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Sample records for 1-meter swedish solar

  1. 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Xu, J.

    In order to observe the fine structure of solar dynamical field and magnetic field, a 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope was developed by Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope is located by the Fuxian Lake in southwest China. In this paper, we will introduce some details of the telescope such as scientific goals, structures, instruments and the parameters of the site. First light observation of high resolution photosphere is introduced too.

  2. The Recent Development of the 1-meter Yunnan Solar Telescope System at the FuXian Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; YNST Team

    2012-08-01

    YNST (Yunnan Solar telescope) is a large solar instrument with a pure aperture of 980mm. It was designed for obtaining high-precision measurement for the solar magnetic field and atmospheric dynamic process. YNST is being installed at the Fuxian Lake in Yunnan, China. The solar observation tower includes two vertical multi-wavelength spectrographs and one Fabry-Perot interferometer system working in the 0.3 - 2.5 micron spectral range. The two spectrographs will supply high-resolution spectral data with short exposure time and a large field of view (180″×180″), as well as the ability to work in polarized light.

  3. Large bearings with incorporated gears, high stiffness, and precision for the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Scharmer, Göran B.

    2006-06-01

    The 1-meter Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) obtains images of the solar surface with an unprecedented resolution of 0.1 arcsec. It consists of a relatively slender tower with on top only the vacuum turret for reflecting downward the solar beam and no protective dome. This is a favourable situation to get good local seeing. Just in the case of some wind, seeing is best for daytime observations, therefore the precision bearings and drives of the elevation- and azimuth axis of the turret have to be stiff against wind. This requires line contact between the meshing teeth of the large gear wheel and the pinion. High preload forces to achieve line contact are not allowed because of appearing stick-slip effects. To reduce the risk on stick-slip a special design of the teeth for high stiffness combined with low friction and smooth transition from one tooth to the next was made. Furthermore, extreme precision in the fabrication was pursued such that relatively small contact forces give already line contact. This required a special order of the successive fabrication steps of the combination of bearing and gear teeth. An additional problem was the relatively thin section of the bearings required for a compact turret construction, needed for best local seeing and minimum wind load. Solutions for all these problems will be discussed. For the large gears the exceptional good DIN quality class 4 for the pitch precision and straightness plus direction of the teeth faces was achieved.

  4. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  5. The Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope data-acquisition and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Mark; Scharmer, Göran B.

    1998-11-01

    The performance of commodity computer systems doubles approximately every 18 months. Traditionally, the design of scientific data-acquisition and control systems has tended to ignore this fact, relying instead on custom hardware developments using the technology available at the time of instrument specification. Moreover, development manpower is usually limited, causing relatively long development cycles. Often the the result is that an instrument is technologically obsolete quite early in its projected lifetime. In contrast, all the digital processing for data acquisition and control at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) on La Palma (Canary Islands) is performed with commodity workstations. The result is a flexible system with low development costs that can easily take advantage of the latest microprocessor advances. The SVST's use of commodity workstations in on-line real-time tasks is in large part made possible by its use of reconfigurable interface technology. Indeed the SVST has been a valuable proving ground for this technology. This article summarizes the instrumentation of the SVST and illustrates examples of data recorded with this instrumentation.

  6. Off-disk straylight measurements for the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, Mats G.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Accurate photometry with ground-based solar telescopes requires characterization of straylight. Scattering in Earth's atmosphere and in the telescope optics are potentially significant sources of straylight, for which the point spread function (PSF) has wings that reach very far. This kind of straylight produces an aureola, extending several solar radii off the solar disk. Aims: We want to measure such straylight using the ordinary science instrumentation. Methods: We scanned the intensity on and far off the solar disk by use of the science cameras in several different wavelength bands on a day with low-dust conditions. We characterized the far wing straylight by fitting a model to the recorded intensities involving a multicomponent straylight PSF and the limb darkening of the disk. Results: The measured scattered light adds an approximately constant fraction of the local granulation intensity to science images at any position on the disk. The fraction varied over the day but never exceeded a few percent. The PSFs have weak tails that extend to several solar radii, but most of the scattered light originates within ~1'. Conclusions: Far-wing scattered light contributes only a small amount of straylight in SST data. Other sources of straylight are primarily responsible for the reduced contrast in SST images.

  7. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meter square portion where it is necessary to collect a surface wipe test sample into two equal (or as... sampling by halves. Assume that the area to sample is a 1 meter square surface area (a square that has..., i.e., regardless of which way the surface is divided, each half is 1 half meter wide by 1 meter...

  8. On the prevalence of small-scale twist in the solar chromosphere and transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; McIntosh, S. W.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Skogsrud, H.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; De Luca, E. E.; Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Tian, H.; Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S.; Kleint, L.; Martinez-Sykora, J.

    2014-10-01

    The solar chromosphere and transition region (TR) form an interface between the Sun’s surface and its hot outer atmosphere. There, most of the nonthermal energy that powers the solar atmosphere is transformed into heat, although the detailed mechanism remains elusive. High-resolution (0.33-arc second) observations with NASA’s Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal a chromosphere and TR that are replete with twist or torsional motions on sub-arc second scales, occurring in active regions, quiet Sun regions, and coronal holes alike. We coordinated observations with the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) to quantify these twisting motions and their association with rapid heating to at least TR temperatures. This view of the interface region provides insight into what heats the low solar atmosphere.

  9. On the prevalence of small-scale twist in the solar chromosphere and transition region.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; van der Voort, L Rouppe; McIntosh, S W; Pereira, T M D; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; Skogsrud, H; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; De Luca, E E; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Tian, H; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Kleint, L; Martinez-Sykora, J

    2014-10-17

    The solar chromosphere and transition region (TR) form an interface between the Sun's surface and its hot outer atmosphere. There, most of the nonthermal energy that powers the solar atmosphere is transformed into heat, although the detailed mechanism remains elusive. High-resolution (0.33-arc second) observations with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveal a chromosphere and TR that are replete with twist or torsional motions on sub-arc second scales, occurring in active regions, quiet Sun regions, and coronal holes alike. We coordinated observations with the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) to quantify these twisting motions and their association with rapid heating to at least TR temperatures. This view of the interface region provides insight into what heats the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25324398

  10. Utilizing 1-meter Landcover Data to Assess Associations between Green Space and Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: When using remotely-sensed data to study health, researchers must identify an appropriate spatial resolution to capture potential exposures. Investigations into urban green space are often limited by the unavailability of fine-scale landcover data. We analyzed 1-meter gr...

  11. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flipping a coin). (c) Continue selecting progressively smaller halves by dividing the previously selected... sides 1 meter long). Assign each half to one face of a coin. After flipping the coin, the half assigned... select from left/right halves. (ii) A coin flip selects the left half. The dimensions of this...

  12. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. E-mail: v.d.v.l.rouppe@astro.uio.no

    2012-02-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as H{alpha} or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of {approx}310 km and {approx}710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of {approx}70 km s{sup -1}, and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling

  13. C2PU: 1-Meter Telescopes for the GAIA-FUN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjoya, Ph.; Abe, L.; Rivet, J. P.

    2011-06-01

    C2PU stands in french for "Centre Pédagogique Planète Univers" (Planet and Universe Pedagogic Center). It is a project both for pedagogic and research purposes. It relies on the renewal of two 1-meter diameter telescopes. These two telescopes were earlier coupled as part of an interferometric instrument called SOIRDETE (for "Synthèse d'Ouverture en Infra Rouge avec DEux Telescopes"), described in Rabbia et al. 1990.

  14. 2.1 meter (82 inch) Slip Ring By-Pass Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Corby B.

    2006-12-01

    2.1 meter (82 inch) Slip Ring By-Pass Project I will describe a project to bypass the old method of getting control communications above the rotation point of the McDonald Observatory 2.1 meter dome. The old method used slip rings that were implemented in the late 1930s. The new system uses wireless serial commands which allow the control lines to be taken off the slip rings, leaving only power and ground. I will describe how the concept was devised so the slip rings could be by-passed, what micro-controller system that was decided on and used, how the wireless units were set up and finally how the system was tested and put in place with only limited tasks to control. (I.E. the opening and closing of the shutters) We describe the advantages to making this upgrade and how it could benefit any telescope interested in upgrading its communication systems. This project was designed and tested in ten weeks during the McDonald Observatory REU and was supported under NSF AST-0243745. The system was designed so that it could be installed while running side by side with the current method of getting control to the above rotation point. The method is still in place being tested on the 2.1 meter telescope and will soon be fully implemented by the University of Texas McDonald Observatory OS staff.

  15. Reverse and concurrent engineering applied of a high resolution equipment Berkut for 1-meter class telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Granados, R.; Farah, A.

    2014-07-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for astronomers; one of them is the atmosphere. The light that a star emits is refracted when it goes through the earth's atmosphere; the result of this is that the image of a punctual star is not what the physics would lead us to expect. At the Instituto de Astronomia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (IA-UNAM) an instrument has been developed called "Berkut", which uses a high resolution technique to improve these effects and obtain interesting and valuable scientific studies. In this paper we present the mechanical reengineering and acceptance test of Berkut. This instrument was design for taking images of high resolution. Essentially, it is composed by a set basic optics which is aligned and in focus with a 1- meter class telescope. It has its own electronic components for controlling remotely a filter wheel; that allows the exchange of the filters according to the requirements of the observer, a couple of objectives mounted in a translation stage, and a CCD camera for acquiring several images per second that are used in the speckle interferometry technique. A project like Berkut needs to be multidisciplinary; astronomy, engineering, optics, mechanics, electronics, and image processing are some of the areas of knowledge used. Berkut will be used in the telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in Tonantzintla, located in the state of Puebla, Mexico, but it can be used in any telescope 1 meter class. It is pretended to build another Berkuts for being used simultaneously in different telescopes, so it is important to keep the costs as low as possible. With this instrument we pretend to confirm the Hipparcos catalogue of binary stars besides finding exoplanets.

  16. Swedish Successful Schools Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a follow-up study of two Swedish schools in which, five years previously, the principals had been successful leaders. Had this success been maintained? Design/methodology/approach: Two schools were revisited to enable the authors to interview principals and teachers as well as…

  17. Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Church, E.L.; Army Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ )

    1989-09-01

    A recently-developed long-trace surface profiling instrument (LTP) is now in operation in our laboratory measuring surface profiles on grazing incidence aspheres and also conventional optical surface. The LTP characterizes surface height profiles in a non-contact manner over spatial periods ranging from 1 meter (the maximum scan length) to 2 mm (the Nyquist period for 1 mm sampling period) and complements the range of our WYKO NCP-1000 2.5X surface roughness profiler (5 mm to 9.8 {mu}m). Using these two instruments, we can fully characterize both figure and finish of an optical surface in the same way that we normally characterize surface finish, e.g., by means of the power spectral density function in the spatial frequency domain. A great deal of information about the distribution of figure errors over various spatial frequency ranges is available from this data, which is useful for process control and predicting performance at the desired wavelength and incidence angle. In addition, the LTP is able to measure the absolute radius of curvature on long-radius optics with high precision and accuracy. Angular errors in the optical head are measured in real time by an electronic autocollimator as the head traverses the linear air bearing slide. Measurements of kilometer radius optics can be made very quickly and the data analyzed in a format that is very easy to understand. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Considerations for the next generation of solar telescopes: A systems approach to solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A.

    2010-06-01

    The exciting new high resolution images from the one meter Sunrise balloon telescope and the first images from the 1.6 meter Big Bear telescope together with the continuing data from the 1 meter Swedish Solar Observatory demonstrate the promise of the new generation of multimeter solar telescopes. While the promise of the new generation of telescopes is great the technical challenges to build them will require the efforts of a significant fraction of the solar community. In this talk I will emphasize the need for an integrated systems approach to the development of the telescope, its instruments, its software, and its operations and management structures. The experience of several decades of space mission has taught us a great deal about the value of planning mission development from the definition of the primary scientific objectives to the delivery of the data to the science community. Much of these lessons learned, often painfully, should provide guidance to those in developing the new telescope systems.

  19. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  20. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n = 257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non‐fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n = 85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non‐fatal injury events was 48 per 100 000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student‐training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  1. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  2. The Swedish duty hour enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this “the Swedish duty hour enigma.” This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? Methods A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm – an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. Results The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. Conclusions According to Swedish residents’ conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice. PMID:25559074

  3. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Pelle G.; Hellgren, Margareta

    2011-01-01

    Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism). We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment. PMID:22162688

  4. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  5. The Swedish Schools Inspectorate's View of Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth; Perdahl, Solange

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed some light on and give some examples of how the Swedish schools have interpreted their mission of educating young people and preparing them for the role of active citizens. More specifically, we are interested in how the "good" or "aspirational" school is presented in the reports published…

  6. New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural…

  7. Successful Principalship: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the Swedish compulsory school system and explore a hypothesis about the relationship between structure, culture and leadership as preconditions for successful principalship. Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of earlier research, argues that a principal's success depends on how he or she alters school…

  8. Swedish discovery: magnetic fines recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hervol, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    A Swedish device, the Magnadisc, which recovers magnetite fines normally lost in tailings is described. The system was developed in the 1970s, but has reached the US only recently. Tests carried out by EPRI are reported and the results are presented. These indicate that the machine can recover a significant percentage of magnetite currently discharged in the tailings from magnetic drum separators.

  9. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    SciTech Connect

    Hultqvist, B. )

    1990-05-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines.

  10. Present-Day Influence of English on Swedish as Found in Swedish Job Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ben E.

    1990-01-01

    A brief analysis of job advertisements in Swedish newspapers notes the increasing trend toward the use of English rather than Swedish words for certain terms, attributing such use to the wish to show an international labor perspective. (five references) (CB)

  11. Swedish malpractice reports and convictions.

    PubMed

    Kriisa, M

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish system, with the Board of Health and Welfare as supervisor, and Medical Board of Responsibility gives both authorities and patients the opportunity to file reports demanding disciplinary action where an error is perceived to have been committed. A total of 184 primary care complaints, involving 230 staff of which 170 were physicians and 42 nurses, were reviewed. Complaints were made by patients or parents in 73% and by the Board of Health in 14%. Handling took up to 4 years. Erroneous or delayed diagnosis was the cause in 58%, erroneous medication in 11%, rudeness in 14%. Of the 230 staff reported, 23 received warnings and 19 reprimands. PMID:1983253

  12. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  13. English and Swedish in CLIL Student Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Maria Lim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Swedish students' ability to produce the discourse of the subject history, in a situation where they had to demonstrate historical knowledge in written explanations, and where both English and Swedish are involved. The students attend a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme at the upper secondary school…

  14. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  15. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed. PMID:17436772

  16. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally. PMID:10346051

  17. The Swedish Institute for the Handicapped--A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish Inst. for the Handicapped, Bromma.

    Briefly described are the financing, function, and organization of the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped established in 1968. Reported are increased funding by the Swedish government from 3.5 million Swedish kronas (Skr) in 1950/51 to over 200 million Skr (equivalent to 45 million U.S. dollars) in 1972/73 for technical aids and improved…

  18. The Linguistic Competence of Mono- and Bi-Lingual Pupils in Swedish in the Finland-Swedish School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauren, Ulla

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of free written compositions of 86 bilingual (Finnish-Swedish) and 86 monolingual (Swedish) third-, sixth-, and ninth-graders in a Finland Swedish comprehensive school revealed that bilinguals produced significantly more syntactic, vocabulary, and phraseology errors. Background variables correlating with errors included the student's…

  19. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  20. Survey of Foreigners' Pronunciation Problems in Swedish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannert, Robert

    This paper reports results of an analysis of pronunciation problems and error patterns in the recorded speech of 38 immigrants to Sweden. The recordings, of both spontaneous and elicited speech in Swedish, were taken from an archival collection. The native-language groups studied include British English, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Greek, Persian,…

  1. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  2. Evaluation of Swedish Youth Labor Market Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Nonparametric matching was used to estimate the effects of two Swedish youth employment programs: youth practice (subsidized work experience, n=1,657) and labor market training (n=606). Results indicate either zero or negative effects on earnings, employment probability, or probability of entering an education program in the short term. Youth…

  3. The Widening Gap--A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandell, Gerd; Hemmi, Kristi; Thunberg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Transition problems from secondary to tertiary level in mathematics have been a recurrent issue in Sweden. This paper summarises the development during the last decades. Results from two recent research studies that illuminate the transition problem are presented. The first one, based on empirical data from a major Swedish technical university,…

  4. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  5. The Swedish Family: Problems, Programs and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom, Paul

    1986-01-01

    To clarify issues in the controversy in Sweden concerning the means and ends of family policy, this article analyzes the economic plight of Swedish families with children, elucidates the views of parents and politicians, discusses the changing role and status of women, and considers prospects for the future. Also discussed are work equality and…

  6. New Trends in Swedish Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    What new tendencies can be made out in Swedish educational research in the last three decades? Briefly, the following developments are described: In the 1970s, a long-prevailing emphasis on quantitative research was challenged by a number of different qualitative methods. Traditional sociology of education, meanwhile, was challenged by the new…

  7. ADULT EDUCATION AND SWEDISH POLITICAL LEADERSHIP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERICKSON, HERMAN

    IN AN ATTEMPT TO EVALUATE THE INFLUENCE OF ADULT EDUCATION ON SWEDISH POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AND ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY, INFORMATION WAS GATHERED ON THE EDUCATION OF POLITICAL AND LABOR LEADERS. AMONG MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT, 66 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL, 79 PERCENT OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, 87 PERCENT OF AGRARIANS, 41…

  8. Tag Questions and Gender in Swedish Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordenstam, Kerstin

    A study investigated the use of tag questions in the private conversations of Swedish men and women. Conversations took place in single-gender dyads (six with two men and six with two women) and six mixed-gender dyads. Informants were aged approximately 25 or approximately 50, of different social classes, chosen by random selection, and asked to…

  9. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  10. Swedish Speakers' Literacy in the Finnish Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunell, Viking; Linnakyla, Pirjo

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's reading literacy study in Finland. Shows that, although language-minority students are often expected to have lower achievement in school, students from Swedish-speaking homes in Finland scored almost as well as their Finnish-speaking counterparts on extensive…

  11. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  12. The Swedish Rocket Corps, 1833 - 1845

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Rockets for pyrotechnic displays used in Sweden in the 19th century are examined in terms of their use in war situations. Work done by the Swedish chemist J. J. Berzelius, who analyzed and improved the propellants of such rockets, and the German engineer, Martin Westermaijer, who researched manufacturing techniques of these rockets is also included.

  13. A Comparison of Solar Image Restoration Techniques for SST/CRISP Data (Summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, M.

    2016-04-01

    Solar images from high-resolution, ground-based telescopes are corrected for the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence by use of adaptive optics and post-facto image restoration. Two classes of image restoration methods are regularly used today, those based on Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution (MFBD; Löfdahl 2002) and those based on Speckle Interferometry (SI; von der Luhe &Dunn 1987). In a recently started project, we will compare and evaluate such methods for use with spectropolarimetric data from the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP; Scharmer et al. 2008) of the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST; Scharmer et al. 2003). For SST/CRISP data we routinely use the Multi-Object MFBD (MOMFBD; van Noort et al. 2005) technique to jointly restore images collected from a wideband camera and from the narrowband cameras behind the CRISP FPI and polarimetry optics. This crucial step in the data reduction pipeline of CRISP (CRISPRED; de la Cruz Rodríguez et al. 2015) is carefully integrated with the application of various procedures that are designed to reduce effects of imperfections in the instruments. In order to make the comparison as fair as possible, we have extended CRISPRED so that the Kiepenheuer-Institut Speckle Interferometry Package (KISIP; Wöger & von der Lühe 2008), together with Speckle Deconvolution (SD; Keller & von der Luehe 1992; Mikurda et al. 2006), can serve as a drop in replacement for MOMFBD. The adaption of SI and SD to CRISPRED will allow us to make fair comparisons not only of the restored images, but also of derivative data like Stokes maps and further on to evaluate the consequences of remaining errors and artifacts for the interpretation of physical quantities inferred through atmospheric model inversions.

  14. ZERODUR mirror substrates for solar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, T.; Jedamzik, R.; Hartmann, P.

    The zero-expansion glass ceramic material, ZERODUR, is well known for nighttime telescope mirror substrates. Also for solar telescopes, ZERODUR is often selected as mirror blank material. Examples are the Swedish 1m Solar Telescope (SST), the balloon-born telescope SUNRISE, and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The properties of ZERODUR are discussed with respect to the special technical requirements of solar observatories, resulting in the conclusion that mirrors made of this glass ceramic material are an excellent choice for solar telescopes.

  15. The widening gap—a swedish perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandell, Gerd; Hemmi, Kirsti; Thunberg, Hans

    2008-09-01

    Transition problems from secondary to tertiary level in mathematics have been a recurrent issue in Sweden. This paper summarises the development during the last decades. Results from two recent research studies that illuminate the transition problem are presented. The first one, based on empirical data from a major Swedish technical university, characterises the widening gap, in content and in approach, between secondary school and first year university courses. The second study deals with students' encounters with mathematical proof and is based on a large investigation at another main Swedish university. We discuss the influence on the current transition problems of school reforms and of the great expansion of higher education in Sweden during the last 10 - 15 years in view of the results from the research studies.

  16. Modeling of the energy resolution of a 1 meter and a 3 meter time of flight positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, A.; Chirayath, V.; Gladen, R.; McDonald, A.; Lim, Z.; Chrysler, M.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.

    Simion 8.1®simulations were used to determine the energy resolution of a 1 meter long Time of Flight Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectrometer (TOF-PAES). The spectrometer consists of: 1. a magnetic gradient section used to parallelize the electrons leaving the sample along the beam axis, 2. an electric field free time of flight tube and 3. a detection section with a set of ExB plates that deflect electrons exiting the TOF tube into a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). Simulations of the time of flight distribution of electrons emitted according to a known secondary electron emission distribution, for various sample biases, were compared to experimental energy calibration peaks and found to be in excellent agreement. The TOF spectra at the highest sample bias was used to determine the timing resolution function describing the timing spread due to the electronics. Simulations were then performed to calculate the energy resolution at various electron energies in order to deconvolute the combined influence of the magnetic field parallelizer, the timing resolution, and the voltage gradient at the ExB plates. The energy resolution of the 1m TOF-PAES was compared to a newly constructed 3 meter long system. The results were used to optimize the geometry and the potentials of the ExB plates for obtaining the best energy resolution. This work was supported by NSF Grant NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.

  17. The Swedish Space Science programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Space Science programme comprises sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, sub-millimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to playload and spacecraft design and ground based equipment.

  18. The Swedish Space Research Programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2005-08-01

    The Swedish Space Research Programme compries sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, submillimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload and spacecraft design and ground based equipment.

  19. Paradigms in Swedish as a Second Language--Curricula for Primary School and Secondary School in Swedish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes and compares the curricula of Swedish and Swedish as a second language for primary and secondary school. The school subject of Swedish as a second language is young, and its ideological foundation has not been debated to any large extent, in contrast to Swedish. This article analyzes the curricula of both subjects in terms of…

  20. Swedish Chemists and Discovery of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-10-01

    All of the elements not already known from antiquity were discovered in Europe and North America. So which country ranks number one on the discovery list? The question occurred to me while leafing through reference 1 in search of thermodynamic data on silicon. Never having seen such a tabulation, I wondered if it might prove useful in teaching. The question has a sports-related flavor that will appeal to many students. Personally, I picked England or Germany for #1. The actual result is surprising. The ranking considering only up to atomic number 103 is as follows: Note: Where two or more independent discoveries have been made, each country is credited. In the "others" category Austria and Denmark each has two discoveries. The remaining countries, with one each, are Finland, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Spain. The high place for the USA is primarily due to the work done at Berkeley and Los Alamos on the transuranics. Without these discoveries, the US would have tied with Switzerland at three elements. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this tabulation is that Swedish chemists have discovered the most elements. Four chemists alone account for twelve of the 20 discoveries: Baron Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) is credited with four elements. His pupil, friend, and assistant, Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) discovered three. P. T. Cleve also found three elements and Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) discovered two. Biographical research on the Swedish chemists is a suitable assignment at the introductory level. Reasons for the predominance of Swedish chemists presents a challenging student research topic in the history of chemistry. Another interesting question at the introductory level is, transuranics aside, who discovered the most elements? At the more advanced level the question becomes, why? Literature Cited: 1. Emsley, J. The Elements; Clarendon: Oxford, 1989.

  1. The Swedish Space Science programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2001-08-01

    The Swedish Space Science programme comprises sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, submillimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design and ground based equipment. A GPS system for real time trajectory determination and a hybrid propulsion system are two examples in the technical development program.

  2. Love and sex in the Swedish media.

    PubMed

    Boethius, C G

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenage sexuality are markedly different in Sweden and the US. The more accepting attitude toward adolescent sexuality and the greater availability of family planning information and services may explain why Sweden has a lower adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and childbirth rate than the US. In contrast to the situation in the US, the Swedish mass media presents a realistic view of sexuality to the youth of the nation. It stresses the responsible use of contraception and the need to protect against sexually transmitted diseases in both its entertainment and educational shows. No commercials are aired on Swedish TV; therefore, Swedish youth are not exposed to the blatant and irresponsible image of sex frequently conveyed by commercials in the US. Moreover, in Sweden, parents accept the fact that their older teenagers will engage in sexual activity and help their children prepare for this activity. As a result, teenagers are reassured that their parents understand their feelings and emotions. These teenagers, in turn, are likely to accept their parents' advice about engaging in responsible sexual behavior. In contrast, in societies like the US, which are nonaccepting of adolescent sexual behavior, teenagers are likely to feel their parents and the larger society do not understand their feelings. These teenagers are likely to reject parental or societal advice on sexual matters. Sweden's accepting attitude toward adolescent sexuality is relatively recent. Prior to the 1960s, attitudes in Sweden were similar to those of present day American society. Eventually the government, the schools, and the parents recognized that they were creating a breach between the generations, and they gradually adopted a more realistic and accepting stance on sexual matters. By 1970, all Swedish children were receiving sex education in school. Television programing in sex education began in the 1960s. The broad distribution of printed sex education materials also began in

  3. Mathematical Reasoning Requirements in Swedish Upper Secondary Level Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Torulf; Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the mathematical reasoning required to solve the tasks in the Swedish national tests and a random selection of Swedish teacher-made tests. The results show that only a small proportion of the tasks in the teacher-made tests require the students to produce new reasoning and to consider the intrinsic mathematical properties involved…

  4. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  5. National Curriculum Assessment in England--A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, the author discusses some of the issues she finds interesting from a Swedish perspective, and also makes some comparisons between the systems. The English and Swedish education and assessment systems have some fundamental differences, but also similarities. Some are becoming even more evident after learning about the…

  6. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  7. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices.…

  8. Capacity Building for School Gardening: A Swedish Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerblom, Petter

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on experiences from Swedish research on school gardening and greening school grounds. A process-orientated case study in two Swedish cities is discussed, based on future workshops as a platform for situated capacity building in interaction between stakeholders in the in-school context and stakeholders from outside the local…

  9. Swedish Support to Non-Formal Adult Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This document presents an overview of support for economic development provided by the Swedish government to a variety of nonformal adult education programs in developing nations (mostly in Africa). The four sections of the report provide details of the following: (1) scope, objectives, and methods of Swedish development cooperation; (2) the…

  10. Lingual Electromyography Related to Tongue Movements in Swedish Vowel Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hajime; And Others

    1979-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)

  11. The Position of the Deaf in the Swedish Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta Coniavitis; Danermark, Berth

    2010-01-01

    The position of deaf people in the Swedish labor market is described and analyzed. A population of 2,144 people born from 1941 to 1980 who attended special education programs for the deaf was compared to 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total Swedish population born during the same period. Data on these individuals consisted of…

  12. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  13. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  14. Excess mortality among Swedish chimney sweeps.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Gustavsson, A; Hogstedt, C

    1987-01-01

    In a cohort study of 5464 union organised Swedish chimney sweeps employed at any time between 1918 and 1980 mortality was studied from 1951 to 1982 with national statistics used as a reference. Follow up was possible for 98.6% of the individuals: 717 deaths were observed against 540 expected. There was an increased mortality from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, and several types of malignant tumours. Lung cancer mortality was significantly increased and positively correlated to the number of years employed. A fivefold risk increase for oesophageal cancer and liver cancer was found. The increased mortality could be attributed to exposure to combustion products in the work environment but not to smoking habits. PMID:3689705

  15. The Swedish Allsky Meteor Network: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempels, E.; Kero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Swedish Allsky Meteor Network started operations with two cameras in early 2014 and has since grown steadily. Currently, seven stations are active and several more will come online in the near future. The network to a large degree relies on low-cost stations run by private individuals or small societies of amateur astronomers. Originally based on the Danish meteor network Stjerneskud, the central node of Uppsala University provides the network with the necessary infrastructure, such as a continually updated software distribution and automatic processing of data from all stations. Although covering a very large land mass with relatively low resources is challenging, there have up to now been several well-observed events, often in collaboration with observations from neighboring countries. We give a short overview of the network's current status, chosen technical solutions, and some results.

  16. Slow-moving vehicles in Swedish traffic.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, S; Lundqvist, P

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving slow-moving vehicles and to suggest ways of preventing such accidents. We analyzed accident data from a 5-year period (1992-1996) involving all types of farm vehicles as well as horses and horse-drawn vehicles. During each year of the period under investigation, slow-moving vehicles were involved in more than 250 traffic accidents on Swedish roads, and an average of 10 people were killed, 66 sustained serious injuries, and 192 sustained slight injuries. This was about 1.3% of all persons injured in traffic accidents in Sweden. The deaths and injuries mostly involved car drivers and passengers. Tractor drivers and unprotected road users (people walking or traveling by motorcycle, moped, or bicycle) also sustained serious injuries and deaths. Vehicles overtaking slow-moving vehicles from behind were the most common type of accident (30%), followed by turning accidents (27%), accidents at crossroads (26%), and with oncoming vehicles (17%). To strengthen the suggestions for improvement, a questionnaire was sent out to driving school teachers in Sweden. Subjects were asked about their experiences with farm vehicles on the roads and their suggestions for ways to increase traffic safety. Based on the accident data and the questionnaire responses, we developed several suggestions for reducing road accidents, including measures for making farm vehicles more visible, improvement of the training provided at driving schools, and information campaigns directed at drivers of farm vehicles and other road users. Further in-depth research is needed to analyze road accidents involving slow-moving vehicles and to test different intervention measures. PMID:15216651

  17. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  18. Mirrors for solar telescopes made from ZERODUR glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Jedamzik, Ralf; Hartmann, Peter

    2007-09-01

    The zero expansion glass ceramic material, ZERODUR®, is well known for night-time telescope mirror substrates. Also for solar telescopes ZERODUR® is often selected as mirror blank material. Examples are the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), the balloon-born telescope SUNRISE, and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The properties of ZERODUR® are discussed with respect to the special technical requirements of solar observatories, resulting in the conclusion that mirrors made of this glass ceramic material are an excellent choice for solar telescopes.

