Science.gov

Sample records for 1-meter solar telescope

  1. 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Xu, J.

    In order to observe the fine structure of solar dynamical field and magnetic field, a 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope was developed by Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope is located by the Fuxian Lake in southwest China. In this paper, we will introduce some details of the telescope such as scientific goals, structures, instruments and the parameters of the site. First light observation of high resolution photosphere is introduced too.

  2. The Recent Development of the 1-meter Yunnan Solar Telescope System at the FuXian Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; YNST Team

    2012-08-01

    YNST (Yunnan Solar telescope) is a large solar instrument with a pure aperture of 980mm. It was designed for obtaining high-precision measurement for the solar magnetic field and atmospheric dynamic process. YNST is being installed at the Fuxian Lake in Yunnan, China. The solar observation tower includes two vertical multi-wavelength spectrographs and one Fabry-Perot interferometer system working in the 0.3 - 2.5 micron spectral range. The two spectrographs will supply high-resolution spectral data with short exposure time and a large field of view (180″×180″), as well as the ability to work in polarized light.

  3. Las Cumbres Observatory 1-Meter Global Science Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Dubberley, M.; Haldeman, B.; Haynes, R.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; staff, LCOGT

    2009-05-01

    We present the optical, mechanical and electronic design of the LCOGT 1-m telescope. These telescopes are planned to go in pairs to each of 6 sites worldwide, complementing 0.4m telescopes and 2-m telescopes at two existing sites. This science network is designed to provide continuously available photometric monitoring and spectroscopy of variable sources. The 1-m optical design is an f/8 quasi-RC system, with a doublet corrector and field flattener to provide good image quality out to 0.8 degrees. The field of view of the Fairchild 4K science CCD is 27 arcmin, with 0.39 arcsec pixels. The mechanical design includes a stiff C-ring equatorial mount and friction drive rollers, mounted on a triangular base that can be adjusted for latitude. Another friction drive is coupled at the Declination axis to the M1 mirror cell, that forms the main Optical Tube Assembly (OTA) structural element. The OTA design includes a stiff carbon fiber truss assembly, with offset vanes to an M2 drive that provides remote focus, tilt and collimation. The tube assembly weighs about 600 Kg, including Hextek mirrors, 4K science CCD, filter wheel, autoguiders and medium resolution spectrograph pick-off fiber. The telescopes will be housed in domes at existing observatory sites. They are designed to operate remotely and reliably under centralized control for automatic, optimized scheduling of observations with available hardware.

  4. C2PU: 1-Meter Telescopes for the GAIA-FUN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjoya, Ph.; Abe, L.; Rivet, J. P.

    2011-06-01

    C2PU stands in french for "Centre Pédagogique Planète Univers" (Planet and Universe Pedagogic Center). It is a project both for pedagogic and research purposes. It relies on the renewal of two 1-meter diameter telescopes. These two telescopes were earlier coupled as part of an interferometric instrument called SOIRDETE (for "Synthèse d'Ouverture en Infra Rouge avec DEux Telescopes"), described in Rabbia et al. 1990.

  5. Reverse and concurrent engineering applied of a high resolution equipment Berkut for 1-meter class telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Granados, R.; Farah, A.

    2014-07-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for astronomers; one of them is the atmosphere. The light that a star emits is refracted when it goes through the earth's atmosphere; the result of this is that the image of a punctual star is not what the physics would lead us to expect. At the Instituto de Astronomia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (IA-UNAM) an instrument has been developed called "Berkut", which uses a high resolution technique to improve these effects and obtain interesting and valuable scientific studies. In this paper we present the mechanical reengineering and acceptance test of Berkut. This instrument was design for taking images of high resolution. Essentially, it is composed by a set basic optics which is aligned and in focus with a 1- meter class telescope. It has its own electronic components for controlling remotely a filter wheel; that allows the exchange of the filters according to the requirements of the observer, a couple of objectives mounted in a translation stage, and a CCD camera for acquiring several images per second that are used in the speckle interferometry technique. A project like Berkut needs to be multidisciplinary; astronomy, engineering, optics, mechanics, electronics, and image processing are some of the areas of knowledge used. Berkut will be used in the telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in Tonantzintla, located in the state of Puebla, Mexico, but it can be used in any telescope 1 meter class. It is pretended to build another Berkuts for being used simultaneously in different telescopes, so it is important to keep the costs as low as possible. With this instrument we pretend to confirm the Hipparcos catalogue of binary stars besides finding exoplanets.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a view of a solar cell blanket deployed on a water table during the Solar Array deployment test. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Arrays provide power to the spacecraft. The arrays are mounted on opposite sides of the HST, on the forward shell of the Support Systems Module. Each array stands on a 4-foot mast that supports a retractable wing of solar panels 40-feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, in full extension. The arrays rotate so that the solar cells face the Sun as much as possible to harness the Sun's energy. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at the Goddard Space Center operates the array, extending the panels and maneuvering the spacecraft to focus maximum sunlight on the arrays. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST Solar Array was designed by the European Space Agency and built by British Aerospace. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  7. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  8. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  9. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  10. The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Ji, Haisheng

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope is the next generation ground-based solar telescope. The main science task of this telescope is to observe the ultra fine structures of the solar magnetic field and dynamic field. Due to the advantages in polarization detection and thermal controlling with a symmetrical circular system, the current design of CGST is a 6~8 meter circular symmetrical telescope. The results of simulations and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demands of most science cases not only in infrared bands but also in near infrared bands and even in visible bands. The prominences and the filaments are very important science cases of CGST. The special technologies for prominence observation will be developed, including the day time laser guide star and MCAO. CGST is proposed by all solar observatories and several institutes and universities in China. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  11. ZERODUR mirror substrates for solar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, T.; Jedamzik, R.; Hartmann, P.

    The zero-expansion glass ceramic material, ZERODUR, is well known for nighttime telescope mirror substrates. Also for solar telescopes, ZERODUR is often selected as mirror blank material. Examples are the Swedish 1m Solar Telescope (SST), the balloon-born telescope SUNRISE, and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The properties of ZERODUR are discussed with respect to the special technical requirements of solar observatories, resulting in the conclusion that mirrors made of this glass ceramic material are an excellent choice for solar telescopes.

  12. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  13. India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    India's 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is aimed primarily at carrying out observations of the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. A comprehensive site characterization program, that commenced in 2007, has identified two superb sites in the Himalayan region at altitudes greater than 4000-m that have extremely low water vapor content and are unaffected by monsoons. With an innovative optical design, the NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements to reduce the number of reflections and yield a high throughput with low polarization. In addition, it is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics to produce close to diffraction limited performance. To control atmospheric and thermal perturbations of the observations, the telescope will function with a fully open dome, to achieve its full potential atop a 25 m tower. Given its design, NLST can also operate at night, without compromising its solar performance. The post-focus instruments include broad-band and tunable Fabry-Pérot narrow-band imaging instruments; a high resolution spectropolarimeter and an Echelle spectrograph for night time astronomy. This project is led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and has national and international partners. Its geographical location will fill the longitudinal gap between Japan and Europe and is expected to be the largest solar telescope with an aperture larger than 1.5 m till the ATST and EST come into operation. An international consortium has been identified to build the NLST. The facility is expected to be commissioned by 2016.

  14. Considerations for the next generation of solar telescopes: A systems approach to solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A.

    2010-06-01

    The exciting new high resolution images from the one meter Sunrise balloon telescope and the first images from the 1.6 meter Big Bear telescope together with the continuing data from the 1 meter Swedish Solar Observatory demonstrate the promise of the new generation of multimeter solar telescopes. While the promise of the new generation of telescopes is great the technical challenges to build them will require the efforts of a significant fraction of the solar community. In this talk I will emphasize the need for an integrated systems approach to the development of the telescope, its instruments, its software, and its operations and management structures. The experience of several decades of space mission has taught us a great deal about the value of planning mission development from the definition of the primary scientific objectives to the delivery of the data to the science community. Much of these lessons learned, often painfully, should provide guidance to those in developing the new telescope systems.

  15. The feasibility of large refracting telescopes for solar coronal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Elmore, David F.; Kolinski, Donald J.

    2008-07-01

    Measuring magnetic fields in the solar corona requires a large aperture telescope with exceptionally low levels of scattered light. For internally-occulted coronagraphs the main source is scattering from dust or microroughness on the primary lens or mirror. We show refracting primaries offer significantly lower levels for both sources. To observe magnetic fields in the solar corona with scientifically interesting spatial and temporal resolutions, a 1 meter aperture or larger is required. For a long time such large-scale refractors have been deemed impractical or impossible to construct due to gravitational deformation of the lens. We present the results of finite-element and optical analyses of the gravitational deformation, stress-induced birefringence, and absorptive heating of a (see manuscript)1.5 meter f/5 fused silica lens. These studies demonstrate the traditional objections to large refractors are unfounded and large refracting primaries have unique capabilities.

  16. Planning the 8-meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Jacques M.; Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2013-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) will be a diffraction limited solar telescope optimized for the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region (0.8 - 2.5 microns). Its diffraction limit will be reached by the incorporation of Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) enhanced by image restoration techniques to achieve uniform (u.v) plane coverage over the angular spatial frequency region allowed by its 8-meter aperture. Thus it will complement the imaging capabilities of 4-meter telescopes being planned elsewhere which are optimized for the visible (VIS) spectral region (300 - 1000 nm) In the NIR spectral regions the CGST will have access to unique spectral features which will improve the diagnostics of the solar atmosphere. These include the CaII lines near 860 nm , the HeI lines near 1083 nm, the 1074 nm FeXIII coronal lines, the large Zeeman-split FeI line at 1548 nm, and (v) the H- continuum absorption minimum at 1.6 micron. Especially in sunspot umbrae the simultaneous observation of continua and lines across the NIR spectral range will cover a substantial depth range in the solar atmosphere. Of course the mid- and far- infrared regions are also available for unequalled high-angular resolution solar observations, for example, in the Hydrogen Bracket lines, CO molecular bands, and the MgI emission line at 12.3 microns. The CGST is a so-called ring telescope in which the light is captured by a 1 meter wide segmented ring or by a ring of 7 smaller off-axis aperture telescopes. The open central area of the telescope is large. The advantages of such a ring configuration is that (a) it covers all the spatial frequencies out to those corresponding to its outer diameter, (b) its circular symmetry makes it polarization neutral, (c) its large central hole helps thermal control, and (d) it provides ample space for the MCAO system and instrumentation in the Gregorian focus. Even though optimized for the NIR, we expect to use the CGST also at visible wavelengths in the so

  17. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper descibes the design and the characteristics of the Multispectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), a new rocket spectroheliograph to be launched in August 1990. The MSSTA includes five multilayer Ritchey-Chretien telescopes covering the spectral range 150-300 A and eight multilayer Herschelian telescopes covering the spectral range 40-1550 A, making it possible to obtain spectrohelipgrams over the soft X-ray/extreme UV/FUV spectral range. The MSSTA is expected to obtain information regarding the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere in the temperature range 10 to the 4th-10 to the 7th K.

  18. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritschler, Alexandra; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Berukoff, Steven

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is a versatile high resolution ground-based solar telescope designed to explore the dynamic Sun and its magnetism throughout the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the faint corona. The DKIST is currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui, Hawai'i, and expected to commence with science operations in 2019. In this contribution we provide an overview of the high-level science operations concepts from proposal preparation and submission to the flexible and dynamic planning and execution of observations.

  19. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope mount assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Mark; Cho, Myung; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hubbard, Rob; Lee, Joon Pyo; Wagner, Jeremy

    2006-06-01

    When constructed on the summit of Haleakala on the island of Maui, Hawaii, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the world's largest solar telescope. The ATST is a unique design that utilizes a state-of-the-art off-axis Gregorian optical layout with five reflecting mirrors delivering light to a Nasmyth instrument rotator, and nine reflecting mirrors delivering light to an instrument suite located on a large diameter rotating coude lab. The design of the telescope mount structure, which supports and positions the mirrors and scientific instruments, has presented noteworthy challenges to the ATST engineering staff. Several novel design solutions, as well as adaptations of existing telescope technologies to the ATST application, are presented in this paper. Also shown are plans for the control system and drives of the structure.

  20. NLST: India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Soltau, D.; Kärcher, H.; Süß, M.; Berkefeld, T.

    2010-06-01

    This article introduces the new Indian 2 m telescope which has been designed by MT Mechatronics in a detailed conceptual design study for the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. We describe the background of the project and the science goals which shall be addressed with this telescope. NLST is a solar telescope with high optical throughput and will be equipped with an integrated Adaptive Optics system. It is optimized for a site with the kind of seeing and wind conditions as they are expected at a lake site in the Himalayan mountains. The telescope can also be used for certain night time applications. We also give the scientific rationale for this class of telescope.

  1. Mirrors for solar telescopes made from ZERODUR glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Jedamzik, Ralf; Hartmann, Peter

    2007-09-01

    The zero expansion glass ceramic material, ZERODUR®, is well known for night-time telescope mirror substrates. Also for solar telescopes ZERODUR® is often selected as mirror blank material. Examples are the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), the balloon-born telescope SUNRISE, and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The properties of ZERODUR® are discussed with respect to the special technical requirements of solar observatories, resulting in the conclusion that mirrors made of this glass ceramic material are an excellent choice for solar telescopes.

  2. The telescope control system of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Denker, C.; Choi, S.; Verdoni, A. P.; Wang, H.

    2006-06-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is an advanced solar telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It features a 1.6-m clear aperture with an off-axis Gregorian configuration. An open structure will be employed to improve the local seeing. The NST Telescope Control System (TCS) is a complex system, which provides powerful and robust control over the entire telescope system. At the same time, it needs to provide a simple and clear user interface to scientists and observers. We present an overview of the design and implementation of the TCS as a distributed system including its several subsystems such as the Telescope Pointing and Tracking Subsystem, Wavefront Sensing Subsystem etc. The communications between different subsystems are handled by the Internet Communication Engine (Ice) middleware.

  3. Solar optical telescope primary mirror controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. J.; Liu, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a technique to control the articulated primary mirror (APM) of the solar optical telescope (SOT) is discussed. Program results indicate that a single, all digital controller has sufficient capability to totally handle the computational requirements for control of the SOT APM.

  4. Soviet radio telescopes and solar radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Gel'Freikh, Georgii B.; Zaitsev, Valerii V.; Iliasov, Iurii P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.

    Soviet radio telescopes of different type and purpose are described, with particular emphasis on very long baseline interferometry. Soviet radio-astronomy studies of solar radio emission and the interplanetary medium are also discussed, with particular attention given to the investigation of the sun's supercorona and the interplanetary plasma.

  5. The cern axion solar telescope (CAST)

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, C. E.; Arik, E.; Autiero, D.; Avignone, F. T.; Barth, K.; Bowyer, S. M.; Brauninger, H.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrian, S.; Celebi, G.; Cetin, S.; Collar, J. I.; Creswick, R.; Delbart, A.; Delattre, M.; DiLella, L.; De Oliveira, R.; Eleftheriadis, Ch.; Erdutan, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H. A.; Fiorini, C.; Geralis, Th.; Giomataris, I.; Girard, T. A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Golubev, N. A.; Hasinoff, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jeanneau, F.; Knopf, M. A.; Kovzelev, A. V.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Krečak, Z.; Lakić, B.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Lutz, G.; Longoni, A.; Luzon, G.; Mailov, A.; Matveev, V. A.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz, A.; Pitts, W. K.; Placci, A.; Postoev, V. E.; Raffelt, G. G.; Riege, H.; Sampieto, M.; Sarsa, M.; Savvidis, I.; Stipčević, M.; Thomas, C. W.; Thompson, R. C.; Valco, P.; Villar, J. A.; Villierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Wilcox, W.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.

    2002-07-01

    A decommissioned LHC test magnet is being prepared as the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. The magnet has a field of 9.6 Tesla and length of 10 meters. It is being mounted on a platform to track the sun over plus or minus 8 to the sixth power vertically and plus or minus 45 to the sixth power, horizontally.

  6. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  7. Design of a telescope pointing and tracking subsystem for the Big Bear Solar Observatory New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsik, J. R.; Yang, G.

    2006-06-01

    The New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory will use a distributed system to control the telescope, dome, adaptive optics, thermal environment and instrumentation. The Telescope Pointing and Tracking Subsystem has the tasks of controlling the telescope dome and acting as a wrapper for the telescope mount software (provided by the mount manufacturer) and adding the specific control features needed for a large solar telescope. These include features for offset pointing to specific regions on the solar disk, safety interlock systems for the primary mirror, and provision for the alignment of the relatively small dome opening with the telescope optical axis.

  8. The New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Marquette, W. H.; Varsik, J.; Wang, H.; Goode, P. R.; Moretto, G.; Kuhn, J.; Coulter, R.

    2004-05-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory is the replacement of the current 65 cm vacuum telescope. We present the optical design of this novel off-axis telescope with a 1.6 m clear aperture. The NST has been designed to exploit the excellent seeing conditions at a lake-site observatory and provide data with a spatial resolution close the telescope's diffraction limit from the visible to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region. The post-focus instrumentation is located in the Coudé-room, a new optical laboratory below the observing floor, which also hosts a high-order adaptive optics system. The main instruments are two imaging spectro-polarimeters for visible and NIR observations and a real-time image reconstruction system for visible-light multi-color photometry. This unique combination of instruments will realize its full potential in the studies of active region evolution and space weather forecasts.

  9. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  10. Solar rejection for an orbiting telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnberg, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses some of the constraints that the optical designer must deal with in optimizing spaceborne sensors that must look at or near the sun. Analytical techniques are described for predicting the effects of stray radiation from sources such as mirror scatter, baffle scatter, diffraction, and ghost images. In addition, the paper describes a sensor design that has been flown on the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab) to aid astronauts in locating solar flares. In addition to keeping stray radiation to a minimum, the design had to be nondegradable by the direct solar heat load.

  11. The New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.

    2011-05-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis solar telescope (the "NST") in Big Bear Lake enjoyed first light in January 2009. In the Summer of 2009, high resolution, speckle corrected observations were made in TiO and Halpha. In the Summer of 2010, adaptive optics were implemented and the first magnetograms were obtained. The NST is first new U.S. facility class solar telescope in a generation. The NST has an off-axis Gregorian configuration consisting of a parabolic primary, heat-stop, elliptical secondary and diagonal flats. The focal ratio of the primary mirror is f/2.4, and the final ratio is f/50. The working wavelength range covers from 0.4 to 1.7 microns in the Coude Lab beneath the telescope and all wavelengths including the far infrared before the entrance window to the Coude Lab. Observational results will be introduced including revealing granular-scale chromospheric jets with their origin in the dark intergranular lanes, revealing bright lanes in granules, demonstration of equipartition between photospheric magnetic fields and plasma flow, and some unexpected results in the evolution of bright points.

  12. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, L.; Barr, J.; Dalrymple, N.; Fraser, M.; Hubbard, R.; Wagner, J.; Warner, M.

    2006-06-01

    Telescope enclosure design is based on an increasingly standard set of criteria. Enclosures must provide failsafe protection in a harsh environment for an irreplaceable piece of equipment; must allow effective air flushing to minimize local seeing while still attenuating wind-induced vibration of the telescope; must reliably operate so that the dome is never the reason for observatory down time; must provide access to utilities, lifting devices and support facilities; and they must be affordable within the overall project budget. The enclosure for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has to satisfy all these challenging requirements plus one more. To eliminate so-called external dome seeing, the exterior surfaces of the enclosure must be maintained at or just below ambient air temperature while being subjected to the full solar loading of an observing day. Further complicating the design of the ATST enclosure and support facilities are the environmental sensitivities and high construction costs at the selected site - the summit of Haleakala on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Previous development work has determined an appropriate enclosure shape to minimize solar exposure while allowing effective interior flushing, and has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling the exterior skin temperature with an active cooling system. This paper presents the evolution of the design since site selection and how the enclosure and associated thermal systems have been tailored to the particular climatic and terrain conditions of the site. Also discussed are load-reduction strategies that have been identified through thermal modeling, CFD modeling, and other analyses to refine and economize the thermal control systems.

  13. The Solar Electron And Proton Telescope (sept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, P.; Johlander, B.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Sanderson, T.; Habinc, S.

    The Solar Electron and Proton Telescope consists of two dual double-ended mag- net/foil particle telescopes which cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. The instrument utilizes an ASIC-PDFE (Particle Detection Front End), which provides low noise charge sensi- tive pre-amplifier, filters, pulse shaper, 8-bit ADC and anti-coincidence electronics for a single solid-state detector. The counts are accumulated in 256 linear bins on a radia- tion hardened SRAM under control of an FPGA and read out once every minute by the supervising DPU. The FPGA provides the possibility of quasi-logarithmic binning be- fore transferring the data to the main DPU. A simple ramp pulser provides electronic in-flight instrument calibration and testing. The complete instrument with 4 complete channels has a mass of 500 g and consumes 500 mW of power. The maximum count rate is 250 ksamples per second per channel. The instrument is to be flown on the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission with intended launch in 2005. The talk describes the technical implementation of the instrument.

  14. Solar synoptic telescope. Characteristics, possibilities, and limits of design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klvaňa, M.; Sobotka, M.; Švanda, M.

    2011-10-01

    A rapid evolution of electronics and information technologies makes it possible to use new original designs of synoptic telescopes for solar observations, to increase the demands on their functions, and to fully automate the observation. However, there are hardware and software limits that strongly influence the working capabilities of synoptic telescopes. In this contribution, we analyze relationships between the synoptic telescope's characteristics, the parameters of image digitization, the control, the achievable degree of automation of observations, and the possibilities to implement functions connected with the solar activity monitoring and image archiving. The principles listed above serve as a basis for the design study of the Auxiliary Full-Disc Telescope for the European Solar Telescope (EST), a pan-European project of a large 4-meter solar telescope.

  15. Wavelet Analysis of Space Solar Telescope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi-An; Jin, Sheng-Zhen; Wang, Jing-Yu; Ning, Shu-Nian

    2003-12-01

    The scientific satellite SST (Space Solar Telescope) is an important research project strongly supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Every day, SST acquires 50 GB of data (after processing) but only 10GB can be transmitted to the ground because of limited time of satellite passage and limited channel volume. Therefore, the data must be compressed before transmission. Wavelets analysis is a new technique developed over the last 10 years, with great potential of application. We start with a brief introduction to the essential principles of wavelet analysis, and then describe the main idea of embedded zerotree wavelet coding, used for compressing the SST images. The results show that this coding is adequate for the job.

  16. Stability studies of Solar Optical Telescope dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Pal, Parimal K.; Ruthven, Gregory P.

    1987-01-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is designed to operate as an attached payload mounted on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) in the cargo bay of the Shuttle Orbiter. Pointing and control of SOT is accomplished by an active Articulated Primary Mirror (APM), an active Tertiary Mirror (TM), an elaborate set of optical sensors, electromechanical actuators and programmable controllers. The structural interactions of this complex control system are significant factors in the stability of the SOT. The preliminary stability study results of the SOT dynamical system are presented. Structural transfer functions obtained from the NASTRAN model of the structure were used. These studies apply to a single degree of freedom (elevation). Fully integrated model studies will be conducted in the future.

  17. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope system safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Robert P.; Bulau, Scott E.; Shimko, Steve; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    System safety for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the joint responsibility of a Maui-based safety team and the Tucson-based systems engineering group. The DKIST project is committed to the philosophy of "Safety by Design". To that end the project has implemented an aggressive hazard analysis, risk assessment, and mitigation system. It was initially based on MIL-STD-882D, but has since been augmented in a way that lends itself to direct application to the design of our Global Interlock System (GIS). This was accomplished by adopting the American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems (ANSI/RIA R15.06) for all identified hazards that involve potential injury to personnel. In this paper we describe the details of our augmented hazard analysis system and its use by the project. Since most of the major hardware for the DKIST (e.g., the enclosure, and telescope mount assembly) has been designed and is being constructed by external contractors, the DKIST project has required our contractors to perform a uniform hazard analysis of their designs using our methods. This paper also describes the review and follow-up process implemented by the project that is applied to both internal and external subsystem designs. Our own weekly hazard analysis team meetings have now largely turned to system-level hazards and hazards related to specific tasks that will be encountered during integration, test, and commissioning and maintenance operations. Finally we discuss a few lessons learned, describing things we might do differently if we were starting over today.

  18. New vacuum solar telescope and observations with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Xu, Jun; Gu, Bo-Zhong; Wang, Sen; You, Jian-Qi; Shen, Long-Xiang; Lu, Ru-Wei; Jin, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Lin-Fei; Lou, Ke; Li, Zhi; Liu, Guang-Qian; Xu, Zhi; Rao, Chang-Hui; Hu, Qi-Qian; Li, Ru-Feng; Fu, Hao-Wen; Wang, Feng; Bao, Men-Xian; Wu, Ming-Chan; Zhang, Bo-Rong

    2014-06-01

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is a one meter vacuum solar telescope that aims to observe fine structures on the Sun. The main goals of NVST are high resolution imaging and spectral observations, including measurements of the solar magnetic field. NVST is the primary ground-based facility used by the Chinese solar research community in this solar cycle. It is located by Fuxian Lake in southwest China, where the seeing is good enough to perform high resolution observations. We first introduce the general conditions at the Fuxian Solar Observatory and the primary science cases of NVST. Then, the basic structures of this telescope and instruments are described in detail. Finally, some typical high resolution data of the solar photosphere and chromosphere are also shown.

  19. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. V - Temperature diagnostic response to the optically thin solar plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deforest, Craig E.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Allen, Max J.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Willis, Tom D.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    The compact soft X-ray/EUV/FUV multilayer coated telescopes developed for solar chromosphere, corona, and corona/solar-wind interface studies permit the use of conventional (Cassegrain, Herschelian, etc.) configurations. The multilayer coatings also allow a narrow-wavelength band to be selected for imaging. NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array is composed of 17 of these compact telescopes; attention is given to their ability to obtain temperature-diagnostic information concerning the solar plasma.

  20. Active control of the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yichun; Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong; Qin, Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation solar telescope of China with diameter of 8 meter. The unique feature of CGST is that its primary is a ring, which facilitates the polarization detection and thermal control. In its present design and development phase, two primary mirror patterns are considered. For one thing, the primary mirror is expected to construct with mosaic mirror with 24 trapezoidal (or petal) segments, for another thing, a monolithic mirror is also a candidate for its primary mirror. Both of them depend on active control technique to maintain the optical quality of the ring mirror. As a solar telescope, the working conditions of the CGST are quite different from those of the stellar telescopes. To avoid the image deterioration due to the mirror seeing and dome seeing, especially in the case of the concentration of flux in a solar telescope, large aperture solar projects prefer to adopt open telescopes and open domes. In this circumstance, higher wind loads act on the primary mirror directly, which will cause position errors and figure errors of the primary with matters worse than those of the current 10-meter stellar telescopes with dome protect. Therefore, it gives new challenges to the active control capability, telescope structure design, and wind shielding design. In this paper, the study progress of active control of CGST for its mosaic and monolithic mirror are presented, and the wind effects on such two primary mirrors are also investigated.

  1. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: Science Drivers and Construction Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, Thomas; Berger, Thomas; McMullin, Joseph; Keil, Stephen; Goode, Phil; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeff; Rosner, Robert; Casini, Roberto; Lin, Haosheng; Woeger, Friedrich; von der Luehe, Oskar; Tritschler, Alexandra; Atst Team

    2013-04-01

    The 4-meter Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) currently under construction on the 3000 meter peak of Haleakala on Maui, Hawaii will be the world's most powerful solar telescope and the leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism. The solar atmosphere is permeated by a 'magnetic carpet' that constantly reweaves itself to control solar irradiance and its effects on Earth's climate, the solar wind, and space weather phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. Precise measurement of solar magnetic fields requires a large-aperture solar telescope capable of resolving a few tens of kilometers on the solar surface. With its 4 meter aperture, the ATST will for the first time resolve magnetic structure at the intrinsic scales of plasma convection and turbulence. The ATST's ability to perform accurate and precise spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements of magnetic fields in all layers of the solar atmosphere, including accurate mapping of the elusive coronal magnetic fields, will be transformative in advancing our understanding of the magnetic solar atmosphere. The ATST will utilize the Sun as an important astro- and plasma-physics "laboratory" demonstrating key aspects of omnipresent cosmic magnetic fields. The ATST construction effort is led by the US National Solar Observatory. State-of-the-art instrumentation will be constructed by US and international partner institutions. The technical challenges the ATST is facing are numerous and include the design of the off-axis main telescope, the development of a high order adaptive optics system that delivers a corrected beam to the instrument laboratory, effective handling of the solar heat load on optical and structural elements, and minimizing scattered light to enable observations of the faint corona. The ATST project has transitioned from design and development to its construction phase. The project has awarded design and fabrication contracts for major telescope subsystems. Site

  2. Bringing Perfect Vision to the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevich, Russ; Johansson, Erik; Johnson, Luke; Cavaco, Jeff; National Solar Observatory

    2016-01-01

    The world's largest ground-based solar telescope is one step closer to operation with the acceptance of the deformable mirror engineered by AOA Xinetics, a Northrop Grumman Corporation company. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), currently under construction in Haleakala, Hawaii, will offer unprecedented high-resolution images of the sun using the latest adaptive optics technology to provide its distortion-free imaging.Led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the Inouye Solar Telescope will help scientists better understand how magnetic fields affect the physical properties of the Sun, what roles they play in our solar system and how they affect Earth.Ground-based telescopes, whether observing the sun or the night sky must contend with atmospheric turbulence that acts as a flexible lens, constantly reshaping observed images. This turbulence makes research on solar activity difficult and drives the need for the latest adaptive optics technology.To provide DKIST with the distortion-free imaging it requires, AOA Xinetics designed a deformable mirror with 1,600 actuators, four times the normal actuator density. This deformable mirror (DM) is instrumental in removing all of the atmospheric blurriness that would otherwise limit the telescope's performance. The mirror also has an internal thermal management system to handle the intense solar energy coming from DKIST's telescope. This poster provides the history behind this incredible success story.

  3. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: integration testing and commissioning planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Simon; Bulau, Scott E.; Gonzales, Kerry; Hansen, Eric; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Eric; Liang, Chen; Kneale, Ruth A.; McBride, William; Sekulic, Predrag; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), has been in its construction phase since 2010, anticipating the onset of the integration, test, and commissioning (IT&C) phase late in 2016, and the commencement of science verification in early 2019. In this paper we describe the planning of the Integration, Testing and Commissioning (IT&C) phase of the project.

  4. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{ňa, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  5. Polarization Model for the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S.

    2014-10-01

    It is essential to properly calibrate the instrumental polarization for solar telescopes, if one wants to achieve a high spectro-polarimetric accuracy. Model fitting is an efficient calibration method for telescopes with alt-azimuth mount. We have constructed an ideal model for the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which describes its pupil and time-dependent polarization properties. An integration of polarization ray-tracing in pupil is implemented for solving the net polarization of main optics. The time and season-dependent polarization of the Coudé optics is calculated based on the NVST geometry and complex refractive index of ideal Al film.

  6. Photographic films for the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; Gilliam, Lou; November, Larry; Brown, Todd; Dewan, Clyde A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocketborne Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) uses an array of Ritchey-Chretien, Cassegrain, and Herschelian telescopes to produce ultrahigh-resolution full-disk images of the sun within the soft X-ray, EUV, and FUV ranges. Such imaging of the solar disk and corona out to several solar radii placed great demands on the MSSTA's data storage capabilities; in addition, its photographic films required very low outgassing rates. Results are presented from calibration tests conducted on the MSSTA's emulsions, based on measurements at NIST's synchrotron facility.

  7. Infrared Observations from the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda

    2013-10-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture solar telescope in Big Bear is operational and with its adaptive optics (AO) system it provides diffraction limited solar imaging and polarimetry in the near-infrared (NIR). While the AO system is being upgraded to provide diffraction limited imaging at bluer wavelengths, the instrumentation and observations are concentrated in the NIR. The New Solar Telescope (NST) operates in campaigns, making it the ideal ground-based telescope to provide complementary/supplementary data to SDO and Hinode. The NST makes photometric observations in Hα (656.3 nm) and TiO (705.6 nm) among other lines. As well, the NST collects vector magnetograms in the 1565 nm lines and is beginning such observations in 1083.0 nm. Here we discuss the relevant NST instruments, including AO, and present some results that are germane to NASA solar missions.

  8. Adaptive Optics for the German Solar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, D.; Brunner, R.; von der Lühe, O.

    Adaptive Optics is a precondition to get high resolution observations near the diffraction limit when the integration times become larger than a few milliseconds At the KIS there is a project to upgrade the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Tenerife with an adaptive optics system (KAOS = Kiepenheuer-Institut adaptives Optiksystem). The optical concept is discussed and first measurements with the KAOS wavefront sensor and their implications are presented. Considerations with respect to AO for the future GREGOR telescope are also discussed.

  9. Development of new solar radio telescope in NICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Yuki; Watari, Shinichi; Ishii, Mamoru; Ishibashi, Hiromitsu; Iwai, Kazumasa

    Solar radio burst is one of the most important events for not only space weather forecasting but also investigating high-energy phenomena in solar corona. The GHz solar radio waves are synchrotron radiation emitted by high energy electrons at lower corona. On the other hand, the MHz solar radio bursts, especially type II and III bursts, are radiated via mode conversion of Langmuir waves excited by high energy electrons. These high energy electrons are accelerated at reconnection regions in solar flare and shock waves in solar corona. Therefore, MHz and GHz solar radio waves are closely related each other through the accelerated high energy electrons. So, wide frequency range (MHz to GHz) radio wave observations with high time resolution are required to comprehensively understand high energy phenomena in solar corona. We have been operating solar radio spectrograph called HiRAS for over twenty years in Hiraiso Solar Observatory, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), but the system has been decrepit and radio wave environment in Hiraiso is getting worse. So, we have developed a new solar radio telescope in Yamagawa radio observation facility, NICT. The frequency range and time resolution in the system is 70MHz to 9.0GHz and 8 msec. In this presentation, we introduce status in progress for our new solar radio telescope.

  10. Solar activities observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuhong

    2015-08-01

    The New Vacuum Solar Telescope is the most important facility of the Fuxian Solar Observatory in China. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST observations, we investigate the solar activities in the chromosphere and obtain some new results. (1) Observations of a flux rope tracked by filament activation (Yang et al. 2014a). The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope. Then the filament is activated and the material flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The flux rope can be detected in both low temperature and high temperature lines, and there exists a striking anti-correlation between the Hα and EUV lines, which could imply some mild heating of cool filament material to coronal temperatures during the filament activation. (2) Fine structures and overlying loops of homologous confined solar flares (Yang et al. 2014b). At the pre-flare stage, there exists a reconnection between small loops. During the flare processes, the overlying loops, some of which are tracked by activated dark materials, do not break out. These direct observations may illustrate the physical mechanism of confined flares, i.e., magnetic reconnection between the emerging loops and the pre-existing loops triggers flares and the overlying loops prevent the flares from being eruptive. (3) Magnetic reconnection between small-scale loops (Yang et al. 2015). We report the solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale loops. The observed signatures are consistent with the predictions by reconnection models. The thickness and length of the current sheet are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. The reconnection process contains a slow step and a rapid step. We suggest that the successive slow reconnection changes the conditions around the reconnection site and disrupts the instability, thus leading to the rapid approach of the anti

  11. ONSET-A New Multi-Wavelength Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Ding, M. D.; Dai, Y.; Li, Z.

    2012-06-01

    A new multi-wavelength solar telescope, Optical and Near-infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET), is constructed by Nanjing University, being run in cooperation with Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. ONSET is able to observe the Sun in three wavelength windows: He I 10830 Å, Hα and white-light at 3600 Å or 4250 Å. Full-disk or partial solar images with a field of 10 arcmin at three wavelengths can be obtained nearly simultaneously. It is designed to trace solar eruptions with high spatial and temporal resolutions. This telescope has been installed at a new solar observing site near the Fuxian Lake, Yunnan Province. The site is located at E102N24, with an altitude of 1722 m. The seeing is stable and very nice. We give a brief description of the scientific objectives and the basic structure of ONSET. Some preliminary results are also shown.

  12. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Critical Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), is under construction on Haleakala, Maui HI, with expected instrument integration in 2018 and start of operations during the summer of 2019. In preparation, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) is working with the Science Working Group to formulate a critical science plan for early operations and is calling for community involvement in all stages of its development. The first step in this process is the definition of a set of critical science themes and, under each of these, use-cases that outline the scientific motivation along with the instrument suite and high level observing strategies to be employed. The use-cases will later be refined into observing proposals, which will guide the development of efficient operations tools and procedures and provide the framework for some of the first science observations to be made with the telescope. A web interface has been established to facilitate community engagement.

  13. Mirror seeing control of large infrared solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Xinnan; Meng, Xiaohui; Ni, Houkun

    2010-07-01

    To obtain high resolution infrared image, both low photon efficiency and long wavelength of infrared light requires enough large aperture telescope, but large aperture vacuum windows can hardly achieve high optical quality, so open structure becomes the only viable choice for large infrared solar telescope. In addition to the effects of atmospheric turbulence, open solar telescopes suffer from the heating of the optics by sunlight, especially primary mirror heating. These factors cause the image to shiver and become blurred, and increase infrared observing noise. Since blowing air across the front surface of the primary mirror doesn't have the necessary heat transfer coefficient to remove the absorbed heat load, it must be cooled down to maintained at a temperature between 0K and 2K below ambient air temperature to reduce the effects of turbulence. This paper will introduce some cooling methods and simulation results of primary mirror in large infrared solar telescope. On the other hand, mirror material with nice thermal conductivity can reduce the temperature difference between mirror surface and air, and mirror surface polishing at infrared wavelength can be comparatively easier than at visible wavelength, so it is possible to select low cost metal mirror as primary mirror of infrared solar telescope. To analyze the technical feasibility of metal mirror serving as primary mirror, this paper also give some polishing results of aluminum mirror with electroless nickel coating.

  14. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope systems engineering update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Simon; Hansen, Eric; Hubbard, Robert P.; Kneale, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), has been in its construction phase since 2010, anticipating the onset of integration, test, and commissioning (IT and C) phase late in 2016, and the commencement of science verification in early 2019. In this paper we describe the role of Systems Engineering during these final phases of the project, and present some of the tools, techniques, and methods in use for these purposes. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of lessons learned so far including things we might do differently next time.

  15. Parallel Image Reconstruction for New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Wang, Feng; Xiang, Yong Yuan; Zheng, Yan Fang; Liu, Ying Bo; Deng, Hui; Ji, Kai Fan

    2014-04-01

    Many advanced ground-based solar telescopes improve the spatial resolution of observation images using an adaptive optics (AO) system. As any AO correction remains only partial, it is necessary to use post-processing image reconstruction techniques such as speckle masking or shift-and-add (SAA) to reconstruct a high-spatial-resolution image from atmospherically degraded solar images. In the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST), the spatial resolution in solar images is improved by frame selection and SAA. In order to overcome the burden of massive speckle data processing, we investigate the possibility of using the speckle reconstruction program in a real-time application at the telescope site. The code has been written in the C programming language and optimized for parallel processing in a multi-processor environment. We analyze the scalability of the code to identify possible bottlenecks, and we conclude that the presented code is capable of being run in real-time reconstruction applications at NVST and future large aperture solar telescopes if care is taken that the multi-processor environment has low latencies between the computation nodes.

  16. NST: Thermal Modeling for a Large Aperture Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Roy

    2011-05-01

    Late in the 1990s the Dutch Open Telescope demonstrated that internal seeing in open, large aperture solar telescopes can be controlled by flushing air across the primary mirror and other telescope structures exposed to sunlight. In that system natural wind provides a uniform air temperature throughout the imaging volume, while efficiently sweeping heated air away from the optics and mechanical structure. Big Bear Solar Observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST) was designed to realize that same performance in an enclosed system by using both natural wind through the dome and forced air circulation around the primary mirror to provide the uniform air temperatures required within the telescope volume. The NST is housed in a conventional, ventilated dome with a circular opening, in place of the standard dome slit, that allows sunlight to fall only on an aperture stop and the primary mirror. The primary mirror is housed deep inside a cylindrical cell with only minimal openings in the side at the level of the mirror. To date, the forced air and cooling systems designed for the NST primary mirror have not been implemented, yet the telescope regularly produces solar images indicative of the absence of mirror seeing. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the NST primary mirror system along with measurements of air flows within the dome, around the telescope structure, and internal to the mirror cell are used to explain the origin of this seemingly incongruent result. The CFD analysis is also extended to hypothetical systems of various scales. We will discuss the results of these investigations.

  17. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Construction Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, T. R.; Warner, M.; Berger, T.; Keil, S. L.

    2013-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will provide observing capabilities in the visible through infrared wavelengths with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. Designed to study solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, CMEs and variability in the Sun's output, the ATST will be capable of detecting and spatially resolving the fundamental astrophysical processes at their intrinsic scales throughout the solar atmosphere. The 4-m class facility is currently under construction in Maui, HI on the Haleakala Observatories site with a scheduled completion of July 2019. Since the start of site construction in December of 2012, significant progress has been made toward the development of the observatory buildings (excavation, foundations, working towards the steel erection). In addition, off-site, the major subsystems of the telescope have been contracted, designs are complete and fabrication is underway. We review the science drivers, design details, technical challenges, and provide a construction status update on the subsystems and their integration.

  18. The South Pole, Antarctica, Solar Radio Telescope (SPASRT) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrard, A. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Gary, D. E.; Kujawski, J. T.; Nita, G. M.; Melville, R.; Stillinger, A.; Jeffer, G.

    2014-12-01

    The study of the sun in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum furthers our understanding of fundamental solar processes observed in the X-ray, UV, and visible regions of the spectrum. For example, the study of solar radio bursts, which have been shown to cause serious disruptions of technologies at Earth, are essential for advancing our knowledge and understanding of solar flares and their relationship to coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles, as well as the underlying particle acceleration mechanisms associated with these processes. In addition, radio coverage of the solar atmosphere could yield completely new insights into the variations of output solar energy, including Alfven wave propagation through the solar atmosphere and into the solar wind, which can potentially modulate and disturb the solar wind and Earth's geospace environment. In this presentation we discuss the development, construction, and testing of the South Pole, Antarctica, Solar Radio Telescope that is planned for installation at South Pole. The system will allow for 24-hour continuous, long-term observations of the sun across the 1-18 GHz frequency band and allow for truly continuous solar observations. We show that this system will enable unique scientific investigations of the solar atmosphere.

  19. G-133: A soft X ray solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Memorie K.; Campbell, Branton; Roming, Peter W. A.; Spute, Mark K.; Moody, J. Ward

    1992-10-01

    The GOLDHELOX Project, NASA payload number G-133, is a robotic soft x ray solar telescope designed and built by an organization of undergraduate students. The telescope is designed to observe the sun at a wavelength of 171 to 181 A. Since we require observations free from atmospheric interference, the telescope will be launched in a NASA Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister with a Motorized Door Assembly (MDA). In this paper we primarily discuss the most important elements of the telescope itself. We also elaborate on some of the technical difficulties associated with doing good science in space on a small budget (about $100,000) and mention ways in which controlling the instrument environment has reduced the complexity of the system and thus saved us money.

  20. G-133: A soft x ray solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Memorie K.; Campbell, Branton; Roming, Peter W. A.; Spute, Mark K.; Moody, J. Ward

    1992-01-01

    The GOLDHELOX Project, NASA payload number G-133, is a robotic soft x ray solar telescope designed and built by an organization of undergraduate students. The telescope is designed to observe the sun at a wavelength of 171 to 181 A. Since we require observations free from atmospheric interference, the telescope will be launched in a NASA Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister with a Motorized Door Assembly (MDA). In this paper we primarily discuss the most important elements of the telescope itself. We also elaborate on some of the technical difficulties associated with doing good science in space on a small budget (about $100,000) and mention ways in which controlling the instrument environment has reduced the complexity of the system and thus saved us money.

