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Sample records for 1-methylcyclopropene 1-mcp treatment

  1. Measuring consumer response to 'Gala' apples treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-harvest apple treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was previously found to inhibit fruit ripening but also to inhibit the production of volatile compounds that contribute to apple flavor. The first objective of this study was to determine if consumers could distinguish 1-MCP-treated and ...

  2. Metabolic changes in 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-treated ‘Empire’ apple fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Empire’ apple fruit are more susceptible to flesh browning at 3.3 oC if first treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception. To better understand the metabolic changes associated with this browning, untargeted metabolic profiling with partial least squares analysis...

  3. The use of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Chris B

    2006-01-01

    The recent availability of the inhibitor of ethylene perception, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), has resulted in an explosion of research on its effects on fruits and vegetables, both as a tool to further investigate the role of ethylene in ripening and senescence, and as a commercial technology to improve maintenance of product quality. The commercialization of 1-MCP was followed by rapid adoption by many apple industries around the world, and strengths and weaknesses of the new technology have been identified. However, use of 1-MCP remains limited for other products, and therefore it is still necessary to speculate on its commercial potential for most fruits and vegetables. In this review, the effects of 1-MCP on fruits and vegetables are considered from two aspects. First, a selected number of fruit (apple, avocado, banana, pear, peaches and nectarines, plums and tomato) are used to illustrate the range of responses to 1-MCP, and indicate possible benefits and limitations for commercialization of 1-MCP-based technology. Second, an outline of general physiological and biochemical responses of fruits and vegetables to the chemical is provided to illustrate the potential for use of 1-MCP to better understand the role of ethylene in ripening and senescence processes. PMID:16530376

  4. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-induced alteration in leaf photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, respiration and membrane damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under high night temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High night temperature (HNT) can induce ethylene-triggered reactive oxygen species production, which can cause premature leaf senescence and membrane damage, thereby affecting production, consumption and transfer of photosynthates, and yield. The 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can competitively bind w...

  5. Effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on gene expression and activity profile of alpha-1,4-glucan-phosphorylase during banana ripening.

    PubMed

    Mainardi, Janaina Aparecida; Purgatto, Eduardo; Vieira, Adair; Bastos, Walter Arato; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2006-09-20

    Starch phosphorylases are enzymes that can use starch as substrate, and they are supposed to act in both in starch synthesis and degradation. This paper reports the effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the degradation of starch and phosphorylase activity and gene expression. The results indicate that phosphorylase activity is induced during ripening and that it is associated with the onset of starch degradation. The regulation of banana phosphorylase activity is mainly dependent on gene expression, and the absence of ethylene perception by 1-MCP had a positive effect. However, this effect can be precluded by increased levels of ethylene, both autocatalytic and exogenous. PMID:16968096

  6. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-05-01

    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment. PMID:25892768

  7. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and calcium chloride treatments on quality maintenance of 'Lingwu Long' Jujube fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ban, Zhaojun; Li, Xihong; Xue, Ting

    2014-04-01

    'Lingwu Long' jujube (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Mill) fruits were harvested at mature-green stages and then treated with 1.0 μL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination. All treatments were stored at room temperature (22 ± 1 °C) and 80-90% relative humidity (RH) up for 15 days. Results indicated that 1.0 μL L(-1) 1-MCP, 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination were effective in terms of senescence inhibition, and the storage life was extended by 6, 4 and 9 days, respectively. 1-MCP and CaCl2 treatment had a synergic effect on the inhibition of ethylene production and microbial population of 'Lingwu Long' jujube fruit. The combination of 1-MCP and CaCl2 significantly reduced polygalacturonase (PG) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activities. It also maintained higher concentrations of titratable acid and ascorbic acid. PMID:24741163

  8. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment on green asparagus quality during cold storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shaojin; Wu, Zhishuang

    2012-10-01

    Green asparagus was treated with 1-methylcyclopropene at three concentration levels at room temperature for 24 h after harvest to evaluate the postharvest quality during cold storage at 4°C. Comparing with the controls, the loss of vitamin C, decomposition of chlorophyll, and accumulation of the malonydiadehyde under treatments of 1-methylcyclopropene were reduced during storage. The enzyme activities in asparagus including peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase were inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene treatments, while the activity of superoxide dismutase was enhanced. Based on non-significant difference of the treated samples with 6 ìl l-1, 1-methylcyclopropene treatments at 4 ìl l-1 could be selected to maintain postharvest quality of green asparagus and provide long storage life.

  9. Maintaining Quality of Edible Flowers with Controlled Release of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment is used to counter ethylene activity and delay senescence in many fresh produce commodities. This study investigated the effect of 1-MCP treatment with modified atmosphere (MA) packaging on quality maintenance of edible flowers. Freshly harvested ca...

  10. Extending the shelf life of edible flowers with controlled release of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible flowers have great sensory appeal, but their extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment is used to counter ethylene activity and delay senescence in fresh produce; however its potential application in edible flowers has not bee...

  11. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene reduces wound responses and maintains quality in fresh-cut apple.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linchun; Lu, Fujun; Wang, Guoze

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment before cutting on respiration rate, ethylene production, electrolyte leakage, firmness, and color in fresh-cut apple fruit. Fresh-cut apple without 1-MCP treatment had a shelf life of 10 days at 2 degrees C and became browning and decay after pro-long storage. However, fresh-cut apple remained fresh-looking even after 14 days at 2 degrees C when fruit were exposed to 1-MCP before cutting. 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced wound-activated respiration rate and ethylene production, maintained firmness during storage. Visible changes in apple skin color do not occur, however, .L and whiteness index (WI) of flesh in intact and fresh-cut apple applied with 1-MCP were higher than those without 1-MCP treatment. Fresh-cut and intact fruit had little changes in electrolyte leakage after 2 days of storage when 1-MCP was pre-applied. The present study indicated that treatment with 1 microL/L 1-MCP for 10 h at 20 degrees C prior to cutting can significantly reduce wound-active responses in fresh-cut apple. PMID:17392087

  12. Effects of postharvest application of 1-MCP and postcutting dip treatment on the quality and nutritional properties of fresh-cut kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Maria D C; Dandlen, Susana; Cavaco, Ana M; Miguel, Graça

    2010-05-26

    Consumption of minimally processed fruit and vegetables has increased significantly in the past few years due to the consumers' life style. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with ascorbic acid or calcium chloride on the quality parameters of fresh-cut kiwifruit prepared from fruit previously stored for 3 months, either treated or not treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) before storage. Harvested fruit were treated with 1 microL L(-1) 1-MCP for 20 h at room temperature ( approximately 20 degrees C) (MCP) or had no treatment (C) and were then stored at 0 degrees C. After 3 months, fruit were removed from storage, peeled, and cut longitudinally in quarters, dipped in 2% ascorbic acid (Asc), 2% calcium chloride (Ca), or just water (cont), and kept at 2 degrees C for 8 days. Measurements of firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) ( degrees Brix), color (CIE L*, a*, b*), electrolyte leakage, sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) were performed at 0, 4, and 8 days. A taste panel was performed on the seventh shelf life day. It was shown that whole MCP-treated kiwifruit kept better than the control through the 3 months storage, this effect being lost through the fresh-cut shelf life period. Furthermore, the postcut dip on 2% CaCl(2) was effective on delaying softening and browning of fresh-cut kiwifruit, which were also the fruit preferred by panelists. Both ascorbic acid and CaCl(2) were effective on preserving or improving nutritional properties (phenolics, ascorbic acid, DPPH, and ABTS) mainly in the first 4 days of shelf life. The CaCl(2) had a further beneficial effect until 8 shelf life days. It is suggested that CaCl(2) is better in keeping overall quality through 8 days of shelf life at 2 degrees C in fresh-cut kiwifruit followed by Asc, and 1-MCP has negligible effect in the conditions of this experiment. PMID:20411941

  13. Inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sooyeon; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongyun; Lee, Han Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hardy kiwifruits (Actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 16 h at 10 °C and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °C. Anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. The hardy kiwifruits, without 1-MCP treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. The 1-MCP treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. Fruits with the 1-MCP treatment could be stored for up to 5 weeks by maintaining higher fruit firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents compared to the control. The hardy kiwifruit extracts showed anti-proliferative effects to Hep3B and HeLa cells but not to HT29, HepG2 and LoVo cells. These results suggest that the application of 1-MCP at harvest effectively delayed the ripening process of the fruits, and the fruit extract had beneficial effects for the prevention of human cancer growth. PMID:26212954

  14. Combination of 1-Methylcyclopropene and ethoxyquin to control superficial scald of 'Anjou' pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application at 20 °C for 24 hours on the day of harvest plus an ethoxyquin drench at 1000 µL L-1 after 1, 7, 30 and 60 days (d) of cold storage controlled superficial scald of ‘d’Anjou’ pears stored in air at -1 °C for 5 months. 1-MCP alone, or ethoxyquin alo...

  15. EFFECT OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE ON THE QUALITY OF FRESH-CUT APPLE SLICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this project was to treat fresh-cut apple slices with the ethylene-action inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), in order to retard ethylene-induced deterioration and senescence, and prolong the shelf life of such products. Intact Braeburn and Pacific Rose apples were treated, at...

  16. Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene and storage atmosphere on changes in volatile compounds and fruit quality of conference pears.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Anna; Cambiaghi, Paola; Grassi, Maurizio; Zerbini, Paola Eccher

    2005-12-14

    Conference pears (Pyrus communis L.) were treated with 25 and 50 nL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at -0.5 degrees C for 24 h, then stored for up to 22 weeks in air (NA) and controlled atmosphere (CA). After 7 and 14 weeks of storage, fruits were retreated with 1-MCP. After 7, 14, and 22 weeks of storage, fruits were kept for up to 7 days at 20 degrees C in air for poststorage ripening. The effects of 1-MCP treatment declined with duration of storage in both storage atmospheres, indicating that retreatments had little additional effects on subsequent ripening. Ethylene production was lower and firmness was higher in 50 nL L(-1) fruits, while the 25 nL L(-1) dose was not very different from the control. Development of superficial scald was not prevented by 1-MCP treatments, but the severity of the symptoms was influenced. The 1-MCP effects were perceivable on texture (juiciness) and flavor. Control fruit and 25 nL L(-1) fruit reached their best sensory quality after 14 weeks of storage, while 50 nL L(-1) fruit reached the same sensory quality later, keeping a fresh flavor when the quality of control fruit declined and became watery or grainy. The fresh flavor in 50 nL L(-1) fruit was probably due to the presence below the odor detection threshold concentrations of the volatile compounds responsible for the "ripe pear" aroma, mainly of butanol and ethyl butanoate. CA prolonged or enhanced the effects of 1-MCP; 1-MCP cannot substitute for CA but can reinforce the CA effects. PMID:16332131

  17. Differential suppression of ethylene biosynthesis and receptor genes in 'Golden Delicious' apple by preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvista™, a spraying formulation of 1-MCP, is a recently available tool for managing preharvest on-tree fruit maturation whereas SmartFresh™ is the widely-used treatment for postharvest handling and storage. In the current study, the timing of pre-harvest application and its effects on fruit ripeni...

  18. Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Antioxidant Capacity in Pepper “Kulai” during Low-Temperature Storage

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chung Keat; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Ismail, Ismanizan; Zainal, Zamri

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to simultaneously evaluate the effect of a postharvest treatment on the pepper's antioxidant content and its ability to retain its economical value during the postharvest period. The fruits were pretreated by modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with or without treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) before cold storage at 10°C. Changes in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, including the total phenolic, ascorbic acid levels and the total glutathione level, as well as enzymatic antioxidants, including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT), were determined. Both treatments successfully extended the shelf life of the fruit for up to 25 days, and a high level of antioxidant capacity was maintained throughout the storage period. However, 1-MCP treatment maintained the high antioxidant capacity for a longer period of time. The 1-MCP-treated peppers maintained high levels of phenolic content, a high reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio, decreased levels of ascorbic acid and CAT activity, and increased levels of APX and GR compared with the peppers that were not treated with 1-MCP. The overall results suggested that a combination of 1-MCP and MAP was the most effective treatment for extending shelf life while retaining the nutritional benefits. PMID:22919322

  19. The Effects Of Surfactants, Mixing Time, Nozzle Types, Spray Volumes And Simulated Rain On 1-MCP Efficacy On Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted with a WP formulation of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) to determine the effects of surfactants, spray volume, nozzle type and rain fastness on the efficacy of 1-MCP to protect tomato plants from the epinastic effects of ethaphon. 1-MCP at 25 and 50 ...

  20. Inhibiting ethylene perception with 1-methylcyclopropene triggers molecular responses aimed to cope with cell toxicity and increased respiration in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Establés-Ortiz, Beatriz; Romero, Paco; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Lafuente, María T

    2016-06-01

    The ethylene perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been critical in understanding the hormone's mode of action. However, 1-MCP may trigger other processes that could vary the interpretation of results related until now to ethylene, which we aim to understand by using transcriptomic analysis. Transcriptomic changes in ethylene and 1-MCP-treated 'Navelate' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) oranges were studied in parallel with changes in ethylene production, respiration and peel damage. The effects of compounds modifying the levels of the ethylene co-product cyanide and nitric oxide (NO) on fruit physiology were also studied. Results suggested that: 1) The ethylene treatment caused sub-lethal stress since it induced stress-related responses and reduced peel damage; 2) 1-MCP induced ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent responsive networks; 3) 1-MCP triggered ethylene overproduction, stress-related responses and metabolic shifts aimed to cope with cell toxicity, which mostly affected to the inner part of the peel (albedo); 4) 1-MCP increased respiration and drove metabolism reconfiguration for favoring energy conservation but up-regulated genes related to lipid and protein degradation and triggered the over-expression of genes associated with the plasma membrane cellular component; 5) Xenobiotics and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) might act as signals for defense responses in the ethylene-treated fruit, while their uncontrolled generation would induce processes mimicking cell death and damage in 1-MCP-treated fruit; 6) ROS, the ethylene co-product cyanide and NO may converge in the toxic effects of 1-MCP. PMID:26990405

  1. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  2. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in “Empire” apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    Deyman, Kristen L.; Brikis, Carolyne J.; Bozzo, Gale G.; Shelp, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit during controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and CA storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs) and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with “Empire” apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3°C, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i) total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii) total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii) total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv) total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA production. PMID:24782882

  3. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in "Empire" apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Deyman, Kristen L; Brikis, Carolyne J; Bozzo, Gale G; Shelp, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit during controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and CA storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs) and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with "Empire" apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3°C, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i) total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii) total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii) total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv) total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA production. PMID:24782882

  4. Ethylene and 1-MCP regulate major volatile biosynthetic pathways in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaotang; Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Forney, Charles; Campbell-Palmer, Leslie; Fillmore, Sherry; Wismer, Paul; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on apple fruit volatile biosynthesis and gene expression were investigated. Statistical analysis identified 17 genes that changed significantly in response to ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Genes encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) and amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) were up-regulated during ripening and further enhanced by ethylene treatment. Genes related to fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, including acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCAT), acyl-ACP-desaturase (ACPD), lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC2), β-oxidation, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHD), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD), and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) also increased during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment. Allene oxide synthase (AOS), alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) decreased in ethylene-treated fruit. Treatment with 1-MCP and ethylene generally produced opposite effects on related genes, which provides evidence that regulation of these genes is ethylene dependent. PMID:26471562

  5. Effects of 1-MCP Applied Postharvest on Epicuticular Wax of Apples Malus domestica (Borkj.) during Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain apple cultivars develop a greasy feel when overripe. Treating fruit with the ripening inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFresh™, AgroFresh, Inc., Spring House, PA) reduces fruit greasiness. This study examines the nature of this phenomenon. ‘Royal Gala’ apples were treated with 1-M...

  6. Influence of 1-MCP treatments on eating quality and consumer preferences of ‘Qinmei’ kiwifruit during shelf life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers and growers in China sometime complain that Kiwifruits treated with an ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP are difficult to ripen and show poor eating quality. This study addresses the quality parameters affecting consumer preferences and reevaluates the necessity of 1-MCP application for stor...

  7. Effect of One-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on preservation of green walnut fruit and kernel traits.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liuqing; Feng, Wenyu; Li, Fang; Xu, Jingying; Ma, Yanping; Ma, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the ethylene receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and the legally approved disinfectant chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on preservation of the green walnut fruit during storage was investigated. Green Chinese walnut fruit cv. Xilin No.2 was harvested on commercial maturity and stored at 0-1 °C after the fruit was treated by water (control), 80 mg L(-1)ClO2 (ClO2), 0.5 μL L(-1)1-MCP (1-MCP), or combination treatment of 80 mg L(-1) ClO2 with either 0.1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2) or 0.5 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.5 1-MCP+ ClO2). During storage, respiration, ethylene production, phenolics content, antioxidative activity, weight changes, decay of the fruit and kernel traits of acid value, peroxide value,free fatty were measured. All treatments decreased postharvest respiration intensity in different degrees and inhibited ethylene production peak. ClO2 increased the total phenol and flavonoid content of the green fruit compared with other treatments and the control (P < 0.05), but not did the total antioxidant activity for this treatment. After 42-day storage, ClO2 remained higher fresh weight and lower decay index than control, while 1-MCP increased the fruit decay index. Final acid values of kernel from ClO2, control and 0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2 were not different from their initial values, which from 0.5 1-MCP increased. Final peroxide value for kernel from ClO2 showed no change during storage but increased at least 1.0-fold for other treatments. ClO2 preserved 99.9 % of initial free fatty acid, similar to that for the control (99.8 %), whereas 0.5 1-MCP preserved only 95.7 %. ClO2 is of potential in decay retardation and kernel traits maintenance of green walnut fruit, whereas the 1-MCP has a negative effect for decay control on walnut. PMID:25593369

  8. RE-INITIATING SOFTENING ABILITY OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE-TREATED 'BARLETT' AND 'D'ANJOU' PEARS AFTER REGULAR AIR OR CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ and ‘d’Anjou’ pears treated with 300 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), did not soften to eating quality within 7 d, a desirable ripening period. In this research, a preconditioning method was evaluated as a means to regenerate ripening ability of pears prior to marketing. Fruit treat...

  9. ANALYTICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH-CUT WATERMELON SLICES FROM NON-TREATED AND 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE- AND/OR ETHYLENE-TREATED WHOLE FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining the postharvest quality of fresh-cut fruit after processing and throughout distribution and marketing is a major challenge facing the fresh-cut fruit industry. Analytical quality characteristics of packaged fresh-cut watermelon slices from non-treated and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)- a...

  10. Transcriptome profiling of ripening nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit treated with 1-MCP

    PubMed Central

    Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Begheldo, Maura; Rasori, Angela; Bonghi, Claudio; Tonutti, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale transcriptome analysis has been conducted using μPEACH1.0 microarray on nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). 1-MCP maintained flesh firmness but did not block ethylene biosynthesis. Compared with samples at harvest, only nine genes appeared to be differentially expressed when fruit were sampled immediately after treatment, while a total of 90 targets were up- or down-regulated in untreated fruit. The effect of 1-MCP was confirmed by a direct comparison of transcript profiles in treated and untreated fruit after 24 h of incubation with 106 targets differentially expressed. About 30% of these targets correspond to genes involved in primary metabolism and response processes related to ethylene, auxin, and other hormones. In treated fruit, altered transcript accumulation was detected for some genes with a role in ripening-related events such as softening, colour development, and sugar metabolism. A rapid decrease in flesh firmness and an increase in ethylene production were observed in treated fruit maintained for 48 h in air at 20 °C after the end of the incubation period. Microarray comparison of this sample with untreated fruit 24 h after harvest revealed that about 45% of the genes affected by 1-MCP at the end of the incubation period changed their expression during the following 48 h in air. Among these genes, an ethylene receptor (ETR2) and three ethylene-responsive factors (ERF) were present, together with other transcription factors and ethylene-dependent genes involved in quality parameter changes. PMID:18515268

  11. Antioxidant metabolism of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treated ‘Empire’ apples during controlled atmosphere storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Empire’ apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] are susceptible to development of firm flesh browning during controlled atmosphere storage. The browning is thought to be a chilling injury and therefore fruit are typically stored at 2-3 degrees C to avoid fruit damage. How...

  12. Manipulation of fruit ripening in "Hass" avocado using 1-Methylcyclopropene(1-MCP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The state of Michoacán is the principal producer of ‘Hass’ avocado in Mexico with production of over 1 million tons annually. Hass avocado has excellent fruit characteristics and shelf-life. However, fruits harvested from January to May have a high dry matter content (>30%) and exhibit skin blackeni...

  13. Effect of maturity and cold storage on ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in ‘Bartlett’ pears treated after harvest with 1-MCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further our understanding of the response of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and their ability to recover the capacity to ripen, ‘Bartlett’ pears were treated with 0.3 µL L-1 1-MCP for 12 h at 20 °C immediately after harvest in two seasons and to pear fruit of four maturitie...

  14. 1-MCP treatment enhanced expression of genes controlling endosperm cell division and starch biosynthesis for improvement of grain filling in a dense-panicle rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Panda, B B; Badoghar, A K; Sekhar, S; Shaw, B P; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-01

    High ethylene production in dense-panicle rice cultivars impacts grain filling. 1-MCP (ethylene action inhibitor) treatment increased assimilates partitioning, cell number and size and expression of starch synthesizing enzyme genes of developing caryopses mostly in the basal spikelets of panicle at early post-anthesis stage. The gain in cell number was less compared to the increase of size. High ethylene production in spikelets matched with greater expression of ethylene receptor and signal transducer genes. Genes encoding cell cycle regulators CDK, CYC and CKI expressed poorly on 9 DAA. 1-MCP treatment enhanced their expression; the increase of expression was higher for CDKs and lower for CKIs in basal compared to apical spikelets. Greater expression of CDKB2:1 might have lifted cytokinesis of nascent peripheral cells of endosperm, while promotion of CDKAs, CYCD2:2 and inhibition of CYCB2:2 expression contributed to endoreduplication of central cells increasing cell size and DNA ploidy level. It is concluded that the process of endoreduplication, which begins at mid-grain filling stage, is crucially linked with the final caryopsis size of rice grain. The enhanced endosperm growth brought about by repressed ethylene action during the first few days after anthesis seems to be associated with the overall increased cell cycle activity and sink strength. PMID:26993232

  15. Managing ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit ripening with 1-methylcyclopropene reapplication during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated low-dose 1-MCP-applications were evaluated during cold storage of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to overcome long-term ripening inhibition of a high dose 1-MCP treatment at harvest. Fruit were exposed to 1-MCP at 0, 0.42, 4.2 or 42 umol m-3 at harvest in year one, and to 0, 0.42 or 42 umol m-3 in y...

  16. Effect of the Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Wax Emulsions on Proximate Analysis and Some Antioxidants of Soursop (Annona muricata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L.; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G.; García-Galindo, Hugo S.; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25°C (control), and at 16°C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20°C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16°C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity. PMID:24892105

  17. Differential protein profiles of postharvest Gynura bicolor D.C leaf treated by 1-methylcyclopropene and ethephon.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Kang, Ruoyi; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Juan; Yu, Zhifang

    2015-06-01

    Proteins were extracted from G. bicolor that had been treated with 1-methylcyclopropene and ethephon and then stored at room temperature for 1, 3 and 7days. More than 300 protein spots were detected by 2-DE and 38 differentially abundant spots (P<0.05) were excised and analysed by using MALDI-TOF/TOF. Thirty-three proteins were finally confidently identified. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins, the proteins identified were classified into those responsible for metabolism (75.8%), information storage and processing (9.1%) and cellular processes and signaling (12.1%). Compared with ethephon and control treatments, 1-methylcyclopropene specifically increased the abundances of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside diphosphate kinases, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, RuBisCO and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase. 1-Methylcyclopropene protected leaf chloroplast and cells by enhancing stress response and defense, and delayed senescence by inhibiting substance and energy metabolisms. Therefore, 1-methylcyclopropene allowed better self-defense and delayed senescence of G. bicolor leaf. PMID:25624203

  18. Effects of different postharvest treatments on the physiology and quality of 'Xiaobai' apricots at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Guo, Qin; Wang, Gang-Xia; Peng, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Ji-de; Che, Feng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of postharvest treatments on storage characteristics of harvested apricots in relation to fruit quality was investigated. 'Xiaobai' apricots treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), calcium, and heat in sealed container and then stored at 20 °C with 90 % relative humidity (RH) for 10 days. Results showed that the treatments could reduce respiration production and MDA content, delay softening, postharvest decay, the decrease of soluble solids (SSC), and visual changes. Furthermore, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), polygalacturonase (PG), and pectin methylesterase (PME), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) activities were reduced by treatments. Taken together, it is suggested that ClO2 treatment might be an effective way to maintain the quality of apricot fruit except 1-MCP treatment. PMID:25829606

  19. CONTROL OF BITTER ROT & BLUE MOLD OF APPLES BY INTEGRATING HEAT AND ANTAGONIST TREATMENTS ON 1-MCP TREATED FRUIT STORED UNDER CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to maximize control of fruit decay by alternatives to synthetic fungicides after harvest, various control strategies can be integrated. Treatment of fruit with antagonists is one of the most promising alternatives. This treatment, however, has little or no eradicative activity, which limi...

  20. Ethylene and a-farnesene metabolism in green and red skin of three apple cultivars in response to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships among alpha-farnesene synthesis and oxidation, ethylene production and perception, antioxidative enzyme activities, and superficial scald development in fruit of three commercial apple cultivars were investigated at the biochemical and gene transcriptional levels. Scald-susceptible Cor...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1220 Section 180.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances §...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1220 Section 180.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances §...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1220 Section 180.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances §...

  4. Up-regulation of genes in diphenylamine- and 1-methylcyclopropene-treated apples during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold storage reduces the rate of quality loss and extends availability of fresh apples in the marketplace, but several cultivars develop various postharvest browning disorders of the peel or flesh tissue such as superficial scald and external carbon dioxide injury. Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene...

  5. Efficacy of 1-methylcyclopropene on the mitigation of storage disorders of "Rocha" pear under normal refrigerated and controlled atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Domingos Pf; Carvalho, Rita; Dupille, Eve

    2016-07-01

    Alternatives are needed for long-term preservation of European pears (Pyrus communis L.) after the ban on diphenylamine. "Rocha" pear fruit harvested at commercial maturity were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-methylcyclopropene, SmartFresh™) and diphenylamine and stored at 0 ℃, 90-95% relative humidity, under normal atmosphere for up to six months or under controlled atmosphere (controlled atmosphere, 3 kPa O2 + 0.7 kPa CO2) for up to 9.4 months. At 312 nl l(-1), 1-methylcyclopropene reduced softening and yellowing, and increased soluble solids content during shelf life in comparison with fruit treated with diphenylamine. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 312 nl l(-1) was also more effective than diphenylamine in reducing superficial scald and internal browning disorders. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 150 nl l(-1) had little effect on ripening-related changes but was effective against physiological disorders of pears stored in regular atmosphere or under controlled atmosphere. Delayed controlled atmosphere slightly reduced internal browning disorders but increased superficial scald. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 312 nl l(-1) reduced physiological disorders in "Rocha" pear under refrigerated storage and delayed ripening-related softening and color changes during shelf life. At 150 nl l(-1), 1-methylcyclopropene is as effective as diphenylamine against storage disorders without ripening impairment. PMID:26437671

  6. The isomerization of 1-methylcyclopropene: A multichannel unimolecular reaction induced by overtone excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggott, J. E.; Law, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of products resulting from the isomerization of gas phase 1-methylcyclopropene (1) induced by C-H stretch overtone excitation has been studied in a search for mode specific effects. Quantum yields for the disappearance of 1 have been determined as a function of the total pressure of a mixture of 1 and methylenecyclopropane and of the added bath gases SF6 and Ar using a combination of intracavity dye laser photolysis and end product analysis by gas chromatography. These data, together with the ratios of the yields of the major isomerization products, are adequately reproduced by RRKM theory and a weak collisional energy transfer model: no evidence for mode specificity is obtained. The experimental data demonstrate the importance of inefficient collisional energy transfer but allow some conclusions to be drawn concerning the applicability of RRKM theory which are not strongly dependent upon the details of the energy transfer model.

  7. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) in Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is the first discovered and most extensively studied CC chemokine, and the amount of studies on its role in the etiologies of obesity- and diabetes-related diseases have increased exponentially during the past 2 decades. This review attempted to provide a panoramic perspective of the history, regulatory mechanisms, functions, and therapeutic strategies of this chemokine. The highlights of this review include the roles of MCP-1 in the development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, insulitis, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Therapies that specifically or non-specifically inhibit MCP-1 overproduction have been summarized. PMID:22766373

  8. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. PMID:24216324

  9. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1): An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deshmane, Satish L.; Kremlev, Sergey; Amini, Shohreh

    2009-01-01

    Chemokines constitute a family of chemoattractant cytokines and are subdivided into four families on the basis of the number and spacing of the conserved cysteine residues in the N-terminus of the protein. Chemokines play a major role in selectively recruiting monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, as well as in inducing chemotaxis through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Both CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 have been demonstrated to be induced and involved in various diseases. Migration of monocytes from the blood stream across the vascular endothelium is required for routine immunological surveillance of tissues, as well as in response to inflammation. This review will discuss these biological processes and the structure and function of CCL2. PMID:19441883

  10. Controlled delivery of 1-MCP from R1, R2-B-methylene cyclopropane complexes: an effective approach to be used both in closed environments and open crop fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1-methylcycloprene (1-MCP) is a synthetic plant growth regulator used for the confined treatment of perishable agricultural commodities, such as fruits, flowers and vegetables, to retard ripening and thus prolong shelf-life. Previous investigations have shown that 1-MCP protects crops from yield los...

  11. Interactions between 1-MCP and controlled atmospheres on quality and storage disorders of fruits and vegetable

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) to maintain quality attributes of horticultural products has been investigated extensively. Commercial applications of 1-MCP (SmartFreshTM), are made to a range of horticultural crops, including avocados, bananas, melons, persimmons and tomatoes, but the major...

  12. Sensory evaluation quality of tomato 'Florida' 47: effect of maturity, storage temperature and 1-MCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Florida, tomatoes are harvested green and stored at low temperature (13 C) resulting in poor flavor. Flavor improvement might be achieved if fruit were harvested with color and/or stored at a higher temperature with the aid of 1-MCP. The effect of 1-MCP, harvest maturity and storage temperature...

  13. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  14. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  15. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  16. Instrumental evaluation of flavor components, color and firmness of tomato 'Florida' 47: effect of maturity, storage temperature and 1-MCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Florida, tomatoes are harvested green and stored at low temperature (13 C) resulting in poor flavor. Flavor improvement might be achieved if fruit were harvested with color and/or stored at higher temperature with the aid of 1-MCP. The effect of 1-MCP, harvest maturity and storage temperature o...

  17. Interactions between 1-MCP and controlled atmosphere storage on quality and storage disorders of fruits and vegetable.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) to maintain quality attributes of horticultural products has been investigated extensively. Commercial applications of 1-MCP (SmartFreshTM), are made to a range of horticultural crops, including avocados, bananas, melons, persimmons and tomatoes, but the major...

