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Sample records for 1-methylcyclopropene 1-mcp treatment

  1. Metabolic changes in 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-treated ‘Empire’ apple fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Empire’ apple fruit are more susceptible to flesh browning at 3.3 oC if first treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception. To better understand the metabolic changes associated with this browning, untargeted metabolic profiling with partial least squares analysis...

  2. The use of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Chris B

    2006-01-01

    The recent availability of the inhibitor of ethylene perception, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), has resulted in an explosion of research on its effects on fruits and vegetables, both as a tool to further investigate the role of ethylene in ripening and senescence, and as a commercial technology to improve maintenance of product quality. The commercialization of 1-MCP was followed by rapid adoption by many apple industries around the world, and strengths and weaknesses of the new technology have been identified. However, use of 1-MCP remains limited for other products, and therefore it is still necessary to speculate on its commercial potential for most fruits and vegetables. In this review, the effects of 1-MCP on fruits and vegetables are considered from two aspects. First, a selected number of fruit (apple, avocado, banana, pear, peaches and nectarines, plums and tomato) are used to illustrate the range of responses to 1-MCP, and indicate possible benefits and limitations for commercialization of 1-MCP-based technology. Second, an outline of general physiological and biochemical responses of fruits and vegetables to the chemical is provided to illustrate the potential for use of 1-MCP to better understand the role of ethylene in ripening and senescence processes.

  3. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-induced alteration in leaf photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, respiration and membrane damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under high night temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High night temperature (HNT) can induce ethylene-triggered reactive oxygen species production, which can cause premature leaf senescence and membrane damage, thereby affecting production, consumption and transfer of photosynthates, and yield. The 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can competitively bind w...

  4. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and calcium chloride treatments on quality maintenance of 'Lingwu Long' Jujube fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ban, Zhaojun; Li, Xihong; Xue, Ting

    2014-04-01

    'Lingwu Long' jujube (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Mill) fruits were harvested at mature-green stages and then treated with 1.0 μL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination. All treatments were stored at room temperature (22 ± 1 °C) and 80-90% relative humidity (RH) up for 15 days. Results indicated that 1.0 μL L(-1) 1-MCP, 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination were effective in terms of senescence inhibition, and the storage life was extended by 6, 4 and 9 days, respectively. 1-MCP and CaCl2 treatment had a synergic effect on the inhibition of ethylene production and microbial population of 'Lingwu Long' jujube fruit. The combination of 1-MCP and CaCl2 significantly reduced polygalacturonase (PG) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activities. It also maintained higher concentrations of titratable acid and ascorbic acid. PMID:24741163

  5. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and calcium chloride treatments on quality maintenance of 'Lingwu Long' Jujube fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ban, Zhaojun; Li, Xihong; Xue, Ting

    2014-04-01

    'Lingwu Long' jujube (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Mill) fruits were harvested at mature-green stages and then treated with 1.0 μL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination. All treatments were stored at room temperature (22 ± 1 °C) and 80-90% relative humidity (RH) up for 15 days. Results indicated that 1.0 μL L(-1) 1-MCP, 1.0% CaCl2 or their combination were effective in terms of senescence inhibition, and the storage life was extended by 6, 4 and 9 days, respectively. 1-MCP and CaCl2 treatment had a synergic effect on the inhibition of ethylene production and microbial population of 'Lingwu Long' jujube fruit. The combination of 1-MCP and CaCl2 significantly reduced polygalacturonase (PG) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activities. It also maintained higher concentrations of titratable acid and ascorbic acid.

  6. Postharvest variation in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) Flavonoids following harvest, storage, and 1-MCP treatment.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Dan D; Murr, Dennis P; DeEll, Jennifer R; Horvath, Christopher R

    2006-02-01

    The impact of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the synthesis and retention of flavonoid compounds during storage and ripening of red Delicious (Malus x domestica Borkh.) apples was investigated. Numerous anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and a hydroxycinnamic acid from three different fruit harvest maturities were monitored after a 120 day storage and 1 week shelf life period using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector analysis. The total flavonoid concentration was 5% greater in fruit treated with 1-MCP, whereas chlorogenic acid levels were 24% lower. All compounds analyzed increased in concentration during fruit harvest; however, the anthocyanins generally declined after storage, while chlorogenic acid levels increased. 1-MCP treatment resulted in the retention of anthocyanins in the latter stages of storage but did not affect the flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis from early and optimal fruit harvest maturities was greatly inhibited by 1-MCP during storage and the 1 week shelf life period. However, 1-MCP did not affect chlorogenic acid concentrations in late-harvested fruit. Results suggest that 1-MCP may inhibit the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and subsequent biosynthesis of flavonoid compounds. However, because very little postharvest biosynthesis of flavonoids occurs in apples, 1-MCP treatment may be useful for maintaining some of the intrinsic flavonoid levels of red Delicious apples, if applied at the proper harvest maturity.

  7. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment on green asparagus quality during cold storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shaojin; Wu, Zhishuang

    2012-10-01

    Green asparagus was treated with 1-methylcyclopropene at three concentration levels at room temperature for 24 h after harvest to evaluate the postharvest quality during cold storage at 4°C. Comparing with the controls, the loss of vitamin C, decomposition of chlorophyll, and accumulation of the malonydiadehyde under treatments of 1-methylcyclopropene were reduced during storage. The enzyme activities in asparagus including peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase were inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene treatments, while the activity of superoxide dismutase was enhanced. Based on non-significant difference of the treated samples with 6 ìl l-1, 1-methylcyclopropene treatments at 4 ìl l-1 could be selected to maintain postharvest quality of green asparagus and provide long storage life.

  8. The effect of postharvest 1-MCP treatment and storage atmosphere on 'Cripps Pink' apple phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nga T T; Golding, John B; Wilkes, Meredith A

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, controlled atmosphere and storage time on the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of 'Cripps Pink' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Preclimacteric apples were harvested and treated with 1-MCP then stored in normal atmosphere (NA) or controlled atmosphere (CA) at 0°C for up to 160days. In general, the level of phenolics decreased by 9% in the peel and significantly increased twofold in the flesh during cold storage, regardless of storage atmosphere or 1-MCP treatment. However, treatment with 1-MCP resulted in significantly lower concentrations of chlorogenic acid and procyanidin B2 in apple flesh, and catechin and epicatechin in the peel compared to the control fruits. There was no significant effect of CA on the phenolic compounds during long-term storage, except for quercetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-glucoside, which both significantly increased under CA storage. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) is an important nutritional attribute of apples in the human diet. The results showed that TAA in the peel tissue was about eight times higher than that of the flesh, with mean values of 4.75gTE/kgFW and 0.56TE/kgFW, respectively. The TAA in both the peel and flesh tissue increased significantly during storage by 40% and 70%, respectively. The storage atmosphere did not significantly affect TAA in either the peel or flesh, whilst the 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced the TAA in the peel tissue only. These results show the beneficial combined effects of pre-storage 1-MCP treatment and CA on 'Cripps Pink' apple phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity during long term storage.

  9. Changes in quality and biochemical parameters in 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life and 1-MCP treatment.

    PubMed

    Bizjak, Jan; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-01

    In this study, changes in quality and various biochemical parameters of 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life period after ultra-low oxygen (ULO) storage were investigated. Additionally, the impact of the postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on different parameters was evaluated. After the harvest, apples were stored in the ULO storage for 6 months and then exposed to room temperature. Fruit firmness, peel color, and changes in sugars, organic acids and phenolics were monitored during the 3 weeks of shelf life. Malic acid, sugars and firmness decreased at room temperature. However, the color of the apples remained unchanged. The level of citric and ascorbic acid remained constant. Levels of phenolics in the peel increased significantly, whereas remained constant in the pulp of apples. 1-MCP treatment resulted in higher amounts of fructose and glucose, malic acid and greater firmness of apples. However, 1-MCP did not influence the phenolic content, ascorbic acid or color. The results obtained indicate that the content of different health-promoting compounds of apples does not change dramatically at room temperature. At the same time these results suggest that 1-MCP could be useful for maintaining certain quality and biochemical parameters and might extend the shelf life of apples.

  10. Extending the shelf life of edible flowers with controlled release of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible flowers have great sensory appeal, but their extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment is used to counter ethylene activity and delay senescence in fresh produce; however its potential application in edible flowers has not bee...

  11. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality and nutritional quality of netted melon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Wang, B L; Shui, D J; Cao, L L; Wang, C; Yang, T; Wang, X Y; Ye, H X

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on shelf life, fruit visual quality and nutritional quality were investigated. Netted melons were treated with air (control) and 0.6 µl l(-1) 1-MCP at 25 ℃ for 24 h, and then stored at 25 ℃ or 10 ℃ for 10 days. 1-MCP significantly extended the shelf life, inhibited weight loss and delayed firmness decline of melon fruits. Ethylene production was also inhibited and respiration rate was declined. 1-MCP retarded 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) increases and inhibited ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced the decrease in total soluble solids and titratable acidity, as well as the decrease of the content of sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose). These results indicated that 1-MCP treatment is a good method to extend melon shelf life and maintain fruit quality, and the combination of 1-MCP and low temperature storage resulted in more acceptable fruit quality.

  12. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  13. Effects of postharvest application of 1-MCP and postcutting dip treatment on the quality and nutritional properties of fresh-cut kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Maria D C; Dandlen, Susana; Cavaco, Ana M; Miguel, Graça

    2010-05-26

    Consumption of minimally processed fruit and vegetables has increased significantly in the past few years due to the consumers' life style. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with ascorbic acid or calcium chloride on the quality parameters of fresh-cut kiwifruit prepared from fruit previously stored for 3 months, either treated or not treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) before storage. Harvested fruit were treated with 1 microL L(-1) 1-MCP for 20 h at room temperature ( approximately 20 degrees C) (MCP) or had no treatment (C) and were then stored at 0 degrees C. After 3 months, fruit were removed from storage, peeled, and cut longitudinally in quarters, dipped in 2% ascorbic acid (Asc), 2% calcium chloride (Ca), or just water (cont), and kept at 2 degrees C for 8 days. Measurements of firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) ( degrees Brix), color (CIE L*, a*, b*), electrolyte leakage, sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) were performed at 0, 4, and 8 days. A taste panel was performed on the seventh shelf life day. It was shown that whole MCP-treated kiwifruit kept better than the control through the 3 months storage, this effect being lost through the fresh-cut shelf life period. Furthermore, the postcut dip on 2% CaCl(2) was effective on delaying softening and browning of fresh-cut kiwifruit, which were also the fruit preferred by panelists. Both ascorbic acid and CaCl(2) were effective on preserving or improving nutritional properties (phenolics, ascorbic acid, DPPH, and ABTS) mainly in the first 4 days of shelf life. The CaCl(2) had a further beneficial effect until 8 shelf life days. It is suggested that CaCl(2) is better in keeping overall quality through 8 days of shelf life at 2 degrees C in fresh-cut kiwifruit followed by Asc, and 1-MCP has negligible effect in the conditions of this experiment. PMID:20411941

  14. Effects of postharvest application of 1-MCP and postcutting dip treatment on the quality and nutritional properties of fresh-cut kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Maria D C; Dandlen, Susana; Cavaco, Ana M; Miguel, Graça

    2010-05-26

    Consumption of minimally processed fruit and vegetables has increased significantly in the past few years due to the consumers' life style. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with ascorbic acid or calcium chloride on the quality parameters of fresh-cut kiwifruit prepared from fruit previously stored for 3 months, either treated or not treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) before storage. Harvested fruit were treated with 1 microL L(-1) 1-MCP for 20 h at room temperature ( approximately 20 degrees C) (MCP) or had no treatment (C) and were then stored at 0 degrees C. After 3 months, fruit were removed from storage, peeled, and cut longitudinally in quarters, dipped in 2% ascorbic acid (Asc), 2% calcium chloride (Ca), or just water (cont), and kept at 2 degrees C for 8 days. Measurements of firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) ( degrees Brix), color (CIE L*, a*, b*), electrolyte leakage, sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) were performed at 0, 4, and 8 days. A taste panel was performed on the seventh shelf life day. It was shown that whole MCP-treated kiwifruit kept better than the control through the 3 months storage, this effect being lost through the fresh-cut shelf life period. Furthermore, the postcut dip on 2% CaCl(2) was effective on delaying softening and browning of fresh-cut kiwifruit, which were also the fruit preferred by panelists. Both ascorbic acid and CaCl(2) were effective on preserving or improving nutritional properties (phenolics, ascorbic acid, DPPH, and ABTS) mainly in the first 4 days of shelf life. The CaCl(2) had a further beneficial effect until 8 shelf life days. It is suggested that CaCl(2) is better in keeping overall quality through 8 days of shelf life at 2 degrees C in fresh-cut kiwifruit followed by Asc, and 1-MCP has negligible effect in the conditions of this experiment.

  15. Inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sooyeon; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongyun; Lee, Han Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hardy kiwifruits (Actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 16 h at 10 °C and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °C. Anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. The hardy kiwifruits, without 1-MCP treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. The 1-MCP treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. Fruits with the 1-MCP treatment could be stored for up to 5 weeks by maintaining higher fruit firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents compared to the control. The hardy kiwifruit extracts showed anti-proliferative effects to Hep3B and HeLa cells but not to HT29, HepG2 and LoVo cells. These results suggest that the application of 1-MCP at harvest effectively delayed the ripening process of the fruits, and the fruit extract had beneficial effects for the prevention of human cancer growth. PMID:26212954

  16. Inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sooyeon; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongyun; Lee, Han Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hardy kiwifruits (Actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 16 h at 10 °C and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °C. Anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. The hardy kiwifruits, without 1-MCP treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. The 1-MCP treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. Fruits with the 1-MCP treatment could be stored for up to 5 weeks by maintaining higher fruit firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents compared to the control. The hardy kiwifruit extracts showed anti-proliferative effects to Hep3B and HeLa cells but not to HT29, HepG2 and LoVo cells. These results suggest that the application of 1-MCP at harvest effectively delayed the ripening process of the fruits, and the fruit extract had beneficial effects for the prevention of human cancer growth.

  17. Combination of 1-Methylcyclopropene and ethoxyquin to control superficial scald of 'Anjou' pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application at 20 °C for 24 hours on the day of harvest plus an ethoxyquin drench at 1000 µL L-1 after 1, 7, 30 and 60 days (d) of cold storage controlled superficial scald of ‘d’Anjou’ pears stored in air at -1 °C for 5 months. 1-MCP alone, or ethoxyquin alo...

  18. Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene and storage atmosphere on changes in volatile compounds and fruit quality of conference pears.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Anna; Cambiaghi, Paola; Grassi, Maurizio; Zerbini, Paola Eccher

    2005-12-14

    Conference pears (Pyrus communis L.) were treated with 25 and 50 nL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at -0.5 degrees C for 24 h, then stored for up to 22 weeks in air (NA) and controlled atmosphere (CA). After 7 and 14 weeks of storage, fruits were retreated with 1-MCP. After 7, 14, and 22 weeks of storage, fruits were kept for up to 7 days at 20 degrees C in air for poststorage ripening. The effects of 1-MCP treatment declined with duration of storage in both storage atmospheres, indicating that retreatments had little additional effects on subsequent ripening. Ethylene production was lower and firmness was higher in 50 nL L(-1) fruits, while the 25 nL L(-1) dose was not very different from the control. Development of superficial scald was not prevented by 1-MCP treatments, but the severity of the symptoms was influenced. The 1-MCP effects were perceivable on texture (juiciness) and flavor. Control fruit and 25 nL L(-1) fruit reached their best sensory quality after 14 weeks of storage, while 50 nL L(-1) fruit reached the same sensory quality later, keeping a fresh flavor when the quality of control fruit declined and became watery or grainy. The fresh flavor in 50 nL L(-1) fruit was probably due to the presence below the odor detection threshold concentrations of the volatile compounds responsible for the "ripe pear" aroma, mainly of butanol and ethyl butanoate. CA prolonged or enhanced the effects of 1-MCP; 1-MCP cannot substitute for CA but can reinforce the CA effects. PMID:16332131

  19. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the development of black mold disease and its potential effect on alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether biosynthesis on tomatoes infected with Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Estiarte, N; Crespo-Sempere, A; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2016-11-01

    Ethylene is a naturally produced plant regulator involved in several plant functions, such as regulation of fruit ripening. Inhibition of ethylene perception by using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening of the fruit maintaining its quality and freshness. The use of 1-MCP is a commercial strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5μL of an A. alternata conidial suspension (10(5)conidia/mL). Tomatoes were treated with 0.6μL/L of 1-MCP for 24h. Spiked but untreated tomatoes were considered controls. Then, fruit were stored 6days at 10°C and one more week at 20°C to simulate shelf-life. Fungal growth development and mycotoxin production (alternariol, AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether, AME) were assessed both on the first and on the second week. After the first 6days at 10°C, in just one variety the black mold disease was higher in the 1-MCP treated samples. However, after two weeks of storage, in all cases, tomatoes treated with 1-MCP showed more significant fungal growth disease. Regarding mycotoxin production, no large differences were observed among different treatments, which was corroborated with gene expression analysis of pksJ, a gene related to AOH and AME biosynthesis.

