP-9. Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a naturally occurring protease inhibitor, attenuated GC frass-induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9. A1AT partially inactivated the serine protease activity in GC frass, while GC frass cleaved A1AT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that GC frass-derived serine proteases could regulate the activity of MMP-9 and that A1AT may play an important role in modulating GC frass activity in vivo. These data suggest a mechanism by which inhalation of GC frass could regulate airway remodeling through the activation of pro-MMP-9.

  14. Diverse matrix metalloproteinase functions regulate cancer amoeboid migration

    PubMed Central

    Orgaz, Jose L.; Pandya, Pahini; Viros, Amaya; Albrengues, Jean; Nestle, Frank O.; Ridley, Anne J.; Gaggioli, Cedric; Marais, Richard; Karagiannis, Sophia N.; Sanz-Moreno, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Rounded-amoeboid cancer cells use actomyosin contractility driven by Rho-ROCK and JAK-STAT3 to migrate efficiently. It has been suggested that rounded-amoeboid cancer cells do not require matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to invade. Here we compare MMP levels in rounded-amoeboid and elongated-mesenchymal melanoma cells. Surprisingly, we find that rounded-amoeboid melanoma cells secrete higher levels of several MMPs, including collagenase MMP-13 and gelatinase MMP-9. As a result, rounded-amoeboid melanoma cells degrade collagen I more efficiently than elongated-mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, using a non-catalytic mechanism, MMP-9 promotes rounded-amoeboid 3D migration through regulation of actomyosin contractility via CD44 receptor. MMP-9 is upregulated in a panel of rounded-amoeboid compared with elongated-mesenchymal melanoma cell lines and its levels are controlled by ROCK-JAK-STAT3 signalling. MMP-9 expression increases during melanoma progression and it is particularly prominent in the invasive fronts of lesions, correlating with cell roundness. Therefore, rounded-amoeboid cells use both catalytic and non-catalytic activities of MMPs for invasion. PMID:24963846

  15. Joint diseases and matrix metalloproteinases: a role for MMP-13.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Hironari; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Dalal, Seema; Okada, Yasunori; D'Armiento, Jeanine

    2008-02-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteinases in disease has been investigated over the last two decades. A focus on this family of proteases is particularly emphasized in two major arthritides in humans, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Early work described the presence of multiple MMP family members in the joint of the disease state and recent advances in the development of new knockout mice and disease models have allowed investigators to directly test the role of the MMP proteases in arthritis. MMP-13 is expressed by chondrocytes and synovial cells in human OA and RA and is thought to play a critical role in cartilage destruction. The recent development of an MMP-13 knockout mouse has documented the important role for this enzyme in cartilage formation and further studies under disease conditions promise to reveal the function of this enzyme in disease pathology. This review describes a body of research that supports the development of novel selective MMP-13 inhibitors with the hope of developing these compounds in clinical trials for the treatment of arthritis.

  16. Therapeutic potential of matrix metalloproteinases in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Sato, Shuichi; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are secreted proteinases that have physiologic roles in degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in almost all tissues. However, their excessive production in disease conditions leads to many pathological features including tissue breakdown, inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscle disorder caused by partial or complete loss of cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Progressive muscle wasting in DMD is accompanied by myofiber necrosis followed by cycles of regeneration and degeneration and inflammation that eventually result in replacement of myofiber by connective and adipose tissues. Emerging evidence suggests that gene expression and the activity of various MMPs are aberrantly regulated in muscle biopsies from DMD patients and in skeletal muscle of animal models of DMD. Moreover, a few studies employing genetic mouse models have revealed that different MMPs play distinct roles in disease progression in DMD. Modulation of the activity of MMPs improves myofiber regeneration and enhances the efficacy of transplantation and engraftment of muscle progenitor cells in dystrophic muscle in mouse models of DMD. Furthermore, recent reports also suggest that some MMPs especially MMP-9 can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of DMD. In this article, we provide a succinct overview of the regulation of various MMPs and their therapeutic importance in DMD.

  17. Missense polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinase genes and skin cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Niu, Tianhua; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2008-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) degrade various components of the extracellular matrix, and their overexpression has been implicated in tumor progression. Nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lead to amino acid substitutions that can alter the function of the encoded protein. We evaluated the associations of six nonsynonymous SNPs in the MMP3, MMP8, and MMP9 genes with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 normal controls. We observed that the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with a decreased risk of SCC. Compared with the Arg/Arg group, the multivariate odds ratio was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.97) for the Arg/Gln group and 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.97) for the Gln/Gln group (P(trend) = 0.004). We did not observe any association of this SNP with the risks of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. No associations were found for other SNPs with skin cancer risk. This study provides evidence for the contribution of the MMP9 Arg668Gln to SCC development.

  18. Inhibition of endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J.M.; Agee, K.; Sidow, S.; McNally, K.; Lindsey, K.; Borke, J.; Elsalanty, M.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to extracellular collagen matrix degradation in hybrid layers following adhesive dentin bonding procedures. Endodontic irrigants, including chlorhexidine (CHX) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) may help protect the hybrid layer from this process. The objective of the present study was to determine the exposure time necessary for EDTA to inactivate endogenous MMP activity in human dentin. Methods Dentin beams (2×1×3 mm) were prepared from mid-coronal dentin of extracted third molars. The beams were demineralized in 10 wt% phosphoric acid which also activated endogenous MMPs, and were divided into four experimental groups based on exposure time to 17% EDTA (0, 1, 2 or 5 min). A generic colorimetric MMP assay measured MMP activity via absorbance at 412 nm. Data were evaluated by Kruskal Wallis ANOVA, followed by Dunn’s pair-wise comparisons at α = 0.05. Results All exposure times resulted in significant inhibition (P<0.001) compared to unexposed controls. Specifically, percent inhibition for 1-, 2-, and 5-minute exposure times were 55.1±21.5%, 72.8±11.7%, and 74.7±19.7%, respectively. Conclusions 17% EDTA significantly inhibits endogenous MMP activity of human dentin within 1–2 min. This may minimize hybrid layer degradation following resin bonding procedures in the root canal space. PMID:22152622

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Exerts Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Cummins, Neville; Eden, Edward; Geraghty, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Increased lung levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) are frequently observed during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and elevated MMP9 concentrations are associated with severe disease. However little is known of the functional role of MMP9 during lung infection with RSV. To determine whether MMP9 exerted direct antiviral potential, active MMP9 was incubated with RSV, which showed that MMP9 directly prevented RSV infectivity to airway epithelial cells. Using knockout mice the effect of the loss of Mmp9 expression was examined during RSV infection to demonstrate MMP9’s role in viral clearance and disease progression. Seven days following RSV infection, Mmp9-/- mice displayed substantial weight loss, increased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reduced clearance of RSV from the lungs compared to wild type mice. Although total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts were similar in both groups, neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during RSV infection was significantly reduced in Mmp9-/- mice. Reduced neutrophil recruitment coincided with diminished RANTES, IL-1β, SCF, G-CSF expression and p38 phosphorylation. Induction of p38 signaling was required for RANTES and G-CSF expression during RSV infection in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, MMP9 in RSV lung infection significantly enhances neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production and viral clearance while reducing AHR. PMID:26284919

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 modulates collagen matrices and wound repair

    PubMed Central

    LeBert, Danny C.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; Rindy, Julie; Broadbridge, Elizabeth; Lui, Yuming; Zakrzewska, Anna; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic injuries are characterized by leukocyte infiltration into tissues. Although matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9) has been implicated in both conditions, its role in wound repair remains unclear. We previously reported a zebrafish chronic inflammation mutant caused by an insertion in the hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor gene 1 (hai1; also known as spint1) that is characterized by epithelial extrusions and neutrophil infiltration into the fin. Here, we performed a microarray analysis and found increased inflammatory gene expression in the mutant larvae, including a marked increase in mmp9 expression. Depletion of mmp9 partially rescued the chronic inflammation and epithelial phenotypes, in addition to restoring collagen fiber organization, as detected by second-harmonic generation imaging. Additionally, we found that acute wounding induces epithelial cell mmp9 expression and is associated with a thickening of collagen fibers. Interestingly, depletion of mmp9 impaired this collagen fiber reorganization. Moreover, mmp9 depletion impaired tissue regeneration after tail transection, implicating Mmp9 in acute wound repair. Thus, Mmp9 regulates both acute and chronic tissue damage and plays an essential role in collagen reorganization during wound repair. PMID:26015541

  1. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Photoaging and Photocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pittayapruek, Pavida; Meephansan, Jitlada; Prapapan, Ornicha; Komine, Mayumi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-containing endopeptidases with an extensive range of substrate specificities. Collectively, these enzymes are able to degrade various components of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Based on their structure and substrate specificity, they can be categorized into five main subgroups, namely (1) collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13); (2) gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9); (3) stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-10 and MMP-11); (4) matrilysins (MMP-7 and MMP-26); and (5) membrane-type (MT) MMPs (MMP-14, MMP-15, and MMP-16). The alterations made to the ECM by MMPs might contribute in skin wrinkling, a characteristic of premature skin aging. In photocarcinogenesis, degradation of ECM is the initial step towards tumor cell invasion, to invade both the basement membrane and the surrounding stroma that mainly comprises fibrillar collagens. Additionally, MMPs are involved in angiogenesis, which promotes cancer cell growth and migration. In this review, we focus on the present knowledge about premature skin aging and skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma, with our main focus on members of the MMP family and their functions. PMID:27271600

  2. A role of matrix metalloproteinase-8 in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Laxton, Ross C.; Hu, Yanhua; Duchene, Johan; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zhongyi; Leung, Kit-Yi; Xiao, Qingzhong; Scotland, Ramona S.; Hodgkinson, Conrad P.; Smith, Katherine; Willeit, Johann; López-Otín, Carlos; Simpson, Iain A.; Kiechl, Stefan; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Xu, Qingbo; Ye, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Atherosclerotic lesions express matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP8) which possesses proteolytic activity on matrix proteins particularly fibrillar collagens and on non-matrix proteins such as angiotensin I (Ang I). Objective We studied whether MMP8 plays a role in atherogenesis. Methods and Results In atherosclerosis-prone apoE deficient mice, inactivating MMP8 resulted in a substantial reduction in atherosclerotic lesion formation. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that atherosclerotic lesions in MMP8 deficient mice had significantly fewer macrophages but increased collagen content. In line with results of in vitro assays showing Ang I cleavage by MMP8 generating angiotensin II (Ang II), MMP8 knockout mice had lower Ang II levels and lower blood pressure. In addition, we found that products of Ang I cleavage by MMP8 increased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and that MMP8 deficient mice had reduced VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerotic lesions. Intravital microscopy analysis showed that leukocyte rolling and adhesion on vascular endothelium was reduced in MMP8 knockout mice. Furthermore, we detected an association between MMP8 gene variation and extent of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. A relationship between MMP8 gene variation, plasma VCAM-1 level and atherosclerosis progression was also observed in a population-based, prospective study. Conclusion These results indicate that MMP8 is an important player in atherosclerosis. PMID:19745165

  3. Proteolysis of EphA2 converts it from a tumor suppressor to an oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    KOSHIKAWA, Naohiko; HOSHINO, Daisuke; TANIGUCHI, Hiroaki; MINEGISHI, Tomoko; TOMARI, Taizo; NAM, Sung-Ouk; AOKI, Mikiko; SUETA, Takayuki; NAKAGAWA, Takashi; MIYAMOTO, Shingo; NABESHIMA, Kazuki; WEAVER, Alissa M.; SEIKI, Motoharu

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases are considered candidate therapeutic targets in cancer, but they can exert opposing effects on cell growth. In presence of its ligands, Eph receptor EphA2 suppresses signaling by other growth factor receptors, including ErbB, whereas ligand-independent activation of EphA2 augments ErbB signaling. To deploy EphA2-targeting drugs effectively in tumors, the anti-oncogenic ligand-dependent activation state of EphA2 must be discriminated from its oncogenic ligand-independent state. Since the molecular basis for the latter is little understood, we investigated how the activation state of EphA2 can be switched in tumor tissue. We found that ligand-binding domain of EphA2 is cleaved frequently by the membrane metalloproteinase MT1-MMP, a powerful modulator of the pericellular environment in tumor cells. EphA2 immunostaining revealed a significant loss of the N-terminal portion of EphA2 in areas of tumor tissue that expressed MT1-MMP. Moreover, EphA2 phosphorylation patterns that signify ligand-independent activation were observed specifically in these areas of tumor tissue. Mechanistic experiments revealed that processing of EphA2 by MT1-MMP promoted ErbB signaling, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration. Conversely, expression of a proteolysis-resistant mutant of EphA2 prevented tumorigenesis and metastasis of human tumor xenografts in mice. Overall, our results showed how the proteolytic state of EphA2 in tumors determines its effector function and influences its status as a candidate biomarker for targeted therapy. PMID:26130649

  4. Effect of preservation solutions UW and EC on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase II and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase II genes in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Sulikowski, Tadeusz; Domanski, Leszek; Zietek, Zbigniew; Adler, Grażyna; Pawlik, Andrzej; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Ostrowski, Marek

    2012-01-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases play an important role in the regulation of mesangial cell proliferation and may be involved in ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Preservation solutions are thought to diminish the ischemic injury and appropriate choice of the solution should guarantee a better graft function and good prognosis for graft survival. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of preservation solutions UW and EC on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase II and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase II genes in rat kidney. The study was carried out on Wistar rat kidneys divided into 3 groups: kidneys perfused with 0.9% NaCl (control group), with UW, and with EC preservation solution. The results show an enhancement of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene expression after 12 min of cold ischemia. This increase was more expressed in kidneys preserved with UW solution in comparison with kidneys perfused with EC solution and 0.9% NaCl. After 24 h of cold ischemia the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 genes in kidney perfused with UW solution decreased, while in kidneys perfused with EC it was increased. After warm ischemia the MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene expression increased, whereas it was significantly lower in kidneys perfused with EC solution.

  5. Elevated Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 not Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Contributes to Progression of Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Zhang, Haihong; Cetin, Neslihan; Miller, Emily; Moak, Teri; Suen, James Y.; Richter, Gresham T.

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare but dangerous congenital lesions arising from direct arterial-venous shunts without intervening capillaries. Progressive infiltration, expansion, and soft tissue destruction lead to bleeding, pain, debilitation and disfigurement. The pathophysiology of AVMs is not well understood. Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to play an important role in pathologic processes underlying many diseases. This study investigates the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 in aggressive extracranial AVMs. The differential expression of MMP-9 and its regulatory factors is also examined. Herein we demonstrate that mRNA and protein expressions of MMP-9, but not MMP-2, are significantly higher in AVM tissues compared to normal tissues. The serum level of MMP-9, but not MMP-2, is also elevated in AVM patients compared to healthy controls. MMP-9/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) complex is also significantly increased in AVM tissues. The MMP-9/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 (TIMP-1) complex presents as a major form detected in normal tissues. The increased and aberrant expression of MMP-9 and specific MMP-9 forms may help explain the constitutive vascular remodeling and infiltrative nature of these lesions. Specific MMP-9 inhibitors would be a promising treatment for AVMs. PMID:27075045

  6. Experimental Dissection of Metalloproteinase Inhibition-Mediated and Toxic Effects of Phenanthroline on Zebrafish Development

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Tonya R.; Crawford, Bryan D.

    2016-01-01

    Metalloproteinases are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that function as primary effectors of tissue remodeling, cell-signaling, and many other roles. Their regulation is ferociously complex, and is exquisitely sensitive to their molecular milieu, making in vivo studies challenging. Phenanthroline (PhN) is an inexpensive, broad-spectrum inhibitor of metalloproteinases that functions by chelating the catalytic zinc ion, however its use in vivo has been limited due to suspected off-target effects. PhN is very similar in structure to phenanthrene (PhE), a well-studied poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) known to cause toxicity in aquatic animals by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We show that zebrafish are more sensitive to PhN than PhE, and that PhN causes a superset of the effects caused by PhE. Morpholino knock-down of the AhR rescues the effects of PhN that are shared with PhE, suggesting these are due to PAH toxicity. The effects of PhN that are not shared with PhE (specifically disruption of neural crest development and angiogenesis) involve processes known to depend on metalloproteinase activity. Furthermore these PhN-specific effects are not rescued by AhR knock-down, suggesting that these are bona fide effects of metalloproteinase inhibition, and that PhN can be used as a broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor for studies with zebrafish in vivo. PMID:27618022

  7. Isolation and cloning of a metalloproteinase from king cobra snake venom.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Zeng, Lin; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun; Jin, Yang

    2007-06-01

    A 50 kDa fibrinogenolytic protease, ohagin, from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah was isolated by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange and heparin affinity chromatography. Ohagin specifically degraded the alpha-chain of human fibrinogen and the proteolytic activity was completely abolished by EDTA, but not by PMSF, suggesting it is a metalloproteinase. It dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, TMVA and stejnulxin. The full sequence of ohagin was deduced by cDNA cloning and confirmed by protein sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting. The full-length cDNA sequence of ohagin encodes an open reading frame of 611 amino acids that includes signal peptide, proprotein and mature protein comprising metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, suggesting it belongs to P-III class metalloproteinase. In addition, P-III class metalloproteinases from the venom glands of Naja atra, Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus were also cloned in this study. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that metalloproteinases from elapid snake venoms form a new subgroup of P-III SVMPs.

  8. Engineered Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-3 Variants Resistant to Endocytosis Have Prolonged Chondroprotective Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Christine M.; Visse, Robert; Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; Strickland, Dudley K.; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) is a central inhibitor of matrix-degrading and sheddase families of metalloproteinases. Extracellular levels of the inhibitor are regulated by the balance between its retention on the extracellular matrix and its endocytic clearance by the scavenger receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Here, we used molecular modeling to predict TIMP-3 residues potentially involved in binding to LRP1 based on the proposed LRP1 binding motif of 2 lysine residues separated by about 21 Å and mutated the candidate lysine residues to alanine individually and in pairs. Of the 22 mutants generated, 13 displayed a reduced rate of uptake by HTB94 chondrosarcoma cells. The two mutants (TIMP-3 K26A/K45A and K42A/K110A) with lowest rates of uptake were further evaluated and found to display reduced binding to LRP1 and unaltered inhibitory activity against prototypic metalloproteinases. TIMP-3 K26A/K45A retained higher affinity for sulfated glycosaminoglycans than K42A/K110A and exhibited increased affinity for ADAMTS-5 in the presence of heparin. Both mutants inhibited metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of cartilage at lower concentrations and for longer than wild-type TIMP-3, indicating that their increased half-lives improved their ability to protect cartilage. These mutants may be useful in treating connective tissue diseases associated with increased metalloproteinase activity. PMID:27582494

  9. Hydrocortisone supresses inflammatory activity of metalloproteinase - 8 in carotid plaque

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Sthefano Atique; Antonangelo, Leila; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Beteli, Camila Baumann; de Camargo Júnior, Otacílio; de Aquino, José Luis Braga; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Matrix metalloproteinases are inflammatory biomarkers involved in carotid plaque instability. Our objective was to analyze the inflammatory activity of plasma and carotid plaque MMP-8 and MMP-9 after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone. Methods The study included 22 patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the carotid artery (11 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic) who underwent carotid endarterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Control Group - hydrocortisone was not administered, and Group 1 - 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone was administered during anesthetic induction. Plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured preoperatively (24 hours before carotid endarterectomy) and at 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy. In carotid plaque, tissue levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured. Results Group 1 showed increased serum levels of MMP- 8 (994.28 pg/ml and 408.54 pg/ml, respectively; P=0.045) and MMP-9 (106,656.34 and 42,807.69 respectively; P=0.014) at 1 hour after carotid endarterectomy compared to the control group. Symptomatic patients in Group 1 exhibited lower tissue concentration of MMP-8 in comparison to the control group (143.89 pg/ml and 1317.36 respectively; P=0.003). There was a correlation between preoperative MMP-9 levels and tissue concentrations of MMP-8 (P=0.042) and MMP-9 (P=0.019) between symptomatic patients in the control group. Conclusion Hydrocortisone reduces the concentration of MMP- 8 in carotid plaque, especially in symptomatic patients. There was an association between systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:26313719

  10. A novel role for matrix metalloproteinase-8 in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Patrick D.; Dunsmore, Katherine E.; Denenberg, Alvin G.; Odoms, Kelli; Zingarelli, Basilia; Wong, Hector R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) mRNA expression was previously found to be increased in whole blood of children with septic shock. The impact of this finding on the severity and inflammatory response to sepsis is unknown. Here, we investigate the relationship between MMP-8 and disease severity in a children with septic shock. We further corroborate the role of MMP-8 in sepsis in a murine model. Design Retrospective observational clinical study and randomized controlled laboratory experiments. Setting Pediatric intensive care units and an animal research facility at an academic children’s hospital. Patients/Subjects Patients age ≤ 10 years admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of septic shock. For laboratory studies, we utilized male mice deficient for MMP-8 and male wild type C57/Bl6 mice. Interventions Blood from children with septic shock was analyzed for MMP-8 mRNA expression and MMP-8 activity, and correlated with disease severity based on mortality and degree of organ failure. A murine model of sepsis was used to explore the effect of genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of MMP-8 on the inflammatory response to sepsis. Finally, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Measurements and Main Results Increased MMP-8 mRNA expression and activity in septic shock correlates with decreased survival and increased organ failure in pediatric patients. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of MMP-8 leads to improved survival and a blunted inflammatory profile in a murine model of sepsis. We also identify MMP-8 as a direct in vitro activator of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NF-κB. Conclusions MMP-8 is a novel modulator of inflammation during sepsis and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22020238

  11. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Patricia Furtado; Huang, Hong; McAninley, Suzanna; Alfant, Barnett; Harrison, Peter; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Walker, Clay; Shaddox, Luciana Macchion

    2015-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteinases reported to mediate multiple functions associated with periodontal destruction and inflammation. We have previously reported high MMP levels in African-American children with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). However, little is known about MMP reductions in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after therapy. This study aimed to evaluate MMP levels in the GCF following treatment of LAP and to correlate these levels with clinical response. Methods GCF samples were collected from 29 African-American individuals diagnosed with LAP. GCF was collected from one diseased site (pocket depth [PD]>4mm, bleeding on probing [BoP] and clinical attachment level [CAL] ≥2mm) and one healthy site (PD≤3mm, no BoP) from each individual at baseline, 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, which consisted of full-mouth SRP and systemic antibiotics. The volume of GCF was controlled using a calibrated gingival fluid meter and levels of MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 were assessed using fluorometric kits. Results MMP-1, 8, 9 12, and 13 levels were reduced significantly up to 6 months, at which point were comparable with healthy sites. Significant correlations were noted between MMP-2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 levels and % of sites with PD>4mm. MMP-3, 12 and 13 levels also correlated with mean pocket depth of affected sites. Conclusion Treatment of LAP with SRP and systemic antibiotics was effective in reducing the local levels specific MMPs in African-American individuals, which correlated positively with some clinical parameters. PMID:23537121

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory properties of benzalkonium chloride stabilizes adhesive interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila; Patel, Shaival K

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the preservation of adhesive interfaces created with two etch-and-rinse adhesives and its inhibitory properties on dentin matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The following groups were tested with the adhesive systems Optibond Solo Plus and All-Bond 3: Group 1, adhesive without inhibitor (control); Group 2, topical 2.0% chlorhexidine (2.0% CHX); Group 3, phosphoric acid with 1.0%wt BAC (BAC-PA); Group 4, 0.25% BAC-adhesive (0.25% BAC); Group 5, 0.5% BAC-adhesive (0.5% BAC); Group 6, 1.0% BAC-adhesive (1.0% BAC); and Group 7, 2.0% BAC-adhesive (2.0% BAC). Composite cylinders were fabricated, and shear bond strength (SBS) was evaluated after 24 h, 6 months, and 18 months of storage. Extracts from concentrated demineralized human dentin powder were subjected to SDS-PAGE and incubated in the presence of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% BAC. Overall, stable bonds were maintained for 18 months. Improved bond strengths were seen for 0.5% BAC and 1.0% BAC when bonding with Optibond Solo Plus, and for 0.25% BAC and 0.5% BAC when bonding with All-Bond 3. Zymographic analysis revealed complete inhibition of gelatinolytic activity with BAC. Benzalkonium chloride, at all concentrations, inhibited dentin proteolytic activity, which seems to have contributed to the improved bond stability after 18 months for specific combinations of BAC concentration and adhesive.

  13. Cell Death Control by Matrix Metalloproteinases1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Dirk; Sieferer, Elke; Pfannstiel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play important roles in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix in animals, the proteases responsible for dynamic modifications of the plant cell wall are largely unknown. A possible involvement of MMPs was addressed by cloning and functional characterization of Sl2-MMP and Sl3-MMP from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The two tomato MMPs were found to resemble mammalian homologs with respect to gelatinolytic activity, substrate preference for hydrophobic amino acids on both sides of the scissile bond, and catalytic properties. In transgenic tomato seedlings silenced for Sl2/3-MMP expression, necrotic lesions were observed at the base of the hypocotyl. Cell death initiated in the epidermis and proceeded to include outer cortical cell layers. In later developmental stages, necrosis spread, covering the entire stem and extending into the leaves of MMP-silenced plants. The subtilisin-like protease P69B was identified as a substrate of Sl2- and Sl3-MMP. P69B was shown to colocalize with Sl-MMPs in the apoplast of the tomato hypocotyl, it exhibited increased stability in transgenic plants silenced for Sl-MMP activity, and it was cleaved and inactivated by Sl-MMPs in vitro. The induction of cell death in Sl2/3-MMP-silenced plants depended on P69B, indicating that Sl2- and Sl3-MMP act upstream of P69B in an extracellular proteolytic cascade that contributes to the regulation of cell death in tomato. PMID:27208293

  14. Fibrillin degradation by matrix metalloproteinases: implications for connective tissue remodelling.

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, J L; Murphy, G; Rock, M J; Sherratt, M J; Shapiro, S D; Shuttleworth, C A; Kielty, C M

    1999-01-01

    Fibrillin is the principal structural component of the 10-12 nm diameter elastic microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that both fibrillin molecules and assembled microfibrils are susceptible to degradation by serine proteases. In this study, we have investigated the potential catabolic effects of six matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-12, MMP-13 and MMP-14) on fibrillin molecules and on intact fibrillin-rich microfibrils isolated from ciliary zonules. Using newly synthesized recombinant fibrillin molecules, major cleavage sites within fibrillin-1 were identified. In particular, the six different MMPs generated a major degradation product of approximately 45 kDa from the N-terminal region of the molecule, whereas treatment of truncated, unprocessed and furin-processed C-termini also generated large degradation products. Introduction of a single ectopia lentis-causing amino acid substitution (E2447K; one-letter symbols for amino acids) in a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain, predicted to disrupt calcium binding, markedly altered the pattern of C-terminal fibrillin-1 degradation. However, the fragmentation pattern of a mutant fibrillin-1 with a comparable E-->K substitution in an upstream calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain was indistinguishable from wild-type molecules. Ultrastructural examination highlighted that fibrillin-rich microfibrils isolated from ciliary zonules were grossly disrupted by MMPs. This is the first demonstration that fibrillin molecules and fibrillin-rich microfibrils are degraded by MMPs and that certain amino acid substitutions change the fragmentation patterns. These studies have important implications for physiological and pathological fibrillin catabolism and for loss of connective tissue elasticity in ageing and disease. PMID:10229672

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene polymorphisms are associated with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Sung Wook; Kim, Dong Hwan; Yun, Dong Hwan; Chung, Joo-Ho; Ban, Ju Yeon

    2012-02-01

    Stroke is a heterogeneous disease caused by different pathogenic mechanisms. Several candidate genes for stroke have been proposed, but few have been replicated. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed following stroke. We investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MMP3 gene with stroke in the Korean population. This study included 186 stroke patients [116 ischemic stroke (IS) and 70 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)] and 668 age-matched control subjects (267 for IS and 401 for ICH). Three SNPs [rs520540 (Ala362Ala), rs602128 (Asp96Asp), and rs679620 (Lys45Glu)] in the coding region of MMP3 were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. HelixTree, SNPAnalyzer, SNPStats, and Haploview version 4.2 were used to analyze genetic data. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant, dominant, and recessive models) were conducted to evaluate odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P value. Three SNPs in the MMP3 gene were significantly associated with IS (P<0.05). The genotype distribution of 3 SNPs differed between the IS and control subjects. However, there was no association of the SNPs between the ICH and control. In analysis of gender, 3 SNPs were also associated with IS in female group (P<0.05). These SNPs remained significantly associated with IS after the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (P(c)<0.05). Haplotype analysis revealed that no haplotypes were associated with IS or ICH. Overall, the results of our study demonstrate an association of the MMP3 gene with development of IS, and no association of MMP3 with ICH.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Therapeutic Targets for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Vanessa J.; Zhang, Li; Hagood, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a restrictive lung disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Current medical therapies are not fully effective at limiting mortality in patients with IPF, and new therapies are urgently needed. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteinases that, together, can degrade all components of the extracellular matrix and numerous nonmatrix proteins. MMPs and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IPF based upon the results of clinical studies reporting elevated levels of MMPs (including MMP-1, MMP-7, MMP-8, and MMP-9) in IPF blood and/or lung samples. Surprisingly, studies of gene-targeted mice in murine models of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) have demonstrated that most MMPs promote (rather than inhibit) the development of PF and have identified diverse mechanisms involved. These mechanisms include MMPs: (1) promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMP-3 and MMP-7); (2) increasing lung levels or activity of profibrotic mediators or reducing lung levels of antifibrotic mediators (MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-8); (3) promoting abnormal epithelial cell migration and other aberrant repair processes (MMP-3 and MMP-9); (4) inducing the switching of lung macrophage phenotypes from M1 to M2 types (MMP-10 and MMP-28); and (5) promoting fibrocyte migration (MMP-8). Two MMPs, MMP-13 and MMP-19, have antifibrotic activities in murine models of PF, and two MMPs, MMP-1 and MMP-10, have the potential to limit fibrotic responses to injury. Herein, we review what is known about the contributions of MMPs and TIMPs to the pathogenesis of IPF and discuss their potential as therapeutic targets for IPF. PMID:26121236

  17. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Aroner, Sarah A; Rosner, Bernard A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Baur, Nadja; Joos, Thomas O; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is an enzyme with important functions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether circulating MMP2 levels may predict breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis in the Nurses' Health Study among 1136 cases who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2004 and 1136 matched controls. All participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990, and a subset (170 cases, 170 controls) contributed an additional sample in 2000-2002. Pre-diagnostic plasma MMP2 levels were measured via immunoassay, and conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma MMP2 levels and risk of total invasive breast cancer (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.2; p-trend=0.89). Findings did not vary significantly by time since blood draw, body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, or menopausal status at either blood draw or breast cancer diagnosis. MMP2 was associated with a greater risk of nodal metastases at diagnosis (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2; p-heterogeneity, any vs. no lymph nodes=0.002), but no significant associations were observed with other tumor characteristics or with recurrent or fatal cancers. Plasma MMP2 levels do not appear to be predictive of total invasive breast cancer risk, although associations with aggressive disease warrant further study.

  18. Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Targets in Epileptogenesis and Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) remodel the pericellular environment by regulating the cleavage of extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface components, neurotransmitter receptors, and growth factors, which together regulate cell adhesion, synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and long-term potentiation. Increased MMP activity and dysregulation of the balance between MMPs and TIMPs have also been implicated in various pathological conditions. Recent studies have suggested that prolonged seizures are associated with high MMP levels in serum and neural tissues, and certain extracellular macromolecule targets may influence the pathogenesis of epilepsy and seizure. In this review, we discuss the roles of MMP activation in animal models of epilepsy. PMID:24023547

  19. Metalloproteinases in hypertension and cardiac disease: differential expression and mutual regulation.

    PubMed

    Bosonea, Ana-Maria; Wang, Xiang; Odenbach, Jeffrey; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Arterial hypertension, a condition characterized by sustained elevated blood pressure, is associated with pathological cardiac remodeling (i.e. cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis) and is a major risk factor for cardiac failure. These processes can be triggered by excess vasoconstrictive agonists, which induce metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of growth factors to transactivate growth factor receptors and initiate disease signaling. Here, we review emerging evidence that agonist-activated metalloproteinases exhibit different expression patterns and mutual transcriptional regulation during the development of hypertension and cardiac remodeling.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinases as candidate biomarkers in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Baggen, Vivan J M; Eindhoven, Jannet A; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Witsenburg, Maarten; Cuypers, Judith A A E; Langstraat, Jannette S; Boersma, Eric; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2016-07-01

    Context Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with diastolic dysfunction and heart failure in acquired heart disease. Objective To investigate the role of MMPs as novel biomarkers in clinically stable adults with congenital heart disease. Methods We measured serum MMP-2, -3, -9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in 425 patients and analysed the association with cardiac function and exercise capacity. Results MMP-2 was significantly associated with exercise capacity, ventilatory efficiency and left ventricular deceleration time, independently of age, sex, body surface area and NT-proBNP. Conclusion MMP-2 may provide new information in the clinical evaluation of adults with congenital heart disease.

  1. Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 and matrix metalloproteinase activity in the serum and lungs of mice with lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kisarova, Ya A; Korolenko, T A

    2012-10-01

    We studied the content of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) and activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the serum and lungs of mice with Lewis lung carcinoma metastasizing into the lung. Metastasizing was associated with increased serum content of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 (only on day 20 at the terminal stage of the tumor process). These data confirm the hypothesis on pro-tumorigenic role of TIMP-1 in the serum. Locally, the development of metastases was associated with a decrease in TIPM-1 concentration (day 7), an increase in TIMP-2 concentration (days 7 and 20), and elevated activity of MMP at all terms of the study (days 7, 15, and 20). Increased concentration of TIMP-2 in the lungs (but not in the serum) can be regarded as an indicator of Lewis lung carcinoma metastasizing.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the endometrium of bitches.