  1. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  2. Telescope beam-profile diagnostics and the solar limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles A.; Roellig, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic method is described for determining the solar limb brightness profile properly corrected for spurious limb darkening caused by the far wings of the resolving beams encountered in large far-infrared and radio telescopes. When the far wings of the beam can be independently measured this problem is usually amenable to standard deconvolution procedures. Under a broad range of well-defined cases, solutions to the deconvolution problem are unique to within the discrimination provided by the core of the beam profile. The theory is applied to solar limb scans made recently on the James Clerk Maxwell Telscope to show solar limb brightening in 850 micron radiation.

  3. Telescope beam-profile diagnostics and the solar limb

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.A.; Roellig, T.L. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-07-01

    The basic method is described for determining the solar limb brightness profile properly corrected for spurious limb darkening caused by the far wings of the resolving beams encountered in large far-infrared and radio telescopes. When the far wings of the beam can be independently measured this problem is usually amenable to standard deconvolution procedures. Under a broad range of well-defined cases, solutions to the deconvolution problem are unique to within the discrimination provided by the core of the beam profile. The theory is applied to solar limb scans made recently on the James Clerk Maxwell Telscope to show solar limb brightening in 850 micron radiation. 16 refs.

  4. Investigation of small solar system objects with the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope (ST) to study small objects in the solar system in order to understand the birth and the early evolution of the solar system is discussed. The upper size limit of the small bodies is defined as approximately 5000 km and includes planetary satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, and comets.The use of the astronomical instruments aboard the ST, such as the faint object camera, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, to study the small solar system objects is discussed.

  5. Integrating seeing measurements into the operations of solar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Verdoni, A. P.

    2006-06-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is an innovative 1.6-meter, off-axis, open telescope currently being developed and built at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observatory is situated on a small peninsula in Big Bear Lake, a mountain lake at an altitude of about 2100 m in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California. The lake effectively suppresses the boundary layer seeing. Thus, providing consistently very good daytime seeing conditions. BBSO has been identified by the site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) as one of the best sites for solar observations. It is uniquely qualified for long-duration observations requiring high-spatial resolution. This type of observations is typically encountered in solar activity monitoring and space weather forecast. The ATST site survey has collected more than two years of data linking seeing conditions to geographical parameters and local climate. We have integrated these data in a MySQL database and we will use this information in connection with a real-time seeing monitor and weather station to predict the seeing conditions at Big Bear such that scheduling and prioritization of observing programs (e.g., synoptic vs. high-resolution modes) becomes possible.

  6. Design progress of the solar UV-Vis-IR telescope (SUVIT) aboard SOLAR-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.

    2013-09-01

    We present a design progress of the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. SUVIT has an aperture diameter of ~1.4 m for achieving spectro-polarimetric observations with spatial and temporal resolution exceeding the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We have studied structural and thermal designs of the optical telescope as well as the optical interface between the telescope and the focal plane instruments. The focal plane instruments are installed into two packages, filtergraph and spectrograph packages. The spectropolarimeter is the instrument dedicated to accurate polarimetry in the three spectrum windows at 525 nm, 854 nm, and 1083 nm for observing magnetic fields at both the photospheric and chromospheric layers. We made optical design of the spectrograph accommodating the conventional slit spectrograph and the integral field unit (IFU) for two-dimensional coverage. We are running feasibility study of the IFU using fiber arrays consisting of rectangular cores.

  7. Design of multichannel image processing on the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin

    2000-07-01

    The multi-channel image processing system on the Space Solar Telescope (SST) is described in this paper. This system is main part of science data unit (SDU), which is designed for dealing with the science data from every payload on the SST. First every payload on the SST and its scientific objective are introduced. They are main optic telescope, four soft X- ray telescopes, an H-alpha and white light (full disc) telescope, a coronagraph, a wide band X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer, and a solar and interplanetary radio spectrometer. Then the structure of SDU is presented. In this part, we discuss the hardware and software structure of SDU, which is designed for multi-payload. The science data scream of every payload is summarized, too. Solar magnetic and velocity field processing that occupies more than 90% of the data processing of SDU is discussed, which includes polarizing unit, image receiver and image adding unit. Last the plan of image data compression and mass memory that is designed for science data storage are presented.

  8. Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Norwood, J.; Chanover, N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Milam, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Brown, M.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s premier space-based platform for observational astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art imaging, spectroscopic, and coronagraphic instruments. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail (see companion presentation by Sonneborn et al.). This poster features highlights for planetary science applications, extracted from a white paper in preparation. We present a number of hypothetical solar system observations as a means of demonstrating potential planetary science observing scenarios; the list of applications discussed here is far from comprehensive. The goal of this poster and the subsequent white paper is to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community, and to encourage feedback to the JWST Project on any desired observing capabilities, data products, and analysis procedures that would enhance the use of JWST for solar system studies. The upcoming white paper updates and supersedes the solar system white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010), and is based in part on JWST events held at the 2012 DPS, the 2013 LPSC meeting, and this DPS (JWST Town Hall, Thursday, 10 October 2013, 12-1 pm).

  9. Development of adaptive optics elements for solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kopulov, E. A.; Skomorovsky, V. I.; Trifonov, V. D.; Chuprakov, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    The devices and components of adaptive optical system ANGARA, which is developed for image correction in the Big solar vacuum telescope (BSVT) at Baykal astrophysical observatory are described. It is shown that the use of modernized adaptive system on BSVT not only reduces the turbulent atmospheric distortions of image, but also gives a possibility to improve the telescope developing new methods of solar observations. A high precision Shack-Hartmann wavefront (WF) sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of size 640X640 μm with an error not exceeding 4.80 arc.sec. Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slopes estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourier-demodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomials expansion, deformable mirror response functions expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  10. The New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory - A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Cao, W.; Chae, J.; Coulter, R.; Kuhn, J. R.; Marquette, W. H.; Moon, Y.; Park, Y.; Ren, D.; Tritschler, A.; Varsik, J. R.; Wang, H.; Yang, G.; Shoumko, S.; Goode, P. R.

    2005-05-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a new 1.6-meter, off-axis telescope for the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) in California. The NST is collaboration between BBSO, the Korean Astronomical Observatory (KAO) and Institute for Astronomy (IfA) at the University of Hawaii. BBSO is an ideal site for high-spatial resolution observations, since this mountain-lake site provides consistent seeing conditions with extended periods of excellent seeing from sunrise to sunset. These unique seeing characteristics make BBSO ideally suited for combined high-resolution campaigns and synoptic observations, which are essential for studies of solar activity and space weather. In this progress report, we present the latest information on the optical design, the optical support structure, the telescope control system and the requisite instrumentation for the telescope. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by NSF under grants ATM-0236945, ATM-0342560, MRI-0320540, and Air Force DURIP F-49620-03-1-0271.

  11. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  12. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: design and early construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Keil, Stephen L.; Warner, Mark; Barden, Samuel; Bulau, Scott; Craig, Simon; Goodrich, Bret; Hansen, Eric; Hegwer, Steve; Hubbard, Robert; McBride, William; Shimko, Steve; Wöger, Friedrich; Ditsler, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is the first large U.S. solar telescope accessible to the worldwide solar physics community to be constructed in more than 30 years. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 μm ), employing adaptive optics systems to achieve diffraction limited imaging and resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun; the key observational parameters (collecting area, spatial resolution, spectral coverage, polarization accuracy, low scattered light) enable resolution of the theoretically-predicted, fine-scale magnetic features and their dynamics which modulate the radiative output of the sun and drive the release of magnetic energy from the Sun’s atmosphere in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. In 2010, the ATST received a significant fraction of its funding for construction. In the subsequent two years, the project has hired staff and opened an office on Maui. A number of large industrial contracts have been placed throughout the world to complete the detailed designs and begin constructing the major telescope subsystems. These contracts have included the site development, AandE designs, mirrors, polishing, optic support assemblies, telescope mount and coudé rotator structures, enclosure, thermal and mechanical systems, and high-level software and controls. In addition, design development work on the instrument suite has undergone significant progress; this has included the completion of preliminary design reviews (PDR) for all five facility instruments. Permitting required for physically starting construction on the mountaintop of Haleakalā, Maui has also progressed. This paper will review the ATST goals and specifications, describe each of the major subsystems under construction, and review the contracts and lessons learned during the contracting and early construction phases. Schedules for site construction, key factory testing of

  13. The Lyman-alpha Imager onboard Solar Polar Orbit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoquan; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Sizhong; Jiang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT) was originally proposed in 2004 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is currently being under background engineering study phase in China. SPORT will carry a suite of remote-sensing and in-situ instruments to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar high-latitude magnetism, and the fast solar wind from a polar orbit around the Sun. The Lyman-alpha Imager (LMI) is one of the key remotesensing instruments onboard SPORT with 45arcmin FOV, 2000mm effective focal length and 1.4arcsec/pixel spatial resolution . The size of LMI is φ150×1000mm, and the weight is less than10kg, including the 7kg telescope tube and 3kg electronic box. There are three 121.6nm filters used in the LMI optical path, so the 98% spectral purity image of 121.6nm can be achieved. The 121.6nm solar Lyman-alpha line is produced in the chromosphere and very sensitive to plasma temperature, plasma velocity and magnetism variation in the chromosphere. Solar Lyman-alpha disk image is an ideal tracker for corona magnetism variation.

  14. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  15. GREGOR, a 1.5 M Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lühe, O.; Schmidt, W.; Soltau, D.; Kneer, F.; Staude, J.

    We present the design of a new large solar telescope which is going to be installed at the Observatorio del Teide, in the tower that presently houses the 45cm Gregory-Coudé-Telescope. The new telescope has an aperture of 1.5 meters and its optical design is basically a Gregorian configuration. It will be an open telescope in an azimuthal mount. An adaptive optics system is incorporated in the optical design as well as a polarimetry package. The feasibility of lightweight optics for the primary mirror has been investigated in an industrial pre-study. The focal plane instrumentation will include a high resolution filter spectrometer similar to the existing TESOS instrument at the VTT and a new spectro-polarimeter for the visible and the near UV. The latter instrument is presently being developed jointly by the KIS and the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, USA. Budget permitting, detailed (Phase-B) planning will start in 2000, and the telescope will be developed and built in 2002 and 2003 with first light in spring of 2004.

  16. Polarization optical components of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueoka, Stacey Ritsuyo

    The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), when completed in 2019 will be the largest solar telescope built to date. DKIST will have a suite of first light polarimetric instrumentation requiring broadband polarization modulation and calibration optical elements. Compound crystalline retarders meet the design requirements for efficient modulators and achromatic calibration retarders. These retarders are the only possible large diameter optic that can survive the high flux, 5 arc minute field, and ultraviolet intense environment of a large aperture solar telescope at Gregorian focus. This dissertation presents work performed for the project. First, I measured birefringence of the candidate materials necessary to complete designs. Then, I modeled the polarization effects with three-dimensional ray-tracing codes as a function of angle of incidence and field of view. Through this analysis I learned that due to the incident converging F/13 beam on the calibration retarders, the previously assumed linear retarder model fails to account for effects above the project polarization specifications. I discuss modeling strategies such as Mueller matrix decompositions and simplifications of those strategies while still meeting fit error requirements. Finally, I present characterization techniques and how these were applied to prototype components.

  17. Construction status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Berger, Thomas E.; Casini, Roberto; Craig, Simon C.; Elmore, David F.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Hegwer, Steve L.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Johansson, Erik M.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Lin, Haosheng; McVeigh, William; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Shimko, Steve; Tritschler, Alexandra; Warner, Mark; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, renamed in December 2013 from the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the largest solar facility built when it begins operations in 2019. Designed and developed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the Sun, the observatory will enable key research for the study of solar magnetism and its influence on the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and solar irradiance variations. The 4-meter class facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.38 to 28 microns, initially 0.38 to 5 microns), using a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system to provide diffraction-limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 25 km on the Sun. Five first-light instruments will be available at the start of operations: Visible Broadband Imager (VBI; National Solar Observatory), Visible SpectroPolarimeter (ViSP; NCAR High Altitude Observatory), Visible Tunable Filter (VTF; Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik), Diffraction Limited Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (DL-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy) and the Cryogenic Near InfraRed SpectroPolarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP; University of Hawai'i, Institute for Astronomy). As of mid-2014, the key subsystems have been designed and fabrication is well underway, including the site construction, which began in December 2012. We provide an update on the development of the facilities both on site at the Haleakalā Observatories on Maui and the development of components around the world. We present the overall construction and integration schedule leading to the handover to operations in mid 2019. In addition, we outline the evolving challenges being met by the project, spanning the full spectrum of issues covering technical, fiscal, and geographical, that are specific to this project, though with clear counterparts to other large astronomical construction projects.

  18. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, Thomas; McMullin, Joseph; Warner, Mark; Craig, Simon; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Cassini, Roberto; Kuhn, Jeff; Lin, Haosheng; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Berukoff, Steve; Reardon, Kevin; Goode, Phil; Knoelker, Michael; Rosner, Robert; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; DKIST TEAM

    2015-08-01

    The 4m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui will be the world’s largest solar telescope. Designed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the sun, this facility will perform key observations of our nearest star that matters most to humankind. DKIST’s superb resolution and sensitivity will enable astronomers to unravel many of the mysteries the Sun presents, including the origin of solar magnetism, the mechanisms of coronal heating and drivers of the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in solar output. The all-reflecting, off-axis design allows the facility to observe over a broad wavelength range and enables DKIST to operate as a coronagraph. In addition, the photon flux provided by its large aperture will be capable of routine and precise measurements of the currently elusive coronal magnetic fields. The state-of-the-art adaptive optics system provides diffraction limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun. Five first light instruments, representing a broad community effort, will be available at the start of operations: Visible Broadband Imager (National Solar Observatory), Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (High Altitude Observatory), Visible Tunable Filter (Kiepenheuer Institute, Germany), Diffraction Limited NIR Spectro-Polarimeter (University of Hawaii) and the Cryogenic NIR Spectro-Polarimeter (University of Hawaii). High speed cameras for capturing highly dynamic processes in the solar atmosphere are being developed by a UK consortium. Site construction on Haleakala began in December 2012 and is progressing on schedule. Operations are scheduled to begin in 2019. We provide an overview of the facility, discuss the construction status, and present progress with DKIST operations planning.

  19. On the co-alignment of solar telescopes. A new approach to solar pointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, J.

    2013-06-01

    Helioseismological measurements require long observing times and thus may be adversely affected by lateral image drifts as caused by pointing instabilities. At the Vacuum Tower Telescope VTT, Tenerife we have recorded drift values of up to 5" per hour under unstable thermal conditions (dome opening, strong day-to-day thermal gradients). Typically drifts of 0.5" - 1.0" per hour may be encountered under more favorable conditions. Past experience has shown that most high-resolution solar telescopes may be affected by this problem to some degree. This inherent shortcoming of solar pointing is caused by the fact that the guiding loop can be closed only within the guiding beam but not within the telescope's main beam. We have developed a new approach to this problem. We correlate continuum brightness patterns observed from within the telescope main beam with patterns originating from a full disk telescope. We show that brightness patterns of sufficient size are unique with respect to solar location at any instant of time and may serve as a location identifier. We make use of the fact that averaged location information of solar structures is invariant with respect to telescope resolution. We have carried out tests at the VTT together with SDO. We have used SDO as a full disk reference. We were able to reduce lateral image drifts by an order of magnitude.

  20. 1.6 m Off-Axis Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, P. R.; BBSO/NJIT Team; Mees Solar Obs./U. Hawaii Team

    2003-05-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), in collaboration with the University of Hawaii (UH), is upgrading Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) by replacing its principal, 65 cm aperture telescope with a modern, off-axis 1.6 m clear aperture instrument from a 1.7 m blank. The new telescope offers a significant incremental improvement in ground-based infrared and high angular resolution capabilities, and enhances our continuing program to understand photospheric magneto-convection and chromospheric dynamics. These are the drivers for what is broadly called space weather -- an important problem, which impacts human technologies and life on earth. This New Solar Telescope (NST) will use the existing BBSO pedestal, pier and observatory building, which will be modified to accept the larger open telescope structure. It will be operated together with our 10 inch (for larger field-of-view vector magnetograms, Ca II K and Hα observations) and Singer-Link (full disk Hα , Ca II K and white light) synoptic telescopes. The NST optical and software control design will be similar to the existing SOLARC (UH) and the planned Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) facility led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) -- all three are off-axis designs. The highest resolution solar telescopes currently operating are in the sub-meter class, and have diffraction limits which allow them to resolve features larger than 100 km in size on the sun. They are often photon-starved in the study of dynamic events because of the competing need for diffraction limited spatial resolution, short exposure times to minimize seeing effects, and high spectral resolution to resolve line profiles. Thus, understanding many significant and dynamic solar phenomena remains tantalizingly close, but just beyond our grasp. Research supported in part by NASA grant NAG5-12782 and NSF grant ATM-0086999.

  1. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, M. E.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope solar cell module thermal cycle test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Alexander; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Douglas; Gerlach, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules. The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a 'cold-roll' test was performed on one of the modules in order to evaluate the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit. A posttest static shadow test was performed on one of the modules in order to analyze temperature gradients across the module. Finally, current in-flight electrical performance data from the actual HST flight solar array will be tested.

  3. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  4. Solar Patrol Polarization Telescopes at 45 and 90 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valio, A.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Raulin, J.-P.; Fernandes, L. O.; Marun, A.

    2012-12-01

    The spectra of solar flares provide important information about the physics involved in the flaring process. Presently, however, there is a large frequency gap at radio frequencies between 20 and 200 GHz. Unfortunately, this gap hinders the determination of important flare parameters such as: (i) the frequency of the peak of the spectra, or turnover frequency, which yields the magnetic field intensity in the flaring source and electron density; (ii) the optically thin frequency slope, that is related to the accelerated electrons with a power-law energy distribution, allowing information about the acceleration mechanism; (iii) and other physical parameters such as source size and inhomogeneities that may also be estimated from spectra with complete spectral coverage. Recently a new spectral component at high frequencies was discovered with fluxes increasing above 200 GHz, distinct from the traditional microwave component, with peak frequencies at about 10 GHz. To elucidate the nature of both components and fully characterize the spectra of solar flares, we analyze new observations at the intermediate frequencies obtained by two antennas with receivers at 45 and 90 GHz, capable of measuring circular polarization. The telescope, installed at CASLEO Observatory (Argentina), is described in detail. We also analyze the observations of the flares it has already detected, including their spectra especially when data at 212 and 405 GHz from the Solar Submillimeter Telescope (SST), located at the same site, is available.

  5. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: A Project Update.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T.; Berger, T.; McMullin, J.; Warner, M.; Casinsi, R.; Kuhn, J.; Lin, H.; Woeger, F.; Schmidt, W.; Tritschler, A.; Inouye, Daniel K.; Solar Telescope Team

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope will be the largest solar facility ever built. Designed and developed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the sun, this facility will support key experiments for the study of solar magnetism and its influence on the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and solar irradiance variability. The 4-meter diameter facility will operate over a broad wavelength range (0.35 to 28 microns), using state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems to provide diffraction limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun. Five first light instruments will be available at the start of operations. Key subsystems have been designed and fabrication is well underway, including the site construction, which began in December 2012. We provide an update on the development of the facilities both on site at the Haleakala Observatories in Maui and the development of components around the world. We present the overall construction and integration schedule leading to the start of operations in mid-2019 and touch on operations aspects.

  6. The cern axion solar telescope (CAST): an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriamonje, S.; Arsov, V.; Aune, S.; Aune, T.; Avignone, F. T.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Bräuninger, H.; Carmona, J.; Cebrián, S.; Chesi, E.; Cipolla, G.; Collar, J.; Creswick, R.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Dedousis, S.; Delattre, M.; Delbart, A.; Deoliveira, R.; Dilella, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Engelhauser, J.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H.; Ferrer, E.; Fischer, H.; Formenti, F.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Hartmann, R.; Hasinoff, M.; Heinsius, F.-H.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Irastorza, I.; Jacoby, J.; Joux, J.-N.; Kang, D.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Lippitsch, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; de Solorzano, A. Ortiz; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Rammos, P.; Robert, J. P.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.; Schill, C.; Serber, W.; Semertzidis, Y.; Vieira, J.; Villar, J.; Vullierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), a 10 meter long LHC, 9 Tesla, test magnet is mounted on a moving platform that tracks the sun about 1.5 hours during sunrise, again during sunset. It moves ±80 vertically and ±400 horizontally. It has been taking data continuously since July 10, 2003. Data analyzed thus far yield an upper bound on the photon-axion coupling constant, gaγγ ⩽ 3 × 10-10 GeV-1 for axion masses less than 5 × 10-2 eV.

  7. The 100 cm solar telescope primary mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing impact of primary mirror configuration on the performance of a 100 cm aperture solar telescope was studied. Three primary mirror configurations were considered: solid, standard lightweight, and mushroom. All of these are of low expansion material. Specifically, the study consisted of evaluating the mirrors with regard to: manufacturing metrology, manufacturing risk factors and ultimate quality assessment. As a result of this evaluation, a performance comparison of the configurations was made, and a recommendation of mirror configuration is the final output. These evaluations, comparisons and recommendations are discussed in detail. Other investigations were completed and are documented in the appendices.

  8. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide important new capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. Integral-field spectroscopy is performed with apertures 3 to 7 arcsec square (spatial slices of 0.1 to 0.6 arcsec). JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This tracking capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST will observe in the solar elongation range of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During an observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using data from JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This results from the fact that the Observatory's sunshield and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example

  9. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide breakthrough capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST can observe solar elongation of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During the observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly-fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This resultsfrom the fact that the Observatory's sun-shade and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example, to accommodate a Target of Opportunity - TOO). The event-driven operations system supports time-critical observations and TOOs. The minimum response

  10. Adjustment of a tower solar telescope and spectrograph: A method manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanian, N. N.; Sunitsa, G. A.; Malashchuk, V. M.

    2014-06-01

    Questions of the mounting and adjustment of a tower solar telescope are considered through the example of the TST-2 telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory Scientific Research Institute. The authors describe the optical circuits of the telescope and spectrograph and list the basic requirements for the mutual arrangement of individual components of the telescope. Simple methods for adjusting elements of the telescope and spectrograph are described.

  11. Goldhelox: a soft x-ray solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Durfee, D S; Moody, J W; Brady, K D; Brown, C; Campbell, B; Durfee, M K; Early, D; Hansen, E; Madsen, D W; Morey, D B; Roming, P W; Savage, M B; Eastman, P F; Jensen, V

    1995-01-01

    The Goldhelox Project is the construction and use of a near-normal incidence soft x-ray robotic solar telescope by undergraduate students at Brigham Young University. Once it is completed and tested, it will be deployed from a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the bay of a space shuttle. It will image the sun at a wavelength of 171-181Å with a time resolution of 1 sec and a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcsec. The observational bandpass was chosen to image x-rays from highly ionized coronal Fe lines. The data will be an aid in better understanding the beginning phases of solar flares and how flaring relates to the physics of the corona-chromosphere transition region. Goldhelox is tentatively scheduled to fly on a space shuttle sometime in 1995 or 1996. This paper outlines the project goals, basic instrument design, and the unique aspects of making this an undergraduate endeavor. PMID:21307474

  12. High Resolution Observations of Solar Quiescent Prominences with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope: an Open Challenge to 21st Century Ground-based Solar Telescopes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the Japanese Hinode satellite is a 0.5-meter diameter Gregorian solar telescope in a 600 km Sun-synchronous orbit. The telescope achieves diffraction-limited imaging with no atmospheric seeing in a wavelength range from 380 nm to 660 nm. Using both the Broadband Filter Imager (BFI) Ca II H-line channel at 389.6 nm and the tunable Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) H-alpha channel at 656.3 nm we have observed many quiescent solar prominences since the satellite launch in September 2006. The excellent optical quality and low scattering of the SOT telescope combined with the lack of atmospheric scattering and seeing enables us to capture multi-hour diffraction-limited movies of quiescent prominences above the limb that achieve 200 km spatial resolution and 15--30 second temporal resolution. These SOT observations have led to the discovery of new flows in the solar outer atmosphere in the form of buoyant small-scale (2--6 Mm) plumes and large-scale (10--50 Mm) "bubbles" or arches that originate below quiescent prominences and rise with speeds of 10--30 km/sec to heights of 10--30+ Mm above the solar limb. In this talk we review the kinematic properties of these new flows in combination with the long-observed filamentary downflows to show that quisecent prominences are not magnetostatic structures "suspended against gravity" but are rather entirely dynamic structures in which mass is continually drained in the downflows while being resupplied largely by condensation from the coronal cavity above and episodic buoyant flows from below. The Hinode/SOT instrument has definitively shown the value of flying high-resolution visible-light solar telescopes in space by acheiving in its first six months what had been a long-standing goal of ground-based solar prominence research for the past 50 years. However many key quiescent prominence characteristics cannot be measured by the limited instrumentation on the Hinode satellite. Primary among these

  13. The solar polar radio telescope mission: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiying; Zhang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianhua; Wu, Ji; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Chi; Wang, S.

    : The solar polar orbit telescope (SPORT) is a mission proposed for the observation of ICMEs. The main payload is a synthetic aperture radiometer working at meter wave band taking images of the high density interplanetary plasma clouds formed by ICMEs and follows the propagation if it from the surface of the Sun all the way to as far as 0.5 AU or even further. With such a capability of observation, also the SPORT will study transient high energy phenomenon, the magnetic topology, temperature and density as well as velocity of the solar wind in the inner interplanetary heliosphere. In the practical part, the mission is also very useful for space weather forecast in advance of the geo-storm events. Other instruments are also selected to be on board of the solar polar orbit mission for in-situ measurement, such as fluxgate magnetometer, solar wind ion detector and high energy particle detectors. In this paper, we describe the scientific objective, basic principles and feasibility of the interferometric radiometer, general mission design and the status of the SPORT mission.

  14. The New Solar Telescope in Big Bear: Polarimetry II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Ahn, K.; Goode, P. R.; Shumko, S.; Gorceix, N.; Coulter, R.

    2011-04-01

    IRIM (Infrared Imaging Magnetograph) is one of the first imaging solar spectro-polarimeters working in the near infrared (NIR). IRIM is being installed and commissioned in the Coudé Lab of the 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). This innovative system, which includes a 2.5 nm interference filter, a unique 0.25 nm birefringent Lyot filter, and a Fabry-Pérot etalon, is capable of providing a bandpass as low as 0.01 nm over a field-of-view of 50" in a telecentric configuration. An NIR waveplate rotates ahead of M3 in the NST as the polarimeter modulator, and ahead of it locates a calibration unit to reduce polarization cross-talk induced by subsequent oblique mirrors. Dual-beam differential polarimetry is employed to minimize seeing-induced spurious polarization. Based on the unique advantages in IR window, the very capable NST with adaptive optics, IRIM will provide unprecedented solar spectro-polarimetry with high Zeeman sensitivity (10-3Ic), high spatial resolution (0.2"), and high cadence (15 s). In this paper, we discuss the design, fabrication, and calibration of IRIM, as well as the results of the first light observations.

  15. Progress on the 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Goode, P. R.; Ren, D.; Saadeghvaziri, M. A.; Verdoni, A. P.; Wang, H.; Yang, G.; Abramenko, V.; Cao, W.; Coulter, R.; Fear, R.; Nenow, J.; Shoumko, S.; Spirock, T. J.; Varsik, J. R.; Chae, J.; Kuhn, J. R.; Moon, Y.; Park, Y. D.; Tritschler, A.

    2006-06-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) project at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) now has all major contracts for design and fabrication in place and construction of components is well underway. NST is a collaboration between BBSO, the Korean Astronomical Observatory (KAO) and Institute for Astronomy (IfA) at the University of Hawaii. The project will install a 1.6-meter, off-axis telescope at BBSO, replacing a number of older solar telescopes. The NST will be located in a recently refurbished dome on the BBSO causeway, which projects 300 meters into the Big Bear Lake. Recent site surveys have confirmed that BBSO is one of the premier solar observing sites in the world. NST will be uniquely equipped to take advantage of the long periods of excellent seeing common at the lake site. An up-to-date progress report will be presented including an overview of the project and details on the current state of the design. The report provides a detailed description of the optical design, the thermal control of the new dome, the optical support structure, the telescope control systems, active and adaptive optics systems, and the post-focus instrumentation for high-resolution spectro-polarimetry.

  16. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    In 1987, our consortium pioneered the application of normal incidence multilayer X-ray optics to solar physics by obtaining the first high resolution narrow band, "thermally differentiated" images of the corona', using the emissions of the Fe IX/Fe X complex at ((lambda)lambda) approx. 171 A to 175 A, and He II Lyman (beta) at 256 A. Subsequently, we developed a rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) that pioneered multi-thermal imaging of the solar atmosphere, using high resolution narrow band X-ray, EUV and FUV optical systems. Analysis of MSSTA observations has resulted in four significant insights into the structure of the solar atmosphere: (1) the diameter of coronal loops is essentially constant along their length; (2) models of the thermal and density structure of polar plumes based on MSSTA observations have been shown to be consistent with the thesis that they are the source of high speed solar wind streams; (3) the magnetic structure of the footpoints of polar plumes is monopolar, and their thermal structure is consistent with the thesis that the chromosphere at their footpoints is heated by conduction from above; (4) coronal bright points are small loops, typically 3,500 - 20,000 km long (5 sec - 30 sec); their footpoints are located at the poles of bipolar magnetic structures that are are distinguished from other network elements by having a brighter Lyman a signature. Loop models derived for 26 bright points are consistent with the thesis that the chromosphere at their footpoints is heated by conduction from the corona.

  17. Large bearings with incorporated gears, high stiffness, and precision for the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Scharmer, Göran B.

    2006-06-01

    The 1-meter Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) obtains images of the solar surface with an unprecedented resolution of 0.1 arcsec. It consists of a relatively slender tower with on top only the vacuum turret for reflecting downward the solar beam and no protective dome. This is a favourable situation to get good local seeing. Just in the case of some wind, seeing is best for daytime observations, therefore the precision bearings and drives of the elevation- and azimuth axis of the turret have to be stiff against wind. This requires line contact between the meshing teeth of the large gear wheel and the pinion. High preload forces to achieve line contact are not allowed because of appearing stick-slip effects. To reduce the risk on stick-slip a special design of the teeth for high stiffness combined with low friction and smooth transition from one tooth to the next was made. Furthermore, extreme precision in the fabrication was pursued such that relatively small contact forces give already line contact. This required a special order of the successive fabrication steps of the combination of bearing and gear teeth. An additional problem was the relatively thin section of the bearings required for a compact turret construction, needed for best local seeing and minimum wind load. Solutions for all these problems will be discussed. For the large gears the exceptional good DIN quality class 4 for the pitch precision and straightness plus direction of the teeth faces was achieved.

  18. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, G. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-02-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 pm and reduce parasitic light levels to 10-4 as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10-5. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these observatories.

  19. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these

  20. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiple etalons systems are discussed that meet the 4-meter NSO/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (http://www.nso.edu/ATST/index.html) instrument and science requirements for a narrow bandpass imaging system. A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer working in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, and a wide-band and broad-band high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations will be described that provides spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5nm and reduces parasitic light levels to 1/10000 as required by precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like triple etalon system provides for spectral purity of 100 thousandths. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon, allowing much more stable blocking filters, and can have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass Cavallini-like configuration can provide a competing configuration. This design can provide high contrast with only a double etalon. The selection of the final focal plan instrument will depend on a trade-off of the ideal instrument versus reality, the number of etalons, the aperture of etalons, the number of blocking filters the electronic control system and computer interfaces, the temperature control and controllers for the etalons and the electronics. The use of existing experience should provide significant cost savings. The heritage of use of etalons and multiple etalon systems in solar physics come from a number of observatories, which includes MSFC Solar Observatory (NASA), Sac Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will reply on the existing experience from these observatories.

  1. Investigation of Umbral Dots with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Kaifan; Jiang, Xia; Feng, Song; Yang, Yunfei; Deng, Hui; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Umbral dots (UDs) are small isolated brightenings observed in sunspot umbrae. They are convective phenomena existing inside umbrae. UDs are usually divided into central UDs (CUDs) and peripheral UDs (PUDs) according to their positions inside an umbra. Our purpose is to investigate UD properties and analyze their relationships, and further to find whether or not the properties depend on umbral magnetic field strengths. Thus, we selected high-resolution TiO images of four active regions (ARs) taken under the best seeing conditions with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope in the Fuxian Solar Observatory of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, China. The four ARs (NOAA 11598, 11801, 12158, and 12178) include six sunspots. A total of 1220 CUDs and 603 PUDs were identified. Meanwhile, the radial component of the vector magnetic field of the sunspots taken with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory was used to analyze relationships between UD properties and umbral magnetic field strengths. We find that diameters and lifetimes of UDs exhibit an increasing trend with the brightness, but velocities do not. Moreover, diameters, intensities, lifetimes and velocities depend on the surrounding magnetic field. A CUD diameter was found larger, the CUD brighter, its lifetime longer, and its motion slower in a weak umbral magnetic field environment than in a strong one.

  2. Layer-oriented adaptive optics for solar telescopes.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2012-08-10

    First multiconjugate adaptive-optical (MCAO) systems are currently being installed on solar telescopes. The aim of these systems is to increase the corrected field of view with respect to conventional adaptive optics. However, this first generation is based on a star-oriented approach, and it is then difficult to increase the size of the field of view beyond 60-80 arc sec in diameter. We propose to implement the layer-oriented approach in solar MCAO systems by use of wide-field Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors conjugated to the strongest turbulent layers. The wavefront distortions are averaged over a wide field: the signal from distant turbulence is attenuated and the tomographic reconstruction is thus done optically. The system consists of independent correction loops, which only need to account for local turbulence: the subapertures can be enlarged and the correction frequency reduced. Most importantly, a star-oriented MCAO system becomes more complex with increasing field size, while the layer-oriented approach benefits from larger fields and will therefore be an attractive solution for the future generation of solar MCAO systems. PMID:22885589

  3. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  4. Polarization calibration techniques and scheduling for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David F.

    2015-10-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), formerly Advanced Technology Solar Telescope when it begins operation in 2019 will be by a significant margin Earth's largest solar research telescope. Science priorities dictate an initial suite of instruments that includes four spectro-polarimeters. Accurate polarization calibration of the individual instruments and of the telescope optics shared by those instruments is of critical importance. The telescope and instruments have been examined end-to-end for sources of polarization calibration error, allowable contributions from each of the sources quantified, and techniques identified for calibrating each of the contributors. Efficient use of telescope observing time leads to a requirement of sharing polarization calibrations of common path telescope components among the spectro-polarimeters and for those calibrations to be repeated only as often as dictated by degradation of optical coatings and instrument reconfigurations. As a consequence the polarization calibration of the DKIST is a facility function that requires facility wide techniques.

  5. Performance of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. III - Optical characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Hadaway, James B.; Johnson, R. B.; Peterson, Cynthia; Gabardi, David R.; Walker, Arthur B., Jr.; Lindblom, J. F.; Deforest, Craig; O'Neal, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), which is a sounding-rocket-borne observatory for investigating the sun in the soft X-ray/EUV and FUV regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, utilizes single reflection multilayer coated Herschelian telescopes for wavelengths below 100 A, and five doubly reflecting multilayer coated Ritchey-Chretien and two Cassegrain telescopes for selected wavelengths in the EUV region between 100 and 1000 A. The paper discusses the interferometric alignment, testing, focusing, visible light testing, and optical performance characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes of MSSTA. A schematic diagram of the MSSTA Ritchey-Chretien telescope is presented together with diagrams of the system autocollimation testing.

  6. Thermal analysis of the main mirror in space solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Shi, Hu-li; Chen, Zhi-yuan

    2007-12-01

    For the design of a space solar telescope (SST), the large reflect mirror faces to the sun directly, which is in an abominable thermal condition with seriously thermal distortion. In this paper, it sets up the thermal mode and analyzes the temperature field and thermal distortion of the main mirror of SST. Further more, it uses the thermal design software SINDA/G (System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Gaski) and the finite element analysis software MSC.Patran to set up different models and various temperature distributions of the main mirror. Though comparing with these models, the paraboloid mirror model is confirmed, which becomes a reference to later thermal analysis of the whole SST.

  7. Deflectometry measurement of Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2015-08-01

    SCOTS (Software Configurable Optical Test System) is a high-precision slope measurement technique based on deflectometry. It utilizes a well-calibrated commercial LCD screen and a diffraction-limited camera to provide high dynamic range, non-contact and full-field metrology of reflective/refractive optics of high accuracy but low cost. Recently, we applied this metrology method on the fabrication of the primary mirror of Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), which is a 4.2 meter off-axis parabolic segment with more than 8 mm peak-to-valley aspheric departure. Sophisticated calibrations and compensations including camera mapping, screen nonlinearity and screen shape deformation are performed to achieve high accuracy measurement results. By measuring the mirror at different orientations, non-symmetrical systematic errors are eliminated. The metrology system also includes dual cameras that provide self- verification test. The measurement results are being used to guide the fabrication process.

  8. Optical control of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope.

    PubMed

    Upton, Robert

    2006-08-10

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is an off-axis Gregorian astronomical telescope design. The ATST is expected to be subject to thermal and gravitational effects that result in misalignments of its mirrors and warping of its primary mirror. These effects require active, closed-loop correction to maintain its as-designed diffraction-limited optical performance. The simulation and modeling of the ATST with a closed-loop correction strategy are presented. The correction strategy is derived from the linear mathematical properties of two Jacobian, or influence, matrices that map the ATST rigid-body (RB) misalignments and primary mirror figure errors to wavefront sensor (WFS) measurements. The two Jacobian matrices also quantify the sensitivities of the ATST to RB and primary mirror figure perturbations. The modeled active correction strategy results in a decrease of the rms wavefront error averaged over the field of view (FOV) from 500 to 19 nm, subject to 10 nm rms WFS noise. This result is obtained utilizing nine WFSs distributed in the FOV with a 300 nm rms astigmatism figure error on the primary mirror. Correction of the ATST RB perturbations is demonstrated for an optimum subset of three WFSs with corrections improving the ATST rms wavefront error from 340 to 17.8 nm. In addition to the active correction of the ATST, an analytically robust sensitivity analysis that can be generally extended to a wider class of optical systems is presented. PMID:16926876

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY AND MODELS FOR SOLAR ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2010-04-15

    Absolute flux distributions for seven solar analog stars are measured from 0.3 to 2.5 {mu}m by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrophotometry. In order to predict the longer wavelength mid-IR fluxes that are required for James Webb Space Telescope calibration, the HST spectral energy distributions are fit with Castelli and Kurucz model atmospheres; and the results are compared with fits from the MARCS model grid. The rms residuals in 10 broadband bins are all <0.5% for the best fits from both model grids. However, the fits differ systematically: the MARCS fits are 40-100 K hotter in T {sub eff}, 0.25-0.80 higher in log g, 0.01-0.10 higher in log z, and 0.008-0.021 higher in the reddening E(B - V), probably because their specifications include different metal abundances. Despite these differences in the parameters of the fits, the predicted mid-IR fluxes differ by only {approx}1%; and the modeled flux distributions of these G stars have an estimated ensemble accuracy of 2% out to 30 {mu}m.

  10. Thin film multilayer filters for solar EUV telescopes.

    PubMed

    Chkhalo, N I; Drozdov, M N; Kluenkov, E B; Kuzin, S V; Lopatin, A Ya; Luchin, V I; Salashchenko, N N; Tsybin, N N; Zuev, S Yu

    2016-06-10

    Al, with a passband in the wavelength range of 17-60 nm, and Zr, with a passband in the wavelength range of 6.5-17 nm, thin films on a support grid or support membrane are frequently used as UV, visible, and near-IR blocking filters in solar observatories. Although they possess acceptable optical performance, these filters also have some shortcomings such as low mechanical strength and low resistance to oxidation. These shortcomings hinder meeting the requirements for filters of future telescopes. We propose multilayer thin film filters on the basis of Al, Zr, and other materials with improved characteristics. It was demonstrated that stretched multilayer films on a support grid with a mesh size up to 5 mm can withstand vibration loads occurring during spacecraft launch. A large mesh size is preferable for filters of high-resolution solar telescopes, since it allows image distortion caused by light diffraction on the support grid to be avoided. We have investigated the thermal stability of Al/Si and Zr/Si multilayers assuming their possible application as filters in the Intergelioprobe project, in which the observation of coronal plasma will take place close to the Sun. Zr/Si films show high thermal stability and may be used as blocking filters in the wavelength range of 12.5-17 nm. Al/Si films show lower thermal stability: a significant decrease in the film's transmission in the EUV spectral range and an increase in the visible spectrum have been observed. We suppose that the low thermal stability of Al/Si films restricts their application in the Intergelioprobe project. Thus, there is a lack of filters for the wavelength range of λ>17  nm. Be/Si and Cr/Si filters have been proposed for the wavelength range near 30.4 nm. Although these filters have lower transparency than Al/Si, they are superior in thermal stability. Multilayer Sc/Al filters with relatively high transmission at a wavelength of 58.4 nm (HeI line) and simultaneously sufficient rejection in the

  11. Upgraded Siberian Solar Radio Telescope: new opportunities to diagnose energetic particles in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Altyntsev, Alexander; Sergey, Lesovoi; Fleishman, Gregory

    Energetic electrons are a key factor of solar flares and therefore knowing their parameters is highly important for understanding the flare mechanisms and verifying the flare models. Radio emission offers multiple promising diagnostic tools, because this emission is produced by these energetic particles in the corona, at or near the particle acceleration sites. However, high diagnostic potential of radio observations has not yet been fully utilized due to two main reasons: (1) lack of well-calibrated observations with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions and (2) lack of accurate and reliable theoretical models and fast numerical tools capable of recovering the emission source parameters from the radio data. Here we report on the recent and anticipated progress in both these science components - instrumentation and modeling. To this end the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (Badary, Russia) is now being significantly upgraded in order to convert this instrument into a multi-wavelength imaging spectropolarimetry radioheliograph. At stage 1, the instrument will produce two-dimensional images of the Sun with high temporal and spatial resolution at five frequencies simultaneously in the 4-8 GHz range; this stage will be completed in 2015. Final (stage 2) configuration of the Upgraded Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (expected to be completed in 2019) will perform imaging observations at 15 frequencies in the 3-24 GHz range. At the same time, we are developing new theoretical methods and computer codes to analyze and interpret the anticipated observational data; the recent achievements include the "fast gyrosynchrotron codes", gyroresonance codes, and the 3D simulation tool "GX Simulator" freely available via the SSW distribution. In this presentation, we discuss the approaches to diagnosing the solar energetic particles with radio observations, including the recent advances and the opportunities coming from the construction of the Multiwavelength Siberian Solar

  12. The dynamic solar chromosphere: recent advances from high resolution telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Tsiropoula, Georgia

    This review focuses on the solar chromosphere, a very inhomogeneous and dynamic layer that exhibits phenomena on a large range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution observa-tions from existing telescopes (DST, SST, DOT), as well as long-duration observations with Hinode's SOT employing lines such as the Ca II infrared lines, the Ca II HK and above all the Hα line reveal an incredibly rich, dynamic and highly structured environment, both in quiet and active regions. The fine-structure chromosphere, is mainly constituted by fibrilar features that connect various parts of active regions or span across network cell interiors. We discuss this highly dynamical solar chromosphere, especially below the magnetic canopy, which is gov-erned by flows reflecting both the complex geometry and dynamics of the magnetic field and the propagation and dissipation of waves in the different atmospheric layers. A comprehensive view of the fine-structure chromosphere requires deep understanding of the physical processes involved, investigation of the intricate link with structures/processes at lower photospheric lev-els and analysis of its impact on the mass and energy transport to higher atmospheric layers through flows resulting from different physical processes such as magnetic reconnection and waves. Furthermore, we assess the challenges facing theory and numerical modelling which require the inclusion of several physical ingredients, such as non-LTE and three-dimensional numerical simulations.

  13. Vector Magnetograph Observations by the Solar Flare Telescope at Boao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. D.; Moon, Y.-J.