  20. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the development of black mold disease and its potential effect on alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether biosynthesis on tomatoes infected with Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Estiarte, N; Crespo-Sempere, A; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2016-11-01

    Ethylene is a naturally produced plant regulator involved in several plant functions, such as regulation of fruit ripening. Inhibition of ethylene perception by using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening of the fruit maintaining its quality and freshness. The use of 1-MCP is a commercial strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5μL of an A. alternata conidial suspension (10(5)conidia/mL). Tomatoes were treated with 0.6μL/L of 1-MCP for 24h. Spiked but untreated tomatoes were considered controls. Then, fruit were stored 6days at 10°C and one more week at 20°C to simulate shelf-life. Fungal growth development and mycotoxin production (alternariol, AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether, AME) were assessed both on the first and on the second week. After the first 6days at 10°C, in just one variety the black mold disease was higher in the 1-MCP treated samples. However, after two weeks of storage, in all cases, tomatoes treated with 1-MCP showed more significant fungal growth disease. Regarding mycotoxin production, no large differences were observed among different treatments, which was corroborated with gene expression analysis of pksJ, a gene related to AOH and AME biosynthesis. PMID:27454782

  1. Differential suppression of ethylene biosynthesis and receptor genes in 'Golden Delicious' apple by preharvest and postharvest 1-MCP treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvista™, a spraying formulation of 1-MCP, is a recently available tool for managing preharvest on-tree fruit maturation whereas SmartFresh™ is the widely-used treatment for postharvest handling and storage. In the current study, the timing of pre-harvest application and its effects on fruit ripeni...

  2. 1-Methylcyclopropene interactions with diphenylamine on diphenylamine degradation, alpha-farnesene and conjugated trienol concentrations, and polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Apollo Arquiza, J M R; Hay, Anthony G; Nock, Jacqueline F; Watkins, Christopher B

    2005-09-21

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is a new technology that is applied commercially to inhibit ethylene action in apple fruit, but its interactions with existing technologies such as diphenylamine (DPA) for control of superficial scald development in fruit during and after storage is unknown. To investigate possible interactions between 1-MCP and DPA, Delicious apples were untreated or treated with 2 g L(-1) DPA, and then with or without 1 microL L(-1) 1-MCP. Ethylene production and respiration rates of fruit were measured immediately following treatment, and fruit was stored at 0.5 degrees C for 12 weeks. Internal ethylene concentrations (IEC), alpha-farnesene and conjugated trienol (CTol) concentrations, activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and DPA levels in the skin of the fruit were measured at intervals during storage. 1-MCP reduced the rate of DPA loss from peel tissue so that by 12 weeks of storage concentrations of the chemical were 25% higher than in untreated fruit. 1-MCP, with and without DPA, markedly inhibited ethylene production and respiration rates, maintained low IEC and alpha-farnesene and CTol concentrations, while DPA had little effect on these factors except inhibition of CTol accumulation. Treatment effects on peroxidase and PPO activities were inconsistent.

  3. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in “Empire” apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    Deyman, Kristen L.; Brikis, Carolyne J.; Bozzo, Gale G.; Shelp, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit during controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and CA storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs) and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with “Empire” apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3°C, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i) total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii) total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii) total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv) total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA production. PMID:24782882

  4. Ethylene and 1-MCP regulate major volatile biosynthetic pathways in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaotang; Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Forney, Charles; Campbell-Palmer, Leslie; Fillmore, Sherry; Wismer, Paul; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on apple fruit volatile biosynthesis and gene expression were investigated. Statistical analysis identified 17 genes that changed significantly in response to ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Genes encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) and amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) were up-regulated during ripening and further enhanced by ethylene treatment. Genes related to fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, including acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCAT), acyl-ACP-desaturase (ACPD), lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC2), β-oxidation, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHD), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD), and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) also increased during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment. Allene oxide synthase (AOS), alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) decreased in ethylene-treated fruit. Treatment with 1-MCP and ethylene generally produced opposite effects on related genes, which provides evidence that regulation of these genes is ethylene dependent.

  5. Influence of 1-MCP treatments on eating quality and consumer preferences of ‘Qinmei’ kiwifruit during shelf life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers and growers in China sometime complain that Kiwifruits treated with an ethylene action inhibitor 1-MCP are difficult to ripen and show poor eating quality. This study addresses the quality parameters affecting consumer preferences and reevaluates the necessity of 1-MCP application for stor...

  6. RE-INITIATING SOFTENING ABILITY OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE-TREATED 'BARLETT' AND 'D'ANJOU' PEARS AFTER REGULAR AIR OR CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ and ‘d’Anjou’ pears treated with 300 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), did not soften to eating quality within 7 d, a desirable ripening period. In this research, a preconditioning method was evaluated as a means to regenerate ripening ability of pears prior to marketing. Fruit treat...

  7. Transcriptome profiling of ripening nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit treated with 1-MCP

    PubMed Central

    Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Begheldo, Maura; Rasori, Angela; Bonghi, Claudio; Tonutti, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale transcriptome analysis has been conducted using μPEACH1.0 microarray on nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). 1-MCP maintained flesh firmness but did not block ethylene biosynthesis. Compared with samples at harvest, only nine genes appeared to be differentially expressed when fruit were sampled immediately after treatment, while a total of 90 targets were up- or down-regulated in untreated fruit. The effect of 1-MCP was confirmed by a direct comparison of transcript profiles in treated and untreated fruit after 24 h of incubation with 106 targets differentially expressed. About 30% of these targets correspond to genes involved in primary metabolism and response processes related to ethylene, auxin, and other hormones. In treated fruit, altered transcript accumulation was detected for some genes with a role in ripening-related events such as softening, colour development, and sugar metabolism. A rapid decrease in flesh firmness and an increase in ethylene production were observed in treated fruit maintained for 48 h in air at 20 °C after the end of the incubation period. Microarray comparison of this sample with untreated fruit 24 h after harvest revealed that about 45% of the genes affected by 1-MCP at the end of the incubation period changed their expression during the following 48 h in air. Among these genes, an ethylene receptor (ETR2) and three ethylene-responsive factors (ERF) were present, together with other transcription factors and ethylene-dependent genes involved in quality parameter changes. PMID:18515268

  8. Manipulation of fruit ripening in "Hass" avocado using 1-Methylcyclopropene(1-MCP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The state of Michoacán is the principal producer of ‘Hass’ avocado in Mexico with production of over 1 million tons annually. Hass avocado has excellent fruit characteristics and shelf-life. However, fruits harvested from January to May have a high dry matter content (>30%) and exhibit skin blackeni...

  9. Effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene and wax emulsions on proximate analysis and some antioxidants of soursop (Annona muricata L.).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; García-Galindo, Hugo S; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25 °C (control), and at 16 °C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20 °C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16 °C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  10. Effect of maturity and cold storage on ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in ‘Bartlett’ pears treated after harvest with 1-MCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further our understanding of the response of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and their ability to recover the capacity to ripen, ‘Bartlett’ pears were treated with 0.3 µL L-1 1-MCP for 12 h at 20 °C immediately after harvest in two seasons and to pear fruit of four maturitie...

  11. Identification of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes (XTHs) and their expression in persimmon fruit as influenced by 1-methylcyclopropene and gibberellic acid during storage at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinggang; Zhang, Zhengke; Rao, Jingping; Huber, Donald J; Lv, Jingyi; Hou, Yali; Song, Kanghua

    2013-05-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is thought to contribute to fruit softening by degrading xyloglucan that is a predominant hemicellulose in the cell wall. In this study, two full-length XTH genes (DKXTH1 and DKXTH2) were identified from 'Fupingjianshi' persimmon fruit, and the expression level of both XTH genes was investigated during softening for 18-24 d using RT-qPCR. Sequence analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 contained a putative open reading frame of 861 and 876 bp encoding polypeptides of 287 and 292 amino acid residues, respectively, which contained the conserved DEIDFEFLG motif of XTH, a potential N-linked glycosylation signal site. RT-qPCR analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 in untreated fruit had different expression patterns during fruit softening, in which maximum expression occurred on days 3 and 12 of ripening, respectively. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) treatments delayed the softening and ethylene peak of persimmon fruit, as well as suppressed the expression of both XTH genes, especially DKXTH1. These results indicated that the expression of both XTH genes might be ethylene dependent action, and closely related to softening of persimmon in the early (DKXTH1) and later (DKXTH2) ripening stages.

  12. Effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene and wax emulsions on proximate analysis and some antioxidants of soursop (Annona muricata L.).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; García-Galindo, Hugo S; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25 °C (control), and at 16 °C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20 °C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16 °C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity. PMID:24892105

  13. Effect of the Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Wax Emulsions on Proximate Analysis and Some Antioxidants of Soursop (Annona muricata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L.; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G.; García-Galindo, Hugo S.; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25°C (control), and at 16°C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20°C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16°C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity. PMID:24892105

  14. [The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the components of pro- and antioxidant systems of wheat and the development of protective reactions in fungal pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Veselova, S V; Nuzhnaia, T V; Maksimov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which inhibits the reception of ethylene, on the following has been studied: hydrogen peroxide generation, oxalate oxidase activity, peroxidase activity, catalase activity, and lignin accumulation in infected leaves of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeds that differ in their resistance to the causative agent of leaf blotch Septoria nodorum Berk. A decrease in the development of leaf blotch in wheat leaves under the influence of 1-MCP was, on one hand, followed by an inhibition of catalase activity; on the other hand, it was accompanied by an increase in oxalate oxidase and peroxidase activity, as well as an accumulation of H2O2 in tissues and lignin in the infected zone. The role of the ethylene reception system in the plants' protective response to infection with a hemibiotrophic pathogen, the causative agent of leaf blotch, is discussed. PMID:25707109

  15. Effects of different postharvest treatments on the physiology and quality of 'Xiaobai' apricots at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Guo, Qin; Wang, Gang-Xia; Peng, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Ji-de; Che, Feng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of postharvest treatments on storage characteristics of harvested apricots in relation to fruit quality was investigated. 'Xiaobai' apricots treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), calcium, and heat in sealed container and then stored at 20 °C with 90 % relative humidity (RH) for 10 days. Results showed that the treatments could reduce respiration production and MDA content, delay softening, postharvest decay, the decrease of soluble solids (SSC), and visual changes. Furthermore, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), polygalacturonase (PG), and pectin methylesterase (PME), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) activities were reduced by treatments. Taken together, it is suggested that ClO2 treatment might be an effective way to maintain the quality of apricot fruit except 1-MCP treatment. PMID:25829606

  16. Up-regulation of genes in diphenylamine- and 1-methylcyclopropene-treated apples during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold storage reduces the rate of quality loss and extends availability of fresh apples in the marketplace, but several cultivars develop various postharvest browning disorders of the peel or flesh tissue such as superficial scald and external carbon dioxide injury. Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene...

  17. Microarray analysis of ripening-regulated gene expression and its modulation by 1-MCP and hexanal.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Krishnaraj; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2011-03-01

    Hexanal, an inhibitor of phospholipase D, has been successfully applied for the pre- and post-harvest treatment of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Changes in gene expression induced by hexanal and the ethylene antagonist 1-MCP, were analyzed by microarray using TOM2 tomato oligo-array containing approximately 12 000 unigenes. Mature green tomato fruits were treated with 1-MCP and hexanal, RNA isolated after 10 days of storage, and labeled cDNA synthesized for microarray analysis. A large variation in gene expression profile was observed in 1-MCP-treated fruits. Genes for ethylene biosynthetic pathway enzymes such as ACC- synthase/oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene response factors were heavily down-regulated in 1-MCP-treated fruits. In addition, genes for key enzymes involved in cell wall degradation and carotenoid development pathways were down-regulated. Hexanal treatment significantly down-regulated ACC-synthase, and to a lesser extent, other components of ethylene signal transduction. By contrast to MCP-treated fruits, hexanal-treated fruits gradually ripened and showed higher levels of lycopene and β-carotene. GC-MS analysis of volatiles showed a higher level of major volatile components in hexanal-treated fruits. Similarities in the modulation of gene expression by hexanal and 1-MCP suggest that hexanal, in addition to being a PLD inhibitor, may also act as a weak ethylene inhibitor.

  18. [Effect of 1-MCP on senescence and quality in cold-stored edible podded pea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lan; Feng, Lei; Su, Xin-Guo; Jiang, Yue-Ming

    2004-04-01

    The effects of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclo-propene) at 0.5, 1 and 2 muL/L on senescence and quality attributes in edible podded pea (Pisum sativum L.var.Saccharatum) during cold storage at 1 degrees C were investigated. The results indicated that treatments with 1 and 2 microL/L 1-MCP significantly inhibited respiratory rate, ethylene production and superoxide production, maintained higher levels of SOD, AsA-POD activities and chlorophyll and AsA contents, reduced the increases in MDA and fiber contents and decay index, thereby delayed the senescence process and quality deterioration. Treatment with 0.5 microL/L 1-MCP showed no significant effects on senescence and quality changes in harvested edible podded pea.

  19. Influence of postharvest treatments on quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid content of stored "spring belle" peach (prunus persica) fruit.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Ivano; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2009-08-12

    The influence of four postharvest treatments, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2), followed by fruit storage at 10 degrees C or of hydrocooling (H2O) at 1 degrees C, followed by storage at 0 degrees C on fruit quality, carotenoids, and abscisic acid (ABA) content as well as on ethylene and carbon dioxide production of "Spring Belle" peach fruits, has been examined. Ethylene production was reduced by all the treatments and raised after transfer the fruits at 20 degrees C, their ethylene production in general being lower than that of fruits continuously held at 20 degrees C. Nevertheless, 1-MCP removal enhanced the rise in ethylene occurring at 20 degrees C by the end of storage. Those changes were likely related to fruit softening but not to changes in color or in the soluble solid content (SSC). HPLC analyses showed a relative high content of xanthophylls, particularly violaxanthin. In fruits maintained in air at 20 degrees C, violaxanthin and beta-carotene contents decreased while beta-criptoxanthin increased. ABA content showed a great increase in 1-MCP and significant decrease in carbon dioxide and hydrocooling treated peaches. The results indicated hydrocooling, in combination with low temperature storage, as the best treatment maintaining fruit firmness due to the lowered respiration rate and the content of relevant carotenoids.

  20. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) in Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is the first discovered and most extensively studied CC chemokine, and the amount of studies on its role in the etiologies of obesity- and diabetes-related diseases have increased exponentially during the past 2 decades. This review attempted to provide a panoramic perspective of the history, regulatory mechanisms, functions, and therapeutic strategies of this chemokine. The highlights of this review include the roles of MCP-1 in the development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, insulitis, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Therapies that specifically or non-specifically inhibit MCP-1 overproduction have been summarized. PMID:22766373

  1. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. PMID:24216324

  2. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA.

  3. Controlled delivery of 1-MCP from R1, R2-B-methylene cyclopropane complexes: an effective approach to be used both in closed environments and open crop fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1-methylcycloprene (1-MCP) is a synthetic plant growth regulator used for the confined treatment of perishable agricultural commodities, such as fruits, flowers and vegetables, to retard ripening and thus prolong shelf-life. Previous investigations have shown that 1-MCP protects crops from yield los...

  4. Interactions between 1-MCP and controlled atmospheres on quality and storage disorders of fruits and vegetable

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) to maintain quality attributes of horticultural products has been investigated extensively. Commercial applications of 1-MCP (SmartFreshTM), are made to a range of horticultural crops, including avocados, bananas, melons, persimmons and tomatoes, but the major...

  5. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene coupled with controlled atmosphere storage on the ripening and quality of ‘Cavendish’ bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-fruit banana is well known to have a short-life after harvest. A short pre-pilot study was carried out to test the effect of atmospheric condition exposure to 1-MCP on the quality, limited to cosmetic and peel appearance, and shelf life of fresh-fruit bananas. Low level of O2 (3 kPa) and high ...

  6. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) contributes to thymus atrophy in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Driss, Virginie; Quesnel, Bruno; Brinster, Carine

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies on acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients have revealed the existence of T-cell immunodeficiencies, characterized by peripheral T lymphocytes that are unable to interact with blasts, reduced thymic emigrants and oligoclonal restricted repertoires. These observations suggest that there is a profound thymic dysregulation, which is difficult to study in AML patients. Using the C1498 AML mouse model, we demonstrated that leukemia development was associated with thymus atrophy, which was defined by abnormal organ weight and reduced cellularity. In addition, we observed a dramatic loss of peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell numbers with increased frequencies of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory and activated/memory T cells. Investigating the mechanisms leading to this atrophy, we observed a significant accumulation of the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in thymi of leukemic mice. Treatment of AML-bearing animals with a blocking anti-CCL2 antibody revealed a lower tumor burden, augmented antileukemic T-cell responses, and improved survival rate compared to nontreated mice. These results were not observed when neutralization of CCL2 was performed in thymectomized mice. Altogether, we show that the CCL2 protein participates in thymic atrophy in AML mice, and this could have important implications for future immunotherapeutic strategies.

  7. Interactions between 1-MCP and controlled atmosphere storage on quality and storage disorders of fruits and vegetable.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) to maintain quality attributes of horticultural products has been investigated extensively. Commercial applications of 1-MCP (SmartFreshTM), are made to a range of horticultural crops, including avocados, bananas, melons, persimmons and tomatoes, but the major...