  18. Phyllostachys edulis Compounds Inhibit Palmitic Acid-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) Production

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Jason K.; Liang, Zhibin; Williams, Philip G.; Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Phyllostachys edulis Carriere (Poaceae) is a bamboo species that is part of the traditional Chinese medicine pharmacopoeia. Compounds and extracts from this species have shown potential applications towards several diseases. One of many complications found in obesity and diabetes is the link between elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs) and chronic inflammation. This study aims to present a possible application of P. edulis extract in relieving inflammation caused by FFAs. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are transcription factors activated in response to inflammatory stimuli, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1. This study examines the effect of P. edulis extract on cellular production of MCP-1 and on the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in response to treatment with palmitic acid (PA), a FFA. Methodology/Principal Findings MCP-1 protein was measured by cytometric bead assay. NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear localization was detected by colorimetric DNA-binding ELISA. Relative MCP-1 mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Murine cells were treated with PA to induce inflammation. PA increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1. Adding bamboo extract (BEX) inhibited the effects of PA, reduced MCP-1 production, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 subunits. Compounds isolated from BEX inhibited MCP-1 secretion with different potencies. Conclusions/Significance PA induced MCP-1 production in murine adipose, muscle, and liver cells. BEX ameliorated PA-induced production of MCP-1 by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Two O-methylated flavones were isolated from BEX with functional effects on MCP-1 production. These results may represent a possible therapeutic

  19. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), -2, and -3 are chemotactic for human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Taub, D D; Proost, P; Murphy, W J; Anver, M; Longo, D L; van Damme, J; Oppenheim, J J

    1995-01-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, -2, and -3 all have been shown to induce monocyte/macrophage migration in vitro and MCP-1, also known as MCAF, chemoattracts basophils and mast cells. We report here that natural MCP-1 as well as synthetic preparations of MCP-2 and MCP-3 stimulate significant in vitro chemotaxis of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. This MCP-induced migration was dose-dependent and directional, but not chemokinetic. Phenotypic analysis of the T cell population responsive to MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 demonstrates that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells migrated in response to these chemokines. Similar results were observed using human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Neutralizing antisera to MCAF or MCP-2 abrogated T cell migration in response to MCP-1 and MCP-2, respectively, but not to RANTES. Subcutaneous administration of purified MCP-1 into the hind flanks of SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced significant human CD3+ T cell infiltration into the site of injection at 4 h. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 are inflammatory mediators that specifically stimulate the directional migration of T cells as well as monocytes and may play an important role in immune cell recruitment into sites of antigenic challenge. Images PMID:7883984

  20. Effect of 1-MCP, harvest maturity, and storage temperature on tomato flavor compounds, color, and microbial stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A popular commercial variety of tomato, Florida 47, was harvested in fall and spring (2005-2006) at the immature green (spring only), green, breaker, turning and pink stages (IG, GR, BR, TR and PK), and treated or not with 1-MCP (all harvest maturities) or ethylene (G in fall). Treated and untreate...

  1. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA is down-regulated in human dermal fibroblasts by dexamethasone: differential regulation by TGF-beta.

    PubMed

    Slavin, J; Unemori, E; Hunt, T K; Amento, E

    1995-01-01

    Macrophages are a source of cytokines driving repair. Wound macrophages are derived from circulating monocytes. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent specific monocyte chemoattractant. Treatment of serum stimulated dermal fibroblasts with dexamethasone led to a dose dependent down-regulation of MCP-1 mRNA levels. Such an anti-inflammatory effect may partially explain the negative influence of glucocorticoid treatment on wound repair. Topical or parenteral of fibroblasts cultured in serum free media with TGF-beta increased MCP-1 mRNA levels. TGF-beta treatment of fibroblasts cultured in serum also partially overcame the dexamethasone mediated decrease in MCP-1 mRNA levels. In glucocorticoid treated animals TGF-beta may stimulate repair by an indirect pro-inflammatory action following transcriptional up-regulation of MCP-1. PMID:8679249

  2. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) inhibits the intestinal-like differentiation of monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Spoettl, T; Hausmann, M; Herlyn, M; Gunckel, M; Dirmeier, A; Falk, W; Herfarth, H; Schoelmerich, J; Rogler, G

    2006-01-01

    Monocytes (MO) migrating into normal, non-inflamed intestinal mucosa undergo a specific differentiation resulting in a non-reactive, tolerogenic intestinal macrophage (IMAC). Recently we demonstrated the differentiation of MO into an intestinal-like macrophage (MAC) phenotype in vitro in a three-dimensional cell culture model (multi-cellular spheroid or MCS model). In the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in addition to normal IMAC, a reactive MAC population as well as increased levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is found. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MCP-1 on the differentiation of MO into IMAC. MCS were generated from adenovirally transfected HT-29 cells overexpressing MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3α) or non-transfected controls and co-cultured with freshly elutriated blood MO. After 7 days of co-culture MCS were harvested, and expression of the surface antigens CD33 and CD14 as well as the intracellular MAC marker CD68 was determined by flow-cytometry or immunohistochemistry. MCP-1 and MIP-3α expression by HT-29 cells in the MCS was increased by transfection at the time of MCS formation. In contrast to MIP-3α, MCP-1 overexpression induced a massive migration of MO into the three-dimensional aggregates. Differentiation of IMAC was disturbed in MCP-1-transfected MCS compared to experiments with non-transfected control aggregates, or the MIP-3α-transfected MCS, as indicated by high CD14 expression of MO/IMAC cultured inside the MCP-1-transfected MCS, as shown by immunohistochemistry and FACS analysis. Neutralization of MCP-1 was followed by an almost complete absence of monocyte migration into the MCS. MCP-1 induced migration of MO into three-dimensional spheroids generated from HT-29 cells and inhibited intestinal-like differentiation of blood MO into IMAC. It may be speculated that MCP-1 could play a role in the disturbed IMAC differentiation in IBD mucosa. PMID

  3. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) inhibits the intestinal-like differentiation of monocytes.

    PubMed

    Spoettl, T; Hausmann, M; Herlyn, M; Gunckel, M; Dirmeier, A; Falk, W; Herfarth, H; Schoelmerich, J; Rogler, G

    2006-07-01

    Monocytes (MO) migrating into normal, non-inflamed intestinal mucosa undergo a specific differentiation resulting in a non-reactive, tolerogenic intestinal macrophage (IMAC). Recently we demonstrated the differentiation of MO into an intestinal-like macrophage (MAC) phenotype in vitro in a three-dimensional cell culture model (multi-cellular spheroid or MCS model). In the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in addition to normal IMAC, a reactive MAC population as well as increased levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is found. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MCP-1 on the differentiation of MO into IMAC. MCS were generated from adenovirally transfected HT-29 cells overexpressing MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3alpha) or non-transfected controls and co-cultured with freshly elutriated blood MO. After 7 days of co-culture MCS were harvested, and expression of the surface antigens CD33 and CD14 as well as the intracellular MAC marker CD68 was determined by flow-cytometry or immunohistochemistry. MCP-1 and MIP-3alpha expression by HT-29 cells in the MCS was increased by transfection at the time of MCS formation. In contrast to MIP-3alpha, MCP-1 overexpression induced a massive migration of MO into the three-dimensional aggregates. Differentiation of IMAC was disturbed in MCP-1-transfected MCS compared to experiments with non-transfected control aggregates, or the MIP-3alpha-transfected MCS, as indicated by high CD14 expression of MO/IMAC cultured inside the MCP-1-transfected MCS, as shown by immunohistochemistry and FACS analysis. Neutralization of MCP-1 was followed by an almost complete absence of monocyte migration into the MCS. MCP-1 induced migration of MO into three-dimensional spheroids generated from HT-29 cells and inhibited intestinal-like differentiation of blood MO into IMAC. It may be speculated that MCP-1 could play a role in the disturbed IMAC differentiation in IBD mucosa

  4. [Aortic expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) gene in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Sekalska, Beata

    2003-01-01

    The theory of Ross describes atherosclerosis as a process induced by inflammatory reactions involving cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemokines. The latter have been identified as the principal mediator of cell recruitment into the vascular wall when accumulating monocytes become a source of foam cells. The most potent monocyte attractant among known chemokines is the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). This protein is synthesized in vivo by cells of the vascular wall and its expression is largely controlled by NF-kB nuclear transcription factor. The importance of inflammation for the induction and progression of atherosclerosis suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs could be a useful modality in this condition. The present work was undertaken to: 1) adapt the RT-PCR technique to measurements of MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta, 2) assess MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta during atherosclerosis induced with a cholesterol-rich diet, 3) evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta during atherosclerosis induced with a cholesterol-rich diet. The study was done in 72 rabbits assigned to eight even groups on the basis of body weight and starting cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in serum. All rabbits were fed a standard chow. In some groups, the diet was supplemented with cholesterol and/or ibuprofen. Two months later rabbits in four groups, i.e. control (K2), control with ibuprofen (IK2), cholesterol-rich (M2) and cholesterol-rich with ibuprofen (IM2) were weighed and blood was sampled for measurements of cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in serum. The liver, heart, kidneys and adrenals were collected at autopsy and weighed. Additionally, a fragment of the ascending aorta was obtained for RT-PCR. The extent of atherosclerosis in aorta was determined using planimetry. Another month later this procedure was repeated for the remaining groups K3, IK3, M3 and IM3. RT-PCR was applied to measure MCP-1 gene

  5. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  6. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-28

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10(-12) to 10(-8) g mL(-1). The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL(-1)) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design. PMID:26183340

  7. Storage temperature and 1-MCP treatment affect storage disorders and physiological attributes of ‘Royal Gala’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Royal Gala’ apples [Malus domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] can develop postharvest disorders such as flesh browning, senescent breakdown, peeling, cracking, or shriveling during and after cold storage. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of storage temperature and a range of 1-methylc...

  8. Relationships between respiration, ethylene, and aroma production in ripening banana.

    PubMed

    Golding, J B; Shearer, D; McGlasson, W B; Wyllie, S G

    1999-04-01

    Mature green bananas were treated with the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at intervals during the 24 h period after initiation of ripening with propylene. Following 1-MCP treatment, the fruits were ripened in either air or propylene while ethylene, carbon dioxide, and volatile production and composition were monitored at regular intervals. The application of 1-MCP significantly delayed and suppressed the onset and magnitude of fruit respiration and volatile production. The 1-MCP treatments also caused a quantitative change in the composition of the aroma volatiles, resulting in a substantial increase in the concentration of alcohols and a decrease in their related esters. The results showed that ethylene has a continuing role in integrating many of the biochemical processes that take place during the ripening of bananas. PMID:10564032

  9. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) as prognostic markers for progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tam, Frederick W K; Riser, Bruce L; Meeran, Karim; Rambow, JoAnn; Pusey, Charles D; Frankel, Andrew H

    2009-07-01

    Profibrotic growth factors and inflammatory chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, measurement of urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) as prognostic markers has not previously been reported, and neither have two such molecules in urine been examined in a single study of DN. In this prospective observational study, 43 adult diabetic patients were studied, 40 were followed up for 6years. Urinary MCP-1/creatinine ratios were found to be significantly higher in patients with macroalbuminuria (3.3- and 2.1-fold higher (p<0.01) than normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric patients, respectively). CCN2 exhibited a pattern different from that of urinary MCP-1. Urinary CCN2/creatinine ratios were greatly elevated in both microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric patients (125- and 74-fold higher than normoalbuminuric patients, respectively, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Further, urinary CCN2, but not MCP-1, correlated with progression of microalbuminuria (R=0.49, p<0.05). In contrast, MCP-1, but not CCN2, correlated with the rate of eGFR decline for all patients (R=0.61, p<0.0001), reflective of its predictive value in patients with macroalbuminuria, but not for patients with microalbuminuria or normoalbuminuria. In conclusion, increased urinary CCN2 is associated with the early progression of DN, whereas MCP-1 is associated with later stage disease. PMID:19409809

  10. Genome-wide association replicates the association of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) polymorphisms with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Smith, C Wayne; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low inflammatory state characterized by elevated levels of chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine family and is increased in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify loci regulating serum MCP-1 in obese Hispanic children from the Viva La Familia Study. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed in 815 children, ages 4-19 years, using genotypes assayed with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad v1.0 BeadChips. All analyses were performed in SOLAR using a linear regression-based test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for the relatedness of family members via a kinship variance component. The strongest association for MCP-1 levels was found with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12075, resulting in an amino acid substitution (Asp42Gly) in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene product (minor allele frequency=43.6%, p=1.3 × 10(-21)) on chromosome 1. Four other DARC SNPs were also significantly associated with MCP-1 levels (p<10(-16)-10(-6)). The Asp42Gly variant was associated with higher levels of MCP-1 and accounted for approximately 10% of its variability. In addition, MCP-1 levels were significantly associated with SNPs in chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9). In summary, the association of the DARC Asp42Gly variant with MCP-1 levels replicates previous GWA results substantiating a potential role for DARC in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23017229

  11. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes. PMID:17185740

  12. Diphenylamine metabolism in 'braeburn' apples stored under conditions conducive to the development of internal browning.

    PubMed

    Mattheis, James P; Rudell, David R

    2008-05-14

    Diphenylamine metabolism and ethylene action were evaluated as factors influencing the development of 'Braeburn' apple internal browning and cavitation during cold storage. Apples treated with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) and/or the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) were held at 1 degrees C for up to 6 months in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) containing 1 kPa of O2 and 3 kPa of CO2. Cortex tissues from fruit without disorders as well as from symptomatic and asymptomatic areas of fruit with disorders were analyzed for DPA and DPA derivative content. Internal browning and cavities developed in control and 1-MCP-treated fruit stored in CA, whereas air-stored and CA fruit treated with DPA or with DPA and 1-MCP prior to storage did not develop disorders. Depending on the storage regimen and duration, less DPA was detected in 1-MCP-treated fruit. The 4-hydroxydiphenylamine (4OHDPA) content of control fruit decreased during air storage duration but increased between 2 and 4 months in CA storage. 4OHDPA content in 1-MCP-treated fruit increased with storage duration in CA but not air. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine (NODPA) was detected after 2 months in control fruit stored in air or CA and in 1-MCP-treated fruit stored in CA, and NODPA content in control fruit was higher compared to that in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Accumulation of 4-methoxydiphenylamine (4MeODPA) in control fruit stored in air increased with storage duration, but 4MeODPA content did not change in 1-MCP-treated fruit stored in air or CA. 2-Nitrodiphenylamine content was reduced by prestorage treatment with 1-MCP, but storage environment and duration had no effect on its accumulation. The results indicate that CA storage increases the risk of disorder development in 'Braeburn' apples, that DPA can prevent disorder development, and that the content of DPA and DPA derivatives is influenced by storage environment and ethylene action. A clear relationship between DPA derivative formation and

  13. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence as a Tool in Evaluating the Effects of ABA Content and Ethylene Inhibitors on Quality of Flowering Potted Bougainvillea

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Antonio; Trivellini, Alice; Borghesi, Eva; Vernieri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Flowering potted plants during the postproduction stage are usually stored in inadequate environmental conditions. We evaluated the effect of the most common storage conditions and treatments on two Bougainvillea cultivars after harvest and during recovery. Flowering potted Bougainvillea plants were treated with 100 mL 2 mM amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA) or 500 ppb 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prior storage in dark at 14°C for simulating transport or storage conditions and, subsequently, transferred to growth chambers at 20°C in the light for one week for evaluating the recovery ability. The plant stress during the experiments was assessed by ethylene, ABA, and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Ethylene production was affected by temperature rather than treatments. ABA concentration declined in leaves and flowers during storage and was not affected by treatments. Fluorescence parameters appear to be very useful for screening Bougainvillea cultivars resistant to prolonged storage periods. PMID:22272178

  14. Extensive metabolmic change precedes superficial scald development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald development and metabolomic changes were compared in peel tissue of diphenylamine (DPA) treated, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treated, or untreated ‘Granny Smith’ apples stored for up to 6 months at 1 oC in air. Metabolomic evaluation, including 600+ metabolites, was employed to c...

  15. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling illustrates successive phases of increasing gene expression associated with chilling-related apple peel cell death

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a chilling-related storage disorder of apple caused by the death of peel epidermal and hypodermal cells and associated discoloration. It is controlled using postharvest antioxidant (diphenylamine; DPA) and ethylene action inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene; 1-MCP), and/or controlle...

  16. Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style–stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500 nl l−1 methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1 mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9 h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style–stigma plus stamens between 1 h and 6 h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6 h and 9 h, particularly in style–stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied. PMID:21841180

  17. Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. IV. Insect-Induced ethylene reduces jasmonate-induced nicotine accumulation by regulating putrescine N-methyltransferase transcripts.

    PubMed

    Winz, R A; Baldwin, I T

    2001-04-01

    Attack by the specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta, on its native host Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats. produces a dramatic ethylene release, a jasmonate burst, and a suppression of the nicotine accumulation that results from careful simulations of the herbivore's damage. Methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment induces nicotine biosynthesis. However, this induction can be suppressed by ethylene as pretreatment of plants with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene receptors, restores the full MeJA-induced nicotine response in herbivore attacked plants (J. Kahl, D.H. Siemens, R.J. Aerts, R. Gäbler, F. Kühnemann, C.A. Preston, I.T. Baldwin [2000] Planta 210: 336-342). To understand whether this herbivore-induced signal cross-talk occurs at the level of transcript accumulation, we cloned the putrescine methyltransferase genes (NaPMT1 and NaPMT2) of N. attenuata, which are thought to represent the rate limiting step in nicotine biosynthesis, and measured transcript accumulations by northern analysis after various jasmonate, 1-MCP, ethephon, and herbivory treatments. Transcripts of both root putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) genes and nicotine accumulation increased dramatically within 10 h of shoot MeJA treatment and immediately after root treatments. Root ethephon treatments suppressed this response, which could be reversed by 1-MCP pretreatment. Moreover, 1-MCP pretreatment dramatically amplified the transcript accumulation resulting from both wounding and M. sexta herbivory. We conclude that attack from this nicotine-tolerant specialist insect causes N. attenuata to produce ethylene, which directly suppresses the nitrogen-intensive biosynthesis of nicotine. PMID:11299398

  18. Regulatory mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis in response to various stimuli during maturation and ripening in fig fruit (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Owino, W O; Manabe, Y; Mathooko, F M; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain a greater uniformity of maturation, the growth of the fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) can be stimulated by the application of either olive oil, ethrel/ethephon or auxin. The three treatments induce ethylene production in figs. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for oil, auxin and ethylene induced ethylene production in figs. The ethylene production in response to olive oil, auxin, and propylene treatments and during ripening were all induced by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and inhibited by propylene indicating a negative feedback regulation mechanism. Three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase genes (Fc-ACS1, Fc-ACS2 and Fc-ACS3) and one ACC oxidase gene (Fc-ACO1) were isolated and their expression patterns in response to either oil, propylene or auxin treatment in figs determined. The expression patterns of Fc-ACS1 and Fc-ACO1 were clearly inhibited by 1-MCP and induced by propylene in oil treated and ripe fruits indicating positive regulation by ethylene, whereas Fc-ACS2 gene expression was induced by 1-MCP and inhibited by propylene indicating negative regulation by ethylene. The Fc-ACS3 mRNA showed high level accumulation in the auxin treated fruit. The inhibition of Fc-ACS3 gene by 1-MCP in oil treated and in ripe fruits suggests that auxin and ethylene modulate the expression of this gene by multi-responsive signal transduction pathway mechanisms. We further report that the olive oil-induced ethylene in figs involves the ACC-dependent pathway and that multiple ethylene regulatory pathways are involved during maturation and ripening in figs and each specific pathway depends on the inducer/stimulus. PMID:16889975

  19. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  20. Variations in zonal fruit starch concentrations of apples – a developmental phenomenon or an indication of ripening?

    PubMed Central

    Doerflinger, Franziska C; Miller, William B; Nock, Jacqueline F; Watkins, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of starch hydrolysis in stem, equatorial, and calyx zones of ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Empire’ apples (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.) during maturation and ripening, and in ‘Gala’ apples in response to propylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments after harvest, were studied. Differences in zonal starch concentrations were found for ‘Empire’ and ‘Gala’ fruits, but not for ‘Honeycrisp’. During maturation and ripening of ‘Empire’, the concentration of starch was highest in the calyx end and lowest in the stem region. Differences in rates of starch hydrolysis among zones were not detected. ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Empire’ had the highest concentration of sorbitol in the calyx region, whereas it was highest in the stem-end region in ‘Gala’. The distribution differences of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were similar in all three cultivars; higher fructose and glucose concentrations in the stem region, and higher sucrose concentrations in the calyx end of the fruit. Postharvest treatment of ‘Gala’ with propylene did not affect the internal ethylene concentration of the fruit but 1-MCP markedly inhibited it. Starch concentrations were highest in the calyx end but gradients of starch among zones were not changed by postharvest treatment. The rate of hydrolysis was slowed by 1-MCP treatment, but was unaffected by propylene. Postharvest treatments influenced sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations. Patterns of starch concentration among the zones did not confirm differences in ripening, but reflected its uneven distribution throughout the fruit during development. Therefore, measured differences in zonal starch are most likely related to starch accumulation during fruit development, rather than differences in rates of starch degradation during ripening. PMID:26504584

  1. 1-Methylcyclopropene effects on temporal changes of aroma volatiles and phytochemicals of fresh-cut cantaloupe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange fleshed cantaloupe melons have intense aroma and flavor, but are very perishable. Changes in quality traits were characterized during storage-life of fresh-cut cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis "Fiesta") cubes treated with 1.0 µL L-1 4 of 1-methylcyclopene for 24 h at 5 ºC, packaged...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Methylcyclopropene in or on fruits and vegetables when: (a) Used as a post harvest plant growth regulator, i.e., for the purpose of inhibiting the effects of ethylene. (b) Applied or used outdoors for...

  3. Abscission of flowers and floral organs is closely associated with alkalization of the cytosol in abscission zone cells

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Srivignesh; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Riov, Joseph; Belausov, Eduard; Kochanek, Betina; Tucker, Mark L.; Meir, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    In vivo changes in the cytosolic pH of abscission zone (AZ) cells were visualized using confocal microscopic detection of the fluorescent pH-sensitive and intracellularly trapped dye, 2’,7’-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), driven by its acetoxymethyl ester. A specific and gradual increase in the cytosolic pH of AZ cells was observed during natural abscission of flower organs in Arabidopsis thaliana and wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and during flower pedicel abscission induced by flower removal in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill). The alkalization pattern in the first two species paralleled the acceleration or inhibition of flower organ abscission induced by ethylene or its inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), respectively. Similarly, 1-MCP pre-treatment of tomato inflorescence explants abolished the pH increase in AZ cells and pedicel abscission induced by flower removal. Examination of the pH changes in the AZ cells of Arabidopsis mutants defective in both ethylene-induced (ctr1, ein2, eto4) and ethylene-independent (ida, nev7, dab5) abscission pathways confirmed these results. The data indicate that the pH changes in the AZ cells are part of both the ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive abscission pathways, and occur concomitantly with the execution of organ abscission. pH can affect enzymatic activities and/or act as a signal for gene expression. Changes in pH during abscission could occur via regulation of transporters in AZ cells, which might affect cytosolic pH. Indeed, four genes associated with pH regulation, vacuolar H+-ATPase, putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, and two GTP-binding proteins, were specifically up-regulated in tomato flower AZ following abscission induction, and 1-MCP reduced or abolished the increased expression. PMID:25504336

  4. Abscission of flowers and floral organs is closely associated with alkalization of the cytosol in abscission zone cells.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Srivignesh; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Riov, Joseph; Belausov, Eduard; Kochanek, Betina; Tucker, Mark L; Meir, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    In vivo changes in the cytosolic pH of abscission zone (AZ) cells were visualized using confocal microscopic detection of the fluorescent pH-sensitive and intracellularly trapped dye, 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), driven by its acetoxymethyl ester. A specific and gradual increase in the cytosolic pH of AZ cells was observed during natural abscission of flower organs in Arabidopsis thaliana and wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and during flower pedicel abscission induced by flower removal in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill). The alkalization pattern in the first two species paralleled the acceleration or inhibition of flower organ abscission induced by ethylene or its inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), respectively. Similarly, 1-MCP pre-treatment of tomato inflorescence explants abolished the pH increase in AZ cells and pedicel abscission induced by flower removal. Examination of the pH changes in the AZ cells of Arabidopsis mutants defective in both ethylene-induced (ctr1, ein2, eto4) and ethylene-independent (ida, nev7, dab5) abscission pathways confirmed these results. The data indicate that the pH changes in the AZ cells are part of both the ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive abscission pathways, and occur concomitantly with the execution of organ abscission. pH can affect enzymatic activities and/or act as a signal for gene expression. Changes in pH during abscission could occur via regulation of transporters in AZ cells, which might affect cytosolic pH. Indeed, four genes associated with pH regulation, vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, and two GTP-binding proteins, were specifically up-regulated in tomato flower AZ following abscission induction, and 1-MCP reduced or abolished the increased expression. PMID:25504336

  5. Benzylglucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, and myrosinase activity in papaya fruit during development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Fabi, João Paulo; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2008-10-22

    Papaya is a climacteric fruit that has high amounts of benzylglucosinolates (BG) and benzylisothiocyanates (BITC), but information regarding levels of BG or BITC during fruit development and ripening is limited. Because BG and BITC are compounds of importance from both a nutritional and a crop yield standpoint, the aim of this work was to access data on the distribution and changes of BG and BITC levels during fruit development and ripening. BG and BITC levels were quantified in peel, pulp, and seeds of papaya fruit. Volatile BITC was also verified in the internal cavity of the fruit during ripening. The influence of the ethylene in BG and BITC levels and mirosinase activity was tested by exposing mature green fruits to ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The highest BG levels were detected in seeds, followed by the peel and pulp being decreased in all tissues during fruit development. Similarly, the levels of BITC were much higher in the seeds than the peel and pulp. The levels of BG for control and ethylene-treated fruit were very similar, increasing in the pulp and peel during late ripening but not changing significantly in seeds. On the other hand, fruit exposed to 1-MCP showed a decrease in BG amount in the pulp and accumulation in seed. The treatments did not result in clear differences regarding the amount of BITC in the pulp and peel of the fruit. According to the results, ethylene does not have a clear effect on BITC accumulation in ripening papaya fruit. The fact that BG levels in the pulp did not decrease during ripening, regardless of the treatment employed, and that papaya is consumed mainly as fresh fruit, speaks in favor of this fruit as a good dietary source for glucosinolate and isothiocyanates. PMID:18826320

  6. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects. PMID:25590685

  7. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato. PMID:22915749

  8. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  9. Expression of expansin genes in the pulp and the dehiscence zone of ripening durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Palapol, Yossapol; Kunyamee, Sutin; Thongkhum, Monthatip; Ketsa, Saichol; Ferguson, Ian B; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-06-15

    Durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit was harvested at the commercially mature stage and stored at 25°C. Durian fruit have 3-5 longitudinal dehiscence zones (DZs) in the peel, which are up to 40cm long and 2cm thick in large fruit. Dehiscence started a week after harvest, was hastened by exogenous ethylene, and delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), showing that it is regulated by endogenous ethylene. Three genes encoding α-expansins (DzEXP1-3) were isolated. In the expression of these genes increased, prior to dehiscence. Pulp firmness decreased during storage. The decrease was hastened by ethylene and delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Exogenous ethylene promoted gene expression of DzEXP1 both in the DZs and in the pulp. It had a smaller effect on DzEXP2 in the zones and pulp, but did not affect DzEXP3 expression. 1-MCP inhibited the expression of DzEXP1 and, somewhat less, of DzEXP2, but did not affect DzEXP3 expression, both in DZs and pulp. It is concluded that the close relationship between expression of DzEXP1 and DzEXP2 and both dehiscence and fruit softening suggests that these genes are involved in both processes. PMID:26047070

  10. Binding of RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, and MIP-1alpha to cells in human skin.

    PubMed Central

    Hub, E.; Rot, A.

    1998-01-01

    Based on their ability to induce leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs), chemokines have been implicated in driving inflammatory leukocyte emigration. Recently, it was suggested that chemokines can accomplish their pro-emigratory role more effectively while being bound to the luminal surface of the ECs. Previously, such binding was demonstrated in situ in human skin for the prototype alpha-chemokine interleukin (IL)-8. Here we used an in situ binding assay to investigate the binding characteristics of several beta-chemokines in intact human skin. RANTES, MCP-1, and MCP-3 bound, similar to IL-8, in a specific saturable manner to the ECs of venules and small veins but not arteries or capillaries. RANTES inhibited MCP-1 and MCP-3 binding and vice versa, indicating that the EC binding sites are shared among these beta-chemokines; moreover, IL-8 and RANTES cross-competed for each other's binding, suggesting that the same chemokine binding sites are used by members of alpha- and beta-chemokine subfamilies. Conversely, MIP-1alpha did not bind to the ECs and did not compete for binding of RANTES. Analogous to IL-8, all of the tested beta-chemokines bound to the resident dermal cells. As a novel aspect of chemokine interaction with cells in normal skin, we observed specific, saturable binding of RANTES, MCP-1, and MCP-3 but not MIP-1alpha or IL-8 to the ECs of dermal afferent lymphatic vessels. RANTES, MCP-1, and MCP-3 also cross-competed for each other's binding to lymphatics, suggesting a common binding site with a novel chemokine binding profile. We suggest that the chemokine binding to the ECs of lymphatics may be involved in the process of leukocyte entry into the afferent lymphatic vessels. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9502417

  11. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Regulates Macrophage Cytotoxicity in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiwei; Ren, Jun; Morgan, Stephanie; Liu, Zhenjie; Dou, Changlin; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Aims In abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), macrophages are detected in the proximity of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We have previously demonstrated in a murine model of AAA that apoptotic SMCs attract monocytes and other leukocytes by producing MCP-1. Here we tested whether infiltrating macrophages also directly contribute to SMC apoptosis. Methods and Results Using a SMC/RAW264.7 macrophage co-culture system, we demonstrated that MCP-1-primed RAWs caused a significantly higher level of apoptosis in SMCs as compared to control macrophages. Next, we detected an enhanced Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA level and membrane FasL protein expression in MCP-1-primed RAWs. Neutralizing FasL blocked SMC apoptosis in the co-culture. In situ proximity ligation assay showed that SMCs exposed to primed macrophages contained higher levels of receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1)/Caspase 8 containing cell death complexes. Silencing RIP1 conferred apoptosis resistance to SMCs. In the mouse elastase injury model of aneurysm, aneurysm induction increased the level of RIP1/Caspase 8 containing complexes in medial SMCs. Moreover, TUNEL-positive SMCs in aneurysmal tissues were frequently surrounded by CD68+/FasL+ macrophages. Conversely, elastase-treated arteries from MCP-1 knockout mice display a reduction of both macrophage infiltration and FasL expression, which was accompanied by diminished apoptosis of SMCs. Conclusion Our data suggest that MCP-1-primed macrophages are more cytotoxic. MCP-1 appears to modulate macrophage cytotoxicity by increasing the level of membrane bound FasL. Thus, we showed that MCP-1-primed macrophages kill SMCs through a FasL/Fas-Caspase8-RIP1 mediated mechanism. PMID:24632850

  12. Reciprocity between abscisic acid and ethylene at the onset of berry ripening and after harvest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ripening of grape berry is generally regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), and has no relationship with ethylene function. However, functional interaction and synergism between ABA and ethylene during the beginning of grape berry ripening (véraison) has been found recently. Results The expressions of VvNCED1 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and VvGT encoding ABA glucosyltransferase were all increased rapidly at the stage of véraison and reached the highest level at 9th week after full bloom. However, VvCYP1 encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase and VvβG1 encoding berry β-glucosidase are different, whose expression peak appeared at the 10th week after full bloom and in especial VvβG1 remained at a high level till harvest. The VvACO1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, the VvETR2 (ethylene response 2) and VvCTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) had a transient expression peak at pre-véraison, while the VvEIN4 (ethylene insensitive 4) expression gradually increased from the véraison to one week before harvest stage. The above mentioned changes happened again in the berry after harvest. At one week before véraison, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) not only inhibited the release of ethylene and the expression of related genes but also suppressed the transcription of VvNCED1 and the synthesis of ABA which all might result in inhibiting the fruit ripening onset. Treatment with ABA could relieve the double block and restore fruit ripening course. However, after harvest, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-MCP could not suppress the transcription of VvNCED1 and the accumulation of ABA, and also could not inhibit the start of fruit senescence. Conclusion The trace endogenous ethylene induces the transcription of VvNCED1 and then the generation of ABA followed. Both ethylene and ABA are likely to be important and their interplaying may be required to start the process of berry ripening

  13. Metabolic profiling reveals ethylene mediated metabolic changes and a coordinated adaptive mechanism of 'Jonagold' apple to low oxygen stress.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Elias A; Beshir, Wasiye F; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2015-11-01

    Apples are predominantly stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to delay ripening and prolong their storage life. Profiling the dynamics of metabolic changes during ripening and CA storage is vital for understanding the governing molecular mechanism. In this study, the dynamics of the primary metabolism of 'Jonagold' apples during ripening in regular air (RA) storage and initiation of CA storage was profiled. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was exploited to block ethylene receptors and to get insight into ethylene mediated metabolic changes during ripening of the fruit and in response to hypoxic stress. Metabolic changes were quantified in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the Yang cycle and synthesis of the main amino acids branching from these metabolic pathways. Partial least square discriminant analysis of the metabolic profiles of 1-MCP treated and control apples revealed a metabolic divergence in ethylene, organic acid, sugar and amino acid metabolism. During RA storage at 18°C, most amino acids were higher in 1-MCP treated apples, whereas 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was higher in the control apples. The initial response of the fruit to CA initiation was accompanied by an increase of alanine, succinate and glutamate, but a decline in aspartate. Furthermore, alanine and succinate accumulated to higher levels in control apples than 1-MCP treated apples. The observed metabolic changes in these interlinked metabolites may indicate a coordinated adaptive strategy to maximize energy production. PMID:26031836

  14. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  15. Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Ioannis S.; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dangl, Gerald S.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

    2015-01-01

    Japanese plums are classified as climacteric; however, some economically important cultivars selected in California produce very little ethylene and require long ripening both “on” and “off” the tree to reach eating-ripe firmness. To unravel the ripening behavior of different Japanese plum cultivars, ripening was examined in the absence (air) or in the presence of ethylene or propylene (an ethylene analog) following a treatment or not with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene action inhibitor). Detailed physiological studies revealed for the first time three distinct ripening types in plum fruit: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric, and non-climacteric. Responding to exogenous ethylene or propylene, the slow-softening supressed-climacteric cultivars produced detectable amounts of ethylene, in contrast to the novel non-climacteric cultivar that produced no ethylene and softened extremely slowly. Genetic analysis using microsatellite markers produced identical DNA profiles for the climacteric cultivars “Santa Rosa” and “July Santa Rosa,” the suppressed-climacteric cultivars “Late Santa Rosa,” “Casselman,” and “Roysum” and the novel non-climacteric “Sweet Miriam,” as expected since historic records present most of these cultivars as bud-sport mutations derived initially from “Santa Rosa.” This present study provides a novel fruit system to address the molecular basis of ripening and to develop markers that assist breeders in providing high-quality stone fruit cultivars that can remain “on-tree,” increasing fruit flavor, saving harvesting costs, and potentially reducing the need for low-temperature storage during postharvest handling. PMID:26029222

  16. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

  17. Repurposing ebselen for treatment of multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    Novel antimicrobials and new approaches to developing them are urgently needed. Repurposing already-approved drugs with well-characterized toxicology and pharmacology is a novel way to reduce the time, cost, and risk associated with antibiotic innovation. Ebselen, an organoselenium compound, is known to be clinically safe and has a well-known pharmacology profile. It has shown potent bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and VRSA). We demonstrated that ebselen acts through inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequently inhibited toxin production in MRSA. Additionally, ebselen was remarkably active and significantly reduced established staphylococcal biofilms. The therapeutic efficacy of ebselen was evaluated in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infections. Ebselen 1% and 2% significantly reduced the bacterial load and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in MRSA USA300 skin lesions. Furthermore, it acts synergistically with traditional antimicrobials. This study provides evidence that ebselen has great potential for topical treatment of MRSA skin infections and lays the foundation for further analysis and development of ebselen as a potential treatment for multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections. PMID:26111644

  18. 1-MCP EFFECTS ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND GENE EXPRESSION OF ACC-SYNTHASE AND ACC-OXIDASE IN COTTON FLOWERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton remains an important cash crop for farmers in the southern United States. When temperatures rise above 32oC the in vivo fertilization efficiency of cotton is reduced resulting in decreased seed production and potentially decreased yields. Under stress, the plant hormone ethylene is manufact...