    We report that the vector magnetograph(VMG) observations of the solar photosphere are being carried out by the Solar Flare Telescope(SOFT) in BOAO(Bohyunsan Optical Astronomical Observatory) of Korea Astronomy Observatory. The VMG uses a narrow band Lyot filter (FWHM = 0.125A) for observations of Stokes parameters(I,Q,U,V) to obtain longitudinal and transversal fields. The Stokes images are acquired by Sony XC -77 video CCD cameras which are digitized in 8-bit by an image processor, MVC 150/40 manufactured by ITI(Image Technology Incorporate). The digitized images are saved in 16 bit after integration (up to 256 frames) or in 8-bit multiple frames for analysis. Since the transmission wavelength of Lyot filter is very sensitive to environmental temperature (0.35A/deg), it requires a careful temperature control of the filter interior. For this, we have made a continuous effort to maintain the temperature stability within the accuracy of less than 0.05 deg. with NAIRC (Nanjing Astronomical Instrument Research Center) team. We have obtained clean line profiles of FeI 6302.5 from our VMG by scanning the individual profiles by changing the central wavelength of the Lyot filter. We present some of our observed VMG observations, which are compared with those made with similar vector magnetographs at other observatories.

  14. Next-generation solar data and data services from the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berukoff, S.; Reardon, K.; Rimmele, T.

    2015-09-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), when completed, will be the largest, most capable solar telescope in the world. Currently under construction on the summit of Haleakala on Maui, the DKIST will enable foundational insights into the physics of the Sun's photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Its suite of first-light instruments will produce approximately 25TB of raw and processed data per day, with bursts up to 50TB. These data rates will require a scalable, flexible data and computing architecture that enables and promotes inquiry and discovery. We describe the challenges faced by managing DKIST data and provide an overview of the proposed data center architecture and resources that will allow users to fully exploit this unique world-class facility.

  15. Next-generation Solar Data and Data Services from the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berukoff, S. J.; Reardon, K.; Rimmele, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), when completed in 2019, will be the largest, most capable, solar telescope in the world. Currently under construction on the summit of Haleakalā on Maui, the DKIST will enable foundational insights into the physics of the Sun's photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Its suite of first-light instruments will produce approximately 25 TB of raw data per day, with occasional bursts of 50TB per day. These high data rates will require a scalable, flexible data and computing architecture that enables and promotes scientific inquiry and discovery. We briefly describe the DKIST data stream and then provide an overview of the proposed data-center architecture and resources that will allow users to fully exploit this world-class facility.

  16. A new multi-wavelength solar telescope: Optical and Near-infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Li, Zhen; Ding, Ming-De; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Mao, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Ping; Li, Ting; Liang, Yong-Jun; Lu, Hai-Tian

    2013-12-01

    A new multi-wavelength solar telescope, the Optical and Near-infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) of Nanjing University, has been constructed. It was fabricated at the Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology, and the operation is jointly administered with Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. ONSET is able to observe the Sun in three wavelength windows: He I 10830 Å, Hα and white-light at 3600 Å and 4250 Å, which are selected in order to simultaneously record the dynamics of the corona, chromosphere and photosphere respectively. Full-disk or partial-disk solar images with a field of 10' at three wavelengths can be obtained nearly simultaneously. It is designed to trace solar eruptions with high spatial and temporal resolutions. This telescope was installed at a new solar observing site near Fuxian Lake in Yunnan Province, southwest China. The site is located at E102N24, with an altitude of 1722 m. The seeing is stable and has high quality. We give a brief description of the scientific objectives and the basic structure of ONSET. Some preliminary results are also presented.

  17. Nasmyth focus instrumentation of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenda; Gorceix, Nicolas; Coulter, Roy; Wöger, Friedrich; Ahn, Kwangsu; Shumko, Sergiy; Varsik, John; Coulter, Aaron; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-07-01

    The largest solar telescope, the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope (NST) has been installed and is being commissioned at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It has an off-axis Gregorian configuration with a focal ratio of F/52. Early in 2009, first light scientific observations were successfully made at the Nasmyth focus, which is located on the east side of the telescope structure. As the first available scientific instruments for routine observation, Nasmyth focus instrumentation (NFI) consists of several filtergraphs offering high spatial resolution photometry in G-band 430 nm, Ha 656 nm, TiO 706 nm, and covering the near infrared 1083 nm, 1.6 μm, and 2.2 μm. With the assistance of a local correlation tracker system, diffraction limited images were obtained frequently over a field-of-view of 70 by 70 after processed using a post-facto speckle reconstruction algorithm. These data sets not only serve for scientific analysis with an unprecedented spatial resolution, but also provide engineering feedback to the NST operation, maintenance and optimization. This paper reports on the design and the implementation of NFI in detail. First light scientific observations are presented and discussed.

  18. Progress in the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; NST Team

    2006-06-01

    Progress in building the NST (New Solar Telescope) will be reported. The NST is a 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis solar telescope. The telescope is scheduled to see first light at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) in April 2007, and is a joint effort of BBSO, the University of Hawaii, the Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute and the University of Arizona.The telescope is off-axis to optimize low-contrast imaging, and will have a 3 arcminute field of view. Figuring and testing the figure of the large off-axis primary mirror presented unique problems. The NST (New Solar Telescope) will have wavefront sensor controlled, real-time active optics, and its light will feed BBSO's adaptive optics system, which in turn feeds infrared and visible light Fabry-Perot based polarimeters, as well as a real-time image processing system utilizing parallel processing.The NST replaces the current 0.6 m solar telescope at BBSO, and required a new, larger, vented dome with new thermal and telescope control systems.The complementary value of the telescope for upcoming space missions, such as SOLAR-B, STEREO and SDO will be discussed.

  19. Solar and Planetary Observations with a Lunar Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, N.; Weiler, K. W.; Lazio, J. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Jones, D. L.; Bale, S. D.; Demaio, L.; Kasper, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Ground-based radio telescopes cannot observe at frequencies below about 10 MHz (wavelengths longer than 30 m) because of ionospheric absorption. The Lunar Imaging Radio Array (LIRA) is a mission concept in which an array of radio telescopes is deployed on the Moon, as part of the Vision for Space Exploration, with the aim of extending radio observations to lower frequencies than are possible from the Earth. LIRA would provide the capability for dedicated monitoring of solar and planetary bursts as well as the search for magnetospheric emissions from extrasolar planets. The highest sensitivity observations can be accomplished by locating LIRA on the far side of the Moon. The array would be composed of 10-12 radial arms, each 1-2 km in length. Each arm would have several hundred dipole antennas and feedlines printed on a very thin sheet of kapton with a total mass of about 300 kg. This would provide a convenient way to deploy thousands of individual antennas and a centrally condensed distribution of array baselines. The lunar farside provides shielding from terrestrial natural and technological radio interference and freedom from the corrupting influence of Earth's ionosphere. This paper will describe the science case for LIRA as well as various options for array deployment and data transmission to Earth. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Basic research in radio astronomy at the NRL is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  20. Point spread functions for the Solar optical telescope onboard Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, S.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the combined point spread function (PSF) of the Broadband Filter Imager (BFI) and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode spacecraft. Methods: Observations of the Mercury transit from November 2006 and the solar eclipse(s) from 2007 are used to determine the PSFs of SOT for the blue, green, and red continuum channels of the BFI. For each channel, we calculate large grids of theoretical point spread functions by convolution of the ideal diffraction-limited PSF and Voigt profiles. These PSFs are applied to artificial images of an eclipse and a Mercury transit. The comparison of the resulting artificial intensity profiles across the terminator and the corresponding observed profiles yields a quality measure for each case. The optimum PSF for each observed image is indicated by the best fit. Results: The observed images of the Mercury transit and the eclipses exhibit a clear proportional relation between the residual intensity and the overall light level in the telescope. In addition, there is an anisotropic stray-light contribution. These two factors make it very difficult to pin down a single unique PSF that can account for all observational conditions. Nevertheless, the range of possible PSF models can be limited by using additional constraints like the pre-flight measurements of the Strehl ratio. Conclusions: The BFI/SOT operate close to the diffraction limit and have only a rather small stray-light contribution. The FWHM of the PSF is broadened by only ~1% with respect to the diffraction-limited case, while the overall Strehl ratio is ~0.8. In view of the large variations - best seen in the residual intensities of eclipse images - and the dependence on the overall light level and position in the FOV, a range of PSFs should be considered instead of a single PSF per wavelength. The individual PSFs of that range allow then the determination of error margins for the quantity under investigation. Nevertheless, the stray

  1. Solar System science with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lynne; Brown, Mike; Ivezić, Zeljko; Jurić, Mario; Malhotra, Renu; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It will explore a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from performing a census of the Solar System, to examining the nature of dark energy. It is currently in construction, slated for first light in 2019 and full operations by 2022.The LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of r~24.5 in each visit (9.6 square degree field of view). Automated software will link the individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry (~50mas) and photometry (~0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The resulting data set will have tremendous potential for planetary astronomy; multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets.LSST catalogs will increase the sample size of objects with well-known orbits 10-100 times for small body populations throughout the Solar System, enabling a major increase in the completeness level of the inventory of most dynamical classes of small bodies and generating new insights into planetary formation and evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors, as well as spin state and shape modeling through sparse lightcurve inversion. LSST is currently investigating survey strategies to optimize science return across a broad range of goals. To aid in this investigation, we are making a series of realistic simulated survey pointing histories available together with a Python software package to model and evaluate survey detections for a user-defined input population. Preliminary

  2. The 1.6 m Off-Axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.

    2012-12-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear is the first facility-class solar telescope built in the US in a generation, and it has an off-axis design as is planned for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). The NST is in regular operation with adaptive optics (AO) correcting the light currently feeding photometric and near-IR polarimetric systems, as well as an imaging spectrograph. Here we show the high resolution capabilities of the NST. As well, we sketch our plans for, and reasoning behind the next generation NST instrumentation.

  3. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope first light instruments and critical science plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David F.; Rimmele, Thomas; Casini, Roberto; Hegwer, Steve; Kuhn, Jeff; Lin, Haosheng; McMullin, Joseph P.; Reardon, Kevin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Tritschler, Alexandra; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is a 4-meter-class all-reflecting telescope under construction on Haleakalā mountain on the island of Maui, Hawai'i. When fully operational in 2019 it will be the world's largest solar telescope with wavelength coverage of 380 nm to 28 microns and advanced Adaptive Optics enabling the highest spatial resolution measurements of the solar atmosphere yet achieved. We review the first-generation DKIST instrument designs, select critical science program topics, and the operations and data handling and processing strategies to accomplish them.

  4. Multi-conjugate AO for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Béchet, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Tallon, M.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Collados Vera, M.

    2012-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a 4-meter diameter world-class facility, optimized for studies of the magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. It will specialize in high spatial resolution observations and therefore it has been designed to incorporate an innovative built-in Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO). It combines a narrow field high order sensor that will provide the information to correct the ground layer and a wide field low order sensor for the high altitude mirrors used in the MCAO mode. One of the challenging particularities of solar AO is that it has to be able to correct the turbulence for a wide range of observing elevations, from zenith to almost horizon. Also, seeing is usually worse at day-time, and most science is done at visible wavelengths. Therefore, the system has to include a large number of high altitude deformable mirrors. In the case of the EST, an arrangement of 4 high altitude DMs is used. Controlling such a number of mirrors makes it necessary to use fast reconstruction algorithms to deal with such large amount of degrees of freedom. For this reason, we have studied the performance of the Fractal Iterative Method (FriM) and the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR), to the EST MCAO case. Using OCTOPUS, the end-to-end simulator of the European Southern Observatory, we have performed several simulations with both algorithms, being able to reach the science requirement of a homogeneous Strehl higher that 50% all over the 1 arcmin field of view.

  5. Telescopes for solar research; from Scheiner's Helioscopium to De la Rue's Photoheliograph.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, P.

    2002-12-01

    Early telescopes used for solar observation were usually standard instruments, equipped with a filter or used in projection mode. The occasional exceptions were telescopes designed or modified for viewing, drawing, or photographing the sun. Christoph Scheiner observed sunspots regularly & systematically for 15 years, beginning early in 1611. A simple projection telescope was replaced with his Helioscopium, which was probably the first equatorially mounted telescope. Robert Hooke published a booklet in 1676 titled `Helioscopes', filled with an array of highly ingenious telescope designs, some of which were designed for solar observation and some of which were constructed and used. Warren De la Rue designed a photographic solar telescope, built by Andrew Ross in 1857 for the use of the Royal Society to establish a continuous record of solar activity. This photoheliograph was responsible for several important discoveries. Improvements in solar instruments led to advances in knowledge of the sun, and the contributions of some early solar telescopes and their makers will be recognized in this paper.

  6. "Future Solar Physics with the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST)"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades, the synergistic development of large aperture telescopes and real time and post facto techniques for image degradation correction, have allowed observations of the solar atmosphere at resolutions up to tens of arcsecond. The analysis of these data, together with the development of sophisticated inversion techniques to infer properties of the magnetic field, have largely improved our understanding of many aspects of solar physics which include the nature and properties of small scale magnetic elements, the fine structuring of sunspots, the properties of granulation and its interaction with the magnetic field, the propagation of waves from the photosphere to the chromosphere, the highly dynamics and fine structuring of the chromosphere. Still several issues, like the origin and nature of the photospheric magnetism, especially in the quiet Sun, the properties of the chromospheric magnetic field, the chromospheric energy budget, and the properties of the photospheric and chromospheric plasma and magnetic field during eruptive events, remain open. Moreover, state-of-the-art magneto hydrodynamic simulations produce structures down to the spatial resolution of the simulations themselves (generally, few kilometers per pixel), which are unresolved in current observations. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), with its four meter aperture and state-of-the-art adaptive optics, will allow the acquisition of hundredths of arcsecond spatial resolution data. In this contribution I review the main open questions that the analysis of DKIST observations will allow to address.

  7. First generation solar adaptive optics system for 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope at Fuxian Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Chang-Hui; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Lan-Qiang; Bao, Hua; Ma, Xue-An; Gu, Nai-Ting; Guan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Dong-Hong; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Jun; Jin, Zen-Yu; Liu, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    The first generation solar adaptive optics (AO) system, which consists of a fine tracking loop with a tip-tilt mirror (TTM) and a correlation tracker, and a high-order correction loop with a 37-element deformable mirror (DM), a correlating Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor (WFS) based on the absolute difference algorithm and a real time controller (RTC), has been developed and installed at the 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) that is part of Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO). Compared with the 37-element solar AO system developed for the 26-cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope, administered by Yunnan Astronomical Observatories, this AO system has two updates: one is the subaperture arrangement of the WFS changed from square to hexagon; the other is the high speed camera of the WFS and the corresponding real time controller. The WFS can be operated at a frame rate of 2100 Hz and the error correction bandwidth can exceed 100 Hz. After AO correction, the averaged residual image motion and the averaged RMS wavefront error are reduced to 0.06″ and 45 nm, respectively. The results of on-sky testing observations demonstrate better contrast and finer structures of the images taken with AO than those without AO.

  8. 1.6 M Solar Telescope in Big Bear -- The NST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Denker, Carsten J.; Didkovsky, Leonid I.; Kuhn, J. R.; Wang, Haimin

    2003-06-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), in collaboration with the University of Hawaii (UH), is upgrading Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) by replacing its principal, 65 cm aperture telescope with a modern, off-axis 1.6 m clear aperture instrument from a 1.7 m blank. The new telescope offers a significant incremental improvement in ground-based infrared and high angular resolution capabilities, and enhances our continuing program to understand photospheric magneto-convection and chromospheric dynamics. These are the drivers for what is broadly called space weather -- an important problem, which impacts human technologies and life on earth. This New Solar Telescope (NST) will use the existing BBSO pedestal, pier and observatory building, which will be modified to accept the larger open telescope structure. It will be operated together with our 10 inch (for larger field-of-view vector magnetograms, Ca II K and Hα observations) and Singer-Link (full disk Hα, Ca II K and white light) synoptic telescopes. The NST optical and software control design will be similar to the existing SOLARC (UH) and the planned Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) facility led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) -- all three are off-axis designs. The NST will be available to guest observers and will continue BBSO's open data policy. The polishing of the primary will be done in partnership with the University of Arizona Mirror Lab, where their proof-of-concept for figuring 8 m pieces of 20 m nighttime telescopes will be the NST's primary mirror. We plan for the NST's first light in late 2005. This new telescope will be the largest aperture solar telescope, and the largest aperture off-axis telescope, located in one of the best observing sites. It will enable new, cutting edge science. The scientific results will be extremely important to space weather and global climate change research.

  9. Observation and Modeling of the Solar Transition Region. 1; Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Walker, A. B. C., II; Porter, Jason; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We report on observations of the solar atmosphere in several extreme-ultraviolet and far-ultraviolet bandpasses obtained by the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, a rocket-borne spectroheliograph, on flights in 1987, 1991, and 1994, spanning the last solar maximum. Quiet-Sun emission observed in the 171-175 Angstrom bandpass, which includes lines of O v, O VI, Fe IX, and Fe X, has been analyzed to test models of the temperatures and geometries of the structures responsible for this emission. Analyses of intensity variations above the solar limb reveal scale heights consistent with a quiet-Sun plasma temperature of 500,000 less than or equal to T (sub e) less than or equal to 800,000 K. The structures responsible for the quiet-Sun EUV emission are modeled as small quasi-static loops. We submit our models to several tests. We compare the emission our models would produce in the bandpass of our telescope to the emission we have observed. We find that the emission predicted by loop models with maximum temperatures between 700,000 and 900,000 K are consistent with our observations. We also compare the absolute flux predicted by our models in a typical upper transition region line to the flux measured by previous observers. Finally, we present a preliminary comparison of the predictions of our models with diagnostic spectral line ratios from previous observers. Intensity modulations in the quiet Sun are observed to occur on a scale comparable to the supergranular scale. We discuss the implications that a distribution of loops of the type we model here would have for heating the local network at the loops' footpoints.

  10. The New Solar Telescope in Big Bear: Polarimetry I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Ahn, K.; Gorceix, N.; Coulter, R.

    2011-04-01

    We present here the near-term polarimetry plans for the 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis telescope in Big Bear. The first scientific data were taken in the Summer of 2009 at the Nasmyth focus, and first observations corrected by adaptive optics were taken in the Summer of 2010. The first polarimetry for this telescope will be done in the near infrared at 1.56 μm, which is close to the photospheric opacity minimum. We show and explain reasons for the general layout of the polarimetric hardware for the telescope.

  11. Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 Meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Jongchul; Park, Hyung-Min; Ahn, Kwangsu; Yang, Heesu; Park, Young-Deuk; Nah, Jakyoung; Jang, Bi Ho; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2013-11-01

    For high resolution spectral observations of the Sun - particularly its chromosphere, we have developed a dual-band echelle spectrograph named Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS), and installed it in a vertical optical table in the Coudé Lab of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This instrument can cover any part of the visible and near-infrared spectrum, but it usually records the Hα band and the Ca ii 8542 Å band simultaneously using two CCD cameras, producing data well suited for the study of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere and filaments/prominences. The instrument does imaging of high quality using a fast scan of the slit across the field of view with the aid of adaptive optics. We describe its design, specifics, and performance as well as data processing

  12. First light of the 1.6 meter off-axis New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenda; Gorceix, Nicolas; Coulter, Roy; Coulter, Aaron; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-07-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology, in collaboration with the University of Hawaii and the Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute, has successfully developed and installed a 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The NST will be the largest aperture solar telescope in the world until the 4 m Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) and 4 m European Solar Telescope (EST) begin operation in the next decade. Meanwhile, the NST will be the largest off-axis telescope before the 8.4 m segmented Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) comes on-line. The NST is configured as an off-axis Gregorian system consisting of a parabolic primary, prime focus field stop and heat reflector, elliptical secondary and diagonal flats. The primary mirror is made of Zerodur from Schott and figured to a final residual error of 16 nm rms by Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. The final focal ratio is f/52. The 180 circular opening in the field stop defines the maximal square field-of-view. The working wavelength range will cover 0.4 to 1.7 μm in the Coud´e Lab two floors beneath the telescope, and all wavelengths including far infrared at the Nasmyth focus on an optical bench attached to the side of the telescope structure. First-light scientific observations have been attained at the Nasmyth focus and in the Coud´e Lab. This paper presents a detailed description of installation and alignment of the NST. First-light observational results are also shown to demonstrate the validity of the NST optical alignment.

  13. SUAVE: a UV telescope for space weather and solar variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, L.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Quémerais, E.

    2014-07-01

    SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment) is a far ultraviolet (FUV) imaging solar telescope of novel design for ultimate thermal stability and long lasting performances. SUAVE is a 90 mm Ritchey- Chrétien telescope with SiC (Silicon Carbide) mirrors and no entrance window for long and uncompromised observations in the UV (no coatings of mirrors, flux limited to less than a solar constant on filters to avoid degradation), associated with an ultimate thermal control (heat evacuation, focus control, stabilization). Design of the telescope and early thermal modeling leading to a representative breadboard (a R and T program supported by CNES) will be presented. SUAVE is the main instrument of the SUITS (Solar Ultraviolet Influence on Troposphere/Stratosphere) microsatellite mission, a small-size mission proposed to CNES and ESA.

  14. Filters for soft X-ray solar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiller, Eberhard; Grebe, Kurt; Golub, Leon

    1990-01-01

    Soft X-ray telescopes require filters that block visible and infrared light and have good soft X-ray transmission. The optical properties of possible materials are discussed, and the fabrication and testing methods for the filters used in a 10-inch normal incidence telescope for 63 A are described. The best performances in the 44-114-A wavelength range are obtained with foils of carbon and rhodium.

  15. Optical design for a new off-axis 1.7-m solar telescope (NST) at Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Goode, Philip R.

    2004-02-01

    An optical design for a modern off-axis 1.6 m clear aperture solar telescope - the NST (New Solar Telescope) is presented. The NST will replace the 65 cm vacuum telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO)in 2006. A high-order Adaptive optics (AO) system will deliver light to the current and planned complement of BBSO instrumentation. The NST will fully utilize the optical and dynamical range advantages of its unobstructed (off-axis) pupil.

  16. The Focal Plane Package for the Solar Optical Telescope on Solar-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, T. D.

    2005-05-01

    Solar-B is a space science mission of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and a NASA Solar Terrestrial Probes mission. It includes the 50-cm aperture Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), with its Focal Plane Package (FPP) designed for high resolution photospheric and chromospheric imaging and spectro-polarimetry. There are also two coronal instruments, the X-Ray Telescope and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer. Solar-B will be launched into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit in August, 2006. The SOT is provided by JAXA and is being built by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and Mitsubishi Electric Co. A team of Lockheed Martin, High Altitude Observatory (HAO), and NAOJ scientists and engineers have built the FPP instrument. This paper gives an overview of the science goals of the FPP as well as the instrument performance characteristics. The primary goal is to understand the coupling between the fine magnetic structures in the photosphere and dynamic processes and heating in the chromosphere and corona. The FPP consists of a narrow-band tunable birefringent filter imager, broad-band interference filter imager, and spectro-polarimeter (SP), essentially a space version of the HAO Advanced Stokes Polarimeter. The image is stabilized by a correlation tracker and active tilt mirror. The SP makes vector magnetic measurements from Stokes spectra of the Fe I lines 630.1 and 630.2 nm, with 0.16 arcsec pixels and field of view up to 164 x 328 arcsec. The broad-band system takes diffraction-limited images (0.05 arcsec pixels) in the Ca II H line, CN and G bandheads, and continuum bands. The narrow-band system makes filtergrams, magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and Stokes images in several photospheric lines, Mg b, Na D, and H-alpha, similar to the SOUP filter at La Palma. It has 0.08 arcsec pixels and field-of-view same as that of the SP. SOT and FPP have been calibrated in great detail and have observed the sun in two end-to-end tests at NAOJ. Sample

  17. The space instrument SODISM, a telescope to measure the solar diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

    2011-09-01

    PICARD is a satellite dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the solar diameter, the solar shape, the solar irradiance and the solar interior. These measurements obtained throughout the mission will allow study of their variations as a function of solar activity. The objectives of the PICARD mission are to improve our knowledge of the functioning of our star through new observations and the influence of the solar activity on the climate of the Earth. PICARD was launched on June 15, 2010 on a Dnepr-1 launcher. SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper), an instrument of the PICARD payload, is a high resolution imaging telescope. It was built on an innovative technological concept. SODISM allows us to measure the solar diameter and shape with an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds, and to perform helioseismologic observations to probe the solar interior. SODISM provides continuous observations of the Sun since mid-July 2010. A brief comparison of measurements of solar diameter since the seventeenth century and solar diameter variability are described. In this article, we present the instrumental concept and design and we give an overview of the thermal stability of the telescope. First results from the SODISM experiment are briefly reported (housekeeping and image).

  18. The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) is in regular operation in Big Bear Solar Observatory. The NST is the first facility-class solar telescope built in the U.S. in a generation. The NST provides high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere in the visible and near infrared (NIR). A high order adaptive optics system delivers corrected light to an ensemble of state-of-the-art scientific instruments in the coude laboratory including the Broad-band Filter Imagers (BFIs), NIR Imaging Spectro-polarimeter (NIRIS), Visible Imaging Spectro-polarimeter (VIS) and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). Some early scientific results from the NST will be presented, followed by a progress report on NST instrument development projects, as well as upgrades to existing instruments.

  19. Progress of site survey for large solar telescopes in western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Excellent sites are necessary for developing and installing ground-based large telescopes. For solar telescopes, it had been unclear whether there exist good candidate sites in the west areas in China, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Pamirs Plateau, before the project of solar site survey for our next-generation large solar telescopes, i.e., the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) and the large coronagraph, has been lauched since 2011. Based on the close collaboration among Chinese solar society and the scientists from NSO, HAO and other institutes, we have successfully developed the standard insturments for solar site survey and applied them to more than 50 different sites distributed in Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia provinces. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Tibet and the large Shangri-La to take systematic site data. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that a few potential sites in the large Tibetan areas should obtain the excellent astronomical conditions for our purpose to develop CGST and large coronagraph. We'll introduce and discuss the fresh site survey results in our report.

  20. Instrument Design of the Large Aperture Solar UV Visible and IR Observing Telescope (SUVIT) for the SOLAR-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Takeyama, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present an instrumental design of one major solar observation payload planned for the SOLAR-C mission: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of the lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere, with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability in wide wavelength regions from 280 nm (Mg II h&k lines) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm line) with 1.5 m class aperture and filtergraphic and spectrographic instruments.

  1. The 1.6 m off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda

    2012-09-01

    The 1.6-m New Solar Telescope (NST) has been used to observe the Sun for more than three years with ever increasing capabilities as its commissioning phase winds down. The NST is the first facility-class solar telescope built in the U.S. in a generation, and it has an off-axis design as is planned for the 4 m Advanced Technology Solar Telescope. Lessons learned will be discussed. Current NST post-focus instrumentation includes adaptive optics (AO) feeding photometric and near-IR polarimetric sytems, as well as an imaging spectrograph. On-going instrumentation projects will be sketched, including Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), next generation (dual Fabry- Perot) visible light and near-IR polarimeters and a fully cryogenic spectrograph. Finally, recent observational results illustrating the high resolution capabilities of the NST will be shown.

  2. The Focal Plane Package for the Solar Optical Telescope on Solar-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, T.

    2001-05-01

    Solar-B is a Japanese space science mission of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS), with major participation of US and UK research groups. The mission includes the 50-cm aperture Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), with its Focal Plane Package (FPP) designed for high resolution photospheric and chromospheric imaging and spectro-polarimetry. There are also two coronal instruments, the X-Ray Telescope and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer. Solar-B will be launched into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit in August, 2005. The SOT is provided by ISAS and is being built by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and Mitsubishi Electric Co. A team of Lockheed Martin, High Altitude Observatory (HAO), and NAOJ scientists and engineers are designing the FPP instrument. This talk gives an overview of the science goals of the FPP as well as the current instrument design and performance characteristics. The primary goal is to understand the coupling between the fine magnetic structures in the photosphere and dynamic processes and heating in the chromosphere and corona. The FPP consists of a narrow-band tunable birefringent filter imager, broad-band interference filter imager, and spectro-polarimeter (SP), essentially a space version of the HAO Advanced Stokes Polarimeter. The image is stabilized by a correlation tracker and active tilt mirror. The SP makes vector magnetic measurements from Stokes spectra of the Fe I lines 630.1 and 630.2 nm, with 0.16 arcsec pixels and field of view up to 164 x 328 arcsec. The broad-band system takes diffraction-limited images (0.05 arcsec pixels) in the Ca II H line, CN and G bandheads, and continuum bands. The narrow-band system makes filtergrams, magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and Stokes images in several photospheric lines, Mg b, and H-alpha. It has 0.08 arcsec pixels and field-of-view same as that of the SP. The SP and filter imagers will usually observe simultaneously on the same target region. High

  3. The Lyman-alpha Solar Telescope for the ASO-S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The Lyman-alpha Solar Telescope (LST) is one of the payloads for the proposed Space-Borne Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO-S). LST consists of a Solar Disk Imager (SDI) with a field-of-view (FOV) of 1.2 Rsun, a Solar Corona Imager (SCI) with an FOV of 1.1 - 2.5 Rsun, and a full-disk White-light Solar Telescope (WST) with an FOV of 1.2 Rsun, which also serves as the guiding telescope. The SCI is designed to work at the Lyman-alpha waveband and white-light, while the SDI will work at the Lyman-alpha waveband only. The WST works both in visible (for guide) and ultraviolet (for science) white-light. The LST will observe the Sun from disk-center up to 2.5 solar radii for both solar flares and coronal mass ejections. In this presentation, I will give an introduction to LST, including scientific objectives, science requirement, instrument design and current status.

  4. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B. C., Jr.; Allen, Max J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed seven compact soft X-ray/EUV (XUV) multilayer coated and two compact FUV interference film coated Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes for a rocket borne observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. We report here on extensive measurements of the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the XUV telescopes carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  5. Scientific instrumentation for the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Gorceix, N.; Coulter, R.; Ahn, K.; Rimmele, T. R.; Goode, P. R.

    2010-06-01

    The NST (New Solar Telescope), a 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis telescope, is in its commissioning phase at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It will be the most capable, largest aperture solar telescope in the US until the 4 m ATST (Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) comes on-line late in the next decade. The NST will be outfitted with state-of-the-art scientific instruments at the Nasmyth focus on the telescope floor and in the Coudé Lab beneath the telescope. At the Nasmyth focus, several filtergraphs already in routine operation have offered high spatial resolution photometry in TiO 706 nm, H\\alpha 656 nm, G-band 430 nm and the near infrared (NIR), with the aid of a correlation tracker and image reconstruction system. Also, a Cryogenic Infrared Spectrograph (CYRA) is being developed to supply high signal-to-noise-ratio spectrometry and polarimetry spanning 1.0 to 5.0 μm. The Coudé Lab instrumentation will include Adaptive Optics (AO), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM), Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). A 308 sub-aperture (349-actuator deformable mirror) AO system will enable nearly diffraction limited observations over the NST's principal operating wavelengths from 0.4 μm through 1.7 μm. IRIM and VIM are Fabry-Pérot based narrow-band tunable filters, which provide high resolution two-dimensional spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging in the NIR and visible respectively. FISS is a collaboration between BBSO and Seoul National University focussing on chromosphere dynamics. This paper reports the up-to-date progress on these instruments including an overview of each instrument and details of the current state of design, integration, calibration and setup/testing on the NST.

  6. 2.1 meter (82 inch) Slip Ring By-Pass Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Corby B.

    2006-12-01

    2.1 meter (82 inch) Slip Ring By-Pass Project I will describe a project to bypass the old method of getting control communications above the rotation point of the McDonald Observatory 2.1 meter dome. The old method used slip rings that were implemented in the late 1930s. The new system uses wireless serial commands which allow the control lines to be taken off the slip rings, leaving only power and ground. I will describe how the concept was devised so the slip rings could be by-passed, what micro-controller system that was decided on and used, how the wireless units were set up and finally how the system was tested and put in place with only limited tasks to control. (I.E. the opening and closing of the shutters) We describe the advantages to making this upgrade and how it could benefit any telescope interested in upgrading its communication systems. This project was designed and tested in ten weeks during the McDonald Observatory REU and was supported under NSF AST-0243745. The system was designed so that it could be installed while running side by side with the current method of getting control to the above rotation point. The method is still in place being tested on the 2.1 meter telescope and will soon be fully implemented by the University of Texas McDonald Observatory OS staff.

  7. Performance of polarization modulation and calibration optics for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David F.; Sueoka, Stacey R.; Casini, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (formerly Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the world's largest solar telescope and polarimeter when completed in 2019. Efficient use of the telescope to address key science priorities calls for polarization measurements simultaneously over broad wavelength ranges and calibration of the telescope and polarimeters to high accuracy. Broadband polarization modulation and calibration optics utilizing crystal optics have been designed for this application. The performance of polarization modulators and calibration retarders is presented along with a discussion of the unique challenges of this application. Polarimeters operate over the ranges of 0.38-1.1 microns, 0.5-2.5 microns, and 1.0-5.0 microns. Efficient polarization modulation over these broad ranges led to modulators utilizing multiple wave plates and that are elliptical, rather than linear, retarders. Calibration retarders are linear retarders and are constructed from the same sub-component wave plate pairs as the polarization modulators. Polarization optics must address efficiency over broad wavelength ranges while meeting beam deflection, transmitted wave front error, and thermal constraints and doing so with designs that, though large in diameter, can be affordably manufactured.

  8. The thermal control of the new solar telescope at Big Bear Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.; Denker, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    We present the basic design of the THermal Control System (THCS) for the 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), California. The NST is an off-axis Gregorian telescope with an equatorial mount and an open support structure. Since the telescope optics is exposed to the air, it is imperative to control the local/dome seeing, i.e., temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path have to be minimized. To accomplish this, a THCS is implemented to monitor the dome environment and interact with the louver system of the dome to optimize instrument performance. In addition, an air knife is used to minimize mirror seeing. All system components have to communicate with the Telescope Control System (TCS), a hierarchical system of computers linking the various aspects of the entire telescope system, e.g., the active mirror control, adaptive optics, dome and telescope tracking, weather station, etc. We will provide an initial thermal model of the dome environment and first measurements taken in the recently replaced BBSO dome.

  9. GoldHelox solar x-ray telescope testing progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jonathan P.; Roming, Peter W.; Moody, J. W.; Turley, R. S.; Eastman, Paul F.; Lloyd, T.; Eldredge, K. D.; Raines, Allen L.; Reily, J. Cary; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Keidel, John W.; McCracken, Jeff E.; Whitley, Kenneth M.; Wright, Ernest R.; Baker, Markus A.; Carpenter, James R.; Chavers, D. G.; Haight, Harlan J.; Hale, K. Barry; Hill, Thomas A.; Javins, David R.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Siler, Richard D.; Tucker, John M.; Watson, David W.; Takahashi, R.

    2000-07-01

    The GoldHelox Solar X-ray Telescope underwent several tests during the years of 1997 - 1999, and continues through the testing phase of the project. The instrument itself, a solar telescope to ride on board the Space Shuttle, is designed to photograph the sun in soft x-ray wavelengths between 171 angstroms to 181 angstroms. Critical to its success, many tests are required to insure safety, robustness, and overall accuracy of the telescope during its mission. Among these are shake table tests, optical tests, vacuum integrity, and thermal analysis. This paper describes the GoldHelox project including its current status as a mission, the tests performed on the instrument to date, and the tests pending.

  10. Optical design of high-order adaptive optics for the NSO Dunn Solar Telescope and the Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Hegwer, Steven L.; Rimmele, Thomas; Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Goode, Philip R.

    2003-02-01

    The National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the New Jersey Institute of Technology are jointly developing high order solar Adaptive Optics (AO) to be deployed at both the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) and the Big Bear Solar Telescope (BBST). These AO systems are expected to deliver first light at the end of 2003. We discuss the AO optical designs for both the DST and the BBST. The requirements for the optical design of the AO system are as follows: the optics must deliver diffraction-limited imaging at visible and near infrared over a 190"×190" field of view. The focal plane image must be flat over the entire field of view to accommodate a long slit and fast spectrograph. The wave-front sensor must be able to lock on solar structure such as granulation. Finally, the cost for the optical system must fit the limited budget. Additional design considerations are the desired high bandwidth for tip/tilt correction, which leads to a small, fast and off-the-shelf tilt-tip mirror system and high throughput, i.e., a minimal number of optical surfaces. In order to eliminate pupil image wander on the wave-front sensor, both the deformable mirror and tip-tilt mirror are located on the conjugation images of the telescope pupil. We discuss the details of the optical design for the high order AO system, which will deliver high resolution image at the 0.39 - 1.6 μm wavelength range.

  11. SUNRISE: a balloon-borne telescope for high resolution solar observations in the visible and UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Sami K.; Gandorfer, Achim M.; Schuessler, Manfred; Curdt, W.; Lites, Bruce W.; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Title, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    Sunrise is a light-weight solar telescope with a 1 m aperture for spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar atmosphere. The telescope is planned to be operated during a series of long-duration balloon flights in order to obtain time series of spectra and images at the diffraction-limit and to study the UV spectral region down to ~200 nm, which is not accessible from the ground. The central aim of Sunrise is to understand the structure and dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. Through its interaction with the convective flow field, the magnetic field in the solar photosphere develops intense field concentrations on scales below 100 km, which are crucial for the dynamics and energetics of the whole solar atmosphere. In addition, Sunrise aims to provide information on the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and on the physics of solar irradiance changes. Sunrise is a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (MPAe), Katlenburg-Lindau, with the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik (KIS), Freiburg, the High-Altitude Observatory (HAO), Boulder, the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab. (LMSAL), Palo Alto, and the Instituto de Astrofi sica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife. In addition, there are close contacts with associated scientists from a variety of institutes.

  12. Detecting extra-solar planets with the Japanese 3.5 m SPICA space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Lyu; Enya, Keigo; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Kataza, Hirokazu; Tamura, Motohide; Guyon, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    We present the 3.5 m SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) space telescope, the launch of which is schedule around year 2015 by the Japanese HII-A rocket, and specifically discuss its use in the context of direct observation of extra-solar planets. This actively cooled (4.5 K), single aperture telescope will operate in the mid and far infrared spectral regions, and up to submillimetric wavelengths (200 μm). The lowest spectral region (5 to 20 μm), where the spatial resolution is the most favorable, will be dedicated to high contrast imaging with coronagraphy. This article describes the SPICA coronagraph project in terms of science, as well as our efforts to study a suitable instrumental concept, compatible with the constraints of the telescope architecture. To cite this article: L. Abe et al., C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  13. Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT): A Potential Heliophysics Mission of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying

    We describe a spacecraft mission, named Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), which is currently under a scientific and engineering background study in China. SPORT was originally proposed in 2004 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It will carry a suite of remote-sensing and in-situ instruments to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar high-latitude magnetism, and the fast solar wind from a polar orbit around the Sun. It is intended to be the first mission that carries remote-sensing instruments from a high-latitude orbit around the Sun and the first mission that could measure solar high-latitude magnetism. The first extended view of the polar region of the Sun and the ecliptic plane enabled by SPORT will provide a unique opportunity to study CME propagation through the inner heliosphere and solar high-latitude magnetism giving rise to eruptions and the fast solar wind.

  14. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  15. New solar axion search using the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 4He filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Bremer, J.; Burwitz, V.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for a →γ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the x-ray refractive mass mγ to the axion search mass ma. After the vacuum phase (2003-2004), which is optimal for ma≲0.02 eV , we used 4He in 2005-2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02-0.39 eV and 3He in 2009-2011 to scan from 0.39 to 1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to 4He in 2012 to investigate a narrow ma range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39-0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with 4He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to ga γ<1.47 ×10-10 GeV-1 (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to the vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.

  16. Science and Instrument Design of 1.5-m Aperture Solar Optical Telescope for the SOLAR-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Shimizu, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present science cases and a design of one of major instruments for SOLAR-C mission; 1.5-m-class aperture solar ultra-violet visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SOLAR-C mission aims at fully understanding dynamism and magnetic nature of the solar atmosphere by observing small-scale plasma processes and structures. The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of lower atmosphere from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability covering a wide wavelength region from 280 nm (Mg II h&k) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm), using focal plane instruments: wide-band and narrow-band filtergraphs and a spectrograph for high-precision spectro-polarimetry in the solar photospheric and chromospheric lines. We will discuss about instrument design to realize the science cases.

  17. EIT: Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Michels, D. J.; Dere, K. P.; Howard, R. A.; Catura, R.; Stern, R.; Lemen, J.; Neupert, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) of SOHO (solar and heliospheric observatory) will provide full disk images in emission lines formed at temperatures that map solar structures ranging from the chromospheric network to the hot magnetically confined plasma in the corona. Images in four narrow bandpasses will be obtained using normal incidence multilayered optics deposited on quadrants of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The EIT is capable of providing a uniform one arc second resolution over its entire 50 by 50 arc min field of view. Data from the EIT will be extremely valuable for identifying and interpreting the spatial and temperature fine structures of the solar atmosphere. Temporal analysis will provide information on the stability of these structures and identify dynamical processes. EIT images, issued daily, will provide the global corona context for aid in unifying the investigations and in forming the observing plans for SOHO coronal instruments.

  18. The x-ray/EUV telescope for the Solar-C mission: science and development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Narukage, Noriyuki; Imada, Shinsuke; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimojo, Masumi; Tsuneta, Saku; DeLuca, Edward E.; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke

    2012-09-01

    We report science and development activities of the X-ray/EUV telescope for the Japanese Solar-C mission whose projected launch around 2019. The telescope consists of a package of (a) a normal-incidence (NI) EUV telescope and (b) a grazing-incidence (GI) soft X-ray telescope. The NI telescope chiefly provides images of low corona (whose temperature 1 MK or even lower) with ultra-high angular resolution (0.2-0.3"/pixel) in 3 wavelength bands (304, 171, and 94 angstroms). On the other hand, the GI telescope provides images of the corona with a wide temperature coverage (1 MK to beyond 10 MK) with the highest-ever angular resolution (~0.5"/pixel) as a soft X-ray coronal imager. The set of NI and GI telescopes should provide crucial information for establishing magnetic and gas-dynamic connection between the corona and the lower atmosphere of the Sun which is essential for understanding heating of, and plasma activities in, the corona. Moreover, we attempt to implement photon-counting capability for the GI telescope with which imaging-spectroscopy of the X-ray corona will be performed for the first time, in the energy range from ~0.5 keV up to 10 keV. The imaging-spectroscopic observations will provide totally-new information on mechanism(s) for the generation of hot coronal plasmas (heated beyond a few MK), those for magnetic reconnection, and even generation of supra-thermal electrons associated with flares. An overview of instrument outline and science for the X-ray photoncounting telescope are presented, together with ongoing development activities in Japan towards soft X-ray photoncounting observations, focusing on high-speed X-ray CMOS detector and sub-arcsecond-resolution GI mirror.

  19. Commissioning and First Operation of the Cryogenics for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, K.; Delikaris, D.; Passardi, G.; Pezzetti, M.; Pirotte, O.; Stewart, L.; Vullierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2004-06-01

    A new experiment, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) was installed and commissioned in 2002. Its aim is to experimentally prove the existence of an as yet hypothetical particle predicted by theory as a solution of the strong CP problem and possible candidate for galactic dark matter. The heart of the detector consists of a decommissioned 10-m long LHC superconducting dipole prototype magnet, providing a magnetic field of up to 9.5 T. The whole telescope assembly is aligned with high precision to the core of the sun. If they exist, axions could be copiously produced in the core of the sun and converted into photons within the transverse magnetic field of the telescope. The converted low-energy solar axion spectrum, peaked around a mean energy of 4.4 keV, can then be focused by a special x-ray mirror system and detected by low-background photon detectors, installed on each end of the telescopes twin beam pipes. This paper describes the external and proximity cryogenic system and magnet commissioning as well as the first operational experience with the overall telescope assembly.