  19. Swedish Research and Debate About Bilingualism. A Critical Review of the Swedish Research and Debate about Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in Sweden from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt

    Swedish research and opinion on bilingualism, language policy, and bilingual education in Sweden is reviewed. The Swedish debate on language planning and bilingual education revolves around two perspectives: structural-functional theory and conflict theory. Swedish research consists primarily of statistical and descriptive studies rather than…

  20. Personality disorders in a Swedish peacekeeping unit.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about the incidence of personality disorders and their consequences among peacekeepers. Moreover, most studies are follow-up studies in which, if at all, personality traits are screened for after the soldiers have left their service abroad. The aim of this paper was to study personality disorders in a longitudinal perspective. The method used was to screen the personnel in a Swedish mechanized battalion serving in Bosnia from March until October 1996 on four occasions: before deployment, immediately after deployment, 6 months after deployment and 1 year after deployment. Serving in the battalion were 724 individuals of whom 516 took part in the survey. The screening instrument used was the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). The result shows that the rate of personality disorders were on the same level, or a little bit lower, than in the general population. Moreover, personality disorders were related to impaired general mental health and to reported traumatic experiences. Personality disorders also seemed to contribute to poor mental health 1 year after returning home from a mission abroad. The implications of these results for the future selection of peacekeepers are discussed. PMID:16195111

  1. Choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care.

    PubMed

    Anell, Anders

    2011-10-01

    In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended. PMID:20701829

  2. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  3. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment. PMID:20828493

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a view of a solar cell blanket deployed on a water table during the Solar Array deployment test. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Arrays provide power to the spacecraft. The arrays are mounted on opposite sides of the HST, on the forward shell of the Support Systems Module. Each array stands on a 4-foot mast that supports a retractable wing of solar panels 40-feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, in full extension. The arrays rotate so that the solar cells face the Sun as much as possible to harness the Sun's energy. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at the Goddard Space Center operates the array, extending the panels and maneuvering the spacecraft to focus maximum sunlight on the arrays. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST Solar Array was designed by the European Space Agency and built by British Aerospace. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  5. Swedish Art Song: A Singer's Handbook to Diction and Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Anna Christine

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a guide to Swedish lyric diction for American singers. An overview of the linguistic traits and basic grammar of the Swedish language prepares the reader for a detailed description of Swedish phonemes and their occurrence in the language. Differences in pronunciation conventions as they pertain to classical singing, particularly the…

  6. X: a case study of a Swedish neo-Nzi and his reintegration into Swedish society.

    PubMed

    Stern, Jessica Eve

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a case study of a Swedish neo-Nazi and the reintegration program being provided to him. During an extensive interview that took place over two days, he told a researcher that he was interested in having a violent adventure, and that he was drawn to Nazi symbols and history more than their creed. In comparison with ordinary crime, terrorist crime is quite rare, and access to detailed case studies is rarer still, making the development of a prospective risk-assessment instrument extremely difficult. Researchers' "thick descriptions" of their encounters with terrorists can help us to develop putative risk factors which can then be tested against controls. The article concludes by arguing that just as there is no single pathway into or out of terrorism, there can be no single reintegration program. A series of thick descriptions is a first step toward understanding what leads individuals into and out of terrorism. PMID:24711284

  7. Depression and violence: a Swedish population study

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Goodwin, Guy M; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    follow-up time of 5·4 years, 88 violent crimes were recorded. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of violent crime and a sensitivity analysis identified little difference in risk estimate when all crimes (violent and non-violent) was the outcome. Interpretation Risk of violent crime was increased in individuals with depression after adjustment for familial, sociodemographic and individual factors in two longitudinal studies. Clinical guidelines should consider recommending violence risk assessment in certain subgroups with depression. Funding Wellcome Trust and the Swedish Research Council. PMID:26236648

  8. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  9. Parental Governmentality: Involving "Immigrant Parents" in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, calls for partnership between state institutions and local communities punctuate discussions of a number of areas of public policy. In this article, the discourse of partnership is analyzed in recent developments in Swedish educational policy, and particularly the involvement of "immigrant parents" as partners collaborating with the…

  10. Swedish Lower Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Limin; Kristoffersson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates homework in Swedish lower secondary schools: teachers' perceptions and experiences about it and their understanding of its potentials and challenges for students' learning and development. Data collected through an online survey (N = 201) mixed standardized questions and open questions. Descriptive statistics and…

  11. Working with Gender Pedagogics at 14 Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Margareta; Stier, Jonas; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, gender pedagogics has been on the political agenda the last decade. Consequently, gender matters have been given much attention in Swedish preschools, and specialized pedagogues have also been trained to counteract socially constructed gender distinctions. Therefore, we have explored the enactment of gender pedagogics. We asked 17…

  12. Non-Native Speakers Learning Swedish Together in Virtual Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Hilkka; Tedremaa-Levorato, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of a cooperation project launched three years ago, under which students who study Swedish at two universities across the Baltic Sea have a chance to complete a part of relevant courses in their study programmes together in an online course. The primary goals of joint studying are: to encourage students from…

  13. A Climate of Trust: A Visit to Two Swedish Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordgren, R. D.

    This paper describes a Florida educator's visit to two Swedish schools for students aged 16 to 19. The educator spent 2 days visiting Duveholmsskolan in Katrineholm (about 70 miles west of Stockholm) and 3 days visiting Wargentinsskolan in Ostersund (situated 350 miles north of Stockholm and about 200 miles south of the Arctic Circle) observing…

  14. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  15. Swedish Behavioural Science Research Reports. Beteendevetenskapliga Rapporter, 1982/1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungskar, Marianne, Ed.

    This is the 1982-83 version of an annual catalogue of abstracts of the research reports published by the institutes of psychology and education in universities and teacher training colleges in Sweden. The abstracts are in English. (Abstracts of both English and Swedish papers are included.) The reports are grouped into the following broad subjects…

  16. Swedish Behavioural Science Research Reports, 1981/1982. (Beteendevetenskapliga Rapporter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungskar, Marianne, Ed.

    The 1981-1982 annual abstract publication on Swedish behavioral science research reports is presented. The collection of data was completed on May 15, 1982. The reports are grouped in categories according to Psychological Abstracts and EUDISED Thesaurus (multilingual thesaurus for information processing in the field of education). The ERIC…

  17. Personal and Ethnic Identity in Swedish Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…

  18. English as a Transcultural Language in Swedish Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Francis M.

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of English in Sweden is examined as it takes shape in educational policy and practice. Following in the tradition of a "new wave" of language policy and planning research that emphasizes connections between policy and how it is interpreted by local stakeholders, this investigation focuses on textual data from Swedish national…

  19. Management by Objectives: The Swedish Experience in Upper Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Erik; Wilson, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore how managing by objectives (MBO) has been adopted in Swedish schools and to reflect on some of the consequences in a longitudinal study. Results relate to whether introduction has increased student performance and whether it works as a tool for the principals to create more effective schools.…

  20. Mixed Age Groups in Swedish Nursery School and Compulsory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    Before 1970, no mixed-age groups existed in Swedish nursery schools. By 1991, 43 percent of children enrolled in nursery school were in mixed-age groups of ages 1 to 6 years, and 37 percent were in groups of children ages 3 to 6 years. Mixed-age groups are assumed to have advantages, including positive influences on learning and social…

  1. Institutional Response to the Swedish Model of Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karl-Axel; Wahlen, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the Swedish model of quality assurance of higher education by examining the response of institutions to 27 quality audits and 19 follow-up interviews. Discusses the relationship between top-down and bottom-up approaches to internal quality assurance and suggests that, with growing professionalization, more limited result-oriented audits…

  2. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  3. LANDSAT language at our reach. First Swedish satellite. Civilization detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayne, D. L.; Bravo, V.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of LANDSAT data by Argentina is presented. Details on a Swedish satellite to be completed in 1984 and to be called VIKING are reported. Attempts to contact other civilizations in space by the use of radiotelescopes are discussed.

  4. Are the Swedish Parish Examination Records a Unique Phenomenon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipernovszky, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the possibility of comparing Hungarian parish records to Swedish Parish Examination Records from an educational point of view. The focus is on a presentation of one particular document of a Hungarian Catholic priest in a small village from the early 19th century. The record keeps track of the reading and writing skills of…

  5. Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

  6. Language Acquisition in the Swedish-Speaking Minority in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunell, A. Viking

    1991-01-01

    Documents the differences in language acquisition and school achievement between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking students in Finland's comprehensive school systems. Discusses the need for language maintenance and enrichment measures in both out-of-school and in-school environments. (SR)

  7. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  8. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  9. Efficiency in Swedish Public Education: Competition and Voter Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldo, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Sweden reformed public education in 1991-1993. A system with private school competition was introduced and the production of public education was decentralized from central to local government. One of the aims with this reform was to increase efficiency in the production of education. In this paper, efficiency in Swedish public education is…

  10. An Individual Educational Investment Account: A Swedish Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliasson, Gunnar

    1994-01-01

    For mature industrialized nations to meet the challenge of shifting to a high value added technology base, excellence in three areas is needed: (1) education, (2) labor market performance, and (3) social insurance. A Swedish proposal that would allow individuals to take responsibility for their own future is the individual educational investment…

  11. On the "Vulnerability" of Syntactic Domains in Swedish and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnacker, Ute

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the L2 acquisition of clausal syntax in postpuberty learners of German and Swedish regarding V2, VP headedness, and verb particle constructions. The learner data are tested against L2 theories according to which lower structural projections (VP) are acquired before higher functional projections (IP, CP), VP syntax is…

  12. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  13. Pregnancy rate and outcome in Swedish women with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bryman, Inger; Sylvén, Lisskulla; Berntorp, Kerstin; Innala, Eva; Bergström, Ingrid; Hanson, Charles; Oxholm, Marianne; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2011-06-30

    Pregnancies occurred in 57 (12%) of 482 Swedish women with Turner syndrome with a liveborn rate of 54% in 124 pregnancies. Spontaneous pregnancies occurred in 40%, mainly in women with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and oocyte donation in 53% where miscarriages were less frequent, odds ratio = 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.17-1.04). PMID:21256486

  14. Students with Reading Difficulties/Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Fischbein, Siv; Roll-Pettersson, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal development of students having difficulties with reading and their decoding ability in Swedish compulsory school. Another aim was to relate this to the experiences of educational activities expressed by students and parents. The decoding ability was assessed by a word chain test given at…

  15. The Discovery of the Social Life of Swedish Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the "discovery of the social life of schoolchildren" by showing how an interest for children's peer relations emerged in a Swedish educational and medial context. Drawing on historical and sociological childhood studies, the article analyses the concept of schoolchildren's social life in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s in…

  16. Resisting Focalisation, Gaining Empathy: Swedish Teenagers Read Irish Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjällström, Eva; Kokkola, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Resisting the will to empathise with a focalised character is assumed to be difficult for young readers, yet empirical evidence on how they actually respond is limited. This paper combines recent insights gleaned from cognitive literary studies with a small-scale empirical study of thirty-five Swedish adolescents reading an Irish short story in…

  17. Environmental Management in Swedish Higher Education: Directives, Driving Forces, Hindrances, Environmental Aspects and Environmental Co-Ordinators in Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammalisto, Kaisu; Arvidsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study of environment management systems implementation in Swedish universities contributes to the dialogue about the role of management systems as tools in developing sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study is based on Government directives that make environmental management systems…

  18. Observations of Venus at 1-meter wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Bryan J.

    2014-11-01

    Radio wavelength observations of Venus (including from the Magellan spacecraft) have been a powerful method of probing its surface and atmosphere since the 1950's. The emission is generally understood to come from a combination of emission and absorption in the subsurface, surface, and atmosphere at cm and shorter wavelengths [1]. There is, however, a long-standing mystery regarding the long wavelength emission from Venus. First discovered at wavelengths of 50 cm and greater [2], the effect was later confirmed to extend to wavelengths as short as 13 cm [1,3]. The brightness temperatures are depressed significantly 50 K around 10-20 cm, increasing to as much as 200 K around 1 m) from what one would expect from a "normal" surface (e.g., similar to the Moon or Earth) [1-3].No simple surface and subsurface model of Venus can reproduce these large depressions in the long wavelength emission [1-3]. Simple atmospheric and ionospheric models fail similarly. In an attempt to constrain the brightness temperature spectrum more fully, new observations have been made at wavelengths that cover the range 60 cm to 1.3 m at the Very Large Array, using the newly available low-band receiving systems there [4]. The new observations were made over a very wide wavelength range and at several Venus phases, with that wide parameter space coverage potentially allowing us to pinpoint the cause of the phenomenon. The observations and potential interpretations will be presented and discussed.[1] Butler et al. 2001, Icarus, 154, 226. [2] Schloerb et al. 1976, Icarus, 29, 329; Muhleman et al. 1973, ApJ, 183, 1081; Condon et al. 1973, ApJ, 183, 1075; Kuzmin 1965, Radiophysics. [3] Butler & Sault 2003, IAUSS, 1E, 17B. [4] Intema et al. 2014, BASI, 1.

  19. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  20. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation.

  1. Dengue fever in returned Swedish travelers from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tuiskunen, Anne; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Ake

    2011-01-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic in the tropical and sub-tropical countries and cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. Travelers visiting endemic areas may both acquire and spread DENV infections, and this is the reason why prevention of mosquito bites is of crucial importance. Dengue fever (DF) has become the most common cause for tropical fever in Swedish tourists. Swedish data from 1995 to 2010 show that the number of DF cases has increased since the beginning of 2000; partly due to improved diagnostics based on IgM detection, and partly due to an increase in the number of tourists traveling to, and between, endemic areas. Young adults aged 20-29 are mostly affected, and epidemiological data indicate increased incidence rates from 2008 onwards. Our data pose a call for attention when traveling to DENV endemic areas as well as an increased awareness among physicians when treating returning travelers. PMID:22957112

  2. Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Maria; Strömberg, Caroline; Keskitalo, E Carina H

    2016-02-01

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World Trade Organisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species. PMID:26744055

  3. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry. PMID:26744049

  4. Cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, A I; Wall, S G; Taube, A

    1989-01-01

    Cancer incidence was analysed in a retrospective cohort of 3710 male Swedish smelter workers between 1958 and 1982 using a record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. During this period 467 cancers were registered in the cohort. An excess incidence of total cancer of about 30% was shown relative to general and local populations mainly due to 120 respiratory cancers. Excess SMRs for all cancer and respiratory cancer were highly significant. Trends in the incidence of cancer were studied using moving five year calendar periods. A decreasing rate of lung cancer was found during 1976-80 for both mortality and incidence. Incidence figures for two more years show a continued decreasing trend. This is validated by an analysis of different employment cohorts, taking latency into account, showing that the later the date of first employment the lower the incidence of cancer, especially for lung cancer. PMID:2923829

  5. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64–0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71–0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63–0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad. PMID:26959327

  6. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-03-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad. PMID:26959327

  7. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. PMID:24018010

  8. Portrayals of lobotomy in American and Swedish media.

    PubMed

    Ogren, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Psychosurgery has a long history dating back to the 1880s when Gottlieb Burckhardt performed focal cerebral cortical excisions on the brains of six patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. His operations were vividly contested by the medical community of the time. In 1936, when Walter J. Freeman and James W. Watts performed their initial prefrontal lobotomies in the United States, they were met with some professional opposition from superintendents, who would not provide them with patients for the operation. However, Freeman and Watts managed to cope well with the opponents. In newspapers and magazines, the curiosity for lobotomy was obvious. Freeman was instrumental in the way he promoted lobotomy, and he evoked the interest of the press and the journalists for this new surgical treatment on mental illness, something that he regarded as a medico-historical breakthrough. In this chapter, the portrayal of lobotomy in American and Swedish newspapers and magazines is explored and analyzed. How did journalists write about lobotomy for the public in the years spanning 1936 to 1959, a period in which the American and Swedish presses appeared inclined to describe the positive effects of lobotomy, while neglecting the negative and fatal consequences of the operation. There are not only similarities but also interesting differences between the Swedish and the American articles depicting lobotomy. The media can be a powerful factor in the construction of "facts," which can significantly affect decisions made by people about their health issues. PMID:24290483

  9. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  10. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specificmore » characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.« less

  11. Antibiotic consumption and antibiotic stewardship in Swedish hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Gunilla; Ternhag, Anders; Giske, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was to describe and analyze the effect of antibiotic policy changes on antibiotic consumption in Swedish hospitals and to review antibiotic stewardship in Swedish hospitals. Results The main findings were: 1) Antibiotic consumption has significantly increased in Swedish hospitals over the last decade. The consumption of cephalosporins has decreased, whereas that of most other drugs including piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems, and penicillinase-sensitive and -resistant penicillins has increased and replaced cephalosporins. 2) Invasive infections caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have increased, but the proportion of pathogens resistant to third-generation cephalosporins causing invasive infections is still very low in a European and international perspective. Furthermore, the following gaps in knowledge were identified: 1) lack of national, regional, and local data on the incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria causing hospital-acquired infections e.g. bloodstream infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia—data on which standard treatment guidelines should be based; 2) lack of data on the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections and the effect of change of antibiotic policies on the incidence of C. difficile infections and infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens; and 3) lack of prospective surveillance programs regarding appropriate antibiotic treatment, including selection of optimal antimicrobial drug regimens, dosage, duration of therapy, and adverse ecological effects such as increases in C. difficile infections and emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Conclusions Evidence-based actions to improve antibiotic use and to slow down the problem of antibiotic resistance need to be strengthened. The effect of such actions should be analyzed, and standard treatment guidelines should be continuously updated at national, regional, and local levels. PMID:24724823

  12. The Swedish Program has Entered the Site Selection Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Nygards, P.; Hedman, T.; Eng, T.; Olsson, O.

    2003-02-25

    Facilities for intermediate storage of spent fuel and HLW and for final disposal of ILW and LLW together with a system for sea transportation have been in operation in Sweden for more then 15 years. To complete the ''back end system'' the remaining parts are to build facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel and HLW. The Swedish reference method for final disposal of spent fuel, KBS-3, is to encapsulate the fuel elements in copper canisters and dispose them in a deep geological repository. The Swedish program up to 2001 was focused on the establishment of general acceptance of the reference method for final storage and SKB's selection of candidate sites for a deep geological repository. In the end of year 2000 SKB presented a report as a base for a Government decision about the siting process. This report gave the background for the selection of three candidate sites. It also presented the program for geological surveys of the candidate sites as well as the background for the choice of the method for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and HLW. In the end of 2001 the Swedish government endorsed the plan for the site selection phase and stated that the KBS-3 design of the repository shall be used as the planning base for the work. Permissions were also granted for the fieldwork from the municipalities of Forsmark and Oskarshamn where the candidate sites are located. Site investigations on these two sites started during 2002. The technical development and demonstration of the KBS 3-method is ongoing at the Dspv Hard Rock Laboratory and the Canister Laboratory. The goal for the coming five years period is to select the site for the repository and apply for licenses to construct and operate the facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel. The encapsulation plant and the repository are planned to be in operation around year 2015.

  13. Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare. Methods A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work. Conclusions The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities. PMID:23391160

  14. Cancer incidence of workers in the Swedish petroleum industry.

    PubMed Central

    Järvholm, B; Mellblom, B; Norrman, R; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of cancer due to occupational exposure to petroleum products in the Swedish transport and refinery industries. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study the cancer incidence in 4128 men and 191 women, who had worked for at least one year in the petroleum industry, was compared with the incidence in the general population. The job titles and employment times for each person were found in personal files in the industries. The men had on average worked in jobs exposed to petroleum for 11.6 years at the end of the observation period. The cases of cancer were identified by record linkage with the Swedish cancer register. RESULTS: In total there were 146 cases of cancer v 157.6 expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.93 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.80 to 1.1). Operators at refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia (6 cases v 1.7 expected, 90% CI of relative risk (RR) 1.5 to 7.0). Five of the six cases had started to work at the refineries in the 1950s or later. No other significantly increased risk of cancer was found. Distribution workers had a decreased incidence of lung cancer (no cases, 90% CI of RR 0 to 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Operators at Swedish refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia. A possible cause is exposure to benzene. There was no increased risk of leukaemia in distribution workers. Distribution workers had a decreased risk of lung cancer. PMID:9423584

  15. Antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection: Swedish recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Eric; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane; Bratt, Göran; Berglund, Torsten; Gisslén, Magnus; Lindbäck, Stefan; Morfeldt, Linda; Ståhle, Lars; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The Swedish guidelines (SwG) for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have several important roles. A major task involves the promotion of a uniformly high standard of care in all HIV treatment clinics in Sweden and the identification of strengths, weaknesses and relevance of recent research findings. CD4+ T-cell counts < 200 cells/microl are clear indications for the initiation of treatment, whereas high viral loads serve as an indication for increased vigilance rather than a criterion for therapy. It is recommended that the first regimen consists of 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with 1 protease inhibitor or 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The definition of treatment failure is rigorous. Treatment change should be considered if the viral load has not fallen by at least 1.5 log in 4 weeks or is undetectable within 3-4 months. Resistance testing is endorsed at primary infection, in the event of treatment failure and in pregnant women. Interaction with experts in HIV resistance testing is emphasized. Therapeutic drug monitoring is advocated. Patients with treatment failure should be handled individually and the decision on therapeutic strategy should be based on treatment history, resistance testing and other clinical facts. The SwG do not give recommendations for some important issues such as prolonged drug holidays and preferences in initial treatment regimens. More scientific data are likely to be available soon and the SwG will be refined accordingly. The present guidelines are translated from Swedish; they are published on the Medical Products Agency (MPA) and Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) websites (www.mpa.se and www.rav.nu.se), including 7 separate papers based on a thorough literature search. A complete reference list is available on request from the MPA. PMID:12751710

  16. First report from the Swedish National Forensic Psychiatric Register (SNFPR).

    PubMed

    Degl' Innocenti, Alessio; Hassing, Linda B; Lindqvist, Ann-Sophie; Andersson, Hans; Eriksson, Lars; Hanson, Frances Hagelbäck; Möller, Nina; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the present register is the only nationwide forensic psychiatric patient register in the world. The aim of this article is to describe the content of the Swedish National Forensic Psychiatric Register (SNFPR) for Swedish forensic patients for the year 2010. The subjects are individuals who, in connection with prosecution due to criminal acts, have been sentenced to compulsory forensic psychiatric treatment in Sweden. The results show that in 2010, 1476 Swedish forensic patients were assessed in the SNFPR; 1251 (85%) were males and 225 (15%) were females. Almost 60% of the patients had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, with a significantly higher frequency among males than females. As many as 70% of the patients had a previous history of outpatient psychiatric treatment before becoming a forensic psychiatric patient, with a mean age at first contact with psychiatric care of about 20 years old for both sexes. More than 63% of the patients had a history of addiction, with a higher proportion of males than females. Furthermore, as many as 38% of all patients committed crimes while under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs. This was more often the case for men than for women. Both male and female patients were primarily sentenced for crimes related to life and death (e.g., murder, assault). However, there were more females than males in treatment for general dangerous crimes (e.g., arson), whereas men were more often prosecuted for crimes related to sex. In 2010, as many as 70% of all forensic patients in Sweden had a prior sentence for a criminal act, and males were prosecuted significantly more often than females. The most commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals for both genders were antipsychotics, although more women than men were prescribed other pharmaceuticals, such as antidepressants, antiepileptics, and anxiolytics. The result from the present study might give clinicians an opportunity to reflect upon and challenge their

  17. Impacts of foreign direct investment on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Svedin, Dick; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have found that foreign direct investment (FDI) can have positive impacts on productivity. However, while FDI has clearly positive impacts on technology transfers, its effects on resource use within firms is less clear and, in principle, efficiency losses might offset some of the productivity gains associated with improved technologies. In this paper, we study the impacts of FDI on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing. We find that foreign ownership has positive impacts on efficiency, supporting the earlier findings on productivity. PMID:27247909

  18. The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM: a review.

    PubMed

    Rummukainen, Markku; Bergström, Sten; Persson, Gunn; Rodhe, Johan; Tjernström, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM, was a 6.5-year national research network for regional climate modeling, regional climate change projections and hydrological impact assessment and information to a wide range of stakeholders. Most of the program activities focussed on the regional climate system of Northern Europe. This led to the establishment of an advanced, coupled atmosphere-ocean-hydrology regional climate model system, a suite of regional climate change projections and progress on relevant data and process studies. These were, in turn, used for information and educational purposes, as a starting point for impact analyses on different societal sectors and provided contributions also to international climate research. PMID:15264594

  19. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  20. English Proficiency and Attitude Formation in a Merged Corporation with a Swedish-English Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobarg, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between proficiency in English and language-related attitudes among Swedish professionals at the English-speaking AstraZeneca R&D site in Molndal, Sweden. AstraZeneca is the result of a merger between a Swedish and a British pharmaceutical company, and the aim of the study is to see to what extent their…

  1. Gender and Technology in Free Play in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallström, Jonas; Elvstrand, Helene; Hellberg, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In the new Swedish curriculum for the preschool (2010) technology education is emphasized as one of the most significant pedagogical areas to work with. The aim of this article is to investigate how girls and boys explore and learn technology as well as how their teachers frame this in free play in two Swedish preschools. The study is inspired by…

  2. First Language Paradigms in Conflict: Hidden Dialogue in Swedish Curricula 1962-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellberg, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    Seven successive curricula for Swedish in the Swedish primary school are investigated using a linguistic method that traces its origin to the Russian literary theorist, Michail Bakhtin. The amount of dialogicity, viewed as the room given to different paradigms to argue against each other, is shown to decrease from the earlier curricula to the…

  3. Introducing National Tests in Swedish Primary Education: Implications for Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Swedish government has decided to introduce national tests in primary education. Swedish pupils in general have few tests and a recognised possible adverse effect of testing is test anxiety among pupils, which may have a negative impact on examination performance. However, there has been little research on effects of testing on…

  4. From Formulation to Realisation: The Process of Swedish Reform in Advanced Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the complexities of planning and implementation of a reform in the Swedish system of higher vocational education and training (VET). The study object of this article is the Swedish reform with advanced vocational education (AVE). The two main questions the study aims to address are: "What are the main driving…

  5. Swedish or English? Migrants' Experiences of the Exchangeability of Language Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the…

  6. Same Source, Different Outcomes: A Study of Swedish Influence on the Acquisition of English in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odlin, Terence; Jarvis, Scott

    2004-01-01

    With a Finnish-speaking majority and a Swedish-speaking minority, Finland offers a striking contrast in the kinds of cross-linguistic influence that can occur in the acquisition of English in a multilingual setting. While much previous research has looked at the differences between Finnish and Swedish influences, our study compares Swedish…

  7. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  8. Cultivating Swedishness? Examples of Imagined Kinship during the First Half of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Different representations of "Swedishness," as expressions of altered kinds of imagined kinship in the Swedish educational system during the first half of the 20th century, are discussed. It is argued that even though the curriculum changed, from a more religious one focusing on fostering loyalty and moral commitment to "God, the…

  9. Teachers' Access to and Use of ICT: An Indicator of Growing Inequity in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunman, Elin; Persson, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    In light of how the knowledge society may give rise to new forms of inequity in schools, the purpose of this article is to examine the stratification of Swedish schoolteachers' access to and use of ICT. The empirical data consist of a nationwide survey conducted in 2010, involving 6000 Swedish teachers in all grades (except pre-school and…

  10. Class-Size Effects on Adolescents' Mental Health and Well-Being in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…

  11. The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the EB Process Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyström, Siv; Åhsberg, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the psychometric properties of the short version of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS) remain satisfactory when translated and transferred to the context of Swedish welfare services. Method: The Swedish version of EBPPAS was tested on a sample of community-based professionals in…

  12. The Swedish Principal: Leadership Style, Decision-Making Style, and Motivation Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Per H.; Andersen, Jon Aarum

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish schools have been under pressure for change for several decades. How leaders behave can be of vital importance in times of change. The principal is responsible for both the educational program and for the school budget. Two hundred Swedish principals (male and female) responded to questionnaires concerning their leadership style,…

  13. How Are Notions of Childcare Similar or Different among American, Chinese, Japanese and Swedish Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Lee, Yu-Yuan; Franceschini, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in the perceptions of childcare among American, Chinese, Japanese and Swedish early childhood teachers. Participants consisted of 78 American teachers, 156 Chinese teachers, 158 Japanese teachers, and 157 Swedish teachers. The results of quantitative analysis revealed that these…

  14. International Education and Reflection: Transition of Swedish and American Nursing Students to Authenticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepp, Margret; Zorn, CeCelia R.; Duffy, Patricia R.; Dickson, Rana J.

    2003-01-01

    A nursing course connected U.S. and Swedish sites via interactive videoconferencing and used reflective methods (journaling, drama, photo language) and off-air group discussion. Evaluation by five Swedish and seven U.S. students suggested how reflection moved students toward greater authenticity and professionalism in nursing practice. (Contains…

  15. Further Education and Training in Swedish Working Life: A Discussion of Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert

    Written mainly for a non-Swedish audience, this document has a twofold purpose: (1) to examine how and to what extent the further education and training of the labor force is both presently and prospectively dealt with in collective bargaining agreements and other workplace negotiation processes in the Swedish labor market; and (2) to examine the…

  16. Between Control and Resistance: Planning and Evaluation Texts in the Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofdahl, Annica; Perez Prieto, Hector

    2009-01-01

    This article contains results from a study based on locally produced planning and evaluation texts from 10 preschool settings in a Swedish middle-sized town. The texts were mainly from 1999 to 2005, a period during which Swedish preschools were implementing their first curriculum and were subject to several changes including decentralisation,…

  17. A Critical Mapping of Practice-Based Research as Evidenced by Swedish Architectural Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchler, Daniela; Biggs, Michael A. R.; Stahl, Lars-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an investigation that was funded by the Swedish Institute into the role of creative practice in architectural research as evidenced in Swedish doctoral theses. The sample was mapped and analysed in terms of clusters of interest, approaches, cultures of knowledge and uses of creative practice. This allowed the identification…

  18. Democracy Lessons in Market-Oriented Schools: The Case of Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Based on recent ethnographic research, this article explores young people's opportunities of formal and informal democracy learning and expressions of such learning in the highly market-influenced Swedish upper secondary education. With its ambitious democracy-fostering goals and far-reaching marketisation, Swedish education constitutes an…

  19. Entrepreneurial Learning in Swedish Preschools: Possibilities for and Constraints on Children's Active Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insulander, Eva; Ehrlin, Anna; Sandberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The website of the Swedish National Agency for Education states that preschools are to promote entrepreneurial learning. Many Swedish preschools, therefore, have started to work consciously with entrepreneurial learning as a way of fostering pupils' creativity and ability to make their own decisions. This article investigates whether and how…

  20. The Swedish Verb "Lata" "Let" from a Synchronic and Diachronic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawoens, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at highlighting the syntactic and semantic variation of the Swedish verb "lata" "let" from both a synchronic and diachronic point of view. On the basis of corpus data containing Old and Modern Swedish texts from the 13th to the 19th centuries, the syntactic and semantic development of the verb is investigated within the framework…

  1. Secular Trends in Cognitive Test Performance: Swedish Conscript Data 1970-1993

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Carlstedt, Berit; Blomstedt, Yulia; Nilsson, Lars-Goran; Weinehall, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four…

  2. Aspects of Swedish Morphology and Semantics from the Perspective of Mono- and Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, Turid; Pirkola, Ari; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes features of the Swedish language from the viewpoint of mono-and cross-language information retrieval. Results of a comparative study that tested the degree of lexical ambiguity in Swedish, Finnish, and English suggest that part-of-speech tagging might be useful in Swedish information retrieval due to the high frequency of homographic…

  3. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games. PMID:24880745

  4. Antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection: Swedish recommendations 2007.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Filip; Albert, Jan; Flamholc, Leo; Gisslén, Magnus; Karlström, Olof; Lindgren, Susanne-Rosa; Navér, Lars; Sandström, Eric; Svedhem-Johansson, Veronica; Svennerholm, Bo; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2007-01-01

    On 3 previous occasions, in 2002, 2003 and 2005, the Swedish Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket) and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) have jointly published recommendations for the treatment of HIV infection. An expert group, under the guidance of RAV, has now revised the text again. Since the publication of the previous treatment recommendations, 1 new drug for the treatment of HIV has been approved - the protease inhibitor (PI) darunavir (Prezista). Furthermore, 3 new drugs have become available: the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (MK-0518), the CCR5-inhibitor maraviroc (Celsentri), both of which have novel mechanisms of action, and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) etravirine (TMC-125). The new guidelines differ from the previous ones in several respects. The most important of these are that abacavir is now preferred to tenofovir and zidovudine, as a first line drug in treatment-naïve patients, and that initiation of antiretroviral treatment is now recommended before the CD4 cell count falls below 250/microl, rather than 200/microl. Furthermore, recommendations on the treatment of HIV infection in children have been added to the document. As in the case of the previous publication, recommendations are evidence-graded in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, 2001 (see http://www.cebm.net/levels_of_evidence.asp#levels). PMID:17577810

  5. Comprehensive mass flow analysis of Swedish sludge contaminants.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Ulrika; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Kylin, Henrik; Haglund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A screening of metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other organic contaminants in sludge from seven Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) was performed in this study. This extensive screening provides information on mass flows of 282 compounds used in the Swedish society to sewage sludge. It reveals constant relative contaminant concentrations (ng mg kg(-1) d.w.), except for some pesticides and perfluorinated compounds, indicating that these originate from broad usage and diffuse dispersion rather than (industrial) point sources. There was a five order of magnitude difference in the sum concentrations of the most and least abundant species (metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans, respectively). Lower total concentrations were found in sludge from STPs processing primarily food industry or household sewage. Proportions of the amounts used (in Sweden) found in sludge were lower for compounds that are present in consumer goods or are diffusely dispersed into the environment (0.01-1% recovered in sludge) than for compounds used as detergents or PPCPs (17-63%). In some cases, the recovery seemed to be affected by evaporation (e.g. octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) or biotransformation (e.g. adipates) losses, while polychlorinated alkanes and brominated diphenyl ethers were recovered to disproportionately high degree (ca. 4%); likely due to incomplete statistics for imported goods. PMID:22921435

  6. Risk of malignant lymphoma in Swedish agricultural and forestry workers.

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, K; Lindefors, B M; Holm, L E

    1988-01-01

    The risk of malignant lymphoma after possible exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides was studied in 354,620 Swedish men who, according to a national census in 1960, were employed in agriculture or forestry. The cohort was divided into subcohorts according to assumed exposure and compared with 1,725,645 Swedish men having other economic activities. All were followed up in the Cancer-Environment Register between 1961 and 1979. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found in 861 men in the study cohort. The relative risk was not significantly increased in any subcohort, did not differ significantly between the subcohorts, and showed no time related increase in the total cohort or any subcohort. Hodgkin's disease was found in 355 men in the study cohort. Relative risks significantly higher than unity were found among fur farming and silviculture workers where the relative risks were 4.45 and 2.26, respectively. All five cases in the former group were engaged in mink farming. A time related rising trend in relative risk was found in the silviculture subcohort. Elsewhere the relative risk did not diverge from unity and no time related trend was discernible. PMID:3342183

  7. Use of different mouthrinses in an adult Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Särner, Barbro; Sundin, Erik; Abdulrahman, Sazan; Birkhed, Dowen; Lingström, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of mouthrinse products in a Swedish adult population and the factors that influence their use. A questionnaire, comprising semi-closed questions focusing on mouthrinses for oral health, was distributed to randomly selected 700 individuals aged 17-94 years (final response rate of 60%). The data revealed that 47% of the individuals use a mouthrinse product on a regular basis and that it does not differ significantly due to age. Women use such products to a greater extent than men. Individuals who brush their teeth and who use approximal cleaning aids frequently appear to use mouthrinse products to a greater degree. Rinsing is primarily performed once a day or more (45%), in the evening (57%) and after brushing (87%). Those individuals that have been recommended to use the products by dentists and dental hygienists use them to a greater degree (78%) than those who have not received any recommendations (27%). Apart from dental personnel, advertising also plays a significant role in product selection. Of the different products available on the market, pure fluoride products constitute 46%. To summarise, this study indicates that a Swedish adult population, especially women, uses mouthrinse products to a relatively large extent, mainly as a supplement to other oral hygiene procedures such as brushing with a fluoride toothpaste twice daily. To select the most suitable product, the dental personnell should play a more active role in recommendations to the patients who need or want to use mouthrinses. PMID:22611905

  8. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Mats; Westman, Anton; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22–44 years) were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting. PMID:26464887

  9. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sahlström, Leena; Rehbinder, Verena; Albihn, Ann; Aspan, Anna; Bengtsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate), PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land. PMID:19480649

  10. Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Resilience Scale.