  19. 1-MCP differentially affects postharvest physiological attributes and incidence of internal browning in cold stored ‘Gala’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of internal browning (senescent browning or stem-end browning) developing in ‘Gala’ apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit during cold storage increases with increased fruit size. The objective of this study was to further investigate relationships between ...

  20. Ethylene Perception by the ERS1 Protein in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anne E.; Findell, Jennifer L.; Schaller, G. Eric; Sisler, Edward C.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2000-01-01

    Ethylene perception in Arabidopsis is controlled by a family of five genes, including ETR1, ERS1 (ethylene response sensor 1), ERS2, ETR2, and EIN4. ERS1, the most highly conserved gene with ETR1, encodes a protein with 67% identity to ETR1. To clarify the role of ERS1 in ethylene sensing, we biochemically characterized the ERS1 protein by heterologous expression in yeast. ERS1, like ETR1, forms a membrane-associated, disulfide-linked dimer. In addition, yeast expressing the ERS1 protein contains ethylene-binding sites, indicating ERS1 is also an ethylene-binding protein. This finding supports previous genetic evidence that isoforms of ETR1 also function in plants as ethylene receptors. Further, we used the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to characterize the ethylene-binding sites of ERS1 and ETR1. We found 1-MCP to be both a potent inhibitor of the ethylene-induced seedling triple response, as well as ethylene binding by yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1. Yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1 showed nearly identical sensitivity to 1-MCP, suggesting that the ethylene-binding sites of ETR1 and ERS1 have similar affinities for ethylene. PMID:10938361

  1. Broad Spectrum Antiangiogenic Treatment for Ocular Neovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Benny, Ofra; Nakai, Kei; Yoshimura, Takeru; Bazinet, Lauren; Akula, James D.; Nakao, Shintaro; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Panigrahy, Dipak; Pakneshan, Pouya; D'Amato, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD. Methods and Findings Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2). Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1). The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG) assessing retinal and by histology. Conclusions Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties make Lodamin especially

  2. Repurposing auranofin for the treatment of cutaneous staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-03-01

    The scourge of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections necessitates the urgent development of novel antimicrobials to address this public health challenge. Drug repurposing is a proven strategy to discover new antimicrobial agents; given that these agents have undergone extensive toxicological and pharmacological analysis, repurposing is an effective method to reduce the time, cost and risk associated with traditional antibiotic innovation. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of an antirheumatic drug, auranofin, was investigated against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that auranofin possesses potent antibacterial activity against all tested strains of S. aureus, including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.0625μg/mL to 0.125μg/mL. In vivo, topical auranofin proved superior to conventional antimicrobials, including fusidic acid and mupirocin, in reducing the mean bacterial load in infected wounds in a murine model of MRSA skin infection. In addition to reducing the bacterial load, topical treatment of auranofin greatly reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in infected skin lesions. Moreover, auranofin significantly disrupted established in vitro biofilms of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, more so than the traditional antimicrobials linezolid and vancomycin. Taken together, these results support that auranofin has potential to be repurposed as a topical antimicrobial agent for the treatment of staphylococcal skin and wound infections. PMID:26895605

  3. Ethylene is involved in pistil fate by modulating the onset of ovule senescence and the GA-mediated fruit set in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovule lifespan is an important factor in determining the ability to set fruits and produce seeds. Once ovule senescence is established, fruit set capacity in response to gibberellins (GAs) is lost. We aimed to elucidate whether ethylene plays a role in controlling ovule senescence and the fruit set response in Arabidopsis. Results Ethylene response inhibitors, silver thiosulphate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), were able to delay the loss of pistil response to GA3. In addition, ethylene insensitive mutants ein2-5 and ein3-1 showed delayed loss of pistil response, as in plants treated with STS and 1-MCP, while constitutive mutant ctr1-1 displayed premature loss of response. The analysis of the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes suggests that ethylene is synthesised in ovules at the onset of ovule senescence, while a transcriptional meta-analysis also supports an activated ethylene-dependent senescence upon the establishment of ovule senescence. Finally, a SAG12:GUS reporter line proved useful to monitor ovule senescence and to directly demonstrate that ethylene specifically modulates ovule senescence. Conclusions We have shown that ethylene is involved in both the control of the ovule lifespan and the determination of the pistil/fruit fate. Our data support a role of the ovule in modulating the GA response during fruit set in Arabidopsis. A possible mechanism that links the ethylene modulation of the ovule senescence and the GA3-induced fruit set response is discussed. PMID:21575215

  4. Dynamic changes of the ethylene biosynthesis in 'Jonagold' apple.

    PubMed

    Bulens, Inge; Van de Poel, Bram; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M; De Proft, Maurice P; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Nicolai, Bart M

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the short-term and dynamic changes of the ethylene biosynthesis of Jonagold apple during and after application of controlled atmosphere (CA) storage conditions were quantified using a systems biology approach. Rapid responses to imposed temperature and atmospheric conditions were captured by continuous online photoacoustic ethylene measurements. Discrete destructive sampling was done to understand observed changes of ethylene biosynthesis at the transcriptional, translational and metabolic level. Application of the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) allowed for the discrimination between ethylene-mediated changes and ethylene-independent changes related to the imposed conditions. Online ethylene measurements showed fast and slower responses during and after application of CA conditions. The changes in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) activity were most correlated with changes in ACS1 expression and regulated the cold-induced increase in ethylene production during the early chilling phase. Transcription of ACS3 was found ethylene independent and was triggered upon warming of CA-stored apples. Increased expression of ACO1 during shelf life led to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) activity, required for the exponential production of ethylene during system 2. Expression of ACO2 and ACO3 was upregulated in 1-MCP-treated fruit showing a negative correlation with ethylene production. ACO activity never became rate limiting. PMID:23957643

  5. Isolation of an alcohol dehydrogenase cDNA from and characterization of its expression in chrysanthemum under waterlogging.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongmei; Ni, Dian; Song, Lili; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-11-01

    A PCR strategy was used to isolate a full-length CgADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) cDNA from chrysanthemum. The gene putatively encodes a 378 residue polypeptides, which shares 95% homology with tomato alcohol dehydrogenase class III. Endogenous ethylene generated in waterlogged Chrysanthemum zawadskii was enhanced by exogenous ethylene but decreased by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action. In waterlogged roots, the transcription of the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) increased rapidly but transiently, peaking at 7.5 fold the non-waterlogged level after 2h of stress. Waterlogging elevated ADH activity after a prolonged episode of stress. The exogenous supply of 40μLL(-1) ethylene suppressed the production of ethanol, while that of 4μLL(-1) 1-MCP enhanced it. Ethylene appeared to suppress an acceleration of both CgADH expression and fermentation, and alleviates ethanolic fermentation probably through by as a signal to acceleration of waterlogging-induced aerenchyma formation. This supports the previously observed phenomenon that the expression level of ADH gene is regulated by the local level of physiologically active ethylene. The relevance of the CgADH gene in relation to chrysanthemum waterlogging was discussed as well. PMID:24094053

  6. Ethylene promotes induction of aerenchyma formation and ethanolic fermentation in waterlogged roots of Dendranthema spp.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongmei; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2013-07-01

    The role of ethylene in induction of aerenchyma formation and ethanolic fermentation in waterlogged roots of Dendranthema zawadskii and D. nankingense, two species that differ with respect to waterlogging tolerance, was examined. In the more tolerant D. zawadskii, but not in D. nankingense, ethylene accelerated programmed cell death and promoted formation of lysigenous aerenchyma, both of which were inhibited by treatment with the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Waterlogged D. zawadskii roots generated a higher quantity of endogenous ethylene than did those of D. nankingense. In waterlogged D. zawadskii roots, transcription of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) and pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) increased rapidly but transiently, whereas expression of these genes in D. nankingense increased gradually and over a longer period. In D. nankingense, waterlogging elevated both alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase activity, and the production of ethanol and acetaldehyde was increased in the presence of exogenous ethylene and inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene. In D. zawadskii, in contrast, after a prolonged episode of waterlogging stress, exogenous supply of ethylene suppressed the production of ethanol and acetaldehyde, whereas exogenous 1-methylcyclopropene enhanced their production. In the more tolerant Dendranthema species, ethylene appeared to signal an acceleration of both waterlogging-induced programmed cell death and aerenchyma formation and to alleviate ethanolic fermentation, whereas in the more sensitive species ethylene activated fermentation and increased the release of ethanol and acetaldehyde, which are by-products probably responsible for the collapse of the waterlogging-damaged root. PMID:23645034

  7. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  8. Green Tea Extract Treatment Alleviates Ocular Inflammation in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yong Jie; Chu, Kai On; Yip, Yolanda Wong Ying; Li, Wai Ying; Yang, Ya Ping; Chan, Kwok Ping; Ren, Jia Lin

    2014-01-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) ingested by rats exerted anti-oxidative activities in various ocular tissues as shown in our previous studies. The present work investigated anti-inflammatory effects of GTE on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was generated in adult rats by a footpad injection of 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oral administration of GTE (550 mg/kg) was given one, two or four times after LPS injection. Twenty-four hours later, LPS produced severe hyperemia and edema in the iris. Immunocytochemical examinations showed an accumulation of infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor that were immunopositive for cluster of differentiation 43 (CD43) and CD68, markers for leucocytes and macrophages, respectively. Analyses of the aqueous humor showed an increase in pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). GTE treatments improved the clinical manifestations and reduced infiltrating cells and protein exudation in the aqueous humor, which were not observed under half dose of GTE (275 mg/kg). The number of CD68 positive macrophages residing in the iris and ciliary was also reduced. GTE suppressed production of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor, which was associated with a down-regulation of LPS receptor complex subunits, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and CD14, and suppression of nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) in the iris and ciliary body. Our findings show that GTE is a potent anti-inflammatory agent against the inflammation of EIU, and suggest a potential use in treatment of acute uveitis. PMID:25093862

  9. Hyperbaric treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on hyperbaric treatment are presented. Topics covered include: hyperbaric treatment - purpose; decompression sickness; sources of decompression sickness; physical description; forms of decompression sickness; hyperbaric treatment of decompression sickness; and duration of treatment.

  10. Demand Treatment!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Three-quarters of the people with serious alcohol and drug problems go without treatment. This is often caused by a lack of understanding about what constitutes treatment. Few consumers, family members, and policymakers realize that effective drug and alcohol treatment exists. This publication describes a nationwide project organized by Join…

  11. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  12. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  13. Banana Ovate family protein MaOFP1 and MADS-box protein MuMADS1 antagonistically regulated banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  14. Ultrastructural and histochemical analysis reveals ethylene-induced responses underlying reduced peel collapse in detached citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Cajuste, Jacques F; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Lafuente, María T

    2011-10-01

    Fruits from many citrus cultivars develop depressed areas in the flavedo (outer part of the peel) and albedo (inner part) following detachment. Although ultrastructural analysis may provide important information about multiple plant responses to stresses and external stimuli at the cell and tissue levels, and despite the proved efficacy of ethylene in reducing peel damage in citrus fruit, cytological responses of this horticultural crop to protective ethylene concentrations have not yet been reported. We show that applying high ethylene levels (2 μL L(-1) for 14 days) causes sublethal stress as it favored the alteration of cuticle, vacuole, middle lamella and primary wall, especially in the albedo cells, but reduced peel collapse in detached mature "Navelate" oranges (C. sinensis, L. Osbeck) held under nonstressful environmental conditions (22°C and 90-95% RH). Ethylene did not induce relevant changes in lignification but favored the deposition of pectic exudates and the release of sugars from degradation of cell polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, and pectins. In contrast, inhibiting ethylene perception by applying 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) reduced these ethylene-related responses and favored degradation of cell membranes and peel damage. The overall results reflect that mature oranges tolerate high ethylene levels that might favor the activation of defense responses involving oxidative-stress related mechanisms and recycling of nutrients and carbon supply to enable cells to sustain respiration and cope with carbon deprivation stress caused by detachment. PMID:21509903

  15. Ripening-associated ethylene biosynthesis in tomato fruit is autocatalytically and developmentally regulated

    PubMed Central

    Yokotani, Naoki; Nakano, Ryohei; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Nagata, Masayasu; Inaba, Akitsugu; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulatory mechanism(s) of ethylene biosynthesis in fruit, transgenic tomatoes with all known LeEIL genes suppressed were produced by RNA interference engineering. The transgenic tomato exhibited ethylene insensitivity phenotypes such as non-ripening and the lack of the triple response and petiole epinasty of seedlings even in the presence of exogenous ethylene. Transgenic fruit exhibited a low but consistent increase in ethylene production beyond 40 days after anthesis (DAA), with limited LeACS2 and LeACS4 expression. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent inhibitor of ethylene perception, failed to inhibit the limited increase in ethylene production and expression of the two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) genes in the transgenic fruit. These results suggest that ripening-associated ethylene (system 2) in wild-type tomato fruit consists of two parts: a small part regulated by a developmental factor through the ethylene-independent expression of LeACS2 and LeACS4 and a large part regulated by an autocatalytic system due to the ethylene-dependent expression of the same genes. The results further suggest that basal ethylene (system 1) is less likely to be involved in the transition to system 2. Even if the effect of system 1 ethylene is eliminated, fruit can show a small increase in ethylene production due to unknown developmental factors. This increase would be enough for the stimulation of autocatalytic ethylene production, leading to fruit ripening. PMID:19605457

  16. MONOCYTE CHEMOTACTIC PROTEIN AND RESPONSE TO PEGYLATED INTERFERON-ALPHA-2A TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C (CHC) GENOTYPE 4.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal A; Sayed, Ola; Ali, Omnia E; Sayed, Ghadir A; Moustfa, Zainab; Elagawy, Waleed Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies across the world, with the highest number of infections reported in Egypt. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemokine, and its hepatic expression is up-regulated during chronic HCV infection. Fifty naive patients with chronic hepatitis C in National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute and 20 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in a prospective study designed with strict inclusion criteria to nullify the effect of confounding variables and further minimize selection bias. Fifty naive patients were treated with PEG-IFN-a2b, at a dose of 1801 g/kg subcutaneously every week plus ribavirin at a dose of 1000- 1200 mg/day, according to the patient's body weight, for 48 weeks. Quantification of HCV-RNA by real-time PCR and MCP-1 by ELISA were performed for every patient and controls. There was a sta- tistically significant difference between patients and control group as regards the quantity of MCP-1 (P < 0.05) (Mann-Whitney test) (P = 0.004). There was a significant difference between responders and nonresponses regarding MCP-1 (P < 0.05), responders showed a higher percentage of cases with initial MCP-1 < 306 (P < 0.05). We conclude the importance of the detection of MCP-1 expression at the start of therapy as a factor for assessing the likelihood of HCV genotype 4 patients to achieving a sustained virological response to treatment with IFN-a2 in combination with ribavirin. PMID:27363047

  17. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  18. Treatment & Coping

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient gender Curve worsening Associated symptoms such as back pain or shortness of breath What are treatment options ... problems in addition to your scoliosis (such as back pain), your doctor may prescribe physical therapy to address ...

  19. [Home Treatment].

    PubMed

    Widmann, F; Bachhuber, G; Riedelsheimer, A; Schiele, A; Ullrich, S; Kilian, R; Becker, T; Frasch, K

    2016-01-01

    Home Treatment (HT) means acute psychiatric treatment in the patient's usual environment. Conceptually, HT is to be differentiated from other home-based services: It is limited with regard to duration and multiprofessional (e. g. psychiatrist plus psychiatric nursing staff plus social worker); the "24/7"-accessibility is frequently provided by the corresponding background hospital infrastructure. Target group are acutely mentally ill persons with an indication to inpatient treatment, who are willing to cooperate, and absence of endangerment to self and others. In contrast to the Scandinavian and many Anglophone countries where nationwide HT services are delivered, there are not many HT sites in Germany so far. Consequently, empirical data concerning HT in Germany is scarce. In summary, international studies show equivalent effects on psychopathological measures compared to inpatient treatment, reductions with regard to inpatient days, higher patient satisfaction and a trend towards cost-effectivity. PMID:26878432

  20. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells. Targeted treatment zeroes in on specific targets (molecules) in cancer cells. These targets play a role ... Cryotherapy Also called cryosurgery , this therapy uses very cold gas to freeze and kill cancer cells. It ...

  2. Stroke Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... weakened blood vessels that also cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Treatment differs depending on ... the leg or arm, then guided to the aneurysm or AVM ; it then deposits a mechanical agent, ...

  3. Ligand-induced alterations in the phosphorylation state of ethylene receptors in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Tieman, Denise M; Huber, Donald J; Klee, Harry J

    2012-09-01

    Perception of the plant hormone ethylene is essential to initiate and advance ripening of climacteric fruits. Since ethylene receptors negatively regulate signaling, the suppression is canceled upon ethylene binding, permitting responses including fruit ripening. Although receptors have autophosphorylation activity, the mechanism whereby signal transduction occurs has not been fully determined. Here we demonstrate that LeETR4, a critical receptor for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, is multiply phosphorylated in vivo and the phosphorylation level is dependent on ripening stage and ethylene action. Treatment of preclimacteric fruits with ethylene resulted in accumulation of LeETR4 with reduced phosphorylation whereas treatments of ripening fruits with ethylene antagonists, 1-methylcyclopropene and 2,5-norbornadiene, induced accumulation of the phosphorylated isotypes. A similar phosphorylation pattern was also observed for Never ripe, another ripening-related receptor. Alteration in the phosphorylation state of receptors is likely to be an initial response upon ethylene binding since treatments with ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene rapidly influenced the LeETR4 phosphorylation state rather than protein abundance. The LeETR4 phosphorylation state closely paralleled ripening progress, suggesting that the phosphorylation state of receptors is implicated in ethylene signal output in tomato fruits. We provide insights into the nature of receptor on and off states. PMID:22797658

  4. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  5. Norovirus Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How ...

  6. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  7. Rotavirus Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  8. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida

    2015-09-01

    Considered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions. PMID:26465367

  9. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    SHIKANAI-YASUDA, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Considered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions. PMID:26465367

  10. Surface Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A simple surface treatment process is provided which offers a high performance surface for a variety of applications at low cost. This novel surface treatment, which is particularly useful for Ti-6Al-4V alloys, is achieved by forming oxides on the surface with a two-step chemical process and without mechanical abrasion. First, after solvent degreasing, sulfuric acid is used to generate a fresh titanium surface. Next, an alkaline perborate solution is used to form an oxide on the surface. This acid-followed-by-base treatment is cost effective and relatively safe to use in commercial applications. In addition, it is chromium-free, and has been successfully used with a sol-gel coating to afford a strong adhesive bond that exhibits excellent durability after the bonded specimens have been subjected to a harsh 72 hour water boil immersion. Phenylethynyl containing adhesives were used to evaluate this surface treatment with a novel coupling agent containing both trialkoxysilane and phenylethynyl groups. 8 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

  11. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  12. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  13. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  14. Hypersensitive Ethylene Signaling and ZMdPG1 Expression Lead to Fruit Softening and Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Zongying; Ji, Xiaohao; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Daliang; Gao, Liping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Biao; Wu, Yusen; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoliu; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2013-01-01

    ‘Taishanzaoxia’ fruit rapid softening and dehiscence during ripening stage and this process is very sensitive to endogenous ethylene. In this study, we cloned five ethylene signal transcription factors (ZMdEIL1, ZMdEIL2, ZMdEIL3, ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2) and one functional gene, ZMdPG1, encoding polygalacturonase that could loose the cell connection which associated with fruit firmness decrease and fruit dehiscence to illustrate the reasons for this specific fruit phenotypic and physiological changes. Expression analysis showed that ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 transcription were more abundant in ‘Taishanzaoxia’ softening fruit and dehiscent fruit and their expression was inhibited by an ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Therefore, ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 expression were responses to endogenous ethylene and associated with fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdPG1 expression was induced when fruit softening and dehiscence but this induction can be blocked by 1-MCP, indicating that ZMdPG1 was essential for fruit softening and dehiscence and its expression was mediated by the endogenously occurred ethylene. ZMdPG1 overexpression in Arabidopsis led to silique early dehiscence while suppressing ZMdPG1 expression by antisense ZMdPG1 prevented silique naturally opening. The result also suggested that ZMdPG1 related with the connection between cells that contributed to fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdERF1 was more closely related with ethylene signaling but it was not directly regulated the ZMdPG1, which might be regulated by the synergic pattern of ethylene transcription factors because of both the ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 could interact with ZMdEIL2. PMID:23527016

  15. Modulation of Actinidia arguta fruit ripening by three ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuehua; Xu, Fangxu; Feng, Xuqiao; MacArthur, Roseline Love

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest application of 1-methylecyclopropene (1-MCP), 1-pentylcyclopropene (1-PentCP) and 1-octylcyclopropene (1-OCP), two structural analogues of 1-MCP, on Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch. ex. Miq. Fruit post-harvest ripening and antioxidant activity. The results showed that these two structural analogues, just as 1-MCP, exerted their effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most effective concentration of 1-MCP, 1-PentCP or 1-OCP treatment was 1.2 μl L(-1), 1.2 μl L(-1) and 0.8 μl L(-1), respectively. But, 0.8 μl L(-1) 1-OCP was found to be more potent in postponing the appearances of respiration rate peak and ethylene production peak, delaying the softening and weight loss, suppressing the activities of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), maintaining higher glutathione (GSH) content, activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), though slightly inferior to 1.2 μl L(-1) 1-MCP. PMID:25466039

  16. Auxin, ethylene and the regulation of root growth under mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rameshwar; Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2012-07-01

    Among the multitude functions performed by plant roots, little information is available about the mechanisms that allow roots to overcome the soil resistance, in order to grow in the soil to obtain water and nutrient. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings grown on horizontally placed agar plates showed a progressive decline in the root length with the increasing impedance of agar media. The incubation with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception, led to aerial growth of roots. In contrast, in absence of 1-MCP control roots grew horizontally anchored to the agar surface. Though 1-MCP-treated and control seedlings showed differential ability to penetrate in the agar, the inhibition of root elongation was nearly similar for both treatments. While increased mechanical impedance also progressively impaired hypocotyl elongation in 1-MCP treated seedlings, it did not affect the hypocotyl length of control seedlings. The decline in root elongation was also associated with increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip signifying accumulation of auxin at the root tip. The increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip was also observed in 1-MCP treated seedlings, indicating independence of this response from ethylene signaling. Our results indicate operation of a sensing mechanism in root that likely operates independently of ethylene but involves auxin to determine the degree of impedance of the substratum.

  17. Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may receive treatment with estrogen (for women) or testosterone (for men). Hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid most often needs treatment with synthetic (laboratory- made) thyroid hormone. Most often this treatment ...

  18. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... community treatment? Assertive community treatment (ACT) is a model of psychiatric care that can be very effective ... it the most. Similar to the “treatment team” model of an inpatient psychiatric unit, which includes nurses, ...

  19. Tetanus: Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... should be given along with treatment. Related Page Diagnosis/Treatment for Clinicians Related Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal ...

  20. Body Lice Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  2. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether ethylene, and components of the ethylene pathway such as 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO), ACC synthase (ACS) and the ethylene receptor (ETR), contribute to non-climacteric ripening in capsicum has not been studied in detail. To elucidate the behaviour of ethylene pathway components in capsicum during ripening, further analysis is therefore needed. The effects of ethylene or inhibitors of ethylene perception, such as 1-methylcyclopropene, on capsicum fruit ripening and the ethylene pathway components may also shed some light on the role of ethylene in non-climacteric ripening. Results The expression of several isoforms of ACO, ACS and ETR were limited during capsicum ripening except one ACO isoform (CaACO4). ACS activity and ACC content were also low in capsicum despite the increase in ACO activity during the onset of ripening. Ethylene did not stimulate capsicum ripening but 1-methylcyclopropene treatment delayed the ripening of Breaker-harvested fruit. Some of the ACO, ACS and ETR isoforms were also differentially expressed upon treatment with ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene. Conclusions ACS activity may be the rate limiting step in the ethylene pathway of capsicum which restricts ACC content. The differential expression of several ethylene pathway components during ripening and upon ethylene or 1-methylclopropene treatment suggests that the ethylene pathway may be regulated differently in non-climacteric capsicum compared to the climacteric tomato

  3. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID

  4. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  6. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  7. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  8. Pharmacologic treatment of paraphilias.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Alessandra Almeida; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Garcia, Heloise Delavenne; Bradford, John M W; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of paraphilias remains a challenge in the mental health field. Combined pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with better efficacy. The gold standard treatment of severe paraphilias in adult males is antiandrogen treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been used in mild types of paraphilia and in cases of sexual compulsions and juvenile paraphilias. Antiandrogen treatments seem to be effective in severe paraphilic subjects committing sexual offenses. In particular, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs have shown high efficacy working in a similar way to physical castration but being reversible at any time. Treatment recommendations, side effects, and contraindications are discussed. PMID:24877704

  9. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  10. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  11. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  12. Teens and Acne Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of treatments Benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide wash, lotion, or gel—the most effective acne treatment you ... and make it redder than the wash or lotion, so try the wash or lotion first. How ...

  13. Research Areas: Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  14. Treatment Side-Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the Signs & Symptoms? How am I Diagnosed? Treatment Options I Care About... Earlier Awareness Community Events ... are the Signs & Symptoms? How am I Diagnosed? Treatment Options I Care About... Earlier Awareness Community Events ...

  15. The Treatment of Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, P. A. L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes sociological and medical treatment appropriate to young drug experimenters and addicts. Discusses role of teachers, probation officers, school medical services, and general practitioners. Indicates necessity for long treatment period. Considers whether dependence is a disease of delinquent behavior. (AL)

  16. Fertility Treatments for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Medication Treatments for Female Infertility The most common medications used to treat infertility ... cabergoline ovulate. 1 [top] Surgical Treatments for Female Infertility If disease of the fallopian tubes is the ...

  17. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But ...

  18. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... by helping your blood clot. Chemotherapy , radiation , and bone marrow transplants can destroy some of your platelets. If you ... Names Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow transplant - bleeding; Thrombocytopenia - cancer treatment References Doroshow JH. Approach ...

  19. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  20. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  1. Incontinence Treatment: Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  2. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For ...

  3. Medical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Medical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... suggest medical treatments to reduce the symptoms of fibroids or to stop the growth of fibroids. These ...

  4. Surgical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Surgical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... If you have moderate or severe symptoms of fibroids, surgery may be the best treatment for you. ...

  5. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  6. Just call it "treatment".

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Peter D; Schwartz, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Although many in the addiction treatment field use the term "medication-assisted treatment" to describe a combination of pharmacotherapy and counseling to address substance dependence, research has demonstrated that opioid agonist treatment alone is effective in patients with opioid dependence, regardless of whether they receive counseling. The time has come to call pharmacotherapy for such patients just "treatment". An explicit acknowledgment that medication is an essential first-line component in the successful management of opioid dependence. PMID:23186149

  7. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  8. The Treatment Philosophy Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Students who respond to the ludicrous environments of schooling with behaviors and demeanor that do not fit school criteria frequently are given a medical label and drug treatment. The fact that Ritalin is given to 2.8% of all American children reflects a "treatment philosophy" in which professionals define problems and prescribe treatments for a…

  9. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  10. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:27620086

  11. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  12. Treatment of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Geddes, John R; Miklowitz, David J

    2013-05-11

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  13. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  14. [Treatment of noma].