    PubMed

    Chu Py, Po-yin; Salamonsen, L A; Lee, C S; Wright, P J

    2002-03-01

    The relationships between activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the canine uterus and the occurrence of degeneration of the luminal epithelium, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra and uterine remodelling post partum were determined. Mature bitches (n = 10) were ovariectomized, treated with hormones (oestradiol benzoate, progestagen) and investigated at stages simulating pro-oestrus (n = 2), oestrus (n = 2), dioestrus (n = 2), and mid- (n = 2) and late (n = 2) anoestrus (3 and 9 weeks, respectively, after cessation of treatment with progestagen). Untreated bitches (n = 1 per group) served as controls (Expt 1). An additional 10 ovariectomized bitches, at the end of treatment-induced simulated dioestrus, were treated each day for a further 3 weeks either with the same dose (standard dose, n = 3), a decreased dose (n = 3) or an increased dose (n = 3) of progestagen, or no treatment (withdrawal dose, n = 1). These bitches were then investigated (Expt 2). A suture was placed in the lumen of one uterine horn of another five bitches at ovariectomy. Three of these bitches were treated to induce simulated dioestrus and two bitches served as untreated controls. In the hormone-treated bitches, the suture resulted in cystic endometrial hyperplasia in one bitch and in cystic endometrial hyperplasia with pyometra in two bitches. The control bitches showed no cystic endometrial hyperplasia or pyometra (Expt 3). Four intact bitches were studied at 2 (n = 1), 3 (n = 2) and 11 (n = 1) weeks post partum. Uterine tissues were also collected from two bitches with naturally occurring cystic endometrial hyperplasia with pyometra (Expt 4). All uteri were examined histologically and the activities of MMP-2, -7 and -9 (latent and active forms) were assessed using zymography of extracts of endometrium. In Expts 1 and 2, marked degeneration of the luminal epithelium in six of 25 bitches (simulated mid-anoestrus, withdrawal dose and decreased dose groups) was not associated

  3. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas.

    PubMed

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair; Bruun, Eywin; Brynskov, Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue and examined the effect of inhibitors, including clinically available drugs that beside their main action also suppress MMPs. Fistula specimens were obtained by surgical excision from 22 patients with Crohn's disease and from 10 patients with fistulas resulting from other causes. Colonic endoscopic biopsies from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the synthetic broad-spectrum inhibitor, GM6001, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramiprilate, and the tetracycline, doxycycline. In Crohn's disease fistulas, about 50% of the total protease activity was attributable to MMP activity. The average total MMP activity was significantly higher (about 3.5-times) in Crohn's fistulas (471 FU/μg protein, range 49-2661) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas [134 FU/μg protein, range 0-495, (p < 0.05)] and normal colon [153 FU/μg protein, range 77-243, (p < 0.01)]. MMP-3 activity was increased in Crohn's fistulas (1.4 ng/ml, range 0-9.83) compared with non-Crohn's fistulas, [0.32 ng/ml, range 0-2.66, (p < 0.02)]. The same applied to MMP-9 activity [0.64 ng/ml, range 0-5.66 and 0.17 ng/ml, range 0-1.1, respectively (p < 0.04)]. Ramiprilate significantly decreased the average total MMP activity level by 42% and suppressed the specific MMP-3 activity by 72%, which is comparable to the effect of GM6001 (87%). Moreover, MMP-9 activity was completely blunted by ramiprilate. Doxycycline had no

  4. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Sheng; Tian, Zhao-Tao; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis. Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies. In a previous study, we showed that rhubarb, a traditional Chinese medicine, protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability. Methods: Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches. The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert. We measured the HUVEC permeability, proliferation, and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers. Results: A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified. MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer, which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer). Mechanistically, the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation. In addition, MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium, which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture. Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2

  5. Downregulation of NDRG1 promotes invasion of human gastric cancer AGS cells through MMP-2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Li; Bai, Wen-Tao; Luo, Wen; Zhang, De-Xin; Yan, Yan; Xu, Zhi-Kai; Zhang, Fang-Lin

    2011-02-01

    The N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) has recently been proposed as a metastasis suppressor, but its precise role remains unclear. To investigate whether NDRG1 can indeed influence the metastasis progress, expression of endogenous NDRG1 was knocked down in human AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells using RNA interference. Stable NDRG1 "silenced" transfectants showed similar growth rates as their control counterparts. By contrast, invasive ability in Matrigel invasion activity and Gelatinolytic activity by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were markedly increased in NDRG1 "silenced" cells. Moreover, re-expression of NDRG1 by recombinant adenovirus Ad-NDRG1 in NDRG1 "silenced" cells inhibited the increased invasive ability. Further study, we found the induction of MMP-2 by downregulation of NDRG1 was mediated by MT1-MMP. Altogether, our results imply that NDRG-1 could play a key role in the regulation of cellular invasion and metastasis, which may involve the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

  6. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  7. Structural and functional analyses of DM43, a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor from Didelphis marsupialis serum.

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Perales, Jonas; Fox, Jay W; Shannon, John D; Makino, Débora L; Garratt, Richard C; Domont, Gilberto B

    2002-04-12

    DM43, an opossum serum protein inhibitor of snake venom metalloproteinases, has been completely sequenced, and its disulfide bond pattern has been experimentally determined. It shows homology to human alpha(1)B-glycoprotein, a plasma protein of unknown function and a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family. Size exclusion and dynamic laser light scattering data indicated that two monomers of DM43, each composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, associated to form a homodimer in solution. Analysis of its glycan moiety showed the presence of N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, galactose, and sialic acid, most probably forming four biantennary N-linked chains. DM43 inhibited the fibrinogenolytic activities of bothrolysin and jararhagin and formed 1:1 stoichiometric stable complexes with both metalloproteinases. DM43 was ineffective against atrolysin C or A. No complex formation was detected between DM43 and jararhagin C, indicating the essential role of the metalloproteinase domain for interaction. Homology modeling based on the crystal structure of a killer cell inhibitory receptor suggested the existence of an I-type Ig fold, a hydrophobic dimerization surface and six surface loops potentially forming the metalloproteinase-binding surface on DM43.

  8. An Efficient Synthesis of 5-Amido-3-Hydroxy-4-Pyrones as Inhibitors of Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yi-Long; Cohen, Seth M.

    2008-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-4-pyrones are a class of important metal chelators with versatile medicinal applications. An efficient pathway for the preparation of new 5-amido-3-hydroxy-4-pyrone derivatives has been developed. The synthesized 5-amido-3-hydroxy-4-pyrones have been evaluated as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. PMID:17521196

  9. A barcode-free combinatorial screening platform for matrix metalloproteinase screening.

    PubMed

    Rane, Tushar D; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-02-03

    Application of droplet microfluidics to combinatorial screening applications remains elusive because of the need for composition-identifying unique barcodes. Here we propose a barcode-free continuous flow droplet microfluidic platform to suit the requirements of combinatorial screening applications. We demonstrate robust and repeatable functioning of this platform with matrix metalloproteinase activity screening as a sample application.

  10. Anti-HIV Drugs Decrease the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Astrocytes and Microglia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liuzzi, G. M.; Mastroianni, C. M.; Latronico, T.; Mengoni, F.; Fasano, A.; Lichtner, M.; Vullo, V.; Riccio, P.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of potent antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has dramatically reduced the prevalence of HIV-associated neurological disorders. Such diseases can be mediated by proteolytic enzymes, i.e. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, in particular gelatinases, released from…

  11. Structure of matrix metalloproteinase-3 with a platinum-based inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Belviso, Benny Danilo; Caliandro, Rocco; Siliqi, Dritan; Calderone, Vito; Arnesano, Fabio; Natile, Giovanni

    2013-06-18

    An X-ray investigation has been performed with the aim of characterizing the binding sites of a platinum-based inhibitor (K[PtCl3(DMSO)]) of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (stromelysin-1). The platinum complex targets His224 in the S1' specificity loop, representing the first step in the selective inhibition process (PDB ID code 4JA1).

  12. A Barcode-Free Combinatorial Screening Platform for Matrix Metalloproteinase Screening

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Application of droplet microfluidics to combinatorial screening applications remains elusive because of the need for composition-identifying unique barcodes. Here we propose a barcode-free continuous flow droplet microfluidic platform to suit the requirements of combinatorial screening applications. We demonstrate robust and repeatable functioning of this platform with matrix metalloproteinase activity screening as a sample application. PMID:25543856

  13. The role of collagen receptors Endo180 and DDR-2 in the foreign body reaction against non-crosslinked collagen and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qingsong; Harmsen, Martin C; Ren, Yijin; Bank, Ruud A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the use of collagen-derived scaffolds in regenerative medicine, little is known about the degradation mechanisms of these scaffolds in vivo. Non-crosslinked dermal sheep (NDSC) and gelatin disks were implanted subcutaneously in mice. NDSC disks showed a very low degradation rate, despite the presence of high numbers of macrophages and the influx of neutrophils. This was attributed to the presence of the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-1. The limited degradation occurred mainly in the later stages of the foreign body reaction, and could be attributed to (1) phagocytosis by macrophages due to a co-expression of Endo180 and MT1-MMP on these cells (intracellular degradation) and (2) the presence of MMP-13 due to an upregulation of the expression of the DDR-2 receptor (extracellular degradation). In contrast, gelatin disks degraded quickly, due to the efficient formation of large giant cells as well as the presence of MMP-13; the inhibitor TIMP-1 was absent. The DDR-2 receptor was not expressed in the gelatin disks. Endo180 and MT1-MMP were expressed, but at most times no co-expression was seen. We conclude that the physical state of collagen (native or denatured) had a dramatic outcome on the degradation rate and provoked a completely different foreign body reaction.

  14. Effects of detergents on catalytic activity of human endometase/matrilysin 2, a putative cancer biomarker.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun I; Lee, Seakwoo; Ullah, Asad; Cao, Qiang; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2010-01-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of hydrolytic enzymes that play significant roles in development, morphogenesis, inflammation, and cancer invasion. Endometase (matrilysin 2 or MMP-26) is a putative early biomarker for human carcinomas. The effects of the ionic and nonionic detergents on catalytic activity of endometase were investigated. The hydrolytic activity of endometase was detergent concentration dependent, exhibiting a bell-shaped curve with its maximum activity near the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of nonionic detergents tested. The effect of Brij-35 on human gelatinase B (MMP-9), matrilysin (MMP-7), and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) was further explored. Their maximum catalysis was observed near the CMC of Brij-35 ( approximately 90muM). Their IC(50) values were above the CMC. The inhibition mechanism of MMP-7, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP by Brij-35 was a mixed type as determined by Dixon's plot; however, the inhibition mechanism of endometase was noncompetitive with a K(i) value of 240muM. The catalytic activities of MMPs are influenced by detergents. Monomer of detergents may activate and stabilize MMPs to enhance catalysis, but micelle of detergents may sequester enzyme and block the substrate binding site to impede catalysis. Under physiological conditions, a lipid or membrane microenvironment may regulate enzymatic activity.

  15. Mechanical stretch induces MMP-2 release and activation in lung endothelium: role of EMMPRIN.

    PubMed

    Haseneen, Nadia A; Vaday, Gayle G; Zucker, Stanley; Foda, Hussein D

    2003-03-01

    High-volume mechanical ventilation leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. This type of lung injury is accompanied by an increased release and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). To investigate the mechanism leading to the increased MMP release, we systematically studied the effect of mechanical stretch on human microvascular endothelial cells isolated from the lung. We exposed cells grown on collagen 1 BioFlex plates to sinusoidal cyclic stretch at 0.5 Hz using the Flexercell system with 17-18% elongation of cells. After 4 days of cell stretching, conditioned media and cell lysate were collected and analyzed by gelatin, casein, and reverse zymograms as well as Western blotting. RT-PCR of mRNA extracted from stretched cells was performed. Our results show that 1) cyclic stretch led to increased release and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-1; 2) the activation of MMP-2 was accompanied by an increase in membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) and inhibited by a hydroxamic acid-derived inhibitor of MMPs (Prinomastat, AG3340); and 3) the MMP-2 release and activation were preceded by an increase in production of extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN). These results suggest that cyclic mechanical stretch leads to MMP-2 activation through an MT1-MMP mechanism. EMMPRIN may play an important role in the release and activation of MMPs during lung injury.

  16. Prognostic impact of polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor-2 promoters in breast cancer in Tunisia: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ben Néjima, Dalel; Ben Zarkouna, Yosr; Gammoudi, Amor; Manai, Mohamed; Boussen, Hamouda

    2015-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading extracellular matrix components. Genetic variations in promoter regions of MMP genes, affecting their expression, have been associated with susceptibility to cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility and prognostic implications of the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) polymorphism in Tunisian breast cancer patients. MMP-2 genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and TIMP-2 genotypes were identified using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 210 breast cancer patients and 250 frequency-matched control women. Association of the clinicopathological parameters and the genetic markers with risk of breast cancer was assessed using univariate analyses. We found that the variant MMP-2 genotype (-1306CT or TT) was associated with substantially reduced risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR), 0.49; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI), 0.033-0.73], compared with the CC genotype. For TIMP-2, a moderately reduced risk of the cancer (OR, 0.57; 95 % CI, 0.37-0.87) was also associated with the variant allele (-418GC or CC), compared with the GG common allele. Furthermore, polymorphisms in both genes seem to have additive effects and the highest risk for breast cancer has been observed in those with MMP-2 CC genotype and TIMP-2 GC or CC genotype (p = 0.006). A significant association was also found between the CC genotype and the aggressive forms of breast cancer as defined by advanced stages at the time of diagnosis and metastasis. This is the first report on the association of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene polymorphisms in breast cancer in Tunisian population. Our results suggest that the presence of the variant allele in the promoter of MMP-2 or TIMP-2 may be a protective factor for the development of breast cancer.

  17. Phage display of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2): identification of selective inhibitors of collagenase-1 (metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1)).

    PubMed

    Bahudhanapati, Harinath; Zhang, Yingnan; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Brew, Keith

    2011-09-09

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which function in extracellular matrix catabolism. Here, phage display was used to identify variants of human TIMP-2 that are selective inhibitors of human MMP-1, a collagenase whose unregulated action is linked to cancer, arthritis, and fibrosis. Using hard randomization of residues 2, 4, 5, and 6 (L1) and soft randomization of residues 34-40 (L2) and 67-70 (L3), a library was generated containing 2 × 10(10) variants of TIMP-2. Five clones were isolated after five rounds of selection with MMP-1, using MMP-3 as a competitor. The enriched phages selectively bound MMP-1 relative to MMP-3 and contained mutations only in L1. The most selective variant (TM8) was used to generate a second library in which residues Cys(1)-Gln(9) were soft-randomized. Four additional clones, selected from this library, showed a similar affinity for MMP-1 as wild-type TIMP-2 but reduced affinity for MMP-3. Variants of the N-terminal domain of TIMP-2 (N-TIMP-2) with the sequences of the most selective clones were expressed and characterized for inhibitory activity against eight MMPs. All were effective inhibitors of MMP-1 with nanomolar K(i) values, but TM8, containing Ser(2) to Asp and Ser(4) to Ala substitutions, was the most selective having a nanomolar K(i) value for MMP-1 but no detectable inhibitory activity toward MMP-3 and MMP-14 up to 10 μM. This study suggests that phage display and selection with other MMPs may be an effective method for discovering tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase variants that discriminate between specified MMPs as targets.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) interaction with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2: binding studies and crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Batra, Jyotica; Robinson, Jessica; Soares, Alexei S; Fields, Alan P; Radisky, Derek C; Radisky, Evette S

    2012-05-04

    Matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10, stromelysin-2) is a secreted metalloproteinase with functions in skeletal development, wound healing, and vascular remodeling; its overexpression is also implicated in lung tumorigenesis and tumor progression. To understand the regulation of MMP-10 by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), we have assessed equilibrium inhibition constants (K(i)) of putative physiological inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 for the active catalytic domain of human MMP-10 (MMP-10cd) using multiple kinetic approaches. We find that TIMP-1 inhibits the MMP-10cd with a K(i) of 1.1 × 10(-9) M; this interaction is 10-fold weaker than the inhibition of the similar MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) catalytic domain (MMP-3cd) by TIMP-1. TIMP-2 inhibits the MMP-10cd with a K(i) of 5.8 × 10(-9) M, which is again 10-fold weaker than the inhibition of MMP-3cd by this inhibitor (K(i) = 5.5 × 10(-10) M). We solved the x-ray crystal structure of TIMP-1 bound to the MMP-10cd at 1.9 Å resolution; the structure was solved by molecular replacement and refined with an R-factor of 0.215 (R(free) = 0.266). Comparing our structure of MMP-10cd·TIMP-1 with the previously solved structure of MMP-3cd·TIMP-1 (Protein Data Bank entry 1UEA), we see substantial differences at the binding interface that provide insight into the differential binding of stromelysin family members to TIMP-1. This structural information may ultimately assist in the design of more selective TIMP-based inhibitors tailored for specificity toward individual members of the stromelysin family, with potential therapeutic applications.

  19. Inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on matrix metalloproteinase - 2 activity in human endothelial cells exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Nicolae, Manuela; Tircol, Magdalena; Alexandru, Dorin

    2005-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases play a major role in the process of angiogenesis, an important feature of diabetes complications, cancer or rheumatoid arthritis. High glucose concentrations were reported to augment metalloproteinase-2 secretion in some cell types. In the present study we investigated the influence of acetylsalicylic acid on metalloproteinase- 2 secretion and expression in endothelial cells cultured for one week in high glucose conditions (25 mM and 33 mM). Metalloproteinase-2 activity was evidenced by gel zymography, the protein was identified by Western blotting, and the gene expression was quantitated by RT-PCR. The results indicated a marked inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid at gene expression level (approximately 43%) and also at secretion level in samples of conditioned media (approximately 30%) and cellular homogenates (approximately 70%). This may suggest that acetylsalicylic acid could have a beneficial effect in preventing the angiogenic process that appears in diabetes complications.

  20. Cloning and molecular characterization of BumaMPs1, a novel metalloproteinases from the venom of scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xichao; Ma, Yuhong; Xue, Shipeng; Wang, Aimei; Tao, Junliang; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rongzhi; Lu, Shaoe

    2013-12-15

    Scorpion venoms metalloproteinase is involved in a number of important biological, physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this work, a complete sequence of metalloproteinase was first obtained from venom of scorpion Buthus martensi and named as BumaMPs1. BumaMPs1 has 393 amino acid residues containing with a molecular mass of 44.53 kDa, showing an isoelectric point of 5.66. The primary sequence analysis indicated that the BumaMPs1 contains a zinc-binding motif (HELGHNLGISH), methionine-turn motif (YIM), disintegrin-like domain (ETCD) and N-glycosylation site. The multiple alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence and those of other metalloproteinase showed a high structural similarly, mainly among class reprolysin proteases. The phylogenetic analysis showed early divergence and independent evolution of BumaMPs1 from other metalloproteinase.

  1. Time dependent integration of matrix metalloproteinases and their targeted substrates directs axonal sprouting and synaptogenesis following central nervous system injury

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Linda L.; Chan, Julie L.; Doperalski, Adele E.; Reeves, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many investigators have reported how extracellular matrix molecules act to regulate neuroplasticity. The majority of these studies involve proteins which are targets of matrix metalloproteinases. Importantly, these enzyme/substrate interactions can regulate degenerative and regenerative phases of synaptic plasticity, directing axonal and dendritic reorganization after brain insult. The present review first summarizes literature support for the prominent role of matrix metalloproteinases during neuroregeneration, followed by a discussion of data contrasting adaptive and maladaptive neuroplasticity that reveals time-dependent metalloproteinase/substrate regulation of postinjury synaptic recovery. The potential for these enzymes to serve as therapeutic targets for enhanced neuroplasticity after brain injury is illustrated with experiments demonstrating that metalloproteinase inhibitors can alter adaptive and maladaptive outcome. Finally, the complexity of metalloproteinase role in reactive synaptogenesis is revealed in new studies showing how these enzymes interact with immune molecules to mediate cellular response in the local regenerative environment, and are regulated by novel binding partners in the brain extracellular matrix. Together, these different examples show the complexity with which metalloproteinases are integrated into the process of neuroregeneration, and point to a promising new angle for future studies exploring how to facilitate brain plasticity. PMID:25206824

  2. Common Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP-8, -9, -25, and -26) Cannot Explain Dentigerous Cyst Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Niko; Färkkilä, Esa; Hietanen, Jarkko; Teronen, Olli; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mechanisms of the dentigerous cyst formation from the normal eruption follicle is unknown but disturbances in the proteolytic activity have been suspected, since the growth of these cysts is accompanied by local bone destruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in human dental dentigerous cysts and healthy dental follicles. Materials and Methods: We studied 10 patients with dentigerous cysts and 10 healthy dental follicles from the lower jaw in respect to their immunoexpression of MMPs -8, -9, -25, and -26 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases -1 (TIMP-1). Results: MMP-8 was expressed slightly more in cyst epithelium than in odontogenic epithelium of healthy controls dental follicle but the difference lacked statistical difference. Other MMPs and TIMP-1 did not differ regarding the studied specimens. Conclusion: Differences in MMP expression cannot solely explain the cyst expansion suggesting the potential involvement of other osteolytic mechanisms. PMID:25386530

  3. Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-08-27

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis.

  4. Prediction on the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase based on gene expression programming.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqin; You, Guirong; Jia, Baoxiu; Si, Hongzong; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were developed to predict the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase via heuristic method (HM) and gene expression programming (GEP). The descriptors of 33 pyrrolidine derivatives were calculated by the software CODESSA, which can calculate quantum chemical, topological, geometrical, constitutional, and electrostatic descriptors. HM was also used for the preselection of 5 appropriate molecular descriptors. Linear and nonlinear QSAR models were developed based on the HM and GEP separately and two prediction models lead to a good correlation coefficient (R (2)) of 0.93 and 0.94. The two QSAR models are useful in predicting the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase during the discovery of new anticancer drugs and providing theory information for studying the new drugs.

  5. Structural characterizations of nonpeptidic thiadiazole inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases reveal the basis for stromelysin selectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Finzel, B. C.; Baldwin, E. T.; Bryant, G. L.; Hess, G. F.; Wilks, J. W.; Trepod, C. M.; Mott, J. E.; Marshall, V. P.; Petzold, G. L.; Poorman, R. A.; O'Sullivan, T. J.; Schostarez, H. J.; Mitchell, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The binding of two 5-substituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thione inhibitors to the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin (MMP-3) have been characterized by protein crystallography. Both inhibitors coordinate to the catalytic zinc cation via an exocyclic sulfur and lay in an unusual position across the unprimed (P1-P3) side of the proteinase active site. Nitrogen atoms in the thiadiazole moiety make specific hydrogen bond interactions with enzyme structural elements that are conserved across all enzymes in the matrix metalloproteinase class. Strong hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the side chain of tyrosine-155 appear to be responsible for the very high selectivity of these inhibitors for stromelysin. In these enzyme/inhibitor complexes, the S1' enzyme subsite is unoccupied. A conformational rearrangement of the catalytic domain occurs that reveals an inherent flexibility of the substrate binding region leading to speculation about a possible mechanism for modulation of stromelysin activity and selectivity. PMID:9792098

  6. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-4 Triggers Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Floria; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Espinosa, Magali; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) is a member of extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinases inhibitors that has pleiotropic functions. However, TIMP-4 roles in carcinogenesis are not well understood. Cell viability and flow cytometer assays were employed to evaluate cell death differences between H-Vector and H-TIMP-4 cell lines. Immunobloting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis regulators. We showed that TIMP-4 has apoptosis-sensitizing effects towards several death stimuli. Consistent with these findings, regulators of apoptosis from Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAP), FLICE-like inhibitor proteins (FLIP) and Bcl-2 family members were modulated by TIMP-4. In addition, TIMP-4 knockdown resulted in cell survival increase after serum deprivation, as assessed by clonogenic cell analyses. This report shows that TIMP-4 regulates carcinogenesis through apoptosis activation in cervical cancer cells. Understanding TIMP-4 effects in tumorigenesis may provide clues for future therapies. PMID:26291714

  7. Huoxue Rongluo Tablet reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in infarcted brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Desheng; Li, Mei; Hu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yang; Zhong, Jie; Liu, Lijuan

    2013-12-05

    Huoxue Rongluo Tablet was made of tall gastrodis tuber, dahurian angelica root, honeysuckle stem, grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, common flowering quince fruit, figwort root, red peony root and peach seed at a ratio of 3:2:6:2:3:3:3:3. Huoxue Rongluo Tablet is a well-established and common pre-scription for the treatment of cerebral infarction. In this study, a rat model of cerebral ischemia was established and the animals were intragastrically administered Huoxue Rongluo Tablet. This treat-ment reduced infarct volume, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, and improved neurological function. Moreover, the effects of Huoxue Rongluo Tablet were better than those of buflomedil pyridoxal phosphate. These results indicate that Huoxue Rongluo Tablet is effective in treating cerebral infarction by regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein expression.

  8. Huoxue Rongluo Tablet reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in infarcted brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Desheng; Li, Mei; Hu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yang; Zhong, Jie; Liu, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Huoxue Rongluo Tablet was made of tall gastrodis tuber, dahurian angelica root, honeysuckle stem, grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, common flowering quince fruit, figwort root, red peony root and peach seed at a ratio of 3:2:6:2:3:3:3:3. Huoxue Rongluo Tablet is a well-established and common pre-scription for the treatment of cerebral infarction. In this study, a rat model of cerebral ischemia was established and the animals were intragastrically administered Huoxue Rongluo Tablet. This treat-ment reduced infarct volume, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, and improved neurological function. Moreover, the effects of Huoxue Rongluo Tablet were better than those of buflomedil pyridoxal phosphate. These results indicate that Huoxue Rongluo Tablet is effective in treating cerebral infarction by regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein expression. PMID:25206642

  9. Amyloid precursor protein regulates migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • APP knockdown reduced proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. • APP knockdown reduced expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. • APP overexpression promoted LNCaP cell migration. • APP overexpression increased expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. - Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein, and one of its processed forms, β-amyloid, is considered to play a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously showed that APP is a primary androgen-responsive gene in prostate cancer and that its increased expression is correlated with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. APP has also been implicated in several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the pro-proliferative effects of APP on cancers is still not well-understood. In the present study, we explored a pathophysiological role for APP in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. Differentially expressed genes in siAPP-treated cells compared to control siRNA-treated cells were identified by microarray analysis. Notably, several metalloproteinase genes, such as ADAM10 and ADAM17, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as VIM, and SNAI2, were downregulated in siAPP-treated cells as compared to control cells. The expression of these genes was upregulated in LNCaP cells stably expressing APP when compared with control cells. APP-overexpressing LNCaP cells exhibited enhanced migration in comparison to control cells. These results suggest that APP may contribute to the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes.

  10. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-03-05

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  11. Epithelial expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer/CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in neoplasms and precursor lesions derived from cutaneous squamous cells: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ayva, Sebnem Kupana; Karabulut, Ayse Anil; Akatli, Ayşe Nur; Atasoy, Pinar; Bozdogan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The study investigated CD147 and MMP-2 expression in epidermis of cutaneous squamous lesions. CD147 and MMP-2 expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically in 44 specimens: 18 actinic keratoses (AK), 6 squamous cell carcinomas in situ (SCCIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; peritumoral and invasive portions assessed), and 7 normal skins. Patterns of expression were assessed, with MMP-2 in nuclei (MMP-2n) and cytoplasm (MMP-2c) evaluated separately. The expression of each marker was quantified using a calculated immunohistochemical/histologic score (H-score). Correlations were analyzed for the marker H-scores in each study group. Associations between H-scores and histopathologic parameters were also evaluated. CD147 H-score was the highest in SCC (invasive islands), followed by AK, SCCIS, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2n and MMP-2c H-scores were the highest in AK, followed by SCCIS, SCC, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2c and MMP-2n H-scores were significantly higher in peritumoral epidermis than in invasive islands of SCC. MMP-2c and CD147 H-scores were positively correlated in the peritumoral SCCs. CD147 H-score was positively correlated with tumor differentiation in SCC. The findings suggest that overexpression of CD147 plays a role in the development of SCC.

  12. Circular trimers of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 constitute a distinct population of functional enzyme molecules differentially regulated by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1

    PubMed Central

    Vandooren, Jennifer; Born, Benjamin; Solomonov, Inna; Zajac, Ewa; Saldova, Radka; Senske, Michael; Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Martens, Erik; Van den Steen, Philippe E.; Van Damme, Jo; Garcia-Pardo, Angeles; Froeyen, Matheus; Deryugina, Elena I.; Quigley, James P.; Moestrup, Søren K.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Sagi, Irit; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (EC 3.4.24.35) cleaves many substrates and is produced by most cell types as a zymogen, proMMP-9, in complex with the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Natural proMMP-9 occurs as monomers, homomultimers, and heterocomplexes, but our knowledge about the overall structure of proMMP-9 monomers and multimers is limited. We investigated biochemical, biophysical, and functional characteristics of zymogen and activated forms of MMP-9 monomers and multimers. In contrast to a conventional notion of a dimeric nature of MMP-9 homomultimers, we demonstrate that these are reduction-sensitive trimers. Based on the information from electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we generated a 3Dstructure model of the proMMP-9 trimer. Remarkably, the proMMP-9 trimers possessed a 50-fold higher affinity for TIMP-1 than the monomers. In vivo, this finding was reflected in a higher extent of TIMP-1 inhibition of angiogenesis induced by trimers versus monomers. Our results show that proMMP-9 trimers constitute a novel structural and functional entity that is differentially regulated by TIMP-1. PMID:25360794

  13. Involvement of a region near valine-69 of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in the interaction with matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysin 1).

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, H; Suzuki, K; Cawston, T E; Brew, K

    1997-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by forming a 1:1 stoichiometric complex, but the inhibition mechanism of these inhibitors is not known. Here we have investigated the reactive site of TIMP-1 by its proteinase susceptibility before and after forming a complex with MMP-3 (stromelysin 1). When TIMP-1 was allowed to react with human neutrophil elastase, its inhibitory activity was destroyed. This resulted from cleavage of the Val69-Cys70 bond. However, cleavage of this bond by neutrophil elastase was prevented when TIMP-1 formed a complex with the catalytic domain of MMP-3, and full TIMP-1 activity was restored after dissociation of the complex at pH 3.0 in the presence of EDTA. These results indicate that the region around Val69 closely associates with an active MMP. The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of TIMP-2 elucidated by NMR studies [Williamson, Martorell, Carr, Murphy, Docherty, Freedman and Feeney (1994) Biochemistry 33, 11745-11759] reveals that Val69 and Cys70 form part of an extended ridge that also includes the N-terminal section of the inhibitor. This region is probably involved in the interaction with the catalytic domains of MMPs. PMID:9224642

  14. Isolation and properties of a metalloproteinase from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Belozersky, M A; Dunaevsky, Y E; Voskoboynikova, N E

    1990-01-01

    A homogeneous preparation of metalloproteinase, purified 1000-fold, was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds. The Mr of the enzyme, determined by SDS/PAGE, was 34,000 (it was 39,000 by gel chromatography). Its pH optimum was 8.0-8.2 with 13 S globulin, from buckwheat seeds, as substrate. Atomic-absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of one Zn2+ ion per enzyme molecule. The enzyme was completely inhibited by EDTA (1 mM), zincone (1 mM) and 1, 10-phenanthroline (1 mM). The metalloproteinase performed limited proteolysis of the following seed storage proteins: 13 S globulin from buckwheat seeds and 11 S globulin from soybean (Glycine max) seeds. It hydrolysed three peptide bonds formed by the amino groups of Leu15, Tyr16 and Phe25 in the oxidized B-chain of insulin. In its main properties the enzyme is similar to metalloproteinases of animal and bacterial origin. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2268295

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase and its inhibitor in temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis after indirect trauma in young goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Li, Xin-Jun; Qin, Rui-Feng; Lei, De-Lin; Liu, Yan-Pu; Wu, Gao-Yi; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Yan-Jin; Wang, Da-Zhang; Hu, Kai-Jin

    2008-04-01

    Our aim was to examine the change in expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-13), matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the articular cartilage of goats with experimentally-induced osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) at various times. Osteoarthrosis was induced in 20 goats in the bilateral TMJ and 5 goats acted as controls. There were 5 goats in each group, and a group was killed at 7 days, and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The samples were collected, and the joints evaluated histologically. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the presence of MMPs and TIMP-1 in the articular disc and condylar cartilage. The ultrastructure of the articular disc and condylar surface at 1 month was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoarthrosis of the TMJ progressed gradually over time. MMP-13, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 were expressed strongly in the TMJ soon after injury; MMP-13 became gradually weakened, and MMP-3 strengthened later. None of these were expressed in the normal condyle. After a month the surface of the arthrotic condyle was uneven, and the underlying collagen fibrils were exposed in irregular fissures on the surface. The secretion of TIMP-1 was related closely to the changes of MMPs during osteoarthrosis of the TMJ. The unbalanced ratio between them caused degradation of the matrix of the cartilage and might be the cause of osteoarthrosis of the TMJ.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis Metalloproteinase Bmp1 Functions as a Nematicidal Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoxia; Chen, Ling; Huang, Qiong; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhou, Wei; Peng, Donghai; Ruan, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    Some Bacillus thuringiensis strains have high toxicity to nematodes. Nematicidal activity has been found in several families of crystal proteins, such as Cry5, Cry6, and Cry55. The B. thuringiensis strain YBT-1518 has three cry genes that have high nematicidal activity. The whole genome sequence of this strain contains multiple potential virulence factors. To evaluate the pathogenic potential of virulence factors, we focused on a metalloproteinase called Bmp1. It encompasses a consecutive N-terminal signal peptide, an FTP superfamily domain, an M4 neutral protease GluZincin superfamily, two Big-3 superfamily motifs, and a Gram-positive anchor superfamily motif as a C-terminal domain. Here, we showed that purified Bmp1 protein showed metalloproteinase activity and toxicity against Caenorhabditis elegans (the 50% lethal concentration is 610 ± 9.37 μg/ml). In addition, mixing Cry5Ba with Bmp1 protein enhanced the toxicity 7.9-fold (the expected toxicity of the two proteins calculated from their separate toxicities) against C. elegans. Confocal microscopic observation revealed that Bmp1 protein was detected from around the mouth and esophagus to the intestine. Striking microscopic images revealed that Bmp1 degrades intestine tissues, and the Cry5Ba causes intestinal shrinkage from the body wall. Thus, the B. thuringiensis Bmp1 metalloproteinase is a nematicidal virulence factor. These findings give a new insight into the relationship between B. thuringiensis and its host nematodes. PMID:23124228

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis metalloproteinase induces mTOR cleavage of SiHa cells.