    PubMed

    Lundman, Berit; Strandberg, Gunilla; Eisemann, Martin; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate resilience in relation to age and gender, and to elucidate the underlying structure of the Swedish version of the Resilience Scale (RS). The RS, originally created by Wagnild and Young is a 25 items scale of Lickert type with possible scores ranges from 25 to 175, the higher the score, the stronger resilience. A standardized procedure was used for translation. The analysis was based on 1719 participants, 1248 women and 471 men, from eight different samples, aged from 19 to 103 years. We found that the participants estimated their resilience as relatively high. There was a significant relationship between age and resilience, for every year RS score increased with 0.134 units. There was no relation between gender and resilience. From a factor analyses five factors emerged, equanimity, meaningfulness, perseverance, existential aloneness and self-reliance reflecting the five dimensions described by Wagnild and Young. We concluded that the resilience is related to age, the older, the stronger resilience. Five underlying dimensions was identified, which can be seen as reflection of the theoretical assumptions behind the RS scale. The RS scale seems applicable to a Swedish population. PMID:17559442

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish leather tanners.

    PubMed Central

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Hagmar, L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim was to study the incidence of cancer among Swedish leather tanners. METHODS--A cohort of 2026 subjects who had been employed for at least one year between 1900 and 1989 in three Swedish leather tanneries, was established. The cancer incidence and mortality patterns were assessed for the periods 1958-89 and 1952-89 respectively, and cause-specific standardised incidence and mortality ratios (SIRs and SMRs) were calculated. RESULTS--A significantly increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas (SIR 4.27, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39-9.97) was found, based on five cases. Excesses, (not statistically significant) was also found for multiple myelomas (SIR 2.54, 95% CI 0.93-5.53), and sinonasal cancer (SIR 3.77, 95% CI 0.46-13.6). CONCLUSIONS--The increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas adds support to previous findings of an excess mortality in this diagnosis among leather tanners. A plausible cause is exposure to chlorophenols, which had occurred in all three plants. The excess of multiple myelomas may also be associated with exposure to chlorophenol. The association between incidence of cancer and specific chemical exposure will be elucidated in a cohort-based case-referent study. PMID:7951777

  12. Sweden's population grows, Swedish population doesn't.

    PubMed

    Gendell, M

    1984-03-01

    The example of Swedish demography offers a contemporary insight into population growth or decline. In addition to the numerical increase due to the arrival of immigrants, migration can have an indirect effect on a country's population growth due to the arrived immigrants' subsequent natural fertility. Some very interesting differences also can often be observed in the births and deaths between the native born and immigrant populations. This phenomenon is particularly striking in the case of Sweden. In 1970 Sweden's population was growing at nearly 1% per year (9.83/1000), a relatively rapid pace by today's standard. Since 1970, the growth rate dropped steadily, down to only 0.1% in 1981. The main reason for the slowed population growth has been the decline in the birthrate, from 14/1000 population to the 11.3-11.7 range since 1976. At the same time, the death rate rose from 10 to 11. Gains in life expectancy have been outweighed by the increasing proportion of the elderly. During the 1970s the rate of net migration fluctuated considerably. It dropped from a high rate of 6/1000 in 1970 to -1.5 in 1972. 1972 and 1973 are the only postwar years in which Sweden experienced a net outflow. The rate rose again to 2.89 in 1977, falling to 0.3 in 1981, the latest year for which data are available. Starting in 1975 the components of Sweden's population change began to exhibit a remarkable aspect: population growth due to migration exceeded that due to natural increase. This had not occurred previously. Close examination reveals that the gain due to natural increase had become dependent upon the natural increase of the immigrants. Births of Swedish citizens, which had exceeded deaths by 22,000 in 1971, fell until natural decrease appeared in 1976. That gap has been growing wider ever since, to -6100 in 1982. A growing number of immigrants have been attaining Swedish citizenship, but the category of "citizen" is still the virtual equivalent of "native born." At the end of 1981

  13. A search for solar neutrons from 10-100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monn, S.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A search for solar neutrons is reported from a balloon flight launched from Palestine, Texas on Sept. 26, 1971. The sun was observed from 8:30 to 19:30 CST. The neutrons were detected with a telescope consisting of two 0.5 sq m scintillation detectors spaced 1 meter apart using a double-scattering/time-of-flight technique. Upper limits for solar neutrons in the energy intervals 10 to 30, 30 to 50, and 50 to 100 MeV are .00011, .00026 and .00059 neutron/sq cm-sec, respectively. These are combined into an overall upper limit of .00051 neutron/sq cm-sec.

  14. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Waernbaeck, Antoienette Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija

    2009-02-15

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  15. Solar Cookers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  16. Eyewitness testimony: tracing the beliefs of Swedish legal professionals.

    PubMed

    Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif A; Hartwig, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines beliefs held by Swedish legal professionals about eyewitness testimony. In a survey including questions about 13 key issues of eyewitness testimony, three groups were investigated: police officers (n = 104), prosecutors (n = 158), and judges (n = 251). The response rate was 74%. Examples of findings are that the beliefs were in line with scientific findings concerning the weapon focus effect, but were not in line for simultaneous vs. sequential lineups. Between-group differences were found for seven items. Judges were much more sceptical than police officers about the reliability and completeness of children's testimonies. The groups seldom agreed about one answer alternative, and they reported not being up to date about scientific research on eyewitness testimony. The results suggest that some important research findings have reached those working on the field. However, they hold many wrongful beliefs about eyewitness testimony, beliefs that might compromise the accuracy of legal decisions. PMID:16170786

  17. Swedish scientists take acid-rain research to developing nations

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, T.

    1995-12-01

    In the realm of acid-rain research, Sweden looms large on the world stage. It is the country where scientists first proved more than 30 years ago that airborne chemicals could and did cross international boundaries to acidify lakes and forests far from where the pollution was generated. Now, Swedish scientists are leading an international effort to map acid-rain patterns in the developing countries of Asia, where new industrial activity seems to be recreating problems that European and North American policy makers have already taken steps to solve. Topics covered in this article include acid rain on the rise in Asia; visualizing and validating the data; funding as the key to steady research.

  18. Voice onset time in Swedish children with phonological impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundeborg, Inger; Nordin, Elin; Zeipel-Stjerna, Marie; McAllister, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Mastering spatial and temporal co-ordination in speech production is a challenge for children. Voice onset time (VOT) reflects timing in speech. The objective was to study VOT in Swedish children with a diagnosed phonological impairment and compare results with normative data. Thus 38 children, aged 4-11 years, in three age-groups were audio-recorded when producing minimal pairs with the plosives /p b t d k g/. Waveforms and spectrograms were analysed. Results show that children with phonological impairment produced plosives with deviant VOT values and greater variability compared to normative data. No developmental trend was seen with increasing age. Also, no relationship was found between VOT values and degree of impairment measured by percentage phonemes correct. Furthermore no relation was found between number of errors on auditory discrimination of nine minimal pairs with the different plosives and number of deviant VOT. Findings were interpreted as displaying motor co-ordination difficulties. PMID:24992946

  19. Mining the Swedish clinical archives to develop pharmacogenomic tests.

    PubMed

    Sanders, R

    1999-12-01

    Eurona Medical is a Swedish company that develops diagnostic tests to predict response to drugs or treatment. Sweden offers unparalleled retrospective clinical data resources, with epidemiological registers and collections of tissue samples built up over decades. Efficient pharmacogenomic research can be performed using these registers and sample collections in collaboration with experienced medical researchers. Eurona's tests are based on Genetic Signatures, groups of polymorphic, polygenic genomic positions linked to and therefore predictive of drug response. These are elucidated from complex data sets using unique applications of multivariate and combinatorial statistics and a multigenic approach. The company develops tests applicable to current medical practice and is preparing to launch its first within the hypertension field. Quality control (including ISO9001 certification) and clinical regulatory compliance are applied throughout all programs to produce data that can be directly translated into clinical tests. PMID:10671642

  20. Modeling past and future acidification of Swedish lakes.

    PubMed

    Moldan, Filip; Cosby, Bernard J; Wright, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    Decades of acid deposition have caused acidification of lakes in Sweden. Here we use data for 3000 lakes to run the acidification model MAGIC and estimate historical and future acidification. The results indicate that beginning in about 1920 a progressively larger number of lakes in Sweden fell into the category of "not naturally acidified" (∆pH > 0.4). The peak in acidification was reached about 1985; since then many lakes have recovered in response to lower levels of acid deposition. Further recovery from acidification will occur by the year 2030 given implementation of agreed legislation for emissions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) in Europe. But the number of catchments with soils being depleted in base cations will increase slightly. MAGIC-reconstructed history of acidification of lakes in Sweden agrees well with information on fish populations. Future acidification of Swedish lakes can be influenced by climate change as well as changes in forest harvest practices. PMID:23288615

  1. The lived experience of genital warts: the Swedish example.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Kina; Nystrom, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to analyze and describe young Swedish women's experiences of living with genital warts. Interviews with 10 young women, aged 16-21 years, were interpreted within a lifeworld hermeneutic tradition. The women experience themselves as victims of a disgusting disease. Furthermore, they appear to disregard the fact that their own lifestyles could be a risk factor for contracting venereal infections. On the other hand they get to know their bodies better after the gynecological examinations where the treatment begins. Their loss of innocence is considerable; thus it seems fair to compare this experience with earlier epochs' ideas about loss of virginity due to the first intercourse. Consequently the young women also start looking at themselves as adults, and they take responsibility for the consequences of their sexuality. PMID:15204815

  2. Swedish dairy farmers' perceptions of animal-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2012-01-01

    Animal-related injuries are among the most common occupational injuries in agriculture. Despite the large number of documented animal-related injuries in dairy farming, the issue has received relatively limited attention in the scientific literature. The farmers' own perspectives and views on risks and safety during livestock handling and what they think are effective ways of preventing injuries are valuable for the future design of effective interventions. This paper presents results from a qualitative study with the aim to investigate Swedish dairy farmers' own experience of animal-related occupational injuries, as well as their perceptions of and attitudes towards them, including risk and safety issues, and prevention measures. A total of 12 dairy farmers with loose housing systems participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semistructured in-depth interviews. Three main themes with an impact on risks and safety when handling cattle were identified: the handler, the cattle, and the facilities. They all interact with each other, influencing the potential risks of any work task. Most of the farmers believed that a majority of the injuries can be prevented, but there are always some incidents that are impossible to foresee. In conclusion, this study indicates that Swedish dairy farmers are aware of the dangers from working with cattle. However, even though safety is acknowledged by the farmers as an important and relevant issue, in the end safety is often forgotten or not prioritized. One concern is that farmers are willing to take calculated risks to save money or time. In situations where they work alone with high stress levels and under economic distress, safety issues are easily given low priority. PMID:22994638

  3. Knut Lundmark, meteors and an early Swedish crowdsourcing experiment.

    PubMed

    Kärnfelt, Johan

    2014-10-01

    Mid twentieth century meteor astronomy demanded the long-term compilation of observations made by numerous individuals over an extensive geographical area. Such a massive undertaking obviously required the participation of more than just professional astronomers, who often sought to expand their ranks through the use of amateurs that had a basic grasp of astronomy as well as the night sky, and were thus capable of generating first-rate astronomical reports. When, in the 1920s, renowned Swedish astronomer Knut Lundmark turned his attention to meteor astronomy, he was unable to rely even upon this solution. In contrast to many other countries at the time, Sweden lacked an organized amateur astronomy and thus contained only a handful of competent amateurs. Given this situation, Lundmark had to develop ways of engaging the general public in assisting his efforts. To his advantage, he was already a well-established public figure who had published numerous popular science articles and held talks from time to time on the radio. During the 1930s, this prominence greatly facilitated his launching of a crowdsourcing initiative for the gathering of meteor observations. This paper consists of a detailed discussion concerning the means by which Lundmark's initiative disseminated astronomical knowledge to the general public and encouraged a response that might directly contribute to the advancement of science. More precisely, the article explores the manner in which he approached the Swedish public, the degree to which that public responded and the extent to which his efforts were successful. The primary aim of this exercise is to show that the apparently recent Internet phenomenon of 'crowdsourcing', especially as it relates to scientific research, actually has a pre-Internet history that is worth studying. Apart from the fact that this history is interesting in its own right, knowing it can provide us with a fresh vantage point from which to better comprehend and appreciate

  4. Knut Lundmark, meteors and an early Swedish crowdsourcing experiment.

    PubMed

    Kärnfelt, Johan

    2014-10-01

    Mid twentieth century meteor astronomy demanded the long-term compilation of observations made by numerous individuals over an extensive geographical area. Such a massive undertaking obviously required the participation of more than just professional astronomers, who often sought to expand their ranks through the use of amateurs that had a basic grasp of astronomy as well as the night sky, and were thus capable of generating first-rate astronomical reports. When, in the 1920s, renowned Swedish astronomer Knut Lundmark turned his attention to meteor astronomy, he was unable to rely even upon this solution. In contrast to many other countries at the time, Sweden lacked an organized amateur astronomy and thus contained only a handful of competent amateurs. Given this situation, Lundmark had to develop ways of engaging the general public in assisting his efforts. To his advantage, he was already a well-established public figure who had published numerous popular science articles and held talks from time to time on the radio. During the 1930s, this prominence greatly facilitated his launching of a crowdsourcing initiative for the gathering of meteor observations. This paper consists of a detailed discussion concerning the means by which Lundmark's initiative disseminated astronomical knowledge to the general public and encouraged a response that might directly contribute to the advancement of science. More precisely, the article explores the manner in which he approached the Swedish public, the degree to which that public responded and the extent to which his efforts were successful. The primary aim of this exercise is to show that the apparently recent Internet phenomenon of 'crowdsourcing', especially as it relates to scientific research, actually has a pre-Internet history that is worth studying. Apart from the fact that this history is interesting in its own right, knowing it can provide us with a fresh vantage point from which to better comprehend and appreciate

  5. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    PubMed Central

    Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo AG.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. Methods: AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. Results: The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. Conclusions: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. Citation: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101–107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163 PMID:25353625

  6. [The Swedish ambulance services 1935-1936 of Gunnar Agge].

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Pär; Nilsson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The fact that Sweden has been spared from war on its soil for almost 200 years, has not stopped Swedish citizens from participating in conflicts worldwide during this period. This has been described, especially from the soldiers perspective. The contribution of Swedish physicians has not been written about to the same extent. When Mussolini's Italy in October 1935 invaded the poor and underdeveloped country of Ethiopia (former Abyssinia) an ambulance was immediately organized by the Swedish Red Cross. To lead such an expedition, a great knowledge of Ethiopian culture och maybe most importantly, of the weather and geographical conditions, was undoubtedly demanded. Therefore, the Swedish Red Cross turned to two Ethiopian veterans. Doctor Fride Hylander, a missionary-son who had been working on a hospital project in the Ethiopian province of Harrar and his friend since school years, doctor Gunnar Agge, were assigned the leadership of the ambulance. Dr Agge had also participated in improving the Ethiopian health care both in Harrar and later as civilian and military doctor in the province of Ogaden, where he was medically responsible for the more than 9 000 men strong army that the Ethiopian emperor had stationed there after Italian provocations. Most of the other members of the ambulance were handpicked by these two leaders and many of them had, just like themselves, a stong religious belief. A money-raise was immediately initiated and in less than six weeks 700 000 Swedish crowns had been collected, more then twice the sum the ambulance was calculated to cost. In early november 1935 the ambulance was clear to go. Their primary objective was to travel through British Somaliland and establish a field-hospital in the province of Harrar. However, the Ethiopian emperor had other things in mind. He wanted to reorganize the ambulance and divide it in two and place it closer to the front line. The ambulance decided to go along with his wish. Both groups started eventually

  7. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  8. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  9. Solar explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccei, B. C.

    1981-04-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Passive Solar Manufactured Buildings and Solar Home Builders Programs are developing much needed cost and performance data on solar buildings produced by large-volume home builders. These programs also serve as a model on how government can work effectively with industry.

  10. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  11. Solar Geometry

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Solar Noon (GMT time) The time when the sun is due south in the ... and sunset.   Daylight average of hourly cosine solar zenith angles (dimensionless) The average cosine of the angle ... overhead during daylight hours.   Cosine solar zenith angle at mid-time between sunrise and solar noon ...

  12. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  13. Photoproduction of dissolved inorganic carbon in Swedish lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, B.; Landelius, T.; Tranvik, L. J.

    2012-04-01

    -fold smaller surface DIC production rates of 9.4 mg C m-3 day-1 but rates still reached ¯ 1 mg C m-3 day-1 at 2 m depth (depth-integrated rate of 8.4 mg C m-2 day-1). Across lakes, DIC photoproduction rates correlated positively with specific absorption coefficients at 420 nm (SA420) (y = 10.3 + 3.1 * x, R2 = 0.76, P < 0.0001). Using this relationship we predict DIC photoproduction rates for a larger data set of 3853 Swedish lakes for which SA420 has been determined in further recent sampling campaigns. Assuming that the combined data set (n = 4927) is representative for the total population of Swedish lakes, we upscale the flux by multiplying the mean DIC photoproduction rate with the overall lake area to obtain a country-wide, annual DIC flux estimate. DIC-fluxes from photomineralization are compared to total carbon dioxide emissions from Swedish lakes available from earlier studies.

  14. Advance on solar instrumentation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The solar observing facilities in China are introduced with the emphasis on the development in recent years and future plans for both ground and space-based solar instrumentations. The recent solar instruments are as follows: A new generation Chinese Spectral Radioreliograph (CSRH) has been constructed at Mingantu Observing Station in Zhengxiangbaiqi, inner Mongolia of China since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH has two arrays with 40 × 4.5 m and 60 × 2 m parabolic antennas covering 0.4-2 GHz and 2-15 GHz frequency range. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radiheliograph) after its accomplishment. A new 1 m vacuum solar telescope (NVST) has been installed in 2010 at Fuxian lake, 60 km away from Kunming, Yunana. At present it is the best seeing place in China. A new telescope called ONSET (Optical and NIR Solar Eruption Tracer) has been established at the same site as NVST in 2011. ONSET has been put into operation since 2013. For future ground-based plans, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) with spatial resolution equivalent to 8m and effective area of 5m full-aperture telescope has been proposed and was formally listed into the National Plans of Major Science & Technology Infrastructures in China. The pre-study and site survey for CGST have been pursued. A 1-meter mid-infrared telescope for precise measurement of the solar magnetic field has been funded by NSFC in 2014 as a national major scientific instrument development project. This project will develop the first mid-infrared solar magnetic observation instrument in the world aiming at increasing the precision of the transverse magnetic field measurement by one order of magnitude. For future ground-based plans, we promote the Deep-space Solar Observatory (DSO) with 1-m aperture telescope to be formally funded. The ASO-S (an Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory) has been supported in background phase by Space Science Program as a small mission. Other related space solar

  15. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  16. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises. PMID:18725710

  17. Biodiversity on Swedish pastures: estimating biodiversity production costs.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Fredrik Olof Laurentius

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the costs of producing biological diversity on Swedish permanent grasslands. A simple model is introduced where biodiversity on pastures is produced using grazing animals. On the pastures, the grazing animals create a sufficient grazing pressure to lead to an environment that suits many rare and red-listed species. Two types of pastures are investigated: semi-natural and cultivated. Biological diversity produced on a pasture is estimated by combining a biodiversity indicator, which measures the quality of the land, with the size of the pasture. Biodiversity is, in this context, a quantitative measure where a given quantity can be produced either by small area with high quality or a larger area with lower quality. Two areas in different parts of Sweden are investigated. Box-Cox transformations, which provide flexible functional forms, are used in the empirical analysis and the results indicate that the biodiversity production costs differ between the regions. The major contribution of this paper is that it develops and tests a method of estimating biodiversity production costs on permanent pastures when biodiversity quality differs between pastures. If the method were to be used with cost data, that were more thoroughly collected and covered additional production areas, biodiversity cost functions could be estimated and used in applied policy work. PMID:18079049

  18. Swedish traveller with Plasmodium knowlesi malaria after visiting Malaysian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Ulf; Divis, Paul C S; Färnert, Anna; Singh, Balbir

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is typically found in nature in macaques and has recently been recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in human populations in south-east Asia. A case of knowlesi malaria is described in a Swedish man, who became ill after returning from a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. His P. knowlesi infection was not detected using a rapid diagnostic test for malaria, but was confirmed by PCR and molecular characterization. He responded rapidly to treatment with mefloquine. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic kits with further samples from knowlesi malaria patients are necessary, since early identification and appropriate anti-malarial treatment of suspected cases are essential due to the rapid growth and potentially life-threatening nature of P. knowlesi. Physicians should be aware that knowlesi infection is an important differential diagnosis in febrile travellers, with a recent travel history to forested areas in south-east Asia, including short-term travellers who tested negative with rapid diagnostic tests. PMID:19146706

  19. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Bloom, B S; Banta, H D; Gross, P F; Peña-Mohr, J; Sisk, J E; Stocking, B

    1989-01-01

    During its first year of operation (1988) the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care focused on nine areas. Additional activities will be added as need requires and resources permit. Also, preparations for 1989 projects have begun. The nine areas include: identification of technologies needing assessment, including international comparisons; review and synthesis of the value of preoperative routines; review and synthesis of the value of gastroscopy for diagnosing stomach pain; assessment of different treatment methods for back pain; assessment of the value of vascular surgery for vascular spasms in the legs; organization of a strategy conference concerning medical technology assessment in Sweden; creation of a strategy that addresses an international review of medical technology, future technologies in health care, waiting lists for medical care--the importance of medical technology, resource utilization and organizational and educational aspects of introducing new technology in health care, and costs and medical technology; translation of foreign assessment studies, with comments; national and international cooperation. SCTA has discussed the need for assessing specific technology such as bone marrow transplantation and surgical treatment of epilepsy. SCTA's Scientific Advisory Committee has additionally considered the following subjects for future projects: medical, social, and economic consequences of alternative technologies screening for prostate, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer; costs, indications, and medical benefit of surgery for varicose vains; and modern urology technologies, particularly those related to prostate care. PMID:10292538

  20. Complete ascertainment of Parkinson disease in the Swedish Twin Registry

    PubMed Central

    Wirdefeldt, Karin; Gatz, Margaret; Bakaysa, Stephanie L.; Fiske, Amy; Flensburg, Måns; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Widner, Håkan; Lew, Mark F.; Welsh, Mickie; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the ascertainment of Parkinson disease (PD) in all individuals aged 50 years or older (49,814 individuals) from the Swedish Twin Registry. In phase one of the study, all twins were screened for PD using telephone interviews, with a response rate of 72.7%. In phase two, twins with suspected PD were re-contacted to exclude anyone from follow-up who reported parkinsonian symptoms due to diseases other than PD. In the third phase, in-person clinical evaluations were completed for twins who were still considered PD suspects after phase two and for a sample of co-twins. During the clinical evaluations, we also collected blood samples and information about a variety of environmental exposures. Overall prevalence rate for PD was 496 per 100,000 individuals. Among the 132 PD cases identified, there were only three concordant twin pairs. In total 7.2% of PD cases reported a first degree relative with PD. PMID:17532098

  1. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jenny; Johansson, Eva E.; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine; Hamberg, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically comparable themes and categories. Results Students’ written answers were coded, categorized and clustered into four themes: “Work”, “Family”, “Leisure” and “Quality of personal life”. Almost all students included aspects of work in their answers. Female students were more detailed than male ones in their family concerns. Almost a third of all students reflected on a future work-life balance, but considerations regarding quality of personal life and leisure were more common among last-year students. Conclusions Today’s medical students expect more of life than work, especially those standing on the doorstep of working life. They intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure activities. Our results reflect work attitudes that challenge the health care system for more adaptive working conditions. We suggest that discussions about work-life balance should be included in medical curricula.