    PubMed

    Thiery, G; Liard, O; Duboscq, J C

    2002-01-01

    Noma is a disease specific to developing countries. Early antibiotic treatment can stop disease progression. Surviving patients may present disfigurement with functional and cosmetic sequels. The purpose of this report is to describe treatment of active disease and its sequels. Treatment of defects requires reconstructive surgery. Surgical modalities depend on the extent and location of lesions, available technical facilities and surgeon skill. Various flap techniques can be used ranging from simple flaps and autoplasty to complex procedures involving microsurgery. PMID:12192719

  15. Treatment recommendations for migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2008-09-01

    The pharmacological treatment of migraine can be acute or preventive. Acute treatment attempts to stop the progression of an attack or relieve pain and functional impairment once an attack has begun, whereas preventive therapy is given to reduce attack frequency and severity. Additional benefits of preventive therapy include improving responsiveness to acute attack treatment, and reducing disability. Treatment protocols should also include education and reassurance, avoidance of triggers, nonpharmacological treatments, and physical and/or complementary medicine when appropriate. The treatment plan should be reassessed at regular intervals. Acute attack medication can be specific or nonspecific, and needs to be tailored to the individual patient. Backup and rescue medication should be available in case the initial treatment fails. The route of drug administration depends on attack severity, how rapidly the attack escalates, the patient's preference, the presence or absence of severe nausea or vomiting, and the need for rapid relief. Preventive migraine treatments include beta-blockers, antidepressants, calcium channel antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists, anticonvulsants, and NSAIDs. Preventive treatments are selected on the basis of the drugs' side-effect profiles and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions. PMID:18665146

  16. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2006-08-01

    Migraine is a common episodic pain disorder, the treatment of which can be acute to stop an attack or preventive to reduce the frequency, duration or severity of attacks. Preventive treatment is used when attacks are frequent or disabling. Many different medication groups are used for preventive treatment, including beta-blockers, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Their mechanisms of action include raising the threshold to migraine activation, enhancing antinociception, inhibiting cortical spreading depression, inhibiting peripheral and central sensitization, blocking neurogenic inflammation and modulating sympathetic, parasympathetic or 5-HT tone. In this article, I review evidence of the effectiveness of migraine preventive drugs. I also discuss the setting of treatment priorities. PMID:16820222

  17. Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Avula, Sreenivas; Parikh, Sumit; Demarest, Scott; Kurz, Jonathan; Gropman, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement While numerous treatments for mitochondrial disorders have been suggested, relatively few have undergone controlled clinical trials. Treatment of these disorders is challenging, as only symptomatic therapy is available. In this review we will focus on newer drugs and treatment trials in mitochondrial diseases, with a special focus on medications to avoid in treating epilepsy and ICU patient with mitochondrial disease, which has not been included in such a review. Readers are also referred to the opinion statement in A Modern Approach to the Treatment of Mitochondrial Disease published in Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2009. Many of the supplements used for treatment were reviewed in the previous abstract, and dosing guidelines were provided. The focus of this review is on items not previously covered in depth, and our discussion includes more recently studied compounds as well as any relevant updates on older compounds. We review a variety of vitamins and xenobiotics, including dichloroacetate (DCA), arginine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, EPI-743, and exercise training. Treatment of epilepsy, which is a common feature in many mitochondrial phenotypes, warrants special consideration due to the added toxicity of certain medications, and we provide a discussion of these unique treatment challenges. Interesting, however, with only a few exceptions, the treatment strategies for epilepsy in mitochondrial cytopathies are the same as for epilepsy without mitochondrial dysfunction. We also discuss intensive care management, building upon similar reviews, adding new dimensions, and demonstrating the complexity of overall care of these patients. PMID:24700433

  18. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  19. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  20. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  1. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  2. An early ethylene up-regulated gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein involved in plant senescence and death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    35S-Labeled calmodulin (CaM) was used to screen a tobacco anther cDNA library. A positive clone (NtER1) with high homology to an early ethylene-up-regulated gene (ER66) in tomato, and an Arabidopsis homolog was isolated and characterized. Based on the helical wheel projection, a 25-mer peptide corresponding to the predicted CaM-binding region of NtER1 (amino acids 796-820) was synthesized. The gel-mobility shift assay showed that the peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of Ca(2+). CaM binds to NtER1 with high affinity (K(d) approximately 12 nm) in a calcium-dependent manner. Tobacco flowers at different stages of development were treated with ethylene or with 1-methylcyclopropene for 2 h before treating with ethylene. Northern analysis showed that the NtER1 was rapidly induced after 15 min of exposure to ethylene. However, the 2-h 1-methylcyclopropene treatment totally blocked NtER1 expression in flowers at all stages of development, suggesting that NtER1 is an early ethylene-up-regulated gene. The senescing leaves and petals had significantly increased NtER1 induction as compared with young leaves and petals, implying that NtER1 is developmentally regulated and acts as a trigger for senescence and death. This is the first documented evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signaling in ethylene action.

  3. After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... about your experiences and answer their questions. The choice is yours. How will my loved ones feel after my treatment? Even after your cancer treatment ends, your loved ones may go through a range of emotions -- everything from relief to anxiety. Children may feel ...

  4. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  5. Treatment. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Treatment is one component of a strategy to reduce substance abuse. It can include detoxification; inpatient counseling; outpatient counseling; therapeutic communities; and self help groups. Referrals can take place in settings such as emergency rooms; employee assistance programs; churches; and physicians' offices. Unmet treatment needs can cause…

  6. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ajallé, R.; Plouin, P. F.; Pacak, K.; Lehnert, H.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective α-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive α- and / or β-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of 123I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of 131I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to 131I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested. PMID:19672813

  7. Coping – After Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Many cancer survivors say that once treatment ended, it was hard to make a transition to a new way of life. Learn about this phase of your care and how to adjust to the new feelings and issues that come after cancer treatment.

  8. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  9. Nursing and Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ameringer, Suzanne; Harrison, Tondi; Phillips, Christopher M.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    This brief article presents a comment on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. In his article, Barlow pointed to the need "to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession" by changing the terminology of practice in the health care context from psychotherapy to psychological treatments and suggested that the only…

  10. Family Treatment Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawicki, Donna

    The document describes the Family Treatment Unit, a demonstration program to provide a variety of family treatment services to status offenders (11 to 17 years old) and their families. The goals of the program are: (1) to provide family services to families of status offenders; (2) to maintain status offenders in their natural homes by…

  11. Treatment of resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, William Owen; Smith, Phil E M

    2014-12-01

    Treatment resistance affects around 20% of people with epilepsy and carries a significant comorbidity. It is important to ensure that the diagnosis of epilepsy is secure and the underlying cause of the epilepsy is investigated thoroughly. Management involves early referral for epilepsy surgery when suitable, optimisation of pharmacological treatment, and consideration of comorbidities such as depression. PMID:25468911

  12. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  13. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning for individuals with substance abuse problems. The intent is to provide information to professional counselors in school, rehabilitation, school psychology, social work, public mental health, and private treatment settings. Information to be…

  14. EXPANDED BED BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three-year pilot-scale research investigation at the EPA Lebanon Pilot Plant was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a unique biological secondary treatment process, designated the Expanded Bed Biological Treatment Process (EBBT). The EBBT process is a three-phase (oxygen/...

  15. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  16. [Antihypertensive treatment in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Souza, Alex R; Amorim, Melania R; Costa, Aurélio A R; Neto, Carlos N

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy hypertensive disorders represent a frequent gestational pathology. It is one of the most important causes of maternal demise and perinatal morbidity/mortality in the world. Antihypertensive treatment is part of a vast therapeutic arsenal used for prevention of severe complications. However, data from literature research have been controversial about benefits of antihypertensive treatment. We performed a literature review about antihypertensive treatment in severe pre-eclampsia, describing drugs' pharmacological particularities and scientific evidences about their efficacy and safety. It is not controversial that treatment of hypertensive emergency must be instituted. The ideal medication used in those cases is not defined, therefore the real benefits of maintenance antihypertensive treatment in pre-eclampsia remains unclear. PMID:20353709

  17. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  18. Migraine preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disease. Preventive therapy is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include recurring migraine attacks that significantly interfere with the patient's daily routines, despite appropriate acute treatment; frequent headaches; contraindication to, failure of, overuse of, or intolerance to acute therapies; patient preference; frequent, very long, or uncomfortable auras; and presence of uncommon migraine conditions. The major medication groups for preventive migraine treatment include beta-adrenergic blockers, antidepressants, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, and anticonvulsants. The choice of preventive treatment depends on the individual drug's efficacy and adverse events, the patient's clinical features, frequency, and response to prior treatment, and the presence of any comorbid or coexistent disease. PMID:20816433

  19. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  20. Neurosurgical treatments of depression.

    PubMed

    Temel, Yasin; Lim, Lee Wei

    2013-01-01

    The neurosurgical treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) has entered a new era with more and more patients being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) via surgically implanted intracerebral electrodes. Although the mechanisms of action of DBS are still not fully understood, preclinical studies are being conducted to elucidate how the treatment might work. DBS in its present form can be considered as a relatively new neurosurgical treatment for TRD. However, the use of neurosurgery in the management of depression has a much longer history particularly with ablative procedures but also vagal nerve stimulation. Here, we provide a review of the clinical neurosurgical treatments for TRD, with a main emphasis on DBS. In addition, we discuss relevant preclinical data that are revealing new information about DBS mechanisms. PMID:22865464

  1. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:22105133

  2. [Preventive treatment for migraine].

    PubMed

    Mulleners, Wim M; Haan, Joost; Dekker, Frans; Ferrari, Michel D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine patients who experience an average of 2 or more attacks per month are eligible for preventive treatment as well as treatment for acute attacks. The decision to offer preventative treatment is also made on the basis of the average attack duration, severity of the attacks, and response to attack treatment. Prior to initiating preventive treatment, the average attack frequency per month should be assessed, preferably by means of a headache diary over a number of months, as attack frequency is extremely variable. None of the currently available preventive drugs, such as beta-blockers, sodium valproate, topiramate and candesartan, were developed specifically for treating migraine, but were all originally intended for other indications. 50% of the migraine patients receiving preventive treatment can expect a 50% reduction in attacks, and the remaining attacks often seem to be less severe. The effects of the drugs are often unpredictable per individual, and side-effects frequently lead to early discontinuation of treatment. Drugs usually prescribed for cardiovascular disorders are often used. In the case of a disorder such as migraine with a high burden of disability, patients with cardiovascular or pulmonary comorbidity should receive medication that is optimally adjusted for both indications. PMID:20699036

  3. Surgical treatments for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    de l'Escalopier, Nicolas; Anract, Philippe; Biau, David

    2016-06-01

    There are two main surgical treatments for osteoarthritis: conservative treatments, where the damaged cartilage is left in place, and radical treatments, where the cartilage is replaced by an artificial endoprosthesis; this latter procedure is termed joint arthroplasty. These treatments are only offered to symptomatic patients. Arthrodesis is yet another surgical intervention in cases of osteoarthritis. It will sacrifice the joint's articular function and is performed on small osteoarthritic joints, such as wrists and ankles, for instance. Osteoarthritis symptoms are usually the consequence of an imbalance between the load applied to a joint and the surface available to support that load. Therefore, conservative treatments will either tend to decrease the load exerted on the joint, such as in a tibial valgus osteotomy for instance, or to improve the articular surface supporting that load. Sometimes, both can be provided at the same time; the peri-acetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia is an example of such a procedure. Conservative treatments are usually offered to young patients in order to delay, if not avoid, the need for a joint prosthesis. They are usually performed before osteoarthritis appears or at an early stage. Joint arthroplasties have overwhelmingly excellent functional results and today's research is directed towards providing rapid recovery, very long-term stability, and the assurance of a good functionality in extreme conditions. However, complications with joint arthroplasties can be serious with little, if any, reasonable salvage solution. Therefore, these procedures are offered to patients who have failed adequate medical treatment measures. PMID:27185463

  4. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, V S; Nadkarni, V V

    2011-07-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PMID:22028523

  5. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, V. S.; Nadkarni, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70–80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PMID:22028523

  6. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  7. Treatment Modalities for Acne.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle; Csongradi, Candice; Aucamp, Marique; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease which affects the pilosebaceous units of the skin. It can have severe psychological effects and can leave the patient with severe skin scarring. There are four well-recognized pathological factors responsible for acne which is also the target for acne therapy. In this review, different treatment options are discussed, including topical (i.e., retinoids, and antibiotics) and systemic (i.e., retinoids, antibiotics, and hormonal) treatments. Since the general public has been showing an increasing interest in more natural and generally safer treatment options, the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) for treating acne was also discussed. The use of physical therapies such as comedone extraction, cryoslush therapy, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, intralesional corticosteroids and optical treatments are also mentioned. Acne has been extensively researched with regards to the disease mechanism as well as treatment options. However, due to the increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes towards the available antibiotics, there is a need for new treatment methods. Additionally, the lack of necessary evidence on the efficacy of CAM therapies makes it necessary for researchers to investigate these treatment options further. PMID:27529209

  8. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  9. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. PMID:25594451

  10. Treatment Success in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  11. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  12. Heat treatment study 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructural variations in nickel based superalloys that result from modifications in processing were examined. These superalloys include MAR-M246(HF) and PWA1480. Alternate heat treatments for equiaxed as-cast specimens were studied and a sample matrix of 42 variations in the heat treatments were processed, as well as different directional solidification parameters. Variation in temperature and times for both solution and aging were performed. Photomicrographs were made of the microstructure and volume fraction analysis of primary gamma-prime and aged gamma-prime precipitates were performed. The results of the heat treatment, cooling rate, and directional solidification experiments are discussed.

  13. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  14. Optical treatments for acne.

    PubMed

    Ross, E Victor

    2005-01-01

    Light-based treatments for acne are becoming increasingly commonplace in dermatology. This article reviews various light approaches in acne therapy. Methods are discussed from an anatomical and a functional perspective. The emphasis is on the practicality of treatment as well as the pros and cons of various devices. Also, a review of the recent literature is presented. The article is intended to give the reader a panoramic view of this still-young and developing area. Most likely, light-based acne treatment will receive more popularity as dermatologists learn how to integrate this type of therapy within the context of more established drug agents. PMID:16229726

  15. [Treatment of bronchiectasias].

    PubMed

    Purokivi, Minna; Koskela, Heikki; Kaarteenaho, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Typical symptoms of bronchiectasis include cough, sliminess of the airways and recurrent respiratory infections which lead to lung injury and impaired quality of life when untreated. High-resolution computer tomography is the most important examination to detect bronchiectasias. Cornerstones of the treatment are elucidation of the etiology of the disease, taking care of vaccinations, management of physical fitness, treating sliminess, and careful treatment of periods of exacerbation with antibiotics according to bacterial growth and susceptibility testing determined from sputum. Hypertonic saline inhalation can be used to potentiate the treatment of sliminess and achieve a positive effect on the quality of life. PMID:24822326

  16. OCD Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Coverage: ADAA Conference 2016 Submissions Hotel and Travel Conference Highlights Registration and Rates Full-Day Workshop With Reid Wilson Professional Education Clinical Fellows Webinars for Mental Health Treatment Providers Recordings: Webinars for Mental Health ...

  17. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  18. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... what patients really need is a healing touch. Osteopathic physicians haven't forgotten. Osteopathic manipulative treatment, or OMT, ... and prevent illness or injury. Using OMT, your osteopathic physician will move your muscles and joints using techniques ...

  19. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

  20. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Departments & Divisions Home Conditions Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Our Specialists Charles L. Daley, ...

  1. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... in treatment and support—which may include teachers, childcare providers, coaches, therapists, and other family members. Taking ... and discipline that is effective with their particular child. Top of Page For More Information Additional information ...

  2. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Intracranial Vascular Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Mechanical retrievers/aspiration systems: used to remove clots ... passageway between an artery and a vein. intracranial aneurysms, a ballooning out of the wall of an ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treatments will also be taken. Lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy : Procedures in which ... has spread to the lymph nodes . Lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy are done to ...

  5. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Treatment of myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Bean, Matthew C; Heckman, Thomas W; Jayaseelan, Dhinu; Moats, Nick; Nava, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome and to provide clinicians with treatment recommendations. This paper reviews the efficacy of various myofascial pain syndrome treatment modalities, including pharmacological therapy, injection-based therapies and physical therapy interventions. Outcomes evaluated included pain (visual analog scale), pain pressure threshold and range of motion. The evidence found significant benefit with multiple treatments, including diclofenac patch, thiocolchicoside and lidocaine patches. Trigger point injections, ischemic compression therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spray and stretch, and myofascial release were also efficacious. The authors recommend focusing on treating underlying pathologies, including spinal conditions, postural abnormalities and underlying behavioral issues. To achieve maximum pain reduction and improve function, we recommend physicians approach myofascial pain syndrome with a multimodal plan, which includes a combination of pharmacologic therapies, various physical therapeutic modalities and injection therapies. PMID:24645933

  7. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  8. Packaged Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

  9. [Treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M D

    2001-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent medical literature on the treatment of neonatal jaundice, focusing on practical aspects that are relevant to pediatricians and neonatologists. SOURCES: An extensive review of the related literature was performed, also including the authors clinical experience in this field of investigation. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Jaundice is very common among infants during the first days of life. Several factors such as maternal and neonatal history have to be considered before implementing treatment. Significant advances have been made in the past few years concerning the treatment of jaundiced newborn infants. This review focuses on three forms of treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: phototherapy, exchange transfusion and the use of drugs to reduce serum bilirubin concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Nowadays, the in-depth knowledge about the mechanism of action of phototherapy, the development of intensified phototherapy units and the use of drugs to reduce bilirubin formation, have contributed to significantly decrease the need for exchange transfusion. PMID:14676895

  10. Treatment of Giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Petri, William A

    2005-02-01

    Tinidazole is the first-line drug treatment of giardiasis, as it requires only a single dose to cure infection in most individuals. The related drug metronidazole is as effective, but it requires 5 to 7 days of three times a day therapy. Nitazoxanide appears in limited studies to be as effective as tinidazole or metronidazole, and it does not have the bitter taste of nitroimidazoles. A good alternate for use during pregnancy is paromomycin. Cure of infection varies between 60% and 100% with one course of treatment. Less effective and/or less well-tolerated drugs for the treatment of giardiasis include albendazole, quinacrine, and furazolidone; the use of these agents should be reserved for giardiasis refractory to treatment with the first-line agents. PMID:15625030

  11. Working during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... people find that working through treatment is too difficult. Taking time off from work might be the best thing you can do for your health and your job. If your work performance is suffering, taking time off will allow your ...

  12. Systemic treatment of hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    del Boz, J

    2015-05-01

    Until quite recently, clinical guidelines and reviews on the treatment of hyperhidrosis advised against the use of systemic therapies based on their unacceptable adverse effects and a lack of evidence of usefulness. Numerous studies published over the past few years, however, have shown that, when used appropriately, these treatments are effective and in general have a favorable tolerability profile, making them an additional option for the treatment of hyperhidrosis, particularly for disease that is widespread, multifocal, or resistant to other treatments. In this review, the first of its kind, we examine the systemic therapies available for hyperhidrosis, including antihypertensives, psychoactive agents, and in particular oral anticholinergics, although none of these drugs are currently approved for this indication. PMID:25638324

  13. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  14. Laser Acne Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Acne Treatment, Laser A A A BEFORE: This patient wanted laster ... A popular approach is to combine an infrared laser with skin cooling to target oil gland production, ...

  15. IBS Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... or bring on symptoms Stress management, gut-directed hypnosis, biofeedback, relaxation, or pain management techniques Consulting with ... Complimentary or Alternative Treatments Selecting a CAM Practitioner Hypnosis for IBS Yoga Medications Laxatives Anticholinergic/Antispasmodic Agents ...

  16. Early Diagnosis, Timely Treatment

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... proper treatment and care to the point where vision loss is minimized. Your chances of going blind ... he's been able to keep about half his vision level. Kermit: Well, I can see everything here. ...

  17. Pertussis Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Kid-friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  18. Treatment of hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A

    2011-04-01

    Hip dysplasia is a common orthopaedic developmental disorder of dogs. This paper reviews the treatment options available for management of the condition in the skeletally immature and adult dog. PMID:21906059

  19. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD symptoms can be very subtle. "For example, some ...

  20. Stator hub treatment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Hilvers, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an experimental research program to investigate the potential of improving compressor stall margin by the application of hub treatment are presented. Extensive tuft probing showed that the two-stage, 0.5 radius ratio compressor selected for the test was indeed hub critical. Circumferential groove and baffled wide blade angle slot hub treatments under the stators were tested. Performance measurements were made with total and static pressure probes, wall static pressure taps, flow angle measuring instrumentation and hot film anemometers. Stator hub treatment was not found to be effective in improving compressor stall margin by delaying the point of onset of rotating stall or in modifying compressor performance for any of the configurations tested. Extensive regions of separated flow were observed on the suction surface of the stators near the hub. However, the treatment did not delay the point where flow separation in the stator hub region becomes apparent.

  1. [Treatment of recurrent furunculosis].

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Stijnis, C Kees

    2013-01-01

    The management of recurrent furunculosis is difficult, and often disappointing. We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent furunculosis. The furunculosis persisted after treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment, chlorhexidine soap and instructions for washing clothes, towels and bed sheets for a period of 7 days. Treatment with low-dose clindamycin for three months ultimately proved successful. We propose a structural approach for recurrent furunculosis in which extensive history-taking is followed by appropriate tests. Before prescribing an oral antibiotic (preferably low-dose clindamycin or a macrolide for 3 months), the patient should use an antimicrobial nasal ointment and soap and follow hygienic instructions as mentioned above. Members of the household who also have signs of the infection should be treated. Hygienic education is an essential component of treatment. We believe that this approach will lead to a treatment that is more effective and efficient. PMID:23369819

  2. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... Often, home health care nurses will come to your home to give you the medicine. Sometimes, a family member, a friend, or ...

  3. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment On This Page What is laser light? What is laser therapy, and how is it ... future hold for laser therapy? What is laser light? The term “ laser ” stands for light amplification by ...

  4. Treatment of Ganglion Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Fung, B.; Lung, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence. PMID:24967120

  5. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  6. Treatment of Gas

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how improve living with these conditions . Publication Library Books of Interest Medical Definitions About IFFGD About us Our Mission Awareness Activities Advocacy Activities Research Leadership IFFGD Symposium Report Industry Council Contact Us News Industry Treatment News Medical ...

  7. The treatment of tics.

    PubMed

    Singer, H S

    2001-03-01

    Tics are the essential component of a variety of disorders, notably Tourette syndrome. Because the mere presence of tics does not require therapeutic intervention, criteria are essential for determining a functional disability. Suggested tic-suppressing treatments have been extremely diverse, including hydrotherapy, behavioral treatments, pharmacotherapy, botulinum toxin, immunomodulatory therapy, and surgery. This manuscript reviews each of these approaches with emphasis on more recent pharmacologic trials. PMID:11898516

  8. Cost of hypertension treatment.

    PubMed

    Odell, T W; Gregory, M C

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted of the cost of hypertension care at one internal medicine clinic, looking at the cost of office visits, laboratory tests, and medications. Cost of hypertension care was $947 the first year of treatment, $575 the second year, and $420 per year thereafter. Drug costs were the major determinant of cost of care, comprising 80% of the total cost of treatment after the first year of therapy. PMID:8770721

  9. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  10. [Empiric treatment of pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Iarovoĭ, S K; Shimanovskiĭ, N L; Kareva, E N

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the most typical clinical situations in empirical treatment of pyelonephritis including situations with comorbid severe diseases: decompensated diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, HIV-infection. Choice of antibacterial medicines for empiric treatment of pyelonephritis is based on the results of the latest studies of antibioticoresistance of pyelonephritis pathogens as well as on specific features of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterial drugs. PMID:21815461

  11. Dental Treatment Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-01-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  12. Endodontic treatment of molars

    PubMed Central

    Habl, Claudia; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease). Discussion Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical) root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines. PMID:21289954

  13. Heat treatment for superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, Fredric H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A cobalt-free nickel-base superalloy composed of in weight % 15 Cr-5 Mo-3.5 Ti-4 Al-0.07 (max) C-remainder Ni is given a modified heat treatment. With this heat treatment the cobalt-free alloy achieves certain of the mechanical properties of the corresponding cobalt-containing nickel-base superalloy at 1200 F (650 C). Thus, strategic cobalt can be replaced by nickel in the alloy.

  14. Dental treatment abuse.

    PubMed

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-07-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  15. Laser treatment in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2004-07-01

    This presentation is designed as a brief overview of laser use in gynecology, for non-medical researchers involved in development of new laser techniques. The literature of the past decade is reviewed. Differences in penetration, absorption, and suitable delivery media for the beams dictate clinical application. The use of CO2 laser in the treatment of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions is well established and indications as well as techniques have not changed over 30 years. The Cochrane Systematic Review from 2000 suggests no obviously superior technique. CO2 laser ablation of the vagina is also established as a safe treatment modality for VAIN. CO2 laser permits treatment of lesions with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding by destruction of the endometrial lining using various techniques has been the subject of a 2002 Cochran Database Review. Among the compared treatment modalities are newer and modified laser techniques. Conclusion by reviewers is that outcomes and complication profiles of newer techniques compare favorably with the gold standard of endometrial resection. The ELITT diode laser system is one of the new successful additions. CO2 laser is also the dominant laser type used with laparoscopy for ablation of endometriotic implants. Myoma coagulation or myolysis with Nd:Yag laser through the laparoscope or hysteroscope is a conservative treatment option. Even MRI guided percutaneous approaches have been described. No long-term data are available.

  16. [Treatment of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Terriou, L; Leleu, X; Yakoub-Agha, I

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple myeloma has shown considerable progress these last two decades. While autologous stem cell transplantation seems to be agreed as the "gold standard" of front-line treatment in the young patients, the result of IFM99-06 prospective study would probably lead to a change regarding treatment of elderly as patients who received the thalidomide-melphalan-prednison association had better overall survival than those who received either the standard melphalan-prednison association or an intensive treatment. The best innovative therapeutic concept is illustrated by the new molecules that target both the myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, thalidomide and derivatives (Revlimid and the Actimid) and Velcade have transformed considerably the history of multiple myeloma. They have not to be considered as competitors but rather complementary whose impact will probably come of their combination and their association with the intensive treatments. The issues of maintenance therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of patients with myeloma remain to be addressed. PMID:16455512

  17. Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    McTague, Amy; Cross, J Helen

    2013-03-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy is defined as a condition where the epileptic activity itself may contribute to the severe neurological and cognitive impairment seen, over and above that which would be expected from the underlying pathology alone. The epilepsy syndromes at high risk of this are a disparate group of conditions characterized by epileptic seizures that are difficult to treat and developmental delay. In this review, we discuss the ongoing debate regarding the significance of inter-ictal discharges and the impact of the seizures themselves on the cognitive delay or regression that is a common feature of these syndromes. The syndromes also differ in many ways and we provide a summary of the key features of the early-onset epileptic encephalopathies including Ohtahara and West syndromes in addition to later childhood-onset syndromes such as Lennox Gastaut and Doose syndromes. An understanding of the various severe epilepsy syndromes is vital to understanding the rationale for treatment. For example, the resolution of hypsarrhythmia in West syndrome is associated with an improvement in cognitive outcome and drives treatment choice, but the same cannot be applied to frequent inter-ictal discharges in Lennox Gastaut syndrome. We discuss the evidence base for treatment where it is available and describe current practice where it is not. For example, in West syndrome there is some evidence for preference of hormonal treatments over vigabatrin, although the choice and duration of hormonal treatment remains unclear. We describe the use of conventional and newer anti-epileptic medications in the various syndromes and discuss which medications should be avoided. Older possibly forgotten treatments such as sulthiame and potassium bromide also have a role in the severe epilepsies of childhood. We discuss hormonal treatment with particular focus on the treatment of West syndrome, continuous spike wave in slow wave sleep (CSWS)/electrical status epilepticus in slow wave

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment)

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain stem gliomas may cause ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  19. Personalized treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B; Richards, D

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to outline a flexible framework which the dental team can use to bring together key elements of information about their patients and their patients' teeth in order to plan appropriate, patient-centred, caries management based on the application of best current evidence and practice. This framework can be enabled by the use of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) clinical visual scoring systems for caries detection and activity, but also needs additional information about lesions and the patient to plan and then monitor the effectiveness of personalized caries care. The treatment planning process has evolved from restorative treatment decisions being largely made during clinical assessment as an examination of wet teeth proceeds, with limited charting and a minor role for patient factors. Best practice now involves a comprehensive examination being made systematically of clean dry teeth using sharp eyes and blunt probes. The ICDAS-enabled framework provides for information to be collected at the tooth/surface level (clinical visual lesion detection, lesion detection aids and lesion activity assessment) and at the patient level (patient caries risk assessment, dentition and lesion history and patient behavioural assessment). This information is then synthesized to inform integrated, personalized treatment planning which involves the choice of appropriate treatment options (background level care, preventive treatment options, operative treatment options) and then recall, reassessment and monitoring. Examples of international moves towards using integrated, personalized treatment planning for caries control are given, drawing on experiences in the UK, the USA and from the ICDAS Committee. PMID:19494680

  20. Treatment of carnitine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Winter, S C

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine deficiency is a secondary complication of many inborn errors of metabolism. Pharmacological treatment with carnitine not only corrects the deficiency, it facilitates removal of accumulating toxic acyl intermediates and the generation of mitochondrial free coenzyme A (CoA). The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved the use of carnitine for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism in 1992. This approval was based on retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients, with 18 in the untreated cohort and 72 in the treated cohort. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of clinical and biochemical findings. Compelling data included increased excretion of disease-specific acylcarnitine derivatives in a dose-response relationship, decreased levels of metabolites in the blood, and improved clinical status with decreased hospitalization frequency, improved growth and significantly lower mortality rates as compared to historical controls. Complications of carnitine treatment were few, with gastrointestinal disturbances and odour being the most frequent. No laboratory or clinical safety issues were identified. Intravenous carnitine preparations were also approved for treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency. Since only 25% of enteral carnitine is absorbed and gastrointestinal tolerance of high doses is poor, parenteral carnitine treatment is an appealing alternative therapeutic approach. In 7 patients treated long term with high-dose weekly to daily venous boluses of parenteral carnitine through a subcutaneous venous port, benefits included decreased frequency of decompensations, improved growth, improved muscle strength and decreased reliance on medical foods with liberalization of protein intake. Port infections were the most troubling complication. Theoretical concerns continue to be voiced that carnitine might result in fatal arrhythmias in patients with long-chain fat metabolism defects. No published clinical studies substantiate these

  1. OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Márcio Passini Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Articles that update the state of knowledge regarding osteoporosis run the risk of quickly becoming obsolete because research and studies on osteoporosis today are arousing great interest among researchers, the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industries, governments and even WHO. All orthopedists know about osteoporosis because of its most deleterious effect: osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis without fractures does not arouse suspicion because this is a pathological condition with a nonspecific clinical profile. Osteoporotic fractures have an economic cost (from treatment), a social cost (from its sequelae) and a medical cost (from deaths). Many fractures could be avoided through diagnosing osteoporosis prior to the first fracture and thus many temporary and permanent disabilities could be avoided and many lives saved. Awareness of the risk factors for osteoporosis raises suspicions and bone densitometry aids in diagnosis. Treatment should be based on the physiopathology of the disease. Hence, for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, the activity of osteoclasts should be diminished or the activity of osteoblasts should be increased, or both. Treatment that reduces the incidence of fractures by improving the bone geometry and microarchitecture would be ideal. Newly formed bone tissue needs to have good cell and matrix quality, normal mineralization, a good ratio between mineralized (mechanically resistant) and non-mineralized (flexible) bone, and no accumulated damage. The ideal treatment should have a positive remodeling rate and fast and long-lasting therapeutic effects. Such effects need to be easily detectable. They need to be safe. PMID:27022545

  2. Barriers to obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Marina; Taylor, Valerie; Wharton, Sean; Sharma, Arya M