    PubMed

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite.

  18. Hemorrhagic metalloproteinase, Cc HSM-III, isolated from Cerastes cerastes venom: Purification and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Tachoua, Wafa; Boukhalfa-Abib, Hinda; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2017-02-28

    Snake venom metalloproteinases are the most abundant toxins in Viperidae venoms. In this study, a new hemorrhagin, Cc HSM-III (66 kDa), was purified from Cerastes cerastes venom by gel filtration, ion exchange, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographies. The analysis of Cc HSM-III by liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry revealed 32 peptides sharing a homology with P-III metalloproteinases from Echis ocellatus snake venom. Cc HSM-III displays hemorrhagic activity with a minimal hemorrhagic dose of 5 μg, which is abolished by ethylene diamine tetracetic acid but not by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The mechanism underlying Cc HSM-III hemorrhagic activity is probably due to its extensive proteolytic activity against type IV collagen. Cc HSM-III induces local tissue damage and an inflammatory response by upregulating both matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in skin of mice. Thus, Cc HSM-III may play a key role in the pathogenesis of C. cerastes envenomation.

  19. Cloning and characterization of hIF2, a human homologue of bacterial translation initiation factor 2, and its interaction with HIV-1 matrix.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S A; Sieiro-Vazquez, C; Edwards, N J; Iourin, O; Byles, E D; Kotsopoulou, E; Adamson, C S; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Martin-Rendon, E

    1999-08-15

    The cDNA for a human homologue (hIF2) of bacterial (bIF2) and yeast (yIF2) translation initiation factor two (IF2) has been identified during a screen for proteins which interact with HIV-1 matrix. The hIF2 cDNA encodes a 1220-amino-acid protein with a predicted relative molecular mass of 139 kDa, though endogeneous hIF2 migrates anomalously on SDS/PAGE at 180 kDa. hIF2 has an extended N-terminus compared with its homologues, although its central GTP-binding domain and C-terminus are highly conserved, with 58% sequence identity with yIF2. We have confirmed that hIF2 is required for general translation in human cells by generation of a point mutation in the P-loop of the GTP-binding domain. This mutant protein behaves in a transdominant manner in transient transfections and leads to a significant decrease in the translation of a reporter gene. hIF2 interacts directly with HIV-1 matrix and Gag in vitro, and the protein complex can be immunoprecipitated from human cells. This interaction appears to block hIF2 function, since purified matrix protein inhibits translation in a reticulocyte lysate. hIF2 does not correspond to any of the previously characterized translation initiation factors identified in mammals, but its essential role in translation appears to have been conserved from bacteria to humans.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 9 and their types 1 and 4 tissue inhibitors in tumors and plasma of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gershtein, E S; Korotkova, E A; Shcherbakov, A M; Prorokov, V V; Golovkov, D A; Kushlinskii, N E

    2007-04-01

    Enzyme immunoassays showed significantly elevated content of matrix metalloproteinase 7 and type 1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases in tumors compared to adjacent histologically unchanged mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer; the levels of metalloproteinase 9 and type 4 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases were virtually the same in the tumors and mucosa. Plasma concentrations of the studied proteins did not correlate with their levels in the tumor, did not surpass the normal, and did not decease after removal of the primary tumor in the majority of patients.

  1. Molecular Docking Analysis of Selected Clinacanthus nutans Constituents as Xanthine Oxidase, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Human Neutrophil Elastase, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 and Squalene Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Radhakrishnan; Isha, Azizul; Wai, Lam Kok; Ismail, Intan Safinar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau has gained popularity among Malaysians as a traditional plant for anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: This prompted us to carry out the present study on a selected 11 constituents of C. nutans which are clinacoside A–C, cycloclinacoside A1, shaftoside, vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, isoorientin, lupeol and β-sitosterol. Materials and Methods: Selected 11 constituents of C. nutans were evaluated on the docking behavior of xanthine oxidase (XO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 2 and 9), and squalene synthase (SQS) using Discovery Studio Version 3.1. Also, molecular physicochemical, bioactivity, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET), and toxicity prediction by computer assisted technology analyzes were also carried out. Results: The molecular physicochemical analysis revealed that four ligands, namely clinacoside A–C and cycloclinacoside A1 showed nil violations and complied with Lipinski's rule of five. As for the analysis of bioactivity, all the 11 selected constituents of C. nutans exhibited active score (>0) toward enzyme inhibitors descriptor. ADMET analysis showed that the ligands except orientin and isoorientin were predicted to have Cytochrome P4502D6 inhibition effect. Docking studies and binding free energy calculations revealed that clinacoside B exhibited the least binding energy for the target enzymes except for XO and SQS. Isovitexin and isoorientin showed the potentials in the docking and binding with all of the six targeted enzymes, whereas vitexin and orientin docked and bound with only NOS and HNE. Conclusion: This present study has paved a new insight in understanding these 11 C. nutans ligands as potential inhibitors against XO, NOS, HNE, MMP 2, MMP 9, and SQS. SUMMARY Isovitexin and isoorientin (Clinacanthus nutans constituent) showed potentials in the docking and binding with all of the six targeted

  2. Genetic Basis for Variation of Metalloproteinase-Associated Biochemical Activity in Venom of the Mojave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus).

    PubMed

    Dagda, Ruben K; Gasanov, Sardar; De La Oiii, Ysidro; Rael, Eppie D; Lieb, Carl S

    2013-01-01

    The metalloproteinase composition and biochemical profiles of rattlesnake venom can be highly variable among rattlesnakes of the same species. We have previously shown that the neurotoxic properties of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are associated with the presence of the Mojave toxin A subunit suggesting the existence of a genetic basis for rattlesnake venom composition. In this report, we hypothesized the existence of a genetic basis for intraspecies variation in metalloproteinase-associated biochemical properties of rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake. To address this question, we PCR-amplified and compared the genomic DNA nucleotide sequences that code for the mature metalloproteinase domain of fourteen Mojave rattlesnakes captured from different geographical locations across the southwest region of the United States. In addition, the venoms from the same rattlesnakes were tested for their ability to hydrolyze fibrinogen, fibrin, casein, and hide powder azure and for induction of hemorrhage in mice. Overall, based on genomic sequencing and biochemical data, we classified Mojave rattlesnake venom into four distinct groups of metalloproteinases. These findings indicate that differences in nucleotide sequences encoding the mature proteinase domain and noncoding regions contribute to differences in venom metalloproteinase activities among rattlesnakes of the same species.

  3. Detection of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in llama (Lama glama) oviduct.

    PubMed

    Zampini, R; Argañaraz, M E; Miceli, D C; Apichela, S A

    2014-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in several reproductive events like oocyte-spermatozoa interaction and semen liquefaction. In order to study their role in the llama oviductal reproductive process, MMP activity in oviductal fluid (OF) was assayed. Considering that llama genome sequences are partially known, a strategy to procure cDNA sequences of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was designed. Afterwards, their expression patterns in the different llama oviductal segments were assayed. Gelatine zymograms detected 62 and 94 kDa protease activities that matched MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, respectively. Expression pattern analysis showed that MMP and TIMP mRNAs were present in ampulla, isthmus, utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and papilla. Altogether, these findings support the argument that MMPs/TIMPs are produced in the oviduct and secreted into the oviductal lumen. Our results encourage further studies to elucidate the role of these proteins in reproductive oviductal events.

  4. α2 Integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 act sequentially to induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that interleukin 1β acts via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 to regulate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis in α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we characterize the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse ES cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin), and MMP-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of the odontoblastic biomarkers dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1 and alkaline phosphatase, and blocked odontoblast calcification. Our siRNA, western blot and blocking antibody analyses revealed a unique sequential cascade involving α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 that drives ES cell differentiation into odontoblasts. This cascade requires the interaction between α2 integrin and Emmprin and is potentiated by exogenous MMP-3. Finally, although odontoblast-like cells potently express α2, α6, αV, β1, and β3, integrins, we confirmed that β1 integrin acts as the trigger for ES cell differentiation, apparently in complex with α2 integrin. These results demonstrate a unique and unanticipated role for an α2 integrin-, Emmprin-, and MMP-3-mediated signaling cascade in driving mouse ES cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Odontoblast differentiation requires activation of α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3. • α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 form a sequential signaling cascade. • β1 integrin acts a specific trigger for odontoblast differentiation. • The role of these effectors is highly novel and unanticipated.

  5. Connective tissue growth factor increases matrix metalloproteinase-2 and suppresses tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 production by cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Huang, Haichang; Li, Jingzi; Huang, Wen; Wang, Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    The involvement of gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase-2 [MMP-2] and MMP-9) in the matrix remodeling and development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis has been studied recently, but relatively little is known about the regulators and the mechanisms controlling the activation and expression of gelatinase in renal fibroblasts. In these studies, the production and underlying signaling pathway for gelatinase by exogenous connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) treatment were investigated. Here, we show that CTGF acts as a potent promoter of the activation and expression of MMP-2, but not MMP-9 in normal rat kidney fibroblasts cell line (NRK-49F). We found that CTGF significantly increased the activity of MMP-2, as well as MMP-2 protein in conditioned medium and MMP-2 mRNA levels in cells. In studies to address the mechanisms involved in the regulation of MMP-2 activity, we found that the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), the inhibitor of MMP-2, decreased significantly when cells were treated with CTGF. Further studies showed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is responsible for most of the CTGF-induced MMP-2 expression and TIMP-2 suppression. When NRK-49F fibroblasts were incubated with CTGF, activation of ERK1/2 signaling was observed. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation with nontoxic concentrations of PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK activation, was associated with a reduction of CTGF-stimulated MMP-2 activity and protein expression. In addition, the CTGF-mediated reduction of TIMP-2 activity and protein expression was prevented when ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by PD98059. These results provide evidence that CTGF augments activation of MMP-2 through an effect on MMP-2 protein expression and TIMP-2 suppression, and that these effects are dependent on the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway.

  6. Plasma Levels and Diagnostic Utility of Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 as New Biomarkers of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Sobolewska, Monika; Będkowska, Grażyna Ewa; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and its specific tissue inhibitor - tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may play an important role in the pathogenesis and spread of cancer. We investigated the plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in comparison with a commonly accepted tumor marker CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients and in control groups. Methods The cohort included 110 breast cancer patients in groups at stages I-IV. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers and 50 benign tumor patients. Plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were determined by using ELISA, while CA 15-3 concentrations were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Results The results showed significant differences in concentrations of the analyzed parameters and in levels of CA 15-3 between the groups of breast cancer patients and the two control groups. Diagnosis using these markers was equal to that using CA 15-3 in terms of sensitivity, predictive values of positive and negativetest results (PPV, NPV) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) in the studied groups. The diagnostic specificities of MMP-9, TIMP-1, M-CSF, and CA 15-3 showed equally high values (95%). The combined use of all tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in increased sensitivity, NPV, and AUC, especially in the combination of M-CSF with tumor markers (76%, 64%, and 0.8653). Conclusions These findings suggest the tested parameters are useful in the diagnosis of breast cancer patients (except stage I), when combined with CA 15-3. PMID:26915610

  7. Expression and correlation of CD44v6, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in Krukenberg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Ge; Gao, Ying; Ning, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Qi-Fan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression and correlation of CD44v6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in Krukenberg and primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: The expressions of CD44v6, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by immunohistochemical method in 20 cases of normal ovarian tissues, 38 cases of Krukenberg tumor and 45 cases of primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RESULTS: The expression of CD44v6 (primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissue vs normal ovarian tissue: χ2 = 4.516, P = 0.034; Krukenberg tumor tissue vs normal ovarian tissue: χ2 = 19.537, P = 0.001) and VEGF (primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissue vs normal ovarian tissue: P = 0.026; Krukenberg tumor tissue vs normal ovarian tissue: χ2 = 22.895, P = 0.001) was significantly higher in primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissue and Krukenberg tumor tissue than in normal ovarian tissue. The positive expression rate of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was 0% in the normal ovarian tissue. The positive expression rate of CD44v6 (χ2 = 10.398, P = 0.001), VEGF (χ2 = 13.149, P = 0.001), MMP-2 (χ2 = 33.668, P = 0.001) and MMP-9 (χ2 = 38.839, P = 0.001) was remarkably higher in Krukenberg tumor than in primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The correlation of CD44v6, VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was observed in primary epithelial ovarian carcinoma and Krukenberg tumor. CONCLUSION: CD44v6, VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 are involved in ovarian carcinoma, gastric cancer and Krukenberg tumor. Detection of CD44v6, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 may contribute to the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma, gastric cancer, and Krukenberg tumor. PMID:16124061

  8. Impact of losartan and angiotensin II on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Song; Wu, Zong-Gui; Yang, Jun-Ke; Chen, Xin-Jing

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of losartan and angiotensin II (AngII) on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), secreted by rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Rat VSMCs were isolated and cultured in different concentrations of AngII and losartan for 24 h and western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the subsequent impact on the gene and protein expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. AngII was shown to promote the protein and gene expression of MMP-9 in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was observed on the expression of TIMP-1, therefore, an increase in the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio was observed. Losartan was shown to be able to inhibit MMP-9 protein and gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner, whilst promoting an increase in TIMP-1 expression, thus decreasing the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1. The combined action of losartan and AngII resulted in the same directional changes in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression as observed for losartan alone. The comparison of AngII, losartan and the combinatory effect on the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in VSMCs indicated that losartan inhibited the effects of AngII, therefore reducing the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of losartan in preventing atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, the development of the extracellular matrix of plaque is closely correlated with the evolution of AS. The balance between MMPs and TIMPs is important in maintaining the dynamic equilibrium between the ECM, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is involved in the pathologenesis of AS, and in which AngII has a central role.

  9. Novel aspects of corneal angiogenic and lymphangiogenic privilege

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, David; Azar, Dimitri T.; Hallak, Joelle A.; Tobaigy, Faisal; Han, Kyu Yeon; Jain, Sandeep; Zhou, Zhongjun; Chang, Jin-Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we provide the results of experimental studies demonstrating that corneal avascularity is an active process involving the production of anti-angiogenic factors, which counterbalance the proangiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors that are upregulated during wound healing. We also summarize pertinent published reports regarding corneal neovascularization (NV), corneal lymphangiogenesis and corneal angiogenic/lymphangiogenic privilege. We outline the clinical causes of corneal NV, and discuss the angiogenic proteins (VEGF and bFGF) and angiogenesis regulatory proteins. We also describe the role of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, -7, and MT1-MMP, anti-angiogenic factors, and lymphangiogenic regulatory proteins during corneal wound healing. Established and potential new therapies for the treatment of corneal neovascularization are also discussed. PMID:20100589

  10. Measuring the energy landscape of complex bonds using AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayyas, Essa; Hoffmann, Peter; Runyan, Lindsay

    2009-03-01

    We measured rupture force of a complex bond of two interacting proteins with atomic force microscopy. Proteins of interest were active and latent Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), type 2 and 9, and their tissue inhibitors TIMP1 and TIMP2. Measurements show that the rupture force depends on the pulling speed; it ranges from 30 pN to 150 pN at pulling speeds 30nm/s to 48000nm/s. Analyzing data using an extended theory enabled us to understand the mechanism of MMP-TIMP interaction; we determined all physical parameters that form the landscape energy of the interaction, in addition to the life time of the bond and its length. Moreover, we used the pulling experiment to study the interaction of TIMP2 with the receptor MT1-MMP on the surface of living cells.

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel milk-clotting metalloproteinase from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526.

    PubMed

    Hang, Feng; Wang, Qinbo; Hong, Qing; Liu, Peiyi; Wu, Zhengjun; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a milk-clotting enzyme (MCE) isolated from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526 was purified and characterized. The MCE was purified 8.9-fold with a 10.11% recovery using ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography and the specific milk-clotting activity (MCA) reached 6791.73 SU/mg. The enzyme was characterized as a 35kDa metalloproteinase, and the zymogen of which was encoded by a 1671 bp gene named zinc metalloproteinase precursor (zmp) with a predicted molecular weight of 59.6 kDa. The optimal temperature for MCA and proteolytic activity (PA) was 65°C and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 5.0-9.0 and at temperatures below 50°C. The MCA was completely inactivated when the enzyme was heated at 60°C for 30 min, and the PA was totally inactivated for 20 and 10 min when the enzyme was heated at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. The BD3526 enzyme was preferentially active towards κ-casein (κ-CN) and β-casein (β-CN), as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), whereas the hydrolysis of αs-casein (αs-CN) was slow and comparable to that caused by chymosin and asparatic acid proteinase from Rhizomucor miehei. The cleavage site of the metalloproteinase in κ-CN was located at the Met106-Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.

  12. A Metalloproteinase Mirolysin of Tannerella forsythia Inhibits All Pathways of the Complement System.

    PubMed

    Jusko, Monika; Potempa, Jan; Mizgalska, Danuta; Bielecka, Ewa; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Riesbeck, Kristian; Garred, Peter; Eick, Sigrun; Blom, Anna M

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports focusing on virulence factors of periodontal pathogens implicated proteinases as major determinants of remarkable pathogenicity of these species, with special emphasis on their capacity to modulate complement activity. In particular, bacteria-mediated cleavage of C5 and subsequent release of C5a seems to be an important phenomenon in the manipulation of the local inflammatory response in periodontitis. In this study, we present mirolysin, a novel metalloproteinase secreted by Tannerella forsythia, a well-recognized pathogen strongly associated with periodontitis. Mirolysin exhibited a strong effect on all complement pathways. It inhibited the classical and lectin complement pathways due to efficient degradation of mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, and C4, whereas inhibition of the alternative pathway was caused by degradation of C5. This specificity toward complement largely resembled the activity of a previously characterized metalloproteinase of T. forsythia, karilysin. Interestingly, mirolysin released the biologically active C5a peptide in human plasma and induced migration of neutrophils. Importantly, we demonstrated that combination of mirolysin with karilysin, as well as a cysteine proteinase of another periodontal pathogen, Prevotella intermedia, resulted in a strong synergistic effect on complement. Furthermore, mutant strains of T. forsythia, devoid of either mirolysin or karilysin, showed diminished survival in human serum, providing further evidence for the synergistic inactivation of complement by these metalloproteinases. Taken together, our findings on interactions of mirolysin with complement significantly add to the understanding of immune evasion strategies of T. forsythia and expand the knowledge on molecular mechanisms driving pathogenic events in the infected periodontium.

  13. Matrilysin (MMP-7) is a major matrix metalloproteinase upregulated in biliary atresia-associated liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Cheng; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Chou, Ming-Huei; Wu, Chia-Lin; Chen, Ching-Mei; Wang, Chih-Chi; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Chen, Chao-Long; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2005-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the proteases responsible for tissue remodeling during liver fibrosis caused by various disorders including biliary atresia. However, information regarding the relative contribution of these proteases to liver fibrosis is still limited. We studied matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -7, -9 and -13 mRNA expressions in the liver tissue of early-stage biliary atresia at the time of Kasai's procedure, late-stage biliary atresia at the time of liver transplantation with advanced fibrosis and nondiseased control without liver fibrosis. The results of real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that only MMP-2 and -7 expressions were significantly different between groups. MMP-2 was significantly higher in Liver Transplantation group than both in Control (P=0.010) and in Kasai's Procedure (P=0.001) groups, whereas the difference of MMP-2 expression between Control and Kasai's Procedure was not significant. However, the relative expression level of MMP-7 was sequentially elevated when comparing Control, Kasai's Procedure and Liver Transplantation groups, and there was significant (P=0.019) difference when comparing Control and Liver Transplantation groups. Moreover, the fold difference in MMP-7 mRNA was much higher than that in MMP-2 mRNA between groups. The expressions of MMP-7 were further confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant positive correlation of the scores of MMP-7 immunostaining with the stages of liver fibrosis. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the bile ductular epithelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatocytes were the major producers of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in the liver. Our results imply that MMP-7 is a major MMP associated with the tissue remodeling during the progression of liver fibrosis in biliary atresia.

  14. Prospects for treating osteoarthritis: enzyme–protein interactions regulating matrix metalloproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Primary osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal disorder of unknown etiology. OA is characterized by an imbalance between anabolism and catabolism in, and altered homeostasis of articular cartilage. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif are upregulated in OA joints. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are critical for resistance to compressive forces and for maintaining the tensile properties of the tissue. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) is the endogenous inhibitor of MMPs, but in OA, TIMPs do not effectively neutralize MMP activity. Upregulation of MMP gene expression occurs in OA in a milieu of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. Presently, the medical therapy of OA includes mainly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids which dampen pain and inflammation but appear to have little effect on restoring joint function. Experimental interventions to restore the imbalance between anabolism and catabolism include small molecule inhibitors of MMP subtypes or inhibitors of the interaction between IL-1 and its receptor. Although these agents have some positive effects on reducing MMP subtype activity they have little efficacy at the clinical level. MMP-9 is one MMP subtype implicated in the degradation of articular cartilage ECM proteins. MMP-9 was found in OA synovial fluid as a complex with neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) which protected MMP-9 from autodegradation. Suppressing NGAL synthesis or promoting NGAL degradation may result in reducing the activity of MMP-9. We also propose initiating a search for enzyme–protein interactions to dampen other MMP subtype activity which could suppress ECM protein breakdown. PMID:23342237

  15. Mutation of critical serine residues in HIV-1 matrix result in an envelope incorporation defect which can be rescued by truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Ajay K.; Kaushik, Rajnish; Campbell, Nancy A.; Pontow, Suzanne E.; Ratner, Lee

    2009-02-05

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) domain is involved in both early and late events of the viral life cycle. Simultaneous mutation of critical serine residues in MA has been shown previously to dramatically reduce phosphorylation of MA. However, the role of phosphorylation in viral replication remains unclear. Viruses harboring serine to alanine substitutions at positions 9, 67, 72, and 77 are severely impaired in their ability to infect target cells. In addition, the serine mutant viruses are defective in their ability to fuse with target cell membranes. Interestingly, both the fusion defect and the infectivity defect can be rescued by truncation of the long cytoplasmic tail of gp41 envelope protein (gp41CT). Sucrose density gradient analysis also reveals that these mutant viruses have reduced levels of gp120 envelope protein incorporated into the virions as compared to wild type virus. Truncation of the gp41CT rescues the envelope incorporation defect. Here we propose a model in which mutation of specific serine residues prevents MA interaction with lipid rafts during HIV-1 assembly and thereby impairs recruitment of envelope to the sites of viral budding.

  16. Cell-mediated degradation of type IV collagen and gelatin films is dependent on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, S J; Ward, R V; Reynolds, J J; Murphy, G

    1992-01-01

    The ability of normal rabbit dermal fibroblasts to degrade films of type IV collagen and gelatin when stimulated by phorbol ester was shown to be dependent on the induction, secretion and activation of 95 kDa gelatinase B and the secretion and activation of 72 kDa gelatinase A and stromelysin. Degradation was inhibited by exogenous human recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, specific antibodies to gelatinase and stromelysin and by the reactive-oxygen-metabolite inhibitor catalase. We discuss the various pathways for activation of matrix metalloproteinases in this model system and conclude that, although plasmin may play a key role in the activation of gelatinase B and stromelysin, gelatinase A is activated by a mechanism which has yet to be elucidated. The involvement of oxygen radicals in the direct activation of matrix metalloproteinases in this model is thought to be unlikely. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1463464

  17. The Role of Microglia and Matrix Metalloproteinases Involvement in Neuroinflammation and Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Könnecke, Helen; Bechmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases (such as multiple sclerosis) as well as in the expansion of malignant gliomas because they facilitate penetration of anatomical barriers (such as the glia limitans) and migration within the neuropil. This review elucidates pathomechanisms and summarizes the current knowledge of the involvement of MMPs in neuroinflammation and glioma, invasion highlighting microglia as major sources of MMPs. The induction of expression, suppression, and multiple pathways of function of MMPs in these scenarios will also be discussed. Understanding the induction and action of MMPs might provide valuable information and reveal attractive targets for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:24023566

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinases: The Gene Expression Signatures of Head and Neck Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shinji; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by promoting motility, invasion and angiogenesis. Studies have shown that MMP expression is increased in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), one of the most common cancers in the world, and contributes to poor outcome. In this review, we examine the expression pattern of MMPs in HNSCC by microarray datasets and summarize the current knowledge of MMPs, specifically MMP-1, -3, -7 -10, -12, -13, 14 and -19, that are highly expressed in HNSCCs and involved cancer invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:24531055

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Polymorphism 1562 C > T (rs3918242) Associated with Protection against Placental Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Apoorv, Thittayil Suresh; Babu, Phanithi Prakash; Meese, Stefanie; Gai, Prabhanjan P.; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of malaria pigment (hemozoin) induces increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an endopeptidase involved in cytokine regulation. In this study, we examined whether a common functional MMP-9 promoter polymorphism (rs3918242) affects Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnancy. Eighteen percent of Ghanaian primiparae carried the minor T allele. It was associated with reduced odds of placental hemozoin and of placental as well as peripheral blood parasitemia. The results indicate that a common MMP-9 polymorphism protects against placental malaria indicating that this endopeptidase is involved in susceptibility to P. falciparum. PMID:26013370

  20. The Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Point-of-Care Test in Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Nicole L; Valenzuela, Felipe; Perez, Victor L; Galor, Anat

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. However, the subjective symptoms of dry eye poorly correlate to the current gold standard for diagnostic tests, reflecting the need to develop better objective tests for the diagnosis of dry eye. This review considers the role of ocular surface matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in dry eye and the implications of a novel point-of-care test that measures MMP-9 levels, InflammaDry (RPS, Sarasota, FL) on choosing appropriate therapeutic treatments.

  1. Matrix-metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines in children with febrile convulsions and epilepsy--cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Edda; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Morass, Maike; Wondrak, Petra; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    This is the first investigation of MMPs in children with febrile seizures. In a prospective, cross sectional study, serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP8/9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP1/2), of children with FS (n=13), children with febrile infection (FI, n=13) and children with unprovoked generalized seizures (US, n=11) were compared. Neither provoked nor unprovoked seizures in FS and US seem to elevate levels of MMPs or TIMPs, whereas in case of febrile infection blood level of MMP8 was significant elevated. Seizures in general might have no influence on this distinctive inflammatory process or even might have suppressive impact.

  2. Snake Venom Metalloproteinases and Their Peptide Inhibitors from Myanmar Russell’s Viper Venom

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Khin Than; Pitts, Morgan; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat; Wilkinson, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Russell’s viper bites are potentially fatal from severe bleeding, renal failure and capillary leakage. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are attributed to these effects. In addition to specific antivenom therapy, endogenous inhibitors from snakes are of interest in studies of new treatment modalities for neutralization of the effect of toxins. Two major snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): RVV-X and Daborhagin were purified from Myanmar Russell’s viper venom using a new purification strategy. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to explore the Myanmar RV venom gland transcriptome, mRNAs of novel tripeptide SVMP inhibitors (SVMPIs) were discovered. Two novel endogenous tripeptides, pERW and pEKW were identified and isolated from the crude venom. Both purified SVMPs showed caseinolytic activity. Additionally, RVV-X displayed specific proteolytic activity towards gelatin and Daborhagin showed potent fibrinogenolytic activity. These activities were inhibited by metal chelators. Notably, the synthetic peptide inhibitors, pERW and pEKW, completely inhibit the gelatinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of respective SVMPs at 5 mM concentration. These complete inhibitory effects suggest that these tripeptides deserve further study for development of a therapeutic candidate for Russell’s viper envenomation. PMID:28042812

  3. Quantum chemical study on the coordination environment of the catalytic zinc ion in matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Natalia; Suarez, Dimas; Sordo, Tomás L

    2006-11-30

    X-ray analyses of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have shown that the catalytic zinc ion (Zn1) can bind to one to three water molecules in addition to three conserved histidine residues. To estimate the relative stability of the possible Zn1 coordination structures in the active site of the MMPs, we carry out computational analyses on the coordination environment of the Zn1 ion in the gelatinase A enzyme (or matrix metalloproteinase 2; MMP-2). Four-, five-, and six-coordinated complexes representative of the Zn1 site are fully characterized by means of quantum mechanical (QM) methodologies. On one hand, B3LYP/LACVP* minimizations of various cluster models of the MMP-2 active site show that the trigonal bipyramidal geometry is energetically favored in the gas phase and that continuum solvent effects stabilize preferentially the tetrahedral complexes. On the other hand, B3LYP/OPLS-AA hybrid QM/molecular mechanical calculations in the solvated catalytic domain of the MMP-2 enzyme complemented with electrostatic Poisson-Boltzmann calculations show that the mature enzyme presents most likely a Zn1 ion coordinated by three histidine residues and two water molecules, while the active site glutamic acid is negatively charged. In consonance with X-ray diffraction data, other possible Zn1 configurations, a six-coordinated structure with Zn1-water as well as four- and five-coordinated complexes with a Zn1-bound hydroxide, are predicted to be very close in energy.

  4. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12): Function, Roles in Disease Progression, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nyren-Erickson, Erin K.; Jones, Justin M.; Srivastava, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is a member of the greater ADAM family of enzymes: these are multifunctional, generally membrane-bound, zinc proteases for which there are forty genes known (21 of these appearing in humans). ADAM12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cancers, liver fibrogenesis, hypertension, and asthma, and its elevation or decrease in human serum has been linked to these and other physiological/pathological conditions. Scope In this review, we begin with a brief overview of the ADAM family of enzymes and protein structure. We then discuss the role of ADAM12 in the progression and/or diagnosis of various disease conditions, and we will conclude with an exploration of currently known natural and synthetic inhibitors. Major Conclusions ADAM12 has potential to emerge as a successful drug target, although targeting the metalloproteinase domain with any specificity will be difficult to achieve due to structural similarity between the members of the ADAM and MMP family of enzymes. Overall, more research is required to establish ADAM12 being as a highly desirable biomarker and drug target of different diseases, and their selective inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. General Significance Given the appearance of elevated levels of ADAM12 in various diseases, particularly breast cancer, our understanding of this enzyme both as a biomarker and a potential drug target could help make significant inroads into both early diagnosis and treatment of disease. PMID:23680494

  5. RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Shubham; Zhou, Jun; Manivannan, Praveen; Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmad, Omaima Farid; Clark, Matthew; Awadia, Sahezeel; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Shemshedini, Lirim; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2017-03-01

    The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene.