  2. Experiences of ethical dilemmas in rehabilitation: Swedish occupational therapists' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Skär, Lisa

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Swedish occupational therapists' experiences of encountering ethical dilemmas in rehabilitation and strategies they used to handle the situations. Twelve occupational therapists who work with adults with developmental disabilities were interviewed using a semi-structured interview design. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that ethical dilemmas were common in the occupational therapists' daily work within rehabilitation. Many situations that created ethical dilemmas were related to occupational therapists who worked with clients and their relatives, and other healthcare providers. The results showed further that occupational therapists found it difficult to make decisions and to optimize clients' participation in decision-making, to set limits and act professionally, and to best handle the situation for the client and avoid ethical dilemmas. This study indicates the importance of illustrating experiences of ethical dilemmas within occupational therapy praxis and the meaning of discussing ethical dilemmas with different healthcare providers to reach a divided view of the client in order to develop successful and healthy strategies that will optimize the rehabilitation of clients with developmental disabilities. PMID:18609243

  3. Attitudes toward transsexualism in a Swedish national survey.

    PubMed

    Landén, M; Innala, S

    2000-08-01

    A general inventory of the views on sex reassignment and attitudes toward transsexuals in Sweden was attempted. Whether the view on these matters differ between people embracing biological theories in explanation of transsexualism and those embracing psychological theories was tested. Third, whether men and the older age groups hold a different view on transsexualism than women and younger age groups was investigated. For these purposes, in October-December 1998, a questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected national sample of 992 Swedish residents; 668 persons returned the questionnaire, giving a 67% response rate. Results showed that a majority supports the possibility for transsexuals to undergo sex reassignment; however, 63% thought that the individual should bear the expenses for it. In addition, a majority supported transsexuals' right to get married in their new sex and their right to work with children. Transsexuals' right to adopt and raise children was supported by 43%, whereas 41% were opposed. Results indicated that those who believed that transsexualism is caused by biological factors had a less restrictive view on transsexualism than people who held a psychological view. Men and the older age group were found to hold a more restrictive view on these issues than women and the younger age group. Future studies should address these questions to elucidate differences between cultures and the process of change in attitudes over time. PMID:10948726

  4. Health promotion at Swedish pharmacies – views of the staff

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, Ingeborg; Viberg, Nina; Rydberg, Linda; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    The role of pharmacy has changed dramatically during the last decades, which has led to new demands on pharmacy personnel. Objective This study aims at exploring the attitudes of Swedish pharmacy personnel on their role as public health promoters and to look at the opportunities and obstacles they identify in the efforts to widen the pharmacy remit to include a wider health approach. Method Eight focus group discussions were conducted with a strategic sample of pharmacy personnel working in two counties in Sweden. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative inductive analysis. Results Five themes were identified, “Pharmacy activities impact on public health”, “The employer, Apoteket AB”, “The new role welcomed”, “Obstacles in the new role”, and “Need of change and support”. Conclusion The concept of pharmacy personnel as public health promoters was not initially in the mindset of the participants. In the process of discussion, the impact of traditional pharmacy practice as well as new pharmacy based initiatives on public health gradually became more obvious to them. The findings show a pharmacy staff involved in a process of change. The participants have not yet landed in their new role as public health promoters and the study shows that practical as well as conceptual support is needed in order for pharmacy personnel to play a more important role in public health. PMID:25157296

  5. The Swedish tant: a marker of female aging.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and analyzes findings from interviews with women aged 45-65; popular magazines targeting women in this age category, and popular books and blogs on a Swedish age-sensitive concept, tant. The term can be used in many different senses, ranging from polite to derogatory, connoting "aunt," or "granny," but also "little old lady" and "biddy"; the term tantig translating to "frumpish." The article discusses different representations of tant, how she is used as a symbol of invisibility and no longer being seen as a sexual being, but outdated. The concept is used as a warning, indicating an unwanted way to grow old, when addressing middle-aged and older women. As of recently, tant has come to be celebrated by young women, praised for moral courage, for thrift and being represented as free from the male gaze, no longer aiming to please or fretting about appearances. The article sheds light on the different uses of the concept, where who is categorizing whom is of utmost importance. The tant is used as a symbol for doing age either by derogation or by celebration. PMID:23488648

  6. Recent trends in nutrient concentrations in Swedish agricultural rivers.

    PubMed

    Ulén, B; Fölster, J

    2007-02-15

    In five out of twelve Swedish agricultural rivers examined during the period 1993-2004, significant trends for decreasing concentrations of reactive inorganic nitrogen (RIN) were indicated after flow normalisation. These decreases were constant (equal to 2-4% per year), most apparent in the Scania region, and weakly correlated to reductions in livestock density (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.825). The number of grazing cattle livestock units per unit area of arable land decreased on average by 14% and that of non-grazing cattle by 17% during 1985-2003. Based on estimates of root-zone leaching, increased area of set-aside and recent EU subsidisation of catch crops (with/without spring tillage) were suggested to be additional substantial causes but these changes were only rapid very recently (years 2000-2001). A significant and constant decrease in reactive phosphorus (RP) (3% per year) was observed in one river, mainly during the season of low flow, with reduced load from point sources suggested to be the main reason. Significant and constant reductions equal to 3-8% per year in concentrations of non-reactive phosphorus (NRP) were calculated for five rivers. These improvements were weakly correlated to the length of grassed buffer zones along the watercourses in arable parts of the river basin (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.845). Establishment of such zones also took place more recently, and together with constructed wetlands represent on average 0.5% of the agricultural area. PMID:17239939

  7. Caries assessment and restorative treatment thresholds reported by Swedish dentists.

    PubMed

    Mejàre, I; Sundberg, H; Espelid, I; Tveit, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim was to study any variability in approximal and occlusal caries diagnoses and restorative treatment decisions among Swedish dentists. The material consisted of a pre-coded questionnaire sent to a random sample of 923 dentists with 4 items concerning approximal and occlusal caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decisions. Responses were received from 651 (70.5%) dentists. In an adolescent with low caries activity and good oral hygiene, more than 90% of the dentists stated that they would not automatically restore a primary approximal caries lesion if its radiographic appearance did not show obvious progression in the outer 1/3 to 1/2 of the dentin. Moreover, 67% of the dentists would only consider immediate restorative treatment of an occlusal surface if obvious cavitation and/or radiographic signs of dentin caries could be observed. When diagnosing questionable occlusal caries, the dentists largely relied on the radiographic appearance. Concerning both approximal and occlusal caries, the threshold for restorative treatment differed between the metropolitan regions in Sweden, and younger more often than older dentists would postpone restorative treatment of approximal caries until the lesion had reached a relatively advanced stage of progression. The responses also showed that dentists in private practice would restore approximal caries at an earlier stage of progression than the dentists in the Public Dental Health Service. PMID:10480281

  8. Is Swedish pension reform the right medicine for aging Europe?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Following the Second World War, the idea of the life course with distinct periods of education, work, and retirement became popular as a result of the alliance of interests of unions and management, with politicians seizing the opportunity to accommodate them. These "social partners" implemented benefit rules and created practices for using old age and disability to ease the exit of older workers. Although justifiable at the time, now those rules and practices hinder individual and employer incentives to invest in human capital and work environments that enable older workers to remain in the workforce. The article argues that the workforce environment of the coming half-century, which is relevant for persons born around 2000, is much different from that a hundred years earlier, which determined the opportunities for people born around 1900. People are healthier and live much longer and work environments are friendlier. The article argues that it is no longer justifiable to subsidize exit from the workforce around the age of 60 for healthy workers, especially in view of the coming labor shortage in Europe. It also argues that the introduction of the principles of the Swedish NDC pension reform in Europe would provide possibilities for flexible exit from the workforce and remove impediments to labor mobility in Europe, which are embedded in many of Europe's present pension arrangements. PMID:12503328

  9. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M; Johanson, Karl J; Taylor, Andy F S

    2004-05-01

    The (137)Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of (137)Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m(-2) in a peat soil and 47-189 g m(-2) in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the (137)Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total (137)Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%. PMID:15081731

  10. Notions of just health care at three Swedish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Elmersjö, Carl-Ake; Helgesson, Gert

    2008-06-01

    This article investigates what notions of "just health care" are found at three Swedish hospitals among health care personnel and whether these notions are relevant to what priorities are actually made. Fieldwork at all three hospitals and 114 in-depth interviews were conducted. Data have been subject to conceptual and ethical analysis and categorisation. According to our findings, justice is an important idea to health care personnel at the studied hospitals. Two main notions of just health care were found. The main idea was the notion of "equal treatment according to need", the basic idea being that differences in treatment should be justified by differences in needs. The competing idea that merit should affect the treatment received is occasionally encountered, the idea here being that patients, by acting irresponsibly, may no longer deserve to be treated strictly according to needs. In practice, priorities are made on grounds that only partly comply with the basic idea of justice in health care, as it is understood by staff at the studied hospitals. Exceptions are made due to regional differences, considerations of cost-effectiveness, economic incentives, tradition, the daily patient flow, research, private alternatives, patient influence and favouritism of health care personnel. PMID:17619111

  11. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  12. Fiber Access Networks: Reliability Analysis and Swedish Broadband Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Chen, Jiajia; Larsen, Claus Popp

    Fiber access network architectures such as active optical networks (AONs) and passive optical networks (PONs) have been developed to support the growing bandwidth demand. Whereas particularly Swedish operators prefer AON, this may not be the case for operators in other countries. The choice depends on a combination of technical requirements, practical constraints, business models, and cost. Due to the increasing importance of reliable access to the network services, connection availability is becoming one of the most crucial issues for access networks, which should be reflected in the network owner's architecture decision. In many cases protection against failures is realized by adding backup resources. However, there is a trade off between the cost of protection and the level of service reliability since improving reliability performance by duplication of network resources (and capital expenditures CAPEX) may be too expensive. In this paper we present the evolution of fiber access networks and compare reliability performance in relation to investment and management cost for some representative cases. We consider both standard and novel architectures for deployment in both sparsely and densely populated areas. While some recent works focused on PON protection schemes with reduced CAPEX the current and future effort should be put on minimizing the operational expenditures (OPEX) during the access network lifetime.

  13. The feasibility of large refracting telescopes for solar coronal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Elmore, David F.; Kolinski, Donald J.

    2008-07-01

    Measuring magnetic fields in the solar corona requires a large aperture telescope with exceptionally low levels of scattered light. For internally-occulted coronagraphs the main source is scattering from dust or microroughness on the primary lens or mirror. We show refracting primaries offer significantly lower levels for both sources. To observe magnetic fields in the solar corona with scientifically interesting spatial and temporal resolutions, a 1 meter aperture or larger is required. For a long time such large-scale refractors have been deemed impractical or impossible to construct due to gravitational deformation of the lens. We present the results of finite-element and optical analyses of the gravitational deformation, stress-induced birefringence, and absorptive heating of a (see manuscript)1.5 meter f/5 fused silica lens. These studies demonstrate the traditional objections to large refractors are unfounded and large refracting primaries have unique capabilities.

  14. Solar Lentigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperpigmented) lesion caused by natural or artificial ultraviolet (UV) light. Solar lentigines may be single or multiple. This ... simplex) because it is caused by exposure to UV light. Solar lentigines are benign, but they do indicate ...

  15. Solar Cooking

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    ... (kWh/m2/day) Amount of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) incident on the surface of the earth. Also referred to as total or global solar radiation.   Midday insolation (kWh/m2/day) Average ...

  16. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  17. The Analysis Portal and the Swedish LifeWatch e-infrastructure for biodiversity research

    PubMed Central

    Käck, Martin; Karlsson, Björn; Kindvall, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last years, more and more online portals were generated and are now available for ecologists to run advanced models with extensive data sets. Some examples are the Biodiversity Virtual e-Laboratory (BioVel) Portal (https://portal.biovel.eu) for ecological niche modelling and the Mobyle SNAP Workbench (https://snap.hpc.ncsu.edu) for evolutionary and population genetics analysis. Such portals have the main goal to facilitate the run of advanced models, through access to large-capacity computers or servers. In this study, we present the Analysis Portal (www.analysisportal.se), which is a part of the Swedish LifeWatch e-infrastructure for biodiversity research that combines a variety of Swedish web services to perform different kinds of dataprocessing. New information For the first time, the Swedish Analysis Portal for integrated analysis of species occurrence data is described in detail. It was launched in 2013 and today, over 60 Million Swedish species observation records can be assessed, visualized and analyzed via the portal. Datasets can be assembled using sophisticated filtering tools, and combined with environmental and climatic data from a wide range of providers. Different validation tools, for example the official Swedish taxon concept database Dyntaxa, ensure high data quality. Results can be downloaded in different formats as maps, tables, diagrams and reports. PMID:27099553

  18. Comparability of perceptual analysis of speech characteristics in Australian and Swedish speakers with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hartelius, Lena; Theodoros, Deborah; Cahill, Louise; Lillvik, Malin

    2003-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare the perceptual assessments of deviant speech signs (dysarthria) exhibited by Australian and Swedish speakers with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to explore whether judgements of dysarthria differed depending on whether the speakers and the judges spoke the same or different languages. Ten Australian and 10 Swedish individuals with MS (matched as closely as possible for age, gender, progression type and severity of dysarthria) were assessed by 2 Australian and 2 Swedish clinically experienced judges using a protocol including 33 speech parameters. Results show that the following perceptual dimensions were identified by both pairs of judges in both groups of speakers to a just noticeable or moderate degree: imprecise consonants, inappropriate pitch level, reduced general rate, and glottal fry. The reliability (Spearman rank-order correlation) of the consensus ratings from the Australian and the Swedish judges was high, with a mean rho of 85.7 for the Australian speakers and mean rho of 84.3 for the Swedish speakers. The most difficult perceptual parameters to assess (i.e. to agree on) included harshness, level of pitch and loudness, precision of consonants and general stress pattern. The study indicated that perceptual assessments of speech characteristics in individuals with MS are informative and can be achieved with high inter-judge reliability irrespective of the judge's knowledge of the speaker's language. PMID:12802090

  19. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  20. Modelling the Orust fjord system on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Daniel; Stigebrandt, Anders; Liljebladh, Bengt

    2013-03-01

    We use a numerical model to examine the dynamics controlling flushing of the basins of the Orust fjord system on the Swedish west coast over a period of 71 days in the autumn of 2010. This fjord system is known for its seasonal and permanent hypoxic basins; Koljöfjord, Byfjord and Havstensfjord. It is shown that wind direction determines in- and outflows of the basins. Westerly winds result in surface currents towards the interior of the system, and counter currents at the bottom. In contrast, easterly winds cause the export of surface water, which is compensated by upwelling of Skagerrak water. Although these easterly winds cause renewal to take place several times a month in southern Havstensfjord, it occurs only once or twice in the northern part, while Koljöfjord and Byfjord are ventilated about every 3 years. The reduction in density throughout the water column (i.e. weakening of the vertical stratification) is related to the amount of energy being supplied to the deepwater by internal waves, created by barotropic tides across the sills, and wind blowing across the surface. The model shows that, in the southern part of the system, tidal movement dominates the energy supply to the deepwater. Further into the system, the importance of wind energy increases. In Koljöfjord and Byfjord, wind accounts for about 40% of the supplied energy for deepwater mixing. Concurrent weekly measurements taken in each fjord basin reveal that the monthly monitoring programme currently in place cannot adequately resolve the dynamics of the fjords. Modelled and observed currents in Svanesund and Sunninge Strait show prominent baroclinic motion on time-scales between one day and one week, suggesting that monitoring programs that aim to support numerical modelling need to resolve these time scales.

  1. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Incidence of condyloma, or genital warts (GW), is the earliest possible disease outcome to measure when assessing the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies. Efficacy trials that follow prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria may not be fully generalizable to real-life HPV vaccination programs, which target a broader segment of the population. We assessed GW incidence after on-demand vaccination with quadrivalent HPV vaccine using individual-level data from the entire Swedish population. Methods An open cohort of girls and women aged 10 to 44 years living in Sweden between 2006 and 2010 (N > 2.2 million) was linked to multiple population registers to identify incident GW in relation to HPV vaccination. For vaccine effectiveness, incidence rate ratios of GW were estimated using time-to-event analyses with adjustment for attained age and parental education level, stratifying on age at first vaccination. Results A total of 124 000 girls and women were vaccinated between 2006 and 2010. Girls and women with at least one university-educated parent were 15 times more likely to be vaccinated before age 20 years than girls and women whose parents did not complete high school (relative risk ratio = 15.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.65 to 16.30). Among those aged older than 20 years, GW rates declined among the unvaccinated, suggesting that HPV vaccines were preferentially used by women at high risk of GW. Vaccination effectiveness was 76% (95% CI = 73% to 79%) among those who received three doses of the vaccine with their first dose before age 20 years. Vaccine effectiveness was highest in girls vaccinated before age 14 years (effectiveness = 93%, 95% CI = 73% to 98%). Conclusions Young age at first vaccination is imperative for maximizing quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23486550

  2. Effectiveness of Implant Therapy Analyzed in a Swedish Population

    PubMed Central

    Derks, J.; Håkansson, J.; Wennström, J.L.; Tomasi, C.; Larsson, M.; Berglundh, T.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment outcomes in implant dentistry have been mainly assessed as implant survival rates in small, selected patient groups of specialist or university clinical settings. This study reports on loss of dental implants assessed in a large and randomly selected patient sample. The results were aimed at representing evaluation of effectiveness of implant dentistry. Using the national data register of the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, 4,716 patients were randomly selected. All had been provided with implant-supported restorative therapy in 2003. Patient files of 2,765 patients (11,311 implants) were collected from more than 800 clinicians. Information on patients, treatment procedures, and outcomes related to the implant-supported restorative therapy was extracted from the files. In total, 596 of the 2,765 subjects, provided with 2,367 implants, attended a clinical examination 9 y after therapy. Implant loss that occurred prior to connection of the supraconstruction was scored as an early implant loss, while later occurring loss was considered late implant loss. Early implant loss occurred in 4.4% of patients (1.4% of implants), while 4.2% of the patients who were examined 9 y after therapy presented with late implant loss (2.0% of implants). Overall, 7.6% of the patients had lost at least 1 implant. Multilevel analysis revealed higher odds ratios for early implant loss among smokers and patients with an initial diagnosis of periodontitis. Implants shorter than 10 mm and representing certain brands also showed higher odds ratios for early implant loss. Implant brand also influenced late implant loss. Implant loss is not an uncommon event, and patient and implant characteristics influence outcomes (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01825772). PMID:25503901

  3. An evaluation of the Swedish ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Bo

    2003-06-01

    The Swedish alcohol ignition interlock program for driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders, both first-time as well as multiple offenders, was launched as a pilot project in 1999. It is a volunteer program and differs in some respects from other programs: It covers a period of 2 years, it includes very strict medical regulations entailing regular checkups by a physician, it does not require a prior period of hard suspension, and it focuses strongly on changes in alcohol habits. Records from the 5 years prior to the offence showed that DWI offenders are generally in a high-risk category long before their offense, with a four to five times higher accident rate (road accidents reported by the police) and a three to four times higher rate of hospitalization due to a road accident. Only 12% of the eligible DWI offenders took part in the program and, of these, 60% could be diagnosed as alcohol dependent or alcohol abusers. During the program, alcohol consumption is monitored through self-esteem questionnaires (AUDIT) and five different biological markers. Our data show a noticeable reduction in alcohol consumption among the interlock users. This, combined with the high rate of compliance with the regulations, probably accounts for the fact that there was no case of recidivism during the program. Preliminary findings also suggest a reduction in the annual accident rate for interlock users while in the program. It still is too early to draw any conclusions concerning the rate of recidivism after completion of the program due to an insufficient amount of data for analysis. Nevertheless, the preliminary results are so promising that the program will now be expanded to cover all of Sweden as well as to include all driver's license categories. PMID:16210194

  4. An evaluation of the Swedish ignition interlock program.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Bo

    2003-01-01

    The Swedish alcohol ignition interlock program for driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders, both first-time as well as multiple offenders, was launched as a pilot project in 1999. It is a volunteer program and differs in some respects from other programs: It covers a period of 2 years, it includes very strict medical regulations entailing regular checkups by a physician, it does not require a prior period of hard suspension, and it focuses strongly on changes in alcohol habits. Records from the 5 years prior to the offence showed that DWI offenders are generally in a high-risk category long before their offense, with a four to five times higher accident rate (road accidents reported by the police) and a three to four times higher rate of hospitalization due to a road accident. Only 12% of the eligible DWI offenders took part in the program and, of these, 60% could be diagnosed as alcohol dependent or alcohol abusers. During the program, alcohol consumption is monitored through self-esteem questionnaires (AUDIT) and five different biological markers. Our data show a noticeable reduction in alcohol consumption among the interlock users. This, combined with the high rate of compliance with the regulations, probably accounts for the fact that there was no case of recidivism during the program. Preliminary findings also suggest a reduction in the annual accident rate for interlock users while in the program. It still is too early to draw any conclusions concerning the rate of recidivism after completion of the program due to an insufficient amount of data for analysis. Nevertheless, the preliminary results are so promising that the program will now be expanded to cover all of Sweden as well as to include all driver's license categories. PMID:16801125

  5. A dental phobia treatment within the Swedish National Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide

    2012-01-01

    Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health. PMID:22876394

  6. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe. PMID:19680928

  7. Malignancies in Swedish persons with haemophilia: a longitudinal registry study.

    PubMed

    Lövdahl, Susanna; Henriksson, Karin M; Baghaei, Fariba; Holmström, Margareta; Berntorp, Erik; Astermark, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate, over time, the incidence of and mortality due to malignant diseases among persons with haemophilia, compared to matched controls. Persons with haemophilia A or B were enrolled via registries at each haemophilia centre, as well as from the National Patient Registry, and were compared to five sex and age-matched controls per patient. Data from the national Cancer Registry were linked to the study participants. A total of 1431 persons with haemophilia and 7150 matched controls were enrolled. Between the years 1972 and 2008, 164 malignancies were reported. The most common type of cancer among patients was prostate cancer, followed by haematologic malignancies, including lymphoma and leukaemia, which were significantly more frequent in patients [n = 35 (2.4%) vs. n = 60 (0.8%); P < 0.001]. Malignancies in bladder and other urinary organs were also significantly different [n = 21 (1.5%) vs. n = 46 (0.6%); P < 0.01]. The overall incidence rate ratio of malignancies per 1000 person-years compared to the controls was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.6]. In subgroup analysis, the corresponding incidence rate ratios per 1000 person-years for persons with severe haemophilia was 1.7 (95% CI 0.9, 3.1) and that for mild/moderate haemophilia 1.1 (95% CI 0.8, 1.5). Swedish persons with haemophilia had a significantly higher incidence of malignant diseases than controls. These were primarily haematologic malignancies and cancer in urinary organs, and the difference independent of any co-infections with HIV and/or viral hepatitis. The findings indicate the importance of further studies and close follow-up of malignancies in persons with haemophilia. PMID:26974329

  8. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Cognitive Complaints among Swedish Employees

    PubMed Central

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Theorell, Töres; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future

  9. Work related impairment of nasal function in Swedish woodwork teachers.

    PubMed Central

    Ahman, M; Holmström, M; Cynkier, I; Söderman, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between exposure and nasal function in woodwork teachers. METHODS: 39 selected woodwork teachers employed full time and 32 control subjects (other school personnel) were examined at the beginning and at the end of a working week with symptom rating, nose and throat inspection, rhinomanometry, nasal mucociliary clearance test, and a smell identification test. During one working day of the same week climate, dust and terpene concentrations were measured in all 39 schools. RESULTS: The ventilation rate was highest in rooms with mechanical ventilation. Range of total dust (personally sampled) was 0.12-1.18 mg/m3, respirable dust 0.02-0.21 mg/m3, and terpenes (area sampled) 0.02-6.8 mg/m3. In contrast to the control subjects, the woodwork teachers had more nasal symptoms on the Thursday afternoon than on the Monday morning, especially those working in rooms without mechanical ventilation. Their mucociliary clearance worsened during the week (mean increase 4 min, P < 0.001). A small impairment of olfactory function was also found, but their rhinomanometric values did not change significantly. Nasal symptoms correlated weakly with the percentage of respirable dust in the total dust. Otherwise there were no significant dose-effect relations between measured dust or terpene concentrations and nasal tests. CONCLUSIONS: The woodwork teachers had mainly reversible nasal complaints, impaired nasal mucociliary clearance and olfactory function related to the work environment, with dust concentrations below the Swedish threshold limit value of 2 mg/m3. PMID:8777447

  10. Contact allergy and hand eczema in Swedish dentists.

    PubMed

    Wallenhammar, L M; Ortengren, U; Andreasson, H; Barregård, L; Björkner, B; Karlsson, S; Wrangsjö, K; Meding, B

    2000-10-01

    Hand eczema and contact allergy in Swedish dentists were studied in a multidisciplinary project. The aims of the study were to establish diagnoses, to investigate the occurrence of contact allergy, in particular to (meth)acrylates, and to evaluate certain consequences of hand eczema. A postal questionnaire on skin symptoms, atopy and occupational experience was mailed to 3,500 dentists aged <65 years, and licensed 1965-1995. The response rate was 88%. Among dentists living in 3 major cities, 14.9% (n= 191) reported hand eczema during the previous year. They were invited to a clinical examination, including patch testing with a standard and a dental series. 158/191 (83%) dentists attended, and hand eczema diagnosis was confirmed in 149/158 (94%). Irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 67% and allergic contact dermatitis in 28%. On patch testing, 50% presented at least 1 positive reaction. The most frequent allergens were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, gold sodium thiosulfate and thiuram mix. 7 (5%) had positive reactions to (meth)acrylates, all to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 6 also to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. 38% had consulted a physician, 4% had been on sick-leave and 1% had changed occupational tasks due to hand eczema. No dentist with allergy to acrylates had been on sick-leave or changed occupation. It is concluded that dentistry is a high-risk occupation for hand eczema, and that irritant contact dermatitis is most common. The prevalence of contact allergy to acrylates was below 1% in the population of responding dentists, and in most cases did not have serious medical, social or occupational consequences. PMID:11011917

  11. Solar Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

  12. Solar flair.

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, John S

    2003-01-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams. PMID:12573926

  13. Solar flair.

    PubMed

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams. PMID:12573926

  14. Cross-cultural comparison of motivation to learn in physical education: Japanese vs Swedish schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Isogai, Hirohisa; Aström, Peter; Karp, Staffan; Johansson, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The present study compared differences between Japanese and Swedish schoolchildren in learning motivation-related variables in physical education. The subjects were 1,562 Japanese fifth and sixth graders (776 boys and 786 girls) ranging in age from 10 to 12 years and 573 Swedish fifth graders (306 boys and 267 girls) from 10 to 13 years (M = 11.4, SD = 0.5). They completed three questionnaires to evaluate the children's learning motivation, factors supporting motivation to learn, and preferences of learning behavior. The questionnaires were taken from Nishida's Diagnosis of Learning Motivation in Physical Education Test, a multidimensional and comprehensive test that measures learning motivation. A 2 x 2 (country by sex) multivariate analysis of variance indicated both Swedish boys and girls scored significantly higher than the Japanese children on most subscales. Results were discussed in relation to differences in the sports environment and culture of the two countries. PMID:18175503

  15. National Report Sweden: Swedish Space Activities- An Overview with a Focus on Balloons and Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, K.

    2015-09-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of Swedish space activities with a focus on balloon and rocket projects, launched or scheduled for launch in the near future from Esrange Space Center. Several on-going national balloon and rocket projects are described in brief. Sweden is also a major player in sounding rocket activities within the ESA Elips programme as provider of launch services and developer of modules for microgravity experiments. Another important activity, described below, is the student programme REXUS/BEXUS, carried out within the framework of bilateral agreement between DLR and SNSB, and in collaboration with ESA. It should also be noted that several other balloons and rockets have been launched from Esrange Space Center during the reporting period. The present paper focuses, however, on the projects led by Swedish Principal Investigators and activities with a major involvement of Swedish scientists and engineers.

  16. Towards a Swedish health policy for the 1990s: planned markets and public firms.

    PubMed

    von Otter, C; Saltman, R B

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish health system has entered a period of major structural transformation. Most county councils have begun to experiment with new service delivery mechanisms, and the governing Social Democratic Party has proposed wide-ranging reforms intended to improve the efficiency, quality, and responsiveness of all public human services. This paper draws upon key elements in the current Swedish debate to develop an alternative policy model for publicly operated health systems in general. We argue that the limitations of existing planning and market based policy models can be overcome by an approach constructed upon 'planned markets'. This alternative model involves restructuring publicly operated systems into an intentionally designed network of 'public firms' that engage in a socially as well as economically efficient process of 'public competition'. The model harnesses patient choice of provider as the driving mechanism to enhance both production efficiency and democratic participation within the Swedish health system. PMID:2024163

  17. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  18. Near Nativeness and Stylistic Lexical Competence in Swedish of First and Second Generation Finnish Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvoet, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Characterizes the perception of stylistic nuances of lexical items in both Swedish and Finnish among members of the Sweden Finnish minority in Sweden, with special emphasis on Swedish. Results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate on immigrants and integration, and suggest a more similar language use may indicate a higher degree of…

  19. A Recent Swedish Attempt to Weaken State Control and Strengthen School Autonomy: The Experiment with Local Time Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnberg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, after a series of far-reaching reforms aiming at decentralisation, deregulation and increased local autonomy in Swedish education, the Government decided to introduce a five-year experiment, which would develop these reform efforts even further. Even though Swedish compulsory schools already were the most autonomous in Europe with regard…

  20. The Impact of National Culture on E-Learning Implementation: A Comparative Study of an Argentinean and a Swedish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Christina; Lindh, Jorgen; Hrastinski, Stefan; Casanovas, Ines; Fernandez, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    This study compared attitudes, purposes, driving factors and barriers of using e-learning at an Argentinean and a Swedish university. Data from a questionnaire answered by 269 university teachers was analysed to discern similarities and differences in responses from Argentinean and Swedish teachers. The main conclusion of the study was that the…

  1. "To Hold the Subject's Territory": The Swedish Association of Biology Teachers and Two Curricular Reforms, 1960-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallstrom, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate and analyse the cultural boundaries of school biology, and to a certain extent the natural science subjects in general, in two Swedish curriculum reforms, from the viewpoint of the Swedish Association of Biology Teachers (ABT). Thomas Gieryn's concept of boundary-work is thus used in analysing how the ABT…

  2. Teaching Minority Students within Minority Schools: Teachers' Conceptions of Multicultural Education in Swedish-Speaking Schools in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Holm, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased cultural diversity due to immigration and is facing challenges in developing multicultural education (ME) in schools. There is a Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, and immigrant students entering Swedish-speaking schools hence become a minority within a minority. In this study, using open-ended interviews, we…

  3. Opportunities for a Democratic Pedagogy: A Comparative Study of South African and Swedish Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helldin, Rolf; Backman, Orjan; Dwyer, Helen; Skarlind, Anders; Hugo, Anna J.; Nel, Norma; Muller, Helene

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based upon the collaboration between two research groups from Stockholm University and the University of South Africa. The main objective is to compare attitudes between South African (SA) and Swedish teachers regarding inclusive education (IE). IE in this paper is examined as a distinct part of the Swedish welfare system. The method…

  4. A Case Study of Swedish Scholars' Experiences with and Perceptions of the Use of English in Academic Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Anna; Sheridan, Vera

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study surveyed academic staff at a Swedish university about their experiences and perceptions of the use of English in their academic fields. The objective was to examine how the influence of English in disciplinary domains might affect the viability of Swedish in the academic sphere and to investigate how it might disadvantage…

  5. Discursive Mechanisms and Human Agency in Language Policy Formation: Negotiating Bilingualism and Parallel Language Use at a Swedish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Källkvist, Marie; Hult, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the enactment of Sweden's Language Act in 2009 and in the face of the growing presence of English, Swedish universities have been called upon by the Swedish Higher Education Authority to craft their own language policy documents. This study focuses on the discursive negotiation of institutional bilingualism by a language policy…

  6. A Functionalist-Constructivist Perspective on the Ontogenesis of Grammar: The Acquisition of Two Swedish Particles/Prepositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlatev, Jordan

    A study explored the functionalist-constructivist approach to acquisition of grammar where word classes emerge as a result of distributional differences related to function. Focus is on acquisition of two Swedish forms, "i" and "pa," which can belong to the categories of either particles or prepositions, in two Swedish children, based on…

  7. "A Spearhead into the Future"--Swedish Comprehensive School Reforms in Foreign Scholarly Literature 1950-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Ingrid

    1989-01-01

    Examines comparative methods and conflict-theory in foreign studies of Swedish educational reforms since World War II, focusing on the economic and social forces behind reform, the goals of reform, and educational outcomes. Concludes that Swedish school reform has failed to achieve its most important goal--social equality. (SV)

  8. School Principals' Perceptions of "Basic Values" in the Swedish Compulsory School System in Regard to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakenberg, Margareth; Malmgren, Therese Vincenti

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare how Swedish school principals understand basic values that are important in fulfilling the Swedish national curriculum, Curriculum 1994 (a new curriculum, Curriculum 2011, which came into operation in autumn 2011, has only minor differences compared to the common text in Curriculum 1994), considering…

  9. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  10. Immigrant Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study between Different Immigrant Groups and a Sample of Swedish Students. Educational and Psychological Interactions No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Horst

    A study sought information about the success of the Swedish 9-year compulsory comprehensive school for students with home language other than Swedish. Immigrant adolescents and a sample of Swedish students answered a questionnaire discussing their lines of study after comprehensive school and the students' views on the home language instruction…

  11. [When Sweden's point was health care--Swedish medical efforts in the Finnish Winter War in 1939-1940].

    PubMed

    Bro, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    More than 400 Swedish volunteers participated in medical units in the Finnish Winter War 1939-40. The Swedish sympathies for Finland were strong and the medical contribution was seen both as a humanitarian and a military action. The Swedish red cross was one of the participating organizations but the red crosses where removed from the vehicles. Much of the medical equipment came from the Swedish army. The link to the Swedish voluntary corps was very strong and many of the treated patients were Swedes. The contribution met with great acclaim while it lasted. Afterwards, however, only a third of the doctors declared their participation. Perhaps they wanted to avoid being associated with the war. PMID:25603184

  12. NASA's New High Intensity Solar Environment Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Across the world, new spaceflight missions are being designed and executed that will place spacecraft and instruments into challenging environments throughout the solar system. To aid in the successful completion of these new missions, NASA has developed a new flexible space environment test platform. The High Intensity Solar Environment Test (HISET) capability located at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center provides scientists and engineers with the means to test spacecraft materials and systems in a wide range of solar wind and solar photon environments. Featuring a solar simulator capable of delivering approximately 1 MW/m2 of broad spectrum radiation at maximum power, HISET provides a means to test systems or components that could explore the solar corona. The solar simulator consists of three high-power Xenon arc lamps that can be operated independently over a range of power to meet test requirements; i.e., the lamp power can be greatly reduced to simulate the solar intensity at several AU. Integral to the HISET capability are charged particle sources that can provide a solar wind (electron and proton) environment. Used individually or in combination, the charged particle sources can provide fluxes ranging from a few nA/cm2 to 100s of nA/cm2 over an energy range of 50 eV to 100 keV for electrons and 100 eV to 30 keV for protons. Anchored by a high vacuum facility equipped with a liquid nitrogen cold shroud for radiative cooling scenarios, HISET is able to accommodate samples as large as 1 meter in diameter. In this poster, details of the HISET capability will be presented, including the wide ]ranging configurability of the system.