    2008-05-01

    Obesity, one of the most prevalent health problems in the Western world, is a chronic and progressive condition. Therefore, as with other chronic diseases, patients with obesity require lifelong treatment. Long-term efficacy and effectiveness of obesity treatments is notoriously poor. This may in part be attributable to the substantial barriers that undermine long-term obesity management strategies. These can include lack of recognition of obesity as a chronic condition, low socioeconomic status, time constraints, intimate saboteurs, and a wide range of comorbidities including mental health, sleep, chronic pain, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine disorders. Furthermore, medications used to treat some of these disorders may further undermine weight-loss efforts. Lack of specific obesity training of health professionals, attitudes and beliefs as well as coverage and availability of obesity treatments can likewise pose important barriers. Health professionals need to take care to identify, acknowledge and address these barriers where possible to increase patient success as well as compliance and adherence with treatments. Failure to do so may further undermine the sense of failure, low self esteem and self efficacy already common among obese individuals. Addressing treatment barriers can save resources and increase the prospect of long-term success. PMID:18395160

  3. Hirsutism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Alexandre; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Oliveira, Mônica de

    2014-03-01

    Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth in androgen-dependent areas of the body in women, which grows in a typical male distribution pattern. Hirsutism is a common clinical problem in women, and the treatment depends on the cause. The condition is often associated with a loss of self-esteem. Hirsutism reflects the interaction between circulating androgen concentrations, local androgen concentrations, and the sensitivity of the hair follicle to androgens. Polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hirsutism are the most common causes of the condition. A woman's history and, physical examination are particularly important in evaluating excess hair growth. The vast majority of women with hirsutism have the idiopathic variety, and the diagnosis is made by exclusion. Serum testosterone level>200 ng/dL is highly suggestive of adrenal or ovarian tumor. Treatment of hirsutism should be based on the degree of excess hair growth presented by the patient and in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Treatment includes lifestyle therapies, androgen suppression, peripheral androgen blockage, and cosmetic treatments. The current review discusses definition, pathogenesis, physiopathology, differential diagnosis, diagnostic strategies, and treatment. PMID:24830586

  4. Treatment of bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Laura; Del Grande, Claudia; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2013-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and episodes dominate the long-term course of bipolar disorder and are associated with high levels of disability and an increased risk of suicide. However, the treatment of bipolar depression has been poorly investigated in comparison with that of manic episodes and unipolar major depressive disorder. The goal of treatment in bipolar depression is not only to achieve full remission of acute symptoms, but also to avoid long-term mood destabilization and to prevent relapses. A depressive presentation of bipolar disorder may often delay the appropriate management and, thus, worsen the long-term outcome. In these cases, an accurate screening for diagnostic indicators of a possible bipolar course of the illness should guide the therapeutic choices, and lead to prognostic improvement. Antidepressant use is still the most controversial issue in the treatment of bipolar depression. Despite inconclusive evidence of efficacy and tolerability, this class of agents is commonly prescribed in acute and long-term treatment, often in combination with mood stabilizers. In this article, we review available treatment options for bipolar depression, and we shall provide some suggestions for the management of the different presentations of depression in the course of bipolar disorder. PMID:23391164

  5. Anti-androgen treatments.

    PubMed

    Bachelot, Anne; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Salenave, Sylvie; Kerlan, Véronique; Galand-Portier, Marie-Béatrice

    2010-02-01

    1. Estrogen plus progestin contraceptives (EPP) are the first-line treatment of moderate hirsutism and acne in women of child bearing age (grade C). 2. CPA, 50mg/day, 20 days out of 28, associated with estrogen is the first-line treatment of "moderate to severe hirsutism" in women of childbearing age (grade C). 3. Spironolactone, given as a contraceptive, can be proposed as a second-line treatment in case of side effects or counter-indications to CPA in moderate to severe hirsutism (grade C) in women of childbearing age. No market authorization in this indication. 4. Flutamide or Finasteride are "only" to be used under the guise of contraception as a "thirdline therapy" in cases of severe hirsutism, the presence of side effects or counter-indications to EPP, CPA 50mg/day or spironolactone (grade C). No market authorization in this indication 5. There is no indication for GnRH analogs as an anti-androgen treatment in women of childbearing age given the current therapeutic alternatives (grade C) 6. Only long-term hair removal treatments can be proposed (grade C): electrolysis or laser hair removal. PMID:20096826

  6. Migraine: preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, S D; Goadsby, P J

    2002-09-01

    Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder. A comprehensive headache treatment plan includes acute attack treatment to relieve pain and impairment and long-term preventive therapy to reduce attack frequency, severity, and duration. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include: (i) migraine that significantly interferes with the patient's daily routine despite acute treatment; (ii) failure, contraindication to, or troublesome side-effects from acute medications; (iii) overuse of acute medications; (iv) special circumstances, such as hemiplegic migraine; (v) very frequent headaches (more than two a week); or (vi) patient preference. Start the drug at a low dose. Give each treatment an adequate trial. Avoid interfering, overused, and contraindicated drugs. Re-evaluate therapy. Be sure that a woman of childbearing potential is aware of any potential risks. Involve patients in their care to maximize compliance. Consider co-morbidity. Choose a drug based on its proven efficacy, the patient's preferences and headache profile, the drug's side-effects, and the presence or absence of coexisting or co-morbid disease. Drugs that have documented high efficacy and mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) include beta-blockers, amitriptyline, and divalproex. Drugs that have lower documented efficacy and mild to moderate AEs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin, topiramate, riboflavin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:12230591

  7. [Treatment of onychomycosis].

    PubMed

    Feuilhade de Chauvin, M

    2014-12-01

    A positive mycological examination is required before discussion of treatment of onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is most commonly due to dermatophytes in association with tinea pedis and/or tinea manuum. It is a catched infection. Candida onychomycosis is a rare opportunistic infection and onychomycosis due to non-dermatophytic moulds is very rare as a "chance mishap". The treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis takes each infected part of the nail into account. Topical antifungal agents should be reserved for mild to moderate onychomycosis. Systemic antifungal agents are required to severe onychomycosis. In all cases, removal of infected nail parts is useful to facilitate the penetration of antifungal drugs and eradication of reinfection sites may be done to prevent recurrences and relapses. In primary, Candida onychomycosis treatment with topical antifungal drugs may be effective but in case of treatment failure, a systemic therapy is required. Suppression predisposing factors is useful. The treatment of non-dermatophytic moulds onychomycosis is still a challenge. Except Neoscytalidium spp., which mimic a dermatophytosis, non-dermatophytic moulds may be isolated from dystrophic nails and it is always difficult to specify their role as a primary pathogen or as a colonizer of nails. The available topical and systemic antifungal drugs are not effective against these non-dermatophytic moulds except itraconazole for onychomycosis due to Aspergillus spp. New therapy such as light and laser therapy are in evaluation. PMID:25458366

  8. Treatment of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Sadanori

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Radiation exposure as a result of radiation treatment, accident, or terrorism may cause serious problems such as deficiency due to necrosis or loss of function, fibrosis, or intractable ulcers in the tissues and organs. When the skin, bone, oral mucous membrane, guts, or salivary glands are damaged by ionizing radiation, the management and treatment are very lengthy and difficult. Critical Issues: In severe and irreversible injuries, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Several surgical procedures, such as debridement, skin grafting, and local and free-vascularized flaps, are widely used. Recent Advances: In specific cases of major morbidity or in high-risk patients, a newly developed therapy using a patient's own stem cells is safe and effective. Adipose tissue, normally a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, which are similar to those from the bone marrow, can be harvested, since the procedure is easy, and abundant tissue can be obtained with minimal invasiveness. Future Directions: Based on the molecular basis of radiation injuries, several prospective treatments are under development. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms focus on an individual's sensitivity to radiation in radiogenomics, and the pathology of radiation fibrosis or the effect of radiation on wound healing is being studied and will lead to new insight into the treatment of radiation injuries. Protectors and mitigators are being actively investigated in terms of the timing of administration or dose. PMID:24761339

  9. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  10. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Rynearson; M. M. Plum

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE-owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that a treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  11. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Plum, Martin Michael

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE -owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that the treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  12. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... treatment. Some treatments for tumors cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  14. Treatment Options for Childhood Astrocytomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Craniopharyngioma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... treatment. Some treatments for tumors cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  16. Lyme borreliosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Vanousová, Daniela; Hercogová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common human tick-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere. The causative agent is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi species complex, and the hard-shell ticks of the genus Ixodes is responsible for pathogen transmission from animals to humans. The incidence of the disease is increasing year by year and although lyme disease is not fatal, it can affect the skin, heart, nervous, and musculoskeletal system with an impairment of quality of life. The appropriate diagnosis of lyme disease should be promptly treated by antibiotics to prevent late stage of the disease. The choice of antibiotics depends on many factors such as the stage of the disease, the drug efficacy, adverse effects, type of delivery, duration of treatment, and cost. Treatment failure occurs as a result of many reasons, re-infection is possible. The recommended treatment schedule in the Czech Republic is presented. PMID:18394084

  17. Wilms' tumor after treatment.

    PubMed

    Brisigotti, M; Cozzutto, C; Fabbretti, G; Caliendo, L; Haupt, R; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P; Callea, F

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-one Wilms' tumors (WTs) from 59 patients who received preoperative therapy were studied. Twenty-seven WTs from 26 patients who did not receive preoperative treatment were also reviewed as controls. Marked and diffuse morphological changes occurred in treated cases. Necrosis affected mostly undifferentiated and replicating elements and was extensive, up to 90% of tumor mass. Minimal residual tumor, permitting recognition as Wilms', was always spared. Epithelial and rhabdomyoblastic components were more resistant to treatment; moreover, they appeared to be susceptible to differentiation and maturation. Necrosis and muscle cell differentiation seemed to have prognostic implications. Cases with extensive necrosis (greater than 90%) had a better outcome, although the difference was not statistically significant. The rhabdomyoblast/tumor mass ratio, after treatment, appears to carry prognostic meaning. Chemotherapy had no apparent effect on anaplasia. PMID:1329055

  18. [Treatment of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Targoński, Aleksander; Prajsner, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Its prevalence rate in Europe and in United States is estimated to be between 20% and 30%. The diagnosis of premature ejaculation is based on three main criteria: increased intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), lack of control over ejaculation and interpersonal psychological disturbances. Premature ejaculation is classified as lifelong (primary) or acquired (secondary) and might be facilitated by chronic prostatitis, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, obesity. The exact etiology of the disease remains unclear, although 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors are known to have a significant role. The use of SSRIs (selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors) is old and efficient form of therapy for premature ejaculation. Other drugs like tramadol, clomipramine, local anaesthetics and PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase 5) inhibitors also have some efficacy in the treatment of premature ejaculation. To minimize adverse effects the "on demand" therapy is preferred to the daily treatment. Simple questionnaires for patients are used to assess treatment effects. PMID:22827115

  19. Anti-inflammatory treatment.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Susanna K; Itin, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory mucosal disorders are treated conventionally with potent or superpotent topical corticosteroids. For more than 20 years, topical cyclosporine has been used in the management of oral mucous membrane affections. Recently other topically applied calcineurin inhibitors, namely tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, expanded the armamentarium for the treatment of inflammatory mucosal diseases. This chapter places its main emphasis on the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors in the management of different oral and genital conditions, including anogenital lichen sclerosus (LS), oral and genital lichen planus, plasma cell balanitis and vulvitis, mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris, all conditions having usually a protracted course, requiring long-lasting treatment. There is current evidence for the effectiveness of both pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in the topical treatment of inflammatory oral mucosal diseases and genital dermatoses, especially oral lichen planus and genital LS. PMID:21325840

  20. Treatment of delinquents.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, C

    1992-01-01

    The medical role in the treatment of delinquency is a limited one. There is conflicting evidence as to whether treatment aims should be directed towards the individual, to the family, the institution, or the therapist. Nevertheless there seems to be a consensus of opinion that short term, focused therapies aimed at improving educational, vocational and social skills, possibly from a preschool age, are the most effective. Any treatment gains achieved while in residential care appear to be short lived. It therefore seems that this should be reserved for those individuals who commit repeated, violent crimes and for those from very damaging family backgrounds who repeatedly abscond or absent themselves from community based programmes. PMID:1471896

  1. Treatment of Lyme borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans. This inflammatory disease can affect the skin, the peripheral and central nervous system, the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system and rarely the eyes. Early stages are directly associated with viable bacteria at the site of inflammation. The pathogen-host interaction is complex and has been elucidated only in part. B. burgdorferi is highly susceptible to antibiotic treatment and the majority of patients profit from this treatment. Some patients develop chronic persistent disease despite repeated antibiotics. Whether this is a sequel of pathogen persistence or a status of chronic auto-inflammation, auto-immunity or a form of fibromyalgia is highly debated. Since vaccination is not available, prevention of a tick bite or chemoprophylaxis is important. If the infection is manifest, then treatment strategies should target not only the pathogen by using antibiotics but also the chronic inflammation by using anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20067594

  2. Family Treatment for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    FALLOON, IAN R. H.; MCGILL, CHARISTINE W.; MATTHEWS, SUSAN M.; KEITH, SAMUEL J.; SCHOOLER, NINA R.

    1996-01-01

    The NIMH Treatment Strategies in Schizophrenia (TSS) collaborative study group investigated the efficacy of antisychotic drug maintenance strategies involving reduced medication exposure in interaction with applied and supportive family management for the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Therapy was provided at five centers by 25 clinicians who did not participate in the development of the therapies. They were trained by two of the authors, I.R.H.F and C.W.M, in applied family management, a homebased treatment derived from the behavioral family therapy developed by them. Clinicians’ characteristics, selection, and training methods, as well as patient rehospitalization rates, are reported for the two family management conditions. The TSS study represents a bridge between the development of a novel therapy and its dissemination in general clinical practice. PMID:22700264

  3. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". PMID:26831642

  4. [Treatment of melanoma].

    PubMed

    Dréno, Brigitte; Wallon-Dumont, Gwénaëlle

    2003-01-11

    At the stage of primary tumour and lymph node extension, the treatment of melanoma is mainly surgical. Interferon alpha has obtained marketing authorisation to be used as adjuvant therapy at different doses in the treatment of these two stages of the disease and must therefore be discussed with the patient. At the metastatic stage, no real progress in chemotherapy has been noted for more than 20 years. Combined therapy with chemotherapy and cytokines (interferon alpha or interleukine 2) increases the percentage of response but without increasing the overall survival. THREE IMMUNOTHERAPY TECHNIQUES: Cellular immunotherapy represents the main hope of these future years in the treatment of melanoma, with the injection of in vitro expanded cytotoxic T cells, vaccination and dendritic cells. Although clinical results are starting to be published, cellular immunotherapy remains in the field of clinical research, within the framework of clinical trials. PMID:12610396

  5. Diagnosis & Treatment of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. There are many different clinical manifestations and many different causes. A careful assessment of the clinical manifestations is helpful for identifying syndromic patterns that focus diagnostic testing on potential causes. If a cause can be identified, specific etiology-based treatments may be available. However, in the majority of cases, a specific cause cannot be identified, and treatments are based on symptoms. Treatment options include counseling and education, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and several surgical procedures. A substantial reduction in symptoms and improved quality of life can be achieved in the majority of patients by combining these various options. PMID:25432724

  6. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  7. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  8. [Medical treatment of BPH].

    PubMed

    Descazeaud, A

    2009-12-01

    Four therapeutic classes can be used for the treatment of BPH: alphablockers, 5 alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI), muscrinic receptor antagonists, and plant extracts. Two combination therapies have been proven to be efficient: 5ARI - alphablockers, and muscarinic receptor antagonists - alphablockers. Alphablockers have the advantage to be efficient quickly. 5ARI decrease prostate volume. Efficacy of plant extracts is still discussed, but their tolerance is excellent. Muscrinic receptor antagonists can be a viable treatment option for men with predominantly bladder storage symptoms but without bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:19963186

  9. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms. PMID:24787338

  10. Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

    2015-01-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

  11. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elkis, Helio; Buckley, Peter F

    2016-06-01

    Although treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was described 50 years ago and has a gold standard treatment with clozapine based on well-defined criteria, there is still a matter of great interest and controversy. In terms of the underlying mechanisms of the development of TRS, progress has been made for the elucidation of the neurochemical mechanisms. Structural neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with TRS have significant reduction of the prefrontal cortex volume when compared with non- TRS. This article updates and enhances our previous review with new evidence mainly derived from new studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. PMID:27216902

  12. Surgical prosthetic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio; Civinini, Roberto; Villano, Marco; Innocenti, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Fragility fractures typically occur in elderly patients related principally to osteoporosis. A significative percentage of these fractures have to be treated surgically but comorbilities are often present, and need to be grossly stabilized before surgery. However, there is for these fractures a high rate of morbidity and mortality at short-term. Moreover, patients affected by a fragility fracture are at risk for another fragility fracture later in life. The Authors present an overview of the main patterns of proximal femoral fractures, underlining the peculiar features and choices of surgical treatment, and relating to specific indications and results of each treatment. PMID:22461289

  13. [Cosmetic treatments and acne].

    PubMed

    Poli, Florence

    2002-04-15

    Cosmetic products contribute to the efficacy of anti-acneic treatment. Cleaning bars without soap and lotions are to be preferred to soaps. Morning application of moisturizing creams compensate for dryness and irritation induced by topical treatment. Some of these cosmetic products may have a limited efficacy of the shiny appearance and/or acne lesions. Scrubs, abrasive sponges, masks and patches have a very limited usefulness. Make up and camouflage techniques are authorized, provided that the products have been tested non comedogenic and non acne-genic. PMID:12053795

  14. [Treatment for hepatic osteodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis, are caused by various pathogenesis, such as viral hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis and steatohepatitis. There have not been enough clinical evidence about the treatment of hepatic osteodystrophy at the present time. Several reports suggested that bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, are effective for an increase in bone mineral density in patients with chronic liver disease. Vitamin D treatment might be useful for the frequent prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of hepatic oseodystrophy. The use of estrogens will be limited for the risk of liver dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26503875

  15. HIV treatment for prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambrosioni, Juan; Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear.Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission.More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely

  16. Asthma: beyond corticosteroid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Yasser; Farahi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, affecting over 300 million people. It is an inflammatory disorder characterized by bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness, followed by inflammatory manifestations in the respiratory system. The prevalence of asthma is rising and there is a clinical need to develop more effective treatments. While corticosteroids (glucocorticosteroids) remain the mainstay of asthma therapy, they have limitations because of their potentially severe side-effects and the presence of corticosteroid resistance in some patients. This review discusses current strategies in the treatment of asthma and considers new therapeutic regimens of asthma in the drug development pipeline. PMID:23847676

  17. Psychostimulant addiction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. In this paper, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions. PMID:24727297

  18. Inhalation treatment for asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, J; Warner, J O

    1986-01-01

    Inhaled medication has revolutionised the lives of many children with asthma. Despite this we see many children for whom appropriate inhaled medication has been prescribed but whose symptoms continue to be poorly controlled. In our experience this is often due to poor technique or inappropriately prescribed devices and an inadequate understanding of when and how to use the treatment. The prescribing physician must have a clear idea of the optimal inhalation technique. We have reviewed the standard devices available and our use of them in the treatment of childhood asthma. PMID:3082295

  19. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012) Quick facts about infertility . ...

  20. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  1. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  2. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  3. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  4. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  5. Chiari Malformation: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... endorse any doctors, procedures, or products. © 2012 C&S Patient Education Foundation, ® Treatment Options Patients evaluated for Chiari-like ... when there is a significant syrinx © 2012 C&S Patient Education Foundation, ® This presentation is for informational purposes, consult ...

  6. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  8. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  9. Effective Obesity Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…

  10. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... People on chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, or long-term use of steroids Treatments at Home for People with Chickenpox There are several things that can be done at home to help relieve the symptoms and prevent skin ... Use non-aspirin medications, such as acetaminophen, to relieve ...

  11. Treatment of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A

    1985-01-01

    There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254

  12. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  13. ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

  14. Postharvest Phytosanitary Pesticide Treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers the use of non-gaseous pesticides. Their use as phytosanitary treatments for edibles has never been great and is diminishing. They may still have promise for non-consumed pr...

  15. Predictors and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2015-11-01

    This month's section of Focus on Childhood and Adolescent Mental Health offers a wide array of clinically relevant topics. Interest in the use of dietary supplements to treat mood disorders has been on the rise. Wozniak and colleagues examined whether high EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acids and inositol were effective in the treatment of pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders. PMID:26646030

  16. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  17. Bisphosphonate Treatment and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 579. Rutgers-Verhange AR et al. 2003. No effects of bisphosphonates on the human fetus. Birth Defects Res(Part A);7:203-4. Siminoski K et al. 2000. Intravenous pamidronate for treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy during breast feeding. J Bone Miner Res 15(10):2052-2054. ...

  18. Treatment of osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Erik Fink

    2012-09-01

    The majority of osteoporotic fractures happen in individuals with BMD t-scores in the osteopenic range (-2,5< t-score <-1). However, widespread use of anti-osteoporotic medication in this group based on t-score alone is not advisable because: 1) the number needed to treat is much higher (NNT>100) than in patients with fractured and t-score below -2,5 (NNT 10-20); 2)while specific osteoporosis treatments have demonstrated significant reductions of the fracture risk in patients with t-score <-2, 5, the efficacy in patients in the osteopenic range is less well established. Therefore, an osteopenic t-score does not in itself constitute a treatment imperative. Generally, osteopenia has to be associated with either low energy fracture(s) or very high risk for future fracture as assessed with risk calculators like FRAX to warrant specific osteoporosis therapy. Vertebral fractures are now conveniently assessed using lateral x-rays from DXA machines. In the vast majority of cases antiresorptive treatments (mainly hormone replacement therapy and SERMS in younger and bisphosphonates or Denosumab in older women) are the treatments of choice in this group of patients,-only rarely is anabolic therapy indicated. PMID:21710179

  19. Treatment of Difficult Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Dennis M.

    1991-01-01

    The difficult asthmatic patient should first be managed by confirming the diagnosis and eliminating any aggravating environmental or occupational factors, including medication use. Proper treatment requires rational addition of drugs in a logical sequence. It is most important to ensure proper inhaler technique, patient compliance, effective doctor-patient communication, and proper patient monitoring. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21229079

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  1. [Mycetoma and their treatment].

    PubMed

    Develoux, M

    2016-06-01

    Mycetoma are chronic subcutaneous infections, endemic in dry tropical regions. It can be caused either by actinomycetes or by fungi, presenting as filamentous grains in vivo. The foot is the most common localization. The main complication is osseous involvement. Patients are rural workers living in areas situated far from medical centers. Too often, they reach well-equipped hospitals with advanced mutilating lesions. Early case detection is the first condition for good therapeutic results. Clinical presentations of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma are similar, only biological diagnosis can distinguish the two etiological forms. This distinction is essential as medical therapy for each is radically different. Precise identification of the causal agent is required for targeted treatment but it can only be realized in rare specialized laboratories. For actinomycetoma, standard therapy is trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (STX). Duration of treatment period is one-year minimum. In case of poor response to STX or high risk of dissemination, a combination with amikacin gave high cure rate. Other options as amoxicillin-clavulanate are available. Medical cure of actinomycetoma is generally obtained with antibiotic treatments and surgical indications are exceptional. Disappointing results were observed using antifungal in the treatment of eumycetoma and medical therapy must be completed with surgical excision. Itraconazole is now the most used drug, new triazoles are on evaluation. PMID:27260344

  2. Dynamic Treatment Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic treatment regime consists of a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of intervention, that dictate how to individualize treatments to patients based on evolving treatment and covariate history. These regimes are particularly useful for managing chronic disorders, and fit well into the larger paradigm of personalized medicine. They provide one way to operationalize a clinical decision support system. Statistics plays a key role in the construction of evidence-based dynamic treatment regimes – informing best study design as well as efficient estimation and valid inference. Due to the many novel methodological challenges it offers, this area has been growing in popularity among statisticians in recent years. In this article, we review the key developments in this exciting field of research. In particular, we discuss the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs, estimation techniques like Q-learning and marginal structural models, and several inference techniques designed to address the associated non-standard asymptotics. We reference software, whenever available. We also outline some important future directions. PMID:25401119

  3. Complications and Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... successfully cure SCD. Complications from hydroxyurea therapy and stem cell transplants are rare but can be serious or life-threatening. People with SCD and their families should ask their doctors about the benefits and risks of each. Read more about treatment ...

  4. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  7. Basic Water Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  9. Trichotillomania: Identification and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, K. Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder distinguished by recurrent hair pulling resulting in hair loss (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). This review of the literature provides a broad overview of the disorder so that counselors can better understand, describe, identify, and implement effective treatment for clients with trichotillomania.…

  10. Schizophrenia (maintenance treatment)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction One in a hundred people will develop schizophrenia; about 75% of people have relapses and continued disability, and a third fail to respond to standard treatment. Positive symptoms include auditory hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder. Negative symptoms (demotivation, self-neglect, and reduced emotion) have not been consistently improved by any treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Which interventions reduce relapse; and improve adherence rates? Which interventions are effective in people resistant to standard antipsychotic drugs? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 45 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: behavioural therapy, clozapine, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), compliance therapy, continuation of antipsychotic drugs (reduce relapse rates), first-generation antipsychotic drugs in treatment-resistant people, multiple-session family interventions, psychoeducational interventions, second-generation antipsychotic drugs in treatment-resistant people, and social-skills training. PMID:19445748

  11. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated. PMID:27155860

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  13. Treatment of aphasia.

    PubMed

    Albert, M L

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 1 million people have aphasia in the United States today, yet with properly targeted therapy in selected patients effective communication can be restored. Current approaches to treatment of aphasia include psycholinguistic theory-driven therapy, cognitive neurorehabilitation, computer-aided techniques, psychosocial management, and (still on an experimental basis) pharmacotherapy. PMID:9823824

  14. TREATMENT AND SOLIDS MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of high-rate treatment methods show a potential to handle WWF including: physical separation with and without chemical addition (e.g., enhanced settling, fine-mesh screening, vortex separation, dual-media high-rate filtration, dissolved air flotation, activated carbon, ...

  15. Language Treatment in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.; Garrison, Gary L.

    This is a collection of eight essays dealing with various aspects of language treatment in Egypt. The first essay attempts a tentative typology characterizing the role of the Arabic language as a unifying or divisive force within and among the countries in which it is spoken as a native language. This essay also makes some initial reflections on…

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  17. Microbiology of Waste Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unz, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. WETLANDS TREATMENT DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA sponsored a project to collect and catalog information from wastewater treatment wetlands into a computer database. PA has also written a user friendly, stand-alone, menu-driven computer program to allow anyone with DOS 3.3 or higher to access the information in the ...

  19. Endoscopic treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents will be reflected by the imminent increase in the number of obese patients who require more definitive methods of treatment. There is great interest in new, safe, simple, nonsurgical procedures for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of new endoscopic methods for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: An English-language literature search on endoscopic interventions, endoscopically placed devices and patient safety was performed in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: The literature search yielded the following weight loss methods: space-occupying devices (widely used), gastric capacity reduction, modifying gastric motor function and malabsorptive procedures. A commercially available intragastric balloon was the most commonly used device for weight loss. In specific subgroups of patients, it improved quality of life, decreased comorbidities and served as a bridge to surgery. More evidence regarding the potential benefits and safety of other commercially available intragastric balloons is needed to clarify whether they are superior to the most commonly used one. Moreover, early experiences with transoral gastroplasty, the duodenaljejunal bypass sleeve and an adjustable, totally implantable intragastric prosthesis, indicate that they may be viable options for obesity treatment. Other agents, such as botulinum toxin and a device known as the ‘butterfly’, are currently at the experimental stage. CONCLUSION: New endoscopic methods for weight loss may be valuable in the treatment of obesity; however, more clinical experience and technical improvements are necessary before implementing their widespread use. PMID:22059171

  20. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation therapy to be given in fewer treatments. Photon-beam radiation therapy : Photon-beam radiation therapy is a type of external ... with or without radiation therapy. Fast neutron or photon-beam radiation therapy . A clinical trial of radiation ...

  2. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to “pseudo-resistance” (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true “treatment resistance.” Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793

  3. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges.