  20. Commissioning and First Operation of the Cryogenics for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, K.; Delikaris, D.; Passardi, G.; Pezzetti, M.; Pirotte, O.; Stewart, L.; Vullierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2004-06-23

    A new experiment, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) was installed and commissioned in 2002. Its aim is to experimentally prove the existence of an as yet hypothetical particle predicted by theory as a solution of the strong CP problem and possible candidate for galactic dark matter. The heart of the detector consists of a decommissioned 10-m long LHC superconducting dipole prototype magnet, providing a magnetic field of up to 9.5 T. The whole telescope assembly is aligned with high precision to the core of the sun. If they exist, axions could be copiously produced in the core of the sun and converted into photons within the transverse magnetic field of the telescope. The converted low-energy solar axion spectrum, peaked around a mean energy of 4.4 keV, can then be focused by a special x-ray mirror system and detected by low-background photon detectors, installed on each end of the telescopes twin beam pipes. This paper describes the external and proximity cryogenic system and magnet commissioning as well as the first operational experience with the overall telescope assembly.

  1. Quantitative evaluation on internal seeing induced by heat-stop of solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui

    2015-07-27

    heat-stop is one of the essential thermal control devices of solar telescope. The internal seeing induced by its temperature rise will degrade the imaging quality significantly. For quantitative evaluation on internal seeing, an integrated analysis method based on computational fluid dynamics and geometric optics is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature field of the heat-affected zone induced by heat-stop temperature rise is obtained by the method of computational fluid dynamics calculation. Secondly, the temperature field is transformed to refractive index field by corresponding equations. Thirdly, the wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is calculated by geometric optics based on optical integration in the refractive index field. This integrated method is applied in the heat-stop of the Chinese Large Solar Telescope to quantitatively evaluate its internal seeing. The analytical results show that the maximum acceptable temperature rise of heat-stop is up to 5 Kelvins above the ambient air at any telescope pointing directions under the condition that the root-mean-square of wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is less than 25nm. Furthermore, it is found that the magnitude of wavefront aberration gradually increases with the increase of heat-stop temperature rise for a certain telescope pointing direction. Meanwhile, with the variation of telescope pointing varying from the horizontal to the vertical direction, the magnitude of wavefront aberration decreases at first and then increases for the same heat-stop temperature rise. PMID:26367657

  2. EUV/FUV response characteristics of photographic films for the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    1991-01-01

    The photographic film employed by NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array must have high-to-ultrahigh resolution; since the spacecraft bearing the telescope must be evacuated to prevent the failure of delicate EUV and soft X-ray filters due to acoustic vibration during launch, the films must also have very low outgassing rates. An account is presently given of the properties of important new emulsions selected for flight, together with response-characteristics data for the experimental XUV 100 film and an uncoated Spectroscopic 649 emulsion.

  3. A silicon surface barrier telescope for solar particles identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sequeiros, J.; Medina, J.

    1985-01-01

    From the results three conclusions can be made: (1) the detector system described and tested is capable of good charge resolution from He to Al although beyond Ne the statistic is very poor; (2) in the high gain mode, isotopic resolution has been achieved for Li-6/Li-7 Be-7/Be-9; (3) the much higher yield of He over He and of Be-9 over Be-10 in these types of nuclear reactions prevents obtaining experimental evidence of those isotopes, although it is believed that, at least He-3/He-4 can be resolved under other more favorable conditions (i.e., solar He-3-rich events).

  4. Thermal effects in the Solar Disk Sextant telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnesi, Chiara; Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Righini, Alberto

    2004-02-01

    The Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) is an instrument conceived to monitor the diameter of the Sun and its oscillations. A key component of the SDS is the Beam Splitting Wedge (BSW), whose function is to provide calibration to the geometry of the focal plane. The thermal behavior of the BSW is critical, as it affects the overall performance of the instrument. Modeling the elements of the BSW and the basic thermal processes is shown to account for experimental evidences of defocusing observed in early measurements with a balloon borne prototype. Basic requirements for accurate thermal stabilization on board of the final instrument are derived.

  5. The New 30 THz Solar Telescope in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudaka, A. S.; Cassiano, M. M.; Marcon, R.; Cabezas, D. P.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Hidalgo Ramirez, R. F.; Kaufmann, P.; de Souza, R. V.

    2015-08-01

    It has been found that solar bursts exhibit one unexpected spectral component with fluxes increasing with frequency in the sub-THz range, which is distinct from the well-known microwave emission that peaks at a few to some tens of GHz. This component has been found to extend into the THz range of frequencies by recent 30 THz solar flare observations of impulsive bursts with flux intensities considerably higher than fluxes at sub-THz and microwaves frequencies. High-cadence solar observations at 30 THz (continuum) are therefore an important tool for the study of active regions and flaring events. We report the recent installation of a new 30 THz solar telescope in São Paulo, located at the top of one of the University's buildings. The instrument uses a Hale-type coelostat with two 20 cm diameter flat mirrors sending light to a 15 cm mirror Newtonian telescope. Radiation is directed to a microbolometer array camera that is kept at room temperature. Observations are usually obtained with 5 frames s^{-1} cadence. One 60 mm refractor has been added to observe H\\upalpha images simultaneously. We describe our new telescopes and the new observatory examples of the first results obtained.

  6. Study of a Solar X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The highly structured nature of the outer solar atmosphere seems to be intimately linked to the presence, at the solar surface, of magnetic fields that have been generated inside the Sun and have emerged to the surface. The corona is brightest (and also hottest) at just those locations where the magnetic field has emerged from inside the Sun. Dynamo theory predicts that strong magnetic fields will be generated deep in the solar interior and that bundles or 'ropes' of magnetic flux will float to the surface. When this happens, a magnetically bipolar region will become visible, extending above the surface in a three-dimensional structure. The field lines penetrate through the surface, showing two magnetic poles, and also exhibit a three-dimensional structure above the surface. The structure created by the field emergence is rooted in the (relatively) cool photosphere and extends through the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Thus, the magnetic field creates a region, called an active region, which contains portions at temperatures from less than 10(exp 4) K to greater than 10(exp 6) K, and is therefore visible at wavelengths from the infrared through x-rays. The locations where the magnetic field leaves and reenters the visible surface are called the 'footpoints' of the coronal structures associated with the magnetic field. The magnetic fields themselves are not directly visible. However, the hot coronal plasma is, for the most part, constrained to follow the direction of the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. Now, 100 years after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1896, we can routinely make observations of the solar corona from outside the Earth's atmosphere in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As shown by comparing x-ray images with magnetograms, the bright corona over these bipolar magnetic regions consists of closed structures that seem to follow the orientation of the magnetic field. Although we can see down to the

  7. New solar telescope in Big Bear: evidence for super-diffusivity and small-scale solar dynamos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2012-07-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now providing the highest resolution solar data ever. These data have revealed surprises about the Sun on small-scales including the observation that bright points (BPs), which can be used as proxies for the intense, compact magnetic elements that are apparent in photospheric intergranular lanes. The BPs are ever more numerous on ever smaller spatial scales as though there were no limit to how small the BPs can be. Here we discuss high resolution NST data on BPs that provide support for the ideas that a turbulent regime of super-diffusivity dominates in the quiet Sun, and there are local dynamos operating near the solar surface.

  8. An updated 37-element low-order solar adaptive optics system for 1-m new vacuum solar telescope at Full-Shine Lake Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Changhui; Zhu, Lei; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Xuejun; Zhang, Lanqiang; Guan, Chunlin; Chen, Donghong; Chen, Shanqiu; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Jun; Liu, Zhong

    2012-07-01

    A low-order solar adaptive optics (AO) system, which consists of a fine tracking loop with a tip/tilt mirror and a correlation tracker, and a high-order correction loop with a 37-element deformable mirror, a correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a high-order wavefront correction controller, had been successfully developed and installed at 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope of Full-shine Lake (also called Fuxian Lake) Solar Observatory. This system is an update of the 37-element solar AO system designed for the 26-cm Solar Fine Structure Telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory in 2009. The arrangement of subapertures of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was changed from square to hexagon to achieve better compensation performance. Moreover, the imaging channel of the updated system was designed to observe the Sun at 710nm and 1555nm simultaneously. The AO system was integrated into the solar telescope in 2011, and AO-corrected high resolution sunspots and granulation images were obtained. The observational results show that the contrast and resolution of the solar images are improved evidently after the correction by the AO system.

  9. Detection of Solar Wind Disturbances: Mexican Array Radio Telescope IPS Observations at 140 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Hernandez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ontiveros-Hernandez, V.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.

    2015-09-01

    The interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique is a remote-sensing method for monitoring solar-wind perturbations. The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) is a single-station instrument operating at 140 MHz, fully dedicated to performing solar-wind studies employing the IPS technique. We report MEXART solar-wind measurements (scintillation indices and solar-wind velocities) using data obtained during the 2013 and 2014 campaigns. These solar-wind measurements were calculated employing a new methodology based on the wavelet transform (WT) function. We report the variation of the scintillation indices versus the heliocentric distance for two IPS sources (3C48 and 3C147). We found different average conditions of the solar-wind density fluctuations in 2013 and 2014. We used the fittings of the radial dependence of the scintillation index to calculate g-indices. Based on the g-index value, we identified 17 events that could be associated with strong compression regions in the solar wind. We present the first ICME identifications in our data. We associated 14 IPS events with preceding CME counterparts by employing white-light observations from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. We found that most of the IPS events, detected during the solar maximum of Cycle 24 were associated with complex CME events. For the IPS events associated with single CME counterparts, we found a deceleration tendency of the CMEs as they propagate in the interplanetary medium. These results show that the instrument detects solar-wind disturbances, and the WT methodology provides solar-wind information with good accuracy. The MEXART observations will complement solar-wind IPS studies using other frequencies, and the tracking of solar-wind disturbances by other stations located at different longitudes.

  10. The solar array-induced disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope pointing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, C. L.; Tinker, M. L.; Nurre, G. S.; Till, W. A.

    1995-05-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitudes of the disturbances were considerably larger than the design jitter requirements. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first space telescope servicing mission and, in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm, reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  11. Solar-array-induced disturbance of the Hubble space telescope pointing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Carlton L.; Tinker, Michael L.; Nurre, Gerald S.; Till, William A.

    1995-07-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitude of the disturbances was considerably larger than the design jitter requirement. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first Space Telescope servicing mission, and in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  12. Solar-Array-Induced Disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Carlton L.; Tinker, Michael L.; Nurre, Gerald S.; Till, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitude of the disturbances was considerably larger than the design jitter requirement. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first Space Telescope servicing mission, and in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  13. The solar array-induced disturbance of the Hubble Space Telescope pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L.; Tinker, M. L.; Nurre, G. S.; Till, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of the vibrational disturbances of the Hubble Space Telescope that were discovered soon after deployment in orbit is described in detail. It was found that the disturbances were particularly evident during orbital day-night crossings, and that the magnitudes of the disturbances were considerably larger than the design jitter requirements. This paper describes the process by which the vibrations were characterized and isolated to a particular mechanism. The analysis of the flight data and comparisons with computer simulation results showed that the source of the disturbances was the thermally driven deformation of the solar arrays in conjunction with frictional effects in the array mechanisms. The control system was successfully modified to attenuate the disturbances to tolerable levels pending mechanical and thermal redesign of the solar arrays. The new arrays were installed during the first space telescope servicing mission and, in combination with the enhanced control system algorithm, reduced the disturbances to satisfactory levels.

  14. Features of the solar array drive mechanism for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hostenkamp, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The solar array drive mechanism for the Space Telescope embodies several features not customarily found on solar array drives. Power and signal transfer is achieved by means of a flexible wire harness for which the chosen solution, consisting of 168 standard wires, is described. The torque performance data of the harness over its temperature range are presented. The off load system which protects the bearings from the launch loads is released by a trigger made from Nitinol, the memory alloy. The benefits of memory alloy and the caveats for the design are briefly discussed. The design of the off load system is described and test experience is reported.

  15. Prospects for solar and space weather research with polish part of the LOFAR telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, Bartosz P.; Krankowski, Andrzej; Błaszkiewicz, Leszek; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-06-01

    The LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new radio interferometer that consists of an array of stations. Each of them is a phase array of dipole antennas. LOFAR stations are distributed mostly in the Netherlands, but also throughout Europe. In the article we discuss the possibility of using this instrument for solar and space weather studies, as well as ionosphere investigations. We are expecting that in the near future the LOFAR telescope will bring some interesting observations and discoveries in these fields. It will also help to observe solar active events that have a direct influence on the near-Earth space weather.

  16. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. IV - The soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Powell, Forbes R.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array uses various combinations of thin foil filters composed of Al, C, Te, Be, Mo, Rh, and phthalocyanine to achieve the requisite radiation-rejection characteristics. Such rejection is demanded by the presence of strong EUV radiation at longer wavelengths where the specular reflectivity of multilayer mirrors can cause 'contamination' of the image in the narrow band defined by the Bragg condition.

  17. Off-disk straylight measurements for the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, Mats G.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Accurate photometry with ground-based solar telescopes requires characterization of straylight. Scattering in Earth's atmosphere and in the telescope optics are potentially significant sources of straylight, for which the point spread function (PSF) has wings that reach very far. This kind of straylight produces an aureola, extending several solar radii off the solar disk. Aims: We want to measure such straylight using the ordinary science instrumentation. Methods: We scanned the intensity on and far off the solar disk by use of the science cameras in several different wavelength bands on a day with low-dust conditions. We characterized the far wing straylight by fitting a model to the recorded intensities involving a multicomponent straylight PSF and the limb darkening of the disk. Results: The measured scattered light adds an approximately constant fraction of the local granulation intensity to science images at any position on the disk. The fraction varied over the day but never exceeded a few percent. The PSFs have weak tails that extend to several solar radii, but most of the scattered light originates within ~1'. Conclusions: Far-wing scattered light contributes only a small amount of straylight in SST data. Other sources of straylight are primarily responsible for the reduced contrast in SST images.

  18. Thermal/Dynamic Characterization Test of the Solar Array Panel for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Kathleen; Hershfeld, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has experienced a problem maintaining pointing accuracy during emergence of the spacecraft from the Earth's shadow. The problem has been attributed to the rapid thermal gradient that develops when the heat from the Sun strikes the cold solar arrays. The thermal gradient causes the solar arrays to deflect or bend and this motion is sufficient to disturb the pointing control system. In order to alleviate this problem, a new design for the solar arrays has been fabricated. These new solar arrays will replace the current solar arrays during a future Hubble servicing mission. The new solar arrays have been designed so that the effective net motion of the center of mass of each panel is essentially zero. Although the solar array thermal deflection problem has been studied extensively over a period of years, a full scale test of the actual flight panels was required in order to establish confidence in the analyses. This test was conducted in the JPL Solar Simulation Facility in April, 1999. This presentation will discuss the objectives and methods of the test and present some typical test data.

  19. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  20. Solar Sail - Fresnel Zone Plate Lens for a Large Space Based Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J T

    2002-02-13

    A Fresnel zone plate lens made with solar sail material could be used as the primary optic for a very large aperture telescope on deep space probes propelled by solar sails. The large aperture telescope capability could enable significant science on fly-by missions to the asteroids, Pluto, Kuiper belt or the tort cloud and could also enable meaningful interstellar fly-by missions for laser propelled sails. This type of lens may also have some potential for laser communications and as a solar concentrator. The techniques for fabrication of meter size and larger Fresnel phase plate optics are under development at LLNL, and we are extending this technology to amplitude zone plates made from sail materials. Corrector optics to greatly extend the bandwidth of these Fresnel optics will be demonstrated in the future. This novel telescope concept will require new understanding of the fabrication, deployment and control of gossamer space structures. It will also require new materials technology for fabricating these optics and understanding their long term stability in a space environment.

  1. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Multispectral Solar Telescope Array is a rocket-borne observatory which encompasses seven compact soft X-ray/EUV, multilayer-coated, and two compact far-UV, interference film-coated, Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. Extensive measurements are presented on the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the X-ray/EUV telescopes. Attention is given to systematic errors and measurement errors.

  2. Scientific Instruments of 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.

    2009-12-01

    The NST (New Solar Telescope) is in its commissioning phase at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It will be the most capable, largest aperture solar telescope in the US until the 4 m ATST (Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) comes on-line in the middle of the next decade. The NST will be outfitted with state-of-the-art post-focus instrumentations at the Nasmyth focus on the dome floor and in the Coude Lab beneath the telescope. At the Nasmyth focus, several filter-based systems already in routine operation offer high spatial resolution photometry in TiO 704 nm, Hα 656 nm, G-band 430 nm and near infrared 1.56 μm & 2.2 μm, with the assistance of local correlation tracking and image reconstruction. As well, a Cryogenic InfraRed Spectrograph (CIRS) is being developed to supply high signal-to-noise-ratio spectrometry and polarimetry spanning 1.0 to 5.0 μm. The Coudé-lab instrumentations will include Adaptive Optics system (AO), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM), Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), Real-time Image Reconstruction System (RIRS), and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) -- most of these instruments operated on the old 0.6 m BBSO telescope. AO is being upgraded to a 308 sub-aperture (349-actuator Deformable Mirror) AO system that will enable diffraction limited observations over the NST's principal operating wavelengths from 0.4 through 1.7 μm. IRIM and VIM are Fabry-Pérot based narrow-band tunable filter, which provide high resolution two-dimensional spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging in the near infrared and visible respectively. Using a 32-node parallel computing system, RIRS is capable of performing real-time image reconstruction with one image every minute. FISS is a collaboration between BBSO and Seoul National University to focus on chromosphere dynamics. Key tasks including optical design, hardware/software integration and subsequent setup/testing on the NST, will be presented here. Some preliminary observation results in the near

  3. The Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results (1874 - 1885): Observing Telescopes, Photographic Processes, and Solar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, D. M.; Wild, M. N.; Appleby, G. M.; Macdonald, L. T.

    2016-05-01

    Potential sources of inhomogeneity in the sunspot measurements published by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, during the early interval 1874 - 1885 are examined critically. Particular attention is paid to inhomogeneities that might arise because the sunspot measurements were derived from solar photographs taken at various contributing solar observatories, which used different telescopes, experienced different seeing conditions, and employed different photographic processes. The procedures employed in the Solar Department at the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), Herstmonceux, during the final phase of sunspot observations provide a modern benchmark for interpreting the early sunspot measurements. The different observing telescopes used at the contributing solar observatories during the interval 1874 - 1885 are discussed in detail, using information gleaned from the official RGO publications and other relevant historical documents. Likewise, the different photographic processes employed at the different solar observatories are reviewed carefully. The procedures used by RGO staff to measure the positions and areas of sunspot groups on photographs of the Sun having a nominal radius of either four or eight inches are described. It is argued that the learning curve for the use of the Kew photoheliograph at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, actually commenced in 1858, not 1874. The RGO daily number of sunspot groups is plotted graphically and analysed statistically. Similarly, the changes of metadata at each solar observatory are shown on the graphical plots and analysed statistically. It is concluded that neither the interleaving of data from the different solar observatories nor the changes in metadata invalidates the RGO count of the number of sunspot groups, which behaves as a quasi-homogeneous time series. Furthermore, it is emphasised that the correct treatment of days without photographs is quite crucial to the correct calculation of Group Sunspot Numbers.

  4. Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT): A Potential Space Weather Mission of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. D.; Xiong, M.; Wu, J.; Liu, H.; Zheng, J.; Li, B.; Zhang, C.; Sun, W.

    2013-12-01

    We describe a spacecraft mission, named Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT), which is currently under a scientific and engineering background study in China. SPORT was originally proposed in 2004 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It will carry a suite of remote-sensing and in-situ instruments to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar high-latitude magnetism, and the fast solar wind from a polar orbit around the Sun. It is intended to be the first mission that carries remote-sensing instruments from a high-latitude orbit around the Sun, the first mission that could image interplanetary CMEs at radio wavelengths from space, and the first mission that could measure solar high-latitude magnetism leading to eruptions and the fast solar wind. The first extended view of the polar region of the Sun and the ecliptic plane enabled by SPORT will provide a unique opportunity to study CME propagation through the inner heliosphere and solar high-latitude magnetism giving rise to eruptions and the fast solar wind.

  5. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SIZE AND LIFETIME OF BRIGHT POINTS OBSERVED WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip; Kilcik, Ali

    2010-12-10

    We present results of 2 hr non-interrupted observations of solar granulation obtained under excellent seeing conditions with the largest aperture ground-based solar telescope-the New Solar Telescope (NST)-of Big Bear Solar Observatory. Observations were performed with adaptive optics correction using a broadband TiO filter in the 705.7 nm spectral line with a time cadence of 10 s and a pixel size of 0.''0375. Photospheric bright points (BPs) were detected and tracked. We find that the BPs detected in NST images are cospatial with those visible in Hinode/SOT G-band images. In cases where Hinode/SOT detects one large BP, NST detects several separated BPs. Extended filigree features are clearly fragmented into separate BPs in NST images. The distribution function of BP sizes extends to the diffraction limit of NST (77 km) without saturation and corresponds to a log-normal distribution. The lifetime distribution function follows a log-normal approximation for all BPs with lifetime exceeding 100 s. A majority of BPs are transient events reflecting the strong dynamics of the quiet Sun: 98.6% of BPs live less than 120 s. The longest registered lifetime was 44 minutes. The size and maximum intensity of BPs were found to be proportional to their lifetimes.

  6. Prototype Spectro-Polarimeter for the India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayavalli Rangarajan, Komandur; Sankarasubramanian, Kasiviswanathan; Srivastava, Nandita; Venkatakrishnan, Parameswaran; Mathew, Shibu; Bayanna, Raja; Hasan, Sirajul; Prabhu, Kesavan

    2013-04-01

    India's National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) of two meter aperture size is proposed to be set up in Ladakh region of Himalayas at a height of around 4300 meters. A high resolution spectrograph along with a polarimeter is planned as one of the backend instruments for NLST. Prototype development of the NLST Spectro-Polarimeter (SP) is proposed to be designed and developed for usage at the back focal plane of the Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) recently installed at the Udaipur Solar Observatory. Design of the prototype SP is discussed in detail along with the scientific goals. The SP is designed to be operated in three wavelengths to observe photospheric and chromospheric layers of the solar atmosphere simultaneously. Vector magnetic fields will be calculated in these layers. High resolution of the designed SP will provide accurate estimates of velocities. Highly resolved polarized line profiles will allow us to obtain the height variation of vector magnetic fields when used along with suitable inversion codes (like SPINOR or SIR).

  7. A long duration balloon-borne telescope for solar gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Alan; Chupp, Edward L.; Dunphy, Philip P.

    1989-01-01

    A new solar gamma-ray telescope is described which is intended to take advantage of current long-duration ballon facilities such as the RACOON system. The primary scientific objective is to detect and measure gamma-ray lines from solar flares, along with the associated low-energy continuum. The proposed instrument is centered on a multiheaded Ge system and is designed to operate over the energy range 50 keV to 200 200 MeV. In the nuclear transition energy region, the average energy resolution of the primary detectors is over 20 times better than that achieved with the gamma-ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite.

  8. Small Scale Chromospheric Dynamics Detected With The New Solar Telescope In Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B.

    2010-05-01

    High resolution observations of quiet Sun areas obtained with the New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear Solar Observatory revealed surprisingly storming small-scale chromospheric dynamics. We thus discovered tiny chromospheric jets originating in the ubiquitous lanes that surround individual granules characterizing the solar surface. These jets do not appear to be exclusively associated with photospheric bright points and/or vertices of the intergranular lanes. They seem to have sufficient energy to resolve the mystery of why the overlying chromosphere is hotter than the photosphere. We will further address the nature of these chromospheric jets and their relationship to ambient magnetic fields by combining high resolution data from NST instruments and Hinode observatory.

  9. Construction Status and Early Science with the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Warner, Mark; Martinez Pillet, Valentin; Craig, Simon; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Berukoff, Steven J.; Casini, Roberto; Goode, Philip R.; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeffrey Richard; Lin, Haosheng; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Reardon, Kevin P.; Rosner, Robert; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The 4-m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is in its seventh year of overall development and its fourth year of site construction on the summit of Haleakala, Maui. The Site Facilities (Utility Building and Support & Operations Building) are in place with ongoing construction of the Telescope Mount Assembly within. Off-site the fabrication of the component systems is completing with early integration testing and verification starting.Once complete this facility will provide the highest sensitivity and resolution for study of solar magnetism and the drivers of key processes impacting Earth (solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections, and variability in solar output). The DKIST will be equipped initially with a battery of first light instruments which cover a spectral range from the UV (380 nm) to the near IR (5000 nm), and capable of providing both imaging and spectro-polarimetric measurements throughout the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona); these instruments are being developed by the National Solar Observatory (Visible Broadband Imager), High Altitude Observatory (Visible Spectro-Polarimeter), Kiepenheuer Institute (Visible Tunable Filter) and the University of Hawaii (Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter and the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter). Further, a United Kingdom consortium led by Queen's University Belfast is driving the development of high speed cameras essential for capturing the highly dynamic processes measured by these instruments. Finally, a state-of-the-art adaptive optics system will support diffraction limited imaging capable of resolving features approximately 20 km in scale on the Sun.We present the overall status of the construction phase along with the current challenges as well as a review of the planned science testing and the transition into early science operations.

  10. Calibration development strategies for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Fraser; Reardon, Kevin P.; Berukoff, Steven J.; Hays, Tony; Wiant, Scott; Spiess, DJ

    2016-05-01

    As telescopes have grown larger and data rates have increased, so have the challenges in providing reliable and accurate calibration strategies for transforming raw data into useful science-ready outputs. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world and will use adaptive optics to provide the highest resolution view of the Sun. Its data acquisition rates will be in the hundreds of thousands of frames per day, and it will deliver an average of 12TB of raw solar data on a daily basis. DKIST data will enable significant and transformative discoveries that will dramatically increase our understanding of the Sun and its effects on the Sun-Earth environment. As such, it is a priority of the DKIST Data Center team at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to be able to deliver timely and accurately calibrated data to the astronomical community for further analysis.The facility will execute a variety of investigator-driven observing programs, which will produce day–to-day variations in the types of acquired data. In combination with large data rates and limited personnel, this will require some degree of automation to be incorporated into the calibration workflows to facilitate the generation of scientifically useful data. The heterogeneity of the data and the unpredictable variations in the seeing conditions (on timescales of seconds or minutes) introduce complexity, which requires a self-adapting, extensible calibration pipeline to provide sufficient automation to the process. Our knowledge of the instrument performance and telescope characteristics will grow as the telescope begins operations, and continuously through the facility lifetime. The automated calibration pipelines will be capable of modification and improvement to incorporate the new information about the DKIST system, as well as potential improvements provided by the DKIST user community.This poster will detail the calibration development strategies being

  11. First Results from 1.6 m Off-Axis Solar Telescope in Big Bear (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    In early 2009 at Big Bear Solar Observatory, first light science observations were made with BBSO's NST (New Solar Telescope), which has a 1.6m clear aperture (0.06” resolution at 500 nm). After a brief introduction to some of the lessons learned in making the telescope, first light observations in TiO, Halpha, G-Band and 1.56 micron lines will be introduced with detailed results presented in other talks in this session, including joint observations with Hinode and other satellites. The NST has an off-axis Gregorian configuration consisting of a parabolic primary, heat-stop, elliptical secondary and diagonal flats. The focal ratio of the primary mirror is f/2.4, and the final ratio is f/50. The working wavelength range covers from 0.4 to 1.7 microns in the Coude Lab beneath the telescope and all wavelengths including the far infrared at the Nasmyth focus on the dome floor. Plans for the on-going commissioning phase will be sketched.

  12. Reflectivity, polarization properties, and durability of metallic mirror coatings for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, A.; Krishnappa, N.; Pleier, O.; Hirzberger, J.; Jobst, P. J.; Schürmann, M.

    2012-09-01

    In the context of the conceptual design study for the European Solar Telescope (EST) we have investigated different metallic mirror coatings in terms of reflectivity, polarization properties and durability. Samples of the following coating types have been studied: bare aluminum, silver with different dielectric layers for protection and UV enhancement, and an aluminum-silver combination. From 2009 to 2011 we have carried out a long-term durability test under realistic observing conditions at the VTT solar telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Spain), accompanied by repeated reflectivity measurements in the EST spectral working range (0.3 - 20 μm), and by polarization measurements in the visible range. The test results allow us to find the optimum coatings for the different mirrors in the EST beampath and to eventually assess aging effects and re-coating cycles. The results of the polarization measurements are a valuable input for an EST telescope polarization model, helping to meet the stringent requirements on polarimetric accuracy.

  13. High-performance parallel image reconstruction for the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Liu, Zhong; Wang, Feng; Jin, Zhen-Yu; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Zheng, Yan-Fang

    2015-06-01

    Many technologies have been developed to help improve spatial resolution of observational images for ground-based solar telescopes, such as adaptive optics (AO) systems and post-processing reconstruction. As any AO system correction is only partial, it is indispensable to use post-processing reconstruction techniques. In the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST), a speckle-masking method is used to achieve the diffraction-limited resolution of the telescope. Although the method is very promising, the computation is quite intensive, and the amount of data is tremendous, requiring several months to reconstruct observational data of one day on a high-end computer. To accelerate image reconstruction, we parallelize the program package on a high-performance cluster. We describe parallel implementation details for several reconstruction procedures. The code is written in the C language using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and is optimized for parallel processing in a multiprocessor environment. We show the excellent performance of parallel implementation, and the whole data processing speed is about 71 times faster than before. Finally, we analyze the scalability of the code to find possible bottlenecks, and propose several ways to further improve the parallel performance. We conclude that the presented program is capable of executing reconstruction applications in real-time at NVST.

  14. Solar System Research with the Spacewatch 1.8-m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    During this grant period, the 1.8-m Spacewatch telescope was put into routine operation to search for asteroids and comets ranging in location from near-Earth space to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune. All of these classes of objects can be detected simultaneously with our uniform scanning procedures. We are studying near Earth objects (NEOs), main belt asteroids, comets, Centaurs, and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), as well as the interrelationships of these classes and their bearing on the origin and evolution of the solar system. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter telescope is sensitive to V(mag) < 22.6 in sidereal scanning mode and is able to reach even fainter in longer 'staring' exposures, with a field of view 0.5 degrees square. These faint limits make the operation of the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope complementary to asteroid surveys being done by other groups. Specifically, EAs smaller than 100 m in diameter and small main belt asteroids can be found, as well as more distant objects such as Centaurs/Scattered Disk Objects (SDOs) and TNOs. The 1.8-m telescope is also being used to do recoveries and astrometry of recently-discovered asteroids that subsequently become too faint for the other groups before good orbits are established.

  15. On the use of Cherenkov Telescopes for outer Solar system body occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.

    2014-12-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) are arrays of very large optical telescopes that are well-suited for rapid photometry of bright sources. I investigate their potential in observing stellar occultations by small objects in the outer Solar system, Transjovian Objects (TJOs). These occultations cast diffraction patterns on the Earth. Current IACT arrays are capable of detecting objects smaller than 100 m in radius in the Kuiper Belt and 1 km radius out to 5000 au. The future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will have even greater capabilities. Because the arrays include several telescopes, they can potentially measure the speeds of TJOs without degeneracies, and the sizes of the TJOs and background stars. I estimate the achievable precision using a Fisher matrix analysis. With CTA, the precisions of these parameter estimations will be as good as a few per cent. I consider how often detectable occultations occur by members of different TJO populations, including Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), Oort Cloud objects, and satellites and Trojans of Uranus and Neptune. The great sensitivity of IACT arrays means that they likely detect KBO occultations once every O(10) hours when looking near the ecliptic. IACTs can also set useful limits on many other TJO populations.

  16. Photogrammetric Assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Arrays During the Second Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, C. A.; Dragg, J. L.; Snyder, M. W.; Gaunce, M. T.; Decker, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the photogrammetric assessment of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays conducted by the NASA c Center Image Science and Analysis Group during Second Servicing Mission 2 (SM-2) on STS-82 in February 1997. Two type solar array analyses were conducted during the mission using Space Shuttle payload bay video: (1) measurement of solar array motion due to induced loads, and (2) measurement of the solar array static or geometric twist caused by the cumulative array loading. The report describes pre-mission planning and analysis technique development activities conducted to acquire and analyze solar array imagery data during SM-2. This includes analysis of array motion obtained during SM-1 as a proof-of-concept of the SM-2 measurement techniques. The report documents the results of real-time analysis conducted during the mission and subsequent analysis conducted post-flight. This report also provides a summary of lessons learned on solar array imagery analysis from SM-2 and recommendations for future on-orbit measurements applicable to HST SM-3 and to the International Space Station. This work was performed under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  17. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere’s response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80–200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics. PMID:27071459

  18. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-04-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere’s response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80–200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics.

  19. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics.

  20. Real time controller for 37-element low-order solar adaptive optics system at 1m new vacuum solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Gu, Naiting; Chen, Shanqiu; Zhang, Lanqiang; Wang, Xiaoyun; Rao, Xuejun; Li, Mei; Rao, Changhui

    A low-order solar adaptive optics (AO) system had been successfully built and installed at 1m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) of Full-shine Lake Solar Observatory. The real time controller (RTC) of the AO system, which consists of a correlation tracker and a high-order wavefront correction controller, was developed. In this system, the absolute difference algorithm is used to detect wavefront gradients. A new architecture with field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP) for the real-time controller based on systolic array and pipeline was designed. The controller was integrated into the AO system and saw the first light on February 24th, 2011, using solar granulation as the beacon. Later, the AO-corrected high resolution sunspots images were obtained using sunspots as the beacon. The observational results show that the contrast and resolution of the solar images are improved evidently after the correction by the AO system. The design of the RTC and the observational results will be presented.

  1. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics. PMID:27071459

  2. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  3. Calibration of the instrumental polarization of the Domeless Solar Telescope at the Hida Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyohara, Junko; Ueno, Satoru; Kitai, Reizaburo; Kurokawa, Hiroki; Makita, Mitsugu; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2004-09-01

    A new spectropolarimeter is developed at the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) in Hida Observatory. It consists of a rotating waveplate, Wollaston prisms, and a high-dispersion spectrograph which is vertically installed at the focus of the DST. In order to realize a high-precision measurement, it is inevitable to compensate the instrumental polarization due to the DST. We observed the quiet region of the Sun, which is considered to be highly unpolarized, with and without a sheet linear polarizer or circular polarizer set at the entrance window of the telescope. The theoretical model which represents the total instrumental polarization of the DST with some characteristic parameters was calculated and compared with the observation. The model that two flat mirrors have different properties can explain the observation in 0.5% accuracy for the unpolarized light, and in 7% for the polarized light.

  4. Lightweight tip-tilt mirror in correlation tracker system of the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Yang, Shimo; Jiang, Aimin

    2005-12-01

    To compensate the image motion caused by random atmospheric turbulence and mechanical vibration, a high performance correlation tracker designed for the Space Solar Telescope (SST) has been realized in National Astronomical Observatories. Correlation tracker is to stabilize the image and provide the stabilized objective to CCD. The main optical telescope can obtain the highest spatial resolution and ensure the image processing. Tip-tilt mirror is the crucial element of the correlation tracker. The lightweight mirror is to adapt to work normally with space using and satisfy the space environmental requirement. Tip-tilt mirror's material is SiC. Confirming the appropriate joint with the platform and supporting mode through Finite Element Method. Then calculating the surface shape quality value (RMS) of the mirror effected by inertial load and temperature. The calculation results show that the tip-tilt mirror has enough stiffness and intensity. The mirror's surface shape quality value can satisfy the optical requirement of the correlation tracker system.

  5. Control and operation of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsik, J.; Plymate, C.; Goode, P.; Kosovichev, A.; Cao, W.; Coulter, R.; Ahn, K.; Gorceix, N.; Shumko, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 1.6m New Solar Telescope (NST) has developed a modern and comprehensive suite of instruments which allow high resolution observations of the Sun. The current instrument package comprises diffraction limited imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric instruments covering the wavelength range from 0.4 to 5.0 microns. The instruments include broadband imaging, visible and near-infrared scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers, an imaging spectropolarimeter, a fast visible-light imaging spectrograph, and a unique new scanning cryogenic infrared spectrometer/spectropolarimeter that is nearing completion. Most instruments are operated with a 308 subaperture adaptive optics system, while the thermal-IR spectrometer has a correlation tracker. This paper reports on the current observational programs and operational performance of the telescope and instrumentation. The current control, data processing, and archiving systems are also briefly discussed.

  6. Experiment and modal analysis on the primary mirror structure of Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Zhiping; Yang, Shimo; Hu, Qiqian

    2006-06-01

    Primary mirror with Φ 1m and f 3.5m is the most important optical part in Space Solar Telescope (SST), which is designed to make observations of transient and steady state solar hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic processes and is being researched and manufactured by National Astronomical Observatories. The primary mirror structure(PMS), a crucial linker for the optical and other subsystems, includes primary mirror and its supporting frame. Therefore, this part must satisfy the optical sufficient strength, stiffness, and thermal stability requirements under the space environment and in the launching process. In this paper the primary mirror structure and its connection are described. The scheme of modal analysis and experiment is built, according to the specific dynamic requirements of the primary mirror structure in Space Solar Telescope. The dynamic response on the primary mirror structure is analyzed with MSC.NASTRAN software. Comparing these results with mode parameters obtained from modal experiment analysis. Modal experiment uses freely hanging primary mirror structure, simple input multi-output, and modal parameter identification through CADA-X software. Both results provide evidences to develop this satellite design.

  7. Sub-arcsecond Structure and Dynamics of Flare Ribbons Observed with New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Kosovichev, Alexander G.

    2014-06-01

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains the flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to the interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of C2.1 flare of August 15, 2011, observed with the 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory. These unique data are characterized by the great spatial resolution reaching the telescope diffraction limit with good spectral scanning of H-alpha line, and photospheric imaging. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of the flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field. We discuss the fine structure of the flare ribbons, their dynamics, and possible mechanisms of the energy release and transport, using also data from SDO, GOES and FERMI spacecraft.

  8. Studying instrumental linear polarization at the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope (LSVT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstova, N. M.; Polyakov, V. I.; Skomorovsky, V. I.; Grigoriev, V. M.

    2009-12-01

    Impact linear polarization in solar flares is studied with the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope (LSVT) using the spectral polarimetric method. This method makes it possible to minimize the effect of instrumental polarization with an error of up to 10-2 owing to the normalization of the spectral line intensity to the continuum spectrum intensity with negligible linear polarization. As a result, the Hα line intensity in two orthogonally polarized spectral stripes coincides in the absence of solar polarization. However, in the presence of linear polarization in a flare, the spectral polarimetric method does not rule out that the error can be present in determining the Stokes parameters Q and U because of their possible relative “leakage.” Linear instrumental polarization of LSVT has been performed using polaroid rotation before the major mirror. Twelve elements of a telescope matrix, characterizing linear polarization, have been determined. The usage of a matrix makes it possible to specify the observed Q and U values accurate to 10-3 of their magnitude.

  9. Capabilities of the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) for Solar System Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otarola, Angel; Dumas, Christophe; Meech, Karen; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Skidmore, Warren; Tian, Feng; Travouillon, Tony; Wong, Michael H.; Ellerbroek, Brent; Simard, Luc

    2015-11-01

    The TMT will consist of a 30-m filled-aperture segmented primary mirror and will include non-sidereal rate tracking capabilities for observing Solar System objects. Its sensitivity will be 14 times larger than that of 8-m class telescopes for seeing-limited observations -up to 200 times larger for background limited adaptive optics (AO) observations- and will allow high angular/spatial resolution with diffraction-limited capability in the near infrared. AO guiding will accommodate faint, small angular size solar system objects to serve as natural guide stars for non-sidereal observations. For Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), on-instrument wavefront sensors can crawl the field-of-view to look for background natural stars that can be used for tip/tilt correction. We will describe the main characteristics of the Thirty Meter Telescope, its first light instrumentation suite, and the most relevant science-driven requirements for its design, emphasizing the strengths of the TMT for Solar System astronomical research. Some real-case scenarios of sensitivities for solar system targets will be presented for the first-light instruments.Complementary information about TMT, and the opportunities it offers for planetary science research, will be presented at this meeting by Dumas et al., and at the TMT Solar System Town Hall event on Tuesday.The international TMT partnership includes Canada, China, India, Japan, Caltech, the University of California, and Funding is also provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. AURA is an Associate Member of TMT on behalf of the US national community. Through a cooperative agreement with the NSF, TMT and a US TMT Science Working Group are developing a model for potential US national partnership in the TMT.

  10. Isoplanatic patch considerations for solar telescope multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Jacques M.

    2014-08-01

    I compare recent site surveys for the future large 4-meter solar and 30-meter nighttime telescopes at the nearby Haleakala and Mauna Kea sites respectively. They show that the outstanding early morning image quality at the solar site corresponds indeed to that observed at the late night one at the nighttime site. That confirms the notion that daytime solar site heating only shows itself later in the morning. The nighttime survey includes observations of the refractive index structure function Cn 2(h) to high altitudes from which the radius of the isoplanatic patch (Ɵ0) can be determined. At zenith (ζ = 00) it equals 2.5 arcsec at 500 nm wavelength. For the early morning (best) seeing at the solar site, which occurs at ζsun = 750 and the cos1.6(ζ) dependence of Θ0,that means an extremely small Ɵ0 (0.26 arcsec). Such small values compromise Adaptive Optics (AO) solar correlation wavefront sensing for which areas are needed equal to about 8"× 8" I suggest options for measuring Cn2(h), and therefore Ɵ0, during the day. These make use of the solar image as well as of daytime images of bright stars and planets. Some use the MASS technique on stars; some use the SHABAR technique using very large detector baselines on the Sun and shorter baselines on planets. It is suggested that these Cn2(h) measurements are made also during regular solar observations. In that way optimal solar observations can be planned using real-time Ɵ0 observations by image selection and optimization of the MCAO configuration.

  11. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic

  12. UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Alfred B.; Jordan, Ian J.; Kochte, Mark; Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Bruhweiler, Fred; Hollis, Jan M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Lyon, Richard G.; DiSanti, Mike A.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Leitner, Jesse; Burns, Richard D.; Starin, Scott R.; Rodrigue, Melodi; Fadali, M. S.; Skelton, Dennis L.; Hart, Helen M.; Hamilton, Forrest C.; Cheng, Kwang-Ping

    2003-02-01

    We describe a 1-meter space telescope plus free-flying occulter craft mission that would provide direct imaging and spectroscopic observations of Jovian and Uranus-sized planets about nearby stars not detectable by Doppler techniques. The Doppler technique is most sensitive for the detection of massive, close-in extrasolar planets while the use of a free-flying occulter would make it possible to image and study stellar systems with planets comparable to our own Solar System. Such a mission with a larger telescope has the potential to detect earth-like planets. Previous studies of free-flying occulters reported advantages in having the occulting spot outside the telescope compared to a classical coronagraph onboard a space telescope. Using an external occulter means light scatter within the telescope is reduced due to fewer internal obstructions and less light entering the telescope and the polishing tolerances of the primary mirror and the supporting optics can be less stringent, thereby providing higher contrast and fainter detection limits. In this concept, the occulting spot is positioned over the star by translating the occulter craft, at distances of 1,000 to 15,000 kms from the telescope, on the sky instead of by moving the telescope. Any source within the telescope field-of-view can be occulted without moving the telescope. In this paper, we present our current concept for a 1-m space telescope matched to a free-flying occulter, the Umbral Missions Blocking Radiating Astronomical Sources (UMBRAS) space mission. An UMBRAS space mission consists of a Solar Powered Ion Driven Eclipsing Rover (SPIDER) occulter craft and a matched (apodized) telescope. The occulter spacecraft would be semi-autonomous, with its own propulsion systems, internal power (solar cells), communications, and navigation capability. Spacecraft rendezvous and formation flying would be achieved with the aid of telescope imaging, RF or laser ranging, celestial navigation inputs, and formation

  13. A Novel Lateral Deployment Mechanism for Segmented Mirror/Solar Panel of Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesiya, Dignesh; Srinivas, A. R.; Shukla, Piyush

    2015-09-01

    Space telescopes require large aperture primary mirrors to capture High Definition (HD) ground image while orbiting around the Earth. Fairing Volume of launch vehicles is limited and thus the size of monolithic mirror is limited to fairing size and solar panels are arranged within a petal formation in order to provide a greater power to volume ratio. This generates need for deployable mirrors for space use. This brings out a method for designing new deployment mechanism for segmented mirror. Details of mechanism folding strategy, design of components, FE simulations, realization and Lab model validation results are discussed in order to demonstrate the design using prototype.