  13. Low host-specific Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype BEB6 is common in Swedish lambs.

    PubMed

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Beser, Jessica; Ljungström, Bitte; Troell, Karin; Lebbad, Marianne

    2014-09-15

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi was found in 49/72 (68%) fecal samples from Swedish lambs while 37 samples from 24 adult sheep were negative. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed three genotypes: BEB6, OEB1, and OEB2, the latter two of which were novel and all three of which belonged to a group of genotypes (Group 2) of probably limited zoonotic importance. Our observations suggest that E. bieneusi is common in young Swedish sheep and add support to emerging evidence that the common BEB6 genotype, originally thought to be adapted to cattle, is capable of infecting a variety of hosts, suggesting low host specificity. PMID:24986434

  14. Incidence of hand eczema in female Swedish hairdressers

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Marie‐Louise; Albin, Maria; Brisman, Jonas; Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Lillienberg, Linnéa; Mikoczy, Zoli; Nielsen, Jörn; Rylander, Lars; Torén, Kjell; Meding, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the occurrence of hand eczema in hairdressers in Sweden. Methods The occurrence of hand eczema was estimated in a Swedish longitudinal retrospective cohort study including all female graduates from vocational schools for hairdressers from 1970 to 1995. A stratified sample from the general population acted as controls. A self‐administered questionnaire including questions on the occurrence of hand eczema, skin atopy, working periods and number of hair treatments performed per week was sent to the participants. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of hand eczema were estimated. Results The incidence rate of hand eczema in hairdressers was 23.8 cases/1000 person‐years, whereas in hairdressers who were aged <25 years it was 37.1/1000 person‐years. The corresponding IRR for hairdressers compared with controls was 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 2.8), and that for younger hairdressers was 3.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.5). The mean age at onset of hand eczema was 21.6 years for hairdressers and 21.2 years for controls. The 1‐year prevalence of hand eczema was 18.0% for hairdressers and 12.1% for controls. A large number of hair treatments involving exposure to skin irritants and sensitisers were reported. The incidence rate of hand eczema was higher among individuals with a history of childhood eczema, both for hairdressers and for controls, giving an (age‐adjusted) IRR of 1.9 and 2.2, respectively. The attributable fraction of hand eczema from skin atopy was 9.6%. A synergistic effect of skin atopy and hairdressing was found on the occurrence of hand eczema. The relative excess risk due to interaction was 1.21 (95% CI 0.21 to 2.21; p = 0.01). Conclusion Hairdressers are highly exposed to skin‐damaging substances. The self‐reported incidence of hand eczema was substantially higher in female hairdressers than in controls from the general population and than that found previously in register‐based studies. For many individuals, onset

  15. Patient-centredness as a quality domain in Swedish healthcare: results from the first national surveys in different Swedish healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Kandelaki, Ketevan; Marrone, Gaetano; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Schmidt, Ingrid; Björkman, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients’ perception of the quality and patient-centredness of healthcare has gained increasing interest in the last decade in Sweden, as in other countries. The purpose of the study was to evaluate to what extent patients perceived Swedish healthcare as patient-centred and to explore the satisfaction levels related to gender, education level and to having or not having Swedish as one's mother tongue. Design and settings This study has a cross-sectional design. Analyses were based on the first national patient surveys in Sweden, conducted between 2009 and 2010. The surveys included responses from 232 518 patients who had been in contact with primary, outpatient, inpatient, or emergency care units. Survey questions related to indicators of patient-centred care and sociodemographic variables were selected for the analysis. The patients’ level of satisfaction in the selected indicators was analysed and compared by sociodemographic and background factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used for analysis. Results The patients expressed high levels of satisfaction in questions related to the ‘Respect’ indicator (81–96% satisfied) but lower levels in most of the other indicators of patient-centred care. Only 25–30% of the patients reported they had been told about possible warning signs of their condition or treatment and 58–66% said they had received enough information about their condition. Group differences were detected. The most satisfied patient groups were men, individuals with low levels of education and those with Swedish as their mother tongue. Conclusions According to these first national patient surveys, achieving patient-centred healthcare for all citizens is a challenge for Swedish healthcare authorities. Future analyses of national patient surveys should show whether national efforts to encourage acceptance of patient-centred approaches and strategies for equal care will give intended results. PMID:26747031

  16. Investigation of solar active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the solar optical universal polarimeter, definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Topka, Kenneth P.

    1992-01-01

    The definition phase of a scientific study of active regions on the sun by balloon flight of a former Spacelab instrument, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) is described. SOUP is an optical telescope with image stabilization, tunable filter and various cameras. After the flight phase of the program was cancelled due to budgetary problems, scientific and engineering studies relevant to future balloon experiments of this type were completed. High resolution observations of the sun were obtained using SOUP components at the Swedish Solar Observatory in the Canary Islands. These were analyzed and published in studies of solar magnetic fields and active regions. In addition, testing of low-voltage piezoelectric transducers was performed, which showed they were appropriate for use in image stabilization on a balloon.

  17. Solar Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  18. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  19. Design, construction, and measurement of a large solar powered thermoacoustic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Reh-Lin

    2001-07-01

    A device based on harnessing concentrated solar power in combination with using thermoacoustic principles has been built, instrumented, and tested. Its acoustic power is generated by solar radiation and is subsequently used to pump heat from external loads. The direct conversion between thermal and mechanical energy without going through any electronic stage makes the mechanism simple. Construction of the solar collector is also rather unsophisticated. It was converted from a 10-ft satellite dish with aluminized Mylar glued on the surface. The thermoacoustic device was mounted on the dish with its engine's hot side positioned near the focus of the parabolic dish, about 1 meter above the center of the dish. A 2-dimensional solar tracking system was built, using two servo motors to position the dish at pre-calculated coordinates. The solar powered thermoacoustic cooler is intended to be used where solar power is abundant and electricity may not be available or reliable. The cooler provides cooling during solar availability. Cooling can be maintained by the latent heat of ice when solar power is unattainable. The device has achieved cooling although compromised by gas leakage and thermal losses and was not able to provide temperatures low enough to freeze water. Improvements of the device are expected through modifications suggested herein.

  20. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  1. Multiculturalism Swedish Style: Shifts and Sediments in Educational Policies and Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Sabine; Rabo, Annika

    2014-01-01

    In the almost two decades that have passed since the Swedish parliament declared that Sweden is a multicultural society, debates about immigrants, about multiculturalism and about different ways of being a citizen have raged. So far there has been no stepping away from the declaration. In the rhetorical arena multiculturalism is still a word with…

  2. National Policy and the Implementation of Recognition of Prior Learning in a Swedish Municipality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of prior learning (RPL) has been a part of adult education policy and practice for a long time, but in different ways and in different times and places. In Sweden, RPL has been an explicit part of the policy since 1996. This policy analysis starts with the current Swedish policy concerning RPL. The figures of thought expressed in…

  3. Special Educational Resources in the Swedish Upper Secondary Schools: A Total Population Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramberg, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the special educational resources in the Swedish upper secondary schools using a total population survey that covers all upper secondary schools. Special educators and special teachers together constitute the special educational resources at each school. With two types of regression models (logistic and linear regression), the…

  4. Doing Friendship during the Second Year of Life in a Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies within early childhood education and care indicate the importance of social competence. This article focuses on how friendship is created among very young children in Swedish preschools. The study was carried out within a toddler unit with 15 children. Six 1-year-old children, three girls and three boys, were observed during…

  5. Renaissance or a Backward Step? Disparities and Tensions in Two New Swedish Pathways in VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Ingrid; Loeb, Ingrid Henning

    2013-01-01

    This article builds on results from studies of two new pathways in Swedish upper secondary VET. A major reform was launched in 2011 and the restructuring was presented by the Minister of Education as a "renaissance for VET education". The conclusion of the Upper Secondary Commission is that "students shall be more specialised within…

  6. Developing Swedish Spelling Exercises on the ICALL Platform Lärka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijetlovic, Dijana; Volodina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this project we developed web services on the ICALL platform Lärka for automatic generation of Swedish spelling exercises using Text-To-Speech (TTS) technology which allows L2 learners to train their spelling and listening individually at home. The spelling exercises contain five different linguistic levels, whereby the language learner has the…

  7. Evaluation of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life) in Young Swedish Military Conscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Kallmen, Hakan; Leifman, Hakan; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Andreasson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use in male Swedish military conscripts, aged 18 to 22 years. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental design was used in which 1,371…

  8. Summer Entrepreneur an Activity for Stimulating Entrepreneurship among Youths: A Case Study in a Swedish County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to outline findings from a research project that has investigated an initiative to stimulate youths to become more entrepreneurial. The concept of summer entrepreneur has been developed in the last decade in a Swedish county. It was developed out of the idea that youths should have a possibility to run their own companies as…

  9. Organizing for the Third Mission: Structural Conditions for Outreach and Relevance at Two Swedish HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellstrom, Tomas; Jacob, Merle; Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigate how Third Mission activities at universities, such as the outreach and technology transfer functions, are anchored in organizational structures and practices, and discuss the implications of this relationship for the success of the activities. They draw on case studies of two Swedish university colleges to illustrate the…

  10. WISC-III Index Score Profiles of 520 Swedish Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Dahlgren, Sven Olof

    2010-01-01

    WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) index score profiles and their characteristics were examined with traditional statistics in a large Swedish sample consisting of children with autistic disorder (n = 85), Asperger's disorder (n = 341), or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 94). There was a clear and significant…

  11. A Peace Education Pioneer: A Swedish Professor in Pedagogy Dedicated to Peace Education--Ake Bjerstedt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Irene; Johansson, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Swedish professor Ake Bjerstedt and discusses his contributions to the field of peace education. Bjerstedt helped history researchers a great deal by writing bibliographies like "Educating towards a culture of peace. A select bibliography focusing on the last 25 years", 2001, and by keeping a well organized archive and saving…

  12. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Psychopathology Inventory for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Carina; Sonnander, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Given the difficulties with symptom identification and the assessment of mental health problems in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) there has been a focus on the development of relevant assessment schedules for persons with ID. A Swedish version of the psychopathology inventory for mentally retarded adults (PIMRA, informant version), an…

  13. Formation of Apprenticeships in the Swedish Education System: Different Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ingela; Wärvik, Gun-Britt; Thång, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the major features of the Swedish Government's new initiative--a school based Upper Secondary Apprenticeship model. The analyses are guided by activity theory. The analysed texts are part of the parliamentary reform-making process of the 2011 Upper Secondary School reform. The analyses unfold how the Government, the Swedish…

  14. The Politics of Reading and Writing Problems: Changing Definitions in Swedish Schooling during the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karin Zetterqvist; Sandin, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to relate the different scholarly views on reading and writing problems, proposed by influential agents with different research backgrounds, to the general development of participation in schooling and to educational policies in the Swedish welfare state during the 1900s. An historical perspective makes it possible…

  15. Parental Identification and Education. Swedish Research on Higher Education, 1984:3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Margot

    Empirical findings and theoretical conclusions of a Swedish study on students' identification with their parents and their choice of college studies are presented. Attention was directed to parental identification, parental dominance, and social class membership in a group of women who had just begun their studies during the fall 1976 term or the…

  16. Setting Things Right? Swedish Upper Secondary School Reform in a 40-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth; Arreman, Inger Erixon; Lundstrom, Ulf; Ronnberg, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses reforms addressing and affecting the curriculum and organisation of Swedish upper secondary education over 40 years, up to an initiative by the present non-socialist government. The aim is to analyse the current reform of upper secondary education and relate it to previous reforms during a 40-year period in terms of…

  17. "Wild Scouts": Swedish Scouting Preparing Responsible Citizens for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg Brostrom, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish scout program. Socialization is used as a theoretical tool in the analysis. The method is inspired by critical discourse analysis. What are children and young people being prepared for, how is it accomplished, and by whom? The findings reveal two discourses: doing things as an investment for the…

  18. Writing Practices in Swedish Teacher Education and the Inclusion/Exclusion of Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of an increasing drop-out rate of students with ethnic minority and working-class backgrounds, the aim of this paper is to discuss the ways in which writing practices in Swedish teacher education produce power and include/exclude subjectivities. A "conventional academic writing practice" will be compared to a "hybrid writing…

  19. Not Just Another Evaluation: A Comparative Study of Four Educational Quality Projects at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Sara; Fogelberg, Karin; Kettis, Åsa; Lindgren, Stefan; Sandoff, Mette; Geschwind, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four recent self-initiated educational quality projects at Swedish universities are compared and analyzed. The article focuses on how the universities have handled the tension between external demands and internal norms. The aim is to contribute to an improved understanding of quality management in contemporary universities. On the…

  20. Examining the Validity of a Swedish Version of the Self-Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindwall, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the factorial validity, factorial invariance across gender, and construct validity of a Swedish version of the Self-Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire (SPEQ; Conroy, Motl, & Hall, 2000). The a priori two-factor 14-item, 11-item, and 9-item models fail to reach acceptable levels of fit in a calibration sample. A modified…

  1. The Swedish Sports Movement and the PE Teacher 1940-2003: From Supporter to Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) used to be the foremost advocate and defender of physical education (PE) as a subject and the work of PE teachers. This paper deals with the way in which this support manifested itself during 1940-2003 and is based on a discourse analysis of texts from RF. The analysis shows that RF has assigned three…

  2. The Swedish National Curriculum: Play and Learning with Fundamental Values in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Arlemalm-Hagser, Eva

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, early childhood education is unique in its combination of learning and play, care and fostering fundamental values. The aim of this article is to discuss and problematise current Swedish research from the early childhood education field with a focus on play and learning in relation to three fundamental values affirmed in the Swedish…

  3. Redefining Participation? On the Positioning of Children in Swedish Welfare Benefits Appeals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernqvist, Stina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the representation of children in the Swedish welfare state, and particularly how children and parents living in economic hardship are positioned in issues regarding financial aid. According to Article 12 in the UNCRC, children have a right to be heard "in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child".…

  4. Preschool Staff's View of Emergent Literacy Approaches in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norling, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool staff's view of emergent literacy approaches in Swedish preschools with the following research question: How do preschool staff describe and explain the approaches they use in the emergent literacy environment of preschool? Focus-group interviews were conducted with 52 participating preschool units.…

  5. Peace Education: A Tentative Introduction from a Swedish Perspective. Peace Education Reports No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, Bengt

    Discussing the concept of peace education, specifically from a Swedish perspective, this paper offers a rationale for the inclusion of peace education in school curricula throughout the world. Organized into three sections, the first section presents a historical background to current peace education efforts, and focuses on developments since…

  6. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool…

  7. Punctuated Equilibrium--Digital Technology in Schools' Teaching of the Mother Tongue (Swedish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erixon, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with how teachers and pupils in seventh to ninth grade in Sweden look upon and relate to the incorporation of new digital technology in mother tongue education (Swedish). The result shows that both the classification and framing of the subject is being challenged by new technology, but that the awareness of the impact seems to…

  8. The School's Democratic Mission and Conflict Resolution: Voices of Swedish Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Ilse; Olsson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Swedish educational policy mandates have given schools a double mission: the development of content-based knowledge as well as the promotion of democratic values and competencies. While detailed learning outcomes are specified for content domains, the democratic mission is imprecisely described and unsupported by practical measures. This leaves…

  9. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  10. The Construction of Facts: Preconditions for Meaning in Teaching Energy in Swedish Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyberg, Per; Lee, Francis

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanisms that govern the processes of inclusion and exclusion of knowledge. It draws on three cases from Swedish classrooms about how energy is created as an area of knowledge. We are interested in how knowledge is made valid and legitimate in a school context, and in defining and finding tools to identify…

  11. The Acquisition of E-Books in the Libraries of the Swedish Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceviciute, Elena; Borg, Martin; Kuzminiene, Ramune; Konrad, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim is to compare the advantages and problems of e-book acquisition identified in research literature to those experienced by two Swedish university libraries. Method: A literature review was used to identify the main issues related to acquisition of e-books by academic libraries. The data for comparison were collected through…

  12. Homework as Serious Family Business: Power and Subjectivity in Negotiations about School Assignments in Swedish Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    Most previous research on parental involvement in children's homework has focused on the pedagogical advantages or disadvantages of school assignments while neglecting the practice in its social context, family life. By studying parent-child homework negotiations in Swedish families, this paper examines how family members position themselves and…

  13. Specific Language Impairment in Children: A Comparison of English and Swedish

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Hansson, Kristina; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Deevy, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cross-linguistic investigation of English- and Swedish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) in an attempt to determine whether Wexler’s (1998; 2003) (Extended) Unique Checking Constraint (EUCC) can account for the grammatical profiles of these groups of children. In Study I, a group of Swedish-speaking preschoolers with SLI showed greater use of finite verb inflections and copula forms than a group of English-speaking preschoolers with SLI, even though the two groups were carefully matched according to both age and severity of language impairment. In Study II, the same Swedish-speaking children with SLI showed high levels of appropriate verb-second use with finite verbs. However, they were less proficient in this regard than a group of younger typically developing Swedish children with similar mean lengths of utterance. The findings from both studies were generally compatible with predictions based on the EUCC. Issues in need of future investigation are discussed. PMID:25995609

  14. A Piece of Resistance: Exploring Behaviour Assessment and Political Subjectification in a Swedish Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, students at a Swedish Upper Secondary School engaged in a series of protests and demonstrations against the implementation of a written assessment of student conduct. This article explores the motivations and manifestations of this resistance, mainly by analysing debate articles and web material from the student union that organized the…

  15. Comparative Research on Mixed-Age Groups in Swedish Nursery and Compulsory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on the effects of mixed-age grouping (MAG) in Swedish nursery and elementary schools. Although studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that MAG was beneficial to children's learning and socioemotional development and to teachers' work satisfaction, studies conducted in the 1990s suggest that MAG does not promote…

  16. Swedish-Portuguese Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Information and Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerppe, Roland

    Discussions between Portugal and Sweden regarding cooperation in the field of education have been going on since 1975. This report outlines short term and long range goals, conditions, and proposals of the Swedish mission to Portugal to implement modern information and documentation services in scientific and technical research and development.…

  17. Wayward Warriors: The Viking Motif in Swedish and English Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In this article the Viking motif in children's literature is explored--from its roots in (adult) nationalist and antiquarian discourse, over pedagogical and historical texts for children, to the eventual diversification (or dissolution) of the motif into different genres and forms. The focus is on Swedish Viking narratives, but points of…

  18. Swedish Adult Education in Transition? Implications of the Work First Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Eva; Warvik, Gun-Britt

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish government recently launched a number of short-term initiatives within the framework of formal adult education. These initiatives are: vocational adult education, education for commercial drivers and apprenticeship education for adults. The new initiatives can be seen as education for the short-term needs of the world of work and we…

  19. Minds on Earth Hour--A Theme for Sustainability in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ärlemalm-Hagsér, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This educational science article illustrates education for sustainability in a theme about Earth Hour (energy conservation) in one Swedish preschool. This case study is based on audio recordings of dialogues between children aged five to six years and preschool teachers. It is guided by critical theory, which is also used as a conceptual tool to…

  20. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  1. Strong Girls and Bright Colours: Current Themes in Swedish Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Elisabeth

    Strong girls and bright colors characterize many Swedish picture books in recent years. The girls are visible and active, and the books also include many wise mothers. The picture books deal with a variety of subjects, ranging from very difficult subjects like death to pure nonsense. Sweden has many good illustrators who work experimentally with…

  2. Internationalisation in the Swedish Nurse Education from the Perspective of Teachers Involved: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Wihlborg, Monne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from an interview investigation with teachers in Swedish nurse education especially interested in internationalising the education. The aim has been to study teachers' understandings and experiences of internationalisation against the backdrop of the strong concern for internationalisation expressed in policy documents.…

  3. Marketization on Export: Representations of the Swedish Free School Model in English Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how "social democratic" Sweden initiated and implemented choice reforms that attracted the interest of "liberal" England. By studying how English media framed and portrayed the Swedish free school "export" from 2008 to 2014, this paper aims to describe and discuss how a market-oriented policy idea,…

  4. Straight Roads and Winding Tracks: Swedish Educational Policy from a Gender Equality Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgqvist-Saltzman, Inga

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Swedish educational reforms, policies, and research. Considers whether Sweden's gender-equality goal supports research that develops more gender-sensitive methodologies and concepts to upgrade women's knowledge, experiences, and values. Sweden's goal of giving men and women the same responsibilities for work, parenthood, and civil duties…

  5. Swedish Tomorrow--A Product of the Linguistic Dominance of English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the consequences of the dominance of English for a small language like Swedish and a small country like Sweden. Presents a survey of contrastive studies, which reveal that texts and writing in the mother tongue differ between cultures. Discusses studies of the current situation in Sweden, which reveal a serious threat towards certain…

  6. Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…

  7. In the Public Eye: Swedish School Inspection and Local Newspapers: Exploring the Audit-Media Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnberg, Linda; Lindgren, Joakim; Segerholm, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dual dependencies apparent at the intersection of the media society and the audit society by empirically exploring and discussing the relationship between Swedish local newspaper coverage and school inspection activities. The research questions pertain to the Inspectorate's media strategy, how inspection is…

  8. A Curriculum Tailored for Workers? Knowledge Organization and Possible Transitions in Swedish VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nylund, Mattias; Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of the Swedish upper secondary school reform of 2011 (GY11) is the new direction it sets out for the organization of vocational education (VET) and the role it plays in youths' transitions from school to work. This study analyses the GY11 reform in terms of its impact on the organization of knowledge in VET and its implications for…

  9. Experiences of Educational Content in Swedish Technical Vocational Education: Examples from the Energy and Industry Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbrink, Nina; Bjurulf, Veronica; Olin-Scheller, Christina; Tengberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this study, teachers and workplace supervisors in two vocational programmes at a Swedish upper secondary school were interviewed about their experiences of what is important to teach and learn during vocational education. The interviews were analysed thematically by the qualitative method analysis of narratives concerning what the informants…

  10. The Impact of Elderly Care Competence and Quality Improvement Programme in Four Swedish Municipalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hjelte, Jan

    2013-01-01

    During a number of years Swedish municipalities have work with improvement of competence and long-term quality in elderly care. The overall aim of the present study was to compare different learning activities (workplace improvement and/or courses), and to relate these activities to learning climate, learning strategies, and perception of care…

  11. The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

  12. Contradictory Values in Doctoral Education: A Study of Gender Composition in Disciplines in Swedish Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haake, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory values in the Swedish doctoral education system are analysed through an interview and survey study of different academic disciplines: female-dominated, mixed and male-dominated. The focus is directed towards how the selected disciplines conduct application and selection processes in doctoral education and special attention is given…

  13. From Opinion-Based to Evidence-Based Social Work: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut; Soydan, Haluk; Tengvald, Karin; Anttila, Sten

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an account of Sweden's Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work Practice (IMS), located in Stockholm, Sweden. The article places IMS in the context of making Swedish social care services less opinion-based and more evidence-based. The institute is an example of how policy-driven processes promote the use of evidence-based…

  14. Grade Stability in a Criterion-Referenced Grading System: The Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on…

  15. The Assessment Process in a Swedish Year Five Classroom: "Reach Page 52!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olovsson, Tord Göran

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the assessment process in a Swedish year five classroom, involving pupils aged 11 to 12 years. The paper is based on classroom observations and interviews, which were analysed to explore the assessment process in daily classroom practice, and investigates how the assessment process was understood by pupils and the…

  16. Child Custody Rules in the Context of Swedish Family Law. Social Change in Sweden, No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    In recent years, existing family legislation in Sweden has undergone a review process resulting in extensive revisions. The decisive factor behind these revisions has been change in Swedish society during the 20th century, including urbanization, frequent changes in residence, fewer children per family, the labor force participation of most women…

  17. Thinking and Caring about Indigenous Peoples' Human Rights: Swedish Students Writing History beyond Scholarly Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    According to national and international guidelines, schools should promote historical thinking and foster moral values. Scholars have debated, but not analysed in depth in practice, whether history education can and should hold a normative dimension. This study analyses current human rights education in two Swedish senior high school groups, in…

  18. Comprehensive Treatment of Women with Postpartum Psychosis across Health Care Systems from Swedish Psychiatrists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engqvist, Inger; Ahlin, Arne; Ferszt, Ginette; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies concerning the psychiatrist's experiences of treating women with postpartum psychosis (PPP) or how they react to these women are limited in the literature. In this study a qualitative design is used. Data collection includes semi-structured interviews with nine Swedish psychiatrists working in psychiatric hospitals. The audio-taped…

  19. "You Need Help as Usual, Do You?": Joking and Swearing for Collegiality in a Swedish Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the KINSA project (The Communicative Situation of Immigrants at Swedish Workplaces), which aimed to identify communicative factors that have a positive impact on the integration of second language speakers in the workplace and in their immediate work team. The focus here is on humour and swearing as strategies for doing…

  20. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  1. A Noisy Silence about Care: Swedish Preschool Teachers' Talk about Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfgren, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates what happens to institutional narratives of care in Swedish preschool when a policy on increased documentation is introduced. Questions deal with preschool teachers' professionalism as expressed through the teachers' talk about documentation. The analysis is based on theories in education policy, teacher professionalism…

  2. Staging Gender: The Articulation of Tacit Gender Dimensions in Drama Classes in a Swedish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This article engages with gender, performance and embodiment in drama classes in a Swedish context. It presents a case study of how instructors at an academy of dramatic arts integrate theoretical knowledge on gender into their students' creative and pedagogical practice, as well as an analysis of why this approach works. Visualisation of how…

  3. Pluralism in Practice--Experiences from Swedish Evaluation, School Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudsberg, Karin; Ohman, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In the international policy debate, environmental education and education for sustainable development seem to be moving away from a focus on behavioural modifications to more pluralistic approaches. This article illuminates a Swedish example of a strategic interplay between evaluation, development and research that relates to this shift, involving…

  4. Global Flows in Local Language Planning: Articulating Parallel Language Use in Swedish University Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Francis M.; Källkvist, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the language policies of three Swedish universities are examined as instances of language planning in local contexts. Although Sweden has the national Language Act of 2009 (SFS 2009:600) as well as a general Higher Education Ordinance (SFS 1993:100; SFS 2014:1096), language planning for higher education is left to the purview of…

  5. Discrimination against Students with Foreign Backgrounds: Evidence from Grading in Swedish Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    We rigorously test for discrimination against students with foreign backgrounds in high school grading in Sweden. We analyse a random sample of national tests in the Swedish language graded both non-blindly by the student's own teacher and blindly without any identifying information. The increase in the test score due to non-blind grading is…

  6. The Front and Back Stages of Swedish School Inspection: Opening the Black Box of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    This article provides results from a study of the hidden processes of consensus formation that precede and make possible official judgments and decisions of the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SI). The research question for the study was: How is knowledge negotiated on the back stage of school inspection and presented on the front stage? The article…

  7. Cause for Concern or Moral Panic? The Prospects of the Swedish Mods in Retrospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Susanne; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish mods of the 1960s frightened the parental generation like few other youth cultures. Was the concern justified--was the mod culture a hotbed of social maladjustment? Or would the mods come to live conventional lives to the same extent as their peers? We present analyses from a large longitudinal study allowing for a follow-up of…

  8. Sociocultural Diversity and Reading Literacy in a Finland-Swedish Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunell, Viking; Saretsalo, Lauri

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationships among students' backgrounds in terms of parental education and socioeconomic level, Finnish linguistic influence, and reading literacy for students in Swedish-speaking schools in Finland. Data from two national studies indicate that home background is more significant for reading literacy than is linguistic background.…

  9. Institutional and Home-Based Long-Term Care Alternatives: The 1965-85 Swedish Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Stig; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Swedish experience in which the official old-age care policy has been to substitute home care for institutional care. Found some substitution of the two forms of long-term care which took place from 1965-75, but thereafter the use of long-term care institutions and home care remained stable or contracted. (Author/ABL)

  10. Grade Inflation and School Competition: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Swedish Upper Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, C.; Wikstrom, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between grade inflation and school competition by studying graduates from the Swedish upper secondary schools in 1997. The final grades are compared to the SweSAT national test scores. Single school municipalities are compared with multiple school municipalities in order to study if potential intra-municipal…

  11. Transition between Swedish Preschool and Preschool Class: A Question about Interweaving Care and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatalo, Tarja; Meier, Joanna; Frank, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study highlights teachers' experiences with transition from Swedish preschool to preschool class, i.e. from the daycare centre to the formal school. One assumption was that transition activities, to favour continuity in the long-term, need to focus on children's learning within the target areas that the policy documents specify for preschool.…

  12. A Phronesian Strategy to the Education for Sustainable Development in Swedish School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grice, Marie; Franck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is a foundational concept in educational contexts which seems to be interpretable in various terms. With reference to four syllabuses in the Swedish curriculum, our aim is to identify possible ways of conceiving how the concept may be developed in relation to perspectives bringing forth the relation between…

  13. Individual Educational Plans in Swedish Schools -- Forming Identity and Governing Functions in Pupils' Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasson, Ingela; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2013-01-01

    The documentation of pupils in Swedish schools is extensive and a documentation culture has come to characterize the schools in recent years. In the context of decentralization and changing governance, focus has increasingly been directed towards assessment, follow-up and evaluation of pupils' learning and social development. This article…

  14. Physical Education beyond Sportification and Biopolitics: An Untimely Defense of Swedish Gymnastics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2013-01-01

    In this article we try to think in new ways about the educational relevance of physical exercise at school, revisiting a concrete practice that is mostly seen as superseded, namely Swedish gymnastics. A phenomenological analysis of this "forgotten" discipline will show that physical education might be taken in a very literal sense as the…

  15. Parental Monitoring, Peer Activities and Alcohol Use: A Study Based on Data on Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Daniel; Hagquist, Curt; Starrin, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the association between two types of social relations during leisure time (to parents and peers) and the frequency of alcohol use among Swedish adolescents, taking possible interaction effects into account. Methods: The data were collected during the 1995-2005 time period by using a questionnaire handed out in the…

  16. Complex Values in Different Cultures: Some Research Results of Psycholinguistic Experiments with Russian and Swedish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabes, Vladimir; Troshchenkova, Ekaterina; Potapova, Tamara; Ivarsson, Lena; Damber, Ulla; Bostedt, Goran

    2012-01-01

    In the article on the basis of the psycholinguistic experimental data obtained in 2009-2010 from Russian and Swedish students, we consider internal features of several complex values ("Harmony", "Freedom", "Democracy", "Tolerance" and "Patriotism") and analyze their external systemic organization, taking into account both specificity of the two…

  17. A Survey of Swedish Teachers' Concerns for Preschool Children at Risk of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Birgitta; Andershed, Henrik; Janson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a problem that is related to pre-school teachers' prolonged and temporary concerns for children's home situations and the extent to which these children were in need of special support in pre-school and/or were reported to the CPA. Data were obtained from a Swedish prospective study (the SOFIA-study)…

  18. Developments in the Curriculum for the Swedish MSc Programme in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmfors, Birgitta; Nilsson, Kjell-Arne

    In Sweden, higher education in agriculture is provided exclusively by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The 130 students admitted to the Master of Science program in agriculture annually may choose to specialize in one of six specialty areas (plant science, animal science, food science, biotechnology, economics, and engineering),…

  19. Handedness in Swedish 10-year-olds, Some Background and Associated Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Aims to obtain prevalence figures for left-handedness among 10-year-old Swedish children; to replicate some findings concerning Bishop's (1980) extended pathological left-handedness hypothesis; to evaluate the influence of factors such as the child's sex and reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period; and to determine the…

  20. Validation of the Swedish translation of eating assessment tool (S-EAT-10).

    PubMed

    Möller, Riitta; Safa, Stephanie; Östberg, Per

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The Swedish Eating Assessment Tool (S-EAT-10) is a reliable and valid self-administered tool in assessment of dysphagia in adult Swedish patients with high internal consistency, reliability, and discriminative validity. The normative data show that a score of 3 or more is abnormal. S-EAT-10 is recommended to be used in preliminary diagnostics of dysphagia. Objective To translate and adapt the EAT-10 for use in the Swedish patient population, and to present norms and measures of discriminative validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (S-EAT-10). Methods Prospective consecutive clinical study. In total, 134 community-dwelling adult respondents/controls without dysphagia completed the S-EAT-10, as did 119 patients referred for fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Patient vs control status was used as the criterion for discriminative validity assessment by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean S-EAT-10 score was 0.2 (range = 0-3) for controls and 18 (range = 0-38) for patients. Based on a cut-off score of ≥ 3 which was considered to be reflective of abnormalities, sensitivity was 98.5% and specificity 94.1%. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88), as was test-re-test reliability (ICC = 0.90). PMID:26924383

  1. Learning Biology and Mathematics Outdoors: Effects and Attitudes in a Swedish High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstam, Emilia; Blom, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that learning biology in an outdoor environment has a positive cognitive and affective impact on 13-15-year-old, Swedish high school pupils. Eighty-five pupils in four classes participated in a quasi-experimental design. Half the pupils, taking a biology course in ecology or diversity of life, had several lessons outdoors…

  2. Non-Word Repetition and Non-Word Discrimination in Swedish Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterskiold-Wagner, Christina; Sahlen, Birgitta; Nyman, Angelique

    2005-01-01

    By looking at data on expressive phonology, non-word repetition, non-word discrimination and phonological sensitivity in two groups of Swedish children, the common basis for tasks tapping into different levels of phonological processing is discussed. Two studies were performed, one including children with language impairment (LI) and one including…

  3. Teaching for Learning or Teaching for Documentation? Music Teachers' Perspectives on a Swedish Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandén, Olle; Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses 10 Swedish music teachers' descriptions of how a new music syllabus and a new credit scale have influenced their practice. In the new curriculum, grading is introduced in year 6 and not, as previously, in year 8. We have therefore focused on the effects of this change on school years 5-7. The new syllabus is much more precise…

  4. Professional knowledge among Swedish and Saudi healthcare practitioners regarding oro-facial pain in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Khotani, A; Naimi-Akbar, A; Björnsson, O; Christidis, N; Alstergren, P

    2016-01-01

    Oro-facial pain (OFP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents are a growing problem. To meet patients' healthcare needs, professionals must perform their work intuitively and with quality. Therefore, a high degree of professional knowledge is necessary. To investigate the professional knowledge regarding OFP/TMD in children and adolescents among Swedish and Saudi Arabian dental and medical specialists compared with Swedish OFP specialists. One questionnaire including the four domains Chronic pain and behaviour; Aetiology; Diagnosis and classification; Treatment and prognosis was distributed to 383 potential participants, that is physicians and dentists in Sweden and Saudi Arabia. The Swedish OFP/TMD specialists were used as a reference group. The response rates from Sweden and Saudi Arabia were 49% and 86%, respectively. The degree of agreement was highest in the domain Chronic pain and behaviour, especially for the Swedish groups. Regarding the other three domains, the agreement was modest to poor. In general, Swedish groups showed a higher agreement with Swedish OFP/TMD specialists than Saudi Arabian groups. This study shows that professional knowledge regarding OFP/TMD in children and adolescents is limited among Swedish and Saudi Arabian dental and medical professionals compared to Swedish OFP/TMD specialists. In Swedish groups, the professional knowledge is more accurate than in the corresponding Saudi Arabian. With these results in mind, and the frequent prevalence of OFP/TMD in children and adolescents, one can draw the conclusion that there is a need for modern medical education regarding OFP/TMD among both physicians and dentists, especially in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26134067

  5. The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Methods: Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants’ capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). Results: The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group. PMID:25780470

  6. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  7. Psychometric properties of the Swedish childbirth self-efficacy inventory (Swe-CBSEI)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported that women who are admitted to delivery wards in early labour process before an active stage of labour has started run an increased risk of instrumental deliveries. Therefore, it is essential to focus on factors such as self-efficacy that can enhance a woman’s own ability to cope with the first stage of labour. However, there was no Swedish instrument measuring childbirth self-efficacy available. Thus, the aim of the study was to translate the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and to psychometrically test the Swedish version on first- time mothers within the Swedish culture. Methods The method included a forward-backward translation with face and content validity. The psychometric properties were evaluated using a Principal Component Analysis and by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and inter-item correlations. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used to describe and compare the scales. All data were collected from January 2011 to June 2012, from 406 pregnant women during the gestational week 35-42. Results The Swedish version of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory indicated good reliability and the Principal Component Analysis showed a three-component structure. The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test indicated that the women could differentiate between the concepts outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectatancy and between the two labour stages, active stage and the second stage of labour. Conclusions The Swedish version of Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory is a reliable and valid instrument. The inventory can act as a tool to identify those women who need extra support and to evaluate the efforts of improving women’s self-efficacy during pregnancy. PMID:24383788

  8. Solar Sprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  9. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ...   View Larger Image On June 10, 2002 the Moon obscured the central portion of the solar disk in a phenomenon known as an ... in which 99.6 percent of the solar disk was shadowed by the Moon, was situated in the central Pacific Ocean. Since there are no populated ...