    PubMed

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793

  4. Treatment of severe malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Warrell, D A

    1989-01-01

    In the treatment of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection antimalarial drugs should, ideally, be given by controlled rate intravenous infusion until the patient is able to swallow tablets. In cases where infection has been acquired in a chloroquine resistant area, and where it has broken through chloroquine prophylaxis or where the geographical origin or species are uncertain, quinine is the treatment of choice. When access to parenteral quinine is likely to be delayed, parenteral quinidine is an effective alternative. A loading dose of quinine is recommended in order to achieve therapeutic plasma concentrations as quickly as possible. In the case of chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum infection, chloroquine, which can be given safely by slow intravenous infusion, may be more rapidly effective and has fewer toxic effects than quinine. There is limited experience with parenteral administration of pyrimethamine sulphonamide combinations such as Fansidar, and resistance to these drugs has developed in South East Asia and elsewhere. Mefloquine and halofantrine cannot be given parenterally. Qinghaosu derivatives are not readily available and have not been adequately tested outside China. Supportive treatment includes the prevention or early detection and treatment of complications, strict attention to fluid balance, provision of adequate nursing for unconscious patients and avoidance of harmful ancillary treatments. Anaemia is inevitable and out of proportion to detectable parasitaemia. Hypotension and shock ('algid malaria') are often attributable to secondary gram-negative septicaemia requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and haemodynamic resuscitation. Many patients with severe falciparum malaria are hypovolaemic on admission to hospital and require cautious fluid replacement. Failure to rehydrate these patients may lead to circulatory collapse, lactic acidosis, renal failure and severe hyponatraemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2693726

  5. Treatment of Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Eric L.; Cheng, Ivan; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul; Holm, Lena W.; Côthé, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on surgical interventions for neck pain alone or with radicular pain in the absence of serious pathologic disease. Summary of Background Data There have been no comprehensive systematic literature or evidence-based reviews published on this topic. Methods We systematically searched Medline for literature published from 1980 to 2006 on percutaneous and open surgical interventions for neck pain. Publications on the topic were also solicited from experts in the field. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our Best Evidence Synthesis. Results Of the 31,878 articles screened, 1203 studies were relevant to the Neck Pain Task Force mandate and of these, 31 regarding treatment by surgery or injections were accepted as scientifically admissible. Radiofrequency neurotomy, cervical facet injections, cervical fusion and cervical arthroplasty for neck pain without radiculopathy are not supported by current evidence. We found there is support for short-term symptomatic improvement of radicular symptoms with epidural corticosteroids. It is not clear from the evidence that long-term out comes are improved with the surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy compared to non operative measures. However, relatively rapid and substantial symptomatic relief after surgical treatment seems to be reliably achieved. It is not evident that one open surgical technique is clearly superior to others for radiculopathy. Cervical foramenal or epidural injections are associated with relatively frequent minor adverse events (5%–20%); however, serious adverse events are very uncommon (<1%). After open surgical procedures on the cervical spine, potentially serious acute complications are seen in approximately 4% of patients. Conclusion Surgical treatment and limited

  6. [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Mezosi, Emese; Nemes, Orsolya

    2009-09-27

    According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas". The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis. The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs. The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease. The available dopamine agonists in Hungary are bromocriptine and quinagolide. In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients. Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas. In the last decades, significant improvement has been reached in surgical procedures, resulting in low mortality rates. Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment. The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly. The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production. A new, promising somatostatin analog, pasireotide is evaluated in clinical trials. The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy. The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors. PMID:19758960

  7. Nonsomatic treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Joel T; Kovacs, Maria

    2002-07-01

    There is solid evidence that active and goal-oriented cognitive-behavioral or relationship-focused therapies are generally superior to more generic therapies or to no treatment for clinically diagnosed and for undiagnosed but symptomatic youths. Between 50% to 87% of diagnosed youths who received a targeted treatment had recovered from their depressive episodes, in comparison to 21% to 75% of those who received some other generic therapy and 5% to 48% of wait-listed youths. The cognitive behavioral and relationship-oriented interventions that were tested tended to be even more successful in reducing depressive symptoms in school-based samples, possibly because the participants in the school-based studies may have been less disturbed than the clinically diagnosed cases. Although the targeted treatments generally yielded better results than the comparison conditions, the targeted interventions seem to be similarly successful in ameliorating depression. Determining which psychosocial therapy works best for a given depressed youngster remains problematic. As noted in recent reviews [30,46,47], little attention has been devoted to which interventions, or parts of an intervention, are likely to be effective with children with various characteristics. This issue acquires added importance because in some diagnosed samples half or more of the treated participants were still in a depressive episode at the end of the trial. Likewise, in intervention studies involving symptomatic, school-based youngsters, not all children improved, and gains were not uniform across domains of functioning (e.g., severity of depression, self-esteem, global functioning). Possibly, for some of the nonresponders, the participant's characteristics and relevant problems and the target interventions were mismatched. For example, a depressed youth with a long history of highly dysfunctional relationships may not respond optimally to a therapy focusing on negative cognitions; alternatively

  8. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  11. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  12. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Huovinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective drugs have in recent years been introduced for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer, it is still an incurable illness. Many patients live a fairly normal life with their illness for a long time, and some of them are able to continue working in spite of the therapies. Factors considered in tailoring the treatment include tumor subtype, extent of the disease, symptoms, previous treatments and the achieved treatment outcome, and adverse effects of the treatments. PMID:26245064

  13. Acute Heart Failure Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip D; Bellou, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Dyspnea is the predominant symptom for patients with acute heart failure and initial treatment is largely directed towards the alleviation of this. Contrary to conventional belief, not all patients present with fluid overload and the approach to management is rapidly evolving from a solitary focus on diuresis to one that more accurately reflects the complex interplay of underlying cardiac dysfunction and acute precipitant. Effective treatment thus requires an understanding of divergent patient profiles and an appreciation of various therapeutic options for targeted patient stabilization. The key principle within this paradigm is directed management that aims to diminish the work of breathing through situation appropriate ventillatory support, volume reduction and hemodynamic improvement. With such an approach, clinicians can more efficiently address respiratory discomfort while reducing the likelihood of avoidable harm. PMID:24223323

  14. Tacrine, and Alzheimer's treatments.

    PubMed

    Summers, William K

    2006-01-01

    The story of the development of tacrine began from its synthesis as an intravenous antiseptic in 1940 by Adrian Albert in Australia. In the 1970's William Summers began using tacrine in treating drug overdose coma and delirium. He felt it might have application in Alzheimer's based on work done in England by Peter Davies. In 1981, Summers et al. gave intravenous tacrine to Alzheimer's patients showed measurable improvement. Between 1981 and 1986, Summers worked with Art Kling and his group at UCLA to demonstrate usefulness of oral tacrine in treatment of Alzheimer's patients. The average length of tacrine use in 14 completing patients was 12.6 months and improvement was robust. This sparked controversy in the field. In 1993, after larger studies replicated the positive effect of tacrine, it was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:16914883

  15. Treatment of nasal hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Simic, R; Vlahovic, A; Subarevic, V

    2009-10-01

    Hemangiomas are the most common soft tissue tumors of infancy. Almost 60% of these tumors develop in the head and neck region. Nasal hemangiomas, distort human physiognomy and leave long lasting psychological sequelae. Conservative approach (intralesional corticosteroids, laser) may accelerate involution. Proponents of an early surgery suggest that aesthetic improvement during a critical period in child development can be achieved. Fourteen patients with nasal hemangioma were treated during 5-year period (2003-2007) with intralesional corticosteroids, lenticular excision, open rhinoplasty excision, and circular excision with "purse string suture". The first line of treatment for large nasal hemangiomas is intralesional corticosteroids. Excision is indicated for small hemangiomas, while subtotal excision is preferable for large nasal hemangiomas. Circular excision and "purse string suture" is appropriate for prominent hemangiomas with predominant deep component. In our opinion surgery with maximal care for nasal architecture is the treatment option for nasal hemangioma. PMID:19656579

  16. Enuresis: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Traisman, Edward S

    2015-04-01

    Enuresis is a common pediatric problem that creates a lot of stress for both the child and his/her family. Unfortunately, many of these patients do not seek medical attention for evaluation and treatment. It is important in the care of the child with enuresis to understand the definitions of the disorder, routinely ask about bowel and bladder habits, clarify the nature of the wetting (daytime, nighttime, or both) in the child, and perform a thorough history and physical examination. Laboratory studies are often minimal. Treatment (behavioral or medicinal) is dependent on the type of enuresis present, and patient compliance. Successful management of enuresis has benefits to both the child and family. PMID:25875977

  17. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Migraine preventive therapy, even in the absence of a headache, is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include disabling migraine attacks, the overuse of acute medications or failure of or contraindication to acute medications, troublesome side effects from medication, hemiplegic migraine, or very frequent headaches (more than 2 a week). The major medication groups for preventive treatment include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, b-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, neurotoxins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others. If preventive medication is indicated, the agent preferentially should be chosen from one of the first-line categories, based on the drug's side-effect profile and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions. PMID:16622394

  18. Migraine: prophylactic treatment.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rakesh; Sinh, Manish

    2010-04-01

    Prophylactic treatment constitutes an important aspect of migraine management and includes avoidance of trigger factors and life style advice followed by consideration of medications. The drugs of first choice are beta-blockers, flunarizine, topiramate, valproate and amitriptyline. Drugs of second choice with less efficacy and evidence are venlafaxine, gabapentin, naproxen, butterbur root, riboflavin and magnesium. Botulinum toxin type A has not yet been shown to be effective. The choice of prophylactic drugs would depend on efficacy, co-morbidity, side effects, availability and cost. Non-pharmacological treatments such as relaxation techniques, bio-feedback, cognitive behavioral therapy and acupuncture are supported by some evidence but require far more specialist time or technical devices. All the drugs used in migraine prophylaxis have been detected by serendipity. Drugs developed, in the future, on the basis of the current knowledge of pathophysiology will hopefully be more effective. PMID:21049704

  19. Preventive migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The pharmacologic treatment of migraine may be acute (abortive) or preventive (prophylactic), and patients with frequent severe headaches often require both approaches. Preventive therapy is used to try to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. The preventive medications with the best-documented efficacy are amitriptyline, divalproex, topiramate, and the beta-blockers. Choice is made based on a drug's proven efficacy, the physician's informed belief about medications not yet evaluated in controlled trials, the drug's adverse events, the patient's preferences and headache profile, and the presence or absence of coexisting disorders. Because comorbid medical and psychologic illnesses are prevalent in patients who have migraine, one must consider comorbidity when choosing preventive drugs. Drug therapy may be beneficial for both disorders; however, it is also a potential confounder of optimal treatment of either. PMID:19289224

  20. [Treatment of refractory ascites].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Albillos, Agustín

    2014-07-01

    Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation. PMID:25087715

  1. [Diabetic nephropathy: emerging treatments].

    PubMed

    Gueutin, Victor; Gauthier, Marion; Cazenave, Maud; Izzedine, Hassane

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The mainstay of treatment has been management of hyperglycaemia, blood pressure and proteinuria using hypoglycemic agents, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers. Since 2000, new therapeutic strategies began to emerge targeting the biochemical activity of glucose molecules on the renal tissue. Various substances have been studied with varying degrees of success, ranging from vitamin B to camel's milk. Silymarin reduces urinary excretion of albumin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and malondialdehyde in patients with diabetic nephropathy and may be considered as a novel addition to the anti-diabetic nephropathy armamentarium. Although some results are promising, studies on a larger scale are needed to validate the utility of these molecules in the treatment of the DN. PMID:24938412

  2. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  3. New treatment for ITP.

    PubMed

    Wood, D

    1995-12-01

    A new treatment for HIV-related idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) has been developed. The treatment, WinRho SDTM, is a form of the intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG. IVIG has been successful at reducing the ability of HIV antibody-fragment clusters to bind to platelets, thus preventing the body from destroying the platelets prematurely. WinRho SD was effective for HIV patients whether they were taking AZT or not. Minor side effects developed following four percent of the infusions. Anemia caused by hemolysis can also be a problem. Suggested dosing is set at 250 IU (50mg/kg bodyweight), and the infusions take about three to five minutes, as opposed to several hours for other IVIG forms. PMID:11363105

  4. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  5. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

  6. Treatment of primary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, W C

    1976-12-01

    Reports in the English language of the treatment of primary syphilis are reviewed. Except for benzathine penicillin, the efficacy of the currently recommended dosage schedules are documented only by Schroeter et al. Although these investigators reported generally acceptable failure rates, further study is necessary to determine: (1) if differences in efficacy exist among regimes; (2) if the current schedules are equally effective in both primary and secondary syphilis; and (3) if increased dosages reduce failure rates. PMID:1010777

  7. Treatment of diving emergencies.

    PubMed

    Moon, R E

    1999-04-01

    Recognition of condition attributable to the environmental changes experienced by divers will facilitate appropriate treatment. The diagnosis of these conditions rarely requires sophisticated imaging or electrophysiologic testing. Divers who have suspected DCI, in addition to general supportive measures, should be administered fluids and oxygen and transported to a recompression chamber. For diving-related conditions, on-line consultation is available from the Divers Alert Network, Durham, NC (919-684-8111). PMID:10331136

  8. Nanotechnology for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gmeiner, William H.; Ghosh, Supratim

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to increase the selectivity and potency of chemical, physical, and biological approaches for eliciting cancer cell death while minimizing collateral toxicity to nonmalignant cells. Materials on the nanoscale are increasingly being targeted to cancer cells with great specificity through both active and passive targeting. In this review, we summarize recent literature that has broken new ground in the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment with an emphasis on targeted drug delivery. PMID:26082884

  9. Treatment of Gambling Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Preclinical and clinical research implicate several neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of gambling disorder (GD). In particular, neurobiological research suggests alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic functioning. The relative efficacy of medications targeting these systems remains a topic of ongoing research, and there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication with an indication for GD. Considering co-occurring disorders may be particularly important when devising a treatment plan for GD: extant data suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may by the most effective form of current pharmacotherapy for GD, particularly for individuals with a co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD) or with a family history of alcoholism. In contrast, lithium or other mood stabilizers may be most effective for GD for patients presenting with a co-occurring bipolar-spectrum disorder (BSD). Further, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) may be efficacious in reducing GD symptoms for individuals also presenting with a (non-BSD) mood or anxiety disorder. Finally, elevated rates of GD (and other Impulse Control Disorders; ICDs) have been noted among individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and clinicians should assess for vulnerability to GD when considering treatment options for PD. Reducing levodopa or dopamine agonist (DA) dosages may partially reduce GD symptoms among patients with co-occurring PD. For GD patients not willing to consider drug treatment, n-acetyl cysteine or behavioral therapies may be effective. Ongoing research into the effectiveness of combined behavioral and pharmacotherapies is being conducted; thus combined treatments should also be considered. PMID:24904757

  10. Immunodeficiency disorders and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetskaya, O. V.

    1994-08-01

    Chronic diseases result from defects in the immune system. Consideration is being given to the recovery of an immunoreaction in patients treated with quantum medicine methods by Prof. S.P. Sit'ko. The methods are evaluated as to outlook. Method of non-medicamentous non-invasive microwave resonance therapy (MRT) worked out by Prof. S.P. Sit'ko on the basis of quantum medicine has new possibilities for treatment and prophylaxis of different diseases.

  11. Wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Casaday, J E

    1992-01-01

    Textile rental operators face tough wastewater cleanup challenges in many communities nationwide. Depending on the local POTW regulations and the textile rental company's customer base, wastewater pretreatment isn't always necessary. However, many plants must pretreat or risk being put out of business. In this article, eight manufacturers of wastewater treatment equipment explain their systems to help industry operators comply with POTW limits. PMID:10116442

  12. Keratoplasty postoperative treatment update.

    PubMed

    Shimmura-Tomita, Machiko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Omoto, Masahiro; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy is the main postoperative treatment for keratoplasty, but there are considerable differences in protocols for the use of steroids and other immunosuppressants. Therefore, we conducted 2 prospective randomized clinical trials and 1 prospective nonrandomized clinical trial on keratoplasty postoperative treatment. One study evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term topical corticosteroids after a penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Patients who underwent keratoplasty and maintained graft clarity for >1 year were randomly assigned to either a steroid or a no-steroid group. At the 12-month follow-up, the no-steroid group developed significantly more endothelial rejection than did the steroid group. A second study elucidated the effectiveness and safety of systemic cyclosporine in high-risk corneal transplantation. The patients were assigned to a systemic cyclosporine or control group. At a mean follow-up of 42.7 months, no difference was observed in the endothelial rejection rates and graft clarity loss between the 2 groups. A third study elucidated the effectiveness and the safety of systemic tacrolimus in high-risk corneal transplantation. Of 11 consecutive eyes decompensated despite systemic cyclosporine treatment, there was no irreversible rejection in eyes treated with tacrolimus, which was significantly better than in previous penetrating keratoplasty with systemic cyclosporine treatment. Prognosis after keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus is relatively good, but special attention is required for patients with atopic dermatitis. Postkeratoplasty atopic sclerokeratitis (PKAS) is a severe form of sclerokeratitis after keratoplasty in atopic patients. Our retrospective study showed that 35 eyes of 29 patients from a total of 247 keratoconus eyes undergoing keratoplasty were associated with atopic dermatitis, of which 6 eyes of 5 patients developed PKAS. Eyes with PKAS had a significantly higher incidence of atopic blepharitis

  13. Fetal medicine and treatment.

    PubMed

    Westgren, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Fetal medicine covers a broad spectrum of conditions that can be diagnosed before birth. Different disorders will require different treatment strategies and there is often an important ontogenetic aspect on how and when treatment can be implemented. Due to the limited availability there is a general lack of knowledge on how pharmacotherapy can be provided in the most efficient way. Until recently most knowledge about how different drugs are transferred and metabolized in the human fetus is based on very limited observational studies on concentrations of drugs in fetal blood and other fetal compartments. It might be that the rapid development of other non-invasive methods for fetal diagnostics such as isolation of fetal DNA and RNA in maternal serum, NMR imaging and other techniques could in the future be explored in fetal pharmacotherapy. Introduction of new treatment strategies are often based on extrapolation from experience in neonates and adults. However some fetal conditions are very specific for this time period in life. This especially entails disturbances in development as malformations, early growth restriction and several congenital disorders. Here it might be required to introduce new treatment strategies without any previous experience in humans. Example of this ethical dilemma is gene therapy for lung growth in severe cases of diaphragmatic hernia and early growth restriction. The risk-benefit issues need to be discussed in all these alternatives. However, it is likely that the concept of the human fetus as a potential patient is still in its infancy and with an improved understanding about fetal patho-physiology there will be a continued need for better knowledge of pharmacotherapy during this crucial time period in life. PMID:21882116

  14. Tinnitus activities treatment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard S; Gogel, Stephanie A; Gehringer, Anne K

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus Activities Treatment includes counseling of the whole person, and considers individual differences and needs. We consider four areas: thoughts and emotions, hearing and communication, sleep, and concentration. We typically use Partial Masking Sound Therapy, with a noise or music set to the lowest level that provides relief. A picture-based approach facilitates engagement of the patient, and provides thorough and structured counseling. We engage the patient by including homework and activities to demonstrate understanding and facilitate progress. PMID:17956807

  15. Treatment of Gambling Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yip, Sarah W; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical research implicate several neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of gambling disorder (GD). In particular, neurobiological research suggests alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic functioning. The relative efficacy of medications targeting these systems remains a topic of ongoing research, and there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication with an indication for GD. Considering co-occurring disorders may be particularly important when devising a treatment plan for GD: extant data suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may by the most effective form of current pharmacotherapy for GD, particularly for individuals with a co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD) or with a family history of alcoholism. In contrast, lithium or other mood stabilizers may be most effective for GD for patients presenting with a co-occurring bipolar-spectrum disorder (BSD). Further, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) may be efficacious in reducing GD symptoms for individuals also presenting with a (non-BSD) mood or anxiety disorder. Finally, elevated rates of GD (and other Impulse Control Disorders; ICDs) have been noted among individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD), and clinicians should assess for vulnerability to GD when considering treatment options for PD. Reducing levodopa or dopamine agonist (DA) dosages may partially reduce GD symptoms among patients with co-occurring PD. For GD patients not willing to consider drug treatment, n-acetyl cysteine or behavioral therapies may be effective. Ongoing research into the effectiveness of combined behavioral and pharmacotherapies is being conducted; thus combined treatments should also be considered. PMID:24904757

  16. [Treatment of severe scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Helenius, Ilkka; Pajulo, Olli

    2015-01-01

    Untreated severe scoliosis results in a serious malposition of the back, restrictive lung disease and increases mortality compared with the normal population. Idiopathic scoliosis rarely reaches a severe degree. In the treatment of severe scoliosis, preoperative head traction of several weeks' duration has proven a safe and effective method of correcting the malposition, and will also make scoliosis surgery technically easier. Most cases of severe scoliosis can be treated with anterior pedicle screw instrumentation, and vertebrectomy is only seldom required. PMID:26638663

  17. [Treatment of gout].

    PubMed

    Dubost, J-J; Mathieu, S; Soubrier, M

    2011-12-01

    In France, colchicine remains the standard treatment for the acute flare of gout. The lowest dose currently used decreases digestive toxicity. Doses of colchicine should be adapted to renal function and age, and possible drug interactions should be considered. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are an alternative to colchicine, but their use is frequently limited by comorbidity. When these treatments are contraindicated, corticosteroid injections can be performed after excluding septic arthritis. Systemic corticosteroids could be used in severe polyarticular flares. Anti-IL1 should provide a therapeutic alternative for severe cortico dependant gout with tophus. To prevent acute flares and reduce tophus volume, uric acid serum level should be reduced and maintained below 60mg/L (360μmol/L). To achieve this objective, it is often necessary to increase the daily dose of allopurinol above 300mgs, but the need to adapt the dose to renal function is a frequent cause of therapeutic failure. In the absence of renal stone or renal colic and hyperuraturia, uricosuric drugs are the second-line treatment. Probenecid is effective when creatinine clearance is superior to 50mL/min Benzbromarone, which was withdrawn due to hepatotoxicity, can be obtained on an individualized patient basis in the case of failure of allopurinol and probenecid. Febuxostat, which was recently approved, is a therapeutic alternative. Diuretics should be discontinued if possible. Use of fenofibrate should be discussed in the presence of dyslipidemia and losartan in patient with high blood pressure. Uricolytic drugs (pegloticase), which are currently being investigated, may be useful for the treatment of serious gout with tophus, especially in the presence of renal failure. Education of patient, identification and correction of cardiovascular risk factors should not be forgotten. PMID:21382654

  18. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hartman-Adams, Holly; Banvard, Christine; Juckett, Gregory

    2014-08-15

    Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas. Both types usually resolve within two to three weeks without scarring, and complications are rare, with the most serious being poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Treatment includes topical antibiotics such as mupirocin, retapamulin, and fusidic acid. Oral antibiotic therapy can be used for impetigo with large bullae or when topical therapy is impractical. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides are options, but penicillin is not. Natural therapies such as tea tree oil; olive, garlic, and coconut oils; and Manuka honey have been anecdotally successful, but lack sufficient evidence to recommend or dismiss them as treatment options. Treatments under development include minocycline foam and Ozenoxacin, a topical quinolone. Topical disinfectants are inferior to antibiotics and should not be used. Empiric treatment considerations have changed with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, macrolide-resistant streptococcus, and mupirocin-resistant streptococcus all documented. Fusidic acid, mupirocin, and retapamulin cover methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and streptococcal infections. Clindamycin proves helpful in suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole covers methicillin-resistant S

  19. Psoriasis treatment: traditional therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, M; Ting, P; Koo, J

    2005-01-01

    Even before the recent development of biological agents, a long list of effective treatments has been available for patients with psoriasis. Topical therapies such as corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, and retinoids are used for localised disease. Phototherapy including broadband ultraviolet B (UVB), narrowband UVB, PUVA, and climatotherapy are effective for more extensive disease. Systemic therapies such as methotrexate, retinoids, and ciclosporin are effective for patients with refractory or extensive cutaneous disease. PMID:15708945

  20. Pharmacologic treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pinals, R S

    1992-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for osteoarthritis (OA) is aimed at relief of pain and functional disability. Although an inflammatory component may be found in some cases, there is little evidence that anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used in the treatment of OA provide more relief than simple analgesics. A growing body of knowledge about the pathophysiology of OA now offers opportunities to develop interventions aimed at retarding the progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. This is a function of an imbalance between cartilage matrix synthesis and breakdown. New and experimental treatments include oral, parenteral, and intra-articular agents, some of which are chemicals and others biological products. Their modes of action have generally not been established in humans, but may be inferred from in vitro culture systems and animal models. These mechanisms include inhibition of synovial cell-derived cytokines and chondrocyte-derived degradative enzymes, inactivation of superoxide free radicals, stimulation of matrix synthesis, and enhancement of synovial fluid lubrication. Many of these treatments have been shown to provide short- or long-term symptomatic improvement in clinical trials. Protection of cartilage or promotion of repair has been demonstrated in animal studies, but not convincingly in human OA studies. PMID:1386287

  1. Judging orthodontic treatment complexity

    PubMed Central

    Clijmans, Maïté; Medhat, Aly; Geest, An De; van Gastel, Johannes; Kellens, Annelies; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relations between anticipated overall treatment complexity (AOTC) of an orthodontic case and malocclusion characteristics. Methods: Two groups of orthodontists (groups A and B) were asked to define perceived treatment complexity (PTC) of orthodontic cases based on 16 characteristics of malocclusion by means of a questionnaire. Each question was answered on a six-point ordinal scale, with one "not applicable" option (score 0). Group A was also asked to give the AOTC of the specific case on a five-point ordinal scale. The index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) score of the specific cases as well as the malocclusion characteristics were assessed by one author. Results: There is a significant relationship between IOTN and AOTC (p< 0.0001), 22% of variability is explained by differences in IOTN. Adding objective characteristics of malocclusion to explain AOTC does not significantly increase the explained variability (p = 0.086). In judging interobserver agreement, a weighted Kappa of 0.60 for group A and 0.56 for group B was found. The weighted Kappa for agreement in AOTC equals 0.06. Conclusion: The relation between IOTN and AOTC was found to be significant. Moderate agreement on PTC among observers and a low level agreement regarding AOTC were found in the present study. PMID:27007763

  2. Marijuana neurobiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for marijuana withdrawal. Medicolegal and ethical issues concerning marijuana medical use were also discussed. Concise summaries of these presentations are incorporated in this article, which is meant to be an updated review of the state of the science. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence and the role of the CNS cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions. Behavioral therapies are efficacious for facilitating abstinence from marijuana. Nefazadone, Marinol, and buspirone are showing early positive signals for efficacy in ameliorating marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Effective psychotherapeutic approaches are available and promising medications studies need to be confirmed in outpatient trials. The next few years looking promising for translational research efforts to make treatment widely accessible to patients with marijuana dependence. PMID:19042204

  3. Coal pile leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  4. Treatment of Giardiasis

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Timothy B.; Hill, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is both the most common intestinal parasite in the United States and a frequent cause of diarrheal illness throughout the world. In spite of its recognition as an important human pathogen, there have been relatively few agents used in therapy. This paper discusses each class of drugs used in treatment, along with their mechanism of action, in vitro and clinical efficacy, and side effects and contraindications. Recommendations are made for the preferred treatment in different clinical situations. The greatest clinical experience is with the nitroimidazole drugs, i.e., metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole, which are highly effective. A 5- to 7-day course of metronidazole can be expected to cure over 90% of individuals, and a single dose of tinidazole or ornidazole will cure a similar number. Quinacrine, which is no longer produced in the United States, has excellent efficacy but may be poorly tolerated, especially in children. Furazolidone is an effective alternative but must be administered four times a day for 7 to 10 days. Paromomycin may be used during early pregnancy, because it is not systematically absorbed, but it is not always effective. Patients who have resistant infection can usually be cured by a prolonged course of treatment with a combination of a nitroimidazole with quinacrine. PMID:11148005

  5. Treatment of complicated grief

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Rita; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotoučová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT) of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide. PMID:22893810

  6. Treatment of chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Lipozencić, Jasna; Marinović, Branka

    2009-01-01

    Urticaria is a disorder characterized by rapid onset of localized swelling of the skin or mucosa, called wheals or urtica. According to frequency and duration, urticaria can be divided into acute and chronic type. Chronic urticaria is any type of urticaria occurring every day or twice per week, lasting longer than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria is a common disorder and estimated prevalence is 1% of the population. Also, it is not rare in childhood. The pathogenesis of chronic urticaria has not yet been completely understood. Chronic urticaria is a heterogeneous group of disorders, and according to the etiology and cause, several groups of chronic urticaria are distinguished, i.e. autoimmune, pseudoallergic, infection-related, physical urticaria, vasculitis urticaria and idiopathic urticaria. Treatment and management of chronic urticaria can be non-pharmacological and pharmacological, and sometimes it is not possible to control the disease with antihistamines only, which are considered to be the mainstay of treatment. In severe cases of chronic urticaria, especially if autoimmunity has been proven, several authors describe different modules of immunomodulation: cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate-mofetil, omalizumab, plasmapheresis, systemic corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin therapy. This article primarily addresses the treatment of chronic idiopathic and autoimmune urticaria. PMID:20021986

  7. Surface treatments by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Benzerga, R.; Basillais, Armelle; Georges, Cecile; Fariaut, Francois; Semmar, Nadjib; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal

    2003-07-01

    Laser treatments of various metals are studying depending on the laser wavelength, pulse time duration and shape, and fluence (laser/metal interaction regime). Low fluence excimer UV laser melting process of gold layer is shown to improve the corrosion resistance of multilayer (Au/Ni/Cu alloy) electrical contacts. For this application the homogenity of the laser beam as well as the initial Cu substrate roughness are found to be limiting parameters of the process. Carburization of Al alloy, performed in C3H6 atmosphere with a KrF laser induces the incorporation of carbon atoms over about 4 μm depth. The crystalline Al4C3 synthesized at the surface leads to a strengthening of the light Al alloy, which is of great interest for application in car industry. The study shows that diffusion of C atom in the target is possible because of a plasma presence on the surface which supports the molten bath life time and induces dissociation of the ambient gas. In the last example of laser metal surface treatment presented in that paper, a commonly used steel is treated in air with different lasers at a fluence above the plasma formation threshold. It is seen that the machining oils covering the surface before the treatment can be efficiently removed and that new compounds (nitride, carbide and oxides) are formed at the surface.

  8. Pharmacological treatment of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Hain, Timothy C; Uddin, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    This review discusses the physiology and pharmacological treatment of vertigo and related disorders. Classes of medications useful in the treatment of vertigo include anticholinergics, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, calcium channel antagonists and dopamine receptor antagonists. These medications often have multiple actions. They may modify the intensity of symptoms (e.g. vestibular suppressants) or they may affect the underlying disease process (e.g. calcium channel antagonists in the case of vestibular migraine). Most of these agents, particularly those that are sedating, also have a potential to modulate the rate of compensation for vestibular damage. This consideration has become more relevant in recent years, as vestibular rehabilitation physical therapy is now often recommended in an attempt to promote compensation. Accordingly, therapy of vertigo is optimised when the prescriber has detailed knowledge of the pharmacology of medications being administered as well as the precise actions being sought. There are four broad causes of vertigo, for which specific regimens of drug therapy can be tailored. Otological vertigo includes disorders of the inner ear such as Ménière's disease, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and bilateral vestibular paresis. In both Ménière's disease and vestibular neuritis, vestibular suppressants such as anticholinergics and benzodiazepines are used. In Ménière's disease, salt restriction and diuretics are used in an attempt to prevent flare-ups. In vestibular neuritis, only brief use of vestibular suppressants is now recommended. Drug treatments are not presently recommended for BPPV and bilateral vestibular paresis, but physical therapy treatment can be very useful in both. Central vertigo includes entities such as vertigo associated with migraine and certain strokes. Prophylactic agents (L-channel calcium channel antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, beta-blockers) are the mainstay of treatment

  9. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to control microbial periodontal infection by removing bacterial biofilm, calculus, and toxins from periodontally involved root surfaces. A review of the scientific literature indicates that mechanical nonsurgical periodontal treatment predictably reduces the levels of inflammation and probing pocket depths, increases the clinical attachment level and results in an apical shift of the gingival margin. Another parameter to be considered, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence, is the reduction in the degree of tooth mobility, as clinically experienced. It is important to point out that nonsurgical periodontal treatment presents limitations such as the long-term maintainability of deep periodontal pockets, the risk of disease recurrence, and the skill of the operator. A high number of posttreatment residual pockets exhibiting bleeding on probing and > 5 mm deep are related to lower clinical stability. The successful treatment of plaque-induced periodontitis will restore periodontal health, but with reduced periodontium. In such cases, anatomical damage from previous periodontal disease will persist and inverse architecture of soft tissue may impair home plaque removal. The clinician can select one of the following therapeutic options according to the individual patient's needs: - Quadrant/sextant wise instrumentation (conventional staged debridement, CSD). - Instrumentation of all pockets within a 24-hour period with (full mouth disinfection [FMD]) or without (full mouth scaling and root planing [FMSRP]) local antiseptics. Both procedures can be associated with systemic antimicrobials. -CSD or FMD in combination with laser or photodynamic therapy. Patients with aggressive periodontitis constitute a challenge to the clinician. To date there are no established protocols for controlling the disease. However, data from the literature on the application of the FMD protocol combined with amoxicillin

  10. 7 CFR 305.10 - Treatment schedules for combination treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... followed. (2) Normal atmospheric pressure must be used for the methyl bromide portion of the treatment. (3... treatment in § 305.15 must be followed. (2) Use normal atmospheric pressure for the methyl bromide...