  6. Functionally Expression of Metalloproteinase in Taenia solium Metacestode and Its Evaluation for Serodiagnosis of Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Ying; BAE, Young-An; ZONG, Hong-Ying; KONG, Yoon; CAI, Guo-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parasite proteases have important roles in cleavage of host proteins during the invasion of host tissues and participate in the parasite’s evasion from the host’s immune response. The aim of the present study was to estimate a metalloproteinase properties of Taenia solium metacestode (TsMP) during host-parasite interactions, and evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Methods: The cDNA coding for the mature catalytic domain of TsMP was cloned into pGEX-6P-1 expression vector. A recombinant glutathione S-transferase and TsMP fusion protein was induced. After refolding and purification, enzymatic properties of the recombinant metalloproteinase were observed. Immunoblot assay was processed to evaluate its potential as a serodiagnostic antigen for cysticercosis. Results: The recombinant TsMP protein showed proteolytic activity, which preferred host extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin as degradable substrates. In immunoblot assay, 87.5% of sera from patients with cysticercosis showed strong reactivity. In sera from patients with other parasitic infections and from normal controls, it showed high specificity. Conclusions: TsMP might be involved in the processing of numerous host proteins and play an important role in the parasite life cycle. A single recombinant TsMP antigen could have a potential value for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. PMID:27095967

  7. Phylotranscriptomic analysis uncovers a wealth of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases variants in echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Ronald M.; Linchangco, Gregorio V.; Kerr, Alexander M.; Reid, Robert W.; Janies, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) help regulate the extracellular matrix (ECM) in animals, mostly by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). They are important activators of mutable collagenous tissue (MCT), which have been extensively studied in echinoderms, and the four TIMP copies in humans have been studied for their role in cancer. To understand the evolution of TIMPs, we combined 405 TIMPs from an echinoderm transcriptome dataset built from 41 specimens representing all five classes of echinoderms with variants from protostomes and chordates. We used multiple sequence alignment with various stringencies of alignment quality to cull highly divergent sequences and then conducted phylogenetic analyses using both nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Phylogenetic hypotheses consistently recovered TIMPs as diversifying in the ancestral deuterostome and these early lineages continuing to diversify in echinoderms. The four vertebrate TIMPs diversified from a single copy in the ancestral chordate, all other copies being lost. Consistent with greater MCT needs owing to body wall liquefaction, evisceration, autotomy and reproduction by fission, holothuroids had significantly more TIMPs and higher read depths per contig. Ten cysteine residues, an HPQ binding site and several other residues were conserved in at least 70% of all TIMPs. The conservation of binding sites and the placement of echinoderm TIMPs involved in MCT modification suggest that ECM regulation remains the primary function of TIMP genes, although within this role there are a large number of specialized copies. PMID:27017967

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression change in experimental retinal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Di, Yu; Nie, Qing-Zhu; Chen, Xiao-Long

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the signal transduction mechanism of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mediated- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and retinal neovascularization (RNV) in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. METHODS C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: control group, OIR group, OIR control group (phosphate-buffered saline by intravitreal injection) and treated group [tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) by intravitreal injection]. OIR model was established in C57BL/6J mice exposed to 75%±2% oxygen for 5d. mRNA level and protein expression of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and VEGF were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, and located by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Levels of MMP-9 and VEGF in retina were significantly increased in animals with OIR and OIR control group. Levels of TIMP-1 in retina was significantly reduced in animals with OIR and OIR control group. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between MMP-9 and VEGF. Intravitreal injection of TIMP-1 significantly reduced MMP-9 and VEGF expression of the OIR mouse model (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MMP-9-mediated up-regulation of VEGF promotes RNV in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). TIMP-1 may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of ROP. PMID:27366678

  9. Acute actions and novel targets of matrix metalloproteinases in the heart and vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Chow, A K; Cena, J; Schulz, R

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to play significant roles in a number of physiological as well as pathological processes. Best known to proteolyse components of the extracellular matrix, MMPs have recently been discovered to also target a growing list of proteins apart from these, both inside and outside the cell. MMPs have also been traditionally thought of as enzymes involved in chronic processes such as angiogenesis, remodelling and atherosclerosis on a days-week time-scale. However they are now understood to also act acutely in response to oxidative stress on a minutes time-scale on non-extracellular matrix substrates. This review focuses on the acute actions and both extracellular and intracellular targets of two prominent MMP family members, MMP-2 and -9, in cardiovascular diseases including ischaemia/reperfusion injury, inflammatory heart disease, septic shock and pre-eclampsia. Also discussed are various ways of regulating MMP activity, including post-translational mechanisms, the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and pharmacological inhibitors. A comprehensive understanding of MMP biology is necessary for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to combat the impact of cardiovascular disease. PMID:17592511

  10. Natural haemozoin induces expression and release of human monocyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, Manuela; Valente, Elena; Ulliers, Daniela; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van den Steen, Philippe E; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Prato, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Recently matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its endogenous inhibitor (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, TIMP-1) have been implicated in complicated malaria. In vivo, mice with cerebral malaria (CM) display high levels of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1, and in human patients TIMP-1 serum levels directly correlate with disease severity. In vitro, natural haemozoin (nHZ, malarial pigment) enhances monocyte MMP-9 expression and release. The present study analyses the effects of nHZ on TIMP-1 regulation in human adherent monocytes. nHZ induced TIMP-1 mRNA expression and protein release, and promoted TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α/CCL3 production. Blocking antibodies or recombinant cytokines abrogated or mimicked nHZ effects on TIMP-1, respectively. p38 MAPK and NF-κB inhibitors blocked all nHZ effects on TIMP-1 and pro-inflammatory molecules. Still, total gelatinolytic activity was enhanced by nHZ despite TIMP-1 induction. Collectively, these data indicate that nHZ induces inflammation-mediated expression and release of human monocyte TIMP-1 through p38 MAPK- and NF-κB-dependent mechanisms. However, TIMP-1 induction is not sufficient to counterbalance nHZ-dependent MMP-9 enhancement. Future investigation on proteinase-independent functions of TIMP-1 (i.e. cell survival promotion and growth/differentiation inhibition) is needed to clarify the role of TIMP-1 in malaria pathogenesis.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinases and protein tyrosine kinases: potential novel targets in acute lung injury and ARDS.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Yael; Zemans, Rachel L; Yamashita, Cory M; Downey, Gregory P

    2014-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS fall within a spectrum of pulmonary disease that is characterized by hypoxemia, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and dysregulated and excessive inflammation. While mortality rates have improved with the advent of specialized ICUs and lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies, few other therapies have proven effective in the management of ARDS, which remains a significant clinical problem. Further development of biomarkers of disease severity, response to therapy, and prognosis is urgently needed. Several novel pathways have been identified and studied with respect to the pathogenesis of ALI and ARDS that show promise in bridging some of these gaps. This review will focus on the roles of matrix metalloproteinases and protein tyrosine kinases in the pathobiology of ALI in humans, and in animal models and in vitro studies. These molecules can act independently, as well as coordinately, in a feed-forward manner via activation of tyrosine kinase-regulated pathways that are pivotal in the development of ARDS. Specific signaling events involving proteolytic processing by matrix metalloproteinases that contribute to ALI, including cytokine and chemokine activation and release, neutrophil recruitment, transmigration and activation, and disruption of the intact alveolar-capillary barrier, will be explored in the context of these novel molecular pathways.

  12. HIV-1-infected macrophages induce astrogliosis by SDF-1{alpha} and matrix metalloproteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Mika; Wang, Xin; Baba, Masanori . E-mail: baba@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-04

    Brain macrophages/microglia and astrocytes are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). To clarify their interaction and contribution to the pathogenesis, HIV-1-infected or uninfected macrophages were used as a model of brain macrophages/microglia, and their effects on human astrocytes in vitro were examined. The culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected or uninfected macrophages induced significant astrocyte proliferation, which was annihilated with a neutralizing antibody to stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1{alpha} or a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. In these astrocytes, CXCR4, MMP, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase mRNA expression and SDF-1{alpha} production were significantly up-regulated. The supernatants of infected macrophages were always more effective than those of uninfected cells. Moreover, the enhanced production of SDF-1{alpha} was suppressed by the MMP inhibitor. These results indicate that the activated and HIV-1-infected macrophages can indirectly induce astrocyte proliferation through up-regulating SDF-1{alpha} and MMP production, which implies a mechanism of astrogliosis in HAD.

  13. The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-1101 prevents experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU).

    PubMed

    Wallace, G R; Whiston, R A; Stanford, M R; Wells, G M; Gearing, A J; Clements, J M

    1999-12-01

    EAU is characterized by breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier and extravasation of leucocytes into retinal tissue leading to destruction of photoreceptor cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been implicated in trafficking of cells into tissues, but their role in inflammatory eye disease is unclear. A synthetic MMP inhibitor, BB-1101, was administered subcutaneously, from either day 0 or day 7, to Lewis rats challenged with bovine S-antigen to induce EAU. When given up to day 14, BB-1101 reduced the incidence of disease and delayed the day of onset of clinical disease. When administered from day 7 until day 21, EAU was completely abrogated. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed an increase of both matrilysin (MMP-7), neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) and macrophage metalloproteinase (MMP-12) in retinas from EAU animals compared with naive controls. These enzymes are produced by activated leucocytes and act on components of the basement membrane. These results therefore implicate these MMP as integral to the development of pathology in EAU.

  14. The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-1101 prevents experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU)

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, G R; Whiston, R A; Stanford, M R; Wells, G M A; Gearing, A J H; Clements, J M

    1999-01-01

    EAU is characterized by breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier and extravasation of leucocytes into retinal tissue leading to destruction of photoreceptor cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been implicated in trafficking of cells into tissues, but their role in inflammatory eye disease is unclear. A synthetic MMP inhibitor, BB-1101, was administered subcutaneously, from either day 0 or day 7, to Lewis rats challenged with bovine S-antigen to induce EAU. When given up to day 14, BB-1101 reduced the incidence of disease and delayed the day of onset of clinical disease. When administered from day 7 until day 21, EAU was completely abrogated. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed an increase of both matrilysin (MMP-7), neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) and macrophage metalloproteinase (MMP-12) in retinas from EAU animals compared with naive controls. These enzymes are produced by activated leucocytes and act on components of the basement membrane. These results therefore implicate these MMP as integral to the development of pathology in EAU. PMID:10594553

  15. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase gene from pearl oyster Pinctada martensii participates in nacre formation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Jiao, Yu; Deng, Yuewen; Du, Xiaodong; Huang, Ronglian; Wang, Qingheng; Chen, Weiyao

    2014-07-18

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are nature inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and play a vital role in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover, tissue remodeling and bone formation. In this study, the molecular characterization of TIMP and its potential function in nacre formation was described in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii. The cDNA of TIMP gene in P. martensii (Pm-TIMP) was 901 bp long, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 51 bp, a 3' UTR of 169 bp, and an open reading fragment (ORF) of 681 bp encoding 226 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 23.37 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.42; The predicted amino acid sequence had a signal peptide, 13 cysteine residues, a N-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain, similar to that from other species. Amino acid multiple alignment showed Pm-TIMP had the highest (41%) identity to that from Crassostrea gigas. Tissue expression analysis indicated Pm-TIMP was highly expressed in nacre formation related-tissues, including mantle and pearl sac. After decreasing Pm-TIMP gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) technology in the mantle pallium, the inner nacreous layer of the shells showed a disordered growth. These results indicated that the obtained Pm-TIMP in this study participated in nacre formation.

  16. Bmoo FIBMP-I: A New Fibrinogenolytic Metalloproteinase from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Torres, F. S.; Rates, B.; Gomes, M. T. R.; Salas, C. E.; Pimenta, A. M. C.; Oliveira, F.; Santoro, M. M.; de Lima, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    A new fibrinogenolytic metalloproteinase (Bmoo FIBMP-I) was purified from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. This enzyme was isolated through a combination of three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange, molecular exclusion, and affinity chromatography). Analyses by reverse phase chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry, showed the presence of enzyme isoforms with average molecular mass of 22.8 kDa. The SDS-PAGE analyses showed a single chain of 27.6 kDa, in the presence and absence of reducing agent. The protein has a blocked N-terminal. One of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion of a reduced and S-alkylated isoform was completely sequenced by mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Bmoo FIBMP-I showed similarity with hemorrhagic factor and several metalloproteinases (MP). This enzyme degraded Aα-chain faster than the Bβ-chain and did not affect the γ-chain of bovine fibrinogen. The absence of proteolytic activity after treatment with EDTA, together with the observed molecular mass, led us to suggest that Bmoo FIBMP-I is a member of the P-I class of the snake venom MP family. Bmoo FIBMP-I showed pH-dependent proteolytic activity on azocasein, but was devoid of coagulant, defibrinating, or hemorrhagic activities. The kinetic parameters of proteolytic activity in azocasein were determined (Vmax = 0.4596 Uh−1nmol−1 ± 0.1031 and Km = 14.59 mg/mL ± 4.610). PMID:23762636

  17. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in human gastric cancer and superficial gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; de la Peña, Sol; Ochoa-Lara, Mariana; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 in gastric cancer, superficial gastritis and normal mucosa, and to measure metalloproteinase activity. METHODS: MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalization was carried out using three different factors. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative gelatin zymography (qGZ). RESULTS: 18S ribosomal RNA (18SRNA) was very highly expressed, while hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase-1 (HPRT-1) was moderately expressed. MMP2 was highly expressed, while MMP9 was not detected or lowly expressed in normal tissues, moderately or highly expressed in gastritis and highly expressed in cancer. Relative expression of 18SRNA and HPRT-1 showed no significant differences. Significant differences in MMP2 and MMP9 were found between cancer and normal tissue, but not between gastritis and normal tissue. Absolute quantification of MMP9 echoed this pattern, but differential expression of MMP2 proved conflictive. Analysis by qGZ indicated significant differences between cancer and normal tissue in MMP-2, total MMP-9, 250 and 110 kDa bands. CONCLUSION: MMP9 expression is enhanced in gastric cancer compared to normal mucosa; interpretation of differential expression of MMP2 is difficult to establish. PMID:20333791

  18. Matrix metalloproteinases - From the cleavage data to the prediction tools and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cieplak, Piotr; Strongin, Alex Y

    2017-03-24

    Understanding the physiological role of any protease requires identification of both its cleavage substrates and their relative cleavage efficacy as compared with other substrates and other proteinases. Our review manuscript is focused on the cleavage preferences of the individual matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the cleavage similarity and distinction that exist in the human MMP family. The recent in-depth analysis of MMPs by us and many others greatly increased knowledge of the MMP biology and structural-functional relationships among this protease family members. A better knowledge of cleavage preferences of MMPs has led us to the development of the prediction tools that are now capable of the high throughput reliable prediction and ranking the MMP cleavage sites in the peptide sequences in silico. Our software unifies and consolidates volumes of the pre-existing data. Now this prediction-ranking in silico tool is ready to be used by others. The software we developed may facilitate both the identification of the novel proteolytic regulatory pathways and the discovery of the previously uncharacterized substrates of the individual MMPs. Because now the MMP research may be based on the mathematical probability parameters rather than on either random luck or common sense alone, the researchers armed with this novel in silico tool will be better equipped to fine-tune or, at least, to sharply focus their wet chemistry experiments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman.

  19. RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Shubham; Zhou, Jun; Manivannan, Praveen; Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmad, Omaima Farid; Clark, Matthew; Awadia, Sahezeel; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Shemshedini, Lirim; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2017-01-01

    The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. PMID:28257035

  20. Angiotensin II regulates collagen metabolism through modulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in diabetic skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Hao, Shaoyun; Yang, Chuan; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Lihong; Lin, Diaozhu; Li, Na; Yan, Li

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) balance in regulating collagen metabolism of diabetic skin. Skin tissues from diabetic model were collected, and the primary cultured fibroblasts were treated with Ang II receptor inhibitors before Ang II treatment. The collagen type I (Coll I) and collagen type III (Coll III) were measured by histochemistry. The expressions of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), MMP-1, TIMP-1 and propeptides of types I and III procollagens in skin tissues and fibroblasts were quantified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Collagen dysfunction was documented by changed collagen I/III ratio in streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice compared with controls. This was accompanied by increased expression of TGF-β, TIMP-1 and propeptides of types I and III procollagens in diabetic skin tissues. In primary cultured fibroblasts, Ang II prompted collagen synthesis accompanied by increases in the expressions of TGF-β, TIMP-1 and types I and III procollagens, and these increases were inhibited by losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, but not affected by PD123319, an Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist. These findings present evidence that Ang-II-mediated changes in the productions of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 occur via AT1 receptors and a TGF-β-dependent mechanism.

  1. The metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 (transin) mediates PC12 cell growth cone invasiveness through basal laminae.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, L A; Lochner, J; Yeung, W; Ciment, G

    1995-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases have been implicated in various extracellular matrix remodeling events that occur during normal development and in a number of pathologies. In previous work with PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, we found that the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 (ST1) was highly induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), but not by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Here, we show that ST1 immunoreactivity is present in growth cones of NGF-treated PC12 cells, but not EGF-treated or untreated cells. To determine whether ST1 expression confers neurite invasiveness, three lines of PC12 cells were produced that constitutively express ST1 antisense mRNA. These lines expressed and secreted significantly reduced levels of ST1 protein, as determined by immunoblot and immunocytochemical methods, but otherwise responded normally to NGF-treatment by elaborating neurites. We found, however, that the neurites of these ST1 antisense cells showed a significantly reduced ability to penetrate a Matrigel reconstituted basal lamina, as compared to the parental cells, suggesting that ST1 confers neurite invasiveness. Finally, we show that ST1 is also expressed in vivo in sections through Embryonic Day 15 rat embryos, including neurons of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. These data indicate that ST1 may play a role in axonal growth in vivo, including a role in growth cone invasiveness.

  2. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 moderates airway re-epithelialization by regulating matrilysin activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peter; McGuire, John K; Hackman, Robert C; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Black, Roy A; Poindexter, Kurt; Yan, Wei; Liu, Phillip; Chen, Ann J; Parks, William C; Madtes, David K

    2008-05-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the histopathological finding in chronic lung allograft rejection. Mounting evidence suggests that epithelial damage drives the development of airway fibrosis in OB. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 expression increases in lung allografts and is associated with the onset of allograft rejection. Furthermore, in a mouse model of OB, airway obliteration is reduced in TIMP-1-deficient mice. Matrilysin (matrix metallproteinase-7) is essential for airway epithelial repair and is required for the re-epithelialization of airway wounds by facilitating cell migration; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether TIMP-1 inhibits re-epithelialization through matrilysin. We found that TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in the epithelium of human lungs with OB and both co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated in wounded primary airway epithelial cultures. TIMP-1-deficient cultures migrated faster, and epithelial cells spread to a greater extent compared with wild-type cultures. TIMP-1 also inhibited matrilysin-mediated cell migration and spreading in vitro. In vivo, TIMP-1 deficiency enhanced airway re-epithelialization after naphthalene injury. Furthermore, TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in airway epithelial cells adjacent to the wound edge. Our data demonstrate that TIMP-1 interacts with matrix metalloproteinases and regulates matrilysin activity during airway epithelial repair. Furthermore, we speculate that TIMP-1 overexpression restricts airway re-epithelialization by inhibiting matrilysin activity, contributing to a stereotypic injury response that promotes airway fibrosis via bronchiole airway epithelial damage and obliteration.

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinases and their Inhibitors in Vascular Remodeling and Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raffetto, Joseph D.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that degrade various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Members of the MMP family include collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins and membrane-type MMPs. ProMMPs are cleaved into active forms that promote degradation of ECM proteins. Also, recent evidence suggests direct or indirect effects of MMPs on ion channels in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, and on other mechanisms of vascular relaxation/contraction. Endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) reduce excessive proteolytic ECM degradation by MMPs. The balance between MMPs and TIMPs plays a major role in vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and the uterine and systemic vasodilation during normal pregnancy. An imbalance in the MMPs/TIMPs activity ratio may underlie the pathogenesis of vascular diseases such as abdominal aortic aneurysm, varicose veins, hypertension and preeclampsia. Downregulation of MMPs using genetic manipulations of endogenous TIMPs, or synthetic pharmacological inhibitors such as BB-94 (Batimastat) and doxycycline, and Ro-28-2653, a more specific inhibitor of gelatinases and membrane type 1-MMP, could be beneficial in reducing the MMP-mediated vascular dysfunction and the progressive vessel wall damage associated with vascular disease. PMID:17678629

  4. On the origin of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Wrzyszcz, Aneta; Wozniak, Mieczyslaw

    2012-01-01

    To date, several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified in human platelets. In most research studies, the platelets are obtained using the isolation method from plasma by centrifugation and washing. The metalloproteinase content in the platelets can be affected by the isolation technique and the leukocyte contamination. In this work, we studied the influence of the isolation method on the detection of platelet MMPs and explore the expression of these enzymes in megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells. We investigated the expression of mRNAs encoding for MMP-2 and -9 in platelets and MEG-01 cells. Using gelatin zymography and western blotting, we examined the expression and release of MMP-2 and 9 by platelets and MEG-01 cells and checked whether the amount of the released MMPs depends on the volume of tested platelet and leukocyte contamination. To investigate the MMP-2 expression profile, we used zymography and flow cytometry. Platelets, in contrast to the MEG-01 cells, neither contain mRNA for MMP-2 nor -9. The platelets contain pro-MMP-2 and release it during the activation. The population of uncontaminated (leukocytes<0.02%) platelets contained no MMP-9 or the active form of MMP-2. We have observed that the activity of MMP-2 in platelet lysate is proportional to their mean volume and that the MMP-2 activity may not be detected if very small platelets are examined. We conclude that the detection of gelatinases in platelets depends on platelet isolation techniques and the degree of leukocyte contamination.

  5. Control of allergen-induced inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by the metalloproteinase ADAMTS-12.

    PubMed

    Paulissen, Geneviève; El Hour, Mehdi; Rocks, Natacha; Guéders, Maud M; Bureau, Fabrice; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Lopez-Otin, Carlos; Noel, Agnès; Cataldo, Didier D

    2012-10-15

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) constitute a family of endopeptidases related to matrix metalloproteinases. These proteinases have been largely implicated in tissue remodeling associated with pathological processes. Among them, ADAMTS12 was identified as an asthma-associated gene in a human genome screening program. However, its functional implication in asthma is not yet documented. The present study aims at investigating potential ADAMTS-12 functions in experimental models of allergic airways disease. Two different in vivo protocols of allergen-induced airways disease were applied to the recently generated Adamts12-deficient mice and corresponding wild-type mice. In this study, we provide evidence for a protective effect of ADAMTS-12 against bronchial inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. In the absence of Adamts12, challenge with different allergens (OVA and house dust mite) led to exacerbated eosinophilic inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in lung tissue, along with airway dysfunction assessed by increased airway responsiveness following methacholine exposure. Furthermore, mast cell counts and ST2 receptor and IL-33 levels were higher in the lungs of allergen-challenged Adamts12-deficient mice. The present study provides, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence for a contribution of ADAMTS-12 as a key mediator in airways disease, interfering with immunological processes leading to inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Hemorrhage Caused by Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: A Journey of Discovery and Understanding †

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, José María; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Herrera, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The historical development of discoveries and conceptual frames for understanding the hemorrhagic activity induced by viperid snake venoms and by hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (SVMPs) present in these venoms is reviewed. Histological and ultrastructural tools allowed the identification of the capillary network as the main site of action of SVMPs. After years of debate, biochemical developments demonstrated that all hemorrhagic toxins in viperid venoms are zinc-dependent metalloproteinases. Hemorrhagic SVMPs act by initially hydrolyzing key substrates at the basement membrane (BM) of capillaries. This degradation results in the weakening of the mechanical stability of the capillary wall, which becomes distended owing of the action of the hemodynamic biophysical forces operating in the circulation. As a consequence, the capillary wall is disrupted and extravasation occurs. SVMPs do not induce rapid toxicity to endothelial cells, and the pathological effects described in these cells in vivo result from the mechanical action of these hemodynamic forces. Experimental evidence suggests that degradation of type IV collagen, and perhaps also perlecan, is the key event in the onset of microvessel damage. It is necessary to study this phenomenon from a holistic, systemic perspective in which the action of other venom components is also taken into consideration. PMID:27023608

  7. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Moderates Airway Re-Epithelialization by Regulating Matrilysin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter; McGuire, John K.; Hackman, Robert C.; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Black, Roy A.; Poindexter, Kurt; Yan, Wei; Liu, Phillip; Chen, Ann J.; Parks, William C.; Madtes, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the histopathological finding in chronic lung allograft rejection. Mounting evidence suggests that epithelial damage drives the development of airway fibrosis in OB. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 expression increases in lung allografts and is associated with the onset of allograft rejection. Furthermore, in a mouse model of OB, airway obliteration is reduced in TIMP-1-deficient mice. Matrilysin (matrix metallproteinase-7) is essential for airway epithelial repair and is required for the re-epithelialization of airway wounds by facilitating cell migration; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether TIMP-1 inhibits re-epithelialization through matrilysin. We found that TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in the epithelium of human lungs with OB and both co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated in wounded primary airway epithelial cultures. TIMP-1-deficient cultures migrated faster, and epithelial cells spread to a greater extent compared with wild-type cultures. TIMP-1 also inhibited matrilysin-mediated cell migration and spreading in vitro. In vivo, TIMP-1 deficiency enhanced airway re-epithelialization after naphthalene injury. Furthermore, TIMP-1 and matrilysin co-localized in airway epithelial cells adjacent to the wound edge. Our data demonstrate that TIMP-1 interacts with matrix metalloproteinases and regulates matrilysin activity during airway epithelial repair. Furthermore, we speculate that TIMP-1 overexpression restricts airway re-epithelialization by inhibiting matrilysin activity, contributing to a stereotypic injury response that promotes airway fibrosis via bronchiole airway epithelial damage and obliteration. PMID:18385523

  8. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  9. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 1 Influences Vascular Adaptations to Chronic Alterations in Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Erin R; Uchida, Cassandra; Nwadozi, Emmanuel; Makki, Armin; Haas, Tara L

    2017-04-01

    Remodeling of the skeletal muscle microvasculature involves the coordinated actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We hypothesized that the loss of TIMP1 would enhance both ischemia and flow-induced vascular remodeling by increasing MMP activity. TIMP1 deficient (Timp1(-/-) ) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice underwent unilateral femoral artery (FA) ligation or were treated with prazosin, an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, in order to investigate vascular remodeling to altered flow. Under basal conditions, Timp1(-/-) mice had reduced microvascular content as compared to WT mice. Furthermore, vascular remodeling was impaired in Timp1(-/-) mice. Timp1(-/-) mice displayed reduced blood flow recovery in response to FA ligation and no arteriogenic response to prazosin treatment. Timp1(-/-) mice failed to undergo angiogenesis in response to ischemia or prazosin, despite maintaining the capacity to increase VEGF-A and eNOS mRNA. Vascular permeability was increased in muscles of Timp1(-/-) mice in response to both prazosin treatment and FA ligation, but this was not accompanied by greater MMP activity. This study highlights a previously undescribed integral role for TIMP1 in both vascular network maturation and adaptations to ischemia or alterations in flow. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 831-841, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Phylotranscriptomic analysis uncovers a wealth of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases variants in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ronald M; Linchangco, Gregorio V; Kerr, Alexander M; Reid, Robert W; Janies, Daniel A

    2015-12-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) help regulate the extracellular matrix (ECM) in animals, mostly by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). They are important activators of mutable collagenous tissue (MCT), which have been extensively studied in echinoderms, and the four TIMP copies in humans have been studied for their role in cancer. To understand the evolution of TIMPs, we combined 405 TIMPs from an echinoderm transcriptome dataset built from 41 specimens representing all five classes of echinoderms with variants from protostomes and chordates. We used multiple sequence alignment with various stringencies of alignment quality to cull highly divergent sequences and then conducted phylogenetic analyses using both nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Phylogenetic hypotheses consistently recovered TIMPs as diversifying in the ancestral deuterostome and these early lineages continuing to diversify in echinoderms. The four vertebrate TIMPs diversified from a single copy in the ancestral chordate, all other copies being lost. Consistent with greater MCT needs owing to body wall liquefaction, evisceration, autotomy and reproduction by fission, holothuroids had significantly more TIMPs and higher read depths per contig. Ten cysteine residues, an HPQ binding site and several other residues were conserved in at least 70% of all TIMPs. The conservation of binding sites and the placement of echinoderm TIMPs involved in MCT modification suggest that ECM regulation remains the primary function of TIMP genes, although within this role there are a large number of specialized copies.

  11. Metalloproteinase inhibitors for the disintegrin-like metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 that differentially block constitutive and phorbol ester-inducible shedding of cell surface molecules.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Andreas; Hundhausen, Christian; Lambert, Millard H; Broadway, Neil; Andrews, Robert C; Bickett, D Mark; Leesnitzer, M Anthony; Becherer, J David

    2005-03-01

    The transmembrane metzinkin-proteases of the ADAM (a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase)-family ADAM10 and ADAM 17 are both implicated in the ectodomain shedding of various cell surface molecules including the IL6-receptor and the transmembrane chemokines CX3CL1 and CXCL16. These molecules are constitutively released from cultured cells, a process that can be rapidly enhanced by cell stimulation with phorbol esters such as PMA. Recent research supports the view that the constitutive cleavage predominantly involves ADAM10 while the inducible one is mediated to a large extent by ADAM17. We here describe the discovery of hydroxamate compounds with different potency against ADAM10 and ADAM17 and different ability to block constitutive and inducible cleavage of IL6R, CX3CL1 and CXCL16 by the two proteases. By screening a number of hydroxamate inhibitors for the inhibition of recombinant metalloproteinases, a compound was found inhibiting ADAM10 with more than 100-fold higher potency than ADAM17, which may be explained by an improved fit of the compound to the S1' specificity pocket of ADAM10 as compared to that of ADAM17. In cell-based cleavage experiments this compound (GI254023X) potently blocked the constitutive release of IL6R, CX3CL1 and CXCL16, which was in line with the reported involvement of ADAM10 but not ADAM17 in this process. By contrast, the compound did not affect the PMA-induced shedding, which was only blocked by GW280264X, a potent inhibitor of ADAM17. As expected, GI254023X did not further decrease the residual release of CX3CL1 and CXCL16 in ADAM10-deficient cells verifying that the compound's effect on the constitutive shedding of these molecules was exclusively due to the inhibition of ADAM10. Thus, GI254023X may by of use as a preferential inhibitor of constitutive shedding events without effecting the inducible shedding in response to agonists acting similar to PMA.

  12. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter . E-mail: bchpcr@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-12-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.

  13. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rose, Peter; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-12-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependent manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.

  14. The Extracellular Protease Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is Activated by Inhibitory Avoidance Learning and Required for Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Vanja; Bozdagi, Ozlem; Huntley, George W.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellularly acting proteolytic enzymes with well-recognized roles in plasticity and remodeling of synaptic circuits during brain development and following brain injury. However, it is now becoming increasingly apparent that MMPs also function in normal, nonpathological synaptic plasticity of the…

  15. Identification and characterization of matrix metalloproteinase-13 sequence structure and expression during embryogenesis and infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), referred to as collagenase-3, is a proteolytic enzyme that plays a key role in degradation and remodelling of host extracellularmatrix proteins. The objective of this study was to characterize the MMP-13 gene in channel catfish, and to determine its pattern of e...

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the progression of colorectal adenoma to carcinoma : Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the colorectal adenoma and carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira K; Abdel-Aziz, Azza

    2014-06-01

    Most colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) are considered to arise from conventional adenoma based on the concept of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be overexpressed as normal mucosa progresses to adenomas and carcinomas. There has been little previous investigation about MMP-13 expression in adenoma-carcinoma sequence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-13 in colorectal adenoma and CRC specimens using tissue microarray (TMA) technique. A total of 40 cases of CRC associated with adenoma were collected from files of the Pathology laboratory at Mansoura Gastroenterology Center between January 2007 and January 2012. Sections from TMA blocks were prepared and stained for MMP-13. Immunoreactivity to MMP-13 staining was localized to the cytoplasm of mildly, moderately, and severely dysplatic cells of adenomas and CRC tumor cells that were either homogenous or heterogeneous. There was no significant difference in MMP-13 expression between adenomas and CRCs either non-mucinous or mucinous. Adenomas with high MMP-13 expression were significantly associated with moderate to marked degree of inflammatory cellular infiltrate and presence of familial adenomatous polyps. In conclusion, MMP-13 may be a potential biological marker of early tumorigenesis in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

  17. Identification of a small-molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 assembly that targets the phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding site of the HIV-1 matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Zentner, Isaac; Sierra, Luz-Jeannette; Fraser, Ayesha K; Maciunas, Lina; Mankowski, Marie K; Vinnik, Andrei; Fedichev, Peter; Ptak, Roger G; Martín-García, Julio; Cocklin, Simon

    2013-03-01

    The development of drug resistance remains a critical problem for current HIV-1 antiviral therapies, creating a need for new inhibitors of HIV-1 replication. We previously reported on a novel anti-HIV-1 compound, N(2)-(phenoxyacetyl)-N-[4-(1-piperidinylcarbonyl)benzyl]glycinamide (14), that binds to the highly conserved phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) binding pocket of the HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein. In this study, we re-evaluate the hits from the virtual screen used to identify compound 14 and test them directly in an HIV-1 replication assay using primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This study resulted in the identification of three new compounds with antiviral activity; 2-(4-{[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]methyl})-1-piperazinyl)-N-(4-methylphenyl)acetamide (7), 3-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-5-[[4-(4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole (17), and N-[4-ethoxy-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2-(imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazol-6-yl)acetamide (18), with compound 7 being the most potent of these hits. Mechanistic studies on 7 demonstrated that it directly interacts with and functions through HIV-1 MA. In accordance with our drug target, compound 7 competes with PI(4,5)P(2) for MA binding and, as a result, diminishes the production of new virus. Mutation of residues within the PI(4,5)P(2) binding site of MA decreased the antiviral effect of compound 7. Additionally, compound 7 displays a broadly neutralizing anti-HIV activity, with IC(50) values of 7.5-15.6 μM for the group M isolates tested. Taken together, these results point towards a novel chemical probe that can be used to more closely study the biological role of MA and could, through further optimization, lead to a new class of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.

  18. Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinases on the Performance of Platelet Fibrin Gel Spiked With Cardiac Stem Cells in Heart Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Deliang; Tang, Junnan; Hensley, Michael Taylor; Li, Taosheng; Caranasos, Thomas George; Zhang, Tianxia

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells and biomaterials have been studied for therapeutic cardiac repair. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of platelet fibrin gel and cardiac stem cells when cotransplanted into rodent hearts with myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in such protection. Thus, the present study is designed to elucidate the effects of MMP inhibition on the therapeutic benefits of intramyocardial injection of platelet fibrin gel spiked with cardiac stem cells (cell-gel) in a rat model of acute MI. In vitro, broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 undermines cell spreading and cardiomyocyte contraction. In a syngeneic rat model of myocardial infarction, MMP inhibition blunted the recruitment of endogenous cardiovascular cells into the injected biomaterials, therefore hindering de novo angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis. Echocardiography and histology 3 weeks after treatment revealed that metalloproteinase inhibition diminished the functional and structural benefits of cell-gel in treating MI. Reduction of host angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte cycling, and MMP-2 activities was evident in animals treated with GM6001. Our findings suggest that MMPs play a critical role in the therapeutic benefits of platelet fibrin gel spiked with cardiac stem cells for treating MI. Significance In this study, the effects of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition on the performance of platelet gel spiked with cardiac stem cells (cell-gel) for heart regeneration are explored. The results demonstrate that matrix metalloproteinases are required for cell-gel to exert its benefits in cardiac repair. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases reduces cell engraftment, host angiogenesis, and recruitment of endogenous cardiovascular cells in rats with heart attack. PMID:27112177

  19. Modulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases production in co-cultivated human keratinocytes and melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Decean, H; Perde-Schrepler, M; Tatomir, C; Fischer-Fodor, E; Brie, I; Virag, P

    2013-10-01

    The human epidermis exerts immunoregulatory functions through the variety of cytokines and other molecules elaborated by keratinocytes and melanocytes. Their constitutive production is very low; however, considerably increased upon stimulation. In vivo, keratinocytes and melanocytes have a typical exposure in the skin, referred as melanocyte epidermal unit. In the present study we co-cultivated these cells in vitro proposing to elucidate some communication links in close cell-to-cell association. We assessed the amounts of IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in individually and co-cultured cells, exposed or not to UVB radiation. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes were grown in specific media and supplements. Cells were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) to create comparable stress to the environmental one. Cytokines were determined with ELISA and confirmed with Western blot and metalloproteinases with gel zimography. Pure cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes released low amounts of cytokines and metalloproteinases, these secretions being enhanced by UVB irradiation. In co-cultures, the cell-to-cell proximity triggered signals which markedly augmented the cytokines' secretions, whereas metalloproteinases were down-regulated. UVB irradiation did not influence either of these secretions in co-cultures. Concurrently with the highest levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-9 was up-regulated creating pro-inflammatory conditions and premises for changes in cellular survival, differentiation and phenotype. A complex network of interactions occurred between keratinocytes and melanocytes in co-cultures, resulting in modulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases productions. Therefore, any disturbances in the microenvironmental signaling system and its molecular constituents may result in inflammation or even tumorigenesis in the epidermis.