  8. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  9. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  10. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  11. Phyllostachys edulis Compounds Inhibit Palmitic Acid-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) Production

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Jason K.; Liang, Zhibin; Williams, Philip G.; Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Phyllostachys edulis Carriere (Poaceae) is a bamboo species that is part of the traditional Chinese medicine pharmacopoeia. Compounds and extracts from this species have shown potential applications towards several diseases. One of many complications found in obesity and diabetes is the link between elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs) and chronic inflammation. This study aims to present a possible application of P. edulis extract in relieving inflammation caused by FFAs. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are transcription factors activated in response to inflammatory stimuli, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1. This study examines the effect of P. edulis extract on cellular production of MCP-1 and on the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in response to treatment with palmitic acid (PA), a FFA. Methodology/Principal Findings MCP-1 protein was measured by cytometric bead assay. NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear localization was detected by colorimetric DNA-binding ELISA. Relative MCP-1 mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Murine cells were treated with PA to induce inflammation. PA increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1. Adding bamboo extract (BEX) inhibited the effects of PA, reduced MCP-1 production, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 subunits. Compounds isolated from BEX inhibited MCP-1 secretion with different potencies. Conclusions/Significance PA induced MCP-1 production in murine adipose, muscle, and liver cells. BEX ameliorated PA-induced production of MCP-1 by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Two O-methylated flavones were isolated from BEX with functional effects on MCP-1 production. These results may represent a possible therapeutic

  12. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), -2, and -3 are chemotactic for human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Taub, D D; Proost, P; Murphy, W J; Anver, M; Longo, D L; van Damme, J; Oppenheim, J J

    1995-01-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, -2, and -3 all have been shown to induce monocyte/macrophage migration in vitro and MCP-1, also known as MCAF, chemoattracts basophils and mast cells. We report here that natural MCP-1 as well as synthetic preparations of MCP-2 and MCP-3 stimulate significant in vitro chemotaxis of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. This MCP-induced migration was dose-dependent and directional, but not chemokinetic. Phenotypic analysis of the T cell population responsive to MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 demonstrates that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells migrated in response to these chemokines. Similar results were observed using human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Neutralizing antisera to MCAF or MCP-2 abrogated T cell migration in response to MCP-1 and MCP-2, respectively, but not to RANTES. Subcutaneous administration of purified MCP-1 into the hind flanks of SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced significant human CD3+ T cell infiltration into the site of injection at 4 h. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 are inflammatory mediators that specifically stimulate the directional migration of T cells as well as monocytes and may play an important role in immune cell recruitment into sites of antigenic challenge. Images PMID:7883984

  13. The detection and localization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Negus, R P; Stamp, G W; Relf, M G; Burke, F; Malik, S T; Bernasconi, S; Allavena, P; Sozzani, S; Mantovani, A; Balkwill, F R

    1995-01-01

    Chemokines may control the macrophage infiltrate found in many solid tumors. In human ovarian cancer, in situ hybridization detected mRNA for the macrophage chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in 16/17 serous carcinomas, 4/4 mucinous carcinomas, 2/2 endometrioid carcinomas, and 1/3 borderline tumors. In serous tumors, mRNA expression mainly localized to the epithelial areas, as did immunoreactive MCP-1 protein. In the other tumors, both stromal and epithelial expression were seen. All tumors contained variable numbers of cells positive for the macrophage marker CD68. MCP-1 mRNA was also detected in the stroma of 5/5 normal ovaries. RT-PCR demonstrated mRNA for MCP-1 in 7/7 serous carcinomas and 6/6 ovarian cancer cell lines. MCP-1 protein was detected by ELISA in ascites from patients with ovarian cancer (mean 4.28 ng/ml) and was produced primarily by the cancer cells. Human MCP-1 protein was also detected in culture supernatants from cell lines and in ascites from human ovarian tumor xenografts which induce a peritoneal monocytosis in nude mice. We conclude that the macrophage chemoattractant MCP-1 is produced by epithelial ovarian cancer and that the tumor cells themselves are probably a major source. MCP-1 may contribute to the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages, which may subsequently influence tumor behavior. Images PMID:7738202

  14. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-28

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10(-12) to 10(-8) g mL(-1). The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL(-1)) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design. PMID:26183340

  15. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  16. Storage temperature and 1-MCP treatment affect storage disorders and physiological attributes of ‘Royal Gala’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Royal Gala’ apples [Malus domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] can develop postharvest disorders such as flesh browning, senescent breakdown, peeling, cracking, or shriveling during and after cold storage. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of storage temperature and a range of 1-methylc...

  17. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) as prognostic markers for progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tam, Frederick W K; Riser, Bruce L; Meeran, Karim; Rambow, JoAnn; Pusey, Charles D; Frankel, Andrew H

    2009-07-01

    Profibrotic growth factors and inflammatory chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, measurement of urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) as prognostic markers has not previously been reported, and neither have two such molecules in urine been examined in a single study of DN. In this prospective observational study, 43 adult diabetic patients were studied, 40 were followed up for 6years. Urinary MCP-1/creatinine ratios were found to be significantly higher in patients with macroalbuminuria (3.3- and 2.1-fold higher (p<0.01) than normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric patients, respectively). CCN2 exhibited a pattern different from that of urinary MCP-1. Urinary CCN2/creatinine ratios were greatly elevated in both microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuric patients (125- and 74-fold higher than normoalbuminuric patients, respectively, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Further, urinary CCN2, but not MCP-1, correlated with progression of microalbuminuria (R=0.49, p<0.05). In contrast, MCP-1, but not CCN2, correlated with the rate of eGFR decline for all patients (R=0.61, p<0.0001), reflective of its predictive value in patients with macroalbuminuria, but not for patients with microalbuminuria or normoalbuminuria. In conclusion, increased urinary CCN2 is associated with the early progression of DN, whereas MCP-1 is associated with later stage disease. PMID:19409809

  18. Tomato Root Penetration in Soil Requires a Coaction between Ethylene and Auxin Signaling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Vasuki, Himabindu; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Ivanchenko, Maria G.; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2011-01-01

    During seed germination, emerging roots display positive gravitropism and penetrate into the soil for nutrition and anchorage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds germinated in the presence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, failed to insert roots into Soilrite and grew in the air, forming loops. Time-lapse video imaging showed that 1-MCP-grown root tips retained positive gravitropism and made contact with the surface of Soilrite but failed to penetrate into the Soilrite. Time-course studies revealed that the effect of 1-MCP was most prominent when seed imbibition and germination were carried out in the continual presence of 1-MCP. Conversely, 1-MCP was ineffective when applied postgermination after penetration of roots in the Soilrite. Furthermore, treatment with 1-MCP caused a reduction in DR5::β-glucuronidase auxin-reporter activity and modified the expression of SlIAA3 and SlIAA9 transcripts, indicating interference with auxin signaling. The reduced ethylene perception mutant, Never-ripe, displayed decreased ability for root penetration, and the enhanced polar auxin transport mutant, polycotyledon, showed a nearly normal root penetration in the presence of 1-MCP, which could be reversed by application of auxin transport inhibitors. Our results indicate that during tomato seed germination, a coaction between ethylene and auxin is required for root penetration into the soil. PMID:21571667

  19. Tomato root penetration in soil requires a coaction between ethylene and auxin signaling.

    PubMed

    Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Vasuki, Himabindu; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Ivanchenko, Maria G; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2011-07-01

    During seed germination, emerging roots display positive gravitropism and penetrate into the soil for nutrition and anchorage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds germinated in the presence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, failed to insert roots into Soilrite and grew in the air, forming loops. Time-lapse video imaging showed that 1-MCP-grown root tips retained positive gravitropism and made contact with the surface of Soilrite but failed to penetrate into the Soilrite. Time-course studies revealed that the effect of 1-MCP was most prominent when seed imbibition and germination were carried out in the continual presence of 1-MCP. Conversely, 1-MCP was ineffective when applied postgermination after penetration of roots in the Soilrite. Furthermore, treatment with 1-MCP caused a reduction in DR5::β-glucuronidase auxin-reporter activity and modified the expression of SlIAA3 and SlIAA9 transcripts, indicating interference with auxin signaling. The reduced ethylene perception mutant, Never-ripe, displayed decreased ability for root penetration, and the enhanced polar auxin transport mutant, polycotyledon, showed a nearly normal root penetration in the presence of 1-MCP, which could be reversed by application of auxin transport inhibitors. Our results indicate that during tomato seed germination, a coaction between ethylene and auxin is required for root penetration into the soil.

  20. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1–4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1–5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the early stage of ethylene treatment. However, 1-MCP did not suppress ethylene production in these three tissues. In sepals, ethylene production was highly decreased by ethylene treatment, and increased dramatically by 1-MCP. Ethylene production in stamens remained unchanged after ethylene or 1-MCP treatment. Induction of certain ethylene biosynthetic genes by ethylene in different floral tissues was positively correlated with the ethylene production, and this induction was also not suppressed by 1-MCP. The expression of Rh-ACS2 and Rh-ACS3 was quickly induced by ethylene in gynoecia, but neither Rh-ACS1 nor Rh-ACS4 was induced by ethylene in any of the five tissues. In addition, Rh-ACO1 was induced by ethylene in all floral tissues except sepals. The induced expression of ethylene receptor genes by ethylene was much faster in gynoecia than in petals, and the expression of Rh-ETR3 was strongly suppressed by 1-MCP in all floral tissues. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in gynoecia is regulated developmentally, rather than autocatalytically. The response of rose flowers to ethylene occurs initially in gynoecia, and ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through the Rh-ETR3 gene in gynoecia. PMID:18535299

  1. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1-4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1-5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the early stage of ethylene treatment. However, 1-MCP did not suppress ethylene production in these three tissues. In sepals, ethylene production was highly decreased by ethylene treatment, and increased dramatically by 1-MCP. Ethylene production in stamens remained unchanged after ethylene or 1-MCP treatment. Induction of certain ethylene biosynthetic genes by ethylene in different floral tissues was positively correlated with the ethylene production, and this induction was also not suppressed by 1-MCP. The expression of Rh-ACS2 and Rh-ACS3 was quickly induced by ethylene in gynoecia, but neither Rh-ACS1 nor Rh-ACS4 was induced by ethylene in any of the five tissues. In addition, Rh-ACO1 was induced by ethylene in all floral tissues except sepals. The induced expression of ethylene receptor genes by ethylene was much faster in gynoecia than in petals, and the expression of Rh-ETR3 was strongly suppressed by 1-MCP in all floral tissues. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in gynoecia is regulated developmentally, rather than autocatalytically. The response of rose flowers to ethylene occurs initially in gynoecia, and ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through the Rh-ETR3 gene in gynoecia.

  2. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Freiman, Zohar E.; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence–drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig. PMID:25956879

  3. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes.

    PubMed

    Freiman, Zohar E; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-06-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence-drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig.

  4. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling illustrates successive phases of increasing gene expression associated with chilling-related apple peel cell death

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a chilling-related storage disorder of apple caused by the death of peel epidermal and hypodermal cells and associated discoloration. It is controlled using postharvest antioxidant (diphenylamine; DPA) and ethylene action inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene; 1-MCP), and/or controlle...

  5. Regulatory mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis in response to various stimuli during maturation and ripening in fig fruit (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Owino, W O; Manabe, Y; Mathooko, F M; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain a greater uniformity of maturation, the growth of the fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) can be stimulated by the application of either olive oil, ethrel/ethephon or auxin. The three treatments induce ethylene production in figs. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for oil, auxin and ethylene induced ethylene production in figs. The ethylene production in response to olive oil, auxin, and propylene treatments and during ripening were all induced by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and inhibited by propylene indicating a negative feedback regulation mechanism. Three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase genes (Fc-ACS1, Fc-ACS2 and Fc-ACS3) and one ACC oxidase gene (Fc-ACO1) were isolated and their expression patterns in response to either oil, propylene or auxin treatment in figs determined. The expression patterns of Fc-ACS1 and Fc-ACO1 were clearly inhibited by 1-MCP and induced by propylene in oil treated and ripe fruits indicating positive regulation by ethylene, whereas Fc-ACS2 gene expression was induced by 1-MCP and inhibited by propylene indicating negative regulation by ethylene. The Fc-ACS3 mRNA showed high level accumulation in the auxin treated fruit. The inhibition of Fc-ACS3 gene by 1-MCP in oil treated and in ripe fruits suggests that auxin and ethylene modulate the expression of this gene by multi-responsive signal transduction pathway mechanisms. We further report that the olive oil-induced ethylene in figs involves the ACC-dependent pathway and that multiple ethylene regulatory pathways are involved during maturation and ripening in figs and each specific pathway depends on the inducer/stimulus. PMID:16889975

  6. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes. PMID:23599278

  7. 1-Methylcyclopropene effects on temporal changes of aroma volatiles and phytochemicals of fresh-cut cantaloupe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange fleshed cantaloupe melons have intense aroma and flavor, but are very perishable. Changes in quality traits were characterized during storage-life of fresh-cut cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis "Fiesta") cubes treated with 1.0 µL L-1 4 of 1-methylcyclopene for 24 h at 5 ºC, packaged...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...-Methylcyclopropene in or on fruits and vegetables when: (a) Used as a post harvest plant growth regulator, i.e.,...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...-Methylcyclopropene in or on fruits and vegetables when: (a) Used as a post harvest plant growth regulator, i.e.,...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...-Methylcyclopropene in or on fruits and vegetables when: (a) Used as a post harvest plant growth regulator, i.e.,...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...-Methylcyclopropene in or on fruits and vegetables when: (a) Used as a post harvest plant growth regulator, i.e.,...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1220 - 1-Methylcyclopropene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...-Methylcyclopropene in or on fruits and vegetables when: (a) Used as a post harvest plant growth regulator, i.e.,...

  13. Characterization of two putative ethylene receptor genes expressed during peach fruit development and abscission.

    PubMed

    Rasori, Angela; Ruperti, Benedetto; Bonghi, Claudio; Tonutti, Pietro; Ramina, Angelo

    2002-12-01

    Two peach genes homologous to the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor genes ETR1 and ERS1, named Pp-ETR1 and Pp-ERS1 respectively, have been isolated and characterized. Pp-ETR1 and Pp-ERS1 are conserved in terms of exon numbers and intron positions, although the first and fifth introns of Pp-ETR1 have an unusual length. In addition, two putative polyadenylation sites, that may cause an incomplete splicing at the 3' terminus, are present in the fifth intron. A motif of 28 nt, which shows high homology with ethylene responsive elements found in promoters of genes up-regulated by ethylene, is present in the promoter region of Pp-ERS1. Expression analysis, carried out by quantitative RT-PCR, was performed during fruit development and ripening, and leaf and fruitlet abscission. The level of Pp-ETR1 transcripts remained unchanged in all the tissues and developmental stages examined, whereas Pp-ERS1 mRNA abundance increased in ripening mesocarp, in leaf and fruitlet activated abscission zones, and following propylene application. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, did not affect Pp-ETR1 transcription, while it down-regulated Pp-ERS1. A rise in ethylene evolution, accompanied by an increase of Pp-ERS1 transcript accumulation occurred within 24 h from the end of 1-MCP treatment. These results indicate that Pp-ERS1 might play a role in abscission and ripening.