  14. Advanced Scintillator-Based Compton Telescope for Solar Flare Gamma-Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, James Michael; Bloser, Peter; McConnell, Mark; Legere, Jason; Bancroft, Christopher; Murphy, Ronald; de Nolfo, Georgia

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of future Solar and Heliospheric Physics missions is the understanding of the particle acceleration processes taking place on the Sun. Achieving this understanding will require detailed study of the gamma-ray emission lines generated by accelerated ions in solar flares. Specifically, it will be necessary to study gamma-ray line ratios over a wide range of flare intensities, down to small C-class flares. Making such measurements over such a wide dynamic range, however, is a serious challenge to gamma-ray instrumentation, which must deal with large backgrounds for faint flares and huge counting rates for bright flares. A fast scintillator-based Compton telescope is a promising solution to this instrumentation challenge. The sensitivity of Compton telescopes to solar flare gamma rays has already been demonstrated by COMPTEL, which was able to detect nuclear emission from a C4 flare, the faintest such detection to date. Modern fast scintillators, such as LaBr3, and CeBr3, are efficient at stopping MeV gamma rays, have sufficient energy resolution (4% or better above 0.5 MeV) to resolve nuclear lines, and are fast enough (~15 ns decay times) to record at very high rates. When configured as a Compton telescope in combination with a modern organic scintillator, such as p-terphenyl, sub-nanosecond coincidence resolving time allows dramatic suppression of background via time-of-flight (ToF) measurements, allowing both faint and bright gamma-ray line flares to be measured. The use of modern light readout devices, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), eliminates passive mass and permits a more compact, efficient instrument. We have flown a prototype Compton telescope using modern fast scintillators with SiPM readouts on a balloon test flight, achieving good ToF and spectroscopy performance. A larger balloon-borne instrument is currently in development. We present our test results and estimates of the solar flare sensitivity of a possible full-scale instrument

  15. Use of ground-based telescopes in determining the composition of the surfaces of solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Adams, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the way that the surfaces of the solar system objects reflect solar radiation is controlled by the composition and mineralogy of the surface materials. The way sunlight is reflected from the surface as a function of wavelength, i.e., the spectral reflectance, is the most important property. Laboratory efforts to use ground-based optical telescope measurements to determine the composition of the surfaces of the solar system objects are reviewed.

  16. The thermal environment of the fiber glass dome for the new solar telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, A. P.; Denker, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Nenow, J.; Coulter, R.

    2007-09-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a 1.6-meter off-axis Gregory-type telescope with an equatorial mount and an open optical support structure. To mitigate the temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path, the effects of local/dome-related seeing have to be minimized. To accomplish this, NST will be housed in a 5/8-sphere fiberglass dome that is outfitted with 14 active vents evenly spaced around its perimeter. The 14 vents house louvers that open and close independently of one another to regulate and direct the passage of air through the dome. In January 2006, 16 thermal probes were installed throughout the dome and the temperature distribution was measured. The measurements confirmed the existence of a strong thermal gradient on the order of 5° Celsius inside the dome. In December 2006, a second set of temperature measurements were made using different louver configurations. In this study, we present the results of these measurements along with their integration into the thermal control system (ThCS) and the overall telescope control system (TCS).

  17. Neutron Emission from the Solar Flare of September 07, 2005, Detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope at Sierra Negra, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Gonzalez, L.; Sanchez, F.; Watanabe, K.; Sako, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Shibata, S.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.

    2011-12-01

    The X17.0 solar flare of September 07, 2005 released high-energy neutrons, that were detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Sierra Negra, Mexico. In two separate and independent studies of this solar neutron event, the energy spectra as a power law was calculated ( Sako, T., et al., 2006, ApJ, 651, 69. Watanabe, K., et al., 2006. ApJ, 636, 1135) In this paper, we show an alternative analysis, based on an improved numerical simulations of the detector using GEANT 4, and a different technique to treat the SNT data. The results indicate that the spectral index which best fits the neutron flux is nearly 3, in agreement with previous works. Based in the numerically calculated energy deposition of SNT, we confirm that neutrons were detected with at least 1GeV, which implies that the solar flare might have produced 10GeV protons; these could not be observed at Earth, as the source flare was in the east limb of the Sun.

  18. The multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Gorceix, Nicolas; Zhang, Xianyu; Marino, Jose; Coulter, Roy; Shumko, Sergey; Goode, Phil; Rimmele, Thomas; Berkefeld, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    We report on the multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system of the New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory which has been integrated in October 2013 and is now available for MCAO experiments. The NST MCAO system features three deformable mirrors (DM), and it is purposely flexible in order to offer a valuable facility for development of solar MCAO. Two of the deformable mirrors are dedicated to compensation of field dependent aberrations due to high-altitude turbulence, whereas the other deformable mirror compensates field independent aberrations in a pupil image. The opto-mechanical design allows for changing the conjugate plane of the two high-altitude DMs independently between two and nine kilometers. The pupil plane DM can be placed either in a pupil image upstream of the high-altitude DMs or downstream. This capability allows for performing experimental studies on the impact of the geometrical order of the deformable mirrors and the conjugate position. The control system is flexible, too, which allows for real-world analysis of various control approaches. This paper gives an overview of the NST MCAO system and reveals the first MCAO corrected image taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory.

  19. Solar-B X-ray Telescope (XRT) Concept Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray observations from the Yohkoh SXT provided the greatest step forward in our understanding of the solar corona in nearly two decades. Expanding on the accomplishments of Yohkoh, we believe that the scientific objectives of the Solar-B mission are achieved with a significantly improved X-ray telescope (XRT) similar to the SXT. The Solar-B XRT will have twice the spatial resolution and a broader temperature response, while building on the knowledge gained from the successful Yohkoh mission. We present the scientific justification for this view, discuss the instrumental requirements that flow from the scientific objectives, and describe the instrumentation to meet these requirements. We then provide a detailed discussion of the design activities carried out during Phase A, noting the conclusions that were reached in terms of their implications for the detailed design activities which are now commencing. Details of the instrument that have changed as a result of the Phase A studied are specifically noted, and areas of concern going into Phase B are highlighted. XRT is a grazing-incidence (GI) modified Wolter I X-ray telescope, of 35cm inner diameter and 2.7m focal length. The 2048x2048 back-illuminated CCD (now an ISAS responsibility) has 13.5 micron pixels, corresponding to 1.0 arcsec and giving full Sun field of view. This will be the highest resolution GI X-ray telescope ever flown for Solar coronal studies, and it has been designed specifically to observe both the high and low temperature coronal plasma. A small optical telescope provides visible light images for co-alignment with the Solar-B optical and EUV instruments. The XRT science team is working in close cooperation with our Japanese colleagues in the design and construction of this instrument. All of the expertise and resources of the High Energy and Solar/Stellar Divisions of the Center for Astrophysics are being made available to this program, and our team will carry its full share of

  20. The spectrometer telescope for imaging x-rays on board the Solar Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Orleanski, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Klober, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H. J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Brun, S.; Vilmer, N.; Skup, K. R.; Graczyk, R.; Stolarski, M.; Michalska, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Cichocki, A.; Mosdorf, M.; Seweryn, K.; Przepiórka, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Mrozek, T.; Podgorski, P.; Mann, G.; Aurass, H.; Popow, E.; Onel, H.; Dionies, F.; Bauer, S.; Rendtel, J.; Warmuth, A.; Woche, M.; Plüschke, D.; Bittner, W.; Paschke, J.; Wolker, D.; Van Beek, H. F.; Farnik, F.; Kasparova, J.; Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Gallagher, P. T.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Piana, M.; Massone, A. M.; Dennis, B. R.; Schwarz, R. A.; Lin, R. P.

    2012-09-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed Mclass mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The status of the instrument reviewed in this paper is based on the design that passed the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in early 2012. Particular emphasis is given to the first light of the detector system called Caliste-SO.

  1. Design for birefringent filter with 8-channel for Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuesong; Song, Guofeng; Ai, Guoxiang

    2002-03-01

    The principles of birefringent filter (BF) which consists of 8-channel and will be used in Space Solar Telescope (SST) is described in this article. The BF will be the main focus plane instrument of the payload of SST. It is a kind of birefringent filter with Polaroid replaced by polarizing beam splitter. It permits observations of solar vector magnetic field or line-of-sight velocity fields in any Fraunhofer line between the wavelength from 3900 to 6600 Å with half width from 0.03 to 0.12 Å. It can be turned across the spectral line to obtain line profiles of two-dimensional field of view with 8 channels. Because of this, we also call the BF with 8-channel as Two-Dimensional Spectrograph (TDS). This article also describes the analysis of mechanical and thermal control of the TDS. In the final, a new polarimeter of this system is introduced.

  2. NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OCCURRING IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jongchul; Ahn, K.; Goode, P. R.; Yurchysyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Andic, A.; Cao, W.; Park, Y. D.

    2010-04-10

    Magnetic reconnection is a process in which field-line connectivity changes in a magnetized plasma. On the solar surface, it often occurs with the cancellation of two magnetic fragments of opposite polarity. Using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope, we observed the morphology and dynamics of plasma visible in the H{alpha} line, which is associated with a canceling magnetic feature (CMF) in the quiet Sun. The region can be divided into four magnetic domains: two pre-reconnection and two post-reconnection. In one post-reconnection domain, a small cloud erupted, with a plane-of-sky speed of 10 km s{sup -1}, while in the other one, brightening began at points and then tiny bright loops appeared and subsequently shrank. These features support the notion that magnetic reconnection taking place in the chromosphere is responsible for CMFs.

  3. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF LOOPS WITH CORONAL RAIN OBSERVED BY HINODE/SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Verwichte, E. E-mail: erwin.verwichte@warwick.ac.uk

    2011-08-01

    The condensations composing coronal rain, falling down along loop-like structures observed in cool chromospheric lines such as H{alpha} and Ca II H, have long been a spectacular phenomenon of the solar corona. However, considered a peculiar sporadic phenomenon, it has not received much attention. This picture is rapidly changing due to recent high-resolution observations with instruments such as the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), CRISP of the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Furthermore, numerical simulations have shown that coronal rain is the loss of thermal equilibrium of loops linked to footpoint heating. This result has highlighted the importance that coronal rain can play in the field of coronal heating. In this work, we further stress the importance of coronal rain by showing the role it can play in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field topology. We analyze Hinode/SOT observations in the Ca II H line of a loop in which coronal rain puts in evidence in-phase transverse oscillations of multiple strand-like structures. The periods, amplitudes, transverse velocities, and phase velocities are calculated, allowing an estimation of the energy flux of the wave and the coronal magnetic field inside the loop through means of coronal seismology. We discuss the possible interpretations of the wave as either standing or propagating torsional Alfven or fast kink waves. An estimate of the plasma beta parameter of the condensations indicates a condition that may allow the often observed separation and elongation processes of the condensations. We also show that the wave pressure from the transverse wave can be responsible for the observed low downward acceleration of coronal rain.

  4. Life Cycle Testing of Viscoelastic Material for Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array 3 Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Reed, Benjamin B.; Viens, Michael J.; Parker, Bradford H.; Pendleton, Scott C.

    2003-01-01

    During the March 2002 Servicing Mission by Space Shuttle (STS 109), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was refurbished with two new solar arrays that now provide all of its power. These arrays were built with viscoelastic/titanium dampers, integral to the supporting masts, which reduce the interaction of the wing bending modes with the Telescope. Damping of over 3% of critical was achieved. To assess the damper s ability to maintain nominal performance over the 10-year on-orbit design goal, material specimens were subjected to an accelerated life test. The test matrix consisted of scheduled events to expose the specimens to pre-determined combinations of temperatures, frequencies, displacement levels, and numbers of cycles. These exposure events were designed to replicate the life environment of the damper from fabrication through testing to launch and life on-orbit. To determine whether material degradation occurred during the exposure sequence, material performance was evaluated before and after the accelerated aging with complex stiffness measurements. Based on comparison of pre- and post-life-cycle measurements, the material is expected to maintain nominal performance through end of life on-orbit. Recent telemetry from the Telescope indicates that the dampers are performing nominally.

  5. Photometry’s Bright Future: Detecting Solar System Analogs with Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippke, Michael; Angerhausen, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Time-series transit photometry from the Kepler space telescope has allowed for the discovery of thousands of exoplanets. We explore the potential of yet improved future missions such as PLATO 2.0 in detecting solar system analogs. We use real-world solar data and end-to-end simulations to explore the stellar and instrumental noise properties. By injecting and retrieving planets, rings, and moons of our own solar system, we show that the discovery of Venus and Earth analogs transiting G dwarfs like our Sun is feasible at high signal-to-noise ratio after collecting 6 yr of data, but Mars and Mercury analogs will be difficult to detect owing to stellar noise. In the best cases, Saturn’s rings and Jupiter’s moons will be detectable even in single-transit observations. Through the high number (>1 billion) of observed stars by PLATO 2.0, it will become possible to detect thousands of single-transit events by cold gas giants, analogs to our Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Our own solar system aside, we also show, through signal injection and retrieval, that PLATO 2.0 class photometry will allow for the secure detection of exomoons transiting quiet M dwarfs. This is the first study analyzing in depth the potential of future missions and the ultimate limits of photometry, using realistic case examples.

  6. Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaboudiniere, Jean-Pierre; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Dere, Ken; Howard, Russell A.; Michels, D.; Catura, Richard; Lemen, J.; Stern, R.; Gurman, Joseph B.

    1992-01-01

    The major scientific objective of the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) is to study the evolution of coronal structure over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and temperatures. A second strategic objective is to provide full disk synoptic maps of the global corona to aid in unifying SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory)/Cluster investigations. EIT will also provide images to support the planning of detailed spectroscopic investigations by the CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) and SUMER spectrometers in SOHO. EIT observations will be made in four narrow spectral bands, centered at 171 A (Fe 9), 195 A(Fe 12), 284 A (Fe 15), and 304 A (He 2) representing restricted temperature domains within a wide temperature range from 40,000 to 3,000,000 K. The results will be images of the solar atmosphere from the upper chromosphere and transition region to the active region corona. These maps, made at appropriate time intervals, will be used to study the fine structures in the solar corona and to relate their dynamic properties to the underlying chromosphere and photosphere. Dynamic events in the inner corona will be related to white light transients in the outer corona, and observations of the internal structure of coronal holes will be used to investigate origins of the solar wind.

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope observation of high-energy solar flares: constraining emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe; Liu, Wei; Rubio da Costa, Fatima

    2015-08-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the most sensitive instrument ever deployed in space for observing gamma-ray emission >100 MeV. This has also been demonstrated by its detection of quiescent gamma-ray emission from pions produced by cosmic-ray protons interacting in the solar atmosphere, and from cosmic-ray electron interactions with solar optical photons. The Fermi LAT has also detected high-energy gamma-ray emission associated with GOES M-class and X-class X-ray flares, each accompanied by a coronal mass ejection and a solar energetic particle event increasing the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. During the impulsive phase, gamma rays with energies up to several hundreds of MeV have been recorded by the LAT. Emission up to GeV energies lasting several hours after the flare has also been recorded by the LAT. Of particular interest are the recent detections of two solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B satellite. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources.

  8. HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOURCE REGIONS AND EVOLUTION OF 'TYPE II' SPICULES AT THE SOLAR POLAR LIMB

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; DeForest, Craig E. E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov

    2010-05-01

    We examine solar spicules using high-cadence Ca II data of the north pole coronal hole region, using the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the Hinode spacecraft. The features we observe are referred to as 'Type II' spicules by De Pontieu et al. in 2007. By convolving the images with the inverse-point-spread function for the SOT Ca II filter, we are able to investigate the roots of some spicules on the solar disk, and the evolution of some spicules after they are ejected from the solar surface. We find that the source regions of at least some of the spicules correspond to locations of apparent-fast-moving ({approx}few x 10 km s{sup -1}), transient (few 100 s), Ca II brightenings on the disk. Frequently the spicules occur when these brightenings appear to collide and disappear. After ejection, when seen above the limb, many of the spicules fade by expanding laterally (i.e., roughly transverse to their motion away from the solar surface), splitting into two or more spicule 'strands', and the spicules then fade without showing any downward motion. Photospheric/chromospheric acoustic shocks alone likely cannot explain the high velocities ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}) of the spicules. If the Ca II brightenings represent magnetic elements, then reconnection among those elements may be a candidate to explain the spicules. Alternatively, many of the spicules could be small-scale magnetic eruptions, analogous to coronal mass ejections, and the apparent fast motions of the Ca II brightenings could be analogs of flare loops heated by magnetic reconnection in these eruptions.

  9. Search for sub-eV mass solar axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3He buffer gas.

    PubMed

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-12-23

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using (3)He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with (4)He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV≲m(a)≲0.64 eV. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g(aγ)≲2.3×10(-10) GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In the future we will extend our search to m(a)≲1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds. PMID:22243149

  10. Signatures of Small-Scale Magnetic Field Emergence as Seen from the New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchyshyn, V.

    2011-12-01

    Increased resolution of solar telescopes allow us to study emerging small-scale magnetic fields in unprecedented detail. First light Hinode magnetograms showed evidence of both horizontal and line-of-sight field being constantly brought to the solar surface by solar convection motion. What are the signatures of these fields in the photosphere, if any? The largest aperture ground-based solar telescope, the New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory now allows us to address many important issues of coupling between the photosphere and chromosphere by means of simultaneous observations of photospheric granulation with well-resolved bright points (BPs) and associated dynamics in the low chromosphere, as seen in the H-alpha spectral line. Excellent seeing conditions, augmented with an adaptive optics system and speckle-reconstruction applications produce diffraction limited images. We examine NST granulation and Halpha images co-temporal with SDO, Hinode and BBSO/IRIM vector magnetograms. Our main finding is that emerging magnetic flux leaves clear footprint in solar granulation. Moreover, the granulation responds to the emerging flux much earlier that it appears in magnetograms. NST granulation images also reveal that various bright points as well as bright granular lanes may form and evolve within a granule. These newly detected features are believed to be associated with small-scale magnetic fields.

  11. DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-09-10

    Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% {+-} 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of -1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's -5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

  12. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays STIX on Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csillaghy, A.; Battaglia, M.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) will provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal X-ray emissions from ~4 to 150 keV. STIX will play an important role in answering two of Solar Orbiter's main science questions: (1) How and where are energetic particles accelerated at the Sun, and how are they transported into interplanetary space? X-ray images and spectra will provide information on the location, spectrum and intensity of flare accelerated electrons near the Sun. (2) What is the magnetic connection from Solar Orbiter back to the Sun? STIX will play a key role in linking remote sensing and in-situ observations on Solar Orbiter. Radio signatures of flare accelerated electrons will be observed by the Radio and Plasma wave instrument (RPW), while the SupraThermal Electron sensor (STE) of the Energetic Particle Detector suite (EPD) will detect electrons in-situ. Thus, the magnetic structure, field line length and connectivity can be tracked. STIX is based on a Fourier-transform imaging technique similar to that used successfully by the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) on the Japanese Yohkoh mission, and related to that used for the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager mission. STIX has a higher sensitivity than RHESSI, with comparable image quality and spectral and spatial resolution. It will be able to observe thermal and non-thermal emission from nanoflares up to the largest X- class events. STIX consists of three main parts: 1. An X-ray window, 2. An imager with 32 subcollimators, and 3. A spectrometer with 32 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) X-ray detectors The transmission through the grid pairs to the detectors is a very sensitive function of the direction of incidence of the X-ray flux. The relative count rates of the detectors behind the different sets of grids encode the spatial information that can be subsequently decoded on the ground to reconstruct images of the source region at different X-ray energies.

  13. Future Diagnostic Capabilities: The 4-meter Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Reardon, Kevin; Elmore, David; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Rimmele, Thomas

    We discuss the observational capabilities of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKSIT), formerly known as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), currently under construction on Haleakala Mountain on the island of Maui, Hawaii, with first light anticipated in mid-2019. The DKIST will be a 4-meter aperture Gregorian telescope with advanced environmental control and adaptive optics capable of producing diffraction-limited resolution in visible light of 0.03" or about 20 km in the solar photosphere. The first light instrument suite will include the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), an interference filter-based instrument capable of 30 Hz imaging of photospheric and chromospheric magnetic structures in the 380 to 800 nm wavelength range. All VBI images will be reconstructed in near-real-time using the KISIP speckle reconstruction algorithm adapted to the DKIST optical and AO configuration. The Visible Spectropolarimeter (ViSP) instrument being fabricated by the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) will enable high-precision slit-spectropolarimetery in any three spectral regions from 380 to 900 nm. The ViSP instrument will be the highest precision spectropolarimeter ever produced with a spatial resolution of approximately 40 km at 600 nm and temporal resolution of 10s to achieve 1e-03 polarimetric precision. The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) instrument under fabrication at the Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (KIS) is a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot imaging spectropolarimeter instrument capable of diffraction limited measurements of the Fe I 630.2 nm and Ca II 854.2 nm spectral lines for Doppler and magnetic measurements in the photosphere and chromosphere, respectively. The VTF will also enable the highest spatial and temporal resolution observations yet achieved in the H-alpha line for detailed studies of chromospheric dynamics in response to photospheric magnetic drivers. The Diffraction-Limited Near-IR Spectropolarimeter (DL-NiRSP) and the Cryogenic Near

  14. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2014-11-10

    The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system. PMID:25402984

  15. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST Hα data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75 Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11 Mm, and the estimated twist is 1π. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in Hα images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 Å, and as a bright structure in 171 Å and 131 Å images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  16. A year of operation of Melibea e-Callisto Solar Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russu, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Prieto, M.; Monstein, C.; Ivanov, H.; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J.; Blanco, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    The e-CALLISTO (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) is a worldwide radio-spectrograph network with 24 hours a day solar radio burst monitoring. The e-CALLISTO network is led by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ Zurich), which work up collaborations with local host institutions. In 2013 the University of Alcalá joined the e-CALLISTO network with the installation of two Solar Radio Telescopes (SRT): the EA4RKU-SRT that was located at the University of Alcalá from January 2013 till June 2013 and the Melibea-SRT that is located at Peralejos de las Truchas (Guadalajara) in operation from June 2013. The Spanish e-Callisto SRTs provide routine data to the network. We present examples of type III and type II radio-bursts observed by Melibea during its first year of operation and study their relation with soft X-ray flares observed by GOES and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events observed by space-borne instrumentation.

  17. Near-Term Prospects for Extra-Solar Planet Detection: The Astrometric Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrile, Richard J.; Levy, Eugene H.; Gatewood, George D.

    The Astrometric Imaging Telescope (AIT) is a 1.5 to 2 meter diameter space-based telescope designed to carry out a comprehensive program of direct and indirect extra-solar planet detection. The telescope consists of two separate instruments, an astrometric experiment to measure the reflex motion of the parent stars and an imaging coronagraph to directly image planets and the circumstellar region. The astrometric technique utilizes the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) which passes a Ronchi ruling over a field of stars and measures the centroid of the stars in two orthogonal observations. Used above the Earth's atmosphere this will be about two orders of magnitude more accurate than any existing astrometric instrument and will achieve an accuracy of about 10 microarcseconds. This will allow detection and study of Uranus-size or larger planets in Jovian orbits around several hundred nearby stars. The astrometric study of a parent star of a planetary system will lead to an accurate determination of its distance. The distance is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the annual parallactic motion. The same study yields the major characteristics of the individual bodies within the planetary system. The periods of the orbits are obtained from the analysis of the motions of the central star. Thy are directly related to the distances between the individual planets in the system and the system's sun. The distances in turn determine the thermal radiation level, or effective temperature, at the planet's orbit. With sufficient precision and time, the analysis of the apparent motion of the target star will also yield the eccentricities and the relative inclinations of the orbits of each of the planetary bodies. Assuming the mass of the primary star can be accurately estimated, the study will also yield the mass of each planet.

  18. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient. PMID:26367826

  19. Observation of a solar flare at the limb with the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuneta, Saku; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Acton, Loren W.; Strong, Keith T.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    A long-enduring soft X-ray flare at the solar limb was well observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft from the preflare stage through the postflare phase. A 'helmet streamer' arch appears several hours prior to the flare, in association with a continuous expansion and restructuring of the active-region magnetic structure. This arch then starts to flare, and increases its height and footpoint separation at v = 10-30 km/s. The arch has a complex temperature structure in the rising phase, whereas the outer arches have systematically higher temperatures in the decay phase. Magnetic reconnection in a neutral sheet at the loop top, created by preflare magnetic restructuring, would explain this type of flare.

  20. A solar extreme ultraviolet telescope and spectrograph for space shuttle. Volume 1: Investigation and technical plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neupert, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A scientific investigation of heating and mass transport in the solar corona that is currently planned for a future Shuttle/Spacelab flight is outlined. The instrument to be used is a near-normal incidence grating spectrograph fed by a grazing incidence Wolter Type 2 telescope. A toroidal grating design provides stigmatic images of the corona up to 8 arc min in extent over the spectral region from 225 A to 370 A. Spatial resolution of at least 2 arc sec and spectral resolution of 0.050 A is achievable throughout the central 4 arc min field or view. Primary scientific data are recorded on Schumann-type film. An H-alpha slit jaw monitor and zero order extreme ultraviolet monitor are also planned to support instrument operation.

  1. Design of the Polarimeter for the Fibre Arrayed Solar Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Guang-tao; Qu, Zhong-quan

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical design of the polarimeter used for the Fibre Arrayed Solar Optical Telescope (FASOT) is described. It has the following characteris- tics: (1) It is provided with the function of optical polarization switching, which makes the high-effciency polarimetry possible; (2) In the waveband of 750 nm, the polarimetric effciency is higher than 50% for the every Stokes parameter, and higher than 86.6% for the total polarization, thus an observer can make the simultaneous polarization measurements on multiple magnetosensitive lines in such a broad range of wavelength; (3) According to the selected photospheric and chromospheric lines, the measurement can be focused on either linear polarization or circular polarization; (4) The polarimeter has a loose tolerance on the manufacturing technology of polarimetric elements and installation errors. All this makes this polarimeter become a high-performance polarimetric device.

  2. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Bosh, A.; Duffard, R.; Lellouch, E.; Tancredi, G.; Young, L.; Milam, Stefanie N.; the JWST “Occultations” Focus Group

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun-Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  3. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  4. Software control of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure PLC hardware using COTS software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; de Bilbao, Lander; Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, John R.; Greer, Alan; Mayer, Chris; Taylor, Philip

    2012-09-01

    As PLCs evolve from simple logic controllers into more capable Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs), observatories are increasingly using such devices to control complex mechanisms1, 2. This paper describes use of COTS software to control such hardware using the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Common Services Framework (CSF). We present the Enclosure Control System (ECS) under development in Spain and the UK. The paper details selection of the commercial PLC communication library PLCIO. Implemented in C and delivered with source code, the library separates the programmer from communication details through a simple API. Capable of communicating with many types of PLCs (including Allen-Bradley and Siemens) the API remains the same irrespective of PLC in use. The ECS is implemented in Java using the observatory's framework that provides common services for software components. We present a design following a connection-based approach where all components access the PLC through a single connection class. The link between Java and PLCIO C library is provided by a thin Java Native Interface (JNI) layer. Also presented is a software simulator of the PLC based upon the PLCIO Virtual PLC. This creates a simulator operating below the library's API and thus requires no change to ECS software. It also provides enhanced software testing capabilities prior to hardware becoming available. Results are presented in the form of communication timing test data, showing that the use of CSF, JNI and PLCIO provide a control system capable of controlling enclosure tracking mechanisms, that would be equally valid for telescope mount control.

  5. Investigation of intergranular bright points from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Kai-Fan; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Feng, Song; Deng, Hui; Wang, Feng; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2016-05-01

    Six high-resolution TiO-band image sequences from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) are used to investigate the properties of intergranular bright points (igBPs). We detect the igBPs using a Laplacian and morphological dilation algorithm (LMD) and automatically track them using a three-dimensional segmentation algorithm, and then investigate the morphologic, photometric and dynamic properties of igBPs in terms of equivalent diameter, intensity contrast, lifetime, horizontal velocity, diffusion index, motion range and motion type. The statistical results confirm previous studies based on G-band or TiO-band igBPs from other telescopes. These results illustrate that TiO data from the NVST are stable and reliable, and are suitable for studying igBPs. In addition, our method is feasible for detecting and tracking igBPs with TiO data from the NVST. With the aid of vector magnetograms obtained from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, the properties of igBPs are found to be strongly influenced by their embedded magnetic environments. The areal coverage, size and intensity contrast values of igBPs are generally larger in regions with higher magnetic flux. However, the dynamics of igBPs, including the horizontal velocity, diffusion index, ratio of motion range and index of motion type are generally larger in the regions with lower magnetic flux. This suggests that the absence of strong magnetic fields in the medium makes it possible for the igBPs to look smaller and weaker, diffuse faster, and move faster and further along a straighter path.

  6. Co-Alignment System (CAS) study. Report on task 1-3. [Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrometer pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a suitable coalignment system (CAS) for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrometer (SEUTS) is presented. The CAS provides offset adjustment capabilities to SEUTS which will be mounted on a single large pointing system with other devices. The suitability of existing designs is determined and modifications are suggested.

  7. Solar Effects on Tensile and Optical Properties of Hubble Space Telescope Silver-Teflon(Registered Trademark) Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Dever, Joyce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Kaminski, Sharon; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rapoport, Alison L.; Rucker, Rochelle N.

    2006-01-01

    A section of the retrieved Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array drive arm (SADA) multilayer insulation (MLI), which experienced 8.25 years of space exposure, was analyzed for environmental durability of the top layer of silver-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Ag-FEP). Because the SADA MLI had solar and anti-solar facing surfaces and was exposed to the space environment for a long duration, it provided a unique opportunity to study solar effects on the environmental degradation of Ag-FEP, a commonly used spacecraft thermal control material. Data obtained included tensile properties, solar absorptance, surface morphology and chemistry. The solar facing surface was found to be extremely embrittled and contained numerous through-thickness cracks. Tensile testing indicated that the solar facing surface lost 60% of its mechanical strength and 90% of its elasticity while the anti-solar facing surface had ductility similar to pristine FEP. The solar absorptance of both the solar facing surface (0.155 plus or minus 0.032) and the anti-solar facing surface (0.208 plus or minus 0.012) were found to be greater than pristine Ag-FEP (0.074). Solar facing and anti-solar facing surfaces were microscopically textured, and locations of isolated contamination were present on the anti-solar surface resulting in increased localized texturing. Yet, the overall texture was significantly more pronounced on the solar facing surface indicating a synergistic effect of combined solar exposure and increased heating with atomic oxygen erosion. The results indicate a very strong dependence of degradation, particularly embrittlement, upon solar exposure with orbital thermal cycling having a significant effect.

  8. Hubble Space telescope thermal cycle test report for large solar array samples with BSFR cells (Sample numbers 703 and 704)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble space telescope (HST) solar array was designed to meet specific output power requirements after 2 years in low-Earth orbit, and to remain operational for 5 years. The array, therefore, had to withstand 30,000 thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. The ability of the array to meet this requirement was evaluated by thermal cycle testing, in vacuum, two 128-cell solar cell modules that exactly duplicated the flight HST solar array design. Also, the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit was evaluated by performing a cold-roll test using one module.

  9. PET - A proton/electron telescope for studies of magnetospheric, solar, and galactic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Baker, Daniel N.; Von Rosenvinge, Tycho T.

    1993-01-01

    The Proton/Electron Telescope (PET) on SAMPEX is designed to provide measurements of energetic electrons and light nuclei from solar, galactic, and magnetospheric sources. PET is an all solid-state system that will measure the differential energy spectra of electrons from about 1 to about 30 MeV and H and He nuclei from about 20 to about 300 MeV/nuc, with isotope resolution of H and He extending from about 20 to about 80 MeV/nuc. As SAMPEX scans all local times and geomagnetic cutoffs over the course of its near-polar orbit, PET will characterize precipitating relativistic electron events during periods of declining solar activity, and it will examine whether the production rate of odd nitrogen and hydrogen molecules in the middle atmosphere by precipitating electrons is sufficient to affect O3 depletion. In addition, PET will complement studies of the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic heavy (Z greater than 2) nuclei on SAMPEX by providing measurements of H, He, and electrons. Finally, PET has limited capability to identify energetic positrons from potential natural and man-made sources.

  10. Non-uniform Solar Temperature Field on Large Aperture, Fully-Steerable Telescope Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a 110-m fully steerable radio telescope was used as an analysis platform and the integral parametric finite element model of the antenna structure was built in the ANSYS thermal analysis module. The boundary conditions of periodic air temperature, solar radiation, long-wave radiation shadows of the surrounding environment, etc. were computed at 30 min intervals under a cloudless sky on a summer day, i.e., worstcase climate conditions. The transient structural temperatures were then analyzed under a period of several days of sunshine with a rational initial structural temperature distribution until the whole set of structural temperatures converged to the results obtained the day before. The non-uniform temperature field distribution of the entire structure and the main reflector surface RMS were acquired according to changes in pitch and azimuth angle over the observation period. Variations in the solar cooker effect over time and spatial distributions in the secondary reflector were observed to elucidate the mechanism of the effect. The results presented here not only provide valuable realtime data for the design, construction, sensor arrangement and thermal deformation control of actuators but also provide a troubleshooting reference for existing actuators.

  11. First Results of Coordinated Observations from IRIS and New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.; Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.; Gorceix, N.; Kleint, L.; Plymate, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Yurchyshyn, V.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the chromospheric structuring and dynamics is controlled by the underlying photospheric processes, associated with turbulent magnetoconvection, ubiquitous magnetic flux emergence, small-scale eruptions and acoustic events. The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory offers a substantial improvement in ground-based high-resolution capabilities, and provides important support for the IRIS mission. The primary goal of the coordinated IRIS-NST observations is to obtain complementary data for investigations of photosphere-chromosphere links and drivers of the chromospheric dynamics. The coordinated NST observations are performed using the second-generation adaptive optics system AO-308, and three instruments: Broadband Filter Imagers (G-band and TiO), Visible Imaging Spectrometer (H-alpha), and Near InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter (NIRIS). NIRIS provides high-cadence data in Fe I 1565 nm doublet which is the most Zeeman sensitive probe of magnetic fields in the deep photosphere, and in the He I 1083 nm multiplet for diagnostics of the upper chromosphere. We present initial results of the coordinated observations, and discuss properties of small-scale ejections in fibril magnetic structures, obtained from analysis of IRIS and NST data.

  12. The spectrometer telescope for imaging X-rays (STIX) on board Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, Nicole; Krucker, Samuel; Karol Seweryn, D..; Orleanski, Piotr; Limousin, Olivier; Meuris, Aline; Brun, Allan Sacha; Grimm, Oliver; Groebelbauer, HansPeter; Rendtel, J.

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The paper presents the status of the instrument for the Critical Design Review to be held with ESA in June 2014. Particular emphasis is given to the CdTe hybrid detector called Caliste-SO for high resolution hard X-ray spectroscopy from 4 to 150 keV: Characterizations of the first production batch are reported. Caliste-SO spectrometer units could also fulfill the needs for the SORENTO instrument of the Russian Interhelioprobe mission currently in assessment study.

  13. PROPERTIES OF UMBRAL DOTS AS MEASURED FROM THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE DATA AND MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Rempel, M.; Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-02-01

    We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.

  14. Observations of Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles from the Ulysses COSPIN High Energy Telescope Following Completion of the Solar Maximum Solar Polar Passes.*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Connell, J. J.; Posner, A.

    2003-04-01

    At the end of 2002, following its second pass over the Sun's north polar region, Ulysses had reached a radial distance of about 4.5 AU at a heliographic latitude of 24°N. While solar activity remained high, the modulated intensity of cosmic rays observed by Ulysses’ COSPIN High Energy Telescope had increased significantly from the levels observed early in 2001, which most likely represented the maximum modulation for this solar cycle. Despite continuing solar activity, the new qA<0 magnetic polarity of the Sun's dipole field was fully established for both poles since the change in the North Pole polarity in 2000. Although the current sheet tilt was still large (>40° as reported by the Wilcox Solar Observatory) and the solar wind was still frequently disturbed by solar activity, it is worthwhile to examine the recent increase in the quiet-time cosmic ray fluxes for evidence of the change in latitudinal gradients expected upon change of magnetic polarity. A difficulty is the lack of a well-matched 1 AU base-line to help distinguish spatial from temporal variations following the termination of IMP-8 operations in late 2001. We will summarize Ulysses observations of energetic (>~30 MeV/n) protons and helium through the most recent available data, and will discuss available options for determining baseline fluxes at 1 AU for studies of the radial and latitudinal gradients. **This work was supported in part by NASA/JPL Contract 955432, by NASA Grant NASA 5-28516 and by NSF grant ATM 99-12341.

  15. Ultra-Narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 Å Using the1.6m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He I 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg II lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He I 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in solar flares.

  16. The 2012 status of the MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Heidecke, Frank

    2012-07-01

    We look back on two years of experience with the laboratory MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope. GREGOR’s MCAO features four adaptive mirrors, i. e. one tip-tilt mirror, and three DMs to compensate for turbulence around 0 km, 5 km, and 15.5 km above ground. Two different Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor units are used for wavefront tomography. A sensor with a narrow field of view and smaller subapertures is dedicated to high-order aberrations on the optical axis. This sensor directly follows the pupil plane DM and does not see the high-altitude DMs. The second sensor features larger subapertures and 19 guide regions spread over a wide field of view for off-axis wavefront sensing. We show that high-altitude DMs cause rapidly changing pupil distortions and thus misregistration, which renders the interaction of a pupil-plane DM and a subsequent wavefront sensor non-linear. We rewrote the control software for cleaner and more flexible code, and we switched to modal wavefront reconstruction from direct reconstruction. The original digital interfacing of the DMs high-voltage electronics didn’t prove to be reliable. Thus, we developed a new interface board that is based on CameraLink/ChannelLink technology to transmit the DM commands from the control computer. In this paper we present the innovations and some of the first experimental performance measurements with two DMs. One DM failed before scientific grade data was recorded with three DMs. This DM will be replaced soon. We conclude that GREGOR’s MCAO system is now ready for first on-sky tests at the telescope.

  17. Development of a Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope for the Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, M.; Oh, H.-S.; Rim, C.-S.; Park, J.-S.; Kim, J.-S.; Son, D.

    2005-09-01

    Long term observations of full-disk Lyman-α irradiance have been made by the instruments on various satellites. In addition, several sounding rockets dating back to the 1950s and up through the present have measured the Lyman-α irradiance. Previous full disk Lyman-α images of the sun have been very interesting and useful scientifically, but have been only five-minute ``snapshots" obtained on sounding rocket flights. All of these observations to date have been snapshots, with no time resolution to observe changes in the chromospheric structure as a result of the evolving magnetic field, and its effect on the Lyman-α intensity. The Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope(LIST) can provide a unique opportunity for the study of the sun in the Lyman-α region with the high time and spatial resolution for the first time. Up to the 2nd year development, the preliminary design of the optics, mechanical structure and electronics system has been completed. Also the mechanical structure analysis, thermal analysis were performed and the material for the structure was chosen as a result of these analyses. And the test plan and the verification matrix were decided. The operation systems, technical and scientific operation, were studied and finally decided. Those are the technical operation, mechanical working modes for the observation and safety, the scientific operation and the process of the acquired data. The basic techniques acquired through the development of satellite based solar telescope are essential for the construction of space environment forecast system in the future. The techniques which we developed through this study, like mechanical, optical and data processing techniques, could be applied extensively not only to the process of the future production of flight models of this kind, but also to the related industries. Also, we can utilize the scientific achievements which are obtained throughout the project. And these can be utilized to build a high resolution

  18. UPDATED ANALYSIS OF THE UPWIND INTERPLANETARY HYDROGEN VELOCITY AS OBSERVED BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DURING SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Frederic E.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.

    2011-09-10

    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the incoming ISM-ionized component deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. While current models of the heliospheric interface predict the observed IPH velocity for solar maximum, they are not consistent with data covering solar minimum. With updates to the HST data points, we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1{sigma}, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed characteristics of the solar cycle dependence. Hence, new observations are merited.

  19. DYNAMICS IN SUNSPOT UMBRA AS SEEN IN NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Kilcik, A.

    2015-01-10

    We analyze sunspot oscillations using Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit-jaw and spectral data and narrow-band chromospheric images from the New Solar Telescope (NST) for the main sunspot in NOAA AR 11836. We report that the difference between the shock arrival times as measured by the Mg II k 2796.35 Å and Si IV 1393.76 Å line formation levels changes during the observed period, and peak-to-peak delays may range from 40 s to zero. The intensity of chromospheric shocks also displays long-term (about 20 min) variations. NST's high spatial resolution Hα data allowed us to conclude that, in this sunspot, umbral flashes (UFs) appeared in the form of narrow bright lanes stretched along the light bridges and around clusters of umbral bright points. The time series also suggested that UFs preferred to appear on the sunspot-center side of light bridges, which may indicate the existence of a compact sub-photospheric driver of sunspot oscillations. The sunspot's umbra as seen in the IRIS chromospheric and transition region data appears bright above the locations of light bridges and the areas where the dark umbra is dotted with clusters of umbral dots. Co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory showed that the same locations were associated with bright footpoints of coronal loops suggesting that the light bridges may play an important role in heating the coronal sunspot loops. Finally, the power spectra analysis showed that the intensity of chromospheric and transition region oscillations significantly vary across the umbra and with height, suggesting that umbral non-uniformities and the structure of sunspot magnetic fields may play a role in wave propagation and heating of umbral loops.

  20. Progress Report of the new Solar Sub-Millimeter Telescope Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Magun, A.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.; Arzner, K.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Kaempfer, N.; Raulin, J. P.; Rolli, E.; Silva, A. V. R.

    1998-11-01

    The Sub-Millimeter Solar Telescope (SST) project is now in his final phase of construction and a definitive schedule has been established. The 1.5 m diameter reflector has been completed by Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, presenting an excellent surface with a deviation of 18 microns (r.m.s.). The delay of the reflector construction was the result of the new technology employed, and mainly due to the slumping of the reflector which needed additional technological research (Kingsley et al. 1998). The SST building, including one 3.4 m ESSCO gore-tex radom and a room for two complementary optical imaging spectrographs (from IAP, Bern and OV, UFRJ, Brazil), has been completed now by CASLEO at El Leoncito, San Juan, Argentina. Numerous electrical, electronical, mechanical tests, as well as softwares tests, have been performed at the IAP, Bern, Switzerland, and at Itapetinga, Brazil. The 1.5 m reflector is in Bern, already assembled to the other SST parts: four 210 and two 405 GHZ radiometers built by RPG, the ORBIT positionner, the interface box between the reflector and the radiometers, the counter-weights. Test and integration of the SST are being done at Bern, with a co-participation of researchers and technicians of CRAAE and CASLEO. The shipment of the SST to El Leoncito will be mid-October, and the final installation is scheduled for the period January-April of 1999. The first tests and solar observations are planned for May of 1999. The SST project received main financial support from FAPESP (Proc. 93/3321-7), complemented by funds from the IAP, Switzerland, and, IAFE and CASLEO/CONICET, Argentina.

  1. Dynamics in Sunspot Umbra as Seen in New Solar Telescope and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Kilcik, A.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze sunspot oscillations using Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit-jaw and spectral data and narrow-band chromospheric images from the New Solar Telescope (NST) for the main sunspot in NOAA AR 11836. We report that the difference between the shock arrival times as measured by the Mg II k 2796.35 Å and Si IV 1393.76 Å line formation levels changes during the observed period, and peak-to-peak delays may range from 40 s to zero. The intensity of chromospheric shocks also displays long-term (about 20 min) variations. NST's high spatial resolution Hα data allowed us to conclude that, in this sunspot, umbral flashes (UFs) appeared in the form of narrow bright lanes stretched along the light bridges and around clusters of umbral bright points. The time series also suggested that UFs preferred to appear on the sunspot-center side of light bridges, which may indicate the existence of a compact sub-photospheric driver of sunspot oscillations. The sunspot's umbra as seen in the IRIS chromospheric and transition region data appears bright above the locations of light bridges and the areas where the dark umbra is dotted with clusters of umbral dots. Co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory showed that the same locations were associated with bright footpoints of coronal loops suggesting that the light bridges may play an important role in heating the coronal sunspot loops. Finally, the power spectra analysis showed that the intensity of chromospheric and transition region oscillations significantly vary across the umbra and with height, suggesting that umbral non-uniformities and the structure of sunspot magnetic fields may play a role in wave propagation and heating of umbral loops.