  20. Ulex europaeus I lectin induces activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gomez, D E; Yoshiji, H; Kim, J C; Thorgeirsson, U P

    1995-11-02

    In this report, we show that the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I), which binds to alpha-linked fucose residues on the surface of endothelial cells, mediates activation of the 72-kDa matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). A dose-dependent increase in the active 62-kDa form of MMP-2 was observed in conditioned medium from monkey aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) following incubation with concentrations of UEA I ranging from 2 to 100 micrograms/ml. The increase in the 62-kDa MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity was not reflected by a rise in MMP-2 gene expression. The UEA I-mediated activation of MMP-2 was blocked by L-fucose, which competes with UEA I for binding to alpha-fucose. These findings may suggest that a similar in vivo mechanism exists, whereby adhesive interactions between tumor cell lectins and endothelial cells can mediate MMP-2 activation.

  1. DP-b99 Modulates Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity and Neuronal Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yeghiazaryan, Marine; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Konopka, Anna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M.; Melikyan, Armenuhi; Korkotian, Eduard; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Figiel, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    DP-b99 is a membrane-activated chelator of zinc and calcium ions, recently proposed as a therapeutic agent. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent extracellularly operating proteases that might contribute to synaptic plasticity, learning and memory under physiological conditions. In excessive amounts these enzymes contribute to a number of neuronal pathologies ranging from the stroke to neurodegeneration and epileptogenesis. In the present study, we report that DP-b99 delays onset and severity of PTZ-induced seizures in mice, as well as displays neuroprotective effect on kainate excitotoxicity in hippocampal organotypic slices and furthermore blocks morphological reorganization of the dendritic spines evoked by a major neuronal MMP, MMP-9. Taken together, our findings suggest that DP-b99 may inhibit neuronal plasticity driven by MMPs, in particular MMP-9, and thus may be considered as a therapeutic agent under conditions of aberrant plasticity, such as those subserving epileptogenesis. PMID:24918931

  2. Synthesis of hydroxypyrone- and hydroxythiopyrone-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors: Developing a structure–activity relationship

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yi-Long; Miller, Melissa T.; Cao, Yuchen; Cohen, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    The zinc(II)-dependent matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with a variety of diseases. Development of inhibitors to modulate MMP activity has been an active area of investigation for therapeutic development. Hydroxypyrones and hydroxythiopyrones are alternative zinc-binding groups (ZBGs) that, when combined with peptidomimetic backbones, comprise a novel class of MMP inhibitors (MMPi). In this report, a series of hydroxypyrone- and hydroxythiopyrone-based MMPi with aryl backbones at the 2-, 5-, and 6-positions of the hydroxypyrone ring have been synthesized. Synthetic routes for developing inhibitors with substituents at two of these positions (so-called double-handed inhibitors) are also explored. The MMP inhibition profiles and structure–activity relationship of synthesized hydroxypyrones and hydroxythiopyrones have been analyzed. The results here show that the ZBG, the position of the backbone on the ZBG, and the nature of the linker between the ZBG and backbone are critical for MMPi activities. PMID:19261472

  3. Occurrence of two distinct types of tissue inhibitors of metallo-proteinases-2 in Fugu rubripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Mizuta, Shohshi; Yoshinaka, Reiji

    2005-07-01

    In this study, genes of two distinct tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) from Japanese puffer fish Fugu rubripes, Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b, were cloned. The open reading frames of Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b cDNAs are composed of 660 and 657 nucleotides and 220 and 219 amino acids, respectively. Both Fugu TIMP-2s contain 12 cysteine residues, which might form six disulfide bonds as in other animals’ TIMP-2s. Reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the mRNAs of Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b to be expressed in some tissues examined with different expression patterns. These findings suggest that the two distinct Fugu TIMP-2s might perform different functions in Fugu tissues.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in CSF of patients with VZV vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dallas; Alvarez, Enrique; Selva, Sean; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the CSF of patients with virologically verified varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy. Methods: CSF from 30 patients with virologically verified VZV vasculopathy was analyzed for levels of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs using the Meso Scale Discovery multiplex ELISA platform. Positive CNS inflammatory disease controls were provided by CSF from 30 patients with multiple sclerosis. Negative controls were provided by CSF from 20 healthy controls. Results: Compared to multiple sclerosis CSF and CSF from healthy controls, levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and MMP-2 were significantly elevated in VZV vasculopathy CSF. Conclusions: CSF of patients with VZV vasculopathy revealed a unique profile of elevated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6, along with elevated MMP-2. The relevance of these cytokines to the pathogenesis of VZV vasculopathy requires further study. PMID:27340684

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases: a review of their structure and role in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wen-jia; Yan, Jun-wei; Wan, Ya-nan; Wang, Bing-xiang; Tao, Jin-hui; Yang, Guo-jun; Pan, Hai-feng; Wang, Jing

    2012-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main enzymes involved in arterial wall extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and remodeling, whose activity has been involved in various normal and pathologic processes, such as inflammation, fibrosis. As a result, the MMPs have come to consider as both therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools for the treatment and diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease of unknown etiology characterized by an excessive over-production of collagen and other ECM, resulting in skin thickening and fibrosis of internal organs. In recent years, abnormal expression of MMPs has been demonstrated with the pathogenesis of SSc, and the association of different polymorphisms on MMPs genes with SSc has been extensively studied. This review describes the structure, function and regulation of MMPs and shortly summarizes current understanding on experimental findings, genetic associations of MMPs in SSc.

  6. Diet-Induced Obesity and Reduced Skin Cancer Susceptibility in Matrix Metalloproteinase 19-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pendás, Alberto M.; Folgueras, Alicia R.; Llano, Elena; Caterina, John; Frerard, Françoise; Rodríguez, Francisco; Astudillo, Aurora; Noël, Agnès; Birkedal-Hansen, Henning; López-Otín, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP-19) is a member of the MMP family of endopeptidases that, in contrast to most MMPs, is widely expressed in human tissues under normal quiescent conditions. MMP-19 has been found to be associated with ovulation and angiogenic processes and is deregulated in diverse pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. To gain further insights into the in vivo functions of this protease, we have generated mutant mice deficient in Mmp19. These mice are viable and fertile and do not display any obvious abnormalities. However, Mmp19-null mice develop a diet-induced obesity due to adipocyte hypertrophy and exhibit decreased susceptibility to skin tumors induced by chemical carcinogens. Based on these results, we suggest that this enzyme plays an in vivo role in some of the tissue remodeling events associated with adipogenesis, as well as in pathological processes such as tumor progression. PMID:15169894

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 mediates nitric oxide activation of endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    López-Rivera, Esther; Lizarbe, Tania R.; Martínez-Moreno, Mónica; López-Novoa, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Barbero, Alicia; Rodrigo, José; Fernández, Ana Patricia; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Lamas, Santiago; Zaragoza, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which NO elicits endothelial cell (EC) migration we used murine and bovine aortic ECs in an in vitro wound-healing model. We found that exogenous or endogenous NO stimulated EC migration. Moreover, migration was significantly delayed in ECs derived from endothelial NO synthase-deficient mice compared with WT murine aortic EC. To assess the contribution of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 to NO-mediated EC migration, we used RNA interference to silence MMP-13 expression in ECs. Migration was delayed in cells in which MMP-13 was silenced. In untreated cells MMP-13 was localized to caveolae, forming a complex with caveolin-1. Stimulation with NO disrupted this complex and significantly increased extracellular MMP-13 abundance, leading to collagen breakdown. Our findings show that MMP-13 is an important effector of NO-activated endothelial migration. PMID:15728377

  8. Processing of Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: Generation of Toxin Diversity and Enzyme Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.; Almeida, Michelle T.; Portes-Junior, José A.; Nicolau, Carolina A.; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Valente, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are abundant in the venoms of vipers and rattlesnakes, playing important roles for the snake adaptation to different environments, and are related to most of the pathological effects of these venoms in human victims. The effectiveness of SVMPs is greatly due to their functional diversity, targeting important physiological proteins or receptors in different tissues and in the coagulation system. Functional diversity is often related to the genetic diversification of the snake venom. In this review, we discuss some published evidence that posit that processing and post-translational modifications are great contributors for the generation of functional diversity and for maintaining latency or inactivation of enzymes belonging to this relevant family of venom toxins. PMID:27294958

  9. Heart failure alters matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Dariolli, Rafael; Justulin Junior, Luis Antonio; Sugizaki, Mário Mateus; Politi Okoshi, Marina; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2006-12-01

    Heart failure is associated with a skeletal muscle myopathy with cellular and extracellular alterations. The hypothesis of this investigation is that extracellular changes may be associated with enhanced mRNA expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). We examined MMP mRNA expression and MMP activity in Soleus (SOL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and diaphragm (DIA) muscles of young Wistar rat with monocrotaline-induced heart failure. Rats injected with saline served as age-matched controls. MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA contents were determined by RT-PCR and MMP activity by electrophoresis in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels in the presence of SDS under non-reducing conditions. Heart failure increased MMP9 mRNA expression and activity in SOL, EDL and DIA and MMP2 mRNA expression in DIA. These results suggest that MMP changes may contribute to the skeletal muscle myopathy during heart failure.

  10. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression between gingival fibroblast cells from old and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Su-Jung; Chung, Yong-Koo; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Jeong-Ran; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho Park, Young-Guk

    2009-01-09

    Gingival fibroblast cells (rGF) from aged rats have an age-related decline in proliferative capacity compared with young rats. We investigated G1 phase cell cycle regulation and MMP-9 expression in both young and aged rGF. G1 cell cycle protein levels and activity were significantly reduced in response to interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) stimulation with increasing in vitro age. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha})-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was also decreased in aged rGF in comparison with young rGF. Mutational analysis and gel shift assays demonstrated that the lower MMP-9 expression in aged rGF is associated with lower activities of transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1. These results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation and down-regulation of MMP-9 expression in rGF may play a role in gingival remodeling during in vitro aging.

  11. DP-b99 modulates matrix metalloproteinase activity and neuronal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Yeghiazaryan, Marine; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Konopka, Anna; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M; Melikyan, Armenuhi; Korkotian, Eduard; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Figiel, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    DP-b99 is a membrane-activated chelator of zinc and calcium ions, recently proposed as a therapeutic agent. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent extracellularly operating proteases that might contribute to synaptic plasticity, learning and memory under physiological conditions. In excessive amounts these enzymes contribute to a number of neuronal pathologies ranging from the stroke to neurodegeneration and epileptogenesis. In the present study, we report that DP-b99 delays onset and severity of PTZ-induced seizures in mice, as well as displays neuroprotective effect on kainate excitotoxicity in hippocampal organotypic slices and furthermore blocks morphological reorganization of the dendritic spines evoked by a major neuronal MMP, MMP-9. Taken together, our findings suggest that DP-b99 may inhibit neuronal plasticity driven by MMPs, in particular MMP-9, and thus may be considered as a therapeutic agent under conditions of aberrant plasticity, such as those subserving epileptogenesis.

  12. Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer: Bringing New Life to Old Ideas.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Jillian; Pulkoski-Gross, Ashleigh; Cao, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Since the identification of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, as being a driving factor for cancer progression and patient prognosis, MMPs have been studied extensively. Although early programs targeting MMPs were largely unsuccessful in clinical trials, they remain a viable and highly desirable therapeutic target based on preclinical studies and their role in disease progression. As information regarding the structure and function of these proteinases is compiled and biotechnology evolves, tools to develop better inhibitors is within our grasp. Improved methods for high throughput screening and in silico drug design programs have identified compounds which are highly potent, have high binding affinities, and exhibit favorable pharmacokinetic profiles. More recently, advances in drug delivery methods or compounds which bind outside the active site have brought new light to the field. In this review, we highlight the role of MMPs in cancer, clinical trials for MMP inhibitors, and novel approaches to targeting MMPs in cancer.

  13. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in muscle and adipose tissue development and meat quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sara; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix components but are also important signaling molecules that regulate many biological processes including muscle, adipose and connective tissue development. Most recently it has been discovered that MMPs act as intracellular signaling molecules inducing gene expression and altering related proteins in the nucleus. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMPs and their inhibitors are known to exist and most of the research on MMPs to date has focused on their activity in relation to human health and disease. Nevertheless there is a growing body of evidence identifying important roles of MMPs as regulators of myogenesis, fibrogenesis and adipogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the currently known functions of the MMPs that have a direct bearing on the deposition of meat components and their relationship with meat quality. Some central pathways by which these enzymes can affect the tenderness, the amount and type of fatty acids are highlighted.

  14. Osteopontin Promotes Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 through NF-κB Signaling in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yusheng; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hua; Deng, Zhenhan; Zeng, Chao; Tu, Min; Li, Liangjun; Xiao, Wenfeng; Gao, Shuguang; Luo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is associated with the severity and progression of osteoarthritis (OA); however, the mechanism of OPN in the pathogenesis of OA is unknown. In this study, we found that OA patients had higher abundance of OPN and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13). In chondrocytes, we showed that OPN promoted the production of MMP13 and activation of NF-κB pathway by increasing the abundance of p65 and phosphorylated p65 and translocation of p65 protein from cytoplasm to nucleus. Notably, inhibition of NF-κB pathway by inhibitor suppressed the production of MMP13 induced by OPN treatment. In conclusion, OPN induces production of MMP13 through activation of NF-κB pathway. PMID:27656654

  15. Fluctuating Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vilen, Suvi-Tuuli; Salo, Tuula; Sorsa, Timo; Nyberg, Pia

    2013-01-01

    One hallmark of cancer is the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is caused by proteinases. In oral cancers, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-9, are associated with this degradation. MMPs break down the ECM allowing cancer to spread; they also release various factors from their cryptic sites, including cytokines. These factors modulate cell behavior and enhance cancer progression by regulating angiogenesis, migration, proliferation, and invasion. The development of early metastases is typical for oral cancer, and increased MMP-9 expression is associated with a poor disease prognosis. However, many studies fail to relate MMP-9 expression with metastasis formation. Contrary to earlier models, recent studies show that MMP-9 plays a protective role in oral cancers. Therefore, the role of MMP-9 is complicated and may fluctuate throughout the different types and stages of oral cancers. PMID:23365550

  16. Dentin matrix degradation by host matrix metalloproteinases: inhibition and clinical perspectives toward regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chaussain, Catherine; Boukpessi, Tchilalo; Khaddam, Mayssam; Tjaderhane, Leo; George, Anne; Menashi, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial enzymes have long been considered solely accountable for the degradation of the dentin matrix during the carious process. However, the emerging literature suggests that host-derived enzymes, and in particular the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contained in dentin and saliva can play a major role in this process by their ability to degrade the dentin matrix from within. These findings are important since they open new therapeutic options for caries prevention and treatment. The possibility of using MMP inhibitors to interfere with dentin caries progression is discussed. Furthermore, the potential release of bioactive peptides by the enzymatic cleavage of dentin matrix proteins by MMPs during the carious process is discussed. These peptides, once identified, may constitute promising therapeutical tools for tooth and bone regeneration. PMID:24198787

  17. Adult Vascular Wall Resident Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells, Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Arterial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Bruno; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Maurizio; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; Rossi, Alessio; Naso, Agostino; Ruggiero, Michele; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Evidences have shown the presence of multipotent stem cells (SCs) at sites of arterial aneurysms: they can differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and are activated after residing in a quiescent state in the vascular wall. Recent studies have implicated the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of arterial aneurysms: in fact the increased synthesis of MMPs by arterial SMCs is thought to be a pivotal mechanism in aneurysm formation. The factors and signaling pathways involved in regulating wall resident SC recruitment, survival, proliferation, growth factor production, and differentiation may be also related to selective expression of different MMPs. This review explores the relationship between adult vascular wall resident multipotent vascular SCs, MMPs, and arterial aneurysms. PMID:25866513

  18. miR-221/222 induces pancreatic cancer progression through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinhong; Li, Pei; Chen, Xin; Zong, Liang; Jiang, Zhengdong; Nan, Ligang; Lei, Jianjun; Duan, Wanxing; Zhang, Dong; Li, Xuqi; Sha, Huanchen; Wu, Zheng; Ma, Qingyong; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-10

    MicroRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we showed that miR-221/222 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. MiR-221/222 overexpression significantly promoted pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion while inhibiting apoptosis. The expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9 was increased in miR-221/222 mimic-transfected pancreatic cancer cells. Validation experiments identified TIMP-2 as a direct target of miR-221/222. These data indicate that overexpressed miR-221/222 may play an oncogenic role in pancreatic cancer by inducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, thus leading to cancer cell invasion.

  19. Synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in dogs suffering from joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kohei; Maeda, Shingo; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fluids (SF) sampled from dogs with joint disorders was investigated by gelatin zymography and densitometry. Pro-MMP-2 showed similar activity levels in dogs with idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA; n=17) or canine rheumatoid arthritis (cRA; n=4), and healthy controls (n=10). However, dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR; n=5) presented significantly higher pro-MMP-2 activity than IPA and healthy dogs. Meanwhile, dogs with IPA exhibited significantly higher activity of pro- and active MMP-9 than other groups. Activity levels in pro- and active MMP-9 in cRA and CCLR dogs were not significantly different from those in healthy controls. Different patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity may reflect the differences in the underlying pathological processes.

  20. The 70 kDa heat shock protein suppresses matrix metalloproteinases in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Yeun Jung; Kim, Jong Youl; Lee, Won Taek; Yenari, Midori A; Giffard, Rona G

    2004-03-01

    The 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) is synthesized in response to a variety of stresses, including ischemia, and is thought to act as a molecular chaperone to prevent protein denaturation and facilitate protein folding. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of serine proteases, are also upregulated by ischemia and are thought to promote cell death and tissue injury. We examined the influence of Hsp70 on expression and activity of MMPs. Astrocyte cultures were prepared from neonatal mice and transfected with retroviral vectors containing hsp70 or lacZ or mock infected, then exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion. Zymograms and Western blots showed that Hsp70 over-expression suppressed MMP-2 and MMP-9. These findings suggest that Hsp70 may protect by regulating MMPs.

  1. Amino Acid Derivatives as New Zinc Binding Groups for the Design of Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Agamennone, Mariangela; Rossello, Armando; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel; Novellino, Ettore; Campiglia, Pietro; Vernieri, Ermelinda; Bertamino, Alessia; Carotenuto, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    A number of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important medicinal targets for conditions ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to cardiomyopathy, periodontal disease, liver cirrhosis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer invasion and metastasis, where they showed to have a dual role, inhibiting or promoting important processes involved in the pathology. MMPs contain a zinc (II) ion in the protein active site. Small-molecule inhibitors of these metalloproteins are designed to bind directly to the active site metal ions. In an effort to devise new approaches to selective inhibitors, in this paper, we describe the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of amino acid derivatives as new zinc binding groups (ZBGs). The incorporation of selected metal-binding functions in more complex biphenyl sulfonamide moieties allowed the identification of one compound able to interact selectively with different MMP enzymatic isoforms. PMID:23555050

  2. ADAMTS-1 metalloproteinase promotes tumor development through the induction of a stromal reaction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rocks, Natacha; Paulissen, Geneviève; Quesada-Calvo, Florence; Munaut, Carine; Gonzalez, Maria-Luz Alvarez; Gueders, Maud; Hacha, Jonathan; Gilles, Christine; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Noel, Agnès; Cataldo, Didier D

    2008-11-15

    ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs), the first described member of the ADAMTS family, is differentially expressed in various tumors. However, its exact role in tumor development and progression is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ADAMTS-1 transfection in a bronchial epithelial tumor cell line (BZR) and its potential to modulate tumor development. ADAMTS-1 overexpression did not affect in vitro cell properties such as (a) proliferation in two-dimensional culture, (b) proliferation in three-dimensional culture, (c) anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, (d) cell migration and invasion in modified Boyden chamber assay, (e) angiogenesis in the aortic ring assay, and (f) cell apoptosis. In contrast, ADAMTS-1 stable transfection in BZR cells accelerated the in vivo tumor growth after s.c. injection into severe combined immunodeficient mice. It also promoted a stromal reaction characterized by myofibroblast infiltration and excessive matrix deposition. These features are, however, not observed in tumors derived from cells overexpressing a catalytically inactive mutant of ADAMTS-1. Conditioned media from ADAMTS-1-overexpressing cells display a potent chemotactic activity toward fibroblasts. ADAMTS-1 overexpression in tumors was associated with increased production of matrix metalloproteinase-13, fibronectin, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Neutralizing antibodies against TGF-beta and IL-1beta blocked the chemotactic effect of medium conditioned by ADAMTS-1-expressing cells on fibroblasts, showing the contribution of these factors in ADAMTS-1-induced stromal reaction. In conclusion, we propose a new paradigm for catalytically active ADAMTS-1 contribution to tumor development, which consists of the recruitment of fibroblasts involved in tumor growth and tumor-associated stroma remodeling.

  3. Tomatidine inhibits invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549 by reducing matrix metalloproteinases expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun-Huang; Lee, Liang-Ming; Yan, Shao-Han; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hui-Ting; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2013-05-25

    Tomatidine is an aglycone of glycoalkaloid tomatine in tomato. Tomatidine is found to possess anti-inflammatory properties and may serve as a chemosensitizer in multidrug-resistant tumor cells. However, the effect of tomatidine on cancer cell metastasis remains unclear. This study examines the effect of tomatidine on the migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell in vitro. The data demonstrates that tomatidine does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of tomatidine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by Boyden chamber invasion assay, while cell migration is not affected. Tomatidine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The immunoblotting assays indicate that tomatidine is very effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK). In addition, tomatidine significantly decreases the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which suggests that tomatidine inhibits NF-κB activity. Furthermore, the treatment of inhibitors specific for PI3K/Akt (LY294002), ERK (U0126), or NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) to A549 cells reduced cell invasion and MMP-2/9 expression. The results suggest that tomatidine inhibits the invasion of A549 cells by reducing the expression of MMPs. It also inhibits ERK and Akt signaling pathways and NF-κB activity. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for tomatidine in anti-metastatic therapy.

  4. Roles of the cyclooxygenase 2 matrix metalloproteinase 1 pathway in brain metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kerui; Fukuda, Koji; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Yingyu; Sharma, Sambad; Liu, Yin; Chan, Michael D; Zhou, Xiaobo; Qasem, Shadi A; Pochampally, Radhika; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2015-04-10

    Brain is one of the major sites of metastasis in breast cancer; however, the pathological mechanism of brain metastasis is poorly understood. One of the critical rate-limiting steps of brain metastasis is the breaching of blood-brain barrier, which acts as a selective interface between the circulation and the central nervous system, and this process is considered to involve tumor-secreted proteinases. We analyzed clinical significance of 21 matrix metalloproteinases on brain metastasis-free survival of breast cancer followed by verification in brain metastatic cell lines and found that only matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is significantly correlated with brain metastasis. We have shown that MMP1 is highly expressed in brain metastatic cells and is capable of degrading Claudin and Occludin but not Zo-1, which are key components of blood-brain barrier. Knockdown of MMP1 in brain metastatic cells significantly suppressed their ability of brain metastasis in vivo, whereas ectopic expression of MMP1 significantly increased the brain metastatic ability of the cells that are not brain metastatic. We also found that COX2 was highly up-regulated in brain metastatic cells and that COX2-induced prostaglandins were directly able to promote the expression of MMP1 followed by augmenting brain metastasis. Furthermore, we found that COX2 and prostaglandin were able to activate astrocytes to release chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7), which in turn promoted self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells in the brain and that knockdown of COX2 significantly reduced the brain metastatic ability of tumor cells. Our results suggest the COX2-MMP1/CCL7 axis as a novel therapeutic target for brain metastasis.

  5. Expression of soluble and functional full-length human matrix metalloproteinase-2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Andrezza N.; Meschiari, Cesar A.; Stetler-Stevenson, William G.; Nonato, M. Cristina; Alves, Cleidson P.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Gerlach, Raquel F.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) substrates and understanding of its function remain difficult because up to date preparations containing minor amounts of other eukaryotic proteins that are co-purified with MMP-2 are still used. In this work, the expression of a soluble and functional full-length recombinant human MMP-2 (rhMMP-2) in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli is reported, and the purification of this metalloproteinase is described. Culture of this bacterium at 18 °C culminated in maintenance of the soluble and functional rhMMP-2 in the soluble fraction of the E. coli lysate and its purification by affinity with gelatin-sepharose yielded approximately 0.12 mg/L of medium. Western Blotting and zymographic analysis revealed that the most abundant form was the 72-kDa MMP-2, but some gelatinolytic bands corresponding to proteins with lower molecular weight were also detected. The obtained rhMMP-2 was demonstrated to be functional in a gelatinolytic fluorimetric assay, suggesting that the purified rhMMP-2 was correctly folded. The method described here involves fewer steps, is less expensive, and is less prone to contamination with other proteinases and MMP inhibitors as compared to expression of rhMMP-2 in eukaryotic tissue culture. This protocol will facilitate the use of the full-length rhMMP-2 expressed in bacteria and will certainly help researchers to acquire new knowledge about the substrates and biological activities of this important proteinase. PMID:22001844

  6. Efficient soluble expression of secreted matrix metalloproteinase 26 in Brevibacillus choshinensis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Tianyang; Liang, Weiguo; Ju, Ying; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhongyuan; Roycik, Mark D; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy; Yu, Dahai; Xiang, Hongyu; Fang, Xuexun

    2013-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 26 (MMP-26) is a novel member of the matrix metalloproteinase family with minimal domain constitution and unknown physiological function. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the enzyme also remains to be deciphered. Previous studies show that MMP-26 may be expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as inclusion bodies and re-natured with catalytic activity. However, the low re-naturation rate of this method limits its usage in structural studies. In this paper, we tried to clone, express and purify the pro form and catalytic form of MMP-26 (ProMMP-26 and CatMMP-26) in several widely used expression vectors and express the recombinant MMP-26 proteins in E. coli cells. These constructs resulted in insoluble expressions or soluble expressions of MMP-26 with little catalytic activity. We then used Brevibacillus choshinensis (B. choshinensis) as the host system for the soluble and active expression of MMP-26. The enzyme was secreted in soluble form in the supernatant of cell culture medium and purified via a two-step purification process that included Ni(2+) affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration. The yields of purified ProMMP-26 and CatMMP-26 were 12 and 18mg/L, respectively, with high purity and homogeneity. Both ProMMP-26 and CatMMP-26 showed gelatin zymography activity and the purified CatMMP-26 had high enzymatic activity against DQ-gelatin substrate. The large-scale soluble and active protein production for future structural studies of MMP-26 is thus feasible using the B. choshinensis host system.

  7. Effects of estradiol on reduction of osteoarthritis in rabbits through effect on matrix metalloproteinase proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiguo; Wang, Lin; Xu, Zhanwang; Yin, Yanxia; Su, Jun; Niu, Xiufeng; Cao, Xuecheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Osteoarthritis (OA), as a known degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. In this study, we aimed to elucidate unclear pathogenesis of OA. Materials and Methods: Rabbit models of OA were established by the transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: the experimental group (OA modeling, treated with estradiol), the control group (OA modeling, treated with normal saline) and the normal group (without OA modeling). The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hyaluronan (HA) content of knee joint were collected and assayed. In addition, gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Animal models were developed successfully. GAG and HA concentrations were significantly increased in the experimental and the normal group compared with the control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Significant increase of GAG level in 6, 9 and 12 week-samples were found in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The expression level of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in the experimental group were lower than the control group (P<0.01), but still higher than those of the normal group (P<0.01). TIMP-1 expression level was found to be higher in the experimental group than that of the control and normal group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results suggested the possible role of estradiol in the pathological process of OA via its effect on the MMPs. The results also implied the effect of estradiol intervention on OA. PMID:27114801

  8. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammasome pathway in molecular mechanisms of fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Sacha; Gicquel, Thomas; Victoni, Tatiana; Valença, Samuel; Barreto, Emiliano; Bailly-Maître, Béatrice; Boichot, Elisabeth; Lagente, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is a basic connective tissue lesion defined by the increase in the fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) components in tissue or organ. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a major group of proteases known to regulate the turn-over of ECM and so they are suggested to be important in tissue remodelling observed during fibrogenic process associated with chronic inflammation. Tissue remodelling is the result of an imbalance in the equilibrium of the normal processes of synthesis and degradation of ECM components markedly controlled by the MMPs/TIMP imbalance. We previously showed an association of the differences in collagen deposition in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice with a reduced molar pro-MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. Using the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) preclinical model of liver fibrosis in mice, we observed a significant increase in collagen deposition with increased expression and release of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 both at 24 h and 3 weeks later. This suggests an early altered regulation of matrix turnover involved in the development of fibrosis. We also demonstrated an activation of NLRP3-inflammasome pathway associated with the IL-1R/MyD88 signalling in the development of experimental fibrosis both in lung and liver. This was also associated with an increased expression of purinergic receptors mainly P2X7. Finally, these observations emphasize those effective therapies for these disorders must be given early in the natural history of the disease, prior to the development of tissue remodelling and fibrosis. PMID:27247426

  9. Sesame oil attenuates nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis by modulating matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 and PPAR-γ.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chang, Po-Cheng; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-03-01

    Sesame oil is a nutrient-rich antioxidant popular in alternative medicine. It contains sesamin, sesamol, and sesamolin, all of which contribute to its improved liver function in various animal model studies. However, its effect on nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitis is unclear. We investigated therapeutic sesame oil on matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9) in nutritional fibrosing steatohepatitic mice. C57BL/6 J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 35 days to induce fibrosing steatohepatitis. Sesame oil was treated from 29-35th day. Body weight, steatosis, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), MMP-2, 9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 were assessed after 35 days. All tested parameters except TIMP-1 and PPAR-γ were higher in MCD fed mice than in normal control mice. Mice fed with MCD diet for 4 weeks showed severe liver injury with steatosis, necrotic-inflammation, and fibrosis. In sesame-oil (4 ml)-treated mice, all tested parameters except TIMP-1, α-SMA, and PPAR-γ were significantly attenuated compared with MCD fed mice. Sesame oil inhibited MMP-2, 9 activities, but up-regulated TIMP-1 expression in MCD fed mice. In addition, a histological analysis of liver tissue samples showed that sesame oil provided significant protection against fibrosis. We conclude that therapeutic sesame oil protects against fibrosing steatohepatitis by inhibiting MMP-2, 9 activities, up-regulating TIMP-1 expression, and PPAR-γ.

  10. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Vein Structure and Function: Implications in Chronic Venous Disease.

    PubMed

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-12-01

    Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca(2+) signaling, and contraction. Increased lower-extremity hydrostatic venous pressure is thought to induce hypoxia-inducible factors and other MMP inducers/activators such as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, prostanoids, chymase, and hormones, leading to increased MMP expression/activity, ECM degradation, VSM relaxation, and venous dilation. Leukocyte infiltration and inflammation of the vein wall cause further increases in MMPs, vein wall dilation, valve degradation, and different clinical stages of chronic venous disease (CVD), including varicose veins (VVs). VVs are characterized by ECM imbalance, incompetent valves, venous reflux, wall dilation, and tortuosity. VVs often show increased MMP levels, but may show no change or decreased levels, depending on the VV region (atrophic regions with little ECM versus hypertrophic regions with abundant ECM) and MMP form (inactive pro-MMP versus active MMP). Management of VVs includes compression stockings, venotonics, and surgical obliteration or removal. Because these approaches do not treat the causes of VVs, alternative methods are being developed. In addition to endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed, and their effects in the treatment of VVs need to be examined.