  14. Variations in zonal fruit starch concentrations of apples – a developmental phenomenon or an indication of ripening?

    PubMed Central

    Doerflinger, Franziska C; Miller, William B; Nock, Jacqueline F; Watkins, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of starch hydrolysis in stem, equatorial, and calyx zones of ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Empire’ apples (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.) during maturation and ripening, and in ‘Gala’ apples in response to propylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments after harvest, were studied. Differences in zonal starch concentrations were found for ‘Empire’ and ‘Gala’ fruits, but not for ‘Honeycrisp’. During maturation and ripening of ‘Empire’, the concentration of starch was highest in the calyx end and lowest in the stem region. Differences in rates of starch hydrolysis among zones were not detected. ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Empire’ had the highest concentration of sorbitol in the calyx region, whereas it was highest in the stem-end region in ‘Gala’. The distribution differences of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were similar in all three cultivars; higher fructose and glucose concentrations in the stem region, and higher sucrose concentrations in the calyx end of the fruit. Postharvest treatment of ‘Gala’ with propylene did not affect the internal ethylene concentration of the fruit but 1-MCP markedly inhibited it. Starch concentrations were highest in the calyx end but gradients of starch among zones were not changed by postharvest treatment. The rate of hydrolysis was slowed by 1-MCP treatment, but was unaffected by propylene. Postharvest treatments influenced sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations. Patterns of starch concentration among the zones did not confirm differences in ripening, but reflected its uneven distribution throughout the fruit during development. Therefore, measured differences in zonal starch are most likely related to starch accumulation during fruit development, rather than differences in rates of starch degradation during ripening. PMID:26504584

  15. Abscission of flowers and floral organs is closely associated with alkalization of the cytosol in abscission zone cells

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Srivignesh; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Riov, Joseph; Belausov, Eduard; Kochanek, Betina; Tucker, Mark L.; Meir, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    In vivo changes in the cytosolic pH of abscission zone (AZ) cells were visualized using confocal microscopic detection of the fluorescent pH-sensitive and intracellularly trapped dye, 2’,7’-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), driven by its acetoxymethyl ester. A specific and gradual increase in the cytosolic pH of AZ cells was observed during natural abscission of flower organs in Arabidopsis thaliana and wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and during flower pedicel abscission induced by flower removal in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill). The alkalization pattern in the first two species paralleled the acceleration or inhibition of flower organ abscission induced by ethylene or its inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), respectively. Similarly, 1-MCP pre-treatment of tomato inflorescence explants abolished the pH increase in AZ cells and pedicel abscission induced by flower removal. Examination of the pH changes in the AZ cells of Arabidopsis mutants defective in both ethylene-induced (ctr1, ein2, eto4) and ethylene-independent (ida, nev7, dab5) abscission pathways confirmed these results. The data indicate that the pH changes in the AZ cells are part of both the ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive abscission pathways, and occur concomitantly with the execution of organ abscission. pH can affect enzymatic activities and/or act as a signal for gene expression. Changes in pH during abscission could occur via regulation of transporters in AZ cells, which might affect cytosolic pH. Indeed, four genes associated with pH regulation, vacuolar H+-ATPase, putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, and two GTP-binding proteins, were specifically up-regulated in tomato flower AZ following abscission induction, and 1-MCP reduced or abolished the increased expression. PMID:25504336

  16. Abscission of flowers and floral organs is closely associated with alkalization of the cytosol in abscission zone cells.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Srivignesh; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Riov, Joseph; Belausov, Eduard; Kochanek, Betina; Tucker, Mark L; Meir, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    In vivo changes in the cytosolic pH of abscission zone (AZ) cells were visualized using confocal microscopic detection of the fluorescent pH-sensitive and intracellularly trapped dye, 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), driven by its acetoxymethyl ester. A specific and gradual increase in the cytosolic pH of AZ cells was observed during natural abscission of flower organs in Arabidopsis thaliana and wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and during flower pedicel abscission induced by flower removal in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill). The alkalization pattern in the first two species paralleled the acceleration or inhibition of flower organ abscission induced by ethylene or its inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), respectively. Similarly, 1-MCP pre-treatment of tomato inflorescence explants abolished the pH increase in AZ cells and pedicel abscission induced by flower removal. Examination of the pH changes in the AZ cells of Arabidopsis mutants defective in both ethylene-induced (ctr1, ein2, eto4) and ethylene-independent (ida, nev7, dab5) abscission pathways confirmed these results. The data indicate that the pH changes in the AZ cells are part of both the ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive abscission pathways, and occur concomitantly with the execution of organ abscission. pH can affect enzymatic activities and/or act as a signal for gene expression. Changes in pH during abscission could occur via regulation of transporters in AZ cells, which might affect cytosolic pH. Indeed, four genes associated with pH regulation, vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, putative high-affinity nitrate transporter, and two GTP-binding proteins, were specifically up-regulated in tomato flower AZ following abscission induction, and 1-MCP reduced or abolished the increased expression.

  17. Impacts of 1-Methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere established during conditioning on development of bitter pit in ‘Honeycrisp’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Honeycrisp’ apples are susceptible to develop the physiological disorder bitter pit. This disorder typically develops during storage, but pre-harvest lesion development can also occur. ‘Honeycrisp’ is also chilling sensitive and fruit is typically held at 10-20 oC after harvest for up to 7d to re...

  18. MdERFs, two ethylene-response factors involved in apple fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aide; Tan, Dongmei; Takahashi, Ayako; Li, Tian Zhong; Harada, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    Two MdERFs (ethylene-response factors) were isolated from ripening apple (Malusxdomestica Borkh. cv. Golden Delicious) fruit. The features of their conserved motifs indicated that MdERF1 and MdERF2 belong to group VII and group IX categories in Arabidopsis, respectively. MdERF1 was expressed predominantly in ripening fruit, although a small degree of expression was also observed in non-fruit tissues, whereas MdERF2 was expressed exclusively in ripening fruit. The increased expression in ripening fruit was repressed by treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP: a potent antagonist of ethylene receptors), indicating that transcription is regulated positively by the ethylene signalling system. Indeed, it was a tendency for cultivars with low ethylene production to show lower MdERFs expression than those with high ethylene production. On the basis of concomitant analyses of the expression of some genes related to ripening, the functions of MdERFs and the role of ethylene in the ripening process are discussed.

  19. The Arabidopsis mutant eer2 has enhanced ethylene responses in the light.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Annelies; De Grauwe, Liesbeth; Bertrand, Sophie; Smalle, Jan; Van der Straeten, Dominique

    2005-09-01

    By screening for ethylene response mutants in Arabidopsis, a novel mutant, eer2, was isolated which displays enhanced ethylene responses. On a low nutrient medium (LNM) light-grown eer2 seedlings showed a significant hypocotyl elongation in response to low levels of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, compared with the wild type, indicating that eer2 is hypersensitive to ethylene. Treatment with 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene signalling, suppressed this hypersensitive response, demonstrating that it is a bona fide ethylene effect. By contrast, roots of eer2 were less sensitive than the wild type to low concentrations of ACC. The ethylene levels in eer2 did not differ from the wild type, indicating that ethylene overproduction is not the primary cause of the eer2 phenotype. In addition to its enhanced ethylene response of hypocotyls, eer2 is also affected in the pattern of senescence and its phenotype depends on the nutritional status of the growth medium. Furthermore, linkage analysis of eer2 suggests that this mutant defines a new locus in ethylene signalling.

  20. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato. PMID:22915749

  1. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-09-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato.

  2. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects.

  3. Impact of innovative controlled atmosphere storage technologies and postharvest treatments on volatile compound production in cv. Pinova apples.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Antonio; Kelderer, Markus; Paoletti, Flavio; Zanella, Angelo

    2009-02-11

    Organically grown apples cv. Pinova harvested at two different dates were stored at 1.3 degrees C for up to 4 months in air, up to 7 months in ULO (1.5 kPa of O(2) and 1.3 kPa of CO(2)) and in dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) conditions (0.4-0.6 kPa of O(2) and 0.6-0.8 kPa of CO(2)); the DCA storage method involved the use of a chlorophyll fluorescence monitoring system in order to detect low-O(2) stress in apples and to allow for the dynamic adaptation of storage atmosphere to O(2) levels that were lower than in ULO but still tolerated by fruits. A postharvest 1-MCP treatment (for 24 h at 1.3 degrees C) and a hot water treatment (for 180 s at 50 degrees C) were also tested on apples stored afterward in ULO and air, respectively. Volatile compounds isolated from the pulp of fruits were measured after 4 and 7 months, just upon removal from storage and after 11 days at 22 degrees C. Total amount of aroma compounds detected in apples stored in DCA was markedly higher (from 2- to 4-fold) than in fruits exposed to 1-MCP + ULO but, at most sampling times, significantly lower than in ULO fruits. Moderate differences in storage atmosphere composition between ULO and DCA significantly affected both total amount and profile of volatile esters. Analogous effects were observed on the alcohol precursors of the main esters. Exposure to 1-MCP inhibited biosynthesis of straight-chain esters more than that of branched-chain esters. The hot water treatment did not seem to produce marked changes in volatile composition after four months of air storage, except for a sharp accumulation of aldehydes during the shelf-life time. DCA storage technology, besides avoiding any chemical treatment, can preserve apple aroma compounds better than 1-MCP + ULO during long-term storage.

  4. Expression of expansin genes in the pulp and the dehiscence zone of ripening durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Palapol, Yossapol; Kunyamee, Sutin; Thongkhum, Monthatip; Ketsa, Saichol; Ferguson, Ian B; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-06-15

    Durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit was harvested at the commercially mature stage and stored at 25°C. Durian fruit have 3-5 longitudinal dehiscence zones (DZs) in the peel, which are up to 40cm long and 2cm thick in large fruit. Dehiscence started a week after harvest, was hastened by exogenous ethylene, and delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), showing that it is regulated by endogenous ethylene. Three genes encoding α-expansins (DzEXP1-3) were isolated. In the expression of these genes increased, prior to dehiscence. Pulp firmness decreased during storage. The decrease was hastened by ethylene and delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Exogenous ethylene promoted gene expression of DzEXP1 both in the DZs and in the pulp. It had a smaller effect on DzEXP2 in the zones and pulp, but did not affect DzEXP3 expression. 1-MCP inhibited the expression of DzEXP1 and, somewhat less, of DzEXP2, but did not affect DzEXP3 expression, both in DZs and pulp. It is concluded that the close relationship between expression of DzEXP1 and DzEXP2 and both dehiscence and fruit softening suggests that these genes are involved in both processes.

  5. Expression of expansin genes in the pulp and the dehiscence zone of ripening durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Palapol, Yossapol; Kunyamee, Sutin; Thongkhum, Monthatip; Ketsa, Saichol; Ferguson, Ian B; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-06-15

    Durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit was harvested at the commercially mature stage and stored at 25°C. Durian fruit have 3-5 longitudinal dehiscence zones (DZs) in the peel, which are up to 40cm long and 2cm thick in large fruit. Dehiscence started a week after harvest, was hastened by exogenous ethylene, and delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), showing that it is regulated by endogenous ethylene. Three genes encoding α-expansins (DzEXP1-3) were isolated. In the expression of these genes increased, prior to dehiscence. Pulp firmness decreased during storage. The decrease was hastened by ethylene and delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Exogenous ethylene promoted gene expression of DzEXP1 both in the DZs and in the pulp. It had a smaller effect on DzEXP2 in the zones and pulp, but did not affect DzEXP3 expression. 1-MCP inhibited the expression of DzEXP1 and, somewhat less, of DzEXP2, but did not affect DzEXP3 expression, both in DZs and pulp. It is concluded that the close relationship between expression of DzEXP1 and DzEXP2 and both dehiscence and fruit softening suggests that these genes are involved in both processes. PMID:26047070

  6. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  7. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Li, Xueping; Chen, Weixin; Chen, Jianye; Lu, Wangjin; Chen, Lei; Fu, Danwen

    2012-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1) and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2) genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2), 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental conditions.

  8. Ethylene suppresses tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit set through modification of gibberellin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Hao, Shuhei; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ozeki-Iida, Yuko; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Zhong, Silin; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Heta, Yumi; Ezura, Hiroshi; Ariizumi, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Fruit set in angiosperms marks the transition from flowering to fruit production and a commitment to seed dispersal. Studies with Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit have shown that pollination and subsequent fertilization induce the biosynthesis of several hormones, including auxin and gibberellins (GAs), which stimulate fruit set. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the gaseous hormone ethylene may also influence fruit set, but this has yet to be substantiated with molecular or mechanistic data. Here, we examined fruit set at the biochemical and genetic levels, using hormone and inhibitor treatments, and mutants that affect auxin or ethylene signaling. The expression of system-1 ethylene biosynthetic genes and the production of ethylene decreased during pollination-dependent fruit set in wild-type tomato and during pollination-independent fruit set in the auxin hypersensitive mutant iaa9-3. Blocking ethylene perception in emasculated flowers, using either the ethylene-insensitive Sletr1-1 mutation or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), resulted in elongated parthenocarpic fruit and increased cell expansion, whereas simultaneous treatment with the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) inhibited parthenocarpy. Additionally, the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to pollinated ovaries reduced fruit set. Furthermore, Sletr1-1 parthenocarpic fruits did not exhibit increased auxin accumulation, but rather had elevated levels of bioactive GAs, most likely reflecting an increase in transcripts encoding the GA-biosynthetic enzyme SlGA20ox3, as well as a reduction in the levels of transcripts encoding the GA-inactivating enzymes SlGA2ox4 and SlGA2ox5. Taken together, our results suggest that ethylene plays a role in tomato fruit set by suppressing GA metabolism. PMID:25996898

  9. Ethylene suppresses tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit set through modification of gibberellin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Hao, Shuhei; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ozeki-Iida, Yuko; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Zhong, Silin; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Heta, Yumi; Ezura, Hiroshi; Ariizumi, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Fruit set in angiosperms marks the transition from flowering to fruit production and a commitment to seed dispersal. Studies with Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit have shown that pollination and subsequent fertilization induce the biosynthesis of several hormones, including auxin and gibberellins (GAs), which stimulate fruit set. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the gaseous hormone ethylene may also influence fruit set, but this has yet to be substantiated with molecular or mechanistic data. Here, we examined fruit set at the biochemical and genetic levels, using hormone and inhibitor treatments, and mutants that affect auxin or ethylene signaling. The expression of system-1 ethylene biosynthetic genes and the production of ethylene decreased during pollination-dependent fruit set in wild-type tomato and during pollination-independent fruit set in the auxin hypersensitive mutant iaa9-3. Blocking ethylene perception in emasculated flowers, using either the ethylene-insensitive Sletr1-1 mutation or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), resulted in elongated parthenocarpic fruit and increased cell expansion, whereas simultaneous treatment with the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) inhibited parthenocarpy. Additionally, the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to pollinated ovaries reduced fruit set. Furthermore, Sletr1-1 parthenocarpic fruits did not exhibit increased auxin accumulation, but rather had elevated levels of bioactive GAs, most likely reflecting an increase in transcripts encoding the GA-biosynthetic enzyme SlGA20ox3, as well as a reduction in the levels of transcripts encoding the GA-inactivating enzymes SlGA2ox4 and SlGA2ox5. Taken together, our results suggest that ethylene plays a role in tomato fruit set by suppressing GA metabolism.

  10. Reciprocity between abscisic acid and ethylene at the onset of berry ripening and after harvest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ripening of grape berry is generally regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), and has no relationship with ethylene function. However, functional interaction and synergism between ABA and ethylene during the beginning of grape berry ripening (véraison) has been found recently. Results The expressions of VvNCED1 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and VvGT encoding ABA glucosyltransferase were all increased rapidly at the stage of véraison and reached the highest level at 9th week after full bloom. However, VvCYP1 encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase and VvβG1 encoding berry β-glucosidase are different, whose expression peak appeared at the 10th week after full bloom and in especial VvβG1 remained at a high level till harvest. The VvACO1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase, the VvETR2 (ethylene response 2) and VvCTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) had a transient expression peak at pre-véraison, while the VvEIN4 (ethylene insensitive 4) expression gradually increased from the véraison to one week before harvest stage. The above mentioned changes happened again in the berry after harvest. At one week before véraison, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) not only inhibited the release of ethylene and the expression of related genes but also suppressed the transcription of VvNCED1 and the synthesis of ABA which all might result in inhibiting the fruit ripening onset. Treatment with ABA could relieve the double block and restore fruit ripening course. However, after harvest, double block treatment with NiCl2 plus 1-MCP could not suppress the transcription of VvNCED1 and the accumulation of ABA, and also could not inhibit the start of fruit senescence. Conclusion The trace endogenous ethylene induces the transcription of VvNCED1 and then the generation of ABA followed. Both ethylene and ABA are likely to be important and their interplaying may be required to start the process of berry ripening

  11. Metabolic profiling reveals ethylene mediated metabolic changes and a coordinated adaptive mechanism of 'Jonagold' apple to low oxygen stress.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Elias A; Beshir, Wasiye F; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2015-11-01

    Apples are predominantly stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to delay ripening and prolong their storage life. Profiling the dynamics of metabolic changes during ripening and CA storage is vital for understanding the governing molecular mechanism. In this study, the dynamics of the primary metabolism of 'Jonagold' apples during ripening in regular air (RA) storage and initiation of CA storage was profiled. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was exploited to block ethylene receptors and to get insight into ethylene mediated metabolic changes during ripening of the fruit and in response to hypoxic stress. Metabolic changes were quantified in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the Yang cycle and synthesis of the main amino acids branching from these metabolic pathways. Partial least square discriminant analysis of the metabolic profiles of 1-MCP treated and control apples revealed a metabolic divergence in ethylene, organic acid, sugar and amino acid metabolism. During RA storage at 18°C, most amino acids were higher in 1-MCP treated apples, whereas 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was higher in the control apples. The initial response of the fruit to CA initiation was accompanied by an increase of alanine, succinate and glutamate, but a decline in aspartate. Furthermore, alanine and succinate accumulated to higher levels in control apples than 1-MCP treated apples. The observed metabolic changes in these interlinked metabolites may indicate a coordinated adaptive strategy to maximize energy production. PMID:26031836

  12. Metabolic profiling reveals ethylene mediated metabolic changes and a coordinated adaptive mechanism of 'Jonagold' apple to low oxygen stress.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Elias A; Beshir, Wasiye F; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2015-11-01

    Apples are predominantly stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to delay ripening and prolong their storage life. Profiling the dynamics of metabolic changes during ripening and CA storage is vital for understanding the governing molecular mechanism. In this study, the dynamics of the primary metabolism of 'Jonagold' apples during ripening in regular air (RA) storage and initiation of CA storage was profiled. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was exploited to block ethylene receptors and to get insight into ethylene mediated metabolic changes during ripening of the fruit and in response to hypoxic stress. Metabolic changes were quantified in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the Yang cycle and synthesis of the main amino acids branching from these metabolic pathways. Partial least square discriminant analysis of the metabolic profiles of 1-MCP treated and control apples revealed a metabolic divergence in ethylene, organic acid, sugar and amino acid metabolism. During RA storage at 18°C, most amino acids were higher in 1-MCP treated apples, whereas 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was higher in the control apples. The initial response of the fruit to CA initiation was accompanied by an increase of alanine, succinate and glutamate, but a decline in aspartate. Furthermore, alanine and succinate accumulated to higher levels in control apples than 1-MCP treated apples. The observed metabolic changes in these interlinked metabolites may indicate a coordinated adaptive strategy to maximize energy production.

  13. Discovery of non-climacteric and suppressed climacteric bud sport mutations originating from a climacteric Japanese plum cultivar (Prunus salicina Lindl.)