  11. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26770688

  12. Treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Onysko, Mary K; Stob, Christian M; Hazlewood, Kathleen A

    2011-06-15

    Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting nearly one-half [corrected] of Americans older than 85 years. It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles, and depletion of acetylcholine are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are first-line medications for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, and are associated with mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living; however, the clinical relevance of these effects is unclear. The most common adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, and cardiac arrhythmias. Short-term use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine can modestly improve measures of cognition, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease. Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Memantine is generally well tolerated, but whether its benefits produce clinically meaningful improvement is controversial. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can slow the progression of Alzheimer disease, no pharmacologic agents can reverse the progression. Atypical antipsychotics can improve some behavioral symptoms, but have been associated with increased mortality rates in older patients with dementia. There is conflicting evidence about the benefit of selegiline, testosterone, and ginkgo for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. There is no evidence supporting the beneficial effects of vitamin E, estrogen, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. PMID:21671540

  13. [Treatment of ventricular tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Iturralde Torres, P

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation and management of postinfarct ventricular tachycardia has changed dramatically in the past two decades. The introduction of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator has played a major role in this change, alternating both, the purpose of the patients evaluation and treatment options. Episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia can occur in a variety of clinical settings; the most common of which is the patient who has suffered a myocardial infarction. In this paper, I explore the causes and effects of some of these changes and review current strategies, specially the radiofrequency catheter ablation, for the management of the patient with postinfarct ventricular tachycardia. PMID:11565352

  14. Heat treatment furnace

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  15. Alopecia: evaluation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Katherine A; Tosti, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Hair loss is a very common complaint. Patients may describe increased shedding and diffuse or localized alopecia. The differential diagnosis of hair loss includes a number of disorders causing cicatricial or noncicatricial alopecias. This paper describes the clinical approaches and diagnostic tests that are useful in the evaluation of patients presenting with alopecia. It also reviews treatments for noncicatricial alopecias, including androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and telogen effluvium, as well as cicatricial alopecias, including lichen planopilaris, its clinical variant frontal fibrosing alopecia, and discoid lupus erythematosus. PMID:21833160

  16. Carbon wastewater treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

  17. Treatment of acne scarring.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Dover, J S

    Acne scarring is common but surprisingly difficult to treat. Scars can involve textural change in the superficial and deep dermis, and can also be associated with erythema, and less often, pigmentary change. In general, treatment of acne scarring is a multistep procedure. First, examination of the patient is necessary to classify the subtypes of scarring that are present. Then, the patient's primary concerns are elicited, and the patient is offered a menu of procedures that may address the various components of the scarring process. It is important to emphasize to the patient that acne scarring can be improved but never entirely reversed. PMID:17180246

  18. Treatment options--commentary.

    PubMed

    Arceci, R J

    1994-09-01

    Although effective treatments are available for many children with LCH, there are many others for whom no definitive therapy yet exists. These patients include those with 1) multisystem disease and associated organ dysfunction, 2) chronic, relapsing disease, 3) new onset pituitary involvement associated with diabetes insipidus and 4) long-term complications such as pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis or CNS involvement. This introductory paper discusses these clinical problem areas and then reviews several new therapeutic approaches including novel chemotherapeutic agents, immunosuppressive strategies, bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. PMID:8075010

  19. Hand Therapy Treatment.

    PubMed

    Stralka, Susan W

    2016-02-01

    Clinical pain is multifactorial. It is not simply the consequences of a "switching on" of the pain system in the periphery, but also excitability of central nociceptive areas. For pain management to be successful in treating the upper extremity both the peripheral and central symptoms must be targeted. The patient education process must ensure that patients understand their symptoms and treatment program. This article discusses recent advancements in the neuroscience of pain that impact evolving strategies to identify and treat the pain mechanisms. PMID:26611390

  20. [Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: curative treatment].

    PubMed

    Chiquet, C; Rouberol, F

    2014-10-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which causes contractile fibrocellular membranes that may prevent retinal reattachment, remains one of the most severe complications of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD), with an incidence of 5-11%, and one of the most frequent causes of surgical failure (50-75%). Its severity is due to the complexity of the surgery required to treat patients, and to its uncertain anatomic and functional prognosis. Curative treatment of PVR includes vitrectomy, sometimes associated with phacoemulsification or scleral buckling; systematic peeling of epiretinal membranes, occasionally retinectomy; and systematic retinopexy by endolaser photocoagulation. The current preferred internal tamponade is silicone oil. Silicone oils of various densities are undergoing comparative studies. PMID:24997865

  1. Thermomechanical treatment of alloys

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John F.; Brager, Howard R.; Paxton, Michael M.

    1983-01-01

    An article of an alloy of AISI 316 stainless steel is reduced in size to predetermined dimensions by cold working in repeated steps. Before the last reduction step the article is annealed by heating within a temperature range, specifically between 1010.degree. C. and 1038.degree. C. for a time interval between 90 and 60 seconds depending on the actual temperature. By this treatment the swelling under neutron bombardment by epithermal neutrons is reduced while substantial recrystallization does not occur in actual use for a time interval of at least of the order of 5000 hours.

  2. Syphilis management and treatment.

    PubMed

    van Voorst Vader, P C

    1998-10-01

    Syphilis poses a serious health problem in many developing countries and in some areas of North America and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. This article initially addresses the state of the art regarding the interaction between syphilis and HIV infection and its consequences for management and treatment. Further attention is given to laboratory diagnosis of syphilis and false-positive and false-negative serologic reactions. The diagnosis and management of neurosyphilis, ocular, cardiovascular, and congenital syphilis are addressed, as well as management of syphilis patients allergic to penicillin and the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Finally, the role of partner(s) and contact tracing is discussed. PMID:9891669

  3. PILOT-SCALE ANAEROBIC FILTER TREATMENT OF HEAT TREATMENT LIQUOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the application of the anaerobic filter in the treatment of liquor waste resulting from heat treatment of raw sludge in municipal sewage treatment plants. The liquor which contains high concentrations of soluble wastes is often ret...

  4. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  5. Novel operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. PMID:19494685

  6. Treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Décousus, Hervé; Mismetti, Patrick; Couturaud, Francis; Ageno, Walter; Bauersachs, Rupert

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of pulmonary embolism is going to be deeply modified by the development of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs). There are currently three anti-Xa factors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) and one anti-IIa factor (dabigatran) labeled by the FDA and the EMA. All these drugs are direct anticoagulant, orally effective, without the need for adaptation to hemostasis test. As kidney excretion is involved for all of them, they are contra-indicated in patients with severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min according to Cockcroft & Gault formula). All the anti-Xa factor drugs are metabolized by liver cytochromes and then contra-indicated in case of liver insufficiency. Of note, the four DOACS have been evaluated in non-inferiority trials, including one open-label trial (the EINSTEIN program with the rivaroxaban). Moreover, two of them (rivaroxaban and apixaban) were evaluated in a single drug approach (provided initial increased doses: 15 mg bid during 21 days for rivaroxaban and 10 mg bid during 7 days for apixaban) whereas the two others (edoxaban and dabigatran) were evaluated after at least 5 days of parenteral heparin. They were found to be non-inferior to the conventional treatment, but also seem to be associated with a decreased risk of major bleeding, in a quite young and without significant comorbidities population. The risk/benefit ratio of DOACs in specific subgroups deserves prospective validations. PMID:26547678

  7. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  8. [Treatment of rosacea].

    PubMed

    Parodi, A; Drago, F; Paolino, S; Cozzani, E; Gallo, R

    2011-09-01

    A range of treatment options are available in rosacea, which include several topical (mainly metronidazole, azelaic acid, other antibiotics, sulfur, retinoids) and oral drugs (mainly tetracyclines, metronidazole, macrolides). In some cases, the first choice is a systemic therapy because patients may have sensitive skin and topical medications can be irritant. Isotretinoin can be used in resistant cases of rosacea. Unfortunately, the majority of studies on rosacea treatments are at high or unclear risk of bias. A recent Cochrane review found that only topical metronidazole, azelaic acid, and oral doxycycline (40 mg) had some evidence to support their effectiveness in moderate to severe rosacea and concluded that further well-designed, adequately-powered randomised controlled trials are required. In our practice, we evaluate our patients for the presence of two possible triggers, Helicobacter pylori infection and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. When they are present we use adapted antibiotic protocols. If not, we use oral metronidazole or oral tetracycline to treat papulopustolar rosacea. We also look for Demodex folliculorum infestation. When Demodex concentration is higher than 5/cm(2) we use topical crotamiton 10% or metronidazole. PMID:21907876

  9. The treatment of NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Trappoliere, M; Tuccillo, C; Federico, A; Di Leva, A; Niosi, M; D'Alessio, C; Capasso, R; Coppola, F; Dauria, M; Loguercio, C

    2005-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming an increasing cause of chronic liver damage. The decision of start a medical treatment is based on the documented risk of progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer, when steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs. The therapy of this syndrome requires, as obviously, some considerations on the natural history of the condition, on the efficacy and safety of various therapeutic options, as well as on the costs. Treatment of patients with NAFLD has typically been focused on the management of associated conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipemia. Weight loss improves insulin sensitivity, and NASH may resolve with weight reduction. Insulin resistance seems to be the common denominator in many cases of NAFLD. Two classes of drugs have been shown to correct insulin resistance: biguanides (e.g., metformin) and thiazolidinediones (e.g., rosiglitazone and pioglitazone). The last two decades have witnessed a considerable progress in the understanding of the mechanisms respon-sible for the fibrogenic progression of chronic liver diseases. Several drugs believed to be hepatoprotective or antifibrotic agent as UDCA, betaine, vitamin E, lecithin, beta-carotene and selenium have been used in patients with NASH. Silybin is the main component of silymarin that is absorbed when linked whith a phytosome. This substance reduces in rats the lipid-peroxidation and the activaction of hepatic stellate cells. In humans, some non controlled data show that silybin is able to reduce insulin resistance, liver steatosis and plasma markers of liver fibrosis. PMID:16231594

  10. Carvedilol in hypertension treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stafylas, Panagiotis C; Sarafidis, Pantelis A

    2008-01-01

    Although β-blockers have been previously shown to effectively reduce blood pressure (BP) and have been used for hypertension treatment for over 40 years, their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients remains controversial and its use in uncomplicated hypertension is currently under debate. However, data on the above field derive mainly from studies which were conducted with older agents, such as atenolol and metoprolol, while considerable pharamacokinetic and pharmacodynamic heterogeneity is present within the class of β-blockers. Carvedilol, a vasodilating non-cardioselective β-blocker, is a compound that seems to give the opportunity to the clinician to use a cardioprotective agent without the concerning hemodynamic and metabolic actions of traditional β-blocker therapy. In contrast with conventional β-blockers, carvedilol maintains cardiac output, has a less extended effect on heart rate and reduces BP by decreasing vascular resistance. Further, several studies has shown that carvedilol has a beneficial or at least neutral effect on metabolic parameters, such as glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that they could be used in subjects with the metabolic syndrome or diabetes without negative consequences. This article summarizes the distinct pharmacologic, hemodynamic, and metabolic properties of carvedilol in relation to conventional β-blockers, attempting to examine the potential use of this agent for hypertension treatment. PMID:18629377

  11. The treatment of hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, Micaela; Malara, Natalia; Muscoli, Saverio; Mollace, Vincenzo

    2016-06-15

    Hyperuricemia has long been established as the major etiologic factor in gout. Alongside with an inflammatory state triggered by urate crystal deposition in the joints, hyperuricemia displayed additional pathophysiological consequences leading to tissue inflammation mainly in the vascular wall. Thus, therapeutic strategies used to treat hyperuricemia in the past decades have often been focused on limiting acute episodes. Recently, evidence has been accumulated suggesting that chronic urate deposition requires a correct treatment not limited to acute episodes based on the modulation of the activity of key enzymes involved in metabolism and excretion of urate including xanthine oxidoreductase (XO) and URAT1. The present review article will try to summarize the most recent evidences on the efficacy of XO inhibitors and uricosuric compounds in lowering uric acid levels in both the bloodstream and peripheral tissues. In particular, we will focus on the effect of novel XO inhibitors in counteracting uric acid overproduction. On the other hand, the effect of lowering uric acid levels via XO inhibition will be correlated with attenuation oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction thereby contributing to the pathophysiology of diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and chronic heart failure. Hence, scavenging and prevention of the XO generated oxygen radical accumulation emerge as an intriguing novel treatment option to counteract uric acid-induced tissue damages. PMID:26320372

  12. [Laser treatment of warts].

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, H M; Hammes, S

    2008-02-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) lead to common warts in 5% of the population and genital warts in 1% of sexually-active individuals. Although about 50% of HPV infections regress spontaneously, the course is uncertain. Expectant waiting often leads to progression and dissemination. Plantar warts may cause pain on walking, while palmar and genital warts may impair social contacts. There are many treatments for warts, including a variety of laser systems. The CO(2) laser is the best ablative approach, producing cure rates of up to 75% for therapy-resistant common warts in cohort and case-control studies. Side effects such as bleeding, pain and reduced function over weeks must be weighed against the likelihood of success. Considering non-ablative approaches, pulsed dye lasers can be used for a selective, non-bloody destruction of extragenital and genital warts and may become the treatment of choice. In prospective randomized studies, they produced cure rates of up to 82% for therapy-resistant warts with few side effects. PMID:18214400

  13. Sludge treatment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  14. Treatment of Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, Roger M

    2014-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood. The tics can be disabling and commonly associated behavioral comorbities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), can also cause problems in daily functioning. The underlying etiology and neurobiology of TS remain unknown although genetic factors appear to be important, cortical control of basal ganglia motor function appears to be disturbed and neurochemical abnormalities, particularly involving dopamine neurotransmission, are likely present. The treatment of TS involves appropriate education and support. Tics can be treated with habit reversal cognitive behavioral therapy, medications (most commonly alpha agonists and antipsychotics), local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin and some severe, refractory cases have responded to deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). It is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function. OCD can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and atypical antipsychotics. DBS has become a treatment option for patients with disabling OCD despite other therapies. ADHD is treated with appropriate classroom accommodations, behavioral therapy, alpha agonists, atomoxetine or methylphenidate-containing stimulant drugs. PMID:24043501

  15. [Bronchoscopic treatment of emphysema].

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2012-04-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques for the management of emphysema have evolved from the success of surgical treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) involves the removal of 20% to 30% of each lung and targets the most emphysematous segments. Patients with heterogeneous upper lobe emphysema and a low baseline exercise capacity have been identified as a subgroup within COPD in whom mortality benefits can even be achieved, along with improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life. Increased short-term mortality of approximately 5% and postoperative morbidity are the main limitations of LVRS. The extremely restrictive selection criteria for LVRS coupled with the relatively high mortality/morbidity have been the impetus for developing less invasive endoscopic modalities. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) researchers have pursued various approaches using a range of modalities, such as blockers, stents, valves, sealants, and implants. BLVR appears to be safer than LVRS in terms of mortality and morbidity. This safety profile presents an attractive alternative for patients with COPD who are fragile physiologically because of the severity of their lung disease and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. The current report aims to describe the various minimally invasive modalities available for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:22616152

  16. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  17. COPD Discovery Might Improve Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158852.html COPD Discovery Might Improve Treatment Study may help pinpoint ... will progress, a discovery they believe could improve COPD treatment. Their research might help doctors determine which ...

  18. PAPERMILL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MICROSTRAINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An original treatment system was designed, constructed, and operated for removal of suspended solids, turbidity, color, and BOD from the wastewaters of two paper mills which produce technical and other fine papers. The treatment process involves coagulation and flocculation follo...

  19. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity includes efforts to identify individual toxicity risks and prevention strategies support the National Cancer Insitute's goal of reducing the burden of cancer diagnoses and treatment outcomes.

  20. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  1. Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis Skip sharing on social media ... genetic mechanisms of endometriosis may help in developing new prevention and treatment strategies. The NICHD’s extramural Gynecologic ...

  2. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Updated:Sep 2,2016 Do ... Risk for Arrhythmia • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of Arrhythmia • Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Introduction Medications Ablation Devices for ...

  4. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You have a right to receive treatment for cancer pain. There are many medicines and other treatments that ... There are three main types of medicines for cancer pain. Your provider will work with you to find ...

  5. Macrosystemic Approaches to Drug Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokos, Peter J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a three-year observational study of clients (N=100) receiving methadone treatment in three drug abuse programs. Concluded that the chemotherapeutic treatment system itself fosters addictive behavior and recommended changes within the clinics and the macrosystem. (LLL)

  6. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the patient (usually by a linear accelerator for photon/x-ray and cyclotron or synchrotron for proton ... and the treatment course will start one to two days after the initial treatment-planning session. Typically, ...

  7. Treatment of Severe Recurrent Clubfoot.

    PubMed

    Radler, Christof; Mindler, Gabriel T

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the pathoanatomy of severe recurrent clubfoot and its implication on treatment options is important for the successful treatment. A comprehensive clinical evaluation of the different components helps in selecting procedures. Individual needs and social and psychological factors influencing treatment and the impact of treatment on the child have to be considered. With increasing dissemination and improved understanding of the Ponseti method, a further decrease in the frequency of severe recurrent clubfoot can be hoped for and expected. PMID:26589079

  8. Treatment for Childhood Chemical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschner, George

    1985-01-01

    Describes intervention and treatment services available to youth and adolescents with chemical abuse problems. Discusses necessary components of a comprehensive approach. Reviews research on treatment outcomes within the various types of programs along with research on the treatment models employed. (Author/LHW)

  9. Patient Preferences for OCD treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapana R.; Simpson, Helen Blair

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore preferences for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that OCD patients will select a combination of medication and psychotherapy as their most preferred choice overall. Methods The authors designed a treatment preference survey using two health economics methods, forced choice and contingent ranking methods, to elicit preferences for OCD treatment available in mainstream care (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [SRIs]), Exposure and Ritual Prevention [EX/RP], and their combination), and for novel treatments under development at OCD research clinics. This survey was given by telephone to 89 individuals with OCD who called the OCD research clinic at the New York State Psychiatric Institute between July 2008 and January 2009. Results Most participants chose combination treatment (43%) or EX/RP (42%) over SRI medication (16%). Participants ranked investigational psychotherapy as their most preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 48% of participants) and deep brain stimulation as their least preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 77% of participants). Qualitative data suggest that prior treatment experience, concerns about medications, and logistical and practical concerns about treatment regimens affect preferences. Conclusions Patients with OCD have identifiable treatment preferences. In this sample of convenience, most preferred either combination treatment or psychotherapy. Future studies should investigate prospectively what modifies these preferences and how these preferences affect treatment outcome. PMID:21114948

  10. Post Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video Pre-Treatment Treatment Options Summary Treatment Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions ...

  11. Methadone Treatment: Overview and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Tang, Beth Archibald

    This overview focuses on methadone treatment. Briefly, it describes the clinical uses of methadone for substance abuse treatment, explores dosage guidelines, and discusses counseling components. This overview also reviews research data on the application of methadone treatment to special populations, such as pregnant women, polydrug users, and…

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Laryngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  13. Vinasses: characterization and treatments.

    PubMed

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Mijangos-Cortes, Javier; Barahona-Perez, Luis; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Hernández-Zarate, G; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2011-12-01

    The final products of the ethanol industry are alcoholic beverages, industrial ethanol and biofuels. They are produced by the same production process, which includes fermentation and distillation of raw materials which come from plant biomass. At the end of the distillation process a waste effluent is obtained called vinasse or stillage. The direct disposal of stillages on land or in groundwater (rivers, streams or lakes), or even for the direct irrigation of crops, pollutes the environment due to their high organic contents, dissolved solids and many other compounds which are toxic or could be contaminants under certain environmental conditions. This work reviews the characterization of vinasses from different feedstock sources and the main treatments for conditioning the soluble solids of vinasses before their disposal. PMID:21242176

  14. Treatment of headache.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S; Freitag, F G

    1989-01-01

    Headache is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Approximately 45 million people in the United States experience chronic headaches. The management of migraine headache involves both pharmacologic and nondrug therapy. Drug therapy for migraine involves the use of abortive and prophylactic agents. Abortive agents, such as ergotamine tartrate and ketoprofen, may be used to relieve the acute attack. Prophylactic therapy is focused on reducing the frequency and severity of the attacks. beta-Adrenergic blocking agents, such as propranolol, remain the primary agents for many migraine patients, although other drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ketoprofen, or calcium-channel blocking agents, such as verapamil, may be beneficial for many patients. For cluster headache and its variants, methysergide and corticosteroids are usually the drugs of choice. Patients with chronic cluster headache may achieve good results from long-term treatment with other therapies, including lithium carbonate, verapamil, and ketoprofen. PMID:2520442

  15. [Bronchoscopic treatments for COPD].

    PubMed

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Inoue, Takeo; Miyazawa, Teruomi

    2016-05-01

    Several non-surgical and minimally invasive bronchoscopic interventions, such as bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques, have been developed to treat patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BLVR has been studied for treatment in severe COPD patients with emphysema. BLVR with one-way endobronchial valves is reported to be effective for patients with a heterogeneous emphysema distribution and without inter-lobar collateral ventilation. For the patients with collateral ventilation, and for the patients with homogeneous emphysema, BLVR with lung volume reduction coil has shown promising results. Targeted lung denervation(TLD) is a novel bronchoscopic intervention based on ablation of parasympathetic nerves surrounding the main bronchi. TLD seems to be effective for COPD with chronic bronchitis phenotype. This review gives a general overview of BLVR with one-way valve and lung volume reduction coil, and TLD. PMID:27254951

  16. [Pedophilia and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Knecht, T

    2001-11-01

    Pedophilia is a frequent cause of infringement of children's sexual integrity. It's a widely spread deviant pattern of sexual arousal and behavior, which seems to be deeply rooted in human nature, as shown by impressive ethological and cultural historical evidence. Aetiology and pathogenesis of pedophilia are still not clarified, but there is a number of interesting findings suggesting multifactorial developmental disorder as the basis of pedophilia. Regarding the treatment of pedophiles, there is usually drawn a distinction between somatic and non-somatic methods. The latter aim at relapse-prevention by augmentation of self-control. The former mean drive-reduction on a hormonal basis. Antiandrogens, progestogens and LHRH-agonists have proven themselves as having significant effects on sexual drive, whereas their side effects are quite tolerable on the whole. PMID:11721303

  17. Treatment of systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Medsger, T A

    1991-01-01

    Proper classification of patients into diffuse cutaneous and limited cutaneous subsets and the anticipation of complications are the keys to the management of subjects with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Patients with early diffuse disease and rapidly progressive skin thickening are at highest risk of developing serious disease of the internal organs (intestine, lung, heart, kidney) and should be considered for disease modifying treatment. The targets of the disease and sites of possible intervention are vascular endothelium (vasoprotective agents), mononuclear cell subsets (immunosuppressive agents), and fibroblasts (colchicine, D-penicillamine). A number of new agents with sound scientific rationale are currently undergoing therapeutic trials. Much can be done to improve the lifestyle of those with scleroderma. The most dramatic recent development is the ability to reverse kidney disease by the prompt use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and modern methods of renal dialysis and transplantation. Scleroderma is not a hopeless disease. PMID:1750801

  18. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  19. [Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Nicolaas A; van Dijk, J M C Marc; Wagemakers, Michiel; van der Weide, Hiske L; Beese, Uli; Metzemaekers, Jan D M

    2014-01-01

    Classic idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by sharp unilateral shooting pain in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. It involves a diagnosis of exclusion. Initially, therapy consists of medical therapy, preferably with carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine. For patients refractory to medical therapy, microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve provides the best long-term outcomes, at a relatively low complication risk. In case of surgical contraindications, there are other options: radiosurgery or a neurodestructive procedure of the trigeminal ganglion. Short-term outcomes after neurodestructive therapy are good, however effects diminish over time. Every patient with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia in whom medical therapy has failed, should be counselled at an experienced centre in which neurosurgical treatment is available. PMID:24893812

  20. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  1. Comprehensive supernatant treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, Z.

    1996-10-01

    This task involves testing of sorbent materials for removing cesium, strontium, and technetium from the saline solutions in DOE storage tank supernatant at Oak Ridge and other sites. Staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are recovering and treating the liquid (supernatant) portions of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste in a hot cell to separate and remove the radionuclides. Batch tests will be used to evaluate and select the most promising materials for supernatant treatment to reduce the amount of waste for final disposal. Small column tests will be made on selected sorbents to verify the batch data and to obtain additional data for process design. Efforts will be made to obtain samples of tank supernatant from Hanford for comparison.

  2. [Treatment of tension headache].

    PubMed

    Schoenen, J

    2000-01-01

    The scientific basis of tension- type headache suffers from the lack of precise pathophysiological knowledge and the heterogenecity of this disorder. Treatment of acute tension-type headache episodes is more effective with an NSAIDs (ibuprofen 400-800mg, naproxen 550-825mg, ketoprofen 50-75mg) than with aspirin or paracetamol. Caffein containing preparations of NSAIDs are slightly superior, but should not be taken frequently to avoid headache chronification. For chronic tension-type headache, relaxation therapies with EMG biofeedback and tricyclics have about the same efficacy rate of 40-50p.100. Physical therapy and acupuncture are in general less effective. There is thus clearly a need for better strategies, e.g. combination of available therapies and novel approaches. PMID:11139755

  3. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  4. Engineering bulletin: Pyrolysis treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Engineering Bulletins are a series of documents that summarize the latest information available on selected treatment and site remediation technologies and related issues. Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis is a thermal process that transforms hazardous organic materials into gaseous components and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed carbon and ash. Upon cooling, the gaseous components condense, leaving an oil/tar residue. Pyrolysis is applicable to a wide range of organic wastes and is generally not used in treating wastes consisting primarily of inorganics and metals. The bulletin provides information on the technology applicability, the types of residuals resulting from the use of the technology, the latest performance data, site requirements, the status of the technology, and where to go for further information.

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  6. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  7. [Dietetic treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-09-15

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia : definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependence, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependence : an alcohol dependence implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependence implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6314517

  8. [Diet treatment of hyperliproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-04-01

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia: definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependance, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependance: an alcohol dependance implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependance implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6346241

  9. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  10. Treatment of congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Sara Yvonne; Rall, Katharina; Campo, Rudi; Oppelt, Peter; Isaacson, Keith

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of müllerian malformations is 1 in 200, or 0.5%. A third of the anomalies are septate, a third bicornuate uteri, 10% arcuate uterus, 10% didelphis and unicornuate uterus, and < 5% uterine and vaginal aplasia. Correct diagnosis of the malformation is most important but often very difficult. Correct treatment can only be performed if the malformation is clear. Longitudinal vaginal septums have to be removed due to potential obstetric problems. Transverse vaginal septums can cause hematocolpos and pain and have to be incised crosswise and excised so as not to shorten the vagina at the same time. Congenital vaginal agenesis occurs in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome patients and in androgen insensitivity syndrome. The first choice for surgical treatment should be the new laparoscopic-assisted creation of a neovagina. Septate uterus has to be distinguished from a bicornuate uterus. Even if it is not proven to be a cause for infertility, the chance of miscarriage can be diminished by performing hysteroscopic metroplasty. Repair of a uterine septum in infertility patients often improves pregnancy rates. In contrast, surgical repair of a bicornuate uterus requires an abdominal metroplasty. This should only be performed if the patient has recurrent fetal loss due to the uterine structural defect. In a unicornuate uterus it is most important to determine if there is a second uterine horn that can cause cyclic pain if it has functioning endometrium. The only surgical option in these cases is to remove the rudimentary uterus with endometrium and hematometra, respectively. PMID:21437824

  11. The treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    White, N J

    1996-09-12

    Increasing drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and a resurgence of malaria in tropical areas have effected a change in treatment of malaria in the last two decades. Symptoms of malaria are fever, chills, headache, and malaise. The prognosis worsens as the parasite counts, counts of mature parasites, and counts of neutrophils containing pigment increase. Treatment depends on severity, age of patient, degree of background immunity, likely pattern of susceptibility to antimalarial drugs, and the cost and availability of drugs. Chloroquine should be used for P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. P. vivax has shown high resistance to chloroquine in Oceania, however. Primaquine may be needed to treat P. vivax and P. ovale to rid the body of hypnozoites that survive in the liver. Chloroquine can treat P. falciparum infections acquired in North Africa, Central America north of the Panama Canal, Haiti, or the Middle East but not in most of Africa and some parts of Asia and South America. In areas of low grade resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine can be used to effectively treat falciparum malaria. A combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is responsive to falciparum infections with high grade resistance to chloroquine. Mefloquine, halofantrine, or quinine with tetracycline can be used to treat multidrug-resistant P. falciparum. Derivatives of artemisinin obtained from qinghao or sweet wormwood developed as pharmaceuticals in China are the most rapidly acting of all antimalarial drugs. Children tend to tolerate antimalarial drugs well. Children who weigh less than 15 kg should not be given mefloquine. Health workers should not prescribe primaquine to pregnant women or newborns due to the risk of hemolysis. Chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, and quinidine can be safely given in therapeutic doses throughout pregnancy. Clinical manifestations of severe malaria are hypoglycemia, convulsions, severe anemia, acute renal failure, jaundice, pulmonary edema

  12. Tobacco Addiction: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Stead, Lindsay F.; Gupta, Prakash C.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per year worldwide and is considered as one of the leading causes of premature death. Comprehensive tobacco control programs can significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco use. An important component of a comprehensive program is the provision of treatment for tobacco addiction. Treatment involves targeting multiple aspects of addiction including the underlying neurobiology and behavioral processes. Furthermore, building an infrastructure in health systems that encourage and facilitate cessation and expanding the accessibility of treatments are necessary. While current pharmacological and behavioral treatments are effective in improving cessation success, the rate of relapse to smoking remains high, demonstrating the strong addictive nature of nicotine. The future of treatment resides in better patient matching to treatment, combination or novel medications, and conceptualizing nicotine addiction as a chronic disorder which may require long-term treatment. PMID:18555914

  13. Mandatory neurotechnological treatment: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Focquaert, Farah

    2014-02-01

    What if neurofeedback or other types of neurotechnological treatment, by itself or in combination with behavioral treatment, could achieve a successful "rewiring" of the psychopath's brain? Imagine that such treatments exist and that they provide a better long-term risk-minimizing strategy compared to imprisonment. Would it be ethical to offer such treatments as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release? In this paper, I argue that it can be ethical to offer effective, non-invasive neurotechnological treatments to offenders as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release provided that: (1) the status quo is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (2) the treatment option is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (3) the treatment is in the best interests of the offender, and (4) the offender gives his/her informed consent. PMID:24407528

  14. [Discussion on acupuncture treatment amount].