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinases are required for membrane motility and lumenogenesis during Drosophila heart development

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Qanber S.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinases (Mmps) degrade glycoproteins and proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell surface and are crucial for morphogenesis. Mmps and their inhibitors are expressed during early stages of cardiac development in vertebrates and expression is altered in multiple congenital cardiomyopathies such as cardia bifida. Drosophila genome encodes two copies of Mmps, Mmp1 and Mmp2 whereas in humans up to 25 Mmps have been identified with overlapping functions. We investigated the role of Mmps during embryonic heart development in Drosophila, a process which is morphogenetically similar to early heart tube formation in vertebrates. We demonstrate that the two Mmps in Drosophila have distinct and overlapping roles in cell motility, cell adhesion and cardiac lumenogenesis. We determined that Mmp1 and Mmp2 promote Leading Edge membrane dynamics of cardioblasts during collective migration. Mmp2 is essential for cardiac lumen formation, and mutants generate a cardia bifida phenotype. Mmp1 is required for luminal expansion. Mmp1 and Mmp2 both localise to the basal domains of cardiac cells, however, occupy non-overlapping domains apically. Mmp1 and Mmp2 regulate the proteoglycan composition and size of the apical and basal ECM, yet only Mmp2 is required to restrict ECM assembly to the lumen. Mmp1 negatively regulates the size of the adhesive Cadherin cell surface domain, whereas in a complementary fashion, Mmp2 negatively regulates the size of the Integrin-ECM domain and thereby prescribes the domain to establish and restrict Slit morphogen signalling. Inhibition of Mmp activity through ectopic expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase in the ectoderm blocks lumen formation. Therefore, Mmp expression and function identifies ECM differentiation and remodelling as a key element for cell polarisation and organogenesis. PMID:28192468

  12. Effects of radioiodine administration on serum concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases, adiponectin and thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to assess safety of radioactive iodine administration in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, we measured concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), its main inhibitor – TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), its main inhibitor – TIMP-1, adiponectin, as well as pro-inflammatory and procancerogenic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Design and patients The study involved 23 patients treated with radioiodine for thyrotoxicosis. Serum concentrations of TSH, free T4, free T3, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, total adiponectin and TSP-1 were measured by immunoassays just before radioiodine administration (visit 1), and subsequently, after 7 days (visit 2), 3 months (visit 3), 6 to 8 months (visit 4) and 15–18 months after radioiodine administration (visit 5). Results There were no acute changes in serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, adiponectin and TSP-1 (visit 1 vs. 2). Subsequently, there was an increase in MMP-2 (from 393±106 ng/ml to 774±424 ng/ml), TIMP-1 (from 177±76 ng/ml to 296±118 ng/ml), and adiponectin (from 16442±9490 ng/ml to 23518±9840 ng/ml), visit 1 to 5, respectively (p < 0.01). Further analysis revealed no significant change in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, but there was a significant decrease in MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (p < 0.05), suggestive of possible decrease in free MMP-9 concentrations. Conclusions Our data reveal a significant and sustained increase in serum adiponectin, as well as possible decrease of free MMP-9 concentration after radioiodine administration. In contrast, there was no significant change of TSP-1. This might indicate overall safety of radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis in terms of the risks of subsequent cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. PMID:23919647

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition mitigates renovascular remodeling in salt-sensitive hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pushpakumar, Sathnur B; Kundu, Sourav; Metreveli, Naira; Tyagi, Suresh C; Sen, Utpal

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is the hallmark of hypertensive nephropathy. Uncontrolled proteolytic activity due to an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (MMPs/TIMPs) has been implicated in renovascular fibrosis. We hypothesized that inhibition of MMPs will reduce excess ECM deposition and modulate autophagy to attenuate hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl/SS) and Lewis rats were fed on high salt diet and treated without or with 1.2 mg/kg b.w. of GM6001 (MMP inhibitor) by intraperitoneal injection on alternate days for 4 weeks. Blood pressure (BP), renal cortical blood flow, vascular density, collagen, elastin, and MMPs/TIMPs were measured. GM6001 treatment significantly reduced mean BP in hypertensive Dahl/SS rats. Renal resistive index (RI) was increased in hypertensive Dahl/SS rats and Doppler flowmetry showed reduced cortical perfusion. Barium angiography demonstrated a reduction in terminal branches of renal vasculature. Inhibition of MMPs by GM6001 resulted in a significant improvement in all the parameters including renal function. In hypertensive Dahl/SS rats, protein levels of MMP-9, -2, and -13 were increased including the activity of MMP-9 and -2; TIMP-1 and -2 levels were increased whereas TIMP-3 levels were similar to Lewis controls. Administration of GM6001 reduced the activity of MMPs and increased the levels of TIMP-1, -2, and -3. MMP inhibition reduced type 1 collagen deposition and increased elastin in the intrarenal vessels indicating reduced fibrosis. Autophagy markers were decreased in hypertensive Dahl/SS rats and GM6001 treatment enhanced their levels. We conclude that MMP inhibition (GM6001) reduces adverse renovascular remodeling in hypertension by modulating ECM turnover and stimulating autophagy. PMID:24159376

  14. Collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in the ewe cervix during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Piñón, M; Tasende, C; Casuriaga, D; Bielli, A; Genovese, P; Garófalo, E G

    2015-09-15

    The cervical collagen remodeling during the estrous cycle of the ewe was examined. The collagen concentration determined by a hydroxyproline assay and the area occupied by collagen fibers (%C), determined by van Gieson staining, were assessed in the cranial and caudal cervix of Corriedale ewes on Days 1 (n = 6), 6 (n = 5), or 13 (n = 6) after estrous detection (defined as Day 0). In addition, the gelatinase activity by in situ and SDS-PAGE gelatin zymographies and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively) expression by immunohistochemistry were determined. The collagen concentration and %C were lowest on Day 1 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.04), when MMP-2 activity was highest (P < 0.006) and the ratio of activated to latent MMP-2 trend to be highest (P = 0.0819). The MMP-2 activity was detected in 73% of the homogenized cervical samples, and its expression was mainly detected in active fibroblasts. By contrast, the MMP-9 activity was detected in 9% of the samples, and its scarce expression was associated with plasmocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression was maximal on Day 1 in the cranial cervix and on Day 13 in the caudal cervix and was lower in the cranial than in the caudal cervix (P < 0.0001). This time-dependent increase in MMP-2 expression that differed between the cranial and caudal cervix may reflect their different physiological roles. The decrease in the collagen content and increase in fibroblast MMP-2 activity in sheep cervix on Day 1 of the estrous cycle suggests that cervical dilation at estrus is due to the occurrence of collagen fiber degradation modulated by changes in periovulatory hormone levels.

  15. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5) Forms Catalytically Active Oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Kosasih, Hansen J.; Last, Karena; Rogerson, Fraser M.; Golub, Suzanne B.; Gauci, Stephanie J.; Russo, Vincenzo C.; Stanton, Heather; Wilson, Richard; Lamande, Shireen R.; Holden, Paul; Fosang, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) degrades aggrecan, a proteoglycan essential for cartilage structure and function. ADAMTS-5 is the major aggrecanase in mouse cartilage, and is also likely to be the major aggrecanase in humans. ADAMTS-5 is a multidomain enzyme, but the function of the C-terminal ancillary domains is poorly understood. We show that mutant ADAMTS-5 lacking the catalytic domain, but with a full suite of ancillary domains inhibits wild type ADAMTS activity, in vitro and in vivo, in a dominant-negative manner. The data suggest that mutant ADAMTS-5 binds to wild type ADAMTS-5; thus we tested the hypothesis that ADAMTS-5 associates to form oligomers. Co-elution, competition, and in situ PLA experiments using full-length and truncated recombinant ADAMTS-5 confirmed that ADAMTS-5 molecules interact, and showed that the catalytic and disintegrin-like domains support these intermolecular interactions. Cross-linking experiments revealed that recombinant ADAMTS-5 formed large, reduction-sensitive oligomers with a nominal molecular mass of ∼400 kDa. The oligomers were unimolecular and proteolytically active. ADAMTS-5 truncates comprising the disintegrin and/or catalytic domains were able to competitively block full-length ADAMTS-5-mediated aggrecan cleavage, measured by production of the G1-EGE373 neoepitope. These results show that ADAMTS-5 oligomerization is required for full aggrecanase activity, and they provide evidence that blocking oligomerization inhibits ADAMTS-5 activity. The data identify the surface provided by the catalytic and disintegrin-like domains of ADAMTS-5 as a legitimate target for the design of aggrecanase inhibitors. PMID:26668318

  16. 92-kd type IV collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activity in human amniochorion increases with labor.

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, F.; González-Avila, G.; Furth, E. E.; Lei, H.; Muschel, R. J.; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.; Strauss, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether specific collagenolytic enzymes are expressed in human fetal membranes with labor, we examined gelatinase activity in extracts of amniochorion by zymography. The 92-kd gelatinase (MMP-9) was barely detectable in extracts of fetal membranes before the onset of labor but was readily demonstrable in extracts prepared from membranes isolated from laboring women or membranes collected immediately after delivery. In contrast, the 72-kd gelatinase (MMP-2) was detectable in extracts from pre- and post-labor membranes. Ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, inhibited the gelatinase activities detected by zymography, confirming that the enzymes are metalloproteinase. Assay of amniochorion gelatinase activity using a radiolabeled denatured collagen substrate revealed a more than twofold increase in activity comparing pre-labor with post-labor fetal membrane extracts. A function-blocking anti-MMP-9 monoclonal antibody inhibited pre-labor membrane gelatinase activity by approximately 11.5%, which was only slightly greater inhibition than observed with irrelevant monoclonal antibodies. However, post-labor membrane gelatinase activity was reduced by 53% by the function-blocking antibody, indicating that MMP-9 is a major contributor to the increased gelatinase activity extractable from post-labor membranes. Western blot analyses demonstrated increased MMP-9 protein in amniochorion extracts after onset of labor. MMP-9 protein and mRNA were co-localized in amnion epithelium, underlying macrophages and chorion laeve trophoblast and decidual cells after labor. We conclude that 1) MMP-9 activity and protein in human amniochorion increases with labor and 2) MMP-9 is expressed by amnion epithelium, macrophages and chorion laeve trophoblast and decidual cells. The increased expression of MMP-9 may result in degradation of the extracellular matrix of the fetal membranes and facilitate their rupture under both

  17. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 from hepatic stellate cells requires interactions with hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Théret, N.; Musso, O.; L'Helgoualc'h, A.; Clément, B.

    1997-01-01

    Activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, the 72-kd collagenase IV/gelatinase A, is involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. It has been suggested that a membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP-1) and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 are involved in MMP-2 processing, but the exact mechanism(s) of its activation remains unclear. We have investigated the role of cell-cell cooperation in the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the liver, using pure cultures and co-cultures of hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization showed that, in both pure and co-cultures, HSCs, but not hepatocytes, expressed MMP-2, TIMP-2, and MT-MMP-1 mRNA. Zymography analyses revealed the latent form of MMP-2 in medium from 2-day-old pure HSC cultures with higher amounts in medium from hepatocyte/HSC co-cultures. When hepatocytes were added to 10-day-old HSC cultures, the activated form of MMP-2 was detected, concomitantly with the deposition of an abundant extracellular matrix. Incubation of plasma membrane-enriched fractions from hepatocytes with conditioned medium from pure HSC cultures generated the activated species of MMP-2 (62 and 59 kd). Activation of pro-MMP-2 by hepatocyte membranes was inhibited by EDTA, heat, and trypsin but not by serine proteinase inhibitors. These data show that the co-expression of TIMP-2, MMP-2, and MT-MMP-1 by HSCs does not lead to secretion of the activated form of MMP-2. Hepatocytes, which do not express MMP-2, TIMP-2, or MT-MMP-1, induce MMP-2 activation through a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism(s), thus suggesting that cell-cell interactions are involved in this process in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9006321

  18. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Vein Structure and Function: Implications in Chronic Venous Disease

    PubMed Central

    MacColl, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca2+ signaling, and contraction. Increased lower-extremity hydrostatic venous pressure is thought to induce hypoxia-inducible factors and other MMP inducers/activators such as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, prostanoids, chymase, and hormones, leading to increased MMP expression/activity, ECM degradation, VSM relaxation, and venous dilation. Leukocyte infiltration and inflammation of the vein wall cause further increases in MMPs, vein wall dilation, valve degradation, and different clinical stages of chronic venous disease (CVD), including varicose veins (VVs). VVs are characterized by ECM imbalance, incompetent valves, venous reflux, wall dilation, and tortuosity. VVs often show increased MMP levels, but may show no change or decreased levels, depending on the VV region (atrophic regions with little ECM versus hypertrophic regions with abundant ECM) and MMP form (inactive pro-MMP versus active MMP). Management of VVs includes compression stockings, venotonics, and surgical obliteration or removal. Because these approaches do not treat the causes of VVs, alternative methods are being developed. In addition to endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed, and their effects in the treatment of VVs need to be examined. PMID

  19. Cloning and regulation of rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, T. F.; Burke, J. S.; Bergman, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    Rat tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) was cloned from a UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cDNA library. The 969-bp full-length clone demonstrates 98 and 86% sequence identity to human TIMP-2 at the amino acid and nucleic acid levels, respectively. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), at 10(-8) M, stimulates an approximately twofold increase in both the 4.2- and 1.0-kb transcripts over basal levels in UMR cells after 24 h of exposure. The PTH stimulation of TIMP-2 transcripts was not affected by the inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide (10(-5) M), suggesting a primary effect of the hormone. This is in contradistinction to regulation of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) by PTH in these same cells. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrate that PTH causes an increase in TIMP-2 transcription that parallels the increase in message levels. Parathyroid hormone, in its stimulation of TIMP-2 mRNA, appears to act through a signal transduction pathway involving protein kinase A (PKA) since the increase in TIMP-2 mRNA is reproduced by treatment with the cAMP analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (5 x 10(-3) M). The protein kinase C and calcium pathways do not appear to be involved due to the lack of effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (2.6 x 10(-6) M) and the calcium ionophore, ionomycin (10(-7) M), on TIMP-2 transcript abundance. In this respect, regulation of TIMP-2 and collagenase in osteoblastic cells by PTH are similar. However, we conclude that since stimulation of TIMP-2 transcription is a primary event, the PKA pathway must be responsible for a direct increase in transcription of this gene.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide mitigates matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neurovascular permeability in hyperhomocysteinemic mice.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Neetu; Givvimani, Srikanth; Qipshidze, Natia; Kundu, Soumi; Kapoor, Shray; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2010-01-01

    An elevated level of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), was associated with neurovascular diseases. At physiological levels, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) protected the neurovascular system. Because Hcy was also a precursor of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), we sought to test whether the H(2)S protected the brain during HHcy. Cystathionine-beta-synthase heterozygous (CBS+/-) and wild type (WT) mice were supplemented with or without NaHS (30 microM/L, H(2)S donor) in drinking water. Blood flow and cerebral microvascular permeability in pial vessels were measured by intravital microscopy in WT, WT+NaHS, CBS-/+ and (CBS-/+)+NaHS-treated mice. The brain tissues were analyzed for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) by Western blot and RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of CBS and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE, enzyme responsible for conversion of Hcy to H(2)S) genes were measured by RT-PCR. The results showed a significant increase in MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-3 protein and mRNA in CBS (-/+) mice, while H(2)S treatment mitigated this increase. Interstitial localization of MMPs was also apparent through immunohistochemistry. A decrease in protein and mRNA expression of TIMP-4 was observed in CBS (-/+) mice. Microscopy data revealed increase in permeability in CBS (-/+) mice. These effects were ameliorated by H(2)S and suggested that physiological levels of H(2)S supplementation may have therapeutic potential against HHcy-induced microvascular permeability, in part, by normalizing the MMP/TIMP ratio in the brain.

  1. Proanthocyanidins from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in human prostate cancer cells via alterations in multiple cellular signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Déziel, Bob A; Patel, Kunal; Neto, Catherine; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Hurta, Robert A R

    2010-10-15

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, and it is believed that an individual's diet affects his risk of developing cancer. There has been an interest in examining phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants, in order to determine their potential anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study we document the effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs) from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Cranberry PACs decreased cellular viability of DU145 cells at a concentration of 25 µg/ml by 30% after 6 h of treatment. Treatment of DU145 cells with PACs resulted in an inhibition of both MMPs 2 and 9 activity. PACs increased the expression of TIMP-2, a known inhibitor of MMP activity, and decreased the expression of EMMPRIN, an inducer of MMP expression. PACs decreased the expression of PI-3 kinase and AKT proteins, and increased the phosphorylation of both p38 and ERK1/2. Cranberry PACs also decreased the translocation of the NF-κB p65 protein to the nucleus. Cranberry PACs increased c-jun and decreased c-fos protein levels. These results suggest that cranberry PACs decreases MMP activity through the induction and/or inhibition of specific temporal MMP regulators, and by affecting either the phosphorylation status and/or expression of MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, NF-κB and AP-1 pathway proteins. This study further demonstrates that cranberry PACs are a strong candidate for further research as novel anti-cancer agents.

  2. The levels of trypsinogen isoenzymes in ovarian tumour cyst fluids are associated with promatrix metalloproteinase-9 but not promatrix metalloproteinase-2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Paju, A; Sorsa, T; Tervahartiala, T; Koivunen, E; Haglund, C; Leminen, A; Wahlström, T; Salo, T; Stenman, U-H

    2001-01-01

    Proteolysis mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteinases is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. Activation of latent proMMPs, and especially the proforms of the type IV collagen degrading gelatinases A and B (proMMP-2 and proMMP-9), is thought to be a critical step in this process. We have recently found that human tumour-associated trypsin-2 is a potent activator of proMMP-9 and it also activates proMMP-2 in vitro. Trypsinogen, MMP-2, and MMP-9 are expressed in ovarian cancer. To elucidate the function of trypsin in vivo, we studied whether high concentrations of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, their α1-proteinase inhibitor (API) complexes, and tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) are associated with proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activation in ovarian tumour cyst fluids. Zymography and immunofluorometric analysis of 61 cyst fluids showed a significant association between high trypsin concentrations and the activation of MMP-9 (P= 0.003–0.05). In contrast, the trypsin concentrations were inversely associated with the activation of MMP-2 (P= 0.01–0.02). Immunohistochemical analysis of ovarian tumour tissue demonstrated expression of trypsinogen-2 and TATI in the secretory epithelium. MMP-2 was detected both in stromal and epithelial cells whereas MMP-9 was detected in neutrophils and macrophage-like cells in stromal and epithelial areas. These results suggest that trypsin may play a role in the regulation of the MMP-dependent proteolysis associated with invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign www.bjcancer.com PMID:11355948

  3. Thermodynamic Basis of Selectivity in the Interactions of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases N-domains with Matrix Metalloproteinases-1, -3, and -14.

    PubMed

    Zou, Haiyin; Wu, Ying; Brew, Keith

    2016-05-20

    The four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are potent inhibitors of the many matrixins (MMPs), except that TIMP1 weakly inhibits some MMPs, including MMP14. The broad-spectrum inhibition of MMPs by TIMPs and their N-domains (NTIMPs) is consistent with the previous isothermal titration calorimetric finding that their interactions are entropy-driven but differ in contributions from solvent and conformational entropy (ΔSsolv, ΔSconf), estimated using heat capacity changes (ΔCp). Selective engineered NTIMPs have potential applications for treating MMP-related diseases, including cancer and cardiomyopathy. Here we report isothermal titration calorimetric studies of the effects of selectivity-modifying mutations in NTIMP1 and NTIMP2 on the thermodynamics of their interactions with MMP1, MMP3, and MMP14. The weak inhibition of MMP14 by NTIMP1 reflects a large conformational entropy penalty for binding. The T98L mutation, peripheral to the NTIMP1 reactive site, enhances binding by increasing ΔSsolv but also reduces ΔSconf However, the same mutation increases NTIMP1 binding to MMP3 in an interaction that has an unusual positive ΔCp This indicates a decrease in solvent entropy compensated by increased conformational entropy, possibly reflecting interactions involving alternative conformers. The NTIMP2 mutant, S2D/S4A is a selective MMP1 inhibitor through electrostatic effects of a unique MMP-1 arginine. Asp-2 increases reactive site polarity, reducing ΔCp, but increases conformational entropy to maintain strong binding to MMP1. There is a strong negative correlation between ΔSsolv and ΔSconf for all characterized interactions, but the data for each MMP have characteristic ranges, reflecting intrinsic differences in the structures and dynamics of their free and inhibitor-bound forms.

  4. Impact of metronidazole and amoxicillin combination on matrix metalloproteinases-1 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases balance in generalized aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Cifcibasi, Emine; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Badur, Selim; Issever, Halim; Cintan, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a complex periodontal disease affecting the entire dentition with a rapid destruction of the periodontium and resulting in loss of teeth. We hypothesized that better clinical healing of adjunctive use of amoxicillin plus metronidazole combination may be related to the effect of this combination therapy to restore imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) which is associated with connective tissue and alveolar bone destruction in patients with GAgP. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects diagnosed with GAgP were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned to test or control groups. MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio was compared between groups receiving scaling and root planning (SRP) alone (control) or in combination with amoxicillin plus metronidazole (test). Clinical periodontal variables were measured. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained and analyzed for MMP-1 and TIMP-1. Measurements were taken at baseline and repeated at 3 and 6 months after therapy. Results: Total MMP-1 levels were significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0.05) at 3 and 6 months. MMP-1 concentration levels showed a similar pattern to MMP-1 total levels decreasing significantly at 3 months (P < 0.05). TIMP-1 concentration levels increased in the test group throughout the study period, while the difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). TIMP-1/MMP-1 balance was restored in test group at 6 months significantly better than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that metronidazole and amoxicillin combination as an adjunct to SRP results in better clinical healing through restoring TIMP-1/MMP-1 balance. PMID:25713485

  5. Gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in rat brain after implantation of 9L rat glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J X; Yang, L P; Wang, Y F; Qin, L P; Liu, D Q; Bai, C X; Nan, X; Shi, S S; Pei, X J

    2007-05-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have come to be highlighted by their close relation to the cell invasion of gliomas. The inhibitors of MMPs have undergone extensive development because of its effectiveness against tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Therefore, a suitable animal model is necessary for searching new MMPs inhibitors against gliomas. In this study, we established an experimental model by implanting 9L glioma cells stereotactically into Fisher344 (F344) rat's brain, and the expression and enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in 9L glioma cells and in tumor tissue was determined by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) zymography, in situ film zymography and immunostaining. The results of RT-PCR showed that the mRNA level of MMP-2 in 9L glioma cells was higher than that of MMP-9, and the mRNA expression of MMP-9 was increased along with the growth of malignant gliomas. SDS-PAGE zymography revealed that the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly increased in tumor tissues, and the MMP-9 wasn't detected in normal tissue. The positive stain of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was enhanced with the growth of malignant gliomas, especially for MMP-9. The expression of active gelatinase was found in tumor tissue. In conclusion, the expression of active MMP-2 and MMP-9 was increased in 9L/F344 rat brain during the growth of malignant gliomas at different time intervals, which indicate that 9L/F344 animal model may be a prospective animal model to test new MMPs inhibitors.

  6. Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Evaluation of Remodeling Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts Implanted in a Growing Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Mitchel R.; Naito, Yuji; Maxfield, Mark W.; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Tara, Shuhei; Chan, Chung; Rocco, Kevin A.; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Sinusas, Albert J.; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) The clinical translation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts has been demonstrated in children. The remodeling of biodegradable, cell-seeded scaffolds to functional neovessels is partially attributed to matrix metalloproteinases. Noninvasive assessment of matrix metalloproteinase activity may indicate graft remodeling and elucidate the progression of neovessel formation. Therefore, matrix metalloproteinase activity was evaluated in grafts implanted in lambs using in vivo and ex vivo hybrid imaging. Graft growth and remodeling was quantified using in vivo X-ray computed tomography angiography. Methods Cell-seeded and unseeded scaffolds were implanted in lambs (n=5) as inferior vena cava interposition grafts. At 2 and 6 months post-implantation, in vivo angiography assessed graft morphology. In vivo and ex vivo single photon emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging was performed with a radiolabeled compound targeting matrix metalloproteinase activity at 6 months. Neotissue was examined at 6 months using qualitative histologic and immunohistochemical staining and quantitative biochemical analysis. Results Seeded grafts demonstrated significant luminal and longitudinal growth from 2 to 6 months. In vivo imaging revealed subjectively higher matrix metalloproteinase activity in grafts vs. native tissue. Ex vivo imaging confirmed a quantitative increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity and demonstrated higher activity in unseeded vs. seeded grafts. Glycosaminoglycan content was increased in seeded grafts vs. unseeded grafts, without significant differences in collagen content. Conclusions Matrix metalloproteinase activity remains elevated in tissue-engineered grafts 6 months post-implantation and may indicate remodeling. Optimization of in vivo imaging to noninvasively evaluate matrix metalloproteinase activity may assist in serial assessment of vascular graft remodeling. PMID:24952823

  7. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced replication by clinical Mycobacterium avium isolates.

    PubMed

    Dezzutti, C S; Swords, W E; Guenthner, P C; Sasso, D R; Wahl, L M; Drummond, A H; Newman, G W; King, C H; Quinn, F D; Lal, R B

    1999-10-01

    The role of Mycobacterium avium isolates in modulating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication was examined by use of an in vitro, resting T cell system. Two human clinical isolates (serotypes 1 and 4) but not an environmental M. avium isolate (serotype 2) enhanced HIV-1 replication. The M. avium-induced HIV-1 replication was not associated with cell activation or differential cytokine production or utilization. Addition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors and their in vivo regulators, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 and -2, abrogated M. avium-induced HIV-1 replication 80%-95%. The MMP inhibitors did not have any effect on the HIV-1 protease activity, suggesting that they may affect cellular processes. Furthermore, MMP-9 protein was differentially expressed after infection with clinical M. avium isolates and paralleled HIV-1 p24 production. Collectively, these data suggest that M. avium-induced HIV-1 replication is mediated, in part, through the induction of MMP-9.

  8. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as a biomarker for monitoring disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, V D; van Putten, M; Chaouch, A; Garrood, P; Straub, V; Lochmüller, H; Ginjaar, H B; Aartsma-Rus, A M; van Ommen, G J B; den Dunnen, J T; 't Hoen, P A C

    2011-08-01

    To identify serum biomarkers that allow monitoring of disease progression and treatment effects in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and osteopontin (OPN) were determined in 63 DMD patients on corticosteroid therapy. These proteins were selected for their role in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in sera of DMD patients compared to healthy controls, whereas the OPN levels showed no significant difference. MMP-9 levels were also observed to be significantly higher in older, nonambulant patients, compared to ambulant patients. Longitudinal data from a smaller cohort of DMD patients followed up for over 4years showed that MMP-9, but not TIMP-1 increased significantly with age. Hence, MMP-9 is a potential DMD biomarker for disease progression. Future studies have to confirm whether serum MMP-9 levels can be used to monitor therapeutic response.

  9. Simple and sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence peptide-based biosensor for detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 released from living cells.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qian; Gao, Hongfang; Li, Zhejian; Qi, Honglan; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2016-10-01

    A simple and sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensor was developed to monitor matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) by employing a specific peptide (CGPLGVRGK) as a molecular recognition substrate. Bis(2,2'-bipyridine)-4'-methyl-4-carboxybipyridine-ruthenium N-succinimidyl ester-bis(hexafluorophosphate) (Ru(bpy)2(mcbpy-O-Su-ester)(PF6)2 (Ru1) was used as ECL-emitting species and covalently labeled onto the peptide through NH2-containing lysine on the peptide via acylation reaction to form Ru1-peptide as an ECL probe. An ECL peptide-based biosensor was fabricated by self-assembling the ECL probe onto the surface of gold electrode. MMP-2 can specifically cleave the Ru1-peptide on the electrode surface, which led the partly Ru1-peptide to leave the electrode surface and resulted in the decrease of the ECL intensity obtained from the resulted electrode in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) containing tri-n-propylamine. The decreased ECL intensity was piecewise linear to the concentration of MMP-2 in the range from 1 to 500 ng/mL. Moreover, the ECL biosensor is successfully applied to detection of MMP-2 secreted by living cell, such as HeLa cells. Additionally, the biosensor was also applied to the evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. The strategy presented here is promising for other disease-related matrix metalloproteinase assay and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor profiling with sensitivity and simplicity. Graphical Abstract Detection of MMP-2 released from living cells by ECL peptide-based biosensor.

  10. The matrix metalloproteinase gene GmMMP2 is activated in response to pathogenic infections in soybean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Dammann, C; Bhattacharyya, M K

    2001-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in host defense responses against pathogens in mammals where their activities lead to the production of antimicrobial peptides. We have identified a novel soybean (Glycine max) metalloproteinase gene, GmMMP2, that is transcriptionally up-regulated in infected tissues. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that this gene belongs to the MMP family. It is a preproprotein containing an N-terminal signal peptide, a cysteine switch, a zinc-binding catalytic motif, and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. The GmMMP2 expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited an in vitro enzymatic activity in digesting myelin basic protein. All plant metalloproteinases reported so far have no known functions. However, they have been suggested to be involved in extracellular cell matrix degradation during development or senescence. Our investigations demonstrate that the GmMMP2 transcript levels were rapidly increased in compatible and incompatible interactions of soybean tissues with the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae or the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. In agreement with the GmMMP2 activation, a metalloproteinase activity was gradually increased in suspension-cultured cells following the bacterial infection. GmMMP2 was also activated in response to wounding and dehydration. However, GmMMP2 activation did not correlate with the oxidative burst leading to the hypersensitive response cell death or the tissue senescence progress that involves programmed cell death. Our investigations suggest that GmMMP2 may be involved in a novel defense response of soybean against pathogenic infections.

  11. HPV16 Oncoproteins Induce MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 Imbalance in Primary Keratinocytes: Possible Implications in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardeal, Laura Beatriz da Silva; Boccardo, Enrique; Termini, Lara; Rabachini, Tatiana; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; di Loreto, Celso; Filho, Adhemar Longatto; Villa, Luisa Lina; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, principally HPV16 and 18 is the main risk factor for the development of this malignancy. However, the onset of invasive tumor occurs many years after initial exposure in a minority of infected women. This suggests that other factors beyond viral infection are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Tumor progression is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells themselves or tumor-associated fibroblasts or macrophages. Increased MMPs expression, including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, has been observed during cervical carcinoma progression. These proteins have been associated with degradation of ECM components, tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the interplay between HPV infection and the expression and activity of MMPs and their regulators in cervical cancer. We analyzed the effect of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression and activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK in cultures of human keratinocytes. We observed that E7 expression is associated with increased pro-MMP-9 activity in the epithelial component of organotypic cultures, while E6 and E7 oncoproteins co-expression down-regulates RECK and TIMP-2 levels in organotypic and monolayers cultures. Finally, a study conducted in human cervical tissues showed a decrease in RECK expression levels in precancer and cancer lesions. Our results indicate that HPV oncoproteins promote MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance which may be involved in HPV-associated lesions outcome. PMID:22438955

  12. Peptide substrate specificities and protein cleavage sites of human endometase/matrilysin-2/matrix metalloproteinase-26.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun I; Turk, Benjamin E; Gerkema, Ferry E; Cantley, Lewis C; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2002-09-20

    Human endometase/matrilysin-2/matrix metalloproteinase-26 (MMP-26) is a novel epithelial and cancer-specific metalloproteinase. Peptide libraries were used to profile the substrate specificity of MMP-26 from the P4-P4' sites. The optimal cleavage motifs for MMP-26 were Lys-Pro-Ile/Leu-Ser(P1)-Leu/Met(P1')-Ile/Thr-Ser/Ala-Ser. The strongest preference was observed at the P1' and P2 sites where hydrophobic residues were favored. Proline was preferred at P3, and Serine was preferred at P1. The overall specificity was similar to that of other MMPs with the exception that more flexibility was observed at P1, P2', and P3'. Accordingly, synthetic inhibitors of gelatinases and collagenases inhibited MMP-26 with similar efficacy. A pair of stereoisomers had only a 40-fold difference in K(i)(app) values against MMP-26 compared with a 250-fold difference against neutrophil collagenase, indicating that MMP-26 is less stereoselective for its inhibitors. MMP-26 autodigested itself during the folding process. Two of the major autolytic sites were Leu(49)-Thr(50) and Ala(75)-Leu(76), which still left the cysteine switch sequence (PHC(82)GVPD) intact. This suggests that Cys(82) may not play a role in the latency of the zymogen. Interestingly, inhibitor titration studies revealed that only approximately 5% of the total MMP-26 molecules was catalytically active, indicating that the thiol groups of Cys(82) in the active molecules may be dissociated or removed from the active site zinc ions. MMP-26 cleaved Phe(352)-Leu(353) and Pro(357)-Met(358) in the reactive loop of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor and His(140)-Val(141) in insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1, probably rendering these substrates inactive. Among the fluorescent peptide substrates analyzed, Mca-Pro-Leu-Ala-Nva-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH(2) displayed the highest specificity constant (30,000/molar second) with MMP-26. This report proposes a working model for the future studies of pro-MMP-26 activation, the design of inhibitors

  13. Overexpression of cathepsin f, matrix metalloproteinases 11 and 12 in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Pina-Sanchez, Patricia; Vazquez, Karla; Duenas, Alfonso; Taja, Lucia; Mendoza, Patricia; Garcia, José A; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    Background Cervical carcinoma (CC) is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide and the first cause of death among the Mexican female population. CC progression shows a continuum of neoplastic transitions until invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsins play a central role on the enhancement of tumor-induced angiogenesis, cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and connective tissue degradation. MMPs -2 and -9 expression has been widely studied in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, no other metalloproteinases or cathepsins have been yet related with the progression and/or invasion of this type of cancer. Methods Three HPV18 CC cell lines, two HPV16 CC cell lines and three HPV16 tumor CC tissues were compared with three morphologically normal, HPV negative, cervical specimens by cDNA arrays. Overexpression of selected genes was confirmed by end point semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR with densitometry. In situ hybridization and protein expression of selected genes was further studied by means of two tissue microarrays, one consisting of 10 HSIL and 15 CC and the other one of 15 normal cervical and 10 LSIL tissues. Results TIMP1, Integrins alpha 1 and 4, cadherin 2 and 11, Cathepsins F, B L2, MMP 9, 10 11 and 12 were upregulated and Cathepsin S, L, H and C, Cadherins 3 and 4, TIMP3, MMP 13, Elastase 2 and Integrin beta 8 were found to be downregulated by cDNA arrays. Endpoint RT-PCR with densitometry gave consistent results with the cDNA array findings for all three genes selected for study (CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12). In situ hybridization of all three genes confirmed overexpression in all the HSIL and CC. Two of the selected proteins were detected in LSIL, HSIL and CC by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion Novel undetected CC promoting genes have been identified. Increased transcription of these genes may result in overexpression of proteins, such as CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12 which could contribute to the pathogenesis of CC. PMID:15989693

  14. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  15. Chronic mild stress influences nerve growth factor through a matrix metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Anna; Detka, Jan; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Papp, Mariusz; Tota, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lason, Wladyslaw; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-04-01

    Stress is generally a beneficial experience that motivates an organism to action to overcome the stressful challenge. In particular situations, when stress becomes chronic might be harmful and devastating. The hypothalamus is a critical coordinator of stress and the metabolic response; therefore, disruptions in this structure may be a significant cause of the hormonal and metabolic disturbances observed in depression. Chronic stress induces adverse changes in the morphology of neural cells that are often associated with a deficiency of neurotrophic factors (NTFs); additionally, many studies indicate that insufficient NTF synthesis may participate in the pathogenesis of depression. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of the nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hypothalamus of male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS) or to prenatal stress (PS) and to PS in combination with an acute stress event (AS). It has been found that chronic mild stress, but not prenatal stress, acute stress or a combination of PS with AS, decreased the concentration of the mature form of NGF (m-NGF) in the rat hypothalamus. A discrepancy between an increase in the Ngf mRNA and a decrease in the m-NGF levels suggested that chronic mild stress inhibited NGF maturation or enhanced the degradation of this factor. We have shown that NGF degradation in the hypothalamus of rats subjected to chronic mild stress is matrix metalloproteinase-dependent and related to an increase in the active forms of some metalloproteinases (MMP), including MMP2, MMP3, MMP9 and MMP13, while the NGF maturation process does not seem to be changed. We suggested that activated MMP2 and MMP9 potently cleave the mature but not the pro- form of NGF into biologically inactive products, which is the reason for m-NGF decomposition. In turn, the enhanced expression of Ngf in the hypothalamus of these rats is an attempt to overcome the reduced levels of m-NGF. Additionally, the decreased level of m