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Ioannis S.; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dangl, Gerald S.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

    2015-01-01

    Japanese plums are classified as climacteric; however, some economically important cultivars selected in California produce very little ethylene and require long ripening both “on” and “off” the tree to reach eating-ripe firmness. To unravel the ripening behavior of different Japanese plum cultivars, ripening was examined in the absence (air) or in the presence of ethylene or propylene (an ethylene analog) following a treatment or not with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene action inhibitor). Detailed physiological studies revealed for the first time three distinct ripening types in plum fruit: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric, and non-climacteric. Responding to exogenous ethylene or propylene, the slow-softening supressed-climacteric cultivars produced detectable amounts of ethylene, in contrast to the novel non-climacteric cultivar that produced no ethylene and softened extremely slowly. Genetic analysis using microsatellite markers produced identical DNA profiles for the climacteric cultivars “Santa Rosa” and “July Santa Rosa,” the suppressed-climacteric cultivars “Late Santa Rosa,” “Casselman,” and “Roysum” and the novel non-climacteric “Sweet Miriam,” as expected since historic records present most of these cultivars as bud-sport mutations derived initially from “Santa Rosa.” This present study provides a novel fruit system to address the molecular basis of ripening and to develop markers that assist breeders in providing high-quality stone fruit cultivars that can remain “on-tree,” increasing fruit flavor, saving harvesting costs, and potentially reducing the need for low-temperature storage during postharvest handling. PMID:26029222

  14. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  15. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components. PMID:22888129

  16. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

  17. Repurposing ebselen for treatment of multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    Novel antimicrobials and new approaches to developing them are urgently needed. Repurposing already-approved drugs with well-characterized toxicology and pharmacology is a novel way to reduce the time, cost, and risk associated with antibiotic innovation. Ebselen, an organoselenium compound, is known to be clinically safe and has a well-known pharmacology profile. It has shown potent bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and VRSA). We demonstrated that ebselen acts through inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequently inhibited toxin production in MRSA. Additionally, ebselen was remarkably active and significantly reduced established staphylococcal biofilms. The therapeutic efficacy of ebselen was evaluated in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infections. Ebselen 1% and 2% significantly reduced the bacterial load and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in MRSA USA300 skin lesions. Furthermore, it acts synergistically with traditional antimicrobials. This study provides evidence that ebselen has great potential for topical treatment of MRSA skin infections and lays the foundation for further analysis and development of ebselen as a potential treatment for multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections. PMID:26111644

  18. Change in Plasma Cytokine Levels During Risperidone Treatment in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Careaga, Milo; Bent, Stephen; Ashwood, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Atypical antipsychotics decrease irritability in autism. They also affect the cytokine network. Psychological stress, depression, and, possibly, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We sought to determine if risperidone treatment led to changes in plasma cytokine levels. Methods: Forty-five subjects from an open-label study of risperidone treatment of children and adolescents with ASD, ages 4–18 years, had an analysis of 27 different cytokines at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment using multiplex assays (Millipore) and read on the Luminex 100™ platform. We examined changes in each of the cytokine levels in the entire group, and also compared changes in cytokines in responders versus nonresponders. Results: After 8 weeks of risperidone treatment, 2 of the 27 plasma cytokines showed statistically significant decreases in median levels: Eotaxin (p=0.0003) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p=0.0024). Six of the 48 subjects met two criteria for responders to risperidone, and the median values of interleukin (IL)-5 were significantly higher (p=0.005) in the overall responder group than in nonresponders. Conclusions: Two cytokines, eotaxin and MCP-1, which have previously been identified as abnormally elevated in children with autism, decreased during treatment with risperidone. This suggests a possible mechanism of action of risperidone treatment and a balancing of the immune system in affected subjects in this very preliminary study. PMID:24828014

  19. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene receptor and CTR genes involved in ethylene-induced flower opening in cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samantha.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Tan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohui; Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Gao, Junping

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the effect of ethylene on flower opening of cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samantha was studied. However, although ethylene hastened the process of flower opening, 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene), an ethylene action inhibitor, impeded it. Ethylene promoted ethylene production in petals, but 1-MCP did not inhibit this process. Of the four ethylene biosynthetic genes tested, Rh-ACS1 and Rh-ACS2 were undetectable; Rh-ACS3 and Rh-ACO1 expression was enhanced by ethylene slightly and greatly, respectively. However, their mRNA amounts were not inhibited by 1-MCP compared with controls. Expression of seven signalling component genes was also studied, including three ethylene receptors (Rh-ETR1, Rh-ETR3, and Rh-ETR5), two CTRs (Rh-CTR1 and Rh-CTR2), and two transcription factors (Rh-EIN3-1 and Rh-EIN3-2). Transcripts of Rh-ETR5, Rh-EIN3-1, and Rh-EIN3-2 were accumulated in a constitutive manner and had no or little response to ethylene or 1-MCP, while transcript levels of Rh-ETR1 and Rh-CTR1 were substantially elevated by ethylene, and those of Rh-ETR3 and Rh-CTR2 were greatly enhanced by ethylene; 1-MCP reduced all the four genes to levels much less than those in control flowers. These results show that ethylene triggers physiological responses related to flower opening in cut rose cv. Samantha, and that continued ethylene perception results in flower opening. Ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through expression of two ethylene receptor genes (Rh-ETR1 and Rh-ETR3) and two CTR (Rh-CTR1 and Rh-CTR2) genes.

  20. Ethylene perception by the ERS1 protein in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hall, A E; Findell, J L; Schaller, G E; Sisler, E C; Bleecker, A B

    2000-08-01

    Ethylene perception in Arabidopsis is controlled by a family of five genes, including ETR1, ERS1 (ethylene response sensor 1), ERS2, ETR2, and EIN4. ERS1, the most highly conserved gene with ETR1, encodes a protein with 67% identity to ETR1. To clarify the role of ERS1 in ethylene sensing, we biochemically characterized the ERS1 protein by heterologous expression in yeast. ERS1, like ETR1, forms a membrane-associated, disulfide-linked dimer. In addition, yeast expressing the ERS1 protein contains ethylene-binding sites, indicating ERS1 is also an ethylene-binding protein. This finding supports previous genetic evidence that isoforms of ETR1 also function in plants as ethylene receptors. Further, we used the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to characterize the ethylene-binding sites of ERS1 and ETR1. We found 1-MCP to be both a potent inhibitor of the ethylene-induced seedling triple response, as well as ethylene binding by yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1. Yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1 showed nearly identical sensitivity to 1-MCP, suggesting that the ethylene-binding sites of ETR1 and ERS1 have similar affinities for ethylene.

  1. Isolation and characterization of ethylene response factor family genes during development, ethylene regulation and stress treatments in papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueping; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Mao, Jia; Zou, Yuan; Fu, Danwen; Chen, Weixin; Lu, Wangjin

    2013-09-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play important roles in fruit development, ripening, defense responses and stress signaling pathways. After harvest, climacteric fruit such as papaya are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest handling and storage treatments. There have been few attempts to evaluate the role of ERFs in fruit's responses to environmental stimuli. To investigate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying fruit developmental, ripening and stresses, we cloned four ERFs from papaya. The deduced amino acid sequence of CpERFs contained the conserved apetalous (AP2)/ERF domain, which shared high similarity with other reported AP2/ERF domains. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putatively conserved motifs in papaya ERF proteins were analyzed, and compared with those of Arabidopsis. Expression patterns of CpERFs were examined during fruit development, under 1-MCP treatment, ethephon treatment, biotic stress (temperature stress) and pathogen stress. CpERFs displayed differential expression patterns and expression levels under different experimental conditions. CpERF2 and CpERF3 showed a close association with fruit ripening and CpERFs had a high expression level in the earlier stages during the fruit development period. The expression of CpERFs strongly associated with stress response. These results support the role for papaya ERFs in transcriptional regulation of ripening-related or stress-respond genes and thus, in the regulation of papaya fruit-ripening processes and stress responses.

  2. Repurposing auranofin for the treatment of cutaneous staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-03-01

    The scourge of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections necessitates the urgent development of novel antimicrobials to address this public health challenge. Drug repurposing is a proven strategy to discover new antimicrobial agents; given that these agents have undergone extensive toxicological and pharmacological analysis, repurposing is an effective method to reduce the time, cost and risk associated with traditional antibiotic innovation. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of an antirheumatic drug, auranofin, was investigated against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that auranofin possesses potent antibacterial activity against all tested strains of S. aureus, including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.0625μg/mL to 0.125μg/mL. In vivo, topical auranofin proved superior to conventional antimicrobials, including fusidic acid and mupirocin, in reducing the mean bacterial load in infected wounds in a murine model of MRSA skin infection. In addition to reducing the bacterial load, topical treatment of auranofin greatly reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in infected skin lesions. Moreover, auranofin significantly disrupted established in vitro biofilms of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, more so than the traditional antimicrobials linezolid and vancomycin. Taken together, these results support that auranofin has potential to be repurposed as a topical antimicrobial agent for the treatment of staphylococcal skin and wound infections.

  3. Attenuation of the pulmonary inflammatory response following butylated hydroxytoluene treatment of cytosolic phospholipase A2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Amy M; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D; Hurteau, Gregory; Keith, Robert L; Ouyang, Yanli; Freed, Brian M; Kisley, Lori R; Geraci, Mark W; Bonventre, Joseph V; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Malkinson, Alvin M

    2006-06-01

    Administration of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to mice causes lung damage characterized by the death of alveolar type I pneumocytes and the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of type II cells to replace them. Herein, we demonstrate this injury elicits an inflammatory response marked by chemokine secretion, alveolar macrophage recruitment, and elevated expression of enzymes in the eicosanoid pathway. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) catalyzes release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids to initiate the synthesis of prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators. A role for cPLA(2) in this response was examined by determining cPLA(2) expression and enzymatic activity in distal respiratory epithelia and macrophages and by assessing the consequences of cPLA(2) genetic ablation. BHT-induced lung inflammation, particularly monocyte infiltration, was depressed in cPLA(2) null mice. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increases after BHT treatment but before monocyte influx, suggesting a causative role. Bronchiolar Clara cells isolated from cPLA(2) null mice secrete less MCP-1 than Clara cells from wild-type mice, consistent with the hypothesis that cPLA(2) is required to secrete sufficient MCP-1 to induce an inflammatory monocytic response.

  4. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  5. Hyperbaric treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on hyperbaric treatment are presented. Topics covered include: hyperbaric treatment - purpose; decompression sickness; sources of decompression sickness; physical description; forms of decompression sickness; hyperbaric treatment of decompression sickness; and duration of treatment.

  6. Banana Ovate family protein MaOFP1 and MADS-box protein MuMADS1 antagonistically regulated banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  7. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  8. Controlling ethylene responses in flowers at the receptor level.

    PubMed

    Serek, M; Woltering, E J; Sisler, E C; Frello, S; Sriskandarajah, S

    2006-01-01

    For a vast number of ornamental species, blocking the plant's response to ethylene is an efficient strategy to enhance the longevity of the flowers. The most effective ways to conduct such interference will be reviewed in this paper. A large number of chemical compounds have been evaluated for their effects on ethylene production and perception. Among these are a range of strained olefines. This has resulted in the discovery that cyclopropenes, among them 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and a number of other substituted cyclopropenes effectively block ethylene responses at the receptor level. A lot of testing remains to be done to uncover the full potential of these compounds, but they do offer promising new ways to extend the postharvest life of ornamentals. Also genetic modification appears to be a very effective way in controlling of ethylene synthesis and perception. Attempts to use both a reduced endogenous ethylene production and a reduced sensitivity to ethylene will be reviewed. Among these the use of the mutant ethylene receptor gene, etr1-1, from Arabidopsis seems most promising, especially when it is expressed under the control of a flower specific promoter.

  9. Reciprocal influence of ethylene and gibberellins on response-gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    De Grauwe, Liesbeth; Vriezen, Wim H; Bertrand, Sophie; Phillips, Andy; Vidal, Ana M; Hedden, Peter; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    The complexity of hormonal responses and their functional overlap support the presence of an intensive cross-talk between hormone signalling pathways. A detailed analysis of responses induced by ethylene and gibberellin (GA) in a GA-insensitive mutant (gai), an ethylene-resistant mutant (etr1-3), the gai etr1-3 double-mutant, and in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, revealed multiple interactions between ethylene and GA signal transduction pathways. Ethylene insensitive mutants and wild-type plants treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene perception inhibitor, displayed a stronger responsiveness of genes differentially regulated by GA. In addition, microarray-analysis showed that the GA-response in an ethylene-insensitive background is different from that in the wild-type, confirming the importance of ethylene in a plant's response towards GA. In this paper, we present a number of genes with an altered response-pattern as a direct consequence of cross-talk between ethylene and GA.

  10. Ethylene limits abscisic acid- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure in aged wheat leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Dodd, Ian C; Davies, William J; Wilkinson, Sally

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of age-induced decreased stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and soil drying has been explored here. Older, fully expanded leaves partly lost their ability to close stomata in response to foliar ABA sprays, and soil drying which stimulated endogenous ABA production, while young fully expanded leaves closed their stomata more fully. However, ABA- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure of older leaves was partly restored by pretreating plants with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which can antagonize ethylene receptors, or by inoculating soil around the roots with the rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, which contains 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase. ACC (the immediate biosynthetic precursor of ethylene) sprays revealed higher sensitivity of stomata to ethylene in older leaves than younger leaves, despite no differences in endogenous ACC concentrations or ethylene emission. Taken together, these results indicate that the relative insensitivity of stomatal closure to ABA and soil drying in older leaves is likely due to altered stomatal sensitivity to ethylene, rather than ethylene production. To our knowledge, this is the first study to mechanistically explain diminished stomatal responses to soil moisture deficit in older leaves, and the associated reduction in leaf water-use efficiency.

  11. Ripening-associated ethylene biosynthesis in tomato fruit is autocatalytically and developmentally regulated

    PubMed Central

    Yokotani, Naoki; Nakano, Ryohei; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Nagata, Masayasu; Inaba, Akitsugu; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulatory mechanism(s) of ethylene biosynthesis in fruit, transgenic tomatoes with all known LeEIL genes suppressed were produced by RNA interference engineering. The transgenic tomato exhibited ethylene insensitivity phenotypes such as non-ripening and the lack of the triple response and petiole epinasty of seedlings even in the presence of exogenous ethylene. Transgenic fruit exhibited a low but consistent increase in ethylene production beyond 40 days after anthesis (DAA), with limited LeACS2 and LeACS4 expression. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent inhibitor of ethylene perception, failed to inhibit the limited increase in ethylene production and expression of the two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) genes in the transgenic fruit. These results suggest that ripening-associated ethylene (system 2) in wild-type tomato fruit consists of two parts: a small part regulated by a developmental factor through the ethylene-independent expression of LeACS2 and LeACS4 and a large part regulated by an autocatalytic system due to the ethylene-dependent expression of the same genes. The results further suggest that basal ethylene (system 1) is less likely to be involved in the transition to system 2. Even if the effect of system 1 ethylene is eliminated, fruit can show a small increase in ethylene production due to unknown developmental factors. This increase would be enough for the stimulation of autocatalytic ethylene production, leading to fruit ripening. PMID:19605457

  12. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  13. MONOCYTE CHEMOTACTIC PROTEIN AND RESPONSE TO PEGYLATED INTERFERON-ALPHA-2A TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C (CHC) GENOTYPE 4.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal A; Sayed, Ola; Ali, Omnia E; Sayed, Ghadir A; Moustfa, Zainab; Elagawy, Waleed Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies across the world, with the highest number of infections reported in Egypt. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemokine, and its hepatic expression is up-regulated during chronic HCV infection. Fifty naive patients with chronic hepatitis C in National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute and 20 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in a prospective study designed with strict inclusion criteria to nullify the effect of confounding variables and further minimize selection bias. Fifty naive patients were treated with PEG-IFN-a2b, at a dose of 1801 g/kg subcutaneously every week plus ribavirin at a dose of 1000- 1200 mg/day, according to the patient's body weight, for 48 weeks. Quantification of HCV-RNA by real-time PCR and MCP-1 by ELISA were performed for every patient and controls. There was a sta- tistically significant difference between patients and control group as regards the quantity of MCP-1 (P < 0.05) (Mann-Whitney test) (P = 0.004). There was a significant difference between responders and nonresponses regarding MCP-1 (P < 0.05), responders showed a higher percentage of cases with initial MCP-1 < 306 (P < 0.05). We conclude the importance of the detection of MCP-1 expression at the start of therapy as a factor for assessing the likelihood of HCV genotype 4 patients to achieving a sustained virological response to treatment with IFN-a2 in combination with ribavirin. PMID:27363047

  14. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  15. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Treatment & Coping

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient gender Curve worsening Associated symptoms such as back pain or shortness of breath What are treatment options ... problems in addition to your scoliosis (such as back pain), your doctor may prescribe physical therapy to address ...

  17. [Home Treatment].