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Liang, Fengxia; Wang, Hua; Li, Jia

    2015-05-01

    The amount of acupuncture treatment refers to the sum of acupuncture effects during the treatment. From the factors that constitutes the amount of acupuncture treatment, including the numbers of needling, the size of acupuncture instruments, the depth of acupuncture, the manipulation, the retained time of needle, etc., and combined with teaching and clinical experience, it is believed that the amount of acupuncture treatment is closely related with clinical efficacy, besides, moderate amount of acupuncture treatment is a key factor to improve acupuncture efficacy and guarantee the safety of acupuncture. The basic principles of regular treatment amount are arrival of qi and being moderate, indicating the retained time of needle, treatment frequency and course should be based on individual condition, time, location and disease. PMID:26255521

  15. Cellulite and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-06-01

    beneficial for the treatment of cellulite. In fact, CLA was proven to ameliorate the signs of cellulite. One product, Cellasene, containing a variety of botanicals and polyunsaturated fatty acids also appears to provide some relief from these symptoms. Although more work is needed, clearly these treatments do improve the appearance of skin in subjects with cellulite. It is quite possible, however, that synergies between both oral and topical routes may be the best intervention to ameliorate the signs and symptoms of cellulite. PMID:18489274

  16. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  17. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Maraelys Morales; Zamora, Lisset Ortíz; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Sierra González, Gustavo Victoriano; de Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira; Zanella, Rodrigo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Parise, Orlando; Brito, Luciana Macedo; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; Gomes, Marina das Neves; Moreno, Gleyce; Feo da Veiga, Venicio; Telló, Marcos; Holandino, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods. PMID:23592904

  18. Treatment of prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kanat, Mustafa; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Progression of normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to overt diabetes is mediated by a transition state called impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are the main defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and even normoglycemic IGT patients manifest these defects. Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance also contribute to the progression of IGT to type 2 DM. Improving insulin sensitivity and/or preserving functions of beta-cells can be a rational way to normalize the GT and to control transition of IGT to type 2 DM. Loosing weight, for example, improves whole body insulin sensitivity and preserves beta-cell function and its inhibitory effect on progression of IGT to type 2 DM had been proven. But interventions aiming weight loss usually not applicable in real life. Pharmacotherapy is another option to gain better insulin sensitivity and to maintain beta-cell function. In this review, two potential treatment options (lifestyle modification and pharmacologic agents) that limits the IGT-type 2 DM conversion in prediabetic subjects are discussed. PMID:26464759

  19. Treatment of Madelung's deformity.

    PubMed

    Saffar, P; Badina, A

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of Madelung's deformity is still controversial. We reviewed retrospectively 19 patients with Madelung's deformity (two bilateral, 21 cases) who underwent surgery to the radius and ulna to improve range of motion, decrease pain and improve appearance of the wrist. Nineteen patients underwent 21 distal radial osteotomy procedures using three different techniques: subtraction, addition or dome osteotomy. Ulnar shortening and redirection of the distal ulna was performed in 12 cases; a long oblique osteotomy was used in 10 of these cases. The Sauvé-Kapandji technique was performed in five cases, an ulnar distal epiphysiodesis in two cases and a combination of osteotomy and epiphysiodesis in one case. The aim was to reduce the distal radial slope and to restore the orientation and congruity of the distal radio-ulnar joint and to improve its function. Pain was reduced as a result of the procedure: more than 75% of the cases had no or intermittent pain at the review. Pronation improved from 63° to 68° (P=0.467, not significant) and supination improved from 48° to 72° on average (P=0.034, significant). Grip strength increased from 11 to 18 kgf (P=0.013, significant). Madelung's deformity is not always a benign condition and it responds well to corrective osteotomies. PMID:26525609

  20. Treatment of Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wirrell, Elaine C

    2016-06-01

    Dravet syndrome is among the most challenging electroclinical syndromes. There is a high likelihood of recurrent status epilepticus; seizures are medically refractory; and patients have multiple co-morbidities, including intellectual disability, behaviour and sleep problems, and crouch gait. Additionally, they are at significant risk of sudden unexplained death. This review will focus predominantly on the prophylactic medical management of seizures, addressing both first-line therapies (valproate and clobazam) as well as second-line (stiripentol, topiramate, ketogenic diet) or later options (levetiracetam, bromides, vagus nerve stimulation). Sodium channel agents-including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin and lamotrigine-should be avoided, as they typically exacerbate seizures. Several agents in development may show promise, specifically fenfluramine and cannabidiol, but they need further evaluation in randomized, controlled trials. In addition to prophylactic treatment, all patients need home-rescue medication and a status epilepticus protocol that can be carried out in their local hospital. Families must be counselled on non-pharmacologic strategies to reduce seizure risk, including avoidance of triggers that commonly induce seizures (including hyperthermia, flashing lights and patterns). In addition to addressing seizures, holistic care for a patient with Dravet syndrome must involve a multidisciplinary team that includes specialists in physical, occupational and speech therapy, neuropsychology, social work and physical medicine. PMID:27264138

  1. Geoengineering treatment of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, Andrew; Gardian, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Methane is a significant GHG, and substantial reservoirs are vulnerable to instability due to AGW. Excursions, from permafrost and clathrates especially, act a positive feedback to AGW. Existing concentrations of well-mixed atmospheric methane substantially exceed pre-industrial levels. Various geoengineering methods are herein proposed for containment of methane, and/or accelerated oxidation to CO2 (a gas with a lower GWP over all timescales). A basic qualitative analysis of each technique is undertaken, to direct further study. Consideration is also given to the potential capacity of each technique to treat the total likely excursions of methane expected as a result of AGW. Proposed techniques: Section 0 SRM (comparison option) Section 1 Pre-emptive treatment of methane reservoirs Soil heating (polytunnels, heat pumps); Soil aeration; Mining of clathrates; Burning of clathrates Section 2 Remediation of aquatic methane excursions Lake sealing; Mixing of aquatic strata; Bubble capture; Lake aeration; Biological oxidation in aquatic environments Section 3 Remediation of concentrated atmospheric methane Regenerative thermal oxidation; Electrical ignition; Thermal ignition; Using incendiary munitions Section 4 Remediation of diffuse atmospheric methane Thermal oxidation by concentrated solar power; Compression ignition; Chemical degradation Assessment criteria: Infrastructure/implementation cost; Energy cost; Expected efficacy; Complexity/development path; Environmental impacts; Potential for CCS

  2. [Choledochal cysts: surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Gogolja, D; Visnjić, S; Milić, Z; Tomić, K; Car, A; Roić, G; Fattorini, I

    2000-03-01

    The excision of the choledochal cyst with bile drainage through intestinal conduit is a standard operative procedure in the surgical management of choledochal cysts. During the last eight years five patients have been treated with this operation at the University Children's Hospital in Zagreb. All the patients were girls aged from two months to twelve years. The classical triad of pain, jaundice and abdominal mass was observed in only one patient, an eight-year-old girl. The only symptom in infancy was jaundice. Diagnosis was made by abdominal ultrasound, bibliography, CT scan with hepatotropic contrast and in older children by ERCP. Four cysts were type Todani I, and one cyst was Todani type II. The complete excision of the choledochal cyst with the Roux-Y jejunal conduit without antireflux valve was performed. There was neither operative morbidity nor mortality. Three months postoperatively the control ultrasonography and liver laboratory tests were without abnormalities. The routine control which followed did not show episodes of cholangitis, lithiasis, lipid malabsorption, blood clotting abnormalities or growth failure. The complete excision of the cyst with Roux-Y hepaticoenterostomy is an operative treatment with good results in infancy and childhood. PMID:10932533

  3. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  4. [Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: prophylactic treatment].

    PubMed

    Chiquet, C; Rouberol, F

    2014-11-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a complex process. It causes contractile fibrocellular membranes that may prevent retinal reattachment. PVR therefore remains one of the most severe complications of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD), with an incidence of 5-11%, and is among the most frequent causes of surgical failure (50-75%). Its severity derives from the complexity of the surgery required to treat patients and from its uncertain anatomic and functional prognosis. The first step in preventing PVR is to identify patients at risk by means of clinical and/or biological factors such as the characteristics of retinal tears (large size, number) and detachment (preexisting PVR, extent), and the use of cryotherapy. Surgeons must therefore adapt their surgical approach to the risk of PVR. The study of animal models and the natural history of the condition in humans demonstrate the importance of early antiproliferative treatment in the early stage of the disease. Combining 5-fluoro-uracil and heparin in the vitrectomy infusion lowers the rate of postoperative PVR onset in patients with PVR risk factors. The evaluation of new molecules and new dosages will lead to a decisive step in the fight against PVR. PMID:25012973

  5. [Surgical treatment of syringomyelia].

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Okuda, Y; Nagashima, H; Isojima, A; Tani, S

    1995-12-01

    Eighty cases of surgically treated syringomyelia were retrospectively reviewed. The cases were classified into following 4 types, type 1: syringomyelia with Chiari malformation (54 cases), type 2: syringomyelia with basal arachnoiditis (15 cases), type 3: syringomyelia with an obstruction of the foramen Magendie (1 case), and type 4: syringomyelia with spinal arachnoiditis (14 cases). Foramen magnum decompression (FMD) was performed in patients with type 1, in type 2 fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was additionally performed. Gardner's operation was performed in patients with type 3. Syrinx-peritoneal shunt was performed in patients with type 4. Surgical procedures for syringomyelia which we selected were thought to be appropriate, based on postoperative syrinx collapse rate in MRI. However, postoperative clinical course was much different in each type of syringomyelia after the collapse of syrinx had been equally achieved. Neurological disorders were stopped in deterioration after surgery in all cases of type 1. However, motor weakness was still deteriorated in half cases of type 2, and in 60% of type 4. When clinical severity of the patients with type 1 and 2, based on the distribution of dissociated sensory loss and motor weakness, were classified into 5 grades. The rate of improvement of patient's symptoms and signs was higher in the lower grades. We concluded that a surgical treatment for syringomyelia was essentially a preventive one, therefore it should be done in early stage of disorders. PMID:8752412

  6. The treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A C; Doherty, M

    1992-01-01

    1. The treatment of osteoarthritis is currently purely symptomatic. To enable rational therapy, careful clinical assessment is necessary to identify the origin of symptoms. Often, effective therapy can result from a biomechanical approach such as surgery, orthotics, physiotherapy and dieting. If drugs are required, there is little evidence that the current over-reliance on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is justified. Full dose regular paracetamol should be the first line of analgesic therapy. In the majority of patients, simple analgesics are probably as effective as NSAIDs. If NSAIDs are used it is necessary to review regularly their use and to be aware of potential toxicity. 2. Many alternative strategies of pain management such as topical preparations, intra-articular steroid injections, acupuncture, radiosynovectomy, transcutaneous nerve stimulation and anti-depressants, may be effective but their precise place in the armamentarium is not yet fully established. 3. The realisation that osteoarthritis is not a passive 'wear and tear' phenomenon but an active process that may be potentially modified, has led to interest in 'chondroprotective' agents, which may beneficially affect the osteoarthritic process. To date there are no convincing data available that such agents are, in fact, chondroprotective in humans. PMID:1576063

  7. [Treatment of chronic bovine endometritis and factors for treatment success].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, M; Tenhagen genannt Emming, S; Hoedemaker, M

    2005-01-01

    In a controlled field trial, 178 dairy cows with chronic endometritis and at least 21 days in lactation were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups: prostaglandin F2alpha intramuscularly (PG, 5 mg dinoprost (5 ml Dinolytic), n = 51), intrauterine antibiotics (AB; 400 mg ampicillin + 800 oxacillin (20 ml Totocillin), n = 49), intrauterine antiseptics (AS; 100 ml 4% Lotagen, n = 50); control (C, no initial treatment, n = 28). Before treatment, uterine swabs for bacteriologic examination and blood samples for determination of serum progesterone concentrations were collected. Two weeks following the first treatment, cows were reexamined. In case no clinical cure was diagnosed, treatment was repeated and control cows were treated for the first time with one of the three treatments mentioned above. The four treatment groups did not differ with respect to the clinical cure or reproductive performance. Therefore, factors that might have an influence on clinical cure and fertility were evaluated. With increasing duration of lactation, the clinical cure after a single treatment increased significantly over all treatment groups from 59.5% (treatment before day 42 postpartum) to 79.6% (treatment following day 42 postpartum) (P < 0.05). Within the PG group, a statistically significantly higher cure rate after a single treatment and first service conception rate and a lower pregnancy index were obtained when the treatment was performed following day 42 postpartum (P < 0.05). This was not the case in the other treatment groups. A retarded involution of the uterus based on the size had a negative effect on clinical cure over all groups (first treatment clinical cure: 68.2% (small uteri) vs 44.4% (large uteri); P < 0.05). Within groups, this effect was also detected, but only as a trend (P > 0.05). Isolation of Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes negatively influenced first treatment clinical cure over all treatment groups (79.0% vs 31.5%) and within treatment groups (P < 0

  8. Treatment strategy for Boerhaave's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, T; Hiranuma, S; Takiguchi, N; Ito, K; Maruyama, M; Nagahama, T; Kawano, T; Nagai, K; Nishikage, T; Noguchi, N; Takamatsu, S; Kawamura, T; Teramoto, K; Iwai, T; Arii, S

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal rupture is a potentially mortal condition. Rapid and correct diagnosis, and urgent surgical treatment with esophagectomy is indicated, but conservative and other surgical treatments have also been reported recently. The treatment strategies for esophageal rupture are discussed here, based on our experiences with four cases during the last 10 years. They were admitted urgently and each was treated by a different method. Three of them underwent emergency operations, one undergoing primary closure of the ruptured esophagus, another received a T-tube insertion from the ruptured site with omental flap, and the third an esophagogastrectomy. The fourth case was treated conservatively. All patients survived and were discharged 36-144 days post treatment. One of them was readmitted for debridement of necrotic rib. In conclusion, the prompt and accurate diagnosis of esophageal rupture is crucial for a subsequent successful treatment. Conservative treatment or operation including esophagectomy will be determined by the severity of the condition. PMID:15209751

  9. [Pharmacogenetics of oral antidiabetic treatment].

    PubMed

    Tkáč, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genes (individual genotypes) affect a persons response to drugs. At present, recommendations made about the treatment of some monogenic forms of diabetes are based on genetic diagnostics. The first studies in the field of pharmacogenetics of oral antidiabetics have now been published which have identified associations of individual genetic variants with response to treatment. The response to sulfonylurea derivatives was significantly associated with the variants KCNJ11/ABCC8, TCF7L2 and CYP2C9. The response to metformin treatment was associated with the genetic variants ATM and SLC47A1. The response to treatment with glitazones was associated with the genetic variant PPARG. The therapeutic response to the treatment with gliptins was associated with the genetic variants TCF7L2 and CTRB1/2. It may be expected that in the near future pharmacogenetic knowledge will also be used within personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27180666

  10. [Combined orthodontic and restorative treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Loomans, B

    2015-11-01

    In patients with agenesis or enamel anomalies in anterior teeth combined orthodontic and restorative treatment is often necessary to achieve an optimal aesthetic result. How both can best be achieved, but also how to maintain the result, requires communication between the dentist and the orthodontist. The orthodontic treatment plan needs to be established in cooperation with the dentist who will carry out the restorative treatment while the patient is at a young age. Since with these young patients, who are still growing craniofacially and whose teeth are still developing, possible future restorative and/or orthodontic treatment, as well as the means of orthodontic retention, need to be included in the treatment plan. In cleft palate patients, it is also important that methods of orthodontic retention of maxillary arch width are given timely attention in the restorative treatment plan because it is especially vulnerable to relapse. PMID:26568998

  11. Current treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, T.; Shimaoka, K.; Mimura, T.; Ito, K.

    1987-04-01

    In this review we have described the rationale for the appropriate treatment of patients with Graves' disease. Because the etiology of this disorder remains obscure, its management remains controversial. Since antithyroid drugs and radioiodine became readily available in the early 1950s, they have been widely used for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, and the number of cases treated surgically has markedly decreased. However, almost four decades of experience have disclosed an unexpectedly high incidence of delayed hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment and a low remission rate after antithyroid therapy. As a result, surgery is again being advocated as the treatment of choice. The three modalities of treatment have different advantages and disadvantages, and selection of treatment is of importance. In principle, we believe that for most patients a subtotal thyroidectomy should be performed after the patient has been rendered euthyroid by antithyroid drugs. We attempt to leave a thyroid remnant of 6 to 8 gm.36 references.

  12. Barrett's esophagus: endoscopic treatments II

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Bruce D.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Abrams, Julian A.; Horwhat, John D.; Chuttani, Ram; Komanduri, Srinadh; Upton, Melissa P.; Appelman, Henry D.; Shields, Helen M.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Sontag, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The following on endoscopic treatments of Barrett's esophagus includes commentaries on animal experiments on cryotherapy; indications for cryotherapy, choice of dosimetry, number of sessions, and role in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma; recent technical developments of RFA technology and long-term effects; the comparative effects of diverse ablation procedures and the rate of recurrence following treatment; and the indications for treatment of dysplasia and the role of radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21950812

  13. Homeopathic treatment for premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela

    2003-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are well-documented disorders causing significant morbidity in the female population. Treatments prescribed do not necessarily reflect proven clinical effectiveness. A recent systematic review from the Exeter Department of Complementary Medicine failed to endorse complementary therapies as a whole for treatment of PMS. However, a recent randomised controlled trial of homeopathic treatment for PMS confirms the clinical experience of homeopathic physicians that homeopathy is helpful in PMS. PMID:12626176

  14. Hyperphosphataemia: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Malberti, Fabio

    2013-05-01

    Hyperphosphataemia can be induced by three main conditions: a massive acute phosphate load, a primary increase in renal phosphate reabsorption, and an impaired renal phosphate excretion due to acute or chronic renal insufficiency. Renal excretion is so efficient in normal subjects that balance can be maintained with only a minimal rise in serum phosphorus concentration even for a large phosphorus load. Therefore, acute hyperphosphataemia usually resolves within few hours if renal function is intact. The most frequent cause of chronic hyperphosphataemia is chronic renal failure. Hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lowering the phosphate load and maintaining serum phosphorus levels within the normal range are considered important therapeutic goals to improve clinical outcomes in CKD patients. Treatment consists of diminishing intestinal phosphate absorption by a low phosphate diet and phosphate binders. In CKD patients on dialysis an efficient dialysis removal of phosphate should be ensured. Dietary restriction of phosphorus while maintaining adequate protein intake is not sufficient to control serum phosphate levels in most CKD patients; therefore, the prescription of a phosphate binder is required. Aluminium-containing agents are efficient but no longer widely used because of their toxicity. Calcium-based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used, but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcaemia, parathyroid gland suppression, adynamic bone disease, and vascular and extraosseous calcification. The average daily dose of calcium acetate or carbonate prescribed in the randomised controlled trials to control hyperphosphataemia in dialysis patients ranges between 1.2 and 2.3 g of elemental calcium. Such doses are greater than the recommended dietary calcium intake and can lead to a positive calcium balance. Although large amounts of calcium salts should

  15. Prevention and drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Testa, Mark F; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance abuse itself for maltreatment. Interventions to prevent substance abuse-related maltreatment, say the authors, must attend to the underlying direct causes of both. Research on whether prevention programs reduce drug abuse or help parents control substance use and improve their parenting has had mixed results, at best. The evidence raises questions generally about the effectiveness of substance abuse services in preventing child maltreatment. Such services, for example, raise only marginally the rates at which parents are reunified with children who have been placed in foster care. The primary reason for the mixed findings, say Testa and Smith, is that almost all the parents face not only substance abuse problems but the co-occurring issues as well. To prevent recurring maltreatment and promote reunification, programs must ensure client progress in all problem areas. At some point in the intervention process, say Testa and Smith, attention must turn to the child's permanency needs and well-being. The best evidence to date suggests that substance-abusing parents pose no greater risk to their children than do parents of other children taken into child protective custody. It may be sensible, say the authors, to set a six-month timetable for parents to engage in treatment and allow twelve to eighteen months for them to show sufficient progress in all identified problem areas. After that, permanency plans should be expedited to place the child with a relative caregiver or in an adoptive home. Investing in parental recovery from substance abuse and dependence, the authors conclude, should not substitute for a comprehensive approach

  16. Hypophosphatasia - pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Millán, José Luis; Plotkin, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    English Summary Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) in the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). The disease has been classified according to patient age when the first signs and symptoms manifest; i.e., perinatal, infantile, childhood, adult HPP. Other types include odonto HPP and perinatal benign. Babies with the perinatal/infantile forms of HPP often die with severe rickets and respiratory insufficiency and sometimes hypercalcemia and vitamin B6-responsive seizures. The primary biochemical defect in HPP is a deficiency of TNAP activity that leads to elevated circulating levels of substrates, in particular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent calcification inhibitor. To-date, the management of HPP has been essentially symptomatic or orthopedic. However, enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP (sALP-FcD10, also known as ENB-0040 or asfotase alfa) has shown promising results in a mouse model of HPP (Alpl−/− mice). Administration of mineral-targeting TNAP from birth increased survival and prevented the seizures, rickets, as well as all the tooth abnormalities, including dentin, acellular cementum, and enamel defects in this model of severe HPP. Clinical trials using mineral-targeting TNAP in children 3 years of age or younger with life-threatening HPP was associated with healing of the skeletal manifestations of HPP as well as improved respiratory and motor function. Improvement is still being observed in the patients receiving continued asfotase alfa therapy, with more than 3 years of treatment in some children. Enzyme replacement therapy with asfotase alfa has to-date been successful in patients with life-threatening HPP. PMID:25254037

  17. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  18. [Pheochromocytoma: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Widimský, J; Zelinka, T; Petrák, O; Strauch, B; Rosa, J; Michalský, M; Kasalický, M; Safarík, L; Vranková, A; Holaj, R

    2009-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (pheo) is adrenal or less frequently extraadrenal tumour of chromafine tissue. Pheos are rare, but cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities are common. Unrecognised pheo may lead to fatal hypertensive crisis during anesthesia or other stresses. Proper diagnosis of pheo is thus of utmost importance. 24-h blood pressure (BP) monitoring may contribute to the diagnosis of pheo due to increased BP variability and absence of night BP decline. Pheo contains large amount of enzyme catechol-O-methyl transpherase (COMT) with subsequent excessive production of COMT metabolites like metanephrines. Measurement of plasma free metanephrines or urinary fraccionated metanephrines has usually higher sensivitivity and specificity compared with plasma or urinary catecholamines. Morphological diagnosis of adrenal/extraadrenal pheo is based on CT/MR visualisation and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidin (MIBG) or PET 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose scan. Genetic analysis should be performed in all confirmed pheo cases, especially in younger subjects below 50 years of age in order to detect mutations of following genes: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), RET- protooncogen, genes encoding B, C and D subunit of mitochondrial sukcinat dehydrogenaze (SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) and neurofibromatosis type I gene. Pharmacological treatment is based on alpha blockers with subsequent (after 24-48 hours) administration of beta-blockers/especially in patients with tendency to tachycardia/. Following this therapy normalisation of BP is common and laparoscopic excision of pheo tumour can be realised. Malignant pheos are difficult to treat due to early occurrence of metastasis and lack of response to chemotherapy or iradiation in most cases. PMID:19899721

  19. Laser treatment for toenail fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; McDowell, Brian A.; Strisower, John

    2009-02-01

    An infrared pulsed laser was used to irradiate toenails with visible signs of bacterial/fungal infections. Seventeen subjects with both great toes involved were recruited in a podiatric private practice. Toes were randomized to receive either a single treatment or no treatment. The treatment was tolerated by all subjects without anesthesia and there were no occurrences of serious adverse effects. Eleven out of 14 (79%) treated toes improved. Improvement ranged from 2.1 to 6.1 mm over 90 days following a single treatment. There was a highly significant difference (p<0.001) between treated and untreated toes for nail bed clearing.

  20. Estrogen Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Stefan M; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2009-01-01

    Currently available treatments for multiple sclerosis reduce inflammatory lesions on MRI and decrease clinical relapses but have limited effects on disability. Novel treatment options that target both the inflammatory as well as the neurodegenerative component of the disease are therefore needed. A growing body of evidence from basic science and clinical studies supports the therapeutic potential of estrogens in MS. Mechanisms of action include both immunomodulatory and directly neuroprotective pathways. A first pilot trial of oral estriol treatment showed encouraging results. There are now several phase II trials underway to further determine the efficacy of estrogen treatment in MS. PMID:19539954

  1. Treatment of onychomycosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, A A; Thomas, T; Shirwaikar, A; Lobo, R; Prabhu, K S

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

  2. Treatment of Onychomycosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A. A.; Thomas, T.; Shirwaikar, A.; Lobo, R.; Prabhu, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PMID:21369429

  3. Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

  4. Medical treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Burns-Cox, N.; Gingell, C.

    1998-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in demand for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in the last 10 years. This has occurred partly because of a greater understanding and awareness by both the general public and clinicians, and also because there now exists a range of effective treatments. The choice of treatments is increasing rapidly and novel delivery systems which may be more patient-friendly than intracavernosal injections are now becoming available. We review the published data on effectiveness and safety of the currently available treatments and discuss recent advances in oral therapy, as these drugs are likely to become available in the near future. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9799886

  5. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE AT PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project investigated the discharge of landfill leachate into a municipal waste water collection system with subsequent treatment at the municipal treatment plant. The research article points out that leachates from disposal sites can be mixed with municipal wastewater and tre...

  6. Identifying the Best Treatment Among Common Nonsurgical Neck Pain Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Chan, Stella; Subrata, Peter; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Hurwitz, Eric; Bombardier, Claire; Krahn, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Decision analysis. Objective To identify the best treatment for nonspecific neck pain. Summary of Background Data In Canada and the United States, the most commonly prescribed neck pain treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), exercise, and manual therapy. Deciding which treatment is best is difficult because of the trade-offs between beneficial and harmful effects, and because of the uncertainty of these effects. Methods (Quality-adjusted) life expectancy associated with standard NSAIDs, Cox-2 NSAIDs, exercise, mobilization, and manipulation were compared in a decision-analytic model. Estimates of the course of neck pain, background risk of adverse events in the general population, treatment effectiveness and risk, and patient-preferences were input into the model. Assuming equal effectiveness, we conducted a baseline analysis using risk of harm only. We assessed the stability of the baseline results by conducting a second analysis that incorporated effectiveness data from a high-quality randomized trial. Results There were no important differences across treatments. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the baseline model was 4.5 days of life expectancy and 3.4 quality-adjusted life-days. The difference between the highest and lowest ranked treatments predicted by the second model was 7.3 quality-adjusted life-days. Conclusion When the objective is to maximize life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy, none of the treatments in our analysis were clearly superior.

  7. Treatment in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Barut, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of the childhood with the highest risk of disability. Active disease persists in the adulthood in a significant portion of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis despite many developments in the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, initiation of efficient treatment in the early period of the disease may provide faster control of the inflammation and prevention of long-term harms. In recent years, treatment options have also increased in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis owing to biological medications. All biological medications used in children have been produced to target the etiopathogenesis leading to disease including anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-interleukin 1 and anti-interleukin 6 drugs. In this review, scientific data about biological medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options will be discussed. PMID:26078691

  8. Treatment Outcome in Patients Receiving Assertive Community Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C. L.; Roosenschoon, B. J.; Wiersma, D.

    2009-01-01

    In an observational study of severely mentally ill patients treated in assertive community treatment (ACT) teams, we investigated how treatment outcome was associated with demographic factors, clinical factors, and motivation for treatment. To determine psychosocial outcome, patients were routinely assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Trends over time were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures. The HoNOS total score was modeled as a function of treatment duration and patient-dependent covariates. Data comprised 637 assessments of 139 patients; mean duration of follow-up was 27.4 months (SD = 5.4). Substance abuse, higher age, problems with motivation, and lower educational level were associated with higher HoNOS total scores (i.e., worse outcome). To improve treatment outcome, we recommend better implementation of ACT, and also the implementation of additional programs targeting subgroups which seem to benefit less from ACT. PMID:19847646

  9. Treatment of Palmar Hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Tang; Li, Hsien-Pin; Lee, Jui-Ying; Lin, Pei-Jung; Lin, Chien-Chih; Kao, Eing-Long; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Huang, Meei-Feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of 3 different levels of sympathectomy. Summary Background Data: Most surgeons still perform T2 or T2–3 sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis, but both these treatments can cause severe side effects. Some recent articles have advocated T4 sympathectomy and obtained satisfactory results. Methods: Between January 2000 and August 2004, 234 records of patients treated for palmar hyperhidrosis were retrospectively reviewed. Of them, 86 patients were treated with endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy of T2 (ETS2), 78 patients with ETS3, and 70 patients with ETS4. Follow-up data were collected using a telephone questionnaire with a scoring system. Multiple linear regressions were used to model markers for degree of satisfaction and severity of compensatory sweating (CS), including descriptive data, level of sympathectomy, clinical outcomes, and postoperative complications. Results: Mean follow-up was 47.1 ± 17.2 months. All 3 levels of sympathectomy could have achieved comparable improvement of palmar hyperhidrosis (P = 0.162). However, 88.5% of the patients noticed CS. Patients with ETS4 presented the lowest incidence of CS (P = 0.030), had the least severity of CS (β = −1.537, P = 0.002), and felt the least palmar overdryness (P < 0.001). None expressed regret for the procedure in the ETS4 group (P = 0.022). Being obese did not increase the incidence of CS, but the severity of CS was directly related to body mass index (β = 0.917, P < 0.001). The patients would be more satisfied if the severity of CS was minimal (β = −0.185, P = 0.002). The degree of satisfaction may decrease with time (β = −0.025, P = 0.003) and was lower when their palms were overdry (β = −1.463, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Different from the current procedure of T2 or T3 sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis, T4 sympathectomy would be a better and more effective procedure with minimal long-term complications. PMID:17667514

  10. Treatment of Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) encompasses a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases with heterogeneous clinical presentations and two predominant types of underlying neuropathology. FTD typically comprises three distinct clinical syndromes: behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). FTD also frequently overlaps both clinically and neuropathologically with three other neurodegenerative syndromes: corticobasal syndrome (CBS), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Each syndrome can be associated with one or more underlying neuropathological diagnoses and are referred to as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although the various FTD syndromes can substantially differ in terms of clinical symptoms and underlying pathology, the symptoms can be broadly categorized into behavioral, cognitive and motor domains. Currently there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies for the above syndromes except riluzole for ALS. FTD treatment strategies generally rely on off-label use of medications for symptomatic management, and most therapies lack quality evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. For behavioral symptoms, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be effective, while case reports hint at possible efficacy with antipsychotics or antiepileptics, but use of these latter agents is limited due to concerns regarding side effects. There are no effective therapies for cognitive complaints in FTD, which frequently involve executive function, memory, and language. Motor difficulties associated with FTD may present with parkinsonian symptoms or motor neuron disease, for which riluzole is indicated as therapy. Compared to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, FTD-related atypical parkinsonism is generally not responsive to dopamine replacement therapies, but a

  11. New treatments compared to established treatments in randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Glasziou, Paul P; Perera, Rafael; Reljic, Tea; Dent, Louise; Raftery, James; Johansen, Marit; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Miladinovic, Branko; Soares, Heloisa P; Vist, Gunn E; Chalmers, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Background The proportion of proposed new treatments that are ’successful’ is of ethical, scientific, and public importance. We investigated how often new, experimental treatments evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are superior to established treatments. Objectives Our main question was: “On average how often are new treatments more effective, equally effective or less effective than established treatments?” Additionally, we wanted to explain the observed results, i.e. whether the observed distribution of outcomes is consistent with the ’uncertainty requirement’ for enrollment in RCTs. We also investigated the effect of choice of comparator (active versus no treatment/placebo) on the observed results. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register (CMR) 2010, Issue 1 in The Cochrane Library (searched 31 March 2010); MEDLINE Ovid 1950 to March Week 2 2010 (searched 24 March 2010); and EMBASE Ovid 1980 to 2010 Week 11 (searched 24 March 2010). Selection criteria Cohorts of studies were eligible for the analysis if they met all of the following criteria: (i) consecutive series of RCTs, (ii) registered at or before study onset, and (iii) compared new against established treatments in humans. Data collection and analysis RCTs from four cohorts of RCTs met all inclusion criteria and provided data from 743 RCTs involving 297,744 patients. All four cohorts consisted of publicly funded trials. Two cohorts involved evaluations of new treatments in cancer, one in neurological disorders, and one for mixed types of diseases. We employed kernel density estimation, meta-analysis and meta-regression to assess the probability of new treatments being superior to established treatments in their effect on primary outcomes and overall survival. Main results The distribution of effects seen was generally symmetrical in the size of difference between new versus established treatments. Meta-analytic pooling indicated that, on average, new treatments

  12. Treatment Options for Children with Undescended Testicles

    MedlinePlus

    ... than men who had only one undescended testicle. Hormonal Treatment Hormonal treatment is another option to treat ... weeks. What have researchers found about how well hormonal treatment works? Researchers found that hormonal treatment with ...

  13. Treatment of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Pratt, Helen D.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on the treatment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa, including the general approach, treatment setting, treatment of medical complications, nutritional management, psychopharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, treatment efficacy and outcome studies, comparison studies, and prevention programs. (EV)

  14. Historical Overview of Nonstandard Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Pamela

    This review of nonstandard treatments as they relate to individuals with mental retardation reveals attempts to increase intelligence and make individuals "normal." Covering the early 1930s through the present, the review addresses: cell therapy, electric shock, behavior modification, vitamin B-6 therapy, Doman-Delacato treatment, auditory…

  15. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately operationalized treatment integrity procedures…

  16. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  17. Conventional treatments for ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M; Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S.; Brandt, J

    2002-01-01

    Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first line treatment, but over time, the disease often becomes refractory to these agents. Disease modifying antirheumatic drugs are second line treatment and may offer some clinical benefit. However, conclusive evidence of the efficacy of these drugs from large placebo controlled trials is lacking. Additionally, these drugs can cause treatment-limiting adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection guided by arthrography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging is an effective means of reducing inflammatory back pain, but controlled studies are lacking. A controlled study has confirmed moderate but significant efficacy of intravenous bisphosphonate (pamidronate) treatment in patients with AS; further evaluation of bisphosphonate treatment is warranted. Physical therapy and exercise are necessary adjuncts to pharmacotherapy; however, the paucity of controlled data makes it difficult to identify the best way to administer these interventions. Surgical intervention may be required to support severe structural damage. Thus, for patients with AS, the future of successful treatment lies in the development of pharmacological agents capable of both altering the disease course through intervention at sites of disease pathogenesis, and controlling symptoms. PMID:12381510

  18. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

  19. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  20. Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…