  2. Fine pointing of the Solar Optical Telescope in the Space Shuttle environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowrinathan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Instruments requiring fine (i.e., sub-arcsecond) pointing, such as the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), must be equipped with two-stage pointing devices, coarse and fine. Coarse pointing will be performed by a gimbal system, such as the Instrument Pointing System, while the image motion compensation (IMC) will provide fine pointing. This paper describes work performed on the SOT concept design that illustrates IMC as applied to SOT. The SOT control system was modeled in the frequency domain to evaluate performance, stability, and bandwidth requirements. The two requirements of the pointing control, i.e., the 2 arcsecond reproducibility and 0.03 arcsecond rms pointing jitter, can be satisfied by use of IMC at about 20 Hz bandwidth. The need for this high bandwidth is related to Shuttle-induced disturbances that arise primarily from man push-offs and vernier thruster firings. A block diagram of SOT model/stability analysis, schematic illustrations of the SOT pointing system, and a structural model summary are included.

  3. Opto-thermal analysis of a lightweighted mirror for solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Banyal, Ravinder K; Ravindra, B; Chatterjee, S

    2013-03-25

    In this paper, an opto-thermal analysis of a moderately heated lightweighted solar telescope mirror is carried out using 3D finite element analysis (FEA). A physically realistic heat transfer model is developed to account for the radiative heating and energy exchange of the mirror with surroundings. The numerical simulations show the non-uniform temperature distribution and associated thermo-elastic distortions of the mirror blank clearly mimicking the underlying discrete geometry of the lightweighted substrate. The computed mechanical deformation data is analyzed with surface polynomials and the optical quality of the mirror is evaluated with the help of a ray-tracing software. The thermal print-through distortions are further shown to contribute to optical figure changes and mid-spatial frequency errors of the mirror surface. A comparative study presented for three commonly used substrate materials, namely, Zerodur, Pyrex and Silicon Carbide (SiC) is relevant to vast area of large optics requirements in ground and space applications. PMID:23546089

  4. Site evaluation study for the Indian National Large Solar Telescope using microthermal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhananjay, K.

    2014-01-01

    A microthermal seeing measurement device has been developed in-house to measure the temperature structure function DT(r, h) and the air temperature Tair(h). A pressure sensor, located adjacent to it, measures the average barometric pressure P(h). From the data measured, the temperature structure coefficient C_T^2(r, h) and the refractive index structure constant C_N^2(h) are computed for the five equidistant microthermal seeing layers in the 3-15 m range in the surface layers. A statistical analysis is performed on the local coherence length ro(loc)(h1, h2). Corresponding values of the atmospheric seeing ɛ(loc)(h1, h2) for all 10 microthermal seeing slabs is also computed and plotted, and the data are logged in real time. Because the characterization of the three sites is under way and the best site for the National Large Solar Telescope facility is yet to be determined, in this paper I discuss the preliminary results obtained from the Hanle site. A summary of the first results is as follows: ɛ(loc) (3 m, 6 m) = 0.663 arcsec, ɛ(loc) (6 m, 9 m) = 0.465 arcsec, ɛ(loc) (9 m, 12 m) = 0.363 arcsec and ɛ(loc) (12 m, 15 m) = 0.315 arcsec.

  5. The Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope data-acquisition and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Mark; Scharmer, Göran B.

    1998-11-01

    The performance of commodity computer systems doubles approximately every 18 months. Traditionally, the design of scientific data-acquisition and control systems has tended to ignore this fact, relying instead on custom hardware developments using the technology available at the time of instrument specification. Moreover, development manpower is usually limited, causing relatively long development cycles. Often the the result is that an instrument is technologically obsolete quite early in its projected lifetime. In contrast, all the digital processing for data acquisition and control at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) on La Palma (Canary Islands) is performed with commodity workstations. The result is a flexible system with low development costs that can easily take advantage of the latest microprocessor advances. The SVST's use of commodity workstations in on-line real-time tasks is in large part made possible by its use of reconfigurable interface technology. Indeed the SVST has been a valuable proving ground for this technology. This article summarizes the instrumentation of the SVST and illustrates examples of data recorded with this instrumentation.

  6. Plate coil thermal test bench for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) carousel cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Montijo, Guillermo; Hauth, David

    2014-08-01

    Analyses have shown that even a white-painted enclosure requires active exterior skin-cooling systems to mitigate dome seeing which is driven by thermal nonuniformities that change the refractive index of the air. For the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Enclosure, this active surface temperature control will take the form of a system of water cooled plate coils integrated into the enclosure cladding system. The main objective of this system is to maintain the surface temperature of the enclosure as close as possible to, but always below, local ambient temperature in order to mitigate this effect. The results of analyses using a multi-layer cladding temperature model were applied to predict the behavior of the plate coil cladding system and ultimately, with safety margins incorporated into the resulting design thermal loads, the detailed designs. Construction drawings and specifications have been produced. Based on these designs and prior to procurement of the system components, a test system was constructed in order to measure actual system behavior. The data collected during seasonal test runs at the DKIST construction site on Haleakalā are used to validate and/or refine the design models and construction documents as appropriate. The test fixture was also used to compare competing hardware, software, components, control strategies, and configurations. This paper outlines the design, construction, test protocols, and results obtained of the plate coil thermal test bench for the DKIST carousel cooling system.

  7. MAGNETIC RECONNECTION BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE LOOPS OBSERVED WITH THE NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2015-01-01

    Using the high tempo-spatial resolution Hα images observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we report solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale, anti-parallel loops with an X-shaped topology. The reconnection process contains two steps: a slow step with a duration of more than several tens of minutes, and a rapid step lasting for only about three minutes. During the slow reconnection, two sets of anti-parallel loops gradually reconnect, and new loops are formed and stacked together. During the rapid reconnection, the anti-parallel loops approach each other quickly, and then rapid reconnection takes place, resulting in the disappearance of the former loops. In the meantime, new loops are formed and separate. The region between the approaching loops is brightened, and the thickness and length of this region are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. During the rapid reconnection process, obvious brightenings at the reconnection site and apparent material ejections outward along reconnected loops are observed. These observed signatures are consistent with predictions by reconnection models. We suggest that the successive slow reconnection changes the conditions around the reconnection site and triggers instabilities, thus leading to the rapid approach of the anti-parallel loops and resulting in the rapid reconnection.

  8. Development of a correlation tracker system for the New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seonghwan; Nah, Jakyoung; Moon, Yong-Jae; Wang, Haimin; Coulter, Roy

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a correlation tracker system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). It consists of three sub-systems: a tip-tilt mirror unit, a camera unit, and a control unit. Its software has been developed via Microsoft Visual C++, which enables us to take images from the high-speed CMOS camera in order to measure the image motions induced by atmospheric turbulence by using SAD algorithm and 2-D FFT cross-correlation, and to control the high-dynamics Piezo tip-tilt mirror for tip-tilt correction. We adopted the SIMD technology and parallel programming technology based on the Intel Core 2 Quad processor without any additional processing system (FPGA or DSP) for high-speed performance. As a result, we can make a tip-tilt correction with about seven hundreds of Hz in a closed loop mode. The prototype system has been successfully developed in a laboratory and will be installed on the NST.

  9. PRECURSOR OF SUNSPOT PENUMBRAL FORMATION DISCOVERED WITH HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Toshifumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Suematsu, Yoshinori

    2012-03-10

    We present observations of a precursory signature that would be helpful for understanding the formation process of sunspot penumbrae. The Hinode Solar Optical Telescope successfully captured the entire evolution of a sunspot from the pore to a large well-developed sunspot with penumbra in an emerging flux region appearing in NOAA Active Region 11039. We found an annular zone (width 3''-5'') surrounding the umbra (pore) in Ca II H images before the penumbra formed around the umbra. The penumbra developed as if to fill the annular zone. The annular zone shows weak magnetogram signals, meaning less magnetic flux or highly inclined fields there. Pre-existing ambient magnetic field islands were distributed at the outer edge of the annular zone and did not come into the zone. There are no strong systematic flow patterns in the zone, but we occasionally observed small magnetic flux patches streaming out. The observations indicate that the annular zone is different from the sunspot moat flow region and that it represents the structure in the chromosphere. We conclude that the annular zone reflects the formation of a magnetic canopy overlying the region surrounding the umbra at the chromospheric level, long before the formation of the penumbra at the photospheric level. The magnetic field structure in the chromosphere needs to be considered in the formation process of the penumbrae.

  10. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  11. Ultra-narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 Å Using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyungsuk; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-03-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects.

  12. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  13. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  14. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  15. Sub-arcsecond X-ray Telescope for Imaging the Solar Corona at 1 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, D.; Cash, W.; Jelsma, S.

    1996-05-01

    Over the past several years at the University of Colorado we have been developing an X-ray telescope that uses a new technique for focusing X-rays with grazing incidence optics The telescope uses spherical optics for all its components, thus utilizing the high quality surfaces obtainable when polishing spherical optics as compared to that of aspherical optics. A prototype engineering X-ray telescope has been fabricated and tested using the 300 meter vacuum pipe at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The telescope uses approximately 2 degree graze angles with tungsten coatings which gives a bandpass of 0.25-1.5 keV and a peak effective area of 0.08 cm(2) at 0.83 keV. Results from X-ray testing at energies of 0.25 keV and 0.93 keV (C-K and Cu-L) will be presented which verify 0.5 arcseconds performance at 0.93 keV. Results from modeling the X-ray telescope's response to the sun show that the current optics design would be capable of recording on the order of 10 images of a solar active region during a 300 second NASA sounding rocket flight at resolution of 0.5 arcsecond.

  16. Production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR mirror blank for the Advanced Technology Solar telescope (ATST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Werner, Thomas; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope in the world. It is currently being built by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) in a height of 3000 m above sea level on the mountain Haleakala of Maui, Hawaii. The primary mirror blank of diameter 4.26 m is made of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® of SCHOTT AG Advanced Optics. The DKIST primary mirror design is extremely challenging. With a mirror thickness of only 78 to 85 mm it is the smallest thickness ever machined on a mirror of 4.26 m in diameter. Additionally the glassy ZERODUR® casting is one of the largest in size ever produced for a 4 m class ZERODUR® mirror blank. The off axis aspherical mirror surface required sophisticated grinding procedures to achieve the specified geometrical tolerance. The small thickness of about 80 mm required special measures during processing, lifting and transport. Additionally acid etch treatment was applied to the convex back-surface and the conical shaped outer diameter surface to improve the strength of the blank. This paper reports on the challenging tasks and the achievements on the material property and dimensional specification parameter during the production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR® primary mirror blank for AURA.

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope solar array blanket: Post flight technology verification -- Recent R and D results for the assessment of weld joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bebermeier, H.

    1994-12-31

    More than 7 years ago the flexible Hubble Space Telescope solar array blanket was designed and manufactured by the European industry with the ambitious goal to realize a retractable solar array system with full protection against ATOX; full protection of the electrical network against shadowing; a lifetime of 5 years in LEO equivalent to 30,000 thermal cycles. One wing of the solar array was successfully recovered and is now subject of extended post flight investigations under ESA/EsteC contracts. The paper will present in detail recent r and D results from the module and interconnection technology which confirm the technological approach of the Hubble Space Telescope solar array.

  18. Distinguishing 3He and 4He with the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) on Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Steinhagen, J.; Tammen, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Boettcher, S. I.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Elftmann, R.; Schuster, B.; Kulemzin, A.; Kolbe, S.; Mahesh, Y.; Knieriem, V.; Yu, J.; Kohler, J.; Panitzsch, L.; Terasa, C.; Boehm, E.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of the sensors of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) for the Solar Orbiter mission, which will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four different sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT and HET) which together will resolve the energetic particle spectrum from 2 keV to 20 MeV for electrons, 3 keV to 100 MeV for protons and circa 100 keV/nuc to 100 MeV/nuc for heavier ions.EPT itself is primarily designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. To achieve this, EPT uses two back-to-back solid state detectors with a magnet system to deflect electrons on one side and a Polyimide foil to stop protons below ~400 keV on the other side. The two detectors then serve as each other's anti-coincidence. Additionally this setup also allows us to measure penetrating particles with deposited energies in the 1 MeV to 40 MeV range. Looking at the ratio of deposited energy in the two detectors versus total deposited energy allows us to differentiate between protons and alpha particles. Distinguishing 3He from 4He will be challenging, but possible provided good knowledge of the instrument, high-fidelity modeling and a precise calibration of EPT. Here, we will present feasibility studies leading to a determination of the 3He / 4He ratio with EPT.

  19. Measuring the Solar Magnetic Field with STEREO A Radio Transmissions: Faraday Rotation Observations using the 100m Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelski, A.; Jensen, E.; Wexler, D.; Heiles, C.; Kepley, A.; Kuiper, T.; Bisi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The STEREO mission spacecraft recently passed through superior conjunction, providing an opportunity to probe the solar corona using radio transmissions. Strong magnetic field and dense plasma environment induce Faraday rotation of the linearly polarized fraction of the spacecraft radio carrier signal. Variations in the Faraday rotation signify changes in magnetic field components and plasma parameters, and thus can be used to gain understanding processes of the quiescent sun as well as active outbursts including coronal mass ejections. Our 2015 observing campaign resulted in a series of measurements over several months with the 100m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to investigate the coronal Faraday rotation at various radial distances. These observations reveal notable fluctuations in the Faraday rotation of the signal in the deep corona, and should yield unique insights into coronal magnetohydrodynamics down to a 1.5 solar radius line-of-sight solar elongation.

  20. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    A Normal Incidence high resolution X-ray Telescope is reported. The design of a telescope assembly which, after fabrication, will be integrated with the mirror fabrication process is described. The assembly is engineered to fit into the Black Brant rocket skin to survive sounding rocket launch conditions. A flight ready camera is modified and tested.

  1. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meter square portion where it is necessary to collect a surface wipe test sample into two equal (or as... sampling by halves. Assume that the area to sample is a 1 meter square surface area (a square that has..., i.e., regardless of which way the surface is divided, each half is 1 half meter wide by 1 meter...

  2. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  3. Transient Small-Scale Magnetic Flux Emergence and Atmospheric Response Observed with New Solar Telescope and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Kosovichev, Alexander G.

    2014-06-01

    State-of-the art solar instrumentation is now revealing the activity of the Sun at the highest temporal and spatial resolution. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere is one of the key topics. Observations with the 1.6m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. On August 7, 2013, NST observed active region NOAA 11810 in different photospheric and chromospheric wavelengths. The region displays a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detected a site of emerging magnetic flux accompanied by intense and very confined abnormal granulation dynamics, observed in the photospheric TiO 7057 A with a resolution of 0.034 “/pix. Following the expansion of exploding granules in this site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the HeI 10830A data (bandpass of 0.05 A). The SDO/HMI data used to study the evolution of the magnetic field and Doppler velocities reveal a short-lived emerging loop-like structure with strong upflows. We used the SDO/AIA data to investigate the response of the transition region and corona to the transient emerging flux phenomenon. We compare the results with previous observations, and propose a scenario for the production of plasma surges by the transient magnetic flux emergence events.

  4. Re-evaluation of the Neutron Emission from the Solar Flare of 2005 September 7, Detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope at Sierra Negra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, L. X.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Sánchez, F.; Muraki, Y.; Sako, T.; Watanabe, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Shibata, S.; Sakai, T.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A.

    2015-12-01

    The X17.0 solar flare of 2005 September 7 released high-energy neutrons that were detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Sierra Negra, Mexico. In three separate and independent studies of this solar neutron event, several of its unique characteristics were studied; in particular, a power-law energy spectra was estimated. In this paper, we present an alternative analysis, based on improved numerical simulations of the detector using GEANT4, and a different technique for processing the SNT data. The results indicate that the spectral index that best fits the neutron flux is around 3, in agreement with previous works. Based on the numerically calculated neutron energy deposition on the SNT, we confirm that the detected neutrons might have reached an energy of 1 GeV, which implies that 10 GeV protons were probably produced; these could not be observed at Earth, as their parent flare was an east limb event.

  5. Advancement of Piezo-Stack DM technology at CILAS: Example of HODM for KIS Gregor Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, J. C.; Bastard, A.; Cousty, R.; Guillemard, C.; Pagès, H.

    2011-09-01

    Cilas has designed, manufactured and tested the deformable mirror for use in the high order adaptive optics system in the 1.5 m Gregor solar telescope (Tenerife). In the scope of this project for Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS), we have reached the smallest spacing ever made with our piezo-stack technology (3.2 mm) while increasing the overall reliability of our DMs by significant design evolutions. We will present the main specifications of the DM (18x18 actuator array, > 2 μm interactuator stroke, > 20 kHz main resonance frequency) and the study results on reliability. This study is focused on electrical and opto-mechanical stability of the DM vs. time. The improved piezo-stack technology will be used for next generation of DMs for large telescopes as TMT and ESO (VLT and E-ELT)

  6. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts directed toward the completion of an X-ray telescope assembly design, the procurement of major components, and the coordination of optical fabrication and X-ray multilayer testing are reported.

  7. Quiescent Prominence Dynamics Observed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. I. Turbulent Upflow Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) "arches" or "bubbles" that "inflate" from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex "roll-up" of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) "optical flow" code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s-1, which is supersonic for a ~10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s-1. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (~5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km2 s-1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm2. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in SOT images

  8. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-20

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) 'arches' or 'bubbles' that 'inflate' from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex 'roll-up' of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) 'optical flow' code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s{sup -1}, which is supersonic for a {approx}10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s{sup -1}. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s ({approx}5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km{sup 2} s{sup -1} reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm{sup 2}. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to

  9. Searching for Extra-solar Planets with a Diffraction-Limited Balloon Borne Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, H. C.; Petro, L. D.; Allen, R.; Bely, P.; Burrows, C. J.; Krist, J.; Rafal, M.; White, R. L.; Jaffe, W.; Le Poole, R.; Crocker, J.; Dopita, M. A.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1998-12-01

    Our goal is to fly a diffraction limited 2.5-m optical telescope and coronagraph on long duration balloon flights at an altitudes of 35 km above 99.99% of the Earth's atmosphere to search for Jupiter-like planets around nearby stars. Analysis of radiosonde data from Mauna Kea and the South Pole suggests that at optical wavelengths and altitudes above 20 km r0 will be much greater than 6 meters anywhere in the world. A telescope equipped with an ultra smooth mirror and/or adaptive optics and coronagraph would provide three orders of magnitude improvement over the coronagraph in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (to be installed in Hubble in May 2000), four orders of magnitude improvement over the HST WFPC-2 camera, and five orders of magnitude improvement over ground based telescopes. A 2.5-m telescope could detect Jupiters and Saturns around the brightest stars within 10 parsecs of the Earth. No present or planned HST instruments will have this capability. Before we can design, build, and fly high resolution telescopes, we must first understand the high altitude balloon environment in detail. We need to know the spatial and temporal spectrum of wavefront errors, and the differential wind forces that will act on the telescope. We must understand the balloon environment sufficiently well to be able to discharge waste heat without spoiling the local thermal environment. We will discuss the major issues for high altitude "site testing" and subsequent high-resolution observations.

  10. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  11. CCD camera systems and support electronics for a White Light Coronagraph and X-ray XUV solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.; Kubierschky, K.; Staples, M. H.; Carpenter, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two instruments, a White Light Coronagraph and an X-ray XUV telescope built into the same housing, share several electronic functions. Each instrument uses a CCD as an imaging detector, but due to different spectral requirements, each uses a different type. Hardware reduction, required by the stringent weight and volume allocations of the interplanetary mission, is made possible by the use of a microprocessor. Most instrument functions are software controlled with the end use circuits treated as peripherals to the microprocessor. The instruments are being developed for the International Solar Polar Mission.

  12. Temperature of Solar Prominences Obtained with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph on the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Chae, Jongchul; Song, Donguk; Maurya, Ram Ajor; Yang, Heesu; Park, Young-Deuk; Jang, Bi-Ho; Nah, Jakyoung; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Yeon-Han; Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2013-11-01

    We observed solar prominences with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 30 June 2010 and 15 August 2011. To determine the temperature of the prominence material, we applied a nonlinear least-squares fitting of the radiative transfer model. From the Doppler broadening of the Hα and Ca ii lines, we determined the temperature and nonthermal velocity separately. The ranges of temperature and nonthermal velocity were 4000 - 20 000 K and 4 - 11 km s-1. We also found that the temperature varied much from point to point within one prominence.

  13. New Solar System Researches expected by a New Telescope Project at Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagitani, Masato; Okano, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Kuhn, J.; Berdyugina, S.

    2009-09-01

    We Tohoku University starts the project for the new ground-based telescope dedicated to planets and exoplanets, in collaboration with the Institute for Astronomy of University of Hawaii(IfA/UH) and ETH Zurich. The summit of Mt. Haleakala in Maui, Hawaii is one of the best sites with clear skies, good seeing, and low humidity conditions as well as good accessibility despite its high altitude (elv. 3,000m). Haleakala High Altitude Observatory is operated by IfA/UH, and we have been making observation of planets there since 2000. Currently, our observation facility consists of a 40cm telescope. We have been making observations of faint atmospheric and plasma features around bright planets, Io plasma torus, Mercury and Lunar sodium tail, and so on. Atmospheric escapes from Mars and Venus, the exoplanets close to mother stars are also possible future important topics. When we try to observe those faint emissions surrounding the bright objects, intense scattered light causes a serious problem. The new telescope shall avoid the diffraction due to a spider structure that holds a secondary mirror and to minimize the scattered light from mirror surfaces as far as possible. Such telescope with a wide dynamic range dedicated to planetary and exoplanetary sciences does not exist yet. The project, called PLANETS (Poralized Light from Atmospheres of Nearby Extra Terrestrial Planets), develops a new telescope (tentatively named as JHET; Japan Hawaii Europe Telescope) which consists of an off-axis primary mirror with a diameter of 1.8m, and Gregorian optics on an equatorial mount. State-of-art adaptive optics and masking technologies will also be adopted to eliminate the scattering light. This telescope will enables us to do spectro-polarimetric observations and faint plasma and atmospheres around the bright bodies. We will introduce the progress of our ground-based observations and the future plan involving the wide area of the international communities.

  14. NIRIS: The Second Generation Near-Infrared Imaging Spectro-polarimeter for the 1.6 Meter New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.; Ahn, K.; Gorceix, N.; Schmidt, W.; Lin, H.

    2012-12-01

    The largest aperture solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) has been installed at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). To take full advantage of the NST's greatest potential, we are upgrading the routinely operational InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM) to its second generation, the NIRIS (Near-InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter). NIRIS will offer unprecedented high resolution spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging data of the solar atmosphere from the deepest photosphere through the base of the corona. With the aid of the BBSO adaptive optics (AO) system, the spatial resolution will be close to the diffraction limit of the NST. The spectroscopic cadence will reach one second, while polarimetric measurements, including Stokes I, Q, U, V profiles, remain at a better than 10 s cadence. Polarization sensitivity is expected to be reach ˜ 10-4Ic. NIRIS will cover a broad spectral range from 1.0 to 1.7μm, with particular attention to two unique spectral lines: the Fe I 1565 nm doublet has already proven to be the most sensitive to Zeeman effect for probing the magnetic field in the deepest photosphere; the He I 1083 nm multiplet is one of the best currently available diagnostic of upper chromospheric magnetic fields that allows one to map the vector field at the base of the corona. NIRIS will be built on dual Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPIs), each of which has an aperture of 100 mm. The larger aperture of FPIs allows the available field-of-view up to one and half minutes with a spectral power of ˜ 105.

  15. Observations of Solar Energetic Particle Events over the Polar Regions of the Sun at Solar Maximum with the Ulysses COSPIN High Energy Telescope and IMP-8*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Zhang, M.

    2002-05-01

    The High Energy Telescope (HET) of the Ulysses COSPIN experi-ment measures intensities and spectra of solar energetic particles (SEPs) with good energy and charge resolution at energies above ~30 MeV/n. During the recent passes over the north and south polar re-gions of the sun, Ulysses observed a number of solar energetic particle events associated with solar activity at low latitudes. Where IMP-8 observations were available, all SEP events observed at proton energies >~30 MeV by Ulysses in the polar regions (solar latitudes above 70 degrees) were also observed at IMP-8. HOwever peak intensities were generally lower and the onsets and rises to maximum were in general significantly slower at Ulysses than at IMP. Anisotropies during the onsets of SEP events at Ulysses were in almost all cases directed outward along the nominal Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field, implying that the source of the particles on the field lines connecting to Ulysses was inside the orbit of Ulysses. In the late stages of events, generally four to five days after onset, particle fluxes at IMP and Ulysses were approximately equal and remained so for the remainder of the decay phase. We will summarize these and other results from both the north and south polar passes and discuss their significance for models of the ac-celeration and propagation of solar energetic particles. * This work was supported in part by NASA Contract JPL-955432 and by NASA Grant NAG5-8032.

  16. Thermal Performance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array-3 During the Disturbance Verification Test (DVT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Daniel H.; Skladany, Lynn M.; Prats, Benito D.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is one of NASA's most productive astronomical observatories. Launched in 1990, the HST continues to gather scientific data to help scientists around the world discover amazing wonders of the universe. To maintain HST in the fore front of scientific discoveries, NASA has routinely conducted servicing missions to refurbish older equipment as well as to replace existing scientific instruments with better, more powerful instruments. In early 2002, NASA will conduct its fourth servicing mission to the HST. This servicing mission is named Servicing Mission 3B (SM3B). During SM3B, one of the major refurbishment efforts will be to install new rigid-panel solar arrays as a replacement for the existing flexible-foil solar arrays. This is necessary in order to increase electrical power availability for the new scientific instruments. Prior to installing the new solar arrays on HST, the HST project must be certain that the new solar arrays will not cause any performance degradations to the observatory. One of the major concerns is any disturbance that can cause pointing Loss of Lock (LOL) for the telescope. While in orbit, the solar-array temperature transitions quickly from sun to shadow. The resulting thermal expansion and contraction can cause a "mechanical disturbance" which may result in LOL. To better characterize this behavior, a test was conducted at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) thermal-vacuum chamber. In this test, the Sun simulator was used to simulate on-orbit effects on the solar arrays. This paper summarizes the thermal performance of the Solar Array-3 (SA3) during the Disturbance Verification Test (DVT). The test was conducted between 26 October 2000 and 30 October 2000. Included in this paper are: (1) brief description of the SA3's components and its thermal design; (2) a summary of the on-orbit temperature predictions; (3) pretest thermal preparations; (4) a

  17. Imaging Extra-Solar Planets with an Ultra-Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Origins Program is directed toward two main goals: Imaging of galactic evolution in the early universe, and searching for planets orbiting nearby stars. The Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), operating at low temperature with an 8-m aperture, is well designed to meet the first goal. The goal of imaging planets orbiting nearby stars is more problematic. One line of investigation has been the ULTIMA concept (Ultra-Large Telescope, Integrated Missions in Astronomy). In this report, I will lay out the resolution requirements for telescopes to achieve the imaging of extrasolar planets, and describe a modeling tool created to investigate the requirements for imaging a planet when it is very near a much brighter star.

  18. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    The following major activities were advanced or completed: complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components; specification of all rocket skin sections including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door; fabrication, curing, and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube; engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment to a kinematic three-point mount; detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics; and multilayer mirror flats with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A.

  19. NEAT: an astrometric space telescope to search for habitable exoplanets in the solar neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Kern, P.; Feautrier, P.; Preiss, O.; Martin, G.; Henault, F.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Behar, E.; Saintpe, M.; Dupont, J.; Potin, S.; Lagage, P.-O.; Cara, C.; Leger, A.; Leduigou, J.-M.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.

    2014-03-01

    The last decade has witnessed a spectacular development of exoplanet detection techniques, which led to an exponential number of discoveries and a great diversity of known exoplanets. However, it must be noted that the quest for the holy grail of astrobiology, i.e. a nearby terrestrial exoplanet in habitable zone around a solar type star, is still ongoing and proves to be very hard. Radial velocities will have to overcome stellar noise if there are to discover habitable planets around stars more massive than M ones. For very close systems, transits are impeded by their low geometrical probability. Here we present an alternative concept: space astrometry. NEAT (Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope) is a concept of astrometric mission proposed to ESA which goal is to make a whole sky survey of close (less then 20 pc) planetary systems. The detection limit required for the instrument is the astrometric signal of an Earth analog (at 10 pc). Differential astrometry is a very interesting tool to detect nearby habitable exoplanets. Indeed, for F, G and K main sequence stars, the astrophysical noise is smaller than the astrometric signal, contrary to the case for radial velocities. The difficulty lies in the fact that the signal of an exo-Earth around a G type star at 10 pc is a tiny 0.3 micro arc sec, which is equivalent to a coin on the moon, seen from the Earth: the main challenge is related to instrumentation. In order to reach this specification, NEAT consists of two formation flying spacecraft at a 40m distance, one carries the mirror and the other one the focal plane. Thus NEAT has a configuration with only one optical surface: an off-axis parabola. Consequently, beamwalk errors are common to the whole field of view and have a small effect on differential astrometry. Moreover a metrology system projects young fringes on the focal plane, which can characterize the pixels whenever necessary during the mission. NEAT has two main scientific objectives: combined with

  20. A Concept for Optical and Mechanical Design for a New Off-Axis 1.7 m Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; BBSO/NJIT Team; Mees Solar Obs./U. Hawaii Team

    2003-05-01

    We are replacing the 65 cm vacuum telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) with a modern, open, off-axis, 1.6 m clear aperture solar telescope -- the NST (New Solar Telescope). The NST will use the pedestal of the 65 cm instrument. First light will be in late 2005, with full operation early in 2006. The NST will utilize the current and planned complement of BBSO instrumentation. This includes visible and infrared (IR) Fabry-Perot-based polarimeters and real-time phase-diversity speckle imaging instrumentation. A high-order Adaptive Optics (AO) system, which is now under development, will deliver light to each of these instruments. The key to many of the most intriguing scientific questions lies in observations with the highest possible contrast and spatial resolution. Not only does one require a large aperture telescope and a site, like BBSO, where adaptive optics can correct images to the diffraction limit, but we also need a high order adaptive optics system, which will fully utilize the optical and dynamic range advantages of the NSTs unobstructed (off-axis) pupil. Together with the National Solar Observatory, we are constructing and implementating a high order system (97 actuators), which will be used for the current 65 cm telescope, and modified for the NST. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG5-12782 and NSF grant ATM-0086999.

  1. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  2. The Hadean, Through a Glass Telescopically: Observations of Young Solar Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaidos, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the Earth's surface environment during the Hadean eon (prior to 3.8 Ga) are hampered by the paucity of the geological and geochemical record and the relative inaccessibility of better-preserved surfaces with possibly similar early histories (i.e., Mars). One approach is to observe nearby, young solar-mass stars as analogs to the Hadean Sun and its environment. A catalog of 38 G and early K stars within 25 pc was constructed based on main-sequence status, bolometric luminosity, lack of known stellar companions within 800 AU, and coronal X-ray luminosities commensurate with the higher activity of solar-mass stars <0.8 b.y. old. Spectroscopic data support the assignment of ages of 0.2 - 0.8 Ga for most of these stars. Observations of these objects will provide insight into external forces that influenced Hadean atmosphere, ocean, and surface evolution (and potential ecosystems), including solar luminosity evolution, the flux and spectrum of solar ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the solar wind, and the intensity and duration of a late period of heavy bombardment. The standard model of solar evolution predicts a luminosity of 0.75 solar luminosity at the end of the Hadean, implying a terrestrial surface temperature inconsistent with the presence of liquid water and motivating atmospheric greenhouse models. An alternative model fo solar evolution that invokes mass loss, constructed to explain solar Li depletion, attenuates or reverses this luminosity evolution of the atmospheres of Earth and the other terrestrial planets. This model can be tested by Li abundance measurements. The continuum emission from stellar wind plasma during significant mass loss may be detectable at millimeter and radio wavelengths. The Earth (and Moon) experienced a period of intense bombardment prior to 3.8 Ga, long after accretion was completed in the inner solar system and possibly associated with the clearing of residual planetesimals in the outer solar system. Such

  3. A deployment mechanism for the double roll-out flexible solar array on the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawsey, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    A roll-out flexible array which provides more than 4 kW of power for the space telescope was developed. The Array is configured as two wings. The deployment mechanism for each wing is based on flight-proven FRUSA design. Modifications have been incorporated to accommodate an increase in size and mission requirements. The assembly and operation of the deployment mechanism are described together with environmental and functional tests results.

  4. Hard X-ray imaging from the solar probe. [X ray telescope and mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The solar probe offers a platform with particular advantages for studying solar nonthermal plasma processes via the observations of hard X-radiation from energetic electrons in the chromosphere and corona, these include (1) high sensitivity, (2) a second line of sign (in addition to the earth's) that can aid in three dimensional reconstruction of the source distribution, and, (3) the possibility of correlation with direct measurements of the nonthermal particles from the probe itself.

  5. A CATALOG OF SOLAR X-RAY PLASMA EJECTIONS OBSERVED BY THE SOFT X-RAY TELESCOPE ON BOARD YOHKOH

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczak, M.; Chmielewska, E. E-mail: chmielewska@astro.uni.wroc.pl

    2012-03-01

    A catalog of X-ray plasma ejections (XPEs) observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on board the Yohkoh satellite has been recently developed in the Astronomical Institute of University of Wroclaw. The catalog contains records of 368 events observed in years 1991-2001 including movies and cross-references to associated events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). One hundred sixty-three XPEs out of 368 in the catalog were not reported until now. A new classification scheme of XPEs is proposed in which morphology, kinematics, and recurrence are considered. The relation between individual subclasses of XPEs and the associated events was investigated. The results confirm that XPEs are strongly inhomogeneous, responding to different processes that occur in the solar corona. A subclass of erupting loop-like XPEs is a promising candidate to be a high-temperature precursor of CMEs.

  6. Improving characterization and modeling of polarization effects in the calibration retarders for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueoka, Stacey

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will have a suite of first-light polarimetric instrumentation requiring calibration of a complex off-axis optical path. The DKIST polarization calibration process requires modeling and fitting for several optical, thermal and mechanical effects. Three dimensional polarization ray trace codes (PolarisM) allow modeling of polarization errors inherent in assuming a linear retardation as a function of angle of incidence for our calibration retarders at Gregorian and Coudé foci. Stress induced retardation effects from substrate and coating absorption, mechanical mounting stresses, and inherent polishing uniformity tolerances introduce polarization effects at significant levels. These effects require careful characterization and modeling for mitigation during design, construction, calibration and science observations. Modeling efforts, amplitude estimates and mitigation efforts will be presented for the suite of DKIST calibration optics planned for first-light operations.

  7. Ke Alahaka Program of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative Provides STEM Workshops for Native Hawaiian Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Naho`olewa, D.; Chirico, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects will provide instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM or STEM-related careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2012 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Three STEM-content workshops were offered including Marine Science, Sustainable Energy Technology, and Computer Science and Engineering. Students attended hands-on classes three days a week for a month concentrating on only one of the three topics. On the other days, students participated in a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the 60 students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  8. Design and analysis of optical systems for the Stanford/MSFC Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Johnson, R. Barry; Hoover, Richard B.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and the theoretical ray trace analysis of the optical systems which will comprise the primary imaging components for the Stanford/MSFC Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). This instrument is being developed for ultra-high resolution investigations of the sun from a sounding rocket. Doubly reflecting systems of sphere-sphere, ellipsoid-sphere (Dall-Kirkham), paraboloid-hyperboloid (Cassegrain), and hyperboloid-hyperboloid (Ritchey-Chretien) configurations were analyzed. For these mirror systems, ray trace analysis was performed and through-focus spot diagrams, point spread function plots, and geometrical and diffraction MTFs were generated. The results of these studies are presented along with the parameters of the Ritchey-Chretien optical system selected for the MSSTA flight. The payload, which incorporates seven of these Ritchey-Chretien systems, is now being prepared for launch in late September 1989.

  9. Effect of Solar Exposure on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Thermal Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Aobo; Ashmead, Claire C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to low Earth orbital (LEO) environment, external spacecraft materials degrade due to radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and atomic oxygen (AO) interaction. Collisions between AO and spacecraft can result in oxidation of external spacecraft surface materials, which can lead to erosion and severe structural and/or optical property deterioration. It is therefore essential to understand the AO erosion yield (Ey), the volume loss per incident oxygen atom (cu cm/atom), of polymers to assure durability of spacecraft materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether solar radiation exposure can increase the rate of AO erosion of polymers in LEO. The material studied was a section of aluminized-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) thermal shield exposed to space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for 8.25 years. Retrieved samples were sectioned from the circular thermal shield and exposed to ground laboratory thermal energy AO. The results indicate that the average Ey of the solar facing HST Al-FEP was 1.9 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom, while the average Ey of the anti-solar HST Al-FEP was 1.5 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. The Ey of the pristine samples was 1.6- 1.7 10(exp -24)cu cm/atom. These results indicate that solar exposure affects the post-flight erosion rate of FEP in a plasma asher. Therefore, it likely affects the erosion rate while in LEO.

  10. Effect of Solar Exposure on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Thermal Shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Aobo; Ashmead, Claire C.; de Groh, Kim K.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    When exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) environment, external spacecraft materials degrade due to radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and interaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Collisions between AO and spacecraft can result in oxidation of external spacecraft surface materials, which can lead to erosion and severe structural and/or optical properties deterioration. It is therefore essential to understand the AO erosion yield (Ey), the volume loss per incident oxygen atom (cm3/atom) of polymers to assure durability of spacecraft materials. The objective of this study was to determine whether solar radiation exposure can increase the rate of AO erosion of polymers in LEO. The material studied was a section of aluminized-Teflon® fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) thermal shield exposed to space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for 8.25 years. Retrieved samples were sectioned from the circular thermal shield and exposed to ground laboratory thermal energy AO. The results indicate that the average Ey of the solar facing HST Al-FEP was 1.9 × 10-24 cm3/atom, while the average Ey of the anti-solar HST Al-FEP was 1.5 × 10-24 cm3/atom. The Ey of the pristine samples was 1.6 to 1.7 × 10-24 cm3/atom. These results indicate that solar exposure affects the post-flight erosion rate of FEP in a plasma asher. Therefore, it likely affects the erosion rate while in LEO.

  11. Fine-scale structures and material flows of quiescent filaments observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Xue, Zhi-Ke; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Yang, Li-Heng

    2015-10-01

    Study of the small-scale structures and material flows associated with solar quiescent filaments is very important for understanding the formation and equilibrium of solar filaments. Using high resolution Hα data observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present the structures of barbs and material flows along the threads across the spine in two quiescent filaments on 2013 September 29 and on 2012 November 2, respectively. During the evolution of the filament barb, several parallel tube-shaped structures formed and the width of the structures ranged from about 2.3 Mm to 3.3 Mm. The parallel tube-shaped structures merged together accompanied by material flows from the spine to the barb. Moreover, the boundary between the barb and surrounding atmosphere was very neat. The counter-streaming flows were not found to appear alternately in the adjacent threads of the filament. However, the large-scale patchy counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The flows in one patch of the filament have the same direction but flows in the adjacent patch have opposite direction. The patches of two opposite flows with a size of about 10″ were alternately exhibited along the spine of the filament. The velocity of these material flows ranged from 5.6 km s-1 to 15.0 km s-1. The material flows along the threads of the filament did not change their direction for about two hours and fourteen minutes during the evolution of the filament. Our results confirm that the large-scale counter-streaming flows with a certain width along the threads of solar filaments exist and are coaligned well with the threads.

  12. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  13. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: reply.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-11-10

    We appreciate the thoughtful comments by Kellerer [Appl. Opt.53, 7643 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.007643] to our recent study [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685] in which we evaluate the practicability of a layer-oriented wavefront sensing approach suggested for use in solar multiconjugate adaptive optics. After careful review of Kellerer's comment, we remain cautious about the feasibility of a solar-layer-oriented Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. However, we strongly encourage further analysis and proof-of-concept work that addresses the difficulties outlined in our original paper and that demonstrates the operating principles behind such an instrument. PMID:25402985

  14. Doppler winds mapped around the lower thermospheric terminator of Venus: 2012 solar transit observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Hoge, James

    2015-07-01

    Doppler shifts of sub-millimeter 12 CO (346 GHz) and 13 CO (330 GHz) and millimeter 12 CO (230 GHz) line absorptions were mapped around the circum-disk terminator of Venus before, during, and after the June 5, 2012 solar transit, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Radiative transfer analysis of the solar transit 12 CO thermal line absorptions yields cross-terminator winds in the Venus lower thermosphere (100-120 km) over the local time (LT) and latitude extent of the atmospheric limb presented by the inferior conjunction, nightside apparent disk of Venus. The unique solar transit geometry provides enhanced spatial resolution of the terminator (0.2 h in local time, LT) associated with solar illumination of this atmospheric limb region, and so provides the first characterization of the instantaneous distribution of cross terminator flow in the Venus lower thermosphere versus LT and latitude. Furthermore, by mapping Doppler winds over the nightside disk preceding and following the solar transit, we place the highly variable zonal and subsolar-to-antisolar (SSAS) circulation components of the nightside lower thermosphere (Clancy, R.T., Sandor, B.J., Moriarty-Schieven, G.H. [2012a]. Icarus 217, 794-812) in the context of the day-to-night cross terminator flow that drives this chaotic nightside dynamical regime. The solar transit observations indicate substantially supersonic (200-300 m/s) day-to-night cross terminator winds that are significantly (by 50-150 m/s) stronger over the evening versus the morning terminator. They also exhibit surprisingly large (50%) variations over a 1-2 h timescale that challenge explanation. These behaviors likely contribute to both the variability and the apparent retrograde zonal component of circulation in the Venus nightside upper atmosphere. Hence, these observations support dynamical arguments for preferential deceleration of the morning sector SSAS circulation (e.g., Alexander, M.J. [1992]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 19

  15. RATAN-600 radio telescope in the 24th solar-activity cycle. III. System of data acquisition and control of the solar spectral facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, S. V.; Garaimov, V. I.

    2011-07-01

    We report the development of a multichannel data acquisition and control system for the Spectral and Polarization High-Resolution Solar Research System, installed at the RATAN-600 radio telescope. This facility provides high-speed registration of signals from 240 channels and controls the preparation for observations and the process of automatic observations. The hardware is made in the form factor of 3U Evromekhanika modules. The measurement facility is controlled by the software based on the QT cross-platform library (the open source version), which can be run both on Linux and Windows operating systems. The data are written to a magnetic carrier and then transferred to the computer network of the Special Astrophysical Observatory for archiving, and can be accessed by external users.

  16. Telescoping in on the Microscopic Origins of the Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Despite many years of study, the basic physical processes that are responsible for producing the solar wind are not known (or at least not universally agreed upon). The fact that we have an overabundance of proposed ideas for solving the problems of coronal heating and wind acceleration can be seen as both a blessing and a curse. It is a blessing because it highlights the insight and creativity of the community, but it is a curse because we still do not know how to validate or falsify many of these ideas. Discerning the presence of any given proposed mechanism is difficult not only because measurements are limited, but also because many of the suggested processes act on a wide range of spatial scales (from centimeters to solar radii) with complex feedback effects that are not yet understood. This presentation will discuss a few key examples and controversies regarding the importance of small spatial and temporal scales in the regions where the solar wind is accelerated. For example, new observations have led to a revived debate about whether the hot plasma in the solar wind is injected dynamically from cooler regions below or whether it "evaporates" from the combined effects of radiation and conduction from above. There is also debate about how the open field lines are energized: Is the energy input from waves and turbulent eddies that propagate up from the Sun and dissipate, or is the constantly evolving magnetic carpet responsible for heating the plasma via reconnection? In some areas, traditional observational diagnostics of magnetohydrodynamic plasma properties may not be sufficient to distinguish between competing predictions. Thus, this presentation will also describe why it is probably wise to confront the truly microscopic (nonlinear, non-Maxwellian, collisionless) nature of the relevant particles and fields. Theories and measurements that "zoom in" to this level of kinetic detail have the greatest potential for improving our understanding of the origins of

  17. Observations of Oppositely Directed Umbral Wavefronts Rotating in Sunspots Obtained from the New Solar Telescope of BBSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J. T.; Ji, K. F.; Cao, W.; Banerjee, D.; Priya, T. G.; Zhao, J. S.; Bai, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, M.; Ji, H. S.