    PubMed

    Widmann, F; Bachhuber, G; Riedelsheimer, A; Schiele, A; Ullrich, S; Kilian, R; Becker, T; Frasch, K

    2016-01-01

    Home Treatment (HT) means acute psychiatric treatment in the patient's usual environment. Conceptually, HT is to be differentiated from other home-based services: It is limited with regard to duration and multiprofessional (e. g. psychiatrist plus psychiatric nursing staff plus social worker); the "24/7"-accessibility is frequently provided by the corresponding background hospital infrastructure. Target group are acutely mentally ill persons with an indication to inpatient treatment, who are willing to cooperate, and absence of endangerment to self and others. In contrast to the Scandinavian and many Anglophone countries where nationwide HT services are delivered, there are not many HT sites in Germany so far. Consequently, empirical data concerning HT in Germany is scarce. In summary, international studies show equivalent effects on psychopathological measures compared to inpatient treatment, reductions with regard to inpatient days, higher patient satisfaction and a trend towards cost-effectivity. PMID:26878432

  18. Stroke Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... weakened blood vessels that also cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Treatment differs depending on ... the leg or arm, then guided to the aneurysm or AVM ; it then deposits a mechanical agent, ...

  19. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  20. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  1. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    SHIKANAI-YASUDA, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Considered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions. PMID:26465367

  2. Surface Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A simple surface treatment process is provided which offers a high performance surface for a variety of applications at low cost. This novel surface treatment, which is particularly useful for Ti-6Al-4V alloys, is achieved by forming oxides on the surface with a two-step chemical process and without mechanical abrasion. First, after solvent degreasing, sulfuric acid is used to generate a fresh titanium surface. Next, an alkaline perborate solution is used to form an oxide on the surface. This acid-followed-by-base treatment is cost effective and relatively safe to use in commercial applications. In addition, it is chromium-free, and has been successfully used with a sol-gel coating to afford a strong adhesive bond that exhibits excellent durability after the bonded specimens have been subjected to a harsh 72 hour water boil immersion. Phenylethynyl containing adhesives were used to evaluate this surface treatment with a novel coupling agent containing both trialkoxysilane and phenylethynyl groups. 8 Claims, 16 Drawing Sheets

  3. Rotavirus Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  4. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  5. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  6. Antimicrobials Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  7. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  8. Anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, E.R.; Humphrey, W.J.; Cave, J.P.

    1982-12-28

    This invention provides for the anaerobic treatment of acidic petrochemical wastes in an anaerobic filter at high loadings and high recycle rates. The effluent from the top of the filter passes into a gas-disengaging/solids-settling zone containing a quiescent body of the effluent liquid. The settled solids are withdrawn and recycled to the base of the filter together with fresh acidic waste and an inorganic alkaline material (preferably magnesium oxide or carbonate) to maintain a neutral pH. The liquid portion of the effluent is sent to an aerobic digester to remove the rest of the organic material, which is used to support the growth of bacteria and fed back to the anaerobic system.

  9. Psychological treatments.

    PubMed

    Barlow, David H

    2004-12-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health--and mental health--the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with psychological interventions. Recently, health care policymakers have established that evidence supporting the efficacy of these interventions is more than sufficient for their inclusion in health care systems around the world. To promote faster and more widespread dissemination of these interventions specifically targeting problems severe enough to be included in health care systems and to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession, perhaps it is time for a change in terminology. It is proposed that psychologists label these procedures psychological treatments so as to differentiate them from more generic psychotherapy, which is often used outside of the scope of health care systems.

  10. S-adenosyl-L-methionine usage during climacteric ripening of tomato in relation to ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis and transmethylation capacity.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Oppermann, Yasmin; Hertog, Marten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Sauter, Margret; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2013-06-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is the major methyl donor in cells and it is also used for the biosynthesis of polyamines and the plant hormone ethylene. During climacteric ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Bonaparte'), ethylene production rises considerably which makes it an ideal object to study SAM involvement. We examined in ripening fruit how a 1-MCP treatment affects SAM usage by the three major SAM-associated pathways. The 1-MCP treatment inhibited autocatalytic ethylene production but did not affect SAM levels. We also observed that 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid formation during ripening is ethylene dependent. SAM decarboxylase expression was also found to be upregulated by ethylene. Nonetheless polyamine content was higher in 1-MCP-treated fruit. This leads to the conclusion that the ethylene and polyamine pathway can operate simultaneously. We also observed a higher methylation capacity in 1-MCP-treated fruit. During fruit ripening substantial methylation reactions occur which are gradually inhibited by the methylation product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH). SAH accumulation is caused by a drop in adenosine kinase expression, which is not observed in 1-MCP-treated fruit. We can conclude that tomato fruit possesses the capability to simultaneously consume SAM during ripening to ensure a high rate of ethylene and polyamine production and transmethylation reactions. SAM usage during ripening requires a complex cellular regulation mechanism in order to control SAM levels.

  11. Auxin, ethylene and the regulation of root growth under mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rameshwar; Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2012-07-01

    Among the multitude functions performed by plant roots, little information is available about the mechanisms that allow roots to overcome the soil resistance, in order to grow in the soil to obtain water and nutrient. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings grown on horizontally placed agar plates showed a progressive decline in the root length with the increasing impedance of agar media. The incubation with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception, led to aerial growth of roots. In contrast, in absence of 1-MCP control roots grew horizontally anchored to the agar surface. Though 1-MCP-treated and control seedlings showed differential ability to penetrate in the agar, the inhibition of root elongation was nearly similar for both treatments. While increased mechanical impedance also progressively impaired hypocotyl elongation in 1-MCP treated seedlings, it did not affect the hypocotyl length of control seedlings. The decline in root elongation was also associated with increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip signifying accumulation of auxin at the root tip. The increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip was also observed in 1-MCP treated seedlings, indicating independence of this response from ethylene signaling. Our results indicate operation of a sensing mechanism in root that likely operates independently of ethylene but involves auxin to determine the degree of impedance of the substratum.

  12. Hypersensitive Ethylene Signaling and ZMdPG1 Expression Lead to Fruit Softening and Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Zongying; Ji, Xiaohao; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Daliang; Gao, Liping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Biao; Wu, Yusen; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoliu; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2013-01-01

    ‘Taishanzaoxia’ fruit rapid softening and dehiscence during ripening stage and this process is very sensitive to endogenous ethylene. In this study, we cloned five ethylene signal transcription factors (ZMdEIL1, ZMdEIL2, ZMdEIL3, ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2) and one functional gene, ZMdPG1, encoding polygalacturonase that could loose the cell connection which associated with fruit firmness decrease and fruit dehiscence to illustrate the reasons for this specific fruit phenotypic and physiological changes. Expression analysis showed that ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 transcription were more abundant in ‘Taishanzaoxia’ softening fruit and dehiscent fruit and their expression was inhibited by an ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Therefore, ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 expression were responses to endogenous ethylene and associated with fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdPG1 expression was induced when fruit softening and dehiscence but this induction can be blocked by 1-MCP, indicating that ZMdPG1 was essential for fruit softening and dehiscence and its expression was mediated by the endogenously occurred ethylene. ZMdPG1 overexpression in Arabidopsis led to silique early dehiscence while suppressing ZMdPG1 expression by antisense ZMdPG1 prevented silique naturally opening. The result also suggested that ZMdPG1 related with the connection between cells that contributed to fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdERF1 was more closely related with ethylene signaling but it was not directly regulated the ZMdPG1, which might be regulated by the synergic pattern of ethylene transcription factors because of both the ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 could interact with ZMdEIL2. PMID:23527016

  13. Hypersensitive ethylene signaling and ZMdPG1 expression lead to fruit softening and dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Zongying; Ji, Xiaohao; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Daliang; Gao, Liping; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Biao; Wu, Yusen; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xiaoliu; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2013-01-01

    'Taishanzaoxia' fruit rapid softening and dehiscence during ripening stage and this process is very sensitive to endogenous ethylene. In this study, we cloned five ethylene signal transcription factors (ZMdEIL1, ZMdEIL2, ZMdEIL3, ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2) and one functional gene, ZMdPG1, encoding polygalacturonase that could loose the cell connection which associated with fruit firmness decrease and fruit dehiscence to illustrate the reasons for this specific fruit phenotypic and physiological changes. Expression analysis showed that ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 transcription were more abundant in 'Taishanzaoxia' softening fruit and dehiscent fruit and their expression was inhibited by an ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. Therefore, ZMdERF1 and ZMdEIL2 expression were responses to endogenous ethylene and associated with fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdPG1 expression was induced when fruit softening and dehiscence but this induction can be blocked by 1-MCP, indicating that ZMdPG1 was essential for fruit softening and dehiscence and its expression was mediated by the endogenously occurred ethylene. ZMdPG1 overexpression in Arabidopsis led to silique early dehiscence while suppressing ZMdPG1 expression by antisense ZMdPG1 prevented silique naturally opening. The result also suggested that ZMdPG1 related with the connection between cells that contributed to fruit softening and dehiscence. ZMdERF1 was more closely related with ethylene signaling but it was not directly regulated the ZMdPG1, which might be regulated by the synergic pattern of ethylene transcription factors because of both the ZMdERF1 and ZMdERF2 could interact with ZMdEIL2.

  14. Comparison of the role of gibberellins and ethylene in response to submergence of two lowland rice cultivars, Senia and Bomba.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L

    2011-02-15

    We examined the gibberellin (GA) and ethylene regulation of submergence-induced elongation in seedlings of the submergence-tolerant lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs Senia and Bomba. Elongation was enhanced after germination to facilitate water escape and reach air. We found that submergence-induced elongation depends on GA because it was counteracted by paclobutrazol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis), an effect that was negated by GA(3). Moreover, in the cv Senia, submergence increased the content of active GA(1) and its immediate precursors (GA(53), GA(19) and GA(20)) by enhancing expression of several GA biosynthesis genes (OsGA20ox1 and -2, and OsGA3ox2), but not by decreasing expression of several OsGA2ox (GA inactivating genes). Senia seedlings, in contrast to Bomba seedlings, did not elongate in response to ethylene or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC; an ethylene precursor) application, and submergence-induced elongation was not reduced in the presence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; an ethylene perception inhibitor). Ethylene emanation was similar in Senia seedlings grown in air and in submerged-grown seedlings following de-submergence, while it increased in Bomba. The expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes (OsACS1, -2 and -3, and OsACO1) was not affected in Senia, but expression of OsACS5 was rapidly enhanced in Bomba upon submergence. Our results support the conclusion that submergence elongation enhancement of lowland rice is due to alteration of GA metabolism leading to an increase in active GA (GA(1)) content. Interestingly, in the cv Senia, in contrast to cv Bomba, this was triggered through an ethylene-independent mechanism.

  15. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening. PMID

  16. Characterization and expression of genes involved in the ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction during ripening of mulberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode

    2015-01-01

    Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a EIN2-like gene, a CTR1-like gene, four EIN3-like genes, and a RTE1-like gene. The expression patterns of these genes were analyzed in the fruit of M. atropurpurea cv. Jialing No.40. During fruit development, transcript levels of MaETR2, MaERS, MaEIN4, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were lower at the early stages and higher after 26 days after full bloom (DAF), while MaETR1, MaEIL1, MaEIL2, and MaEIL3 remained constant. In ripening fruit, the transcripts of MaACO1 and MaACS3 increased, while MaACS1 and MaACO2 decreased after harvest. The transcripts of MaACO1, MaACO2, and MaACS3 were inhibited by ethylene, and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) upregulated MaACS3. The transcripts of the MaETR-like genes, MaRTE, and MaCTR1 were inhibited by ethylene and 1-MCP, suggesting that ethylene may accelerate the decline of MaETRs transcripts. No significant changes in the expression of MaEIN2, MaEIL1, and MaEIL3 were observed during ripening or in response to ethylene, while the expressions of MaEIL2 and MaEIL4 increased rapidly after 24 h after harvest (HAH) and were upregulated by ethylene. The present study provides insights into ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction in Morus plants and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms underlying Morus fruit development and ripening.

  17. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  18. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  19. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  20. Hyperprolactinemia Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may receive treatment with estrogen (for women) or testosterone (for men). Hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid most often needs treatment with synthetic (laboratory- made) thyroid hormone. Most often this treatment ...

  1. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... three types of standard treatment for leukemia: chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplant. Chemotherapy uses drugs to stop the growth ... three types of standard treatment for leukemia: chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplant. Latest Treatment Over the past 10 years, ...

  2. Body Lice Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  3. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... community treatment? Assertive community treatment (ACT) is a model of psychiatric care that can be very effective ... it the most. Similar to the “treatment team” model of an inpatient psychiatric unit, which includes nurses, ...

  4. Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leucht, S; Heres, S; Kissling, W; Davis, J M

    2013-05-01

    We present the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia based on a simple algorithm that starts with the most important decisions starting from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and ends with maintenance treatment. It represents experts opinions, a formal guideline development process was not followed. Concerning acute treatment we present recommendations for the choice of drug in acutely patients, the treatment of agitated patients, persistent depression, negative symptoms and treatment resistance. Concerning maintenance treatment with antipsychotics we discuss indication, choice of drug, continuous versus intermittent treatment, duration of relapse prevention and dose.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  6. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Myelo-proliferative Neoplasms Patient Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Health Professional Myelodysplastic ...

  7. Pharmacologic treatment of paraphilias.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Alessandra Almeida; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Garcia, Heloise Delavenne; Bradford, John M W; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of paraphilias remains a challenge in the mental health field. Combined pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment is associated with better efficacy. The gold standard treatment of severe paraphilias in adult males is antiandrogen treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been used in mild types of paraphilia and in cases of sexual compulsions and juvenile paraphilias. Antiandrogen treatments seem to be effective in severe paraphilic subjects committing sexual offenses. In particular, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs have shown high efficacy working in a similar way to physical castration but being reversible at any time. Treatment recommendations, side effects, and contraindications are discussed.

  8. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  9. Research Areas: Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  10. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  11. Teens and Acne Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of treatments Benzoyl peroxide Benzoyl peroxide wash, lotion, or gel—the most effective acne treatment you ... and make it redder than the wash or lotion, so try the wash or lotion first. How ...

  12. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For ...

  13. Medical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Medical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... suggest medical treatments to reduce the symptoms of fibroids or to stop the growth of fibroids. These ...

  14. Surgical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Surgical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... If you have moderate or severe symptoms of fibroids, surgery may be the best treatment for you. ...

  15. Fertility Treatments for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Medication Treatments for Female Infertility The most common medications used to treat infertility ... cabergoline ovulate. 1 [top] Surgical Treatments for Female Infertility If disease of the fallopian tubes is the ...

  16. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    EPA Science Inventory

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  17. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But ...

  18. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  19. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  20. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  1. Incontinence Treatment: Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ... Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment Personal Stories Contact Us ...

  2. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  3. Treatment of internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  4. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  5. Just call it "treatment".

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Peter D; Schwartz, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Although many in the addiction treatment field use the term "medication-assisted treatment" to describe a combination of pharmacotherapy and counseling to address substance dependence, research has demonstrated that opioid agonist treatment alone is effective in patients with opioid dependence, regardless of whether they receive counseling. The time has come to call pharmacotherapy for such patients just "treatment". An explicit acknowledgment that medication is an essential first-line component in the successful management of opioid dependence. PMID:23186149

  6. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  7. The Treatment Philosophy Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hern, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Students who respond to the ludicrous environments of schooling with behaviors and demeanor that do not fit school criteria frequently are given a medical label and drug treatment. The fact that Ritalin is given to 2.8% of all American children reflects a "treatment philosophy" in which professionals define problems and prescribe treatments for a…

  8. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit Is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei; Ogura, Emi; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu

    2003-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. PMID:12529535

  9. [Treatment of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ben Amar, J; Dhahri, B; Aouina, H; Azzabi, S; Baccar, M A; El Gharbi, L; Bouacha, H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give practicing physicians a practical approach to the treatment of latent and active tuberculosis. Most patients follow TB standard treatment recommended by WHO that depend on category of patient. It is a combination of four essential tuberculosis drugs of the first group: isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamid and ethambutol; in some cases streptomycin can replace ethambutol. This initial phase of intensive treatment is followed by a consolidation phase. Drugs should be administered in the morning on an empty stomach one hour before meals. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection is an important component of TB control programs. Preventive treatment can reduce the risk of developing active TB.

  10. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included. PMID:27620086

  11. Experimental treatments of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Attar, Rukset; Attar, Erkut

    2015-08-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity. It is an estrogen-dependent disease and is associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility. The treatment of endometriosis is conservative or radical surgery, medical therapies or their combination. All currently used hormonally active treatments are effective in the treatment of endometriosis; however, the adverse effects of these hormonal treatments limit their long-term use. Moreover, recurrence rates are high after cessation of therapy, and the treatments have no benefit in endometriosis-associated infertility. Therefore, researchers are working on new treatment modalities with improved side effects, mainly focusing on the molecular targets involved in etiopathogenesis of endometriosis. Here we summarized these novel treatments modalities.

  12. Treatment of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Geddes, John R; Miklowitz, David J

    2013-05-11

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  13. An early ethylene up-regulated gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein involved in plant senescence and death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    35S-Labeled calmodulin (CaM) was used to screen a tobacco anther cDNA library. A positive clone (NtER1) with high homology to an early ethylene-up-regulated gene (ER66) in tomato, and an Arabidopsis homolog was isolated and characterized. Based on the helical wheel projection, a 25-mer peptide corresponding to the predicted CaM-binding region of NtER1 (amino acids 796-820) was synthesized. The gel-mobility shift assay showed that the peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of Ca(2+). CaM binds to NtER1 with high affinity (K(d) approximately 12 nm) in a calcium-dependent manner. Tobacco flowers at different stages of development were treated with ethylene or with 1-methylcyclopropene for 2 h before treating with ethylene. Northern analysis showed that the NtER1 was rapidly induced after 15 min of exposure to ethylene. However, the 2-h 1-methylcyclopropene treatment totally blocked NtER1 expression in flowers at all stages of development, suggesting that NtER1 is an early ethylene-up-regulated gene. The senescing leaves and petals had significantly increased NtER1 induction as compared with young leaves and petals, implying that NtER1 is developmentally regulated and acts as a trigger for senescence and death. This is the first documented evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signaling in ethylene action.