  10. Solar Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hippel, Frank; Williams, Robert H.

    1975-01-01

    As fossil fuels decrease in availability and environmental concerns increase, soalr energy is becoming a potential major energy source. Already solar energy is used for space heating in homes. Proposals for solar-electric generating systems include land-based or ocean-based collectors and harnessing wind and wave power. Photosynthesis can also…

  11. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  12. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The different types of solar ponds are described, including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. Then the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds are discussed and costs are compared. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirement is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  13. Solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Jayadev, T.S.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    This report first describes the different types of solar ponds including the nonconvecting salt gradient pond and various saltless pond designs. It then discusses the availability and cost of salts for salt gradient ponds, and compares the economics of salty and saltless ponds as a function of salt cost. A simple computational model is developed to approximate solar pond performance. This model is later used to size solar ponds for district heating and industrial process heat applications. For district heating, ponds are sized to provide space conditioning for a group of homes, in different regions of the United States. Size requirements is on the order of one acre for a group of 25 to 50 homes. An economic analysis is performed of solar ponds used in two industrial process heat applications. The analysis finds that solar ponds are competitive when conventional heat sources are priced at $5 per million Btu and expected to rise in price at a rate of 10% per year. The application of solar ponds to the generation of electricity is also discussed. Total solar pond potential for displacing conventional energy sources is estimated in the range of from one to six quadrillion Btu per year in the near and intermediate future.

  14. Imprisonment--a Matter of Letting People Live or Stay Alive? Some Reasoning from a Swedish Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Svenolov

    1996-01-01

    Overemphasis on punishment undermines successful reintegration of offenders into society. The Swedish prison system emphasizes the journey back to society from the first day in prison, choosing to think of inmates as "citizens in prison." (SK)

  15. Dieting behaviors, body shape perceptions, and body satisfaction: cross-cultural differences in Argentinean and Swedish 13-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Kristina; Lunde, Carolina; Frisén, Ann

    2007-06-01

    This exploratory study represents a cross-cultural effort to examine differences in dieting practices and weight loss attempts, perceived body shape, and body satisfaction between young Argentinean and Swedish adolescents. The study group consisted of 358 Argentinean (193 girls, 165 boys) and 874 Swedish (474 girls, 400 boys) 13-year-olds. A main finding was that Argentinean and Swedish adolescents did not differ on body satisfaction, although girls in both countries displayed greater body dissatisfaction than did boys. Dieting and weight loss attempts were more prevalent among the Argentinean adolescents, especially among girls, and did not appear to depend on overweight or perception of body shape. The samples also differed in their perceptions of body shape and the effect those perceptions had on their body satisfaction, with Swedish adolescents suffering more from negative body shape perceptions. PMID:18089264

  16. Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  17. Solar chulha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  18. Solar dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelin, R.W.; Hurst, D.W.; Osos, G.R.

    1984-02-07

    Fabrics are dried by tumbling the fabrics in a drying chamber into which hot air is introduced. The hot air is formed by passing ambient air through a solar heater to heat the air to a first temperature, and then further heating the air with a second heater such as a burner. The burner can be one which burns a fuel in the presence of combustion air. The combustion air can be a portion of the air that is passed through the solar heater. After drying the fabrics by this method, the drying zone can be cooled and the fabrics can be further dried by passing air through the solar heater, and then without further heating the air that has passed through the solar heater, introducing the air to the drying chamber.

  19. Solar Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  20. Solar activity during the space weather incident of Nov 4., 2015 - Complex data and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, Hermann; Pulkkinen, Antti; Buchert, Stephan; Monstein, Christian; Klein, Karl Ludwig; Marqué, Christophe; Krucker, Säm

    2016-04-01

    During the afternoon of November 4, 2015 most southern Swedish aviation radar systems experienced heavy disturbances, which eventually forced an outing of the majority of the radars. In consequence the entire southern Swedish aerospace had to be closed for incoming and leaving air traffic for about 2 hours. Immediately after the incident space weather anomalies were made responsible for the radar disturbances, but it took a very thorough investigation to differentiate disturbances from an ongoing magnetic storm caused by earlier solar activity, which had no disturbing effects on the flight radars, from a new and, indeed, extreme radio-burst on the Sun, which caused the Swedish radar anomalies. Other systems in various European countries also experienced major radio-disturbances during this extreme event, but they were not of the gravity as experienced in Sweden, or at least not causing a similar damage. One of the problems in reaching the right conclusions about the incident was that the extreme radio-burst around 1400 UT on Nov 4 (more than 50000 SFU at GHz frequencies), emerged from a medium size M3.7 Flare on the Sun, which did not trigger any immediate warnings. We will report about the analysis leading to the improved understanding of this extreme space weather event, evaluate the importance of solar radio observations, and discuss possible mitigation strategies for future events of similar nature.

  1. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    PubMed

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process. PMID:24191344

  2. The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Bergström, G; Berglund, G; Blomberg, A; Brandberg, J; Engström, G; Engvall, J; Eriksson, M; de Faire, U; Flinck, A; Hansson, M G; Hedblad, B; Hjelmgren, O; Janson, C; Jernberg, T; Johnsson, Å; Johansson, L; Lind, L; Löfdahl, C-G; Melander, O; Östgren, C J; Persson, A; Persson, M; Sandström, A; Schmidt, C; Söderberg, S; Sundström, J; Toren, K; Waldenström, A; Wedel, H; Vikgren, J; Fagerberg, B; Rosengren, A

    2015-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started. PMID:26096600

  3. Swedish pupils' suggested coping strategies if cyberbullied: differences related to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Frisén, Ann; Berne, Sofia; Marin, Lina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the coping strategies that Swedish 10 and 12 year-olds (N = 694) suggested they would use if they were cyberbullied, with a special focus on whether there are differences in these strategies related to age and gender. The most commonly suggested coping strategy was telling someone, especially parents and teachers (70.5%). Surprisingly few of the pupils reported that they would tell a friend (2.6%). Differences in suggested coping strategies were found related to age and gender. Findings are discussed in relation to the Swedish sociocultural context as well as in relation to the implications for prevention strategies against cyberbullying. PMID:25040330

  4. Reliability and validity of a Swedish language version of the Resilience Scale.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Björn; Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Lejonklou, Anna K; Lundman, Beril

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Swedish language version of the Resilience Scale (RS). Participants were 142 adults between 19-85 years of age. Internal consistency reliability, stability over time, and construct validity were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha, principal components analysis with varimax rotation and correlations with scores on the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The mean score on the RS was 142 (SD = 15). The possible scores on the RS range from 25 to 175, and scores higher than 146 are considered high. The test-retest correlation was .78. Correlations with the SOC and the RSE were .41 (p < 0.01) and .37 (p < 0.01), respectively. Personal Assurance and Acceptance of Self and Life emerged as components from the principal components analysis. These findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the Swedish language version of the RS. PMID:16138723

  5. Catastrophic-flood Features in Swedish Lapland as a Terrestrial Analog for Martian Channel Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, L. A.; Rhodes, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding associated with deglaciation created unusual landscapes in several areas of northern Sweden. These areas in Swedish Lapland are distinguished by the large grain-size material that forms them. The presence of boulders at both Viking landing sites suggests the relevance of this analog. The Baldakatj area of Swedish Lapland offers terrestrial analogs for erosional remnants on Mars. Although the Baldakatj features are an order of magnitude or more smaller than the Martian forms, they created in boulder-rich till that may be a good approximation of the near-surface material on Mars. The Baldakatj area also includes other landforms that could reasonably be expected to occur with the Martian outflow channels, including boulder deltas, large transported blocks, and large-scale bedforms.

  6. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Jens; Johnson, Richard K; Futter, Martyn N; Wilander, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, scientific insights from surface water monitoring have supported Swedish evidence-based environmental management. Efforts to understand and control eutrophication in the 1960s led to construction of wastewater treatment plants with phosphorus retention, while acid rain research in the 1970s contributed to international legislation curbing emissions. By the 1990s, long-time series were being used to infer climate effects on surface water chemistry and biology. Monitoring data play a key role in implementing the EU Water Framework Directive and other legislation and have been used to show beneficial effects of agricultural management on Baltic Sea eutrophication. The Swedish experience demonstrates that well-designed and financially supported surface water monitoring can be used to understand and manage a range of stressors and societal concerns. Using scientifically sound adaptive monitoring principles to balance continuity and change has ensured long-time series and the capability to address new questions over time. PMID:25403966

  7. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  8. Accident involvement and attitudes towards hazards and countermeasures in a Swedish rural population.

    PubMed

    Jansson, B; Eriksson, C G

    1990-06-01

    Research on the resistance to implementation of effective injury control measures is needed. An important task is to identity factors or circumstances that influence the possibilities of taking active safety measures, and also factors that may limit or hinder such efforts. The objective of this study was to describe the farmers' own attitudes towards farm accident hazards and their interest in participating in preventive measures. The study is part of a project to develop systems for injury surveillance and control in Swedish emergency care. A standardised questionnaire for telephone interviews was used. All patients who had consulted an emergency department during a one-year period for injuries caused by accidents on 2,454 farms in two Swedish rural municipalities were interviewed. The results demonstrated that adults, especially young adults with small children, seem to be most conscious of accident risks and best motivated for participation in active safety measures, e.g. safety education. PMID:2367824

  9. Integration of ethnic food into Swedish food rituals. The cultural fitness of tacos.

    PubMed

    Solér, Cecilia; Plazas, Maite Creixell

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the meaning of the Mexican dish tacos for Swedish consumers. As such, this study examines the relationship between ethnic food and food culture in light of contemporary changing food rituals. The results reveal that the Swedish food ritual of Friday dinner can be enacted through eating tacos. Friday dinner is a point in time and space at which family members gather, after a busy week following divergent schedules that keep them from eating together, and to which children's food preferences are central. Tacos fulfil all the requirements for a quick-to-cook yet social dish that enables hardworking but time-constrained families to eat together. The much-debated informal and fragmented character of food consumption in contemporary society is accommodated in the taco meal. PMID:22366640

  10. Las Cumbres Observatory 1-Meter Global Science Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Dubberley, M.; Haldeman, B.; Haynes, R.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; staff, LCOGT

    2009-05-01

    We present the optical, mechanical and electronic design of the LCOGT 1-m telescope. These telescopes are planned to go in pairs to each of 6 sites worldwide, complementing 0.4m telescopes and 2-m telescopes at two existing sites. This science network is designed to provide continuously available photometric monitoring and spectroscopy of variable sources. The 1-m optical design is an f/8 quasi-RC system, with a doublet corrector and field flattener to provide good image quality out to 0.8 degrees. The field of view of the Fairchild 4K science CCD is 27 arcmin, with 0.39 arcsec pixels. The mechanical design includes a stiff C-ring equatorial mount and friction drive rollers, mounted on a triangular base that can be adjusted for latitude. Another friction drive is coupled at the Declination axis to the M1 mirror cell, that forms the main Optical Tube Assembly (OTA) structural element. The OTA design includes a stiff carbon fiber truss assembly, with offset vanes to an M2 drive that provides remote focus, tilt and collimation. The tube assembly weighs about 600 Kg, including Hextek mirrors, 4K science CCD, filter wheel, autoguiders and medium resolution spectrograph pick-off fiber. The telescopes will be housed in domes at existing observatory sites. They are designed to operate remotely and reliably under centralized control for automatic, optimized scheduling of observations with available hardware.

  11. [Dangerous liasions - Swedish-German contacts in Nazi medicine 1933-1945].

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    Sweden and Germany have developed extensive scientific, economical and cultural contacts since many centuries. During the nazi period in Germany 1933-1945 several Swedish physicians, although still a minority, were influences by the ideology of nazi medicine, often following an outspoken admiration for German science and culture in the first place. THe most prominent representative of Swedish nazi-oriented physicians was Ake Berglund (1898-1976), Alsten, Stockholm. He was working as a general practitioner and became the writer of several papers and pamphlets on questions related to the development in Germany and issues of public health. His interest in social medicine was combined with the ideology of racial biology and selection on health grounds. DUring the war years, Berglund was active in different nazi organisations and therefore under surveillance by the Swedish security police, which resulted in several classified reports on his political activities. In 1954, Berglund tried to defend an academic thesis on his ideological visions of a social medicine serving the race and the people. This thesis was however rejected by the Board of Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, due to shortcomings and ideological biases. In retrospect it seems as if Ake Berglund was a complicated man and physician travelling a hard road on his way to nazi political ideology, marked by problems and heated debates with political antagonists. At the end of his life, Berglund turned into a Christian believer, and defended things that might not have been the case during his earlier years. Further studies will explore other Swedish-German contacts in medicine during this period. PMID:16025610

  12. Pharmacoepidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A Swedish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Kayoko; Nordsletten, Ashley E; Rück, Christian; Ljung, Rickard; Ivarsson, Tord; Larsson, Henrik; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-04-01

    The extent to which clinicians adhere to international guidelines for the pharmacological management of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. We aimed to comprehensively map the patterns of prescription of psychotropic drugs for OCD patients (adults and children) at the Swedish national level and to compare these prescription patterns to best-practice recommendations in international guidelines. We linked the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which includes a record for all medications prescribed and dispensed in Sweden since July 2005. Of all active OCD cases in the Swedish National Patient Register between July 1st, 2005, and December 31st 2008 (N=10,523), 85% received at least one psychotropic drug. Most of the medicated adults and children with OCD (88%) received serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Of all adults and children prescribed SRIs, 16% received sub-optimal doses. An additional 12% of all medicated patients were prescribed drugs that never included an SRI. Approximately 75% of the patients on SRIs received additional drugs (67% anxiolytics/hypnotics, 27% antipsychotics, 17% serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, 24% other antidepressants). Twelve percent of all medicated patients were at least 'regular' users, and 3% 'heavy' users of benzodiazepines. We also observed important variations in prescription practices according to patient's gender, age, and comorbidity status. We conclude that a substantial number of OCD patients might benefit from changes in their prescriptions. Dissemination of best-practice prescription guidelines for OCD is a major educational goal for the future. Monitoring of these prescription patterns over time is warranted. PMID:26922101

  13. Productivity or discrimination? An economic analysis of excess-weight penalty in the Swedish labor market.

    PubMed

    Dackehag, Margareta; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nordin, Martin

    2015-07-01

    This article investigates the excess-weight penalty in income for men and women in the Swedish labor market, using longitudinal data. It compares two identification strategies, OLS and individual fixed effects, and distinguishes between two main sources of excess-weight penalties, lower productivity because of bad health and discrimination. For men, the analysis finds a significant obesity penalty related to discrimination when applying individual fixed effects. We do not find any significant excess-weight penalty for women. PMID:24903023

  14. The Swedish MS registry – clinical support tool and scientific resource.

    PubMed

    Hillert, J; Stawiarz, L

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish MS registry (SMSreg) is designed to assure quality health care for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It has been active since 2001 and web-based since 2004. It runs on government funding only and is used in all Swedish neurology departments. The SMSreg currently includes data on 14,500 of Sweden's estimated 17,500 prevalent patients with MS. One important function of SMSreg, to which participation is voluntary, is to serve as a tool for decision support and to provide an easy overview of the patient information needed at clinical visits. This is its core feature and explains why the majority of Swedish MS specialists contribute data. Another success factor for SMSreg is that entered data can be readily accessed, either through a query function into Excel format or through a set of predesigned tables and diagrams in which parameters can be selected. Recent development includes a portal allowing patients to view a summary of their registered data and to report a set of patient-reported outcomes. SMSreg data have been used in close to 100 published scientific reports. Current projects include an incidence cohort (EIMS), post-marketing cohorts of patients on novel disease-modifying drugs (IMSE), and a prevalence cohort (GEMS). As these studies combine physical sampling and questionnaire data with clinical documentation and possible linkage to other public registries, together they provide an excellent platform for integrated MS research. PMID:26046553

  15. The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs): design and methods of the epidemiological (EP-) track

    PubMed Central

    Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel; Abbott, Max

    2014-01-01

    Swelogs (Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study) epidemiological (EP-) track is a prospective study with four waves of data-collection among Swedish citizens aged 16–84 years at baseline. The major objectives of this track are to provide general population estimates of the prevalence and incidence of problem and at-risk gambling and enable comparisons with the first Swedish national study on gambling and problem gambling (Swegs) conducted in 1997/1998. The overall study (Swelogs) comprises three tracks of data collection; one epidemiological, one in-depth and one follow-up. It is expected to provide information that will inform the development of evidence-based methods and strategies to prevent the development of gambling problems. This paper gives an overview of the design of the epidemiological track, especially of its two first waves. The baseline wave, performed between October 2008 and August 2009, included 8165 subjects, of whom 6021 were re-assessed one year later. A stratified random sampling procedure was applied. Computer-supported telephone interviews were used as the primary method. Postal questionnaires were used to follow-up those not reached by telephone. The response rate was 55% in the first wave and 74% in the second. The interview and questionnaire data are supplemented by register data. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24942902

  16. A comparative study of the experiences of violence of English and Swedish mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    Nolan, P; Soares, J; Dallender, J; Thomsen, S; Arnetz, B

    2001-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that violence in health care environments, especially mental health care, appears to be increasing. Although there is a lack of cross-cultural studies to prove it, this increase in violence would seem to be an international phenomenon. The present study sought to compare the extent and nature of violence encountered by mental health nurses in Sweden and England. Systematic studies of violence have previously been carried out independently in both countries but this was the first attempt to compare levels of violence. Clearly defined study protocols were put in place, an operational definition of 'violence' adhered to, and random samples recruited. A specially designed questionnaire was sent to every subject (Swedish nurses n=720; English nurses n=296) enquiring about the extent of nurses' exposure to violence, the nature and severity of the violence experienced, and the effect of violence on self-esteem and job satisfaction. Significant differences were found with English nurses experiencing more violence than their Swedish counterparts. Yet support for English nurses appeared to be less good than for Swedish nurses. Reasons for the differences are discussed along with possible measures to minimise the frequency of violence against nurses and the negative effects on their work. PMID:11470100

  17. Prevalence of antibody to six Leptospira servovars in Swedish wild boars.

    PubMed

    Boqvist, Sofia; Bergström, Karin; Magnusson, Ulf

    2012-04-01

    Zoonotic Leptospira bacteria are pathogens that may increase in importance with climate change. We investigated the prevalence of antibody to six Leptospira serovars (sv) in the Swedish wild boar (Sus scrofa) population, which is increasing in number and geographic distribution. The serovars we selected cause disease in pigs or may be of use as sentinel serovars to measure the potential spread in Swedish fauna. In total, 386 serum samples from wild boars collected between 2005 and 2007 were investigated using a microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira interrogans sv Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava, sv Icterohaemorrhagiae strain Kantorowicz, sv Pomona strain Pomona, Leptospira kirschneri sv Grippotyphosa strain Duyster, and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv Tarassovi strain Perepelitsin, and a domestic strain closely related to sv Sejroe. Twelve (3.1%) of the analyzed samples were antibody-positive. Of those, nine (2.3%) were positive for sv Bratislava and 0.8% for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae. All antibody-positive samples originated from areas where wild boars are reported to be common. We conclude that Leptospira infection is less common in Swedish wild boar than in continental Europe. However, we recommend continuous surveillance to follow the effects of climate change and an increasing wild boar population. PMID:22493129

  18. Transforming Ottawa Charter health promotion concepts into Swedish public health policy.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Bosse

    2007-01-01

    Swedish public health policy clearly illustrates how the concept of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion can be utilized at a national level. The impact has been more implicit than explicit. Public health has a long history in Sweden and much of the present and future is, and will be, linked to traditional values and structures. International input, however, has been essential to prompt new approaches and change. Health inequalities remain the major shortcoming. The Swedish system offers universal access to healthcare in a decentralized system. Still, primary healthcare, and the health services as a whole have not yet sufficiently embraced the idea of health promotion. Political attention to modern public health at the Prime Minister level was established in late 1980s. Since, continuous initiatives in terms of organization, infrastructure and funding have taken place. With regard to funding, a vast majority of the resources allocated to health promotion will be found outside the health sector. An interesting observation is that the Swedish public health policy with its 11 objective domains remains the same, also after a change of government. Future challenges include maintaining and developing an intersectoral mechanism for implementation, allocating more resources for intervention research to strengthen knowledge-based health promotion, and developing tools for coping better with the challenges of globalisation identified in the Bangkok Charter. PMID:18372877

  19. American and Swedish children's acquisition of vowel duration: Effects of vowel identity and final stop voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buder, Eugene H.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2002-04-01

    Vowel durations typically vary according to both intrinsic (segment-specific) and extrinsic (contextual) specifications. It can be argued that such variations are due to both predisposition and cognitive learning. The present report utilizes acoustic phonetic measurements from Swedish and American children aged 24 and 30 months to investigate the hypothesis that default behaviors may precede language-specific learning effects. The predicted pattern is the presence of final consonant voicing effects in both languages as a default, and subsequent learning of intrinsic effects most notably in the Swedish children. The data, from 443 monosyllabic tokens containing high-front vowels and final stop consonants, are analyzed in statistical frameworks at group and individual levels. The results confirm that Swedish children show an early tendency to vary vowel durations according to final consonant voicing, followed only six months later by a stage at which the intrinsic influence of vowel identity grows relatively more robust. Measures of vowel formant structure from selected 30-month-old children also revealed a tendency for children of this age to focus on particular acoustic contrasts. In conclusion, the results indicate that early acquisition of vowel specifications involves an interaction between language-specific features and articulatory predispositions associated with phonetic context.

  20. Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia in Swedish immigrants: Genetic diseases have become global

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Some 15% of the Swedish population is born outside Sweden, originating from all continents of the world. Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia constitute the most common inherited recessive disorders globally and they are endemic in areas of Africa and Asia, origins of many immigrants to Sweden. We aimed at investigating the origins of the Swedish sickle cell and thalassemia patients. Methods: Patients were identified using data from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register since 1987 and from the Outpatient Register since 2001 up to year 2010. Results: A total of 3064 persons were diagnosed with thalassemia. The incidence was highest, 62.9/100,000 for immigrants from Thailand, followed by Iraqis (47.1/100,000); the rate was 0.7/100,000 among those born in Sweden. The total number of sickle cell anemia patients was 584 and the highest rate of 13.0/100,000 was found for Sub-Saharan immigrants. For thalassemia, 363 of the patients were siblings, while for sickle cell anemia, 180 were siblings. Conclusions: The data showed that >90% of sickle cell and thalassemia patients were first- or second-generation immigrants to Sweden and the endemic regions for these were the origins of immigrants with the highest incidence. Global immigration provides global challenges to national health care systems. PMID:27092253

  1. Sensitivity of spectral moments to Swedish dental versus American English alveolar word-initial /t/ bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buder, Eugene H.; Parham, Douglas F.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2003-04-01

    Previous investigations comparing Swedish dental versus American English alveolar /t/ production found many acoustic differences in both adults and 30-month-old children [C. Stoel-Gammon, K. Williams, and E. H. Buder, ``Cross-language differences in phonological acquisition: Swedish and American /t/,'' Phonetica 51, 146-158 (1994)]. The primary differences in the word initial consonants included the second spectral moment (``spectral SD''), VOT, and burst intensity. However, subsequent studies demonstrated that spectral SD and other moments measures were sensitive to recording environment and correlated with other production characteristics. Moreover, measurements of spectral SD differed across these languages in other stop bursts such as /p/ and /k/. These observations raised questions regarding the true sensitivity of this measure in place of articulation for /t/. To examine these questions, the current work examines stop burst characteristics of two adult male native speakers of Swedish and American English recorded in an anechoic chamber with digital equipment. Results suggest that the primary variation of spectral SD in /t/ bursts is attributable to the dental versus the alveolar place of articulation. However, the results indicate that spectral moment measures are also generally sensitive to burst intensity, which may be unrelated to place but still language-specific. [Work supported by NICHD R01-HD32065.

  2. The Swedish MS registry – clinical support tool and scientific resource

    PubMed Central

    Hillert, J; Stawiarz, L

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish MS registry (SMSreg) is designed to assure quality health care for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It has been active since 2001 and web-based since 2004. It runs on government funding only and is used in all Swedish neurology departments. The SMSreg currently includes data on 14,500 of Sweden's estimated 17,500 prevalent patients with MS. One important function of SMSreg, to which participation is voluntary, is to serve as a tool for decision support and to provide an easy overview of the patient information needed at clinical visits. This is its core feature and explains why the majority of Swedish MS specialists contribute data. Another success factor for SMSreg is that entered data can be readily accessed, either through a query function into Excel format or through a set of predesigned tables and diagrams in which parameters can be selected. Recent development includes a portal allowing patients to view a summary of their registered data and to report a set of patient-reported outcomes. SMSreg data have been used in close to 100 published scientific reports. Current projects include an incidence cohort (EIMS), post-marketing cohorts of patients on novel disease-modifying drugs (IMSE), and a prevalence cohort (GEMS). As these studies combine physical sampling and questionnaire data with clinical documentation and possible linkage to other public registries, together they provide an excellent platform for integrated MS research. PMID:26046553

  3. Cross-cultural validity of the demand-control questionnaire: Swedish and Brazilian workers

    PubMed Central

    Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert; Fritzell, Johan; Toivanen, Susanna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Demand-Control Questionnaire, comparing the original Swedish questionnaire with the Brazilian version. METHODS We compared data from 362 Swedish and 399 Brazilian health workers. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed to test structural validity, using the robust weighted least squares mean and variance-adjusted (WLSMV) estimator. Construct validity, using hypotheses testing, was evaluated through the inspection of the mean score distribution of the scale dimensions according to sociodemographic and social support at work variables. RESULTS The confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported the instrument in three dimensions (for Swedish and Brazilians): psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority. The best-fit model was achieved by including an error correlation between work fast and work intensely (psychological demands) and removing the item repetitive work (skill discretion). Hypotheses testing showed that workers with university degree had higher scores on skill discretion and decision authority and those with high levels of Social Support at Work had lower scores on psychological demands and higher scores on decision authority. CONCLUSIONS The results supported the equivalent dimensional structures across the two culturally different work contexts. Skill discretion and decision authority formed two distinct dimensions and the item repetitive work should be removed. PMID:25119944

  4. Attitudes towards embryo donation in Swedish women and men of reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Prag, Frida; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    Background When performing in-vitro fertilization (IVF), more embryos than needed are often derived. These embryos are usually frozen and stored, but as ruled by Swedish law they have to be discarded after 5 years. In other countries it is legal to donate the excess embryos to other infertile couples who for different reasons cannot undergo the procedure of IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate public opinion in Sweden regarding different aspects of embryo donation. Methods A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards aspects of embryo donation was sent to a randomized sample of 1,000 Swedish women and men of reproductive age. Results A total of 34% responded to the questionnaires. A majority of the respondents (73%) were positive towards embryo donation. Seventy-five per cent agreed that it should be possible to donate embryos to infertile couples. Approximately half of the participants (49%) supported embryo donation to single women. A majority of the participants emphasized that demands should be imposed on the recipient's age (63%), alcohol addiction (79%), drug addiction (85%), and criminal record (67%). Forty-seven per cent of the respondents agreed that the recipient should be anonymous to the donor, and 38% thought that the donor should remain anonymous to the child. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate support for embryo donation among a subset of the Swedish population of reproductive age. If embryo donation were to be allowed in Sweden, strategies for treatment and counselling need to be developed. PMID:23786323

  5. The good work--a Swedish trade union vision in the shadow of lean production.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jan; Abrahamsson, Lena

    2009-07-01

    "The Good Work" (Det goda arbetet) was established as a highly praised and established concept in the Swedish working life debate in the middle of the 1980s. In this paper, we are going to discuss the concept in relation to the massive introduction of lean production in Swedish industry. The aim of this paper is to restore the theory of the good work into the industrial society of today. We will search for a model for 'good work' in balance between the demands from production and good conditions for a learning environment. The theoretical base for this paper will be found in both organisational research and research on production technology systems. We identify three strong trends in Swedish industrial companies giving both pitfalls and possibilities for the good work; the learning focus as a way to increase productivity and improve working conditions; Lean Production in most cases imply narrow short-cyclic work tasks; and the global market that reduces national discretion. As a result, we formulate a new set of criteria for "the good work". PMID:18838130

  6. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-10-01

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support. PMID:25589438

  7. Solar Activity and Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2006-01-01

    Our Sun is a dynamic, ever-changing star. In general, its atmosphere displays major variation on an 11-year cycle. Throughout the cycle, the atmosphere occasionally exhibits large, sudden outbursts of energy. These "solar eruptions" manifest themselves in the form of solar flares, filament eruptions, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and energetic particle releases. They are of high interest to scientists both because they represent fundamental processes that occur in various astrophysical context, and because, if directed toward Earth, they can disrupt Earth-based systems and satellites. Research over the last few decades has shown that the source of the eruptions is localized regions of energy-storing magnetic field on the Sun that become destabilized, leading to a release of the stored energy. Solar scientists have (probably) unraveled the basic outline of what happens in these eruptions, but many details are still not understood. In recent years we have been studying what triggers these magnetic eruptions, using ground-based and satellite-based solar observations in combination with predictions from various theoretical models. We will present an overview of solar activity and solar eruptions, give results from some of our own research, and discuss questions that remain to be explored.