    2016-02-01

    We study the umbral waves as observed by chromospheric imaging observations of two sunspots with the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. We find that the wavefronts (WFs) rotate clockwise and form a one-armed spiral structure in the first sunspot, whereas two- and three-armed structures arise in the second sunspot where the WFs rotate anticlockwise and clockwise alternately. All the spiral arms display propagation outwards and become running penumbral waves once they cross the umbral boundaries, suggesting that the umbral and penumbral waves propagate along the same inclined field lines. We propose that the one-armed spiral structure may be produced by the WF reflections at the chromospheric umbral light bridge, and the multi-armed spirals may be related to the twist of the magnetic field in the umbra. Additionally, the time lag of the umbral oscillations in between the data of He i 10830 Å and {{H}}α -0.4 Å is ∼17 s, and it is ∼60 s for that in between the data of 304 Å and {{H}}α -0.4 Å. This indicates that these disturbances are slow magnetoacoustic waves in nature, and that they propagate upward along the inclined lines with fast radial expansions causing horizontal velocities of the running waves.

  18. Observations of the structure and evolution of solar flares with a soft X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorpahl, J. A.; Gibson, E. G.; Landecker, P. B.; Mckenzie, D. L.; Underwood, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Soft X ray flare events were observed with the S-056 X-ray telescope that was part of the ATM complement of instruments aboard SKYLAB. Analyses of these data are reported. The observations are summarized and a detailed discussion of the X-ray flare structures is presented. The data indicated that soft X-ray emitted by a flare come primarily from an intense well-defined core surrounded by a region of fainter, more diffuse emission. An analysis of flare evolution indicates evidence for preliminary heating and energy release prior to the main phase of the flare. Core features are found to be remarkably stable and retain their shape throughout a flare. Most changes in the overall configuration seem to be result of the appearance, disappearance or change in brightness of individual features, rather than the restructuring or reorientation of these features. Brief comparisons with several theories are presented.

  19. CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE AS OBSERVED WITH NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND HINODE INSTRUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Abramenko, V. I.; Chae, J.; Cao, W.; Andic, A.; Ahn, K.

    2010-10-20

    With the ever-increasing influx of high-resolution images of the solar surface obtained at a multitude of wavelengths, various processes occurring at small spatial scales have become a greater focus of our attention. Complex small-scale magnetic fields have been reported that appear to have enough stored energy to heat the chromosphere. While significant progress has been made in understanding small-scale phenomena, many specifics remain elusive. We present here a detailed study of a single event of disappearance of a magnetic dipole and associated chromospheric activity. Based on New Solar Telescope H{alpha} data and Hinode photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms and Ca II H images, we report the following. (1) Our analysis indicates that even very small dipoles (elements separated by about 0.''5 or less) may reach the chromosphere and trigger non-negligible chromospheric activity. (2) Careful consideration of the magnetic environment where the new flux is deposited may shed light on the details of magnetic flux removal from the solar surface. We argue that the apparent collision and disappearance of two opposite polarity elements may not necessarily indicate their cancellation (i.e., reconnection, emergence of a 'U' tube, or submergence of {Omega} loops). In our case, the magnetic dipole disappeared by reconnecting with overlying large-scale inclined plage fields. (3) Bright points (BPs) seen in off-band H{alpha} images are very well correlated with the Ca II H BPs, which in turn are cospatial with G-band BPs. We further speculate that, in general, H{alpha} BPs are expected to be cospatial with photospheric BPs; however, a direct comparison is needed to refine their relationship.

  20. A two-dimensional spectropolarimeter as a first-light instrument for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bell, Alexander; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Heidecke, Frank; Kentischer, Thomas J.; von der Lühe, Oskar; Scheiffelen, Thomas; Sigwarth, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectropolarimetry. The instrument will be one of the first-light instruments of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) that is currently under construction on Maui (Hawaii). The DKIST has a clear aperture of 4 meters. The VTF is being developed by the Kiepenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik in Freiburg, as a German contribution to the DKIST. The VTF is designed as a diffraction-limited narrowband tunable instrument for Stokes spectro-polarimetry in the wavelength range between 520 and 860 nm. The instrument uses large-format Fabry-Perot interferometers (Etalons) as tunable monochromators with clear apertures of about 240 mm. To minimize the influence of gravity on the interferometer plates, the Fabry-Perots are placed horizontally. This implies a complex optical design and a three-dimensional support structure instead of a horizontal optical bench. The VTF has a field of view of one arc minute squared. With 4096x4096 pixel detectors, one pixel corresponds to an angle of 0.014" on the sky (10 x 10 km on the Sun). The spectral resolution is 6 pm at a wavelength of 600 nm. One 2Dspectrum with a polarimetric sensitivity of 5E-3 will be recorded within 13 seconds. The wavelength range of the VTF includes a number of important spectral lines for the measurement flows and magnetic fields in the atmosphere of the Sun. The VTF uses three identical large-format detectors, two for the polarimetric measurements, and one for broadband filtergrams. The main scientific observables of the VTF are Stokes polarimetric images to retrieve the magnetic field configuration of the observed area, Doppler images to measure the line-of-sight flow in the solar photosphere, and monochromatic intensity filtergrams to study higher layers of the solar atmosphere.

  1. An optical technology study on large aperture telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The difficult and crucial problem of selecting a suitable telescope concept for an advanced space observatory was examined. To this end two and four mirror telescopes were analyzed and compared. Both configurations are very practical and structurally similar. Parabolic primary and spherical primary four mirror telescope were compared with respect to their performance and the alignment sensitivities of the three correction mirrors. A 1 meter class afocal telescope system with lag angle compensation, to be used in a LIDAR experiment, was examined.

  2. Utilizing 1-meter Landcover Data to Assess Associations between Green Space and Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: When using remotely-sensed data to study health, researchers must identify an appropriate spatial resolution to capture potential exposures. Investigations into urban green space are often limited by the unavailability of fine-scale landcover data. We analyzed 1-meter gr...

  3. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flipping a coin). (c) Continue selecting progressively smaller halves by dividing the previously selected... sides 1 meter long). Assign each half to one face of a coin. After flipping the coin, the half assigned... select from left/right halves. (ii) A coin flip selects the left half. The dimensions of this...

  4. Optical Set-Up and Design for Solar Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics at the 1.6m New Solar Telescope, Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Gil; Langlois, Maud; Goode, Philip; Gorceix, Nicolas; Shumko, Sergey

    2013-12-01

    The Sun is an ideal target for the development and application of Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). A solar MCAO system is being developed by the Big Bear Solar Observatory, for the 1.6m New Solar Observatory, with the purpose of extending the corrected science field of view to 1.00Arcmin. A preliminary optical set-up, design and optical performance for such a system is presented and discussed here.

  5. Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, Katherine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kucera, Theresa A.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kano, Ryouhei

    2011-01-01

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during July 2008 that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity "cores" with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21 and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  6. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  7. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  8. HILT - A heavy ion large area proportional counter telescope for solar and anomalous cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, Berndt; Hovestadt, Dietrich; Scholer, M.; Arbinger, H.; Ertl, M.; Kaestle, H.; Kuenneth, E.; Laeverenz, P.; Seidenschwang, E.; Blake, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The HILT sensor has been designed to measure heavy ion elemental abundances, energy spectra, and direction of incidence in the mass range from He to Fe and in the energy range 4 to 250 MeV/nucleon. With its large geometric factor of 60 sq cm sr the sensor is optimized to provide compositional and spectral measurements for low intensity cosmic rays (i.e. for small solar energetic particle events and for the anomalous component of cosmic rays). The instrument combines a large area ion drift chamber-proportional counter system with two arrays of 16 Li-drift solid state detectors and 16 CsI crystals. The multi dE/dx-E technique provides a low background mass and energy determination. The sensor also measures particle direction. Combining these measurements with the information on the spacecraft position and attitude in the low-altitude polar orbit, it will be possible to infer the ionic charge of the ions from the local cutoff of the Earth's magnetic field. The ionic charge in this energy range is of particular interest because it provides unique clues to the origin of these particles and has not been investigated systematically so far. Together with the other instruments on board SAMPEX (LEICA, MAST, and PET), a comprehensive measurement of the entire solar and anomalous particle population will be achieved.

  9. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  10. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  11. Development of the remote diagnosis system of the solar radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Susumu; Shinohara, Noriyuki; Sekiguchi, Hideaki

    2005-04-01

    "The remote diagnosis system" which we have developed is the one to monitor the operation conditions of two systems of solar radio observation (Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters) from the remote place. Under the condition of very limited human power, it is necessary to minimize the load of observers without degrading data quality. Thereupon, we have mulled measures to alleviate the load of observers, and worked out "the remote diagnosis system" which enables us to monitor the operation conditions and detect troubles, if any, in early stages, even if we are away from the observatory building where control system are concentrated. The plan was materialized by adopting an access through the INTERNET to the section where needed information for diagnosis is gathered.

  12. X-ray spectrometer spectrograph telescope system. [for solar corona study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Salat, S. W.; Franks, A.; Schmidtke, G.; Schweizer, W.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A new sounding rocket payload that has been developed for X-ray spectroscopic studies of the solar corona is described. The instrument incorporates a grazing incidence Rowland mounted grating spectrograph and an extreme off-axis paraboloic sector feed system to isolate regions of the sun of order 1 x 10 arc seconds in size. The focal surface of the spectrograph is shared by photographic and photoelectric detection systems, with the latter serving as a part of the rocket pointing system control loop. Fabrication and alignment of the optical system is based on high precision machining and mechanical metrology techniques. The spectrograph has a resolution of 16 milliangstroms and modifications planned for future flights will improve the resolution to 5 milliangstroms, permitting line widths to be measured.

  13. Multi-wavelength Study of Transition Region Penumbral Bright Dots Using Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B.; Tian, Hui; Kleint, Lucia; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Using high-resolution transition region (TR) observations taken by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission, Tian et al. (2014b) revealed numerous short-lived sub-arcsecond bright dots above sunspots (mostly located in the penumbrae), which indicate yet unexplained small-scale energy releases. Moreover, whether these TR brightenings have any signature in the lower atmosphere and how they are formed are still not fully resolved. This paper presents a study of these bright dots using a coordinated observation of a near disk-center sunspot with IRIS and the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. NST provides high-resolution chromospheric and photospheric observations with narrow-band H-alpha imaging spectroscopy and broad-band TiO images, respectively, complementary to IRIS TR observations. A total of 2692 TR penumbral bright dots are identified from a 37-minute time series of IRIS 1400 A slitjaw images. Their locations tend to be associated more with downflowing and darker fibrils in the chromosphere, and weakly associated with bright penumbral features in the photosphere. However, temporal evolution analyses of the dots show that there is no consistent and convincing brightening response in the chromosphere. These results are compatible with a formation mechanism of the TR penumbral bright dots by falling plasma from coronal heights along more vertical and dense magnetic loops. The dots may also be produced by small-scale impulsive magnetic reconnection taking place sufficiently high in the atmosphere that has no energy release in the chromosphere.Acknowledgement: This work is mainly supported by NASA grants NNX14AC12G, NNX13AF76G and by NSF grant AGS 1408703.

  14. Rantiga Osservatorio, Tincana (MPC-D03): Observations and searching for small Solar System bodies using a remotely controlled telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolnowski, M.; Kusiak, M.

    2014-07-01

    Rantiga Osservatorio is the first Polish project aimed at discovering and observing small solar-system objects, including near-Earth objects and comets. The observatory officially started in March 2012, as a result of cooperation between two amateur astronomers: Michal Zolnowski and Michal Kusiak. Subsequently, our station received official designation D03 assigned by the IAU's Minor Planet Center. The equipment is installed in northern Italy, on the border between Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany, in the small village of Tincana at an altitude of 643 m. The heart of the observatory is a 0.4-meter reflector f/3.8, mounted on Paramount ME and CCD camera SBIG STX-16803. The equipment is controlled by an industrial computer connected to the internet, and software allowing for automation and remote control of the telescope from Poland. It is also the first Polish amateur observatory which has been used for the discoveries of potentially new asteroids since 1949. Between 2012 and 2013, Rantiga Osservatorio made it possible to submit over 13,000 astrometric measurements of 3,500 asteroids, and we also reported 1,151 candidates for potentially unknown objects. During our presentation, we would like to introduce details of design and several enhancements to allow a convenient and safe way to control an observing session from anywhere in the world using a smartphone.

  15. A search for solar neutrons from 10-100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monn, S.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A search for solar neutrons is reported from a balloon flight launched from Palestine, Texas on Sept. 26, 1971. The sun was observed from 8:30 to 19:30 CST. The neutrons were detected with a telescope consisting of two 0.5 sq m scintillation detectors spaced 1 meter apart using a double-scattering/time-of-flight technique. Upper limits for solar neutrons in the energy intervals 10 to 30, 30 to 50, and 50 to 100 MeV are .00011, .00026 and .00059 neutron/sq cm-sec, respectively. These are combined into an overall upper limit of .00051 neutron/sq cm-sec.

  16. ATST telescope pier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Manuel, Eric; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world with a 4m aperture primary mirror. The off axis nature of the telescope optical layout, has the proportions of an 8 metre class telescope. Accordingly the instrumentation for solar observations a 16m diameter co-rotating laboratory (Coude Rotator) is also located within the telescope pier. The pier has a lower cylindrical profile with an upper conical section to support both the telescope mount with a 9m bearing diameter and contain the 16m diameter Coudé rotator. The performance of this pier cannot be considered in isolation but must account for ancillary equipment, access and initial installation. The Coude rotator structure and bearing system are of similar size to the telescope base structure and therefore this is the proverbial 'ship in a bottle' problem. This paper documents the competing requirements on the pier design and the balancing of these as the design progresses. Also summarized is the evolution of the design from a conceptual traditional reinforced concrete pier to a composite concrete and steel framed design. The stiffness requirements of the steel frame was a unique challenge for both the theoretical performance and overall design strategy considering constructability. The development of design acceptance criteria for the pier is discussed along with interfacing of the AandE firm responsible for the pier design and the telescope designer responsible for the telescope performance.

  17. Sub-arcsec X-Ray Telescope for Imaging The Solar Corona In the 0.25 - 1.2 keV Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis; Cash, Webster; Jelsma, Schuyler; Farmer, Jason

    1996-01-01

    We have developed an X-ray telescope that uses a new technique for focusing X-rays with grazing incidence optics. The telescope was built with spherical optics for all of its components, utilizing the high quality surfaces obtainable when polishing spherical (as opposed to aspherical) optics. We tested the prototype X-ray telescope in the 300 meter vacuum pipe at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The telescope features 2 degee graze angles with tungsten coatings, yielding a bandpass of 0.25-1.5 keV with a peak effective area of 0.8 sq cm at 0.83 keV. Results from X-ray testing at energies of 0.25 keV and 0.93 keV (C-K and Cu-L) verify 0.5 arcsecond performance at 0.93 keV. Results from modeling the X-ray telescope's response to the Sun show that the current design would be capable of recording 10 half arcsecond images of a solar active region during a 300 second NASA sounding rocket flight.

  18. Subarcsecond x-ray telescope for imaging the solar corona in the 0.25- to 1.2-keV band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Dennis J.; Cash, Webster C.; Jelsma, Schuyler; Farmer, Jason

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an x-ray telescope that uses a new technique for focusing x-rays with grazing incidence optics. The telescope was built with spherical optics for all of its components, utilizing the high quality surfaces obtainable when polishing spherical (as opposed to aspherical) optics. We tested the prototype x-ray telescope in the 300 meter vacuum pipe at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The telescope features 2 degree graze angles with tungsten coatings, yielding a bandpass of 0.25-1.5 keV with a peak effective area of 0.8 cm(superscript 2) at 0.83 keV. Results from x-ray testing at energies of 0.25 keV and 0.93 keV (C-K and Cu-L) verify 0.5 arcsecond performance at 0.93 keV. Results from modeling the x-ray telescope's response to the SUn show that the current design would be capable of recording 10 half arcsecond images of a solar active region during a 300 second NASA sounding rocket flight.

  19. Systematic Motion of Fine-scale Jets and Successive Reconnection in Solar Chromospheric Anemone Jet Observed with the Solar Optical Telescope/Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Isobe, H.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A λ-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets (~1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  20. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  1. Advance on solar instrumentation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The solar observing facilities in China are introduced with the emphasis on the development in recent years and future plans for both ground and space-based solar instrumentations. The recent solar instruments are as follows: A new generation Chinese Spectral Radioreliograph (CSRH) has been constructed at Mingantu Observing Station in Zhengxiangbaiqi, inner Mongolia of China since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH has two arrays with 40 × 4.5 m and 60 × 2 m parabolic antennas covering 0.4-2 GHz and 2-15 GHz frequency range. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radiheliograph) after its accomplishment. A new 1 m vacuum solar telescope (NVST) has been installed in 2010 at Fuxian lake, 60 km away from Kunming, Yunana. At present it is the best seeing place in China. A new telescope called ONSET (Optical and NIR Solar Eruption Tracer) has been established at the same site as NVST in 2011. ONSET has been put into operation since 2013. For future ground-based plans, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) with spatial resolution equivalent to 8m and effective area of 5m full-aperture telescope has been proposed and was formally listed into the National Plans of Major Science & Technology Infrastructures in China. The pre-study and site survey for CGST have been pursued. A 1-meter mid-infrared telescope for precise measurement of the solar magnetic field has been funded by NSFC in 2014 as a national major scientific instrument development project. This project will develop the first mid-infrared solar magnetic observation instrument in the world aiming at increasing the precision of the transverse magnetic field measurement by one order of magnitude. For future ground-based plans, we promote the Deep-space Solar Observatory (DSO) with 1-m aperture telescope to be formally funded. The ASO-S (an Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory) has been supported in background phase by Space Science Program as a small mission. Other related space solar

  2. A small-scale H-alpha eruption in the north polar limb of the Sun observed by New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-H.; Park, Y.-D.; Bong, S.-Ch.; Cho, K.-S.; Chae, J.

    2010-12-01

    The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is the recently constructed world's largest optical solar telescope on the ground. Up to date it has been partly operated, i.e., observations that have been made at Nasmyth focus only without adaptive optic (AO) system. The AO system is planned to be installed this summer. Using the NST, we have observed the north polar limb in H-alpha line center wavelength on 2009 August 26. A remarkable H-alpha eruption was observed from 18:20 UT to 18:45 UT with a relatively slower speed of about 10 km/s in its early stage. The eruption was then slightly accelerated up to 20-30 km/s and appeared to be deflected along the pre-existing magnetic field. The eruption also showed several interesting characteristics such as bifurcation, rotation, horizontal oscillation, and direction and thickness changes of its structure during its evolution. In this talk, we report on the observational properties of the small-scale eruption observed by the NST and discuss their implications for magnetic reconnection.

  3. Optical observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Nordic Optical Telescope. Comet activity before the solar conjunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaprudin, B.; Lehto, H. J.; Nilsson, K.; Pursimo, T.; Somero, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Schulz, R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is a short-period Jupiter-family comet that was chosen as a target for the Rosetta mission by the European Space Agency (ESA). Monitoring of 67P with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT; La Palma, Spain) intends to aid this mission by providing ground-based reference information about the overall activity of the target and its astrometric position before the rendezvous. One motivation for our observations was to monitor sudden major increases in activity because they might have affected the Rosetta mission planning. None were observed. Ground-based photometric observations register the global activity of the comet, while the Rosetta spacecraft mostly measures local events. These data combined can lead to new insights into the comet behavior. Aims: The aim of this work is to perform the photometric and the astrometric monitoring of comet 67P with the NOT and to compare the results with the latest predictions for its position and activity. A new method of fitting extended-source components to the target surface brightness distribution was developed and applied to the data to estimate the size and contribution of the coma to the total brightness of the target. Methods: Comet 67P was monitored by the NOT in service mode during the period between 12.5.2013 and 11.11.2014. The very first observations were performed in the V band alone, but in the latest observations, the R band was used as well to estimate the color and nature of activity of the target. We applied a new method for estimating the coma size by deconvolving the point spread function profile from the image, which used Markov chain Monte Carlo and Bayesian statistics. This method will also be used for coma size estimations in further observations after the solar conjunction of 67P. Results: Photometric magnitudes in two colors were monitored during the period of observations. At the end of April 2014, the beginning of activity was observed. In late September 2014, a

  4. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  5. A New Era in Solar Thermal-IR Astronomy: the NSO Array Camera (NAC) on the McMath-Pierce Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T.; Penn, M.; Plymate, C.; Keller, C.

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. National Solar Observatory Array Camera (NAC) is a cryogenically cooled 1Kx1K InSb ``Aladdin" array that recently became operational at the McMath-Pierce facility on Kitt Peak, a high dry site in the southwest U.S. (Arizona). The new camera is similar to those already incorporated into instruments on nighttime telescopes, and has unprecedented sensitivity, low noise, and excellent cosmetics compared with the Amber Engineering (AE) device it replaces. (The latter was scavenged from a commercial surveillance camera in the 1990's: only 256X256 format, high noise, and annoying flatfield structure). The NAC focal plane is maintained at 30 K by a mechanical closed-cycle helium cooler, dispensing with the cumbersome pumped--solid-N2 40 K system used previously with the AE camera. The NAC linearity has been verified for exposures as short as 1 ms, although latency in the data recording holds the maximum frame rate to about 8 Hz (in "streaming mode"). The camera is run in tandem with the Infrared Adaptive Optics (IRAO) system. Utilizing a 37-actuator deformable mirror, IRAO can--under moderate seeing conditions--correct the telescope image to the diffraction limit longward of 2.3 mu (if a suitable high contrast target is available: the IR granulation has proven too bland to reliably track). IRAO also provides fine control over the solar image for spatial scanning in long-slit mode with the 14 m vertical "Main" spectrograph (MS). A 1'X1' area scan, with 0.5" steps orthogonal to the slit direction, requires less than half a minute, much shorter than p-mode and granulation evolution time scales. A recent engineering test run, in April 2008, utilized NAC/IRAO/MS to capture the fundamental (4.6 mu) and first-overtone (2.3 mu) rovibrational bands of CO, including maps of quiet regions, drift scans along the equatorial limbs (to measure the off-limb molecular emissions), and imaging of a fortuitous small sunspot pair, a final gasp, perhaps, of Cycle 23. Future work with

  6. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  7. Science operations for LCOGT: a global telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroson, T.; Brown, T.; Hjelstrom, A.; Howell, D. A.; Lister, T.; Pickles, A.; Rosing, W.; Saunders, E.; Street, R.; Walker, Z.

    2014-08-01

    The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network comprises nine 1-meter and two 2-meter telescopes, all robotic and dynamically scheduled, at five sites spanning the globe. Instrumentation includes optical imagers and low-dispersion spectrographs. A suite of high-dispersion, high-stability spectrographs is being developed for deployment starting late this year. The network has been designed and built to allow regular monitoring of time-variable or moving objects with any cadence, as well as rapid response to external alerts. Our intent is to operate it in a totally integrated way, both in terms of scheduling and in terms of data quality. The unique attributes of the LCOGT network make it different enough from any existing facility that alternative approaches to optimize science productivity can be considered. The LCOGT network V1.0 began full science operations this year. It is being used in novel ways to undertake investigations related to supernovae, microlensing events, solar system objects, and exoplanets. The network's user base includes a number of partners, who are providing resources to the collaboration. A key project program brings together many of these partners to carry out large projects. In the long term, our vision is to operate the network as a part of a time-domain system, in which pre-planned monitoring observations are interspersed with autonomously detected and classified events from wide-area surveys.

  8. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  9. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,0000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  11. On the prevalence of small-scale twist in the solar chromosphere and transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; McIntosh, S. W.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Skogsrud, H.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; De Luca, E. E.; Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Tian, H.; Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S.; Kleint, L.; Martinez-Sykora, J.

    2014-10-01

    The solar chromosphere and transition region (TR) form an interface between the Sun’s surface and its hot outer atmosphere. There, most of the nonthermal energy that powers the solar atmosphere is transformed into heat, although the detailed mechanism remains elusive. High-resolution (0.33-arc second) observations with NASA’s Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal a chromosphere and TR that are replete with twist or torsional motions on sub-arc second scales, occurring in active regions, quiet Sun regions, and coronal holes alike. We coordinated observations with the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) to quantify these twisting motions and their association with rapid heating to at least TR temperatures. This view of the interface region provides insight into what heats the low solar atmosphere.

  12. On the prevalence of small-scale twist in the solar chromosphere and transition region.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; van der Voort, L Rouppe; McIntosh, S W; Pereira, T M D; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; Skogsrud, H; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; De Luca, E E; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Tian, H; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Kleint, L; Martinez-Sykora, J

    2014-10-17

    The solar chromosphere and transition region (TR) form an interface between the Sun's surface and its hot outer atmosphere. There, most of the nonthermal energy that powers the solar atmosphere is transformed into heat, although the detailed mechanism remains elusive. High-resolution (0.33-arc second) observations with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal a chromosphere and TR that are replete with twist or torsional motions on sub-arc second scales, occurring in active regions, quiet Sun regions, and coronal holes alike. We coordinated observations with the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) to quantify these twisting motions and their association with rapid heating to at least TR temperatures. This view of the interface region provides insight into what heats the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25324398

  13. Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Church, E.L.; Army Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ )

    1989-09-01

    A recently-developed long-trace surface profiling instrument (LTP) is now in operation in our laboratory measuring surface profiles on grazing incidence aspheres and also conventional optical surface. The LTP characterizes surface height profiles in a non-contact manner over spatial periods ranging from 1 meter (the maximum scan length) to 2 mm (the Nyquist period for 1 mm sampling period) and complements the range of our WYKO NCP-1000 2.5X surface roughness profiler (5 mm to 9.8 {mu}m). Using these two instruments, we can fully characterize both figure and finish of an optical surface in the same way that we normally characterize surface finish, e.g., by means of the power spectral density function in the spatial frequency domain. A great deal of information about the distribution of figure errors over various spatial frequency ranges is available from this data, which is useful for process control and predicting performance at the desired wavelength and incidence angle. In addition, the LTP is able to measure the absolute radius of curvature on long-radius optics with high precision and accuracy. Angular errors in the optical head are measured in real time by an electronic autocollimator as the head traverses the linear air bearing slide. Measurements of kilometer radius optics can be made very quickly and the data analyzed in a format that is very easy to understand. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Relating a Prominence Observed from the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode Satellite to Known 3-D Structures of Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.; Agah, Y.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We address only a first step in relating limb and disk observations by illustrating and comparing the spines and barbs of three different quiescent prominences and filaments observed in Hα by three different telescopes. Although the appearance of the three quiescent prominences is quite different, we show that each consists of a spine, barbs extending from the spine, and arcs at the base of some of the curtains of barb threads.

  15. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  16. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  17. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two M-class flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy γ-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying γ-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by γ-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the γ-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of γ-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and γ-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  19. The extreme UV imager telescope on-board the Solar Orbiter mission: overview of phase C and D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Hermans, A.; Jacques, L.; Auchère, F.; Berghmans, D.; Harra, L.; Schühle, U.; Schmutz, W.; Zhukov, A.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Delmotte, F.; Dumesnil, C.; Gyo, M.; Kennedy, T.; Smith, P.; Tandy, J.; Mercier, R.; Verbeeck, C.

    2015-09-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission is composed of ten scientific instruments dedicated to the observation of the Sun's atmosphere and its heliosphere, taking advantage of an out-of ecliptic orbit and at perihelion reaching a proximity close to 0.28 A.U. On board Solar Orbiter, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) will provide full-Sun image sequences of the solar corona in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm and 30.4 nm), and high-resolution image sequences of the solar disk in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm) and in the vacuum ultraviolet (121.6 nm). The EUI concept uses heritage from previous similar extreme ultraviolet instrument. Additional constraints from the specific orbit (thermal and radiation environment, limited telemetry download) however required dedicated technologies to achieve the scientific objectives of the mission. The development phase C of the instrument and its sub-systems has been successfully completed, including thermomechanical and electrical design validations with the Structural Thermal Model (STM) and the Engineering Model (EM). The instrument STM and EM units have been integrated on the respective spacecraft models and will undergo the system level tests. In parallel, the Phase D has been started with the sub-system qualifications and the flight parts manufacturing. The next steps of the EUI development will be the instrument Qualification Model (QM) integration and qualification tests. The Flight Model (FM) instrument activities will then follow with the acceptance tests and calibration campaigns.

  20. Early Results from the LRO Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) During this Historic Solar Minimum (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, H. E.; Kasper, J. C.; Golightly, M. J.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Case, A. W.; Looper, M. D.; Larsen, B. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Semones, E.; Onsager, T. G.; Huang, C.; Jordan, A.

    2009-12-01

    We describe early results from a new instrument, the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), which is providing measurements of energetic particles while in orbit around the Moon onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. CRaTER measures the effects of ionizing energy loss in matter due to penetrating solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), specifically in six silicon solid-state detectors and after interactions with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), a synthetic analog of human tissue. The CRaTER investigation quantifies the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum in these materials through direct measurements with the lunar space radiation environment, particularly the interactions of ions with energies above 10 MeV. Combined with models of radiation transport through materials, CRaTER LET measurements constrain models of the biological effects of ionizing radiation in the lunar environment as well as provide valuable information on radiation effects on electronic systems in deep space. In addition to these human exploration goals, CRaTER measurement capabilities provide new insights on the spatial and temporal variability of the SEP and GCR populations and their interactions with the lunar surface. We present an overview of the CRaTER instrument, its exploration and science goals, and early results from flight observations obtained since LRO’s launch in June 2009 until present, an interesting interval during this historic solar minimum accompanied by record high GCR intensity.

  1. A search for small solar-system bodies near the earth using a ground-based telescope - Technique and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, L. A.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Yeates, C. M.

    1990-02-01

    A large, previously undetected flux of small bodies near earth is identified by employing the standard technique of detection of an individual object in two consecutive frames. The observational periods and viewing coordinates for the search for small bodies are presented. A null test is performed in order to further demonstrate that the signatures in the images are not due to instrumental artifacts. The observed fluxes, orbital motions, and radii of the small bodies detected are in agreement with those for the small cometlike objects previously reported. It is pointed out that the radii of the small bodies would be in the range of meters. Since an alternative interpretation of the small bodies is possible, it is suggested that the use of a telescope with larger aperture and/or array detectors with lesser noise levels is necessary to confirm the present observations.

  2. A search for small solar-system bodies near the earth using a ground-based telescope - Technique and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Yeates, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    A large, previously undetected flux of small bodies near earth is identified by employing the standard technique of detection of an individual object in two consecutive frames. The observational periods and viewing coordinates for the search for small bodies are presented. A null test is performed in order to further demonstrate that the signatures in the images are not due to instrumental artifacts. The observed fluxes, orbital motions, and radii of the small bodies detected are in agreement with those for the small cometlike objects previously reported. It is pointed out that the radii of the small bodies would be in the range of meters. Since an alternative interpretation of the small bodies is possible, it is suggested that the use of a telescope with larger aperture and/or array detectors with lesser noise levels is necessary to confirm the present observations.

  3. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Automated star pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Vanbezooijen, R. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a free flying spacecraft carrying a 1 meter class cryogenically cooled infrared telescope nearly three oders of magnitude most sensitive than the current generation of infrared telescopes. Three automatic target acquisition methods will be presented that are based on the use of an imaging star tracker. The methods are distinguished by the number of guidestars that are required per target, the amount of computational capability necessary, and the time required for the complete acquisition process. Each method is described in detail.

  4. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G. J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  5. PHOTOSPHERIC FLOW FIELD RELATED TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE SUN'S POLAR MAGNETIC PATCHES OBSERVED BY HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kaithakkal, Anjali John; Suematsu, Y.; Kubo, M.; Iida, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Shiota, D.

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the role of photospheric plasma motions in the formation and evolution of polar magnetic patches using time-sequence observations with high spatial resolution. The observations were obtained with the spectropolarimeter on board the Hinode satellite. From the statistical analysis using 75 magnetic patches, we found that they are surrounded by strong converging, supergranulation associated flows during their apparent lifetime and that the converging flow around the patch boundary is better observed in the Doppler velocity profile in the deeper photosphere. Based on our analysis, we suggest that the like-polarity magnetic fragments in the polar region are advected and clustered by photospheric converging flows, thereby resulting in the formation of polar magnetic patches. Our observations show that, in addition to direct cancellation, magnetic patches decay by fragmentation followed by unipolar disappearance or unipolar disappearance without fragmentation. It is possible that the magnetic patches of existing polarity fragment or diffuse away into smaller elements and eventually cancel out with opposite polarity fragments that reach the polar region around the solar cycle maximum. This could be one of the possible mechanisms by which the existing polarity decays during the reversal of the polar magnetic field.

  6. GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Klvana, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Popow, E.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K.

    2010-07-01

    With the integration of a 1-meter Cesic primary mirror the GREGOR telescope pre-commissioning started. This is the first time, that the entire light path has seen sunlight. The pre-commissioning period includes testing of the main optics, adaptive optics, cooling system, and pointing system. This time was also used to install a near-infrared grating spectro-polarimeter and a 2D-spectropolarimeter for the visible range as first-light science instruments. As soon as the final 1.5 meter primary mirror is installed, commissioning will be completed, and an extended phase of science verification will follow. In the near future, GREGOR will be equipped with a multi-conjugate adaptive optics system that is presently under development at KIS.

  7. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  8. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  9. Teaching Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)

  10. The balloon system with stabilized platform and oriented submillimeter telescope: Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapshin, V.; Leonov, V.; Levshuk, B.; Shekshnya, V.

    1994-02-01

    A large number of scientific ballooning programs in the interests both of fundamental sciences (astrophysics, solar physics, etc.) and applied research require fine spatial orientation in inertial space of scientific instruments installed on balloons. Among these, some of the actual programs are the investigations of astophysical objects in gamma- and X-ray, far-infrared/submillimeter regions, as are also high precision magnetometric measurements, the research of the Earth's atmosphere and related ecological problems. As an applied problem, the development of modern balloon-based communication systems is pointed out. A rather large amount of different balloon platforms is developed and used in modern practice of ballooning. The Academy of Sciences of Russia (ASR) provides the design of the balloon-borne oriented and stabilized platform from 1991 (Lebedev Physical Institute, ASR). We have designed and built the balloon platform, that is considered a universal device for future balloon research, where spatial orientation is required. At the first stage of this project, the design of the far-infared version of this platform was performed. The platform is equipped with an 1-meter Cassegrain type telescope (on scheme Nesmith). The primary mirror of spherical form (f/0.5) is made from special aluminum alloy: the construction of telescope is lightweight.

  11. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  12. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  13. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; McKay, Adam J.; Reardon, Kevin; Cauzzi, Gianna; Tozzi, Gian Paolo; Christian, Damian J.; Jess, David B.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Lisse, Carey Michael; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Knight, Matthew Manning

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_h< 0.4 AU, near Nov-20-Dec-03 UT) were proposed for by the ISON-DST Team. Comet ISON is the first comet since comet Ikeya-Seki (1965f) suitable for studying the alkalai metals Na and K and the atoms specifically attributed to dust grains including Mg, Si, Fe, as well as Ca. DST's Horizontal Grating Spectrometer (HGS) measures 4 settings: Na I, K, C2 to

  14. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum between 1,000 and 3,500 angstroms. There have been several endorsements of the scientific value of a LUTE. In addition to the scientific value of LUTE, its educational value and the information it can provide on the design of operating hardware for long-term exposure in the lunar environment are important considerations. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  15. Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2007-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a pioneering centimeter-wavelength radio telescope that will produce science that cannot be done with any other instrument. The ATA is the first radio telescope designed for commensal observing; it will undertake the most comprehensive and sensitive SETI surveys ever done as well as the deepest and largest area continuum and spectroscopic surveys. Science operations will commence this year with a 42-element array. The ATA will ultimately comprise 350 6-meter dishes at Hat Creek in California, and will make possible large, deep radio surveys that were not previously feasible. The telescope incorporates many new design features including hydroformed antenna surfaces, a log-periodic feed covering the entire range of frequencies from 500 MHz to 11.2 GHz, low noise, wide-band amplifiers with a flat response over the entire band. The full array has the sensitivity of the Very Large Array but with a survey capability that is greater by an order of magnitude due to the wide field of view of the 6-meter dishes. Even with 42 elements, the ATA will be one of the most powerful radio survey telescopes. Science goals include the Five GHz sky survey (FiGSS) to match the 1.4-GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within the first year of operation with the 42 element array, and a deep all-sky survey of extragalactic hydrogen to investigate galaxy evolution and intergalactic gas accretion. Transient and variable source surveys, pulsar science, spectroscopy of new molecular species in the galaxy, large-scale mapping of galactic magnetic filaments, and wide-field imaging of comets and other solar system objects are among the other key science objectives of the ATA. SETI surveys will reach sufficient sensitivity to detect an Arecibo planetary radar from 1,000,000 stars to distances of 300 pc.

  16. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. E-mail: v.d.v.l.rouppe@astro.uio.no

    2012-02-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as H{alpha} or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of {approx}310 km and {approx}710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of {approx}70 km s{sup -1}, and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling

  17. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  18. Muon cherenkov telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamova, E.; Angelov, I.; Kalapov, I.; Davidkov, K.; Stamenov, J.

    2001-08-01

    : The Muon Cerenkov Telescope is a system of water cerenkov detectors, using the coincidence technique to register cosmic ray muons. It is constructed in order to study the variations of cosmic rays and their correlation with solar activity and processes in the Earth magnetosphere. 1 Basic design of the Muon Cerenkov Telescope The telescope has 18 water cerenkov detectors / 0.25 m2 each /, situated in two parallel planes. / Fig. 1/ Each detector /fig. 2/ consists of a container with dimensions 50x50x12.5 cm made of 3mm thick glass with mirror cover of the outer side. The container is filled with distilled water to 10cm level. A photomultiplier is attached to a transparent circle at the floor of the container and the discriminator is placed in its housing. When a charged particle with energy greater than the threshold energy for cerenkov radiation generation passes the radiator, cerenkov photons are initiated and a part of them reach the PMT cathode after multiple reflections from the mirror sides of the container.

  19. Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  20. Calibration and testing of a prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope on Telescope Array site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, M.; Fujii, T.; Ikeda, D.; Tameda, Y.; Shibata, T.; Sagawa, H.; Fukushima, M.; Matthews, J. N.; Thomson, G. B.; Takeda, M.; Ogio, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tomida, T.; Belz, J.; Sokolsky, P.

    2013-06-01

    Aim of the TA-EUSO project is to install a prototype of the JEM-EUSO telescope on the Telescope Array site in Black Rock Mesa, Utah and perform observation of natural and artificial ultraviolet light. The detector consists of one Photo Detector Module (PDM), identical to the 137 present on the JEM-EUSO focal surface. Each PDM is composed by 36 Hamamatsu multi-anode photomultipliers (64 channels per tube), for a total of 2304 channels. Front-End readout is performed by 36 ASICS, with trigger and readout tasks performed by two FPGA boards that send the data to a CPU and storage system. Two, 1 meter side square Fresnel lenses provide a field-of-view of 8 degrees. The telescope will be housed in a container located in front of the fluorescence detector of the Telescope Array collaboration, looking in the direction of the ELF (Electron Light Source) and CLF (Central Laser Facility). Aim of the project is to calibrate the response function of the EUSO telescope with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of a shower of known intensity and distribution. An initial run of about six months starting from end 2012 is foreseen, during which we expect to observe, triggered by TA electronics, a few cosmic ray events which will be used to further refine the calibration of the EUSO-Ground with TA. Medium term plans include the increase of the number of PDM and therefore the field of view.

  1. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  2. Infrared observations of the solar system in support of Large-Aperture Infrared Telescope (LARITS): Calibration. Appendices. Final technical report, 1 July 1985-28 February 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shorthill, R.W.

    1990-04-01

    An infrared (I.R.) optics package designed for a I.R. detector calibration survey will be used in conjunction with the 90 inch telescope at the University of Wyoming, or as a portable, stand along unit. An important part of this instrument package is a mechanical light beam chopper which rotates with a fixed phase relation with respect to a wobbling secondary mirror in the telescope. A control circuit synchronizes the chopper to an external signal when used at the Wyoming site, or generates an internal reference frequency when used as a portable system. The portable system consists of a small equatorial telescope mount to support the same I.R. instrumentation package, which is used without additional optics. An automated positioning and tracking system encorporates a personal computer to control the environment of the telescope mount via stepper motors attached to the drive axis. The computer is also used to record all data on floppy disc for both fixed and portable systems.

  3. History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2011-03-01

    While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

  4. Comprehensive Analyses of Data Collected from TEREK (Solar EUV Telescope) RES-C (Solar X-Ray Spectrometer) and SORS (Solar Radio Spectrometer) on board CORONAS-1 Using Magnetohydrodynamic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    By using the observed magnetic field data obtained from the Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford University as the inputs to a two-dimensional plane-of-sky magnetohydrodynamic model, via numerical relaxation method, we have deduced the plasma and magnetic field parameters for the observed coronal hole by CORONAS-1. The method for this self-consistent MHD analysis will be discussed in detail. Numerical results for the magnetic field configuration, velocity distribution, density and temperature distributions will be presented. We have converted the computed density to polarization brightness in order to directly compare the MHD outputs with observations. Also included is a summary of achievements made during the grant period. This section is summarized into three categories: 1) Visit of Co-Investigators; 2) Presentations; and 3) Papers published, accepted and submitted for publication in journals.

  5. Global Astrophysical Telescope System - telescope No. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Baranowski, Roman; Fagas, Monika; Borczyk, Wojciech; Dimitrov, Wojciech; Polińska, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    We present the new, second spectroscopic telescope of Poznań Astronomical Observatory. The telescope allows automatic simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations and is scheduled to begin operation from Arizona in autumn 2013. Together with the telescope located in Borowiec, Poland, it will constitute a perfect instrument for nearly continuous spectroscopic observations of variable stars. With both instruments operational, the Global Astrophysical Telescope System will be established.

  6. Space infrared telescope facility project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    The functions undertaken during this reporting period were: to inform the planetary science community of the progress and status of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Project; to solicit input from the planetary science community on needs and requirements of planetary science in the use of SIRTF at such time that it becomes an operational facility; and a white paper was prepared on the use of the SIRTF for solar system studies.

  7. The CCAT Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Jason; CCAT

    2013-01-01

    CCAT will be a 25 m diameter on-axis Gregory telescope operating in the 0.2 to 2.1 mm wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude of 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. CCAT will support cameras and spectrometers with up to 1 field of view at its f/6 Nasmyth foci. The key performance requirements for the telescope are a half wavefront error <12.5 μm rms and pointing error <0.35"/350 μm). CCAT will have an f/0.4 primary with an active surface to compensate gravitational and thermal deformations. The primary will be made of 2 m keystone-shaped segments, each with 16 machined aluminum tiles mounted on a carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CFRP) subframe. The segments will be supported by a CFRP spaceframe truss on an elevation over azimuth mount made of steel. CCAT will be inside an enclosure to reduce wavefront and pointing errors due to wind forces and thermal deformation due to solar illumination.

  8. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  9. Coherent large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. E.

    Present ground-based telescopes are compared with those of the future. The inherent limitations of ground-based telescopes are reviewed, and existing telescopes and their evolution are briefly surveyed in order to see the trends that led to the present period of innovative telescope design. The major telescope types and the critical design factors that must be considered in designing large telescopes for the future are reviewed, emphasizing economicality. As an example, the Ten Meter Telescope project at the University of California is discussed in detail, including the telescope buildings, domes, and apertures, the telescope moving weights, the image quality, and the equipment. Finally, a brief review of current work in progress on large telescopes is given.