  14. Treatment of social phobias.

    PubMed

    Agras, W S

    1990-10-01

    Social phobia, despite a prevalence in the general population of 1.5% denoting a common disorder, has been relatively neglected from the viewpoints of psychopathology and of treatment. Two subtypes of social phobia have been differentiated: specific (characterized by anxiety in one situation, e.g., public speaking) and generalized (characterized by anxiety in several social situations). The syndrome is frequently complicated by alcohol abuse or dependence. Among the treatment targets are symptoms of anxiety, avoidance behavior, negative cognitions concerning the reactions of others, and, less frequently, social skills deficits. Both pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatments have been found effective in this disorder, and it seems likely that the two treatments will complement each other. The treatment literature is reviewed, and recommendations concerning a state-of-the-art treatment approach to both specific and generalized social phobia are made. Potential complications and limitations are discussed.

  15. Demystifying water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.

    1994-09-01

    Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

  16. [Pollinosis: drug treatments].

    PubMed

    Harf, R

    2013-06-01

    The medical treatment of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis involves different classes of drugs administered locally or by general route. They belong to three main classes, antihistamines, steroids and mast cell stabilizers. Since it is a relatively benign and also highly common disease, treatment options are limited by possible, even mild, side effects and by cost efficacy restriction. In the more severe forms of the condition, treatment efficacy remains unsatisfactory.

  17. Treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Sari, İsmail; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Akkoç, Nurullah

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory, rheumatic disease that can reduce the quality of life and increase the risk of disability and mortality. It also causes direct and indirect economic losses due to health expenses and as a result of workforce loss. Management of this disease consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. Until recently, pharmacological treatment options have been very limited. However, development of novel biological drugs revolutionized the management of this disease. The aim of this review article is to present an updated overview of the pharmacologic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Nonpharmacological treatment modalities including physiotherapy and exercise are only briefly mentioned and surgical treatment is not discussed.

  18. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  19. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  20. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  1. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  2. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  3. Treatment of Evolution Inconsistent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    State standards for academic content vary enormously in how well they cover the topic of evolution, with many of those documents either ignoring or giving scant treatment to the core principles of that established scientific theory. This article presents the analysis of Education Week on state's standards treatment of evolution. Nearly all the…

  4. "Psychotherapy" Versus "Treatment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkowitz, Hal

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow proposed that we distinguish between the terms "treatment" and "psychotherapy." The author believes that not only is the distinction unnecessary, but that its implications could have negative consequences for the field of clinical psychology. It is the proposed…

  5. Treatment adherence in psychoses.

    PubMed

    David, Anthony S

    2010-12-01

    A well-conducted randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve treatment adherence in psychosis published in this issue shows beneficial effects on self- and observer-rated adherence and trends towards fewer hospital readmissions. Partial adherence is the single most important barrier to optimal treatment. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines on adherence need to be revised.

  6. Coping – After Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Many cancer survivors say that once treatment ended, it was hard to make a transition to a new way of life. Learn about this phase of your care and how to adjust to the new feelings and issues that come after cancer treatment.

  7. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  8. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning for individuals with substance abuse problems. The intent is to provide information to professional counselors in school, rehabilitation, school psychology, social work, public mental health, and private treatment settings. Information to be…

  9. Treatment of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Edna B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Highlights the methodological issues pertinent in the design of studies to evaluate the treatment outcome of rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder. The wide range of interventions for the treatment of postrape sequelae are reviewed, and special attention is given to cognitive-behavioral interventions because they have been subjected to more…

  10. Against Preferential Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekes, John

    1997-01-01

    Argues that preferential treatment of women and minorities in the selection of college faculty elevates a form of corruption to standard administrative practice by including people in academic life on the basis of characteristics irrelevant to teaching and research; and previous unjust treatment is inadequate justification for preferential…

  11. Invisalign in TMD treatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, David B

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of functional orthodontic treatment include creating a broad smile, pleasing facial profile, and healthy, functional occlusions and temporomandibular joints. Removable orthodontic appliances have long been used in the treatment of some temporomandibular disorders. Invisalign aligners are removable orthodontic appliances. Certain TMJ case types can be treated successfully with Invisalign.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Redd, Matthew; Schey, Ron

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new entity with a significant amount of increased recognition over the last decade. The mainstay treatments of EoE are designed to eliminate the causative allergens or to reduce their effects on the esophageal mucosa. Common treatments include dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, systemic and topical corticosteroids, and endoscopic treatments. As the pathogenesis of EoE is explored, new and novel treatments are being studied that target specific pathways and chemokines identified in as precipitating agents of EoE. This is a rapidly evolving field with significant ongoing research and clinical studies. Our review will therefore focus on current and novel treatment approaches to the disease.

  13. [Treatment of cluster headache].

    PubMed

    Fabre, N

    2005-07-01

    Remarkable therapeutic improvements have come forward recently for trigemino-autonomic cephalalgias. Attack treatment in cluster headache is based on sumatriptan and oxygen. Non-vasoconstrictive treatments are opening a new post-triptan era but are not yet applicable. Prophylactic treatment of cluster headache is based on verapamil and lithium. The efficacy of anti-epileptic drugs in cluster headache remains to be demonstrated. Surgical treatment aimed at the parasympathetic pathways and at the trigeminal nerve demonstrates a high rate of recurrence and adverse events and questions about the relevance of a "peripheral" target in cluster headache. The efficacy of continuous hypothalamic stimulation in patients with intractable headache constitutes a breakthrough, but must be demonstrated at a larger scale and the benefice/risk ratio must be carefully evaluated. Indomethacin still remains the gold standard in paroxysmal hemicrania treatment. Until recently SUNCT was considered an intractable condition. However there are some reports of complete relief with lamotrigine, topiramate and gabapentin.

  14. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  15. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  16. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, V S; Nadkarni, V V

    2011-07-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PMID:22028523

  17. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  18. Personalized treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B; Richards, D

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to outline a flexible framework which the dental team can use to bring together key elements of information about their patients and their patients' teeth in order to plan appropriate, patient-centred, caries management based on the application of best current evidence and practice. This framework can be enabled by the use of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) clinical visual scoring systems for caries detection and activity, but also needs additional information about lesions and the patient to plan and then monitor the effectiveness of personalized caries care. The treatment planning process has evolved from restorative treatment decisions being largely made during clinical assessment as an examination of wet teeth proceeds, with limited charting and a minor role for patient factors. Best practice now involves a comprehensive examination being made systematically of clean dry teeth using sharp eyes and blunt probes. The ICDAS-enabled framework provides for information to be collected at the tooth/surface level (clinical visual lesion detection, lesion detection aids and lesion activity assessment) and at the patient level (patient caries risk assessment, dentition and lesion history and patient behavioural assessment). This information is then synthesized to inform integrated, personalized treatment planning which involves the choice of appropriate treatment options (background level care, preventive treatment options, operative treatment options) and then recall, reassessment and monitoring. Examples of international moves towards using integrated, personalized treatment planning for caries control are given, drawing on experiences in the UK, the USA and from the ICDAS Committee.

  19. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A.

  20. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, V. S.; Nadkarni, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70–80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PMID:22028523

  1. Treatment Modalities for Acne.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lizelle; Csongradi, Candice; Aucamp, Marique; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease which affects the pilosebaceous units of the skin. It can have severe psychological effects and can leave the patient with severe skin scarring. There are four well-recognized pathological factors responsible for acne which is also the target for acne therapy. In this review, different treatment options are discussed, including topical (i.e., retinoids, and antibiotics) and systemic (i.e., retinoids, antibiotics, and hormonal) treatments. Since the general public has been showing an increasing interest in more natural and generally safer treatment options, the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) for treating acne was also discussed. The use of physical therapies such as comedone extraction, cryoslush therapy, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, intralesional corticosteroids and optical treatments are also mentioned. Acne has been extensively researched with regards to the disease mechanism as well as treatment options. However, due to the increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes towards the available antibiotics, there is a need for new treatment methods. Additionally, the lack of necessary evidence on the efficacy of CAM therapies makes it necessary for researchers to investigate these treatment options further. PMID:27529209

  2. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  3. Treatment Success in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  4. [Neurosurgical treatment of pain].

    PubMed

    Siegfried, J

    1981-12-12

    Chronic pain may be considered a disease and its treatment a necessity. Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain is justified in cases where conservative treatment is no longer effective or causes excessive side effects. The new percutaneous methods involve no stress, minimal risk and short hospitalization. Destructive neurosurgical procedures are mainly used for cancer pain, with the exception of trigeminal neuralgia. Non-destructive neurostimulating methods to control pain are well on the way to achieving their optimum clinical potential and preserve the integrity of the nervous system. PMID:7330647

  5. Heat treatment study 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructural variations in nickel based superalloys that result from modifications in processing were examined. These superalloys include MAR-M246(HF) and PWA1480. Alternate heat treatments for equiaxed as-cast specimens were studied and a sample matrix of 42 variations in the heat treatments were processed, as well as different directional solidification parameters. Variation in temperature and times for both solution and aging were performed. Photomicrographs were made of the microstructure and volume fraction analysis of primary gamma-prime and aged gamma-prime precipitates were performed. The results of the heat treatment, cooling rate, and directional solidification experiments are discussed.

  6. Surgical treatment of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Cierny, George

    2011-01-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is refractory to nonsurgical treatment due to a resilient, infective nidus that harbors sessile, matrix-protected pathogens bound to substrate surfaces within the wound. Curative treatment mandates physical (surgical) removal of the biofilm colony, adjunctive use of antibiotics to eliminate residual phenotypes, and efforts to optimize the host response throughout therapy. Patient selection, therapeutic options, and the treatment format are determined by the Cierny/Mader staging system, while reconstruction is governed by the integrity/stability of the affected bone(s) and quality/quantity parameters of the soft-tissue envelope.

  7. Optical treatments for acne.

    PubMed

    Ross, E Victor

    2005-01-01

    Light-based treatments for acne are becoming increasingly commonplace in dermatology. This article reviews various light approaches in acne therapy. Methods are discussed from an anatomical and a functional perspective. The emphasis is on the practicality of treatment as well as the pros and cons of various devices. Also, a review of the recent literature is presented. The article is intended to give the reader a panoramic view of this still-young and developing area. Most likely, light-based acne treatment will receive more popularity as dermatologists learn how to integrate this type of therapy within the context of more established drug agents. PMID:16229726

  8. Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, Richard D; Oquendo, Anabella

    2011-07-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity is exemplified by brief, sharp, well-localized pain in response to thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical stimuli that cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology. Pulpal pain is usually more prolonged, dull, aching, and poorly localized and lasts longer than the applied stimulus. Up to 30% of adults have dentinal hypersensitivity at some time. Current techniques for treatment may be only transient in nature and results are not always predictable. Two methods of treatment of dentin hypersensitivity are tubular occlusion and blockage of nerve activity. A differential diagnosis needs to be accomplished before any treatment. PMID:21726693

  9. Pharmacological Treatment of Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lie, Janette D; Tu, Kristie N; Shen, Diana D; Wong, Bonnie M

    2015-11-01

    Up to 70 million U.S. adults have chronic sleep and wakefulness disorders. Therapies may include prescription medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration, off-label treatments, over-the-counter drugs, and herbal therapies.

  10. Treatment of myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Bean, Matthew C; Heckman, Thomas W; Jayaseelan, Dhinu; Moats, Nick; Nava, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome and to provide clinicians with treatment recommendations. This paper reviews the efficacy of various myofascial pain syndrome treatment modalities, including pharmacological therapy, injection-based therapies and physical therapy interventions. Outcomes evaluated included pain (visual analog scale), pain pressure threshold and range of motion. The evidence found significant benefit with multiple treatments, including diclofenac patch, thiocolchicoside and lidocaine patches. Trigger point injections, ischemic compression therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spray and stretch, and myofascial release were also efficacious. The authors recommend focusing on treating underlying pathologies, including spinal conditions, postural abnormalities and underlying behavioral issues. To achieve maximum pain reduction and improve function, we recommend physicians approach myofascial pain syndrome with a multimodal plan, which includes a combination of pharmacologic therapies, various physical therapeutic modalities and injection therapies.

  11. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  12. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... what patients really need is a healing touch. Osteopathic physicians haven't forgotten. Osteopathic manipulative treatment, or OMT, ... and prevent illness or injury. Using OMT, your osteopathic physician will move your muscles and joints using techniques ...

  13. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

  14. [Treatment of recurrent furunculosis].

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Stijnis, C Kees

    2013-01-01

    The management of recurrent furunculosis is difficult, and often disappointing. We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent furunculosis. The furunculosis persisted after treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment, chlorhexidine soap and instructions for washing clothes, towels and bed sheets for a period of 7 days. Treatment with low-dose clindamycin for three months ultimately proved successful. We propose a structural approach for recurrent furunculosis in which extensive history-taking is followed by appropriate tests. Before prescribing an oral antibiotic (preferably low-dose clindamycin or a macrolide for 3 months), the patient should use an antimicrobial nasal ointment and soap and follow hygienic instructions as mentioned above. Members of the household who also have signs of the infection should be treated. Hygienic education is an essential component of treatment. We believe that this approach will lead to a treatment that is more effective and efficient.

  15. Packaged Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

  16. Finding Treatment Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lodge® Lodging Rides To Treatment Online Support Communities ACS Events Making Strides Against Breast Cancer Walks Coaches ... For Life Relay Recess Donate a Car About ACS About Us Contact Us Local Offices Volunteer Employment ...

  17. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment On This Page What is laser light? What is laser therapy, and how is it ... future hold for laser therapy? What is laser light? The term “ laser ” stands for light amplification by ...

  18. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... Often, home health care nurses will come to your home to give you the medicine. Sometimes, a family member, a friend, or ...

  19. Stator hub treatment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Hilvers, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an experimental research program to investigate the potential of improving compressor stall margin by the application of hub treatment are presented. Extensive tuft probing showed that the two-stage, 0.5 radius ratio compressor selected for the test was indeed hub critical. Circumferential groove and baffled wide blade angle slot hub treatments under the stators were tested. Performance measurements were made with total and static pressure probes, wall static pressure taps, flow angle measuring instrumentation and hot film anemometers. Stator hub treatment was not found to be effective in improving compressor stall margin by delaying the point of onset of rotating stall or in modifying compressor performance for any of the configurations tested. Extensive regions of separated flow were observed on the suction surface of the stators near the hub. However, the treatment did not delay the point where flow separation in the stator hub region becomes apparent.

  20. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. Intracranial Vascular Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Mechanical retrievers/aspiration systems: used to remove clots ... passageway between an artery and a vein. intracranial aneurysms, a ballooning out of the wall of an ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP ADHD - A Guide for Families Skip breadcrumb navigation Getting Treatment Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ...

  3. Treatment of myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Bean, Matthew C; Heckman, Thomas W; Jayaseelan, Dhinu; Moats, Nick; Nava, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome and to provide clinicians with treatment recommendations. This paper reviews the efficacy of various myofascial pain syndrome treatment modalities, including pharmacological therapy, injection-based therapies and physical therapy interventions. Outcomes evaluated included pain (visual analog scale), pain pressure threshold and range of motion. The evidence found significant benefit with multiple treatments, including diclofenac patch, thiocolchicoside and lidocaine patches. Trigger point injections, ischemic compression therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spray and stretch, and myofascial release were also efficacious. The authors recommend focusing on treating underlying pathologies, including spinal conditions, postural abnormalities and underlying behavioral issues. To achieve maximum pain reduction and improve function, we recommend physicians approach myofascial pain syndrome with a multimodal plan, which includes a combination of pharmacologic therapies, various physical therapeutic modalities and injection therapies. PMID:24645933

  4. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  5. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  6. [Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Decades of practice in psychiatriy and hundreds of clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antipsychotics on symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, the knowledge acquired from non-interventional studies have supplemented the information needed in daily practice by raising the issue of efficiency by incorporating not only the effectiveness and safety of treatment but also its acceptability by the patient. Adherence to antipsychotic treatment has become the key issue of the prognosis. The pharmacological management of patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia requires rapid therapeutic decisions to treat a patient who is likely to be sometimes unhelpful and agitated. The choice of treatment will have a significant impact on the prevention of psychotic relapses, on the overall prognosis and on the quality of life of the patient. In many countries of the recommendations and treatment algorithms for the management of acute psychosis were distributed, considering factors specific to the patient and his environment, his mental characteristics and local care setting.

  7. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Departments & Divisions Home Conditions Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Our Specialists Charles L. Daley, ...

  8. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... in treatment and support—which may include teachers, childcare providers, coaches, therapists, and other family members. Taking ... and discipline that is effective with their particular child. Top of Page For More Information Additional information ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treatments will also be taken. Lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy : Procedures in which ... has spread to the lymph nodes . Lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy are done to ...

  10. [Treatment of recurrent furunculosis].