  8. Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, David

    1998-01-01

    The Sun is constantly changing. Not an hour goes by without a rise or fall in solar x-radiation or radio emission. Not a day goes by without a solar flare. Our active star, this inconsistent Sun, this gaseous cloud that blows in all directions, warms the air we breathe and nourishes the food we eat. From Earth, it seems the very model of stability, but in space it often creates havoc. Over the past century, solar physicists have learned how to detect even the weakest of solar outbursts or flares. We know that flares must surely trace their origins to the magnetic strands stretched and tangled by the rolling plasma of the solar interior. Although a century of astrophysical research has produced widely accepted, fundamental understanding about the Sun, we have yet to predict successfully the emergence of any magnetic fields from inside the Sun or the ignition of any flare. As in any physical experiment, the ability to predict events not only validates the scientific ideas, it also has practical value. In astrophysics, a demonstrated understanding of sunspots, flares, and ejections of plasma would allow us to approach many other mysteries, such as stellar X-ray bursters, with tested theories.

  9. Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students - results from a questionaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish) with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where students feel permitted to

  10. Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.; Mathews, John; Manross, Kevin

    1995-12-01

    Calcium K plage, H alpha plage and sunspot area have been monitored daily on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The plage and sunspot area have been measured by image processing. The purpose of the project is to investigate the degree of correlation between plage area and solar irradiance. The plage variation shows the expected variation produced by solar rotation and the longer secular changes produced by the solar cycle. The H alpha and sunspot plage area reached a minimum in about late 1994 or early 1995. This is in agreement with the K2 spectral index obtained daily from Sacramento Peak Observatory. The Calcium K plage area minimum seems delayed with respect to the others mentioned above. The minimum of the K line plage area is projected to come within the last few months of 1995.

  11. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  12. Solar urticaria.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Steven; Elsner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Solar urticaria is a rare IgE-mediated and chromophore-dependent photodermatosis. In some cases, these chromophores, designated as "serum factor", may be detected in serum or plasma. To date, the exact pathogenesis of solar urticaria has, however, not been elucidated. Typical clinical features include the onset of urticarial lesions within a few minutes after light exposure, which already raises diagnostic suspicion. The most common triggers are UVA and visible light. Determination of the action spectrum as well as the minimal urticarial dose (MDU) is diagnostically crucial. Other photodermatoses such as polymorphic light eruption or porphyrias (especially erythropoietic protoporphyria) have to be ruled out. Apart from sunlight avoidance, which is always required, further therapeutic options used include nonsedating antihistamines as well as light hardening. Newer treatment modalities such as plasmapheresis or the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab are reserved for severe, recalcitrant forms of solar urticaria. PMID:26612794

  13. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  14. Characteristics of Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing narratives: a comparative analysis to support the development of clinical language technologies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Free text is helpful for entering information into electronic health records, but reusing it is a challenge. The need for language technology for processing Finnish and Swedish healthcare text is therefore evident; however, Finnish and Swedish are linguistically very dissimilar. In this paper we present a comparison of characteristics in Finnish and Swedish free-text nursing narratives from intensive care. This creates a framework for characterising and comparing clinical text and lays the groundwork for developing clinical language technologies. Methods Our material included daily nursing narratives from one intensive care unit in Finland and one in Sweden. Inclusion criteria for patients were an inpatient period of least five days and an age of at least 16 years. We performed a comparative analysis as part of a collaborative effort between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking healthcare and language technology professionals that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The qualitative analysis addressed the content and structure of three average-sized health records from each country. In the quantitative analysis 514 Finnish and 379 Swedish health records were studied using various language technology tools. Results Although the two languages are not closely related, nursing narratives in Finland and Sweden had many properties in common. Both made use of specialised jargon and their content was very similar. However, many of these characteristics were challenging regarding development of language technology to support producing and using clinical documentation. Conclusions The way Finnish and Swedish intensive care nursing was documented, was not country or language dependent, but shared a common context, principles and structural features and even similar vocabulary elements. Technology solutions are therefore likely to be applicable to a wider range of natural languages, but they need linguistic tailoring. Availability The Finnish and Swedish

  15. Solar flare particle radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the solar particles accelerated by solar flares and subsequently observed near the orbit of the earth are studied. Considered are solar particle intensity-time profiles, the composition and spectra of solar flare events, and the propagation of solar particles in interplanetary space. The effects of solar particles at the earth, riometer observations of polar cap cosmic noise absorption events, and the production of solar cell damage at synchronous altitudes by solar protons are also discussed.

  16. Solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuquel, A.; Roussel, M.

    The physical and electronic characteristics of solar cells are discussed in terms of space applications. The principles underlying the photovoltaic effect are reviewed, including an analytic model for predicting the performance of individual cells and arrays of cells. Attention is given to the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation, micrometeors, thermal and mechanical stresses, pollution and degassing encountered in space. The responses of different types of solar cells to the various performance-degrading agents are examined, with emphasis on techniques for quality assurance in the manufacture and mounting of Si cells.

  17. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  18. Solar Energy and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  19. Study of Magnetic Structure in the Solar Photosphere and Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Robert W.; Avrett, Eugene; Nisenson, Peter; Uitenbroek, Han; vanBallegooijen, Adriaan

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded an observational and theoretical program to study the structure and dynamics of the solar photosphere and low chromosphere, and the spectral signatures that result. The overall goal is to learn about mechanisms that cause heating of the overlying atmosphere, and produce variability of solar emission in spectral regions important for astrophysics and space physics. The program exploited two new ground-based observational capabilities: one using the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma for very high angular resolution observations of the photospheric intensity field (granulation) and proxies of the magnetic field (G-band images); and the other using the Near Infrared Magnetograph at the McMath-Pierce Solar Facility to map the spatial variation and dynamic behavior of the solar temperature minimum region using infrared CO lines. We have interpreted these data using a variety of theoretical and modelling approaches, some developed especially for this project. Previous annual reports cover the work done up to 31 May 1997. This final report summarizes our work for the entire period, including the period of no-cost extension from 1 June 1997 through September 30 1997. In Section 2 we discuss observations and modelling of the photospheric flowfields and their consequences for heating of the overlying atmosphere, and in Section 3 we discuss imaging spectroscopy of the CO lines at 4.67 mu.

  20. Solar Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  1. Solar Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesko, Carolyn, Ed.

    This directory is designed to help the researcher and developer, the manufacturer and distributor, and the general public communicate together on a mutually beneficial basis. Its content covers the wide scope of solar energy activity in the United States primarily, but also in other countries, at the academic, governmental, and industrial levels.…

  2. Solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Golder, J.C.

    1981-10-06

    A portable, foldable solar oven is provided wherein the basic construction material is ordinary cardboard, some surfaces of which are coated with a reflective material. The portable oven doubles as an insulated container for keeping refrigerated foodstuffs cold while being transported to a distant site for cooking.

  3. Solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, M.; Startevant, R.C.

    1985-01-22

    A solar heater has an outlet conduit above an inlet conduit intercoupling a solar heating chamber with the inside of a building through a window opening. In one form the solar collecting chamber is outside the building below the window and the outlet conduit and inlet conduit are contiguous and pass through the window opening between the windowsill and the lower sash. In another form of the invention the solar collecting chambers are located beside each side of the window and joined at the top by the outlet conduit that passes through an opening between the upper window sash and the top of the window frame and at the bottom by an inlet conduit that passes through an opening between the lower sash and the windowsill. The outlet conduit carries photoelectric cells that provide electrical energy for driving a squirrel-cage fan in the outlet conduit through a mercury switch seated on a damper actuated by a bimetallic coil that closes the damper when the temperature in the outlet conduit goes below a predetermined temperature.

  4. Promoting the Swedish method of physical education throughout France for the benefit of public health (1868-1954).

    PubMed

    Bazoge, N; Saint-Martin, J; Attali, M

    2013-03-01

    This article examines the cultural and public health challenges associated with the dissemination of the Swedish approach and methods of physical education throughout France and illustrates the two main methods of influence, both direct through research and study visits and indirect through the creation of an international network entitled the International Federation of Physical Education. More particularly, it studies the roles of Philippe Tissié in 1898 and Pierre Seurin in 1946, and shows how these two major players of French physical education contributed actively to strengthening Swedish influence throughout France. It also highlights their equally essential role in the successful implementation of a pro-Swedish network in France, intended to serve their public health aims. This analysis forms part of the geopolitical and socio-cultural history of foreign physical education models, whose exemplarity was mainly dependent on Franco-Swedish relations and the models' social representations. Using archives from the French Physical Education League, travel logs and the Revue des jeux scolaires et d'hygiène sociale (Journal for School Games and Social Hygiene), it has been shown why the myth of the Swedish Eldorado contributed to creating, in France, "a work of art and of science that was, at the same time, both national and practical." PMID:21819447

  5. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  6. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Anna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men. PMID:26501351

  7. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Anna; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51–60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men. PMID:26501351

  8. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  9. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  10. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  11. Energigeologi - exempel pa verksamhet inom energisektorn vid sgu (energy geology - examples of activity in the energy sector within the Swedish geological survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Increased energy costs have led to expanded research into alternative energy systems, including solar heat, earth heat and storage in earth and rock. Long term planning for these systems requires information on a number of geoparameters and other factors and parameters. Conditions for the extraction and storage of energy in the earth are largely controlled by geological circumstances. Thermal and hydraulic parameters are important in determining heat loss, storage capacity, etc. Chemical conditions are important in judging operation, functioning and maintenance of systems. Geotechnical data is important in analyzing the risk of settlement and tendency to crack with temperature changes. The report contains chapters on energy-geology applications of geological mapping, thermal parameters, natural variations of ground water temperature in Swedish friction earth, calculation of thermal diffusivity in earth based on temperature measurements in ground water observation pipes, energy wells, energy storage, energy-geology mapping and radioactive heat production by the decay of radioactive isotopes in the earth's crust. Numerous tables and charts, plus bibliographical listings following most chapters.

  12. Reconnection brightenings in the quiet solar photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.; Vissers, Gregal J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new quiet-Sun phenomenon which we call quiet-Sun Ellerman-like brightenings (QSEB). QSEBs are similar to Ellerman bombs (EB) in some respects but differ significantly in others. EBs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer Hα line that mark strong-field photospheric reconnection in complex active regions. QSEBs are similar but smaller and less intense Balmer-wing brightenings that occur in quiet areas away from active regions. In the Hα wing, we measure typical lengths of less than 0.5 arcsec, widths of 0.23 arcsec, and lifetimes of less than a minute. We discovered them using high-quality Hα imaging spectrometry from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and show that, in lesser-quality data, they cannot be distinguished from more ubiquitous facular brightenings, nor in the UV diagnostics currently available from space platforms. We add evidence from concurrent SST spectropolarimetry that QSEBs also mark photospheric reconnection events, but in quiet regions on the solar surface. The movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Solar Thermophotovoltaics: Combining Solar Thermal and Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, Antonio

    2007-02-01

    An analysis of ideal solar converters from a thermodynamic point of view is presented that distinguishes between solar thermal and photovoltaic converters. The later do not have hot elements. Ideal solar thermophotovoltaic converters are also described as needing a Carnot machine for operation. The ideal solar cells can be such Carnot machine and therefore a solar thermophotovoltaic converter is a solar thermal converter whose engine is a solar cell. Once hot elements are accepted, several novel modalities of converters are described including thermophotonic converters, combined photovoltaic thermal converters and hot electron converters.

  14. General population norms of the Swedish short forms of oral health impact profile.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; John, M T; Hakeberg, M; Nilner, K; List, T

    2014-04-01

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John et al. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N = 1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N = 1309) were on average 50·1 ± 17.4 years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r ≥ 0.97 for OHIP-S14, r ≥ 0.92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r ≥ 0.41). Reliability, measured with Cronbach's alpha (0.91 for OHIP-S14, 0.77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had ≥11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had ≥11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies. PMID:24447237

  15. Defining venous thromboembolism and measuring its incidence using Swedish health registries: a nationwide pregnancy cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Sultan, Alyshah; West, Joe; Stephansson, Olof; Grainge, Matthew J; Tata, Laila J; Fleming, Kate M; Humes, David; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To accurately define venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the routinely collected Swedish health registers and quantify its incidence in and around pregnancy. Study design Cohort study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR) linked to the National Patient Registry (NPR) and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (PDR). Setting Secondary care centres, Sweden. Participant 509 198 women aged 15–44 years who had one or more pregnancies resulting in a live birth or stillbirth between 2005 and 2011. Main outcome measure To estimate the incidence rate (IR) of VTE in and around pregnancy using various VTE definitions allowing direct comparison with other countries. Results The rate of VTE varied based on the VTE definition. We found that 43% of cases first recorded as outpatient were not accompanied by anticoagulant prescriptions, whereas this proportion was much lower than those cases first recorded in the inpatient register (9%). Using our most inclusive VTE definition, we observed higher rates of VTE compared with previously published data using similar methodology. These reduced by 31% (IR=142/100 000 person-years; 95% CI 132 to 153) and 22% (IR=331/100 000 person-years; 95% CI 304 to 361) during the antepartum and postpartum periods, respectively, using a restrictive VTE definition that required anticoagulant prescriptions associated with diagnosis, which were more in line with the existing literature. Conclusions We found that including VTE codes without treatment confirmation risks the inclusion of false-positive cases. When defining VTE using the NPR, anticoagulant prescription information should therefore be considered particularly for cases recorded in an outpatient setting. PMID:26560059

  16. Maternal Height and Preterm Birth: A Study on 192,432 Swedish Women

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Lundgren, Maria; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Ahlsson, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that lower maternal stature is associated with shorter gestational length in the offspring. We examined the association between maternal height and the likelihood of delivering preterm babies in a large and homogeneous cohort of Swedish women. Methods This study covers antenatal data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 192,432 women (aged 26.0 years on average) born at term, from singleton pregnancies, and of Nordic ethnicity. Continuous associations between women's heights and the likelihood of preterm birth in the offspring were evaluated. Stratified analyses were also carried out, separating women into different height categories. Results Every cm decrease in maternal stature was associated with 0.2 days shortening of gestational age in the offspring (p<0.0001) and increasing odds of having a child born preterm (OR 1.03), very preterm (OR 1.03), or extremely preterm (OR 1.04). Besides, odds of all categories of preterm birth were highest among the shortest women but lowest among the tallest mothers. Specifically, women of short stature (≤155 cm or ≤-2.0 SDS below the population mean) had greater odds of having preterm (OR 1.65) or very preterm (OR 1.47) infants than women of average stature (-0.5 to 0.5 SDS). When compared to women of tall stature (≥179 cm), mothers of short stature had even greater odds of giving birth to preterm (OR 2.07) or very preterm (OR 2.16) infants. Conclusions Among Swedish women, decreasing height was associated with a progressive increase in the odds of having an infant born preterm. Maternal short stature is a likely contributing factor to idiopathic preterm births worldwide, possibly due to maternal anatomical constraints. PMID:27100080

  17. The incidence of adverse events in Swedish hospitals: a retrospective medical record review study

    PubMed Central

    Soop, Michael; Fryksmark, Ulla; Köster, Max; Haglund, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence, nature and consequences of adverse events and preventable adverse events in Swedish hospitals. Design A three-stage structured retrospective medical record review based on the use of 18 screening criteria. Setting Twenty-eight Swedish hospitals. Population A representative sample (n = 1967) of the 1.2 million Swedish hospital admissions between October 2003 and September 2004. Main Outcome Measures Proportion of admissions with adverse events, the proportion of preventable adverse events and the types and consequences of adverse events. Results In total, 12.3% (n = 241) of the 1967 admissions had adverse events (95% CI, 10.8–13.7), of which 70% (n = 169) were preventable. Fifty-five percent of the preventable events led to impairment or disability, which was resolved during the admission or within 1 month from discharge, another 33% were resolved within 1 year, 9% of the preventable events led to permanent disability and 3% of the adverse events contributed to patient death. Preventable adverse events led to a mean increased length of stay of 6 days. Ten of the 18 screening criteria were sufficient to detect 90% of the preventable adverse events. When extrapolated to the 1.2 million annual admissions, the results correspond to 105 000 preventable adverse events (95% CI, 90 000–120 000) and 630 000 days of hospitalization (95% CI, 430 000–830 000). Conclusions This study confirms that preventable adverse events were common, and that they caused extensive human suffering and consumed a significant amount of the available hospital resources. PMID:19556405

  18. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Manhica, Hélio; Toivanen, Susanna; Hjern, Anders; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as “offspring of immigrants.” We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type. Results Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants. Conclusion The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants. PMID:25706297

  19. Inequity of access to ACE inhibitors in Swedish heart failure patients: a register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264

  20. [Physicians in the Swedish-German Association 1937-1945, who and why?].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils M G; Nilsson, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    The national association Sweden-Germany (In Swedish: Riksföreningen Sverige-Tyskland; RST) was founded in 1937. The headquarters were located in Lund, in southern Sweden. The proclamation for the association gathered more than 400 signatures, among them 40 physicians. The purpose of the RST was to evaluate and eventually support the arguments of contemporary Nazi Germany, mainly in positive words, and to cultivate the ideological homogeneity within Sweden. During its historical boom period 1938-1943, RST had about 5600 members, of which nearly 200 were physicians. As a peak RST activity the summer summit meeting in Jönköping August, 1941, the members gathered and listened to lectures and proclamations mixed with music in a beautiful environment. The association published a periodical paper, in which members published articles on various themes related to German culture and politics, as well as commentaries on war changes. This essay discusses the RST-memberships of Swedish physicians. Reasons relevant for joining RST may be due to scientific contacts in Germany, or because of German relatives and close friends, if not political agreement with the German Nazi government. Some members chose to leave the association in disappointment after the German military attacks on neighbouring countries of Sweden in April 1940 (Denmark and Norway), although the association grew significantly from 1941-1943. The lesson to be learned from RST is that a leading academic profession, such as the Swedish physicians, participated with many prominent members in a friendship organistaion with the once victorious, but later defeated Germany during the turbulent years just before and during the Second World War. Further research efforts will focus on individual biographies and careers of some of these physicians, ranging from common country-side general practitioners to one Nobel laureate. PMID:18548952

  1. IQ and Level of Alcohol Consumption—Findings from a National Survey of Swedish Conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund, Sara; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between IQ and alcohol consumption have shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IQ test results and alcohol consumption, measured as both total alcohol intake and pattern of alcohol use. Methods The study population consists of 49,321 Swedish males born 1949 to 1951 who were conscripted for Swedish military service 1969 to 1970. IQ test results were available from tests performed at conscription. Questionnaires performed at conscription provided data on total alcohol intake (consumed grams of alcohol/wk) and pattern of drinking. Multinomial and binomial logistic regressions were performed on the cross-sectional data to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adjustments were made for socioeconomic position as a child, psychiatric symptoms and emotional stability, and father's alcohol habits. Results We found an increased OR of 1.20 (1.17 to 1.23) for every step decrease on the stanine scale to be a high consumer versus a light consumer of alcohol. For binge drinking, an increased OR of 1.09 (95% CI = 1.08 to 1.11) was estimated for every step decrease on the stanine scale. Adjustment for confounders attenuated the associations. Also, IQ in adolescence was found to be inversely associated with moderate/high alcohol consumption measured in middle age. Conclusions We found that lower results on IQ tests are associated with higher consumption of alcohol measured in terms of both total alcohol intake and binge drinking in Swedish adolescent men. PMID:25702705

  2. Packages of participation: Swedish employees’ experience of Lean depends on how they are involved

    PubMed Central

    Brännmark, Mikael; Holden, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lean Production is a dominant approach in Swedish and global manufacturing and service industries. Studies of Lean’s employee effects are few and contradictory. Purpose Employee effects from Lean are likely not uniform. This paper investigates the effect of employees' participation on their experiences of Lean. Method This study investigated how different packages of employee participation in Lean affected manufacturing workers’ experiences of Lean. During 2008–2011, qualitative and quantitative data were collected from Swedish manufacturing companies participating in the national Swedish Lean Production program Produktionslyftet. Data from 129 surveys (28 companies), 39 semi-structured interviews, and 30 reports were analyzed. In the main analysis, comparisons were made of the survey-reported Lean experiences of employees in three groups: temporary group employees (N = 36), who participated in Lean mostly through intermittent projects; continuous group employees (N = 69), who participated through standing improvement groups; and combined group employees (N = 24), who participated in both ways. Results Continuous group employees had the most positive experience of Lean, followed by the combined group. Temporary group employees had the least positive experiences, being less likely than their counterparts to report that Lean improved teamwork, occupational safety, and change-related learning, decision making, and authority. Conclusions These findings support the importance of continuous, structured opportunities for participation but raise the possibility that more participation may result in greater workload and role overload, mitigating some benefits of employee involvement. Consequently, companies should consider involving employees in change efforts but should attend to the specific design of participation activities. PMID:24665370

  3. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Blomqvist, Susanne; Leonhardt, Åsa; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Carlen, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins) and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins). MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001) more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral infections and complaints

  4. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  5. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    PubMed

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed. PMID:23825264

  6. Stress reactions among Swedish peacekeeping soldiers serving in Bosnia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2003-12-01

    Assessments of mental health (GHQ-28) were performed on a Swedish battalion serving in Bosnia at 4 times: before deployment, immediately after deployment, 6 months after deployment, and 1 year after deployment. Complete responses were obtained from 316 participants (61% response rate). No significant change of mental health over time was noted. Individuals having experienced traumatic events in Bosnia, as well as stressful life events postdeployment, reported the poorest mental health. Logistic regression analysis showed that postdeployment stressors made the strongest contribution to registering a poor mental health score after one year. PMID:14690357

  7. The Role of Food Selection in Swedish Home Economics: The Educational Visions and Cultural Meaning.

    PubMed

    Höijer, Karin; Hjälmeskog, Karin; Fjellström, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article explores foods talked about and chosen in the education of Swedish Home Economics as a relationship between structural processes and agency. Three data sets from observations and focus group interviews with teachers and students were analyzed for food classifications. These were related to a culinary triangle of contradictions, showing factors of identity, convenience and responsibility. Results show that foods talked about and chosen by teachers and students were reflections of dominant cultural values. Results also indicate that teachers had more agency than students, but that the choices they made were framed by educational visions and cultural values. PMID:25105860

  8. Strategies for competitiveness and sustainability: adaptation of a Brazilian subsidiary of a Swedish multinational corporation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rita; Wennersten, Ronald; Oliva, Eduardo B L; Leal Filho, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The competitiveness, in terms of macro and micro levels of an enterprise, is often dictated by its capacity to innovate, ability to respond to the needs of the market, and resilience to challenges from competition. This paper reviews the literature on the adaptation of research and development (R&D) units in subsidiaries of multinational corporations. It focuses mainly on the impact of the technological dynamic on sustainability performance of the Brazilian subsidiary of the Swedish multinational Ericsson. Through a conceptual framework, it explores information and communication technologies (ICT) towards a transversal and comprehensive vision of levels of innovation and sustainability. PMID:19477576

  9. Structured Teaching and Classroom Management--the Solution for the Decline of Swedish School Results? Conclusions Drawn from a Comparative Meta-Synthesis of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Håkansson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    With a basis in conclusions from a comparative meta-synthesis of teaching and learning, the question of structured and teacher-led teaching in Swedish comprehensive schools is discussed and analysed. The aim is to illustrate the development of results and changes in teaching patterns in Swedish comprehensive schools in relation to new regulations…

  10. The End of Idealism or Whatever Happened to the Swedish Comprehensive School? Further Lessons from a Comprehensive School System for Curriculum Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Kallos, Daniel

    This essay outlines the major changes in Swedish educational policy that occurred during the 20-year period from 1976 to 1996, with a focus on key issues in the development of the comprehensive school. Effects of the policy changes on Swedish curriculum research over the last 20 years are examined. Educational researchers neglected or were slow to…

  11. "I Think I Would Have Learnt More if They Had Tried to Teach Us More"--Performativity, Learning and Identities in a Swedish Transport Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korp, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on an ethnography that was carried out in the Transport Programme (TP) in a Swedish upper secondary school (in this paper referred to as Rockmeadows High). The research is part of a larger project focusing on discourses on Intelligence in Swedish upper secondary school, and how these are produced and used in different…

  12. "Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

  13. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  14. Solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, J.S.

    1982-06-08

    A solar concentrator having an open framework formed as a geodesic dome. A rotatable support axle extends substantially diametrically across the dome and has the opposite ends thereof supported on the framework. The support axle defines a first rotational axis which is oriented to extend substantially parallel with the earth's north-south axis. A support post is hingedly mounted on the support shaft substantially at the midpoint thereof for permitting angular displacement of the support post relative to the support shaft about a second rotational axis which is perpendicular to the first axis. A dishshaped reflector assembly is positioned within the interior of the framework and fixedly secured to the support post. First and second drives effect angular displacement of the reflector assembly about the first and second axes, respectively, to permit tracking of the solar position.

  15. Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Because the Earth resides in the atmosphere of our nearest stellar neighbor, events occurring on the Sun's surface directly affect us by interfering with satellite operations and communications, astronaut safety, and, in extreme circumstances, power grid stability. Solar flares, the most energetic events in our solar system, are a substantial source of hazardous space weather affecting our increasingly technology-dependent society. While flares have been observed using ground-based telescopes for over 150 years, modern space-bourne observatories have provided nearly continuous multi-wavelength flare coverage that cannot be obtained from the ground. We can now probe the origins and evolution of flares by tracking particle acceleration, changes in ionized plasma, and the reorganization of magnetic fields. I will walk through our current understanding of why flares occur and how they affect the Earth and also show several examples of these fantastic explosions.

  16. Solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.

    1980-11-01

    The history, state of the art, and future prospects of solar cells are reviewed. Solar cells are already competitive in a wide range of low-power applications, and during the 1980's they are expected to become cheaper to run than diesel or gasoline generators, the present mainstay of isolated communities. At this stage they will become attractive for water pumping, irrigation, and rural electrification, particularly in developing countries. With further cost reduction, they may be used to augment grid supplies in domestic, commercial, institutional, and industrial premises. Cost reduction to the stage where photovoltaics becomes economic for large-scale power generation in central stations depends on a technological breakthrough in the development of thin-film cells. DOE aims to reach this goal by 1990, so that by the end of the century about 20% of the estimated annual additions to their electrical generating capacity will be photovoltaic.

  17. Solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    High energy processes that take place in the Sun's atmosphere and the relationship of these phenomena to the basic problems of solar activity are discussed. Gamma ray emission exhibits characteristics of the conditions in regions where accelerated high energy particles interact. A number of gamma ray production mechanisms are considered. These include: the Compton effect, magnetobremsstrahlung, pi meson production by proton-proton interaction or by proton-antiproton annihilation, fission and neutral of charged particle radiative capture on inelastic scatter.

  18. Solar Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Oscillations were first detected in the solar photosphere in 1962 by Leighton and students. In 1970 it was calculated that these oscillations, with a period near five minutes, were the manifestations of acoustic waves trapped in the interior. The subsequent measurements of the frequencies of global oscillation modes from the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the waves made possible the refinement of solar interior models. Over the years, increased understanding of the nuclear reaction rates, the opacity, the equation of state, convection, and gravitational settling have resulted. Mass flows shift the frequencies of modes leading to very accurate measurements of the interior rotation as a function of radius and latitude. In recent years, analogues of terrestrial seismology have led to a tomography of the interior, including measurements of global north-south flows and flow and wave speed measurements below features such as sunspots. The future of helioseismology seems bright with the approval of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, to be launched in 2008.

  19. Solar chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-08-15

    We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R{approx}0.7R{sub sun}) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft x-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft x-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft x-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

  20. Solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Zwach, D.M.

    1987-09-29

    A solar unit is described comprising a solar oven having an open end. A generally concave parabolic main reflector is joined to the oven to move therewith and reflect solar radiation away from the oven. The main reflector has a central opening to the oven open end, a generally parabolic convex secondary reflector for reflecting the radiation from the main reflector through the central opening to the open end of the oven, means for mounting the secondary reflector on the main reflector for movement, a frame, and means for mounting the oven on the frame for adjustable movement relative to the frame. This permits adjusting the angular position relative to the earth. The last mentioned means includes means for supporting the oven including first and second pairs of pivot members that respectively have a fist pivot axis and a second pivot axis that extends perpendicular to the first pivot axis. The oven extends between each of the first pivot members and each of the second pivot members.

  1. Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Sail Propulsion investment area has been one of the three highest priorities within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project. In the fall of 2003, the NASA Headquarters' Science Mission Directorate provided funding and direction to mature the technology as far as possible through ground research and development from TRL 3 to 6 in three years. A group of experts from government, industry, and academia convened in Huntsville, Alabama to define technology gaps between what was needed for science missions to the inner solar system and the current state of the art in ultra1ightweight materials and gossamer structure design. This activity set the roadmap for development. The centerpiece of the development would be the ground demonstration of scalable solar sail systems including masts, sails, deployment mechanisms, and attitude control hardware and software. In addition, new materials would be subjected to anticipated space environments to quantify effects and assure mission life. Also, because solar sails are huge structures, and it is not feasible to validate the technology by ground test at full scale, a multi-discipline effort was established to develop highly reliable analytical models to serve as mission assurance evidence in future flight program decision-making. Two separate contractor teams were chosen to develop the SSP System Ground Demonstrator (SGD). After a three month conceptual mission/system design phase, the teams developed a ten meter diameter pathfinder set of hardware and subjected it to thermal vacuum tests to compare analytically predicted structural behavior with measured characteristics. This process developed manufacturing and handling techniques and refined the basic design. In 2005, both contractor teams delivered 20 meter, four quadrant sail systems to the largest thermal vacuum chamber in the world in Plum Brook, Ohio, and repeated the tests. Also demonstrated was the deployment and articulation of attitude control

  2. Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael; Evans, James; Ellis, Jordan; Schimmels, John; Roberts, Timothy; Rios-Reyes, Leonel; Scheeres, Daniel; Bladt, Jeff; Lawrence, Dale; Piggott, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation Software (S5) toolkit provides solar-sail designers with an integrated environment for designing optimal solar-sail trajectories, and then studying the attitude dynamics/control, navigation, and trajectory control/correction of sails during realistic mission simulations. Unique features include a high-fidelity solar radiation pressure model suitable for arbitrarily-shaped solar sails, a solar-sail trajectory optimizer, capability to develop solar-sail navigation filter simulations, solar-sail attitude control models, and solar-sail high-fidelity force models.