  10. Infrared observations of the solar system in support of Large-Aperture Infrared Telescope (LARITS): Calibration. Final technical report, 1 July 1985-28 February 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shorthill, R.W.

    1990-05-02

    The Purpose of this project was to improve the infrared calibration base for infrared detectors. Groundbased infrared measurements of solid-surfaced planetary bodies, such as asteroids, are being used for the calibration of spacecraft detectors. A limitation has been the relatively poor theoretical understanding of thermal emission from these objects. The goal was to: (1) develop a database of sources and, (2) improve or modify the thermal models for these sources to provide a calibration data base for spacecraft infrared detector systems. The technique consisted of five phases: (1) design and construct infrared detector system to be used with and without collecting optics, (2) acquire whole-disk infrared lunar data relative to a laboratory blackbody and tie them to Mars (Venus or Mercury) and Vega, (3) compare with thermophysical model of the mood and modify, (4) acquire infrared asteroid photometry, (5) compare the lunar disk photometry the asteroid calibrators using photometry and thermophysical models. The Si bolometer is calibrated without optics, attached to the portable telescope drive and Lunar disk measurement made. Next the bolometer is attached to the 90 inch telescope, Lunar scans are made and the remaining objects (planets, stars, asteroids) are measured.

  11. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  12. STUDY OF RAPID FORMATION OF A {delta} SUNSPOT ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2012 JULY 2 C7.4 FLARE USING HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang; Wang Shuo; Deng Na; Xu Yan; Jing Ju; Cao Wenda

    2013-09-10

    Rapid, irreversible changes of magnetic topology and sunspot structure associated with flares have been systematically observed in recent years. The most striking features include the increase of the horizontal field at the polarity inversion line (PIL) and the co-spatial penumbral darkening. A likely explanation of the above phenomenon is the back reaction to the coronal restructuring after eruptions: a coronal mass ejection carries the upward momentum while the downward momentum compresses the field lines near the PIL. Previous studies could only use low-resolution (above 1'') magnetograms and white-light images. Therefore, the changes are mostly observed for X-class flares. Taking advantage of the 0.''1 spatial resolution and 15 s temporal cadence of the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we report in detail the rapid formation of sunspot penumbra at the PIL associated with the C7.4 flare on 2012 July 2. It is unambiguously shown that the solar granulation pattern evolves to an alternating dark and bright fibril structure, the typical pattern of penumbra. Interestingly, the appearance of such a penumbra creates a new {delta} sunspot. The penumbral formation is also accompanied by the enhancement of the horizontal field observed using vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We explain our observations as being due to the eruption of a flux rope following magnetic cancellation at the PIL. Subsequently, the re-closed arcade fields are pushed down toward the surface to form the new penumbra. NLFFF extrapolation clearly shows both the flux rope close to the surface and the overlying fields.

  13. Observations and Modeling of Solar Coronal Structures Using High-Resolution Eclipse Images and Space-based Telescopes with Wide Field of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Muzhou; Pasachoff, J. M.; Su, Y.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Seaton, D. B.; West, M.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comparison of the solar corona observed during the total solar eclipses on 2010 July 11 and on 2012 November 13. The white light images were taken at Easter Island in 2010 and at Northeast Queensland, Australia, in 2012; while the concurrent EUV images were take with SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP. The 2010 eclipse was observed at the beginning of Sunspot Cycle 24 [1], which peaked near our 2012 observation. We compare a plethora of corona features in the white light images and reveal some interesting differences in the enhanced EUV images taken by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP. We construct potential field models using our newly refined Coronal Modeling System (CMS2) software with line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms from SDO/HMI. The source surface heights derived from detailed comparison between our models and observations are compared to the standard source-surface model. We also compare the dynamics of the two eclipse observations. Similar to the 2010 eclipse, a CME was observed using temporally spaced eclipse images. We address unresolved problems in the models and observations with the hope of correcting them for future eclipse observations, such as the 2017 total solar eclipse across the continental U.S. References [1] Pasachoff, J. M., Rusin, V., Druckmüllerová, H., Saniga, M., Lu, M., Malamut, C., Seaton, D. B., Golub, L., Engell, A. J., Hill, S. W., Lucas, R., 2011, ApJ, 734, 114

  14. Rigid ultralight primary mirror segments for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2000-10-01

    The development of ultra-light fibrous substrate mirrors allows serious contemplation of large multi-mirror space telescopes using rigid segments. Mirrors made of silica and alumina fibers have a small coefficient of thermal expansion and a density competitive with inflatable structures. Furthermore, they are without the imagery problems caused by non parabolic figures, gaseous expansion and contraction, tidal distortion of large gas filled structures, leaks, and long lived transient mirror perturbations caused by intentional pointing and tracking movements, micrometeor and space debris impacts, and mechanical vibrations. Fibrous substrate primary mirrors also have logistical advantages, since segments can be fabricated in orbit from small amounts of dense raw materials. One space shuttle flight, lifting about half its payload capacity, is adequate to transport all the material necessary to fabricate substrates for a one hundred meter telescope whose primary mirror consists of 12,086 hexagonal segments, each having a diameter of 1 meter and an area of 0.6495 square meters.

  15. MULTI-STRANDED AND MULTI-THERMAL SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: EVIDENCE FROM HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE AND EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Nasraoui, K.; Saar, S. H.; Kashyap, V. L.; Weber, M. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.

    2010-11-10

    Data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Japanese/USA/UK Hinode spacecraft were used to investigate the spatial and thermal properties of an isolated quiescent coronal loop. We constructed differential emission measure (DEM) curves using Monte Carlo based, iterative forward fitting algorithms. We studied the loop as a whole, in segments, in transverse cuts, and point-by-point, always with some form of background subtraction, and find that the loop DEM is neither isothermal nor extremely broad, with approximately 96% of the EM between 6.2 {<=}log T{<=} 6.7, and an EM-weighted temperature of log T = 6.48 {+-} 0.16. We find evidence for a gradual change in temperature along the loop, with log T increasing only by {approx}0.1 from the footpoints to the peak. The combine XRT-EIS data set does a good job of constraining the temperature distribution for coronal loop plasma. Our studies show that the strong constraints at high and low temperatures provided by the combined data set are crucial for obtaining reasonable solutions. These results confirm that the observations of at least some loops are not consistent with isothermal plasma, and therefore cannot be modeled with a single flux tube and must be multi-stranded.

  16. SOAR Telescope: 4-meter high-performance-mount performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael; Krabbendam, Victor; Schumacher, German; Delgadillo, Juan C.

    2004-09-01

    The 4.1-meter SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope mount and drive systems have been commissioned and are in routine operation. The telescope mount, the structure and its full drive systems, was fully erected and tested at the factory prior to reassembly and commissioning at the observatory. This successful approach enabled complete integration, from a concrete pier to a pointing and tracking telescope, on the mountain, in a rapid 3-month period. The telescope mount with its high instrument payload and demanding efficiency requirements is an important component for the success of the SOAR scientific mission. The SOAR mount utilizes rolling element bearings for both azimuth and elevation support, counter torqued sets of gear motors on azimuth and two frameless torque motors built into the elevation axles. Tracking jitter and its associated spectra, pointing errors and their sources, bearing friction and servo performances are critical criteria for this mount concept and are important factors in achieving the mission. This paper addresses the performance results obtained during the integration, commissioning, and first light periods of the telescope mount system.

  17. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  18. Coma-compensation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, Malcolm J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A telescope for eliminating on axis coma due to tilt of the secondary mirror in infrared astronomy. The secondary mirror of a reflecting telescope is formed to cause field coma to always be equal and opposite at the optical axis of the telescope to tilt coma regardless of the angle through the secondary mirror is tilted with respect to the optical axis.

  19. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  20. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  1. Development of Solar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  2. Baseline design of the SUNRISE Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Hermann; Erdmann, Matthias; Haberler, Peter; Härtel, Klaus-Ruediger; Barthol, Peter; Curdt, Werner

    2004-10-01

    The SUNRISE telescope is part of a balloon-borne instrument for spectro-polarimetric high-resolution observations of the solar atmosphere, to be flown 2007/2008 in the Antarctic summer stratosphere. It is a 1-m UV-VIS Gregory type telescope, operating close to the VIS diffraction limit. The telescope has a steel central frame and a lightweight CFRP trusswork structure with Serrurier properties, providing proper alignment of the optical elements over the varying eleva-tion angle. Mechanisms allow a fine adjustment of the optics. Aberrations caused by residual deformations of the stiff silicon carbide (Cesic) primary mirror are lowered by a dedicated offset in the secondary mirror polish (imprint). The telescope is subjected to the changing heat loads caused by the sun and earth radiation, necessitating measures to provide thermal conditions suitable for high-performance observations. Adequate preliminary solutions for an effective baffling are outlined.

  3. Solar investigation at Terskol Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlov-Vasiljev, K. A.; Vasiljeva, I. E.

    2003-04-01

    During 1980--1990 regular observations of the solar disk spectrum and active solar structures were carried out with SEF-1 and ATsU-26 telescopes at Terskol Peak in the framework of the program ``Energy distribution in the solar spectrum in absolute energy units''. In order to refine the fine structure of telluric lines, observations with ATsU-26 telescope were carried out in parallel. This telescope was also used for the investigation of the solar active structures. In this paper the observational technique is described. The obtained results and energy distribution in the solar disk center in absolute energy units are presented.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  6. A decametric wavelength radio telescope for interplanetary scintillation observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1975-01-01

    A phased array, electrically steerable radio telescope (with a total collecting area of 18 acres), constructed for the purpose of remotely sensing electron density irregularity structure in the solar wind, is presented. The radio telescope is able to locate, map, and track large scale features of the solar wind, such as streams and blast waves, by monitoring a large grid of natural radio sources subject to rapid intensity fluctuation (interplanetary scintillation) caused by the irregularity structure. Observations verify the performance of the array, the receiver, and the scintillation signal processing circuitry of the telescope.

  7. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's operational mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-06-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope, the fourth and final of NASA's Great Observatories, and the cornerstone to NASA's Origins Program, launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Spitzer has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope, which operates near absolute zero utilizing a liquid helium cryostat for cooling the telescope. The helium cryostat though designed for a 2.5 year lifetime, through creative usage now has an expected lifetime of 5.5 years. Spitzer has completed its in-orbit checkout/science verification phases and the first two years of nominal operations becoming the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. Spitzer was designed to probe and explore the universe in the infrared utilizing three state of the art detector arrays providing imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-160 micron wavelength range. Spitzer is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena across the expanses of our universe. Many technology areas critical to future infrared missions have been successfully demonstrated by Spitzer. These demonstrated technologies include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiation both passive and active cryogenic cooling of the telescope in space following its warm launch. This paper provides an overview of the Spitzer mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, its orbit, operations and project management approach and related lessons learned.

  8. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  9. JWST pathfinder telescope integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI and T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  10. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  11. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  12. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be an 8 m class deployable, radiatively cooled telescope, optimized for the 1-5 μm band, with zodiacal background limited sensitivity from 0.6 to 10 μm or longer, operating for 10 yr near the Earth-Sun second LAGRANGIAN POINT (L2). It will be a general-purpose observatory, operated by the SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE (STScI) for competitively s...

  13. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  14. The Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Olmi, L.; Durand, G.; Daddi, E.; Israel, F.; Kramer, C.; Lagage, P.-O.; de Petris, M.; Sabbatini, L.; Spinoglio, L.; Schneider, N.; Tothill, N.; Tremblin, P.; Valenziano, L.; Veyssière, C.

    This report aims to provide a summary of the status of our Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope (AST) project up to date. It is a very new project for Antarctic astronomy. Necessary prerequisites for a future deployment of a large size telescope infrastructure have been tested in years 2007 and 2008. The knowledge of the transmission, frost formation and temperature gradient were fundamental parameters before starting a feasibility study. The telescope specifications and requirements are currently discussed with the industrial partnership.

  15. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope after being released into orbit, with the high gain anternas and solar arrays deployed and the aperture doors opened. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  17. Prototype Secondary Mirror Assembly For The Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.; Krim, M.

    1988-04-01

    We describe our concept for a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. SIRTF, a NASA "Great Observatory" to be launched in the 1990's, is a superfluid heliumcooled 1-meter class telescope with much more stringent performance requirements than its precursor the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate near 4 K and provide the functions of 2-axis dynamic tilting ("chopping") in addition to the conventional functions of focus and centering. The PSMA must be able to withstand random vibration testing and provide all of the functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. Our PSMA concept employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminum cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feed-back provided by pairs of eddy current position sensors. The actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass providing angular momentum compensation and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose AL/L characteristics are nominally identical to that of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a focus and centering mechanism based upon the six degree of freedom secondary mirror assembly developed for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  18. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  19. The first VERITAS telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, J.; Atkins, R. W.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Byrum, K. L.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Celik, O.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Dowdall, C.; Dowkontt, P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A. D.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G.; Glidewell, O. J.; Grube, J.; Gutierrez, K. J.; Gyuk, G.; Hall, J.; Hanna, D.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, S. B.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kenny, G. E.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Knapp, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Linton, E.; Little, E. K.; Maier, G.; Manseri, H.; Milovanovic, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ogden, P. A.; Ong, R. A.; Petry, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sleege, G.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Syson, A.; Toner, J. A.; Valcarcel, L.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; White, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Wagner, R.

    2006-07-01

    The first atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) has been in operation since February 2005. We present here a technical description of the instrument and a summary of its performance. The calibration methods are described, along with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the telescope and comparisons between real and simulated data. The analysis of TeV γ-ray observations of the Crab Nebula, including the reconstructed energy spectrum, is shown to give results consistent with earlier measurements. The telescope is operating as expected and has met or exceeded all design specifications.

  20. Telescope performance verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Buckley, David A. H.

    2004-09-01

    While Systems Engineering appears to be widely applied on the very large telescopes, it is lacking in the development of many of the medium and small telescopes currently in progress. The latter projects rely heavily on the experience of the project team, verbal requirements and conjecture based on the successes and failures of other telescopes. Furthermore, it is considered an unaffordable luxury to "close-the-loop" by carefully analysing and documenting the requirements and then verifying the telescope's compliance with them. In this paper the authors contend that a Systems Engineering approach is a keystone in the development of any telescope and that verification of the telescope's performance is not only an important management tool but also forms the basis upon which successful telescope operation can be built. The development of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has followed such an approach and is now in the verification phase of its development. Parts of the SALT verification process will be discussed in some detail to illustrate the suitability of this approach, including oversight by the telescope shareholders, recording of requirements and results, design verification and performance testing. Initial test results will be presented where appropriate.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  2. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  3. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided. PMID:26117519

  4. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  5. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-12-31

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Inherent small telescope projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    As we stand on the verge of substantial access to the new generation of giant telescopes (Gemini, VLT and others) it is timely to consider the range of science that can be undertaken with the substantial number of smaller telescopes that are spread around the globe. While providing survey science input to the giant telescopes, or simultaneous monitoring capability for space missions, is a clearly important role (see previous contributions), it should not be forgotten that there are still many outstanding scientific programmes that can be undertaken on smaller telescopes in their own right. There is a danger of these opportunities being overlooked in the stampede to abandon the smaller telescope 'baggage' in the hope of acquiring access to more giant telescope time. I will try to demonstrate that the most effective and efficient use of all our telescope time requires access to a broad range of complementary facilities. I will therefore describe here some of the projects currently being undertaken with smaller telescopes as well as some of those planned for future facilities such as ROBONET.

  8. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  9. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  10. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  11. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero

    1998-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. With the addition of the partners from Ohio State and Germany in February 1997, the Large Binocular Telescope Corporation has the funding required to build the full telescope populated with both 8.4 meter optical trans. The first of two 8.4 meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors for LBT was cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in 1997. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes adaptive infrared secondaries of a Gregorian design. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage the two folded Gregorian focal planes to three central locations. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance were important drivers for the design of the telescope in order to provide the best possible images for interferometric observations. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure was completed in 1997 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). A series of contracts for the fabrication and machining of the telescope structure had been placed at the end of 1997. The final enclosure design was completed at M3 Engineering & Technology (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia. During 1997, the telescope pier and the concrete ring wall for the rotating enclosure were completed along with the steel structure of the fixed portion of the enclosure. The erection of the steel structure for the rotating portion of the enclosure will begin in the Spring of 1998.

  12. High resolution imaging and precision photometric measurements from a small soft-landed lunar telescope --Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, R. M.; Hine, B.; Drummond, M.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Borucki, W.; Burns, J.; Genet, D.

    1994-01-01

    The ultimate imaging resolution in the UV and photometric precision achievable with a small (less than 1-meter) telescope located on the Moon is considered. The imaging resolution and photometric precision that might be practically achieved when the effects of the Lunar environment and equipment limitations are accounted for is then suggested. Finally, the practicality of soft landing such a telescope on the moon is considered, along with suggestions of how it might be directly controlled by using astronomers without any significant permanent staff.

  13. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  14. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010. PMID:20517352

  15. System Would Keep Telescope Reflector Segments Aligned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Eldred, Daniel B.; Briggs, Hugh C.; Agronin, Michael L.; Kiceniuk, Taras

    1991-01-01

    Proposed actuation system maintains alignments of reflector segments of large telescope. Sensors measure positions and orientations of segments. Figure-control computer calculates orientation and figure of overall reflector surface from sensor data. Responding to computer output, servocontroller for each actuator corrects piston and tilt errors of each segment. Actuators adjust segments in response to sensed positions. Concept applicable to such large segmented space-based reflectors as those used in communication and in collection of solar energy.

  16. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  17. Lear jet telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Goorvitch, D.; Dix, M. G.; Hitchman, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The telescope system was designed as a multi-user facility for observations of celestial objects at infrared wavelengths, where ground-based observations are difficult or impossible due to the effects of telluric atmospheric absorption. The telescope is mounted in a Lear jet model 24B which typically permits 70 min. of observing per flight at altitudes in excess of 45,000 ft (13 km). Telescope system installation is discussed, along with appropriate setup and adjustment procedures. Operation of the guidance system is also explained, and checklists are provided which pertain to the recommended safe operating and in-flight trouble-shooting procedures for the equipment.

  18. Ritchey-Chretien Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosin, S.; Amon, M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Ritchey-Chretien telescope is described which was designed to respond to images located off the optical axis by using two transparent flat plates positioned in the ray path of the image. The flat plates have a tilt angle relative to the ray path to compensate for astigmatism introduced by the telescope. The tilt angle of the plates is directly proportional to the off axis angle of the image. The plates have opposite inclination angles relative to the ray paths. A detector which is responsive to the optical image as transmitted through the plates is positioned approximately on the sagittal focus of the telescope.

  19. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Genet, David R.; Talent, David L.; Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler P.; Boyd, Louis J.; Trueblood, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  20. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being positioned for release from the Space Shuttle orbiter by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being raised to a vertical position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  3. Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

  4. Long life feasibility study for the shuttle infrared telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of designing an Infrared Telescope of the 1 meter class which would operate effectively as a Shuttleborne, 14-day Spacelab payload and then be adapted with little modification to work as a 6 month Space station or free flyer payload. The optics configuration and requirements from a previous study were used without modification. In addition, an enhancement to 2 year mission lengths was studied. The cryogenic system selected was a hybrid design with an internal solid Hydrogen tank at 8 Kelvin and an internal superfluid tank at 2K. In addition to the cryogenic design, a detailed look at secondary mirror actuators for chopping, focus and decenter was conducted and analysis and cryo test reported.

  5. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a sky full of glittering jewels. The HST peered into the Sagittarius star cloud, a narrow dust free region, providing this spectacular glimpse of a treasure chest full of stars.

  7. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  8. Building a Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linas, Chris F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on the parts, materials, prices, dimensions, and tools needed for the construction of a telescope that can be used in high school science laboratories. Includes step-by-step directions and a diagram for assembly. (RT)

  9. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  10. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  11. Optical tracking telescope compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    In order to minimize the effects of parameter variations in the dynamics of an optical tracking telescope, a model referenced parameter adaptive control system is described that - in conjunction with more traditional forms of compensation - achieves a reduction of rms pointing error by more than a factor of six. The adaptive compensation system utilizes open loop compensation, closed loop compensation, and model reference compensation to provide the precise input to force telescope axis velocity to follow the ideal velocity.

  12. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  13. New Radio Telescope Makes First Scientific Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    The world's two largest radio telescopes have combined to make detailed radar images of the cloud-shrouded surface of Venus and of a tiny asteroid that passed near the Earth. The images mark the first scientific contributions from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, which worked with the NSF's recently-upgraded Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico. The project used the radar transmitter on the Arecibo telescope and the huge collecting areas of both telescopes to receive the echoes. GBT-Arecibo Radar Image of Maxwell Montes on Venus "These images are the first of many scientific contributions to come from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a great way for it to begin its scientific career," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Our congratulations go to the scientists involved in this project as well as to the hard-working staffs at Green Bank and Arecibo who made this accomplishment possible," Vanden Bout added. To the eye, Venus hides behind a veil of brilliant white clouds, but these clouds can be penetrated by radar waves, revealing the planet's surface. The combination of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), the world's largest fully-steerable radio telescope, and the Arecibo telescope, the world's most powerful radar, makes an unmatched tool for studying Venus and other solar-system bodies. "Having a really big telescope like the new Green Bank Telescope to receive the radar echoes from small asteroids that are really close to the Earth and from very distant objects like Titan, the large moon of Saturn, will be a real boon to radar studies of the solar system." said Cornell University professor Donald Campbell, leader of the research team. Ten years ago, the radar system on NASA's Magellan spacecraft probed though the clouds of Venus to reveal in amazing detail the surface of the Earth's twin planet. These new studies using the GBT and Arecibo, the

  14. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains from SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas from NSO Dunn and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, D. H.; Woodward, C. E.; Harker, D. E.; Kelley, M. S.; Sitko, M.; Reach, W. T.; De Pater, I.; Gehrz, R. D.; Kolokolova, L.; Cochran, A. L.; McKay, A. J.; Reardon, K.; Cauzzi, G.; Tozzi, G.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.; Lisse, C. M.; Morgenthaler, J. P.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our early results. SOFIA (+FORCAST [1]) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (~5-35 μm) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h≈1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 μm silicate emission feature and its strength [2], as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 μm, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 μm are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) [3,4,5] and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) [6]) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) [7] and C/2006 P1 (McNaught) [8]). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 μm amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction [9], which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk [10]. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals [11]. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 μm region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_h< 0.4 AU, near Nov-20--Dec-03 UT) were proposed for by the ISON-DST Team. Comet ISON is the first comet since comet Ikeya-Seki (1965f) [12,13] suitable for studying the alkalai metals Na and K and the atoms specifically attributed to dust grains including Mg, Si, Fe, as well as Ca. DST's Horizontal Grating Spectrometer (HGS) measures

  15. Modeling of the energy resolution of a 1 meter and a 3 meter time of flight positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, A.; Chirayath, V.; Gladen, R.; McDonald, A.; Lim, Z.; Chrysler, M.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.

    Simion 8.1®simulations were used to determine the energy resolution of a 1 meter long Time of Flight Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectrometer (TOF-PAES). The spectrometer consists of: 1. a magnetic gradient section used to parallelize the electrons leaving the sample along the beam axis, 2. an electric field free time of flight tube and 3. a detection section with a set of ExB plates that deflect electrons exiting the TOF tube into a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). Simulations of the time of flight distribution of electrons emitted according to a known secondary electron emission distribution, for various sample biases, were compared to experimental energy calibration peaks and found to be in excellent agreement. The TOF spectra at the highest sample bias was used to determine the timing resolution function describing the timing spread due to the electronics. Simulations were then performed to calculate the energy resolution at various electron energies in order to deconvolute the combined influence of the magnetic field parallelizer, the timing resolution, and the voltage gradient at the ExB plates. The energy resolution of the 1m TOF-PAES was compared to a newly constructed 3 meter long system. The results were used to optimize the geometry and the potentials of the ExB plates for obtaining the best energy resolution. This work was supported by NSF Grant NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.

  16. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  17. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  18. Interplanetary scintillation observations with the Cocoa Cross radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.; Erskine, F. T.; Huneke, A. H.; Mitchell, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    Physical and electrical parameters for the 34.3-MHz Cocoa Cross radio telescope are given. The telescope is dedicated to the determination of solar-wind characteristics in and out of the ecliptic plane through measurement of electron-density irregularity structure as determined from IPS (interplanetary scintillation) of natural radio sources. The collecting area (72,000 sq m), angular resolution (0.4 deg EW by 0.6 deg NS), and spatial extent (1.3 km EW by 0.8 km NS) make the telescope well suited for measurements of IPS index and frequency scale for hundreds of weak radio sources without serious confusion effects.

  19. Optical Observations of GEO Debris with Two Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Rodriguez, H.; Barker, E.

    2007-01-01

    For several years, the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST), the University of Michigan s 0.6/0.9-m Schmidt telescope on Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile has been used to survey the debris population at GEO in the visible regime. Magnitudes, positions, and angular rates are determined for GEO objects as they move across the telescope s field-of-view (FOV) during a 5-minute window. This short window of time is not long enough to determine a full six parameter orbit so usually a circular orbit is assumed. A longer arc of time is necessary to determine eccentricity and to look for changes in the orbit with time. MODEST can follow objects in real-time, but only at the price of stopping survey operations. A second telescope would allow for longer arcs of orbit to obtain the full six orbital parameters, as well as assess the changes over time. An additional benefit of having a second telescope is the capability of obtaining BVRI colors of the faint targets, aiding efforts to determine the material type of faint debris. For 14 nights in March 2007, two telescopes were used simultaneously to observe the GEO debris field. MODEST was used exclusively in survey mode. As objects were detected, they were handed off in near real-time to the Cerro Tololo 0.9-m telescope for follow-up observations. The goal was to determine orbits and colors for all objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude (corresponds to 1 meter in size assuming a 0.2 albedo) detected by MODEST. The hand-off process was completely functional during the final eight nights and follow-ups for objects from night-to-night were possible. The cutoff magnitude level of 15th was selected on the basis of an abrupt change in the observed angular rate distribution in the MODEST surveys. Objects brighter than 15th magnitude tend to lie on a well defined locus in the angular rate plane (and have orbits in the catalog), while fainter objects fill the plane almost uniformly. We need to determine full

  20. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  1. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  2. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  3. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  4. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  5. Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael; Cleveland, Paul; Durand, Dale; Klavins, Andy; Muheim, Daniella; Paine, Christopher; Petach, Mike; Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, Jason; Walyus, Keith

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program funded an effort to develop a system cooling technology, which is applicable to all future infrared, sub-millimeter and millimeter cryogenic space telescopes. In particular, this technology is necessary for the proposed large space telescope Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) mission. This technology will also enhance the performance and lower the risk and cost for other cryogenic missions. The new paradigm for cooling to low temperatures will involve passive cooling using lightweight deployable membranes that serve both as sunshields and V-groove radiators, in combination with active cooling using mechanical coolers operating down to 4 K. The Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes (LST) mission planned to develop and demonstrate a multi-layered sunshield, which is actively cooled by a multi-stage mechanical cryocooler, and further the models and analyses critical to scaling to future missions. The outer four layers of the sunshield cool passively by radiation, while the innermost layer is actively cooled to enable the sunshield to decrease the incident solar irradiance by a factor of more than one million. The cryocooler cools the inner layer of the sunshield to 20 K, and provides cooling to 6 K at a telescope mounting plate. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 7 will be achieved by the active cooling technology following the technology validation flight in Low Earth Orbit. In accordance with the New Millennium charter, tests and modeling are tightly integrated to advance the technology and the flight design for "ST-class" missions. Commercial off-the-shelf engineering analysis products are used to develop validated modeling capabilities to allow the techniques and results from LST to apply to a wide variety of future missions. The LST mission plans to "rewrite the book" on cryo-thermal testing and modeling techniques, and validate modeling techniques to scale to future space telescopes such as SAFIR.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  7. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-01

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced. PMID:27505830

  8. A Comparison of Solar Image Restoration Techniques for SST/CRISP Data (Summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, M.

    2016-04-01

    Solar images from high-resolution, ground-based telescopes are corrected for the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence by use of adaptive optics and post-facto image restoration. Two classes of image restoration methods are regularly used today, those based on Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution (MFBD; Löfdahl 2002) and those based on Speckle Interferometry (SI; von der Luhe &Dunn 1987). In a recently started project, we will compare and evaluate such methods for use with spectropolarimetric data from the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP; Scharmer et al. 2008) of the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST; Scharmer et al. 2003). For SST/CRISP data we routinely use the Multi-Object MFBD (MOMFBD; van Noort et al. 2005) technique to jointly restore images collected from a wideband camera and from the narrowband cameras behind the CRISP FPI and polarimetry optics. This crucial step in the data reduction pipeline of CRISP (CRISPRED; de la Cruz Rodríguez et al. 2015) is carefully integrated with the application of various procedures that are designed to reduce effects of imperfections in the instruments. In order to make the comparison as fair as possible, we have extended CRISPRED so that the Kiepenheuer-Institut Speckle Interferometry Package (KISIP; Wöger & von der Lühe 2008), together with Speckle Deconvolution (SD; Keller & von der Luehe 1992; Mikurda et al. 2006), can serve as a drop in replacement for MOMFBD. The adaption of SI and SD to CRISPRED will allow us to make fair comparisons not only of the restored images, but also of derivative data like Stokes maps and further on to evaluate the consequences of remaining errors and artifacts for the interpretation of physical quantities inferred through atmospheric model inversions.

  9. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  10. Telescoping tube assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Albert J. (Inventor); Marrinan, Thomas E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An extensible and retractable telescoping tube positions test devices that inspect large stationary objects. The tube has three dimensional adjustment capabilities and is vertically suspended from a frame. The tube sections are independently supported with each section comprising U-shaped housing secured to a thicker support plate. Guide mechanisms preferably mounted only to the thicker plates guide each tube section parallel to a reference axis with improved accuracy so that the position of the remote end of the telescoping tube is precisely known.

  11. Virtual Telescopes in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoban, S.; Des Jardins, M.; Farrell, N.; Rathod, P.; Sachs, J.; Sansare, S.; Yesha, Y.; Keating, J.; Busschots, B.; Means, J.; Clark, G.; Mayo, L.; Smith, W.

    Virtual Telescopes in Education is providing the services required to operate a virtual observatory comprising distributed telescopes, including an interactive, constraint-based scheduling service, data and resource archive, proposal preparation and review environment, and a VTIE Journal. A major goal of VTIE is to elicit from learners questions about the nature of celestial objects and the physical processes that give rise to the spectacular imagery that catches their imaginations. Generation of constrained science questions will assist learners in the science process. To achieve interoperability with other NSDL resources, our approach follows the Open Archives Initiative and the W3C Semantic Web activity.

  12. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  13. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2007-05-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. With initial funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and private sponsors, the design and development efforts are well underway at many institutions, including top universities and leading national laboratories. The main science themes that drive the LSST system design are Dark Energy and Matter, the Solar System Inventory, Transient Optical Sky and the Milky Way Mapping. The LSST system, with its 8.4m telescope and 3,200 Megapixel camera, will be sited at Cerro Pachon in northern Chile, with the first light scheduled for 2014. In a continuous observing campaign, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two 15 second exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be observed about 1000 times, with the total exposure time of 8 hours distributed over six broad photometric bandpasses (ugrizY). This campaign will open a movie-like window on objects that change brightness, or move, on timescales ranging from 10 seconds to 10 years, and will produce a catalog containing over 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. The survey will have a data rate of about 30 TB/night, and will collect over 60 PB of raw data over its lifetime, resulting in an incredibly rich and extensive public archive that will be a treasure trove for breakthroughs in many areas of astronomy and astrophysics.

  14. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelrod, T. S.

    2006-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an 8.4 meter telescope with a 10 square degree field degree field and a 3 Gigapixel imager, planned to be on-sky in 2012. It is a dedicated all-sky survey instrument, with several complementary science missions. These include understanding dark energy through weak lensing and supernovae; exploring transients and variable objects; creating and maintaining a solar system map, with particular emphasis on potentially hazardous objects; and increasing the precision with which we understand the structure of the Milky Way. The instrument operates continuously at a rapid cadence, repetitively scanning the visible sky every few nights. The data flow rates from LSST are larger than those from current surveys by roughly a factor of 1000: A few GB/night are typical today. LSST will deliver a few TB/night. From a computing hardware perspective, this factor of 1000 can be dealt with easily in 2012. The major issues in designing the LSST data management system arise from the fact that the number of people available to critically examine the data will not grow from current levels. This has a number of implications. For example, every large imaging survey today is resigned to the fact that their image reduction pipelines fail at some significant rate. Many of these failures are dealt with by rerunning the reduction pipeline under human supervision, with carefully ``tweaked'' parameters to deal with the original problem. For LSST, this will no longer be feasible. The problem is compounded by the fact that the processing must of necessity occur on clusters with large numbers of CPU's and disk drives, and with some components connected by long-haul networks. This inevitably results in a significant rate of hardware component failures, which can easily lead to further software failures. Both hardware and software failures must be seen as a routine fact of life rather than rare exceptions to normality.

  15. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome 'Aperture Envy'.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-07-01

    Many users of small telescopes are disturbed by the trend of shutting down smaller instruments in order to help fund bigger and bolder ground-based telescopes. Small telescopes can thrive in the shadow of giant new observatories, they say--but only if they are adapted to specialized projects. Telescopes with apertures of 2 meters or less have unique abilities to monitor broad swaths of the sky and stare at the same objects night after night, sometimes for years; various teams are turning small telescopes into robots, creating networks that span the globe and devoting them to survey projects that big telescopes don't have a prayer of tackling. PMID:17832960

  16. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  17. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  18. The Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.

    2011-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  19. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration. PMID:26368753

  20. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. H.; Schloerb, F. P.; LMT Project Team

    2009-05-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between México and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of ˜ 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  1. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32m-diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  2. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  3. Nordic optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeberg, Arne

    The Nordic Optical Telescope for the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory at La Palma is presented. It has been designed with highest emphasis on good resulting image quality. Within a tight budget frame a compact altazimuth mounted telescope has emerged. We have aimed at high-quality blind pointing and tracking. Optomechanically the telescope should be able to take advantage also of the observing periods with best seeing. The building has been designed with main emphasis on image quality. Partly guided by wind-tunnel tests, we have chosen a small dome with favourable air-flow performance. Data on micro-thermal activity has made us opt for a height above ground of the primary mirror being about eight metres. A relatively complete site-testing programme has confirmed the excellent quality of the observatory. The telescope will be operated with a Cassegrain focus only. Provisions are foreseen for rapid exchange of ancillary instrumentation. A set of standard ancillary instruments will be available at all times under the responsibility of on-site staff. It will include modern imaging devices, photometers, polarimeters and spectrographs for various tasks.

  4. Solar Vector Magnetic Field Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, David M.

    1997-02-01

    The principal effort was development and flight of the Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE). The FGE is a balloon borne solar telescope that can provide the sharpest view ever of the evolution of activity on the Sun. The goal of the FGE is to obtain the observations needed for a breakthrough in solar flare research both sooner and at significantly lower cost than either a satellite or adaptive optics can offer. The FGE flight was a historic first. This effort has shown that a meter class solar telescope can take advantage of the modern long duration ballooning program in Antarctica to achieve science goals that are central to solar activity research.

  5. The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  6. Advanced camera for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Bartko, Frank; Crocker, James H.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Brown, Robert A.; Burrows, Christopher J.; Clampin, Mark; Hartig, George F.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Sparks, William B.; White, Richard L.; Broadhurst, Tom; Illingworth, Garth; Kelly, Tim; Woodruff, Robert A.; Cheng, Edward; Kimble, Randy A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Neff, Susan G.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George

    1996-10-01

    The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope will have three cameras. The first, the Wide Field Camera, will be a high throughput (45% at 700 nm, including the HST optical telescope assembly), wide field (200' X 204'), optical and I-band camera that is half critically sampled at 500 nm. The second, the High Resolution Camera (HRC), is critically sampled at 500 nm, and has a 26' X 29' field of view and 25% throughput at 600 nm. The HRC optical path will include a coronagraph which will improve the HST contrast near bright objects by a factor of approximately 10. The third camera is a far ultraviolet, Solar-Blind Camera that has a relatively high throughput (6% at 121.6 nm) over a 26' X 29' field of view. The Advanced Camera for Surveys will increase HST's capability for surveys and discovery by at least a factor of ten.

  7. Survey of earth orbital telescopes and their potential for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, Jill C.

    1986-01-01

    The opportunities that exist for observational exobiology (OE) are examined. The potential uses of free-flying spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, and the Space Station for OE are considered. Proposed experiments are summarized, including research on extrasolar planetary systems, the solar nebula and its analogs, the solar system, giant-planet atmospheres, Titan, comets and asteroids, and molecules in space. A table listing appropriate NASA and ESA telescopes is given.

  8. Chromospheric telescope of Baikal Astrophysical Observatory. New light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomorovsky, Valeriy; Kushtal, Galina; Lopteva, Lyubov; Proshin, Vladimir; Trifonov, Viktor; Chuprakov, Sergey; Khimich, Valeriy

    2016-06-01

    A chromospheric telescope is an important instrument for synoptic observations and solar research. After several decades of observations with the chromospheric telescope at Baikal Astrophysical Observatory, a need arose to improve the characteristics of this telescope and filter. A new reimaging lens to produce full-disk solar images 18 mm in diameter at the CCD camera Hamamatsu C-124 with a detector 36×24 mm (4000×2672 pixels) was designed and manufactured to replace the out-of-operation 50×50 mm Princeton Instruments camera. A contrast interference blocking filter and a new Iceland spar and quartz crystal plates instead of damaged ones were made and installed in the Hα birefringent filter (BF), manufactured by Bernhard Halle Nachfl. The optical immersion in the filter was changed. All telescope optics was cleaned and adjusted. We describe for the first time the design features and their related BF passband tuning. The wavefront interferograms of optical elements and telescope as a whole show that the wavefront distortion of the optical path is within 0.25 λ. The BF and pre-filter spectral parameters provide high-contrast monochromatic images. Besides, we give examples of solar chromospheric images in the Hα line core and wing.

  9. Chromospheric telescope of Baikal Astrophysical Observatory. New light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomorovsky, Valeriy; Kushtal, Galina; Lopteva, Lyubov; Proshin, Vladimir; Trifonov, Viktor; Chuprakov, Sergey; Khimich, Valeriy

    2016-06-01

    A chromospheric telescope is an important instrument for synoptic observations and solar research. After several decades of observations with the chromospheric telescope at Baikal Astrophysical Observatory, a need arose to improve the characteristics of this telescope and filter. A new reimaging lens to produce full-disk solar images 18 mm in diameter at the CCD camera Hamamatsu C-124 with a detector 36×24 mm (4000×2672 pixels) was designed and manufactured to replace the out-of-operation 50×50 mm Princeton Instruments camera. A contrast interference blocking filter and a new Iceland spar and quartz crystal plates instead of damaged ones were made and installed in the Hα birefringent filter (BF), manufactured by Bernhard Halle Nachfl. The optical immersion in the filter was changed. All telescope optics was cleaned and adjusted. We describe for the first time the design features and their related BF passband tuning. The wavefront interferograms of optical elements and telescope as a whole show that the wavefront distortion of the optical path is within 0.25 λ. The BF and pre-filter spectral parameters provide high-contrast monochromatic images. Besides, we give examples of solar chromospheric images in the H&apha; line core and wing.

  10. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for gamma ray astrophysics: Design and expected performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Chen, D.; Bolotnikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution telescope for imaging cosmic x ray sources in the MeV region, with an angular resolution better than 0.5 deg is being developed as balloon-borne payload. The instrument consists of a 3-D liquid xenon TPC as x ray detector, coupled with a coded aperture at a distance of 1 meter. A study of the actual source distribution of the 1.809 MeV line from the decay of Al-26 and the 511 keV positron-electron annihilation line is among the scientific objectives, along with a search for new x ray sources. The telescope design parameters and expected minimum flux sensitivity to line and continuum radiation are presented. The unique capablity of the LXe-TPC as a Compton Polarimeter is also discussed.

  11. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  12. OSAC analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) telescope. [Optical Surface Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Thomas, David A.; Osantowski, John F.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation is made of the sensitivity of the image quality for the proposed FUSE telescope to mirror misalignments and a wide spatial frequency range of figure errors. Representative figure error data was obtained for the analysis from measurements made on the SEUTS (Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope Spectrograph) telescope mirrors. The tolerancing analysis was carried out with the aid of the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) program.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope, Wide Field Planetary Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This illustration is a diagram of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's), Wide Field Planetary Camera (WF/PC), one of the five Scientific Instruments. The WF/PC uses a four-sided pyramid mirror to split a light image into quarters. It then focuses each quadrant onto one of two sets of four sensors. The sensors are charge-coupled detectors and function as the electronic equivalent of extremely sensitive photographic plates. The WF/PC operates in two modes. The Wide-Field mode that will view 7.2-arcmin sections of the sky, and the Planetary mode that will look at narrower fields of view, such as planets or areas within other galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  14. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. L.; McMillan, R. S.; Barr, L. D.; Bressi, T. H.; Gehrels, T.

    1996-09-01

    The largest telescope in the world dedicated to the search for Earth-approaching asteroids and other previously unknown members of the solar system will soon be operational. Its 1.8-m aperture, large and sensitive CCD, and dedication to surveying will make it possible to find as many as 80,000 new asteroids per year. The mechanical design by Barr is optimized by finite-element analysis to provide high resonant frequencies. The mount is an altitude-azimuth type for compatibility with the mirror support cell contributed by the Multi-Mirror Telescope Observatory. Both axes are driven by DC servo motors directly coupled to friction rollers. The CCD instrument stage will also be rotated under computer control. The telescope was fabricated in the University Research Instrumentation Center (URIC). Construction of the building began on Kitt Peak on July 1, 1996. The optical configuration is f/2.7 folded prime focus with a flat secondary that locates the focal plane in the center of the optical truss near the altitude axis. This shortened the telescope enough to make the dome building affordable, and the flat secondary preserves the fast f/number of the primary mirror. The coma corrector designed by R. A. Buchroeder is a modified Klee design of 5 spherical lens elements plus a filter transmitting longward of the B bandpass. The filter greatly simplifies lens design and reduces sky background while not significantly reducing the brightness of asteroids. The distortion-free, flat, unvignetted field of view is 0.8 deg in diameter and the image scale is 1.0 arcsec/24 micron pixel. Construction of the Spacewatch Telescope has been funded by grants from the DoD Clementine Program, NASA, the University of Arizona Foundation, and other private and corporate donors.

  15. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  16. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  17. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  18. Telescope Control and Data Analysis Softwares for the SOFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Jae; Yoon, So-Yoon; Park, Young Deuk; Jang, Be-Ho

    1997-12-01

    In this paper we present a newly improved telescope control software and a newly developed data analysis software package for effective use of the Solar Flare Telescope(SOFT). The telescope control software permits us to make not only auto tracking of the SOFT, but also quantitative measurement of the solar irradiation, allowing us to provide weather monitorings. In addition we introduce an IDL widget software package for both monochromatic (MONO version) and polarimetric data (VMG version) analysis. The MONO version is capable od loading FITS files, changing colors and contrast, image processing, displaying plots, and saving displayed plots by selected formats. The VMG version, on the other hand provides a calibration of polarimetric data and plots of reduced vector magnetic fields.

  19. Coordinated observations using the world largest low-frequency radio telescopes and space misiions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Zarka, Ph.; Kolyadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Stepkin, S. V.; Panchenko, M.; Lecacheux, A.; Rucker, H. O.; Fischer, G.; Ulyanov, O. M.; Melnik, V. N.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Sidorchuk, M. A.; Bubnov, I. N.; Vasilyeva, Ya. Yu.; Bojko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V.; Mann, G.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Koval, A. A.; Mylostna, K.; Pylaev, O. S.; Shepelev, V. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2013-09-01

    The positive possibilities of astrophysical objects studies(including the Solar system investigations) using coordinated observations with the largest existing and coming low frequency radio telescopes are shown. The observations of the Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, ant others with UTR-2, URAN, NDA radio telescopes, and WIND, Cassini and STEREO space missions at frequencies lower than 40 MHz have been carried out.

  20. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device. PMID:25608206