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Stijnis, C Kees

    2013-01-01

    The management of recurrent furunculosis is difficult, and often disappointing. We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent furunculosis. The furunculosis persisted after treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment, chlorhexidine soap and instructions for washing clothes, towels and bed sheets for a period of 7 days. Treatment with low-dose clindamycin for three months ultimately proved successful. We propose a structural approach for recurrent furunculosis in which extensive history-taking is followed by appropriate tests. Before prescribing an oral antibiotic (preferably low-dose clindamycin or a macrolide for 3 months), the patient should use an antimicrobial nasal ointment and soap and follow hygienic instructions as mentioned above. Members of the household who also have signs of the infection should be treated. Hygienic education is an essential component of treatment. We believe that this approach will lead to a treatment that is more effective and efficient. PMID:23369819

  11. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    MedlinePlus

    Premature menopause; Primary ovarian insufficiency; POI ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  12. IBS Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... or bring on symptoms Stress management, gut-directed hypnosis, biofeedback, relaxation, or pain management techniques Consulting with ... Complimentary or Alternative Treatments Selecting a CAM Practitioner Hypnosis for IBS Yoga Medications Laxatives Anticholinergic/Antispasmodic Agents ...

  13. Early Diagnosis, Timely Treatment

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... proper treatment and care to the point where vision loss is minimized. Your chances of going blind ... he's been able to keep about half his vision level. Kermit: Well, I can see everything here. ...

  14. Treatment of Gas

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how improve living with these conditions . Publication Library Books of Interest Medical Definitions About IFFGD About us Our Mission Awareness Activities Advocacy Activities Research Leadership IFFGD Symposium Report Industry Council Contact Us News Industry Treatment News Medical ...

  15. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  16. Pertussis Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Kid-friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  17. Medical Actinium Therapeutic Treatment

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are increasing world supplies of Bismuth 213 to help with cancer treatments. For more information about INL research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  19. [Involuntary treatment in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hohendorf, Gerrit

    2014-07-01

    Involuntary treatment in psychiatry should be reflected under the German constitutional right of self-determination und the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficience. Forced treatment in psychiatry should be applied only as a last resort. A narrative perspective reconstructs the case of Gustl Mollath who was hospitalized in forensic-psychiatric institutions because of an alleged delusion. Psychiatric experts should be aware of the potential of misuse when defining what is real and what seems to be a delusion. PMID:24983576

  20. Laser treatment in gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2004-07-01

    This presentation is designed as a brief overview of laser use in gynecology, for non-medical researchers involved in development of new laser techniques. The literature of the past decade is reviewed. Differences in penetration, absorption, and suitable delivery media for the beams dictate clinical application. The use of CO2 laser in the treatment of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions is well established and indications as well as techniques have not changed over 30 years. The Cochrane Systematic Review from 2000 suggests no obviously superior technique. CO2 laser ablation of the vagina is also established as a safe treatment modality for VAIN. CO2 laser permits treatment of lesions with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding by destruction of the endometrial lining using various techniques has been the subject of a 2002 Cochran Database Review. Among the compared treatment modalities are newer and modified laser techniques. Conclusion by reviewers is that outcomes and complication profiles of newer techniques compare favorably with the gold standard of endometrial resection. The ELITT diode laser system is one of the new successful additions. CO2 laser is also the dominant laser type used with laparoscopy for ablation of endometriotic implants. Myoma coagulation or myolysis with Nd:Yag laser through the laparoscope or hysteroscope is a conservative treatment option. Even MRI guided percutaneous approaches have been described. No long-term data are available.

  1. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  2. Treatment options for hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

    2011-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond what is expected for thermoregulatory needs and environmental conditions. Primary hyperhidrosis has an estimated prevalence of nearly 3% and is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Most cases of hyperhidrosis involve areas of high eccrine density, particularly the axillae, palms, and soles, and less often the craniofacial area. Multiple therapies are available for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Options include topical medications (most commonly aluminum chloride), iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injections, systemic medications (including glycopyrrolate and clonidine), and surgery (most commonly endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy [ETS]). The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the literature on the subject, with a focus on new and emerging treatment options. Updated therapeutic algorithms are proposed for each commonly affected anatomic site, with practical procedural guidelines. For axillary and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, topical treatment is recommended as first-line treatment. For axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin injections are recommended as second-line treatment, oral medications as third-line treatment, local surgery as fourth-line treatment, and ETS as fifth-line treatment. For palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, we consider a trial of oral medications (glycopyrrolate 1-2 mg once or twice daily preferred to clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily) as second-line therapy due to the low cost, convenience, and emerging literature supporting their excellent safety and reasonable efficacy. Iontophoresis is considered third-line therapy for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high although so are the initial levels of cost and inconvenience. Botulinum toxin injections are considered fourth-line treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high though the treatment remains expensive, must be repeated every 3-6 months, and is associated with pain and

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment)

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain stem gliomas may cause ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  4. [Treatment of onychomycosis].

    PubMed

    Feuilhade de Chauvin, M

    2014-12-01

    A positive mycological examination is required before discussion of treatment of onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is most commonly due to dermatophytes in association with tinea pedis and/or tinea manuum. It is a catched infection. Candida onychomycosis is a rare opportunistic infection and onychomycosis due to non-dermatophytic moulds is very rare as a "chance mishap". The treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis takes each infected part of the nail into account. Topical antifungal agents should be reserved for mild to moderate onychomycosis. Systemic antifungal agents are required to severe onychomycosis. In all cases, removal of infected nail parts is useful to facilitate the penetration of antifungal drugs and eradication of reinfection sites may be done to prevent recurrences and relapses. In primary, Candida onychomycosis treatment with topical antifungal drugs may be effective but in case of treatment failure, a systemic therapy is required. Suppression predisposing factors is useful. The treatment of non-dermatophytic moulds onychomycosis is still a challenge. Except Neoscytalidium spp., which mimic a dermatophytosis, non-dermatophytic moulds may be isolated from dystrophic nails and it is always difficult to specify their role as a primary pathogen or as a colonizer of nails. The available topical and systemic antifungal drugs are not effective against these non-dermatophytic moulds except itraconazole for onychomycosis due to Aspergillus spp. New therapy such as light and laser therapy are in evaluation.

  5. [Pharmacological treatment of hyperinflation].

    PubMed

    Devillier, P; Roche, N

    2009-06-01

    Introduction Lung hyperinflation leads to breathlessness, limitation in exercise capacity and tolerance, and impaired quality of life. Thus, it is important to target this key and characteristic feature of COPD. Current knowledge Available pharmacological approaches rely mainly on bronchodilators, in particular beta2 agonists and anticholinergic agents. These treatments act through the reduction of expiratory airflow limitation. However, changes in classical indices of airflow obstruction do not accurately predict effects on hyperinflation and symptoms. The decrease in operating lung volumes (as reflected by inspiratory capacity or functional residual capacity) at rest and during exercise is one of the mechanisms by which these treatments improve quality of life and maybe also decrease the impact of exacerbations. The effect of beta2 agonists on hyperinflation might be amplified by concurrent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Perspectives The effect of new treatments targeting airways inflammation on hyperinflation remains to be explored. Conclusions Measuring the reduction in the degree of lung hyperinflation allows a better understanding of the symptomatic effect of COPD pharmacological treatments.

  6. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Plum, Martin Michael

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE -owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that the treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  7. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Rynearson; M. M. Plum

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE-owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that a treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem.

  8. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  9. [Cryptorchidism: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Longui, Carlos Alberto

    2005-02-01

    Cryptorchidism corresponds to the extra-scrotal position of the testis, and can be found in 3% of the term newborns and 0.5 to 1.0% of adults. It is usually an isolated clinical feature, but in around 10% of the cases can be associated to hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and genetic or embryonic disorders. The presence of additional genital abnormalities, such as hypospadia or micropenis, increases the probability of the diagnosis of an intersex condition. Detailed description of the testicular anatomic position is essential to adequate diagnosis, treatment and prognostic evaluation. The diagnosis of cryptorchidism is made by clinical examination. The complementary exams, such as image analysis, add limited information on the diagnosis. Gonadotropins and testicular hormones measurement can be useful if the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is activated, as observed during the first 6 months of life or during puberty. Clinical treatment is indicated in patients with retained testis or in severely retractile testis. In these cases, human chorionic gonadotropin is employed at a dose of 50 IU/kg/week for 6 consecutive weeks. Clinical treatment cannot be used in cases of confirmed inguinal hernia, varicocele or spermatic cord cysts. Surgical correction is indicated after failure of clinical treatment or for ectopic testes. The long-term prognosis of cryptorchidism seems to be related to the precocity of the therapy. Therefore, recognition and treatment of cryptorchid testes should be done during the first 2 years of life, potentially improving the risks of infertility and gonadal neoplasia.

  10. OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Márcio Passini Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Articles that update the state of knowledge regarding osteoporosis run the risk of quickly becoming obsolete because research and studies on osteoporosis today are arousing great interest among researchers, the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industries, governments and even WHO. All orthopedists know about osteoporosis because of its most deleterious effect: osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis without fractures does not arouse suspicion because this is a pathological condition with a nonspecific clinical profile. Osteoporotic fractures have an economic cost (from treatment), a social cost (from its sequelae) and a medical cost (from deaths). Many fractures could be avoided through diagnosing osteoporosis prior to the first fracture and thus many temporary and permanent disabilities could be avoided and many lives saved. Awareness of the risk factors for osteoporosis raises suspicions and bone densitometry aids in diagnosis. Treatment should be based on the physiopathology of the disease. Hence, for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, the activity of osteoclasts should be diminished or the activity of osteoblasts should be increased, or both. Treatment that reduces the incidence of fractures by improving the bone geometry and microarchitecture would be ideal. Newly formed bone tissue needs to have good cell and matrix quality, normal mineralization, a good ratio between mineralized (mechanically resistant) and non-mineralized (flexible) bone, and no accumulated damage. The ideal treatment should have a positive remodeling rate and fast and long-lasting therapeutic effects. Such effects need to be easily detectable. They need to be safe. PMID:27022545

  11. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  12. Treatment of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Sadanori

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Radiation exposure as a result of radiation treatment, accident, or terrorism may cause serious problems such as deficiency due to necrosis or loss of function, fibrosis, or intractable ulcers in the tissues and organs. When the skin, bone, oral mucous membrane, guts, or salivary glands are damaged by ionizing radiation, the management and treatment are very lengthy and difficult. Critical Issues: In severe and irreversible injuries, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Several surgical procedures, such as debridement, skin grafting, and local and free-vascularized flaps, are widely used. Recent Advances: In specific cases of major morbidity or in high-risk patients, a newly developed therapy using a patient's own stem cells is safe and effective. Adipose tissue, normally a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, which are similar to those from the bone marrow, can be harvested, since the procedure is easy, and abundant tissue can be obtained with minimal invasiveness. Future Directions: Based on the molecular basis of radiation injuries, several prospective treatments are under development. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms focus on an individual's sensitivity to radiation in radiogenomics, and the pathology of radiation fibrosis or the effect of radiation on wound healing is being studied and will lead to new insight into the treatment of radiation injuries. Protectors and mitigators are being actively investigated in terms of the timing of administration or dose. PMID:24761339

  13. Surgical treatment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Błachut, K; Bednarz, W; Paradowski, L

    2004-01-01

    Constipation is a common symptom in clinical practice. Definition of constipation includes abnormal bowel frequency, difficulty during defecation and abnormal stool consistency. There are many classifications of constipation based on constipation etiology (constipation in healthy people caused by life style, constipation as a symptom of digestive tract diseases, secondary constipation in the course of systemic disorders or associated with drugs) and/or constipation mechanisms (functional, mechanical). The numerous disorders leading to constipation make often diagnostic management difficult and complicated. Treatment of constipation includes dietary and behavioral approaches, pharmacologic therapy and in selected patient surgical treatment. Surgical treatment is recommended in young patients with severe slow transit constipation refractory to conservative treatment. Confirmation of indication to surgical treatment requires studies of colonic and anorectal function (colonic transit studies, anorectal manometry, studies of defecation). Preferred surgical technique is colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. Authors reported good results and patient satisfaction in 50-100 percent of cases. Postoperative complications include intestinal obstruction, abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea. PMID:15631313

  14. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... treatment. Some treatments for tumors cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  16. Treatment Options for Childhood Astrocytomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Craniopharyngioma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Signs or symptoms caused by the ... treatment. Some treatments for tumors cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. Side effects ...

  18. [Treatment of pediatric epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Susumu; Oguni, Hirokazu

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the treatment strategy for pediatric epilepsy has been dramatically changed in Japan, because of the approval of new-generation antiepileptic drugs. Since 2006, a total of 6 new antiepileptic drugs, including gabapentin (GBP; adults/pediatric patients: 2006/2011 [year of approval]), topiramate (TPM; 2007/2013), lamotrigine (LTG; 2008/2008), levetiracetam (LEV; 2010/2013), stiripentol (STP; 2012/2012), and rufinamide (RUF; 2013/2013), have been introduced. Thus far, valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have been first indicated for "generalized" epilepsy and "focal" epilepsy syndromes/types, respectively, in Japan. However, the approval of these new drugs could allow us to choose more effective and less toxic ones at an early stage of treatment. In this chapter, we describe the latest domestic and foreign guidelines for the treatment of pediatric epilepsy. PMID:24912285

  19. [Treatment of pediatric epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Susumu; Oguni, Hirokazu

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the treatment strategy for pediatric epilepsy has been dramatically changed in Japan, because of the approval of new-generation antiepileptic drugs. Since 2006, a total of 6 new antiepileptic drugs, including gabapentin (GBP; adults/pediatric patients: 2006/2011 [year of approval]), topiramate (TPM; 2007/2013), lamotrigine (LTG; 2008/2008), levetiracetam (LEV; 2010/2013), stiripentol (STP; 2012/2012), and rufinamide (RUF; 2013/2013), have been introduced. Thus far, valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have been first indicated for "generalized" epilepsy and "focal" epilepsy syndromes/types, respectively, in Japan. However, the approval of these new drugs could allow us to choose more effective and less toxic ones at an early stage of treatment. In this chapter, we describe the latest domestic and foreign guidelines for the treatment of pediatric epilepsy.

  20. Treatment of inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, A C; Isenberg, D A

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, notably polymyositis and dermatomyositis are comparatively uncommon diseases and few randomised, double blind placebo controlled trials have been done. Final validation of measures to assess outcome and response to treatment is awaited. Corticosteroids are an effective initial treatment, although rarely tested in randomised controlled trials. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to them and many develop undesirable side effects. There is thus a need for second line agents notably immunosuppressives or intravenous immunoglobulin. There are no defined guidelines or best treatment protocols agreed internationally and so the medical approach must be individualised, based on the severity of clinical presentation, disease duration, presence of extramuscular features, and prior therapy and contraindications to particular agents. There is still a significant percentage of non‐responders (around 25%) and clinical relapses. Novel therapeutic approaches are now directed towards cytokine modulation and the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting B and T cells. PMID:16822917

  1. Treatment of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, A C; Isenberg, D A

    2006-07-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, notably polymyositis and dermatomyositis are comparatively uncommon diseases and few randomised, double blind placebo controlled trials have been done. Final validation of measures to assess outcome and response to treatment is awaited. Corticosteroids are an effective initial treatment, although rarely tested in randomised controlled trials. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to them and many develop undesirable side effects. There is thus a need for second line agents notably immunosuppressives or intravenous immunoglobulin. There are no defined guidelines or best treatment protocols agreed internationally and so the medical approach must be individualised, based on the severity of clinical presentation, disease duration, presence of extramuscular features, and prior therapy and contraindications to particular agents. There is still a significant percentage of non-responders (around 25%) and clinical relapses. Novel therapeutic approaches are now directed towards cytokine modulation and the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting B and T cells.

  2. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  3. The Treatment of Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Timothy J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis is a complex bacterial infection, treatment of which combines the urgency of treating rapidly fatal Gram negative septicaemia with the need for eradication of long-term persistent disease in pulmonary, soft tissue, skeletal and other organ systems. Incremental improvements in treatment have been made as a result of multicentre collaboration across the main endemic region of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. There is an emerging consensus on the three main patterns of antimicrobial chemotherapy; initial (Phase 1) treatment, subsequent eradication (Phase 2) therapy and most recently post-exposure (Phase 0) prophylaxis. The combination of agents used, duration of therapy and need for adjunct modalities depends on the type, severity and antimicrobial susceptibility of infection. New antibiotic and adjunct therapies are at an investigational stage but on currently available data are unlikely to make a significant impact on this potentially fatal infection. PMID:27713302

  4. [Treatment of anorectal diseases].

    PubMed

    Herold, A

    2007-02-14

    HAEMORRHOIDAL DISEASE: Stage orientated treatment of haemorrhoidal disease using conservative and operative measures provides high healing rates with low complication- and recurrence rates. ANAL FISSURE: Muscle relaxing ointments (Nitrates, Ca-channel-blocker) are the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure. In cases of insufficiency fissurectomy provides high healing rates. ABSCESS AND ANAL FISTULA: Anal fistulae are treated with respect of their involvement of the anal sphincters. Distal fistulae are completely excised reaching high healing rates, proximal fistulae are treated using local flap procedures with healing rates reaching 50 to 80%. ANAL INCONTINENCE: Treatment of anal incontinence is depending on the severity and on the etiology of the disease. The following procedures are used: conservative: improving consistency, physical exercises, electrostimulation Biofeedback-Training surgical: Sphincterreconstruction, Pre-anal Repair