  3. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2012-01-01

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  4. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2013-05-29

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  5. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  6. Solar Cycle Variations in the Solar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will review the observational evidence for solar cycle-dependent changes in the structure and dynamical motions of the solar interior. It will include the results of studies that have been carried out using the tools of both global and local heiloseismology during Solar Cycles 22, 23, and 24. The presentation will describe results obtained with both ground- and space-based helioseismic programs, and it will also describe the role that these helioseismic studies have played in providing inputs to theoretical studies of the solar dynamo. Among the topics that will be covered are temporal changes in the solar torsional oscillations, the solar meridional circulation, the solar seismic radius, the subsurface vorticity, and the solar p-mode oscillation frequencies and widths. Also covered will be evidence for temporal changes in the solar interior that are related to the emergence of active regions on both the near and far sides of the Sun.

  7. In search of biomonitors for cadmium: cadmium content of wild Swedish fauna during 1973-1976.

    PubMed

    Frank, A

    1986-12-01

    Forty-five species of birds and 22 species of mammals of the terrestrial and aquatic fauna, herbivores as well as carnivores, were investigated during the period 1973-1976 for cadmium-accumulating properties in order to find biomonitors for cadmium in the Swedish environment. The herbivores of the terrestrial fauna, birds as well as mammals, are preferred to carnivores, since they demonstrate generally higher renal Cd levels. The moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and hare (Lepus europeus and Lepus timidus) were found to be suitable as biomonitors because of their common occurrence and uniform geographical distribution. The eider duck (Somateria mollissima), although a short-distance migrating bird whose diet is composed mainly of mussels and crustaceans, and which lives along a great part of the Swedish coastline, is suggested as a biomonitor of cadmium for the aquatic environment. The accumulation rate of cadmium in the kidneys is rapid. Renal levels of cadmium in the parts per million range are reached 10 weeks after hatching. Juvenile birds should be collected for monitoring purposes before leaving their feeding domains at the end of the summer. PMID:3810147

  8. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten, Eva L.; Mathiassen, S. E.; Vingård, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99) and 2.68 (1.09–6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65) and 2.11 (1.08–4.12)). Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation. PMID:26558282

  9. Adherence to Guidelines for Avoiding Drug Interactions Associated with Warfarin - A Nationwide Swedish Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Jonatan D.; Andersson, Marine L.; Mannheimer, Buster

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the extent to which clinicians avoid well-established drug-drug interactions associated with warfarin. We hypothesised that clinicians would avoid combining non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), tramadol and sulfamethoxazole with warfarin. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of nationwide dispensing data was performed in Swedish individuals 18 years or older (n =  7 563 649). Odds ratios of interacting NSAIDs, tramadol and sulfamethoxazole versus respective prevalence of comparator drugs codeine, and ciprofloxacin in patients co-dispensed interacting warfarin versus patients unexposed was calculated. Results The odds of receiving an interacting NSAID versus the comparator codeine was markedly lower in patients with warfarin than in the remaining population (adjusted OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.20 – 0.22). Also, the interacting drugs tramadol and sulfamethoxazole were less common among patients dispensed warfarin as compared to the remaining population, although the decrease was much more modest (adjusted OR 0.83; CI 0.80–0.87 and 0.81; CI 0.73 – 0.90). Conclusions In conclusion, Swedish doctors in the vast majority of cases refrain from prescribing NSAIDs to patients already on warfarin. Tramadol and sulfamethoxazole are however rarely avoided. PMID:24830709

  10. Chemistry inside an epistemological community box! Discursive exclusions and inclusions in Swedish National tests in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize the goals in the chemistry syllabus and to increase student achievement. Discourse and multimodal analyses, based on feminist and critical didactic theories, were used to examine the test's norms and values. The results revealed that the chemistry discourse presented in the tests showed a traditional view of science from the topics discussed (for example, oil and metal), in the way women, men and youth are portrayed, and how their science interests are highlighted or neglected. An elitist view of science emerges from the test, with distinct gender and age biases. Students could interpret these biases as a message that only "the right type" of person may come into the chemistry epistemological community, that is, into this special sociocultural group that harbours a common view about this knowledge. This perspective may have an impact on students' achievement and thereby prevent support for an equitable and fair evaluation. Understanding the underlying evaluative meanings that come with science teaching is a question of democracy since it may affect students' feelings of inclusion or exclusion. The norms and values harboured in the tests will also affect teaching since the teachers are given examples of how the goals in the syllabus can be concretized.

  11. Swedish healthcare providers' perceptions of preconception expanded carrier screening (ECS)-a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Matar, A; Kihlbom, U; Höglund, A T

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive autonomy, medicalization, and discrimination against disabled and parental responsibility are the main ongoing ethical debates concerning reproductive genetic screening. To examine Swedish healthcare professionals' views on preconception expanded carrier screening (ECS), a qualitative study involving academic and clinical institutions in Sweden was conducted in September 2014 to February 2015. Eleven healthcare professionals including clinicians, geneticists, a midwife, and a genetic counselor were interviewed in depth using a semi-structured interview guide. The questionnaire was constructed after reviewing the main literature and meetings with relevant healthcare providers. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed for categories and subcategories. Participants nurtured many ethical and non-ethical concerns regarding preconception ECS. Among the ethical concerns were the potential for discrimination, medicalization, concerns with prioritization of healthcare resources, and effects on reproductive freedom. The effects of implementation of preconception ECS, its stakeholders, regulations, and motivation are some of non-ethical concerns. These concerns, if not addressed, may affect the uptake and usage of carrier screening within Swedish healthcare system. As this is a qualitative study with a small non-random sample size, the findings cannot be generalized. The participants had little to no working experience with expanded screening panels. Moreover, the interviews were conducted in English, a second language for the participants, which might have limited the expression of their views. However, the authors claim that the findings may be pertinent to similar settings in other Scandinavian countries. PMID:27225888

  12. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    PubMed

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. PMID:25841749

  13. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. PMID:26861972

  14. The significance of nitrous oxide emission from biofuel crops on arable land: a Swedish perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Å.; Smith, K. A.

    2011-07-01

    The current regulations governing biofuel production in the European Union require that they have to mitigate climate change, by producing >35 % less greenhouse gases (GHG) than fossil fuels. There is a risk that this may not be achievable, since land use for crop production inevitably emits the strong GHG nitrous oxide (N2O), due to nitrogen fertilisation and cycling in the environment. We conclude that efficient agricultural crop production resulting in a good harvest and low N2O emission can fulfill the EU standard, and is possible under certain conditions for the Swedish agricultural and refinery production systems. However, in years having low crop yields total GHG emissions can be even higher than those released by burning of fossil fuels. In general, the N2O emission size in Sweden and northern Europe is such that there is a >50 % chance that the 35 % saving requirement will not be met. Thus ecosystem N2O emissions have to be convincingly assessed. Here we compare Swedish emission data with values estimated by means of statistical models and by a global, top-down, procedure; the measurements and the predictions often show higher values that would fail to meet the EU standard and thus prevent biofuel production development.

  15. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Berglund, Björn E.

    2007-03-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both the species diversity and the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts continued to increase by 7000 cal yr BP and then decreased progressively. This pattern reveals the first-order change in local sea level as a function of ice-volume-equivalent sea level rise versus isostatic land uplift. Superimposed upon this local sea level trend, well-defined fluctuations of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts occurred on quasi-1000- and 500-yr frequency bands particularly between 7500 and 4000 cal yr BP, when the connection between the Baltic basin and the North Atlantic was broader. A close correlation of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts with GISP2 ice core sea-salt ions suggests that fluctuations of Baltic surface conditions during the middle Holocene might have been regulated by quasi-periodic variations of the prevailing southwesterly winds, most likely through a system similar to the dipole oscillation of the modern North Atlantic atmosphere.

  16. Overexpression of Swedish mutant APP in aged astrocytes attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Ii, Miyuki; Nakano, Sachiko; Tatsumi, Chihiro; Kubota, Kaori; Takasaki, Kotaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein, has different aspects, namely, performs essential physiological functions and produces β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Overexpression of neuronal APP is responsible for synaptic dysfunction. In the central nervous system, astrocytes - a major glial cell type - have an important role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Although APP is expressed in astrocytes, it remains unclear whether astrocytic overexpression of mutant APP affects synaptic transmission. In this study, the effect of astrocytic overexpression of a mutant APP on the excitatory synaptic transmission was investigated using coculture system of the transgenic (Tg) cortical astrocytes that express the human APP695 polypeptide with the double mutation K670N + M671L found in a large Swedish family with early onset Alzheimer's disease, and wild-type hippocampal neuron. Significant secretion of Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 was observed in cultured cortical astrocytes from the Tg2576 transgenic mouse that genetically overexpresses Swedish mutant APP. Under the condition, Tg astrocytes did not affect excitatory synaptic transmission of cocultured wild-type neurons. However, aged Tg astrocytes cultured for 9 weeks elicited a significant decrease in excitatory synaptic transmission in cocultured neurons. Moreover, a reduction in the number of readily releasable synaptic vesicles accompanied a decrease in the number of excitatory synapses in neurons cocultured with aged Tg astrocytes. These observations indicate that astrocytic expression of the mutant APP is involved in the downregulation of synaptic transmission with age. PMID:26733247

  17. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature. PMID:23621718

  18. Sounding Rockets within Swedish National Balloon and Rocket Programme- Providing Access to Space from Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolander, K.; Karlsson, T.; Lockowandt, C.

    2015-09-01

    Initiated in 2012 by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), a new programme dedicated for Swedish scientists to gain access to space using balloons and sounding rockets was started. This programme promotes the possibility to ensure continuity in both the science and the technology used. The sounding rocket part of this national programme started with three possible missions. SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) from the Space and Plasma physics department of KTH, 0-STATES (Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky) from the Department of Meteorology Stockholm University (MISU) and LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric VErtical Structure) that is collaboration between KTH and MISU. These three missions were planned for launches in 2015 and 2016. SSc has been contracted on a launch ticket basis to provide the launch and service to the scientific instrumentation. This paper presents the SPIDER, 0-STATES and LEEWAVES missions focussing on a mission related technical solutions perspective.

  19. Profitable exchanges for scientists: the case of Swedish human embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anders; Hemlin, Sven; Welin, Stellan

    2007-12-01

    In this article two inter-related issues concerning the ongoing commercialisation of biomedical research are analyzed. One aim is to explain how scientists and clinicians at Swedish public institutions can make profits, both commercially and scientifically, by controlling rare human biological material, like embryos and embryonic stem cell lines. This control in no way presupposes legal ownership or other property rights as an initial condition. We show how ethically sensitive material (embryos and stem cell lines) have been used in Sweden as a foundation for a commercial stem cell enterprise--despite all official Swedish strictures against commercialisation in this area. We also show how political decisions may amplify the value of controlling this kind of biological material. Another aim of the article is to analyze and discuss the meaning of this kind of academic commercial enterprise in a wider context of research funding strategies. A conclusion that is drawn is that the academic turn to commercial funding sources is dependent on the decline of public funding. PMID:17926128

  20. Views of Swedish commissioning parents relating to the exploitation discourse in using transnational surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Anna; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Transnational surrogacy, when people travel abroad for reproduction with the help of a surrogate mother, is a heavily debated phenomenon. One of the most salient discourses on surrogacy is the one affirming that Westerners, in their quest for having a child, exploit poor women in countries such as India. As surrogacy within the Swedish health care system is not permitted, Swedish commissioning parents have used transnational surrogacy, and the majority has turned to India. This interview study aimed to explore how commissioning parents negotiate the present discourses on surrogacy. Findings from the study suggest that the commissioning parents' views on using surrogacy are influenced by competing discourses on surrogacy represented by media and surrogacy agencies. The use of this reproductive method resulted, then, in some ambiguity. Although commissioning parents defy the exploitation discourse by referring to what they have learnt about the surrogate mother's life situation and by pointing at the significant benefits for her, they still had a request for regulation of surrogacy in Sweden, to better protect all parties involved. This study, then, gives a complex view on surrogacy, where the commissioning parents simultaneously argue against the exploitation discourse but at the same time are uncertain if the surrogate mothers are well protected in the surrogacy arrangements. Their responses to the situation endorse the need for regulation both in Sweden and India. PMID:25955178

  1. Views of Swedish Commissioning Parents Relating to the Exploitation Discourse in Using Transnational Surrogacy

    PubMed Central

    Arvidsson, Anna; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Transnational surrogacy, when people travel abroad for reproduction with the help of a surrogate mother, is a heavily debated phenomenon. One of the most salient discourses on surrogacy is the one affirming that Westerners, in their quest for having a child, exploit poor women in countries such as India. As surrogacy within the Swedish health care system is not permitted, Swedish commissioning parents have used transnational surrogacy, and the majority has turned to India. This interview study aimed to explore how commissioning parents negotiate the present discourses on surrogacy. Findings from the study suggest that the commissioning parents’ views on using surrogacy are influenced by competing discourses on surrogacy represented by media and surrogacy agencies. The use of this reproductive method resulted, then, in some ambiguity. Although commissioning parents defy the exploitation discourse by referring to what they have learnt about the surrogate mother’s life situation and by pointing at the significant benefits for her, they still had a request for regulation of surrogacy in Sweden, to better protect all parties involved. This study, then, gives a complex view on surrogacy, where the commissioning parents simultaneously argue against the exploitation discourse but at the same time are uncertain if the surrogate mothers are well protected in the surrogacy arrangements. Their responses to the situation endorse the need for regulation both in Sweden and India. PMID:25955178

  2. Lung cancer in Swedish iron miners exposed to low doses of radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, E.P.; Renard, K.G.

    1984-06-07

    In a retrospective study, we investigated lung-cancer mortality from 1951 to 1976 in 1415 Swedish iron miners exposed to short-lived radioactive daughters of radon gas at concentrations leading to annual doses close to the currently accepted occupational limit. Fifty deaths from lung cancer were observed, as compared with 12.8 expected; expected rates were determined by a smoking-specific analysis based on data from a random sample of the Swedish male population. Among nonsmokers 18 deaths were observed, as compared with 1.8 expected; among current smokers and recent exsmokers 32 deaths were observed and 11.0 were expected. The effects of smoking and exposure to alpha radiation from radon daughters were nearly additive. Comparison of lung-cancer risk coefficients from this study and from other cohort studies of underground miners showed good agreement. Exposure to radon daughters is a major medical problem is underground metal mining, but our results also indicate that exposure to radon daughters at home accounts for an appreciable number of cases of lung cancer in the general population.

  3. Assessment of past exposure to man-made vitreous fibers in the Swedish prefabricated house industry.

    PubMed

    Plato, N; Gustavsson, P; Krantz, S

    1997-10-01

    Large quantities of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) are handled in the Swedish prefabricated wooden house industry. The present study is part of a program to investigate mortality, cancer incidence, and current as well as previous exposure to MMVF among workers in the Swedish prefabricated wooden house industry. Since measurements of historical fiber exposure levels are lacking, these were calculated by the application of a matrix of multipliers to recently measured MMVF levels. The multipliers represented changes over time in production rate, technical properties of the fibers, manual handling vs. automation, and ventilation control. The multipliers were based on a similar matrix, developed for the MMVF-manufacturing industry, which was modified to reflect the conditions in the wooden house industry. The model was developed for the highest-exposed job title in the study, insulators. One hundred and twenty samples of airborne fiber were taken in 11 plants to reflect current exposure levels. The highest mean fiber exposure level for insulators was assessed as 0.18 f/ml (geometric mean), which occurred during the mid-1970s, compared to 0.10 f/ml at the end of the 1980s and the early 1960s. Changes in production rate, improved ventilation control, and the surface area of the total amount of MMVF sheets handled per insulator were the most important variables of the model. No increased risk of lung cancer was found in the present industry. PMID:9258388

  4. Design of a Prototype Differential Die-Away Instrument Proposed for Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinik, Tomas; Henzl, Vladimir; Grape, Sophie; Jansson, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Goodsell, Alison V.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2016-06-01

    As part of the United States (US) Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project, the traditional Differential Die-Away (DDA) method that was originally developed for waste drum assay has been investigated and modified to provide a novel application to characterize or verify spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Following the promising, yet largely theoretical and simulation based, research of physics aspects of the DDA technique applied to SNF assay during the early stages of the NGSI-SF project, the most recent effort has been focused on the practical aspects of developing the first fully functional and deployable DDA prototype instrument for spent fuel. As a result of the collaboration among US research institutions and Sweden, the opportunity to test the newly proposed instrument's performance with commercial grade SNF at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) emerged. Therefore the design of this instrument prototype has to accommodate the requirements of the Swedish regulator as well as specific engineering constrains given by the unique industrial environment. Within this paper, we identify key components of the DDA based instrument and we present methodology for evaluation and the results of a selection of the most relevant design parameters in order to optimize the performance for a given application, i.e. test-deployment, including assay of 50 preselected spent nuclear fuel assemblies of both pressurized (PWR) as well as boiling (BWR) water reactor type.

  5. Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Swedish Chimney Sweeps, 1958–2006

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Catarina; Hugosson, Marcus; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Gustavsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cancer incidence in an expanded cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps. Methods. We added male chimney sweep trade union members (1981–2006) to an earlier cohort (employed 1918–1980) and linked them to nationwide registers of cancer, causes of deaths, and total population. The total cohort (n = 6320) was followed from 1958 through 2006. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the male Swedish population as reference. We estimated exposure as years of employment and analyzed for exposure–response associations by Poisson regression. Results. A total of 813 primary cancers were observed versus 626 expected (SIR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.21, 1.39). As in a previous follow-up, SIRs were significantly increased for cancer of the esophagus, liver, lung, bladder, and all hematopoietic cancer. New findings included significantly elevated SIRs for cancer of the colon, pleura, adenocarcinoma of the lung, and at unspecified sites. Total cancer and bladder cancer demonstrated positive exposure–response associations. Conclusions. Exposure to soot and asbestos are likely causes of the observed cancer excesses, with contributions from adverse lifestyle factors. Preventive actions to control work exposures and promote healthier lifestyles are an important priority. PMID:23327283

  6. Temporal trends of perfluorinated surfactants in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus), 1974-2007.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Katrin E; Johansson, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Lindberg, Peter; Berger, Urs

    2010-06-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are today known to be globally distributed environmental contaminants. In the present study, concentrations of PFAS were analyzed in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus), collected between 1974 and 2007. Analytes included in the study were perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; carbon chain lengths C6-C15), perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8, and C10), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). The predominant PFAS was perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS (83 ng/g wet weight (w wt) mean concentration in samples from 2006), followed by perfluorotridecanoate, PFTriA (7.2 ng/g w wt) and perfluoroundecanoate, PFUnA (4.2 ng/g w wt). PFCA concentrations increased exponentially over the studied time. In contrast, concentrations of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) increased initially but leveled off after the mid 1980s. This is different from previously observed temporal trends in marine organisms. The present study is the first to establish temporal trends for PFAS in terrestrial biota. The results indicate potential differences between marine and terrestrial biota regarding sources of PFAS exposure and response to emission changes. The toxicological implications of PFAS exposure for the falcons are not known, but according to recent findings impaired hatching success and sublethal toxicological effects from PFOS exposure in the Swedish peregrine falcon cannot be ruled out. PMID:20446727

  7. Required qualifications in the Swedish Public Dental Health Service as indicators of organizational ideology.

    PubMed

    Franzén, C; Söderfeldt, B

    2001-12-01

    The manifestly required qualifications in job advertisements in the Journal of the Swedish Dental Association were analyzed as indicators of the organizational ideology in the Swedish Public Dental Health Service from the employers' viewpoint. All job advertisements that concerned dentists and managers on different hierarchical levels in general dentistry from January 1990 to December 1998 were included (n = 1152). The number of vacancies was 1856. The textual material was analyzed by content analysis, permitting quantitative descriptions of the text and analysis of the latent characteristics. Words and phrases were classified into categories on different levels of abstraction developed from the theoretical background and the purpose of the study. Altogether 5705 required qualifications were categorized. The inter-coder reliability of the first-level categorization resulted in 81% correspondence of the classification, and lambda = 0.90. Qualifications were more frequently required with higher hierarchical job positions, and personality characteristics were more frequent than technical competence and knowledge. Qualifications interpreted as related to economic goals occurred more frequently than those related to odontological goals. The qualification demands reflected the language of human resource management (HRM), emphasizing the 'soft' people-centered approach and was interpreted as an 'ideal' model of HRM. Dentists were regarded as a profitable organizational asset rather than participants in relations with patients. In conclusion, the results indicate an organizational ideology primarily of economic character. PMID:11831491

  8. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. Attitudes among adolescents in a Swedish city toward some sexual crimes.

    PubMed

    Lewin, B

    1983-01-01

    Using data from a representative sample of adolescents in grade ten in Uppsala, the fourth largest city in Sweden, attitudes toward a number of (criminal) sexual acts are studied. These data are contrasted with those from a sample of patients at a school gynecological clinic. It is found that for both samples, only a very limited number of the eight discussed acts are considered to be criminal by the adolescents. Although at least seven or eight acts are criminal in Swedish law, only two acts are considered criminal by about half of the respondents. These acts are pedophilia and rape after petting. The same questions were used by Kutchinsky in 1969 when on behalf of the U.S. Congress Commission on Obscenity and Pornography he studied inhabitants in Copenhagen, Denmark. When comparing data from Uppsala Sweden 1978 with data from Copenhagen, Denmark 1969 we find that Swedish adolescents in the late seventies, on the whole are much less likely to call the discussed acts criminal. The only exception is rape after petting, which in Copenhagen in the late sixties was the act least often seen as criminal but in the Uppsala study in the late seventies it was one of the two acts most often claimed to be criminal. Finally, the effects of coital experience and the effect of sexual knowledge on the percieved criminality of the acts are considered. PMID:6858741

  10. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    During the last three decades there has been an increased influx of refugees and immigrants into Scandinavia. The overall aim of this thesis was primarily to improve our knowledge of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need, both normative and self-perceived, in adolescents of varying geographic origin. A further aim was to determine whether any differences with respect to perception of general appearance and psychosocial well-being were related to geographic origin. Papers I and II concerned self perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need. About 500 12-13 year-old subjects, stratified into different groups: A-Sweden, B-Eastern/Southeastern Europe, C-Asia and D-other countries, answered a questionnaire and underwent clinical examination by the author. In paper III the association between the two variables in papers I and II was investigated. Paper IV was a follow up study, at 18-19 years of age, of the relationship between geographic origin and prevalence of malocclusion, self-perceived treatment need, temporomandibular symptoms and psychosocial wellbeing. In Paper V a qualitative study of 19-20-year-old subjects was conducted, to identify the strategies they had adopted to handle the issue of persisting poor dental aesthetics. The main findings were that at 12-13 years of age, immigrant subjects had a lower perceived orthodontic treatment need than subjects of Swedish background. Girls of Swedish background had the highest self-perceived treatment need, whilst girls of non-Swedish background were most concerned that fixed appliance therapy would be painful. In a few of the clinical variables measured at 12-13 years of age, the Swedish group exhibited the greatest space deficiency and irregularity in both the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments and greater overjet, compared to the Eastern/Southeastern European and Asian groups. The clinical implications were negligible. The orthodontic treatment need according to "Index of Orthodontic Treatment

  11. Comorbidity profile in dementia with Lewy bodies versus Alzheimer’s disease: a linkage study between the Swedish Dementia Registry and the Swedish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Compared to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is usually associated with a more complex clinical picture and higher burden of care. Yet, few investigations have been performed on comorbidities and risk factors of DLB. Therefore, we aimed to compare clinical risk factors and comorbidity profile in DLB and AD patients using two nationwide registries. Methods This is a linkage study between the Swedish dementia registry (SveDem) and the Swedish National Patient Registry conducted on 634 subjects with DLB and 9161 individuals with AD registered during the years 2007–2012. Comorbidity profile has been coded according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD 10) in addition to the date of each event. The main chapters of the ICD-10, the Charlson score of comorbidities and a selected number of neuropsychiatric diseases were compared between the DLB and AD groups. Comorbidity was registered before and after the dementia diagnosis. Results “Mental and behavioral disorders”, “diseases of the nervous system”, “diseases of the eye and adnexa”, diseases of the “circulatory”, “respiratory”, and “genitourinary” systems, “diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue” and “diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue” occurred more frequently in the DLB group after multivariate adjustment. Depression [adjusted OR = 2.12 (95%CI 1.49 to 3.03)] and migraine [adjusted OR = 3.65 (95%CI 1.48 to 9.0)] were more commonly recorded before the diagnosis of dementia in the DLB group. Following dementia diagnosis, ischemic stroke [adjusted OR = 1.89 (95%CI 1.21 to 2.96)] was more likely to happen among the DLB patients compared to the AD population. Conclusions Our study indicated a worse comorbidity profile in DLB patients with higher occurrence of depression, stroke and migraine compared with the AD group. Deeper knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of these

  12. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.

  13. Solar Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  14. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, R.L.

    1981-10-27

    A heat sink in the form of a mesh is interposed between two spaced panes in a window or door light. A combination of holes and passageways formed in the window sash frame members permit the selective establishment of convective air currents past the mesh to absorb the solar converted thermal heat stored in the sink. By manipulating the source of the air for these convective currents (I.E. From the inside or the outside of a building) and by choosing the volume into which the warmed air currents are to be discharged (I.E. Inside or outside the building) significant heating and cooling efficiencies are achieved.

  15. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  16. Conversion of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, N. N.; Shilov, A. E.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental research related to the conversion and practical utilization of solar energy. Topics discussed include semiconductor photovoltaic cells, orbital solar power stations, chemical and biological methods of solar energy conversion, and solar energy applications. Papers are included on new theoretical models of solar cells and prospects for increasing their efficiency, metrology and optical studies of solar cells, and some problems related to the thermally induced deformations of large space structures.

  17. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  18. Solar Heating and Cooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffie, John A.; Beckman, William A.

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent research that has made solar energy economically competitive with other energy sources. Includes solar energy building architecture, storage systems, and economic production data. (MLH)

  19. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  20. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  1. Solar skylight

    DOEpatents

    Adamson, James C.

    1984-01-01

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  2. The Complexity of the Learning and Teaching of EFL among Swedish-Minority Students in Bilingual Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjoholm, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, English is widely visible outside the school context, above all in the area of entertainment and mass media, and is no longer regarded as a foreign language in the old sense of the word. Among Swedish-minority students in Finland, the dominant status of English in various mass media leads to positive attitudes towards English among…

  3. Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

  4. Shifting Identity Positions in the Development of Language Education for Immigrants: An Analysis of Discourses Associated with "Swedish for Immigrants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme "Swedish…

  5. Technology as the Language of Schooling: Utopian Visions of Technology in Swedish General Education in the 1960s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultén, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In the state-of-the-art Glass Project run by the Swedish National Agency for Education during the second half of the 1960s, a new type of comprehensive technology education was developed. The project had little impact on school practice and was soon forgotten about. However, the project is interesting from several points of view. First, it…

  6. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  7. Learners' Mental Models of the Particle Nature of Matter: A Study of 16-Year-Old Swedish Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adbo, Karina; Taber, Keith S.

    2009-01-01

    The results presented here derive from a longitudinal study of Swedish upper secondary science students' (16-19 years of age) developing understanding of key chemical concepts. The informants were 18 students from two different schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mental models of matter at the particulate level that…

  8. Evaluation of a Computer-Based Current Awareness Service for Swedish Social Scientists. Research Report No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle; Hoglund, Lars

    This report presents results from an evaluation of a current awareness service for Swedish social scientists. The service was based on the computerized version of Social Science Citation Index (SSCI). For the study an evaluation model was developed where the interaction between user and system is evaluated according to specific criteria for each…

  9. Cultivating the Socially Competent Body: Bodies and Risk in Swedish Programmes for Social Emotional Learning in Preschools and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholdsson, Åsa; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Hultin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Social emotional learning (SEL) is common in preschools and schools both in Europe and North America today. Programmes for socio-emotional training and the rise of what is labelled therapeutic education have dramatically increased during the first decade of the millennium. In this article, a manual-based programme used for SEL in a Swedish school…

  10. The multiple market-exposure of waste management companies: A case study of two Swedish municipally owned companies

    SciTech Connect

    Corvellec, Herve; Bramryd, Torleif

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish municipally owned waste management companies are active on political, material, technical, and commercial markets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets differ in kind and their demands follow different logics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets affect the public service, processing, and marketing of Swedish waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Articulating these markets is a strategic challenge for Swedish municipally owned waste management. - Abstract: This paper describes how the business model of two leading Swedish municipally owned solid waste management companies exposes them to four different but related markets: a political market in which their legitimacy as an organization is determined; a waste-as-material market that determines their access to waste as a process input; a technical market in which these companies choose what waste processing technique to use; and a commercial market in which they market their products. Each of these markets has a logic of its own. Managing these logics and articulating the interrelationships between these markets is a key strategic challenge for these companies.

  11. The Relevance of Objective and Subjective Social Position for Self-Rated Health: A Combined Approach for the Swedish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139…

  12. Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

  13. Development and Change in Swedish Municipal Adult Education: Occupational Life History Studies and Four Genealogies of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Ingrid Henning

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on the author's dissertation work on development and change in Swedish municipal adult education (MAE), investigated through occupational life history studies of four teachers in different municipalities who have worked in MAE since the mid 1970s. Three periods of development--three "eras"--in MAE have been identified in…

  14. Does Grammatical Aspect Affect Motion Event Cognition? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of English and Swedish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based…

  15. Teacher-Parent Relations and Professional Strategies: A Case Study on Documentation and Talk about Documentation in a Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfdahl, Annica

    2014-01-01

    The article is framed by a project designed to study the teacher profession in a current Swedish preschool through work on systematic documentation of quality. Questions deal with how teachers handle the demands on visibility, how they perform and what aspects of the teaching profession will be exposed and what parts will be silenced. This article…

  16. Swedish Aspects on Literacy: Selected Papers from the IRA World Congress on Reading (13th, Stockholm, Sweden, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Britta, Ed.

    This book presents articles that deal with literacy, both in a scientific, as well as in a practical and experiential way. Papers in the book are: "Opening Address" (Birgitta Ulvhammar); "Illiteracy: A Global Problem" (Eve Malmquist); "Swedish Cooperation with Developing Countries in the Field of Literacy" (Agneta Lind); "The International…

  17. Swedish 18-Year-Olds' Identity Formation: Associations with Feelings about Appearance and Internalization of Body Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangqvist, Maria; Frisen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study with Swedish 18-year-olds (N = 714, 55.2% women) was to investigate identity formation in relation to body-esteem and body ideal internalization. These are all important aspects of adolescents' development, but little is known about how they are related. This study indicates that late adolescents' identity formation,…

  18. Phonetic Development in Early Infancy: A Study of Four Swedish Children during the First Eighteen Months of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roug, L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data on the phonetic development of Swedish infants (N=4) from 1 through 17 months of age showed five distinct stages in early vocalization development: glottal; velar/uvular; vocalic; reduplicated consonant babbling; and variegated consonant babbling. Comparison with infants of differing linguistic backgrounds indicated…

  19. "The Feelings Have Come Home to Me." Examining Advertising Films on the Swedish Website of El Sistema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuuse, Anna-Karin; Lindgren, Monica; Skåreus, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how the music educational program of El Sistema Sweden is advertised and legitimized through moving images. The films are a major part of the information on the Swedish national website of El Sistema and are supposed to contribute to the picture that the organization and its founders wish to market. The use…

  20. Disparity in Practice: Diverse Strategies among Teachers Implementing Interactive Whiteboards into Teaching Practice in Two Swedish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Bodil; Spante, Maria; Stenlund, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a project aimed at identifying and exploring the development and implementation processes of teaching practices with interactive whiteboards (IWBs) in two Swedish K-6 schools. The purpose of the project was to generate results and insights of value when preparing student teachers for professional use of IWBs and to give…