  16. Vitamin D Inhibits Expression and Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Lung Fibroblasts (HFL-1) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seo Hwa; Baek, Moon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sik; Park, Jong Seol; Yoon, Byoung Wook; Oh, Byoung Su; Park, Jinkyeong

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of serum vitamin D is associated with several lung diseases. The production and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. The aim of the current study therefore is to investigate if vitamin D modulates the expression and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) cells. Methods HFL-1 cells were cast into three-dimensional collagen gels and stimulated with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the presence or absence of 100 nM 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) for 48 hours. Trypsin was then added into the culture medium in order to activate MMPs. To investigate the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, gelatin zymography was performed. The expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of MMP-9 mRNA and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 mRNA was quantified by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results IL-1β significantly stimulated MMP-9 production and mRNA expression. Trypsin converted latent MMP-2 and MMP-9 into their active forms of MMP-2 (66 kDa) and MMP-9 (82 kDa) within 24 hours. This conversion was significantly inhibited by 25(OH)D (100 nM) and 1,25(OH)2D (100 nM). The expression of MMP-9 mRNA was also significantly inhibited by 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D. Conclusion Vitamin D, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D play a role in regulating human lung fibroblast functions in wound repair and tissue remodeling through not only inhibiting IL-1β stimulated MMP-9 production and conversion to its active form but also inhibiting IL-1β inhibition on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 production. PMID:25237378

  17. Expression and prognostic impact of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Hermansen, Simon K.; Kristensen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    Astrocytomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors in adults, and despite aggressive treatment patients often experience recurrence. Survival decreases with increasing tumor grade, and especially patients with grade IV glioblastoma have poor prognosis due to the aggressive character of this tumor. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an extracellular matrix degrading enzyme which has been shown to play important roles in different cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic potential of MMP-2 in astrocytomas. Tissue samples from 89 patients diagnosed with diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma were stained immunohistochemically using a monoclonal MMP-2 antibody. The MMP-2 intensity in cytoplasm/membrane was quantified by a trained software-based classifier using systematic random sampling in 10% of the tumor area. We found MMP-2 expression in tumor cells and blood vessels. Measurements of MMP-2 intensity increased with tumor grade, and MMP-2 expression was found to be significantly higher in glioblastomas compared to normal brain tissue (p<0.001), diffuse astrocytomas (p<0.001) and anaplastic astrocytomas (p<0.05). MMP-2 expression was associated with shorter overall survival in patients with grade II-IV astrocytic tumors (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.03–2.48; p = 0.036). In glioblastoma, high MMP-2 was associated with poorer prognosis in patients who survived longer than 8.5 months independent of age and gender (HR 2.27; 95% CI 1.07–4.81; p = 0.033). We found a positive correlation between MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and combined MMP-2 and TIMP-1 had stronger prognostic value than MMP-2 alone also when adjusting for age and gender (HR 2.78; 95% CI 1.30–5.92; p = 0.008). These findings were validated in bioinformatics databases. In conclusion, this study indicates that MMP-2 is associated with aggressiveness in astrocytomas and may hold an unfavorable prognostic value in

  18. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 in colorectal cancer family-risk population screening

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Estévez, Olalla; Chiara, Loretta De; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier; Cubiella, Joaquín; Castro, Inés; Hernández, Vicent; Martínez-Zorzano, Vicenta Soledad

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is related to tumour development and progression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its utility as biomarker has been suggested. The aim of our study was to measure serum MMP-9 in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of CRC patients, and to analyse its diagnostic accuracy for the detection of advanced neoplasia (AN: advanced adenomas and CRC). Additionally, we compared its diagnostic capability with the most used non-invasive faecal immunochemical test (FIT). Serum MMP-9 was quantified by ELISA in 516 asymptomatic individuals that underwent a colonoscopy and a FIT. MMP-9 levels were significantly related to age and gender and therefore the concentration was corrected by these confounders. Corrected MMP-9 (cMMP-9) levels were higher in individuals with advanced adenomas (AA; p-value = 0.029) and AN (p-value = 0.056) compared to individuals with no neoplasia. Moreover, elevated cMMP-9 concentration was associated with more severe characteristics of adenomas (number of lesions, size and histology). Nevertheless, the diagnostic accuracy of cMMP-9 was considerably lower than that of FIT for identifying AA (22.64% vs. 47.17% sensitivity, 90% specificity) or AN (19.30% vs. 52.63% sensitivity, 90% specificity). According to our results, serum MMP-9 cannot be considered of utility for the diagnosis of AN in CRC family-risk population screening. PMID:26264519

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Epilepsy: The Role of Neuroinflammation in Seizure Development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is a proteolytic enzyme which is recently one of the more often studied biomarkers. Its possible use as a biomarker of neuronal damage in stroke, heart diseases, tumors, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy is being widely indicated. In epilepsy, MMP-9 is suggested to play a role in epileptic focus formation and in the stimulation of seizures. The increase of MMP-9 activity in the epileptic focus was observed both in animal models and in clinical studies. MMP-9 contributes to formation of epileptic focus, for example, by remodeling of synapses. Its proteolytic action on the elements of blood-brain barrier and activation of chemotactic processes facilitates accumulation of inflammatory cells and induces seizures. Also modification of glutamatergic transmission by MMP-9 is associated with seizures. In this review we will try to recapitulate the results of previous studies about MMP-9 in terms of its association with epilepsy. We will discuss the mechanisms of its actions and present the results revealed in animal models and clinical studies. We will also provide a comparison of the results of various studies on MMP-9 levels in the context of its possible use as a biomarker of the activity of epilepsy. PMID:28104930

  20. A new synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor reduces human mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Dale B.; Roycik, Mark D.; Jin, Yonghao; Schwartz, Martin A.; Lively, Ty J.; Zorio, Diego A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Development of adipose tissue requires the differentiation of less specialized cells, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), into adipocytes. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in the cell differentiation process, we conducted investigations to determine if a novel mercaptosulfonamide-based MMP inhibitor (MMPI), YHJ-7-52, could affect hMSC adipogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation. Enzyme inhibition assays, adipogenic differentiation experiments, and quantitative PCR methods were employed to characterize this inhibitor and determine its effect upon adipogenesis. YHJ-7-52 reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated cells by comparable amounts as a potent hydroxamate MMPI, GM6001. However, YHJ-7-82, a non-inhibitory structural analog of YHJ-7-52, in which the zinc-binding thiol group is replaced by a hydroxyl group, had no effect on adipogenesis. The two MMPIs (YHJ-7-52 and GM6001) were also as effective in reducing lipid accumulation in differentiated cells as T0070907, an antagonist of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), at a similar concentration. PPAR-gamma is a typical adipogenic marker and a key regulatory protein for the transition of preadiopocyte to adipocyte. Moreover, MMP inhibition was able to suppress lipid accumulation in cells co-treated with Troglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist. Our results indicate that MMP inhibitors may be used as molecular tools for adipogenesis and obesity treatment research. PMID:28234995

  1. Exploring the subtleties of drug-receptor interactions: the case of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Ivano; Calderone, Vito; Fragai, Marco; Giachetti, Andrea; Loconte, Mauro; Luchinat, Claudio; Maletta, Massimiliano; Nativi, Cristina; Yeo, Kwon Joo

    2007-03-07

    By solving high-resolution crystal structures of a large number (14 in this case) of adducts of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) with strong, nanomolar, inhibitors all derived from a single ligand scaffold, it is shown that the energetics of the ligand-protein interactions can be accounted for directly from the structures to a level of detail that allows us to rationalize for the differential binding affinity between pairs of closely related ligands. In each case, variations in binding affinities can be traced back to slight improvements or worsening of specific interactions with the protein of one or more ligand atoms. Isothermal calorimetry measurements show that the binding of this class of MMP inhibitors is largely enthalpy driven, but a favorable entropic contribution is always present. The binding enthalpy of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), the prototype zinc-binding group in MMP drug discovery, has been also accurately measured. In principle, this research permits the planning of either improved inhibitors, or inhibitors with improved selectivity for one or another MMP. The present analysis is applicable to any drug target for which structural information on adducts with a series of homologous ligands can be obtained, while structural information obtained from in silico docking is probably not accurate enough for this type of study.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and biodegradable polymers in the engineering of a vascular construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hak-Joon

    The role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and processing conditions of biodegradable polymer scaffolds has been investigated to optimize engineering vascular constructs. For a small diameter vascular construct, uniform 10 mum thickness of highly porous scaffolds were developed using a computer-controlled knife coater and exploiting phase transition properties of salts. The comparative study of fast vs. slow degrading three-dimensional scaffolds using a fast degrading poly D, L-lactic-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) and a slow degrading poly e-caprolactone (PCL) indicated that fast degradation negatively affects cell viability and migration into the scaffold in vitro and in vivo, which is likely due to the fast polymer degradation mediated acidification of the local environment. MMP-9 was crucial for collagen remodeling process by smooth muscle cells (SMC). MMP-9 deficiency dramatically decreased inflammatory cell invasion as well as capillary formation within the scaffolds implanted in vivo. This study reports that the angiogenic response developed within the scaffolds in vivo was related to the presence of inflammatory response. Combinatorial polymer libraries fabricated from blended PLGA and PCL and processed at gradient annealing temperatures were utilized to investigate polymeric interactions with SMC. Surface roughness was also found to correlate with SMC adhesion. SMC aggregation, proliferation, and protein production, were highest in regions that exhibited increased surface roughness, reduced hardness, and decreased crystallinity of the PCL-rich phases. This study revealed a previously unknown processing temperature and blending compositions for two well-known polymers, which optimized SMC interactions.

  3. A Role for the Inflammatory Mediators Cox-2 and Metalloproteinases in Cancer Stemness.

    PubMed

    Chimal-Ramírez, G K; Espinoza-Sánchez, N A; Fuentes-Pananá, E M

    2015-01-01

    In solid tumors, neoplastic cells are surrounded by a specific microenvironment that integrates the extracellular matrix, lymphatic and blood vessels, and mesenchymal and immune cells, which together are known as the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME governs many of the aggressive features of tumors, such as local invasion and metastasis. Additionally, new evidence indicates that the TME can trigger stem cell-like programs in cancer cells, forming cancer stem cells (CSC). Experimental and clinical studies suggest that CSCs are resistant to current common cancer therapies and are responsible for tumor recurrence. In this review, we will describe the TME by focusing on how matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induce stemness and sustain stem cell maintenance. This reprogramming toward a CSC phenotype may be critical in tumor cell responses to chemotherapy and relapse with more aggressive tumor clones. Therefore, therapeutic agents targeting MMPs and COX-2 in the tumor microenvironment may become important drugs to control the establishment of CSCs and in the overall prognosis of the disease.

  4. Interlukin-18 Is a Pivot Regulatory Factor on Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression and Brain Astrocytic Migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chien-Fang; Leung, Yuk-Man; Lai, Sheng-Wei; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Pei-Chun; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Lin, Chingju

    2016-11-01

    The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been shown to be elevated in some pathophysiological conditions and is involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix in astrocytes. In current study, the function of MMP-13 was further investigated. The conditioned medium (CM) collected from activated microglia increased interleukin (IL)-18 production and enhanced MMP-13 expression in astrocytes. Furthermore, treatment with recombinant IL-18 increased MMP-13 protein and mRNA levels in astrocytes. Recombinant IL-18 stimulation also increased the enzymatic activity of MMP-13 and the migratory activity of astrocytes, while administration of MMP-13 or pan-MMP inhibitors antagonized IL-18-induced migratory activity of astrocytes. In addition, administration of recombinant IL-18 to astrocytes led to the phosphorylation of JNK, Akt, or PKCδ, and treatment of astrocytes with JNK, PI3 kinase/Akt, or PKCδ inhibitors significantly decreased the IL-18-induced migratory activity. Taken together, the results suggest that IL-18-induced MMP-13 expression in astrocytes is regulated by JNK, PI3 kinase/Akt, and PKCδ signaling pathways. These findings also indicate that IL-18 is an important regulator leading to MMP-13 expression and cell migration in astrocytes.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is a distal-less 3 target-gene in placental trophoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Patricia A.; Xie, Jianjun; Li, Sha; Zhang, Xuesen; Coonrod, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that regulate extracellular matrix composition and contribute to cell migration. Microarray studies in mouse placenta suggested that MMP-9 transcript abundance was dependent on distal-less 3 (Dlx3), a placental-specific transcriptional regulator; however, it was not clear if this was a direct or indirect effect. Here we investigate mechanism(s) for Dlx3-dependent MMP-9 gene transcription and gelatinase activity in placental trophoblasts. Initial studies confirmed that MMP-9 activity was reduced in placental explants from Dlx3−/− mice and that murine MMP-9 promoter activity was induced by Dlx3 overexpression. Two binding sites within a murine MMP-9 promoter fragment bound Dlx3, and mutations in both elements reduced basal MMP-9-luciferase reporter activity and abolished regulation by Dlx3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies in JEG3 cells confirmed Dlx3 binding to the endogenous human MMP-9 promoter at three distinct sites and knockdown of human Dlx3 resulted in reduced endogenous MMP-9 transcripts and secreted activity. These studies provide novel evidence that Dlx3 is involved directly in the transcriptional regulation of mouse and human MMP-9 gene expression in placental trophoblasts. PMID:23657566

  6. Both Drosophila matrix metalloproteinases have released and membrane-tethered forms but have different substrates

    PubMed Central

    LaFever, Kimberly S.; Wang, Xiaoxi; Page-McCaw, Patrick; Bhave, Gautam; Page-McCaw, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular proteases that can cleave extracellular matrix and alter signaling pathways. They have been implicated in many disease states, but it has been difficult to understand the contribution of individual MMPs, as there are over 20 MMPs in vertebrates. The vertebrate MMPs have overlapping substrates, they exhibit genetic redundancy and compensation, and pharmacological inhibitors are non-specific. In contrast, there are only two MMP genes in Drosophila, DmMmp1 and DmMmp2, which makes Drosophila an attractive system to analyze the basis of MMP specificity. Previously, Drosophila MMPs have been categorized by their pericellular localization, as Mmp1 appeared to be secreted and Mmp2 appeared to be membrane-anchored, suggesting that protein localization was the critical distinction in this small MMP family. We report here that products of both genes are found at the cell surface and released into media. Additionally, we show that products of both genes contain GPI-anchors, and unexpectedly, that GPI-anchored MMPs promote cell adhesion when they are rendered inactive. Finally, by using new reagents and assays, we show that the two MMPs cleave different substrates, suggesting that this is the important distinction within this smallest MMP family. PMID:28300207

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 −1562C/T Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shufen; Ye, Gang; Bai, Shi; Liao, Xueling; Li, Lu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between the metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) −1562C/T polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Han Chinese, the patients with type 2 diabetes were collected and divided into the non-DN (NDN) and DN groups; controls were recruited. Genotype and allele frequencies were assessed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results showed that SBP, DBP, HbA1c, UAER, Cr, BUN, TG, and TC were higher in the DN group compared with the control and NDN groups. SBP, HbA1c, and TC in DN patients with the TT and CT genotypes were lower than in those with CC. Compared with controls, the frequency of the T allele in the DN group was significantly lower. The MMP9 −1562C allele, SBP, Cr, BUN, TG, and TC were independent risk factors for DN. All of the above suggested that the MMP9 −1562C/T polymorphism was associated with DN in Han Chinese. PMID:27631001

  8. Dendritic cell podosomes are protrusive and invade the extracellular matrix using metalloproteinase MMP-14

    PubMed Central

    Gawden-Bone, Christian; Zhou, Zhongjun; King, Emma; Prescott, Alan; Watts, Colin; Lucocq, John

    2010-01-01

    Podosomes are spot-like actin-rich structures formed at the ventral surface of monocytic and haematopoietic cells. Podosomes degrade extracellular matrix and are proposed to be involved in cell migration. A key question is whether podosomes form protrusions similar to the invadopodia of cancer cells. We characterised podosomes of immature dendritic cells using electron microscopy combined with both conventional and novel high-resolution structured illumination light microscopy. Dendritic cell podosomes are composed of actin foci surrounded by a specialised ring region that is rich in material containing paxillin. We found that podosomes were preferential sites for protrusion into polycarbonate filters impregnated with crosslinked gelatin, degrading up to 2 μm of matrix in 24 hours. Podosome-associated uptake of colloidal gold-labelled gelatin matrix appeared to occur via large phagosome-like structures or narrow tubular invaginations. The motor protein myosin-II was excluded from ring or core regions but was concentrated around them and the myosin-II inhibitor Blebbistatin reduced the length of podosome protrusions. Finally, we found that degradation, protrusion and endocytosis in this system are dependent on the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-14. We propose that podosomes mediate migration of dendritic cells through tissues by means of myosin-II-dependent protrusion coupled to MMP-14-dependent degradation and endocytosis. PMID:20356925

  9. Significance of caveolin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase 14 gene expression in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, M; Iwano, H; Nishikawa, M; Tochigi, Y; Komatsu, T; Endou, Y; Hirayama, K; Taniyama, H; Kadosawa, T; Yokota, H

    2015-11-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms affecting female dogs. There is an urgent need for molecular biomarkers that can detect early stages of the disease in order to improve accuracy of CMT diagnosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) are associated with CMT histological malignancy and invasion. Sixty-five benign and malignant CMT samples and six normal canine mammary glands were analysed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cav-1 and MMP14 genes were highly expressed in CMT tissues compared to normal tissues. Cav-1 especially was overexpressed in malignant and invasive CMT tissues. When a CMT cell line was cultured on fluorescent gelatin-coated coverslips, localisation of Cav-1 was observed at invadopodia-mediated degradation sites of the gelatin matrix. These findings suggest that Cav-1 may be involved in CMT invasion and that the markers may be useful for estimating CMT malignancy.

  10. The dynamic interaction between matrix metalloproteinase activity and adverse myocardial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph S; Brower, Gregory L; Gardner, Jason D; Chancey, Amanda L; Stewart, James A

    2004-01-01

    The process of cardiac remodeling in response to cardiac injury and/or persistent elevations in wall stress generally relates to the progressive changes that occur in ventricular chamber dimensions and the various components of the myocardium, in particular the cardiomyocytes and the extracellular matrix. Volume overload, pressure overload or myocardial injury produces a sustained abnormal elevation in myocardial wall stress which initiates cardiac remodeling that frequently results in ventricular decompensation and heart failure. Regardless of the inciting cause, there appear to be three distinct phases to this process. In the initial phase, fibrillar collagen is partially degraded secondary to increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Following this, there is a chronic compensatory phase during which MMP activity and collagen concentration return to normal while cardiomyocyte size continues to progressively increase. The final phase is attained once the compensatory hypertrophic mechanisms are exhausted and is characterized by elevated MMP activity, marked ventricular dilatation and prominent fibrosis. Details of this progressive, dynamic remodeling process and its effect on ventricular function during chronic volume overload, chronic pressure overload and following myocardial infarction will be the focus of this article.

  11. Short-term disruption in regional left ventricular electrical conduction patterns increases interstitial matrix metalloproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zavadzkas, Juozas A.; Rivers, William T.; McLean, Julie E.; Chang, Eileen I.; Bouges, Shenikqua; Matthews, Robert G.; Koval, Christine N.; Stroud, Robert E.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2010-01-01

    Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) abundance occurs with adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in a number of cardiac disease states, including those induced by long-standing arrhythmias. However, whether regionally contained aberrant electrical activation of the LV, with consequent dyskinesia, alters interstitial MMP activation remained unknown. Electrical activation of the LV of pigs (n = 10, 30–35 kg) was achieved by pacing (150 beats/min) at left atrial and LV sites such that normal atrioventricular activation (60 min) was followed by regional early LV activation for 60 min within 1.5 cm of the paced site and restoration of normal atrioventricular pacing for 120 min. Regional shortening (piezoelectric crystals) and interstitial MMP activity (microdialysis with MMP fluorogenic substrate) at the LV pacing site and a remote LV site were monitored at 30-min intervals. During aberrant electrical stimulation, interstitial MMP activity at the paced site was increased (122 ± 4%) compared with the remote region (100%, P < 0.05). Restoration of atrioventricular pacing after the 60-min period of aberrant electrical activation normalized segmental shortening (8.5 ± 0.4%), but MMP activity remained elevated (121 ± 6%, P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that despite the restoration of mechanical function, disturbances in electrical conduction, in and of itself, can cause acute increases in regional in vivo MMP activation and, therefore, contribute to myocardial remodeling. PMID:20472759

  12. Release of Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 During Physiological Trafficking and Induced Mobilization of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steinl, Carolin; Essl, Mike; Schreiber, Thomas D.; Geiger, Konstanze; Prokop, Lea; Stevanović, Stefan; Pötz, Oliver; Abele, Harald; Wessels, Johannes T.; Aicher, Wilhelm K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the release of proteases, including the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, from mature granulocytes plays a crucial role in cytokine-induced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization. However, studies with MMP-9-deficient mice revealed that HSPC mobilization was normal in these animals, suggesting that additional proteases must be active at clinically relevant cytokine concentrations. In the present study, we provide evidence that the collagenase MMP-8 is involved in stem cell mobilization. A rapid release of MMP-8 from isolated neutrophil granulocytes can be observed during an in vitro culture. During granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced HSPC mobilization, highly elevated serum concentrations of MMP-8 were observed on days 4 to 6 of the mobilization regimen, concomitantly with elevated MMP-9 serum levels and higher numbers of circulating CD34+ cells. Elevated serum concentrations of both proteases were also found in umbilical cord blood serum. In functional assays, adhesion of HSPC to osteoblasts as an essential component of the endosteal stem cell niche is negatively influenced by MMP-8. The chemokine CXCL12, which is critically involved in stem cell trafficking, can be proteolytically processed by MMP-8 treatment. This degradation has a strong inhibitory influence on HSPC migration. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that MMP-8 can be directly involved in hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and trafficking. PMID:23259856

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 deficiency ameliorates the clinical course and demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Florian; Herder, Vanessa; Kalkuhl, Arno; Haist, Verena; Zhang, Ning; Schaudien, Dirk; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2012-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteases involved in the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MMPs induce direct myelin degradation, leukocyte infiltration, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and/or extracellular matrix remodeling in the pathogenesis of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME), a virus-induced model of MS. During the demyelinating phase of TME, the highest transcriptional upregulation was detected for Mmp12, followed by Mmp3. Mmp12 (-/-) mice showed reduced demyelination, macrophage infiltration, and motor deficits compared with wild-type- and Mmp3 knock-out mice. However, BBB remained unaltered, and the amount of extracellular matrix deposition was similar in knock-out mice and wild-type mice. Furthermore, stereotaxic injection of activated MMP-3, -9, and -12 into the caudal cerebellar peduncle of adult mice induced a focally extensive primary demyelination prior to infiltration of inflammatory cells, as well as a reduction in the number of oligodendrocytes and a leakage of BBB. All these results demonstrate that MMP-12 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of TME, most likely due to its primary myelin- or oligodendrocyte-toxic potential and its role in macrophage extravasation, whereas there was no sign of BBB damage or alterations to extracellular matrix remodeling/deposition. Thus, interrupting the MMP-12 cascade may be a relevant therapeutic approach for preventing chronic progressive demyelination.

  14. Near Infrared Optical Proteolytic Beacons for In Vivo Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, J. Oliver; Scherer, Randy L.; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    The exuberant expression of proteinases by tumor cells has long been associated with the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, tumor invasion, and metastasis to distant organs. There is both epidemiological and experimental data that support a causative role for proteinases of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family in tumor progression. Optical imaging techniques provide an extraordinary opportunity for non-invasive “molecular imaging” of tumor-associated proteolytic activity. The application of optical proteolytic beacons for the detection of specific proteinase activities associated with tumors has several potential purposes: 1) Detection of small, early-stage tumors with increased sensitivity due to the catalytic nature of proteolytic activity, 2) Diagnosis and Prognosis to distinguished tumors that require particularly aggressive therapy or those that will not benefit from therapy, 3) Identification of tumors appropriate for specific anti-proteinase therapeutics and optimization of drug and dose based on determination of target modulation, and 4) as an indicator of efficacy of proteolytically-activated pro-drugs. This chapter describes the synthesis, characterization, and application of reagents that use visible and near infrared fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) fluorophore pairs to detect and measure MMP-referable proteolytic activity in tumors in mouse models of cancer. PMID:20135290

  15. A novel metalloproteinase virulence factor is involved in Bacillus thuringiensis pathogenesis in nematodes and insects.

    PubMed

    Peng, Donghai; Lin, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhu, Lei; Sun, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been developed as the leading microbial insecticide for years. The pathogenesis of B. thuringiensis requires common extracellular factors that depend on the PlcR regulon, which regulates a large number of virulence factors; however, the precise role of many of these proteins is not known. In this study, we describe the complete lifecycle of a nematicidal B. thuringiensis strain in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using in vitro and in vivo molecular techniques to follow host and bacterial effectors during the infection process. We then focus on the metalloproteinase ColB, a collagenase, which was found highly important for destruction of the intestine thereby facilitates the adaptation and colonization of B. thuringiensis in C. elegans. In vivo green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter-gene studies showed that ColB expression is highly induced and regulated by the global activator PlcR. Finally, we demonstrated that ColB also takes part in B. thuringiensis virulence in an insect model following injection and oral infection. Indeed, addition of purified ColB accelerates the action of Cry toxin proteins in insects, too. These results give novel insights into host adaptation for B. thuringiensis and other B. cereus group bacteria and highlight the role of collagenase metalloproteases to synergize infection process.

  16. High matrix metalloproteinase levels are associated with dermal graft failure in diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Giurato, Laura; Ruotolo, Valeria; Uccioli, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our study is to analyze factors, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels, that could influence the integration of dermal grafts in diabetic foot ulcers. From September 2012 to September 2013, 35 diabetic patients with IIA lesion (Texas Wound Classification) and an extensive foot tissue loss were considered suitable for dermal graft. Before the enrollment we ensured the best local conditions: adequate blood supply, control of infection, and offloading. The MMP level of each lesion was evaluated blindly before the application of dermal substitutes. At 1-month follow-up, we analyzed the correlation between clinical patient characteristics, local wound features including MMP levels, dermal substitute applied, and the outcome expressed in terms of dermal graft integration. We observed dermal graft integration in 28/35 patients (80% of our population). In multivariate analysis high MMP level was the only negative predictor for dermal graft integration (P < .0007). In addition, we divided the patients into 2 groups according to MMP levels: group 1 with low protease activity (24 patients) and group 2 with elevated protease activity (11 patients). The integration of the dermal graft was 100% in group 1 (n = 24 patients) and 36.4% in group 2 (n = 4patients), P < .0001. According to our data, the evaluation of MMP levels may be useful to choose the right strategy to get the best results in terms of clinical success and cost saving. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 C(-1306)T promoter polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Alshahrani, Omair; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Alabdulkarim, Huda Abdullah; Shalaby, Manal Aly

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an enzyme with proteolytic activity against matrix proteins, particularly basement membrane constituents. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at -1306, which disrupts a Sp1-type promoter site (CCACC box), displayed a strikingly lower promoter activity with the T allele. In the present study, we investigate whether this MMP-2 SNP is associated with susceptibility to breast cancer in the Saudi population. Ninety breast cancer patients and 92 age matched controls were included in this study. TaqMan Allele Discrimination assay and DNA sequencing techniques were used for genotyping. The results showed that, the frequency of MMP-2 CC wild genotype was lower in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy controls (0.65 versus 0.79). The homozygous CC (OR=2, χ(2)=5.36, p=0.02) and heterozygous CT (OR=1.98, χ(2)=4.1, p=0.04) showing significantly high risk of breast cancer in the investigated group. In conclusion our data suggest that the MMP-2 C(-1306)T polymorphism may be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Saudi population.

  18. Acetylcholine induces neurite outgrowth and modulates matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9.

    PubMed

    Anelli, Tonino; Mannello, Ferdinando; Salani, Monica; Tonti, Gaetana A; Poiana, Giancarlo; Biagioni, Stefano

    2007-10-19

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, may regulate brain cellular functions. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) transfected murine neuroblastoma cell line N18TG2, that synthesize acetylcholine and show enhancement of several neurospecific markers (i.e., sinapsin I, voltage gated Na(+) channels, high affinity choline uptake) and fiber outgrowth, were studied for the MMP regulation during neuronal differentiation. Zymography of N18TG2 culture medium revealed no gelatinolytic activity, whereas after carbachol treatment of cells both MMP-9 and activated MMP-2 forms were detected. ChAT-transfected clone culture medium contains three MMP forms at 230, 92, and 66kDa. Carbachol treatment increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression in N18TG2 cells and higher levels for both genes were also observed in ChAT transfected cells. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that acetylcholine brings about the activation of an autocrine loop modulating MMP expression.

  19. Gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase in lung cancer studied using film in situ zymography stamp method.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Masahiro; Moriyama, Satoru; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Saitoh, Yushi; Kiriyama, Masanobu; Fukai, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Yosuke; Mitsui, Akira; Toyama, Tatsuya; Nemori, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we investigated activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) of lung cancer by newly developed film in situ zymography (FIZ) stamp method, which allows visual localization of gelatinolytic activity within the cut surface of a tumor. We performed FIZ stamp method and conventional gelatin zymography in 39 resected specimen of lung cancer. The degree of gelatinolytic activity was scored (FIZ score) and correlated with the clinicopathological factors of the tumor. FIZ score of normal lung was very low. Lung cancer tissue had consistently higher FIZ score than the matched normal lung tissue. There were statistically significant differences in the FIZ score according to the pathological stage (P = 0.0015), nodal status (P = 0.0007) and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.0004). Direct correlation was observed between the FIZ score and MMP-2 activity (rho = 0.568, P = 0.0030) as quantitated using conventional gelatin zymography. MMP-2 may play an important role in the lymphatic invasion of lung cancer. FIZ stamp method may be a simple and useful diagnostic aid for the presence of cancer cells in the resected specimen.

  20. Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Robert; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Hinz, Burkhard

    2010-04-01

    Although cannabinoids exhibit a broad variety of anticarcinogenic effects, their potential use in cancer therapy is limited by their psychoactive effects. Here we evaluated the impact of cannabidiol, a plant-derived non-psychoactive cannabinoid, on cancer cell invasion. Using Matrigel invasion assays we found a cannabidiol-driven impaired invasion of human cervical cancer (HeLa, C33A) and human lung cancer cells (A549) that was reversed by antagonists to both CB(1) and CB(2) receptors as well as to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). The decrease of invasion by cannabidiol appeared concomitantly with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Knockdown of cannabidiol-induced TIMP-1 expression by siRNA led to a reversal of the cannabidiol-elicited decrease in tumor cell invasiveness, implying a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of cannabidiol. P38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases were identified as upstream targets conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased invasiveness. Additionally, in vivo studies in thymic-aplastic nude mice revealed a significant inhibition of A549 lung metastasis in cannabidiol-treated animals as compared to vehicle-treated controls. Altogether, these findings provide a novel mechanism underlying the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol and imply its use as a therapeutic option for the treatment of highly invasive cancers.

  1. Characterization of a rainbow trout matrix metalloproteinase capable of degrading type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Sato, K; Kunisaki, N; Kimura, S

    2000-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are widely distributed in vertebrate tissues and form a large family consisting of at least four distinct subfamilies. Higher vertebrate MMP-13 is well-known as collagenase-3, which represents the third member of a collagenase subfamily. In this study, we cloned cDNA coding for a unique fish homologue of human MMP-13 from a rainbow trout fibroblast cDNA library. The cDNA was 2.1 kb long and contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 475 amino acids. The catalytic domain of the protein was 66% identical to the human counterpart with the greatest degree of identity occurring in the zinc binding site. In addition, it possessed three amino-acid residues (Tyr122, Asp233 and Gly235) characteristic of the collagenase subfamily, together with a six residue insertion which did not occur in the collagenase subfamily. Then the isolated cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was found to degrade gelatin and skin type I collagen. It is worth noting that rainbow trout type I collagen was more susceptible to proteolysis with the recombinant protein when compared with the calf one. It appeared that the recombinant protein also cleaved the nonhelical regions of rainbow trout muscle type V collagen. These results have revealed that the cDNA encodes a unique MMP-13 of rainbow trout. This is the first report of cDNA coding for fish MMP capable of degrading type I collagen.

  2. SMYD3 promotes cancer invasion by epigenetic upregulation of the metalloproteinase MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    Cock-Rada, Alicia M.; Medjkane, Souhila; Janski, Natacha; Yousfi, Nadhir; Perichon, Martine; Chaussepied, Marie; Chluba, Johanna; Langsley, Gordon; Weitzman, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Upregulation of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9 plays a central role in tumor progression and metastasis by stimulating cell migration, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. To gain insights into MMP-9 expression, we investigated its epigenetic control in a reversible model of cancer that is initiated by infection with intracellular Theileria parasites. Gene induction by parasite infection was associated with tri-methylation of histone H3K4 (H3K4me3) at the MMP-9 promoter. Notably, we found that the H3K4 methyltransferase SMYD3 was the only histone methyltransferase upregulated upon infection. SMYD3 is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, but its contributions to malignant pathophysiology are unclear. We found that overexpression of SMYD3 was sufficient to induce MMP-9 expression in transformed leukocytes and fibrosarcoma cells, and that pro-inflammatory phorbol esters further enhanced this effect. Further, SMYD3 was sufficient to increase cell migration associated with MMP-9 expression. In contrast, RNAi-mediated knockdown of SMYD3 decreased H3K4me3 modification of the MMP-9 promoter, reduced MMP-9 expression and reduced tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, SMYD3 knockdown also reduced cellular invasion in a zebrafish xenograft model of cancer. Together, our results define SMYD3 as an important new regulator of MMP-9 transcription, and they provide a molecular link between SMYD3 overexpression and metastatic cancer progression. PMID:22194464

  3. α-dystroglycan is a potential target of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Diego; Sciandra, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Marini, Stefano; Gori, Alessandro; Giardina, Bruno; Tarantino, Umberto; Coletta, Massimo; Brancaccio, Andrea; Bozzi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a member of the glycoprotein complex associated to dystrophin and composed by two subunits, the β-DG, a transmembrane protein, and the α-DG, an extensively glycosylated extracellular protein. The β-DG ectodomain degradation by the matrix metallo-proteinases (i.e., MMP-2 and MMP-9) in both, pathological and physiological conditions, has been characterized in detail in previous publications. Since the amounts of α-DG and β-DG at the cell surface decrease when gelatinases are up-regulated, we investigated the degradation of α-DG subunit by MMP-2. Present data show, for the first time, that the proteolysis of α-DG indeed occurs on a native glycosylated molecule enriched from rabbit skeletal muscle. In order to characterize the α-DG portion, which is more prone to cleavage by MMP-2, we performed different degradations on tailored recombinant domains of α-DG spanning the whole subunit. The overall bulk of results casts light on a relevant susceptibility of the α-DG to MMP-2 degradation with particular reference to its C-terminal domain, thus opening a new scenario on the role of gelatinases (in particular of MMP-2) in the degradation of this glycoprotein complex, taking place in the course of pathological processes.

  4. Study of the binding interaction between fluorinated matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Digilio, Giuseppe; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Casalini, Francesca; Cassino, Claudio; Dias, David M; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; Catanzaro, Valeria; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Rossello, Armando

    2014-05-22

    Fluorinated, arylsulfone-based inhibitors of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP) have been used, in the [(18)F]-radiolabelled version, as radiotracers targeted to MMP-2/9 for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Although they showed acceptable tumour uptake, specificity was rather low. To get further insights into the reason of low specificity, the binding interaction of these compounds with Human Serum Albumin (HSA) has been investigated. (19)F NMR spectroscopy showed that all compounds considered partition between multiple HSA binding sites, being characterized by either slow-exchange kinetics (with Ka in the order of 10(5) M(-1)) and fast-exchange kinetics (with Ka in the order of 10(4) M(-1)). For 2-(2-(4'-(2-fluoroethoxy)biphenyl-4-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)acetic acid (1a) and 2-(2-(4'-(2-fluoroacetamido)biphenyl-4-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)acetic acid (1c), these slow and fast-exchanging binding sites could be mapped to Sudlow's site I and II, respectively. It is shown that high affinity albumin binding constitutes a theoretical limitation for the specificity achievable by MMP-inhibitors as MMP-targeted PET tracers in cancer imaging, because albumin accumulating aspecifically in tumours lowers the binding potential of radiotracers.

  5. In vivo evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase responsive silk-elastinlike protein polymers for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Cappello, Joseph; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-09-10

    Silk-elastinlike protein polymers (SELPs) have been effectively used as controlled release matrices for the delivery of viruses for cancer gene therapy in preclinical models. However, the degradability of these polymers needs to be tuned for improved localized intratumoral gene delivery. Using recombinant techniques, systematic modifications in distinct regions of the polymer backbone, namely, within the elastin blocks, silk blocks, and adjacent to silk and elastin blocks, have been made to impart sensitivity to specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) known to be overexpressed in the tumor environment. In this report we investigated the structure-function relationship of MMP-responsive SELPs for viral mediated gene therapy of head and neck cancer. These polymers showed significant degradation in vitro in the presence of MMPs. Their degradation rate was a function of the location of the MMP-responsive sequence in the polymer backbone when in hydrogel form. Treatment efficacy of the adenoviral vectors released from the MMP responsive SELP analogs in a xenograft mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was shown to be polymer structure dependent. These results demonstrate the tunable nature of MMP-responsive SELPs for localized matrix-mediated gene delivery.

  6. Unravelling the reaction mechanism of matrix metalloproteinase 3 using QM/MM calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano, Gustavo Troiano; da Silva, Antônio José Roque

    2015-07-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP) constitutes a family of zinc (Zn) proteases that catalyze the breaking of peptide bonds in proteins. These enzymes are very promising drug targets, since they are involved in remodeling and degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is a key process required for cancer metastasis, and thus, their reaction mechanism has been an area of intensive research. Early proposal based on acid base catalyzed hydrolysis, suggested that a conserved zinc bound water molecule acted as the nucleophile attacking the peptide bond carbon, after being activated by essential glutamate. The possibility of a direct nucleophilic attack by the enzyme, performed by the glutamate was also suggested. These are the key yet unsolved issues about MMP reaction mechanism. In the present work, we used hybrid quantum/classical calculations to analyze the structure and energetics of different possible hydrolysis reaction paths. The results support a water mediated mechanism, where both the nucleophile water molecule and the carbonyl oxygen of the scissile peptide bond are coordinated to zinc in the reactive configuration, while the essential glutamate acts as the base accepting the proton from the nucleophilic water. Formation of the carbon-oxygen bond and breaking of carbon-nitrogen bond were found to be concerted events, with a computed barrier of 14.8 kcal/mol. Substrate polarization was found to be important for the observed reaction mechanism, and a substantial change in the metal coordination environment was observed, particularly, regarding the zinc-histidine coordination.

  7. High throughput screening of cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases in wound fluid induced by mammary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ningning; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Yanlin; Liu, Caigang; Wang, Shouyu; Zhao, Zuowei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify the composition of wound fluid (WF) and investigate the impact of WF on breast cancer cell lines. Methods The proliferation and migration of WF-treated breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 were assessed with colony formation test, MTT cell proliferation test and scratch wound test. The quantitative profiles of WF were analyzed using Bio-Plex Pro kits. Results The proliferation and migration of WF-treated breast cancer cells were significantly higher than that of untreated cells. Fifteen cytokines, 29 chemokines and 9 matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were assessed in WF. The concentrations of these factors were influenced by post-surgery days, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), TNM stage, pathological type and molecular subtype. The WF harvested from patients underwent NAC showed significant higher profiles of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-6, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, Interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40 ligand (CD40L), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CCL3, CCL7 and CCL20. Conclusions Surgery-induced WF promotes the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. The composition of WF is influenced by various clinical features and provides potential therapeutic targets to control local recurrence and tumor progression. PMID:26313265

  8. N-acetyl-cysteine attenuates neuropathic pain by suppressing matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajie; Xu, Lujie; Deng, Xueting; Jiang, Chunyi; Pan, Cailong; Chen, Lu; Han, Yuan; Dai, Wenling; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Guangqin; Cheng, Zhixiang; Liu, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of neuropathic pain remains a clinical challenge because of its unclear mechanisms and broad clinical morbidity. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 have previously been described as key components in neuropathic pain because of their facilitation of inflammatory cytokine maturation and induction of neural inflammation. Therefore, the inhibition of MMPs may represent a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of neuropathic pain. In this study, we report that N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), which is a broadly used respiratory drug, significantly attenuates neuropathic pain through a unique mechanism of MMP inhibition. Both the in vitro (0.1 mM) and in vivo application of NAC significantly suppressed the activity of MMP-9/2. Orally administered NAC (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) not only postponed the occurrence but also inhibited the maintenance of chronic constrictive injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The administration of NAC blocked the maturation of interleukin-1β, which is a critical substrate of MMPs, and markedly suppressed the neuronal activation induced by CCI, including inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase Cγ, NMDAR1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Finally, NAC significantly inhibited CCI-induced microglia activation but elicited no notable effects on astrocytes. These results demonstrate an effective and safe approach that has been used clinically to alleviate neuropathic pain through the powerful inhibition of the activation of MMPs.

  9. Hispidulin induces mitochondrial apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells by targeting extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Yongji; Li, Kan; Wu, Tianhui; Peng, Jianjun; Jing, Fanbo

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous group of hematological neoplasms with marked heterogeneity in response to both standard therapy and survival. Hispidulin, a flavonoid compound that is anactive ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia plebeia R. Br, has recently been reported to have anantitumor effect against solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hispidulin on the human leukemia cell line in vitro and the underlying mechanisms of its actions on these cells. Our results showed that hispidulin inhibits AML cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induces cell apoptosis throughan intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Our results also revealed that hispidulin treatment significantly inhibits extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression in both tested AML cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and that the overexpression of EMMPRIN protein markedly attenuates hispidulin-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, our results strongly indicated that the modulating effect of hispidulin on EMMPRIN is correlated with its inhibitory effect on both the Akt and STAT3 signaling pathways. PMID:27158398

  10. Discovery of potent inhibitor for matrix metalloproteinase-9 by pharmacophore based modeling and dynamics simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Kalva, Sukesh; Azhagiya Singam, E R; Rajapandian, V; Saleena, Lilly M; Subramanian, V

    2014-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an attractive target for anticancer therapy. In the present study ligand based pharmacophore modeling was performed to elucidate the structural elements for a diverse class of MMP-9 inhibitors. The pharmacophore model was validated through Güner-Henry (GH) scoring method. The final pharmacophore model consisted of three hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), and two ring aromatic regions (RA). This model was utilized to screen the natural compound database to seek novel compounds as MMP-9 inhibitors. The identified hits were validated using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies. Finally, one compound named Hinokiflavone from Juniperus communis had high binding free energy of -26.54kJ/mol compared with the known inhibitors of MMP-9. Cytotoxicity for hinokiflavone was evaluated by MTT assay. Inhibition of MMP-9 in the presence of hinokiflavone was detected by gelatin zymography and gelatinolytic inhibition assay. Results revealed that the natural compounds derived based on the developed pharmacophore model would be useful for further design and development of MMP-9 inhibitors.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-based photodynamic molecular beacons for targeted destruction of bone metastases in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, T W; Akens, M K; Chen, J; Wilson, B C; Zheng, G

    2016-03-01

    The metastatic spread of cancer from the primary site or organ is one of its most devastating aspects, being responsible for up to 90% of cancer-associated mortality. Bone is one of the common sites of metastatic spread, including the vertebrae. Regardless of the treatment strategy, the clinical goals for patients with vertebral metastases are to improve the quality of life by preventing neurologic decline, to achieve durable pain relief and enhance local tumor control. However, in part due to the close proximity of the spinal cord, current treatment options are limited. We propose a novel therapeutic strategy with the use of photodynamic molecular beacons (PMBs) for targeted destruction of spinal metastases, particularly to de-bulk lesions as an adjuvant to vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty in order to mechanically stabilize weak or fractured vertebrae. The PDT efficacy of a matrix metalloproteinase-specific PMB is reported in a metstatic model that recapitulates the clinical features of tumor growth within the bone. We demonstrate that not only does tumor cell destruction occur but also the killing of bone stromal cells. The potential of PMB-PDT to destroy metastatic tumors, disrupt the osteolytic cycle and better preserve critical organs with an increased therapeutic window compared with conventional photosensitizers is demonstrated.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases and other matrix proteinases in relation to cariology: the era of 'dentin degradomics'.

    PubMed

    Tjäderhane, Leo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Carrilho, Marcela; Chaussain, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Dentin organic matrix, with type I collagen as the main component, is exposed after demineralization in dentinal caries, erosion or acidic conditioning during adhesive composite restorative treatment. This exposed matrix is prone to slow hydrolytic degradation by host collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. Here we review the recent findings demonstrating that inhibition of salivary or dentin endogenous collagenolytic enzymes may provide preventive means against progression of caries or erosion, just as they have been shown to retain the integrity and improve the longevity of resin composite filling bonding to dentin. This paper also presents the case that the organic matrix in caries-affected dentin may not be preserved as intact as previously considered. In partially demineralized dentin, MMPs and cysteine cathepsins with the ability to cleave off the terminal non-helical ends of collagen molecules (telopeptides) may lead to the gradual loss of intramolecular gap areas. This would seriously compromise the matrix ability for intrafibrillar remineralization, which is considered essential in restoring the dentin's mechanical properties. More detailed data of the enzymes responsible and their detailed function in dentin-destructive conditions may not only help to find new and better preventive means, but better preservation of demineralized dentin collagenous matrix may also facilitate true biological remineralization for the better restoration of tooth structural and mechanical integrity and mechanical properties.

  13. Effect of dentin etching and chlorhexidine application on metalloproteinase-mediated collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Mónica; Osorio, Estrella; Ruiz-Requena, María E; Pashley, David; Tay, Franklin; Toledano, Manuel

    2011-02-01

    Dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of collagen in resin-dentin interfaces. This study evaluated whether collagen degradation can be prevented by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) after different dentin demineralization procedures. The demineralization of human dentin was performed with phosphoric acid (PA), EDTA or acidic monomers (Clearfil SE Bond and Xeno V). Specimens were stored (for 24 h, or for 1 or 3 wk) in the presence or absence of CHX. In half of the groups, active MMP-2 was incorporated into the storage solution. At the end of each storage period, the C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) concentration (which indicates the amount of collagen degradation) was measured in the storage solution. Collagen degradation was higher in PA- and EDTA-demineralized dentin. Chlorhexidine digluconate reduced collagen degradation in these groups only for 24 h. When dentin was demineralized with Clearfil SE Bond or Xeno V, collagen degradation was reduced by up to 30%, but the addition of exogenous MMP-2 significantly increased collagen degradation. In self-etchant-treated dentin, the inhibitory effect of CHX on MMPs lasted for up to 3 wk. Treating dentin with EDTA, PA or self-etching agents produces enough demineralization to permit cleavage of the exposed collagen. Monomer infiltration may exert protection on demineralized collagen, probably through immobilization of MMPs. The partial inhibitory action of CHX on MMP activity produced by self-etching adhesives was prolonged compared with the short-acting PA- or EDTA-treated dentin.

  14. Identification and initial characterization of matrix metalloproteinases in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Kantor, A M; Dong, S; Held, N L; Ishimwe, E; Passarelli, A L; Clem, R J; Franz, A W E

    2017-02-01

    Aedes aegypti is a major vector for arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. During acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal, an arbovirus infects mosquito midgut cells before disseminating to secondary tissues, including the salivary glands. Once virus is released into the salivary ducts it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The midgut is surrounded by a basal lamina (BL) in the extracellular matrix, consisting of a proteinaceous mesh composed of collagen IV and laminin. BL pore size exclusion limit prevents virions from passing through. Thus, the BL probably requires remodelling via enzymatic activity to enable efficient virus dissemination. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular endopeptidases that are involved in remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Here, we describe and characterize the nine Ae. aegypti encoded MMPs, AeMMPs 1-9, which share common features with other invertebrate and vertebrate MMPs. Expression profiling in Ae. aegypti revealed that Aemmp4 and Aemmp6 were upregulated during metamorphosis, whereas expression of Aemmp1 and Aemmp2 increased during bloodmeal digestion. Aemmp1 expression was also upregulated in the presence of a bloodmeal containing chikungunya virus. Using polyclonal antibodies, AeMMP1 and AeMMP2 were specifically detected in tissues associated with the mosquito midgut.

  15. Time-resolved Analysis of the Matrix Metalloproteinase 10 Substrate Degradome*

    PubMed Central

    Schlage, Pascal; Egli, Fabian E.; Nanni, Paolo; Wang, Lauren W.; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N.; Apte, Suneel S.; Keller, Ulrich auf dem

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis is an irreversible post-translational modification that affects intra- and intercellular communication by modulating the activity of bioactive mediators. Key to understanding protease function is the system-wide identification of cleavage events and their dynamics in physiological contexts. Despite recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics for high-throughput substrate screening, current approaches suffer from high false positive rates and only capture single states of protease activity. Here, we present a workflow based on multiplexed terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates for time-resolved substrate degradomics in complex proteomes. This approach significantly enhances confidence in substrate identification and categorizes cleavage events by specificity and structural accessibility of the cleavage site. We demonstrate concomitant quantification of cleavage site spanning peptides and neo-N and/or neo-C termini to estimate relative ratios of noncleaved and cleaved forms of substrate proteins. By applying this strategy to dissect the matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) substrate degradome in fibroblast secretomes, we identified the extracellular matrix protein ADAMTS-like protein 1 (ADAMTSL1) as a direct MMP10 substrate and revealed MMP10-dependent ectodomain shedding of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) as well as sequential processing of type I collagen. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with identifier PXD000503. PMID:24281761

  16. Low matrix metalloproteinase levels precede vascular lesion formation in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David; Massaeli, Hamid; Russell, James C; Pierce, Grant N; Zahradka, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Clinically significant occlusive vascular lesions contain more extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and lipid deposition than healthy vascular tissue. The events leading to this condition remain unresolved. One possibility is that ECM deposition may exceed ECM degradation which would contribute to the expansion of the vascular lesion. Utilizing lean (+/?) and insulin-resistant, corpulent (cp/cp) JCR:LA-cp rats, which are predisposed to develop vascular lesions, we have compared the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) profile prior to the development of significant vascular lesions. Analysis of serum MMPs revealed that cp/cp rats have lower circulating levels than (+/?) controls. This is observed prior to the development of any noticeable atherosclerotic lesions. It also occurs as the hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance is first developing in these rats. Female corpulent animals, which are less prone to develop vascular lesions, also exhibit a depressed serum MMP profile of a similar magnitude to their male counterparts. Primary vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from cp/cp animals also showed a reduction in secreted MMP compared with cells derived from +/? lean controls. We conclude that reduced MMP levels could lead to increased ECM accumulation and thus contribute to early vascular lesion formation.

  17. Dark quenched matrix metalloproteinase fluorogenic probe for imaging osteoarthritis development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seulki; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Seung-Young; Ryu, Ju Hee; Park, Jong Woong; Ahn, Hyung Jun; Kwon, Ick Chan; Youn, In-Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Choi, Kuiwon

    2008-09-01

    The early detection of osteoarthritis (OA) is currently a key challenge in the field of rheumatology. Biochemical studies of OA have indicated that matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays a central role in cartilage degradation. In this study, we describe the potential use of a dark-quenched fluorogenic MMP-13 probe to image MMP-13 in both in vitro and rat models. The imaging technique involved using a MMP-13 peptide substrate, near-infrared (NIR) dye, and a NIR dark quencher. The results from this study demonstrate that the use of a dark-quenched fluorogenic probe allows for the visual detection of MMP-13 in vitro and in OA-induced rat models. In particular, by targeting this OA biomarker, the symptoms of the early and late stages of OA can be readily monitored, imaged, and analyzed in a rapid and efficient fashion. We anticipate that this simple and highly efficient fluorogenic probe will assist in the clinical management of patients with OA, not only for early diagnosis but also to assess individual patient responses to new drug treatments.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 as a superior biomarker for peritoneal deterioration in peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Ichiro; Kusano, Eiji; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Akimoto, Tetsu; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of effluent biomarkers for peritoneal deterioration with functional decline in peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS: From January 2005 to March 2013, the subjects included 218 PD patients with end-stage renal disease at 18 centers. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), hyaluronan, and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in peritoneal effluent were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peritoneal solute transport rate was assessed by peritoneal equilibration test (PET) to estimate peritoneal deterioration. RESULTS: The ratio of the effluent level of creatinine (Cr) obtained 4 h after injection (D) to that of plasma was correlated with the effluent levels of MMP-2 (ρ = 0.74, P < 0.001), IL-6 (ρ = 0.46, P < 0.001), and hyaluronan (ρ = 0.27, P < 0.001), but not CA125 (ρ = 0.13, P = 0.051). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for the effluent levels of MMP-2, IL-6, and hyaluronan against high PET category were 0.90, 0.78, 0.62, and 0.51, respectively. No patient developed new-onset encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis for at least 1.5 years after peritoneal effluent sampling. CONCLUSION: The effluent MMP-2 level most closely reflected peritoneal solute transport rate. MMP-2 can be a reliable indicator of peritoneal deterioration with functional decline. PMID:26981446

  19. Identification of Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 as a Candidate Molecule for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Melina; Moreno-Viedma, Veronica; Sarabi, Alisina; Grün, Nicole G; Itariu, Bianca; Leitner, Lukas; Steiner, Irene; Bilban, Martin; Kodama, Keiichi; Butte, Atul J; Staffler, Guenther; Zeyda, Maximilian; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors that predisposes to development of the cardiometabolic diseases: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prevention of metabolic syndrome requires novel interventions to address this health challenge. The objective of this study was to identify candidate molecules for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, conditions that underlie type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, respectively. We used an unbiased bioinformatics approach to identify molecules that are upregulated in both conditions by combining murine and human data from a microarray experiment and meta-analyses. We obtained a pool of 8 genes that were upregulated in all the databases analyzed. This included well-known and novel molecules involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Notably, matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) was highly ranked in all analyses and was therefore chosen for further investigation. Analyses of visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue from obese compared with lean mice and humans convincingly confirmed the upregulation of MMP12 in obesity at the mRNA, protein and activity levels. In conclusion, by using this unbiased approach, an interesting pool of candidate molecules was identified, all of which have potential as targets in the treatment and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:27385318

  20. LMAN1 (ERGIC-53) is a potential carrier protein for matrix metalloproteinase-9 glycoprotein secretion.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Tyler; Burnett, John; Shin, Alice; Yang, Jay

    2015-08-28

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a secreted glycoprotein with a major role in shaping the extracellular matrix and a detailed understanding of the secretory mechanism could help identify methods to correct diseases resulting from dysregulation of secretion. MMP-9 appears to follow a canonical secretory pathway through a quality control cycle in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transport of the properly folded protein to the Golgi apparatus and beyond for secretion. Through a complementation assay, we determined that LMAN1, a well-studied lectin-carrier protein, interacts with a secretion-competent N-glycosylated MMP-9 in the ER while N-glycosylation-deficient secretion-compromised MMP-9 does not. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated protein interaction between LMAN1 and secretion-compromised N-glycosylation-deficient MMP-9. MMP-9 secretion was reduced in the LMAN1 knockout cell line compared to control cells confirming the functional role of LMAN1. These observations support the role of LMAN1 as a lectin-carrier protein mediating efficient MMP-9 secretion.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in osteosarcoma: review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Qiong; Yuan, Tai-Xian; Song, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Zhou, Lan; Luo, Jinyong; Zuo, Guowei; Tang, Min; He, Tong-Chuan; Weng, Yaguang

    2014-06-10

    The aim of this study is to determine the value of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in diagnosis of osteosarcoma (OS). A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, China Biomedical literature Database (CBM) and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) from inception through Aug 29, 2013. Articles written in English or Chinese that investigated the accuracy of MMP-9 for the diagnosis of OS were included. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were determined. I(2) was used to test heterogeneity and source of heterogeneity was investigated by meta-regression (tested with Meta-DiSc and STATA 12.0 statistical softwares). A total of 3729 articles were retrieved, of which 18 were included, accounting for 892 patients. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0.78 (95% CI 0.730-0.83), 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-0.95), and 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.89), respectively. The studies had substantial heterogeneity (I(2)=84%, 95% CI 65-100) (96%, 95% CI 94-99). Assay kit subgroup was the main source of the heterogeneity. Although MMP-9 was identified as a potential biomarker for OS, more studies were clearly needed to establish its diagnostic value.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 modulates intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in inflammatory diseases by activating TNF

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Dejonckheere, Eline; Van Hauwermeiren, Filip; Lodens, Sofie; De Rycke, Riet; Van Wonterghem, Elien; Staes, An; Gevaert, Kris; López-Otin, Carlos; Libert, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Several pathological processes, such as sepsis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with impairment of intestinal epithelial barrier. Here, we investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinase MMP13 in these diseases. We observed that MMP13−/− mice display a strong protection in LPS- and caecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. We could attribute this protection to reduced LPS-induced goblet cell depletion, endoplasmic reticulum stress, permeability and tight junction destabilization in the gut of MMP13−/− mice compared to MMP13+/+ mice. Both in vitro and in vivo, we found that MMP13 is able to cleave pro-TNF into bioactive TNF. By LC-MS/MS, we identified three MMP13 cleavage sites, which proves that MMP13 is an alternative TNF sheddase next to the TNF converting enzyme TACE. Similarly, we found that the same mechanism was responsible for the observed protection of the MMP13−/− mice in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. We identified MMP13 as an important mediator in sepsis and IBD via the shedding of TNF. Hence, we propose MMP13 as a novel drug target for diseases in which damage to the gut is essential. PMID:23723167

  3. On the structure and functions of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Vandooren, Jennifer; Van Damme, Jo; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specific structure that is composed of two basement membranes (BMs) and that contributes to the control of neuroinflammation. As long as the BBB is intact, extravasated leukocytes may accumulate between two BMs, generating vascular cuffs. Specific matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been shown to cleave BBB beta-dystroglycan and to disintegrate thereby the parenchymal BM, resulting in encephalomyelitis. This knowledge has been added to the molecular basis of the REGA model to understand the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and it gives further ground for the use of MMP inhibitors for the treatment of acute neuroinflammation. MMP-9 is associated with central nervous system inflammation and occurs in various forms: monomers and multimers. None of the various neurological and neuropathologic functions of MMP-9 have been associated with either molecular structure or molecular form, and therefore, in-depth structure-function studies are needed before medical intervention with MMP-9-specific inhibitors is initiated.

  4. Effects of Mutations on Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1.

    PubMed

    Singh, Warispreet; Fields, Gregg B; Christov, Christo Z; Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G

    2016-10-14

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX) domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT) domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP). The results indicate an important role of the mutated residues in MMP-1 interactions with the THP and communication between the CAT and the HPX domains. Each mutation has a distinct impact on the correlated motions in the MMP-1•THP. An increased collagenase activity corresponded to the appearance of a unique anti-correlated motion and decreased correlated motions, while decreased collagenase activity corresponded both to increased and decreased anti-correlated motions.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases and left ventricular function and structure in spinal cord injured subjects.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Roberto; Paim, Layde R; de Rossi, Guilherme; Matos-Souza, José R; Costa E Silva, Anselmo de A; Souza, Cristiane M; Borges, Mariane; Azevedo, Eliza R; Alonso, Karina C; Gorla, José I; Cliquet, Alberto; Nadruz, Wilson

    2014-11-01

    Subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, which has been reported to be attenuated by regular physical activity. This study investigated the relationship between circulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and echocardiographic parameters in SCI subjects and the role of physical activity in this regard. Forty-two men with SCI [19 sedentary (S-SCI) and 23 physically-active (PA-SCI)] were evaluated by clinical, anthropometric, laboratory, and echocardiographic analysis. Plasmatic pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-8, pro-MMP-9, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and zymography. PA-SCI subjects presented lower pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 levels and improved markers of LV diastolic function (lower E/Em and higher Em and E/A values) than S-SCI ones. Bivariate analysis showed that pro-MMP-2 correlated inversely with Em and directly with E/Em, while MMP-9 correlated directly with LV mass index and LV end-diastolic diameter in the whole sample. Following multiple regression analysis, pro-MMP-2, but not physical activity, remained associated with Em, while MMP-9 was associated with LV mass index in the whole sample. These findings suggest differing roles for MMPs in LV structure and function regulation and an interaction among pro-MMP-2, diastolic function and physical activity in SCI subjects.

  6. CXCR6 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma supports metastatic process via modulating metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Hina; Singh, Rajesh; Kloecker, Goetz H.; Lillard, James W.; Singh, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer (LuCa) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide regardless of the gender. High mortality associated with LuCa is due to metastasis, molecular mechanisms of which are yet to be defined. Here, we present evidence that chemokine receptor CXCR6 and its only natural ligand, CXCL16, are significantly expressed by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are involved in the pathobiology of LuCa. CXCR6 expression was significantly higher in two subtypes of NSCLC (adenocarcinomas-ACs and squamous cell carcinoma-SCCs) as compared to non-neoplastic tissue. Additionally, serum CXCL16 was significantly elevated in LuCa cases as compared to healthy controls. Similar to CXCR6 tissue expression, serum level of CXCL16 in AC patients was significantly higher than SCC patients. Biological significance of this axis was validated using SCC and AC cell lines. Expression of CXCR6 was higher in AC cells, which also showed higher migratory and invasive potential than SCC. Differences in migratory and invasive potential between AC and SCC were due to differential expression of metalloproteinases following CXCL16 stimulation. Hence, our findings suggest clinical and biological significance of CXCR6/CXCL16 axis in LuCa, which could be used as potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:25888629

  7. A disintegrin and metalloproteinases 10 and 17 modulate the immunogenicity of glioblastoma-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Fabian; Tritschler, Isabel; Steinle, Alexander; Weller,, Michael; Eisele, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background There are emerging reports that the family of a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAM) are involved in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype of glioblastomas. Notably, ADAM proteases 10 and 17 might impair the immune recognition of glioma cells via the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D by cleavage of its ligands from the cell surface. Glioblastoma-initiating cells (GIC) with stem cell properties have been identified as an attractive target for immunotherapy. However, GIC immunogenicity seems to be low. Methods and Results Here,we show that ADAM10 and ADAM17 are expressed on the cell surface of GIC and contribute to an immunosuppressive phenotype by cleavage of ULBP2. The cell surface expression of ULBP2 is enhanced upon blocking ADAM10 and ADAM17, and treatment with ADAM10 and ADAM17specific inhibitors leads to enhanced immunerecognition of GIC by natural killer cells. Conclusions Therefore, ADAM10 and ADAM17 constitute suitable targets to boost an immune response against GIC. PMID:24327582

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases: a role in the contraction of vitreo-retinal scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, C M; Occleston, N L; Hiscott, P; Kon, C H; Khaw, P T; Grierson, I

    2001-10-01

    The most common cause of failure of retinal reattachment surgery is formation of fibrocellular contractile membranes on both surfaces of the neuroretina. This intraocular fibrosis, known as proliferative vitreoretinopathy, results in a blinding tractional retinal detachment because of the contractile nature of the membrane. Contractility is a cell-mediated event that is thought to be dependent on locomotion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix can be influenced by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and we investigated the role of MMPs in two in vitro models (two- and three-dimensional) of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell-mediated contraction. MMP activity was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and zymography techniques that revealed MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 positivity during the collagen matrix contraction assays. RPE-populated collagen matrix contraction (three-dimensional) was inhibited using a cocktail of anti-MMP antibodies and with Galardin (a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor). Galardin inhibition was dose-dependent, reversible, and dependent on cell number. MMP inhibitors had no effect on contraction when RPEs were seeded on two-dimensional collagen matrices or on cellular adhesion to collagen type I. Our results suggest that MMP activity may be required for three-dimensional but not two-dimensional RPE-collagen matrix contraction.

  9. Real-time monitoring of matrix metalloproteinase-9 collagenolytic activity with a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Atsushi; Kabeya, Mitsutaka; Sugawara, Masao

    2011-12-01

    We describe a simple method for real-time monitoring of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) collagenolytic activity for native triple helical collagen IV with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. The proteolytic activity of MMP-9 is measured as a decrease in the SPR signal resulting from the cleavage of collagen IV immobilized on the sensor surface. The kinetic parameters of full-length MMP-9 and its catalytic domain-catalytic constant (k(cat)), association rate constant (k(a)), and dissociation rate constant (k(d))-were estimated by the SPR method. The presence of sodium chloride and a nonionic detergent Brij-35 in a reaction solution led to the lower collagenolytic activity of MMP-9, whereas they suppressed the nonspecific interaction between MMP-9 and a cysteamine-modified chip. The comparison of kinetic parameters between MMP-9 and its catalytic domain revealed that the association constant of MMP-9 is much larger than that of the catalytic domain, suggesting that the interplay among hemopexin-like domain, fibronectin type II repeats motif, and linker region (O-glycosylated domain) plays an important role in recognizing collagen IV.

  10. Effect of a one-step self-etch adhesive on endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Apolonio, Fabianni M; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Angeloni, Valeria; Scaffa, Polliana M C; Santi, Spartaco; Saboia, Vicente de Paulo A; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of the hybrid layer created in dentin by dentin adhesives is caused by enzyme activities present within the dentin matrix that destroy unprotected collagen fibrils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a one-step self-etch adhesive system on dentinal matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 4 (MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively) using in situ zymography and an enzymatic activity assay. The null hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in the activities of dentinal MMPs before and after treatment with a one-step adhesive system. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in dentin treated with the one-step adhesive, Adper Easy Bond, were quantified using an enzymatic activity assay system. The MMP activities within the hybrid layer created by the one-step adhesive tested were also evaluated using in situ zymography. The enzymatic assay revealed an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities after treatment with adhesive. In situ zymography indicated that gelatinolytic activity is present within the hybrid layer created with the one-step self-etch adhesive. The host-derived gelatinases were localized within the hybrid layer and remained active after the bonding procedure. It is concluded that the one-step self-etch adhesive investigated activates endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 with the dentin matrix, which may cause collagen degradation over time.

  11. Onion extract and quercetin induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-We; Cho, Sun-Young; Lee, Seong-Ryong; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2010-03-01

    A scar is usually developed by an imbalance of collagen synthesis and degradation. It is believed that the flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) in onion extract play a role in reducing scar formation through inhibition of fibroblast activities. Even though several commercial products are composed of onion extract, the precise molecular mechanisms of onion extract in reduction of scar formation in skin are still largely unknown. In this study we investigated the effect both of onion extract and quercetin on the proliferation of fibroblasts, expression of type I collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Our data show that proliferation rates of fibroblasts were decreased in a dose-dependent manner of the onion extract and quercetin. The expression of type I collagen was not markedly changed by the onion extract and quercetin. Interestingly, the expression of MMP-1 was markedly increased by both onion extract and quercetin in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our data indicate that onion extract and quercetin play a role in the anti-scar effect in skin through up-regulation of MMP-1 expression, implying this agent is a promising material for reducing scar formation.

  12. New bifunctional metalloproteinase inhibitors: an integrated approach towards biological improvements and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sérgio M; Abate, Claudia C; Chaves, Sílvia; Marques, Fernanda; Santos, Isabel; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Santos, M Amélia

    2013-10-01

    The key role of some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on several pathological processes, including carcinogenesis and tumor growth, makes the development of MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) an attractive approach for cancer therapy. We present herein an integrated approach for the development of a new series of inhibitors of MMP2 and MMP14, two enzymes over-expressed by human ovarian cancer. As a first step, a new series of single model compounds bearing different zinc-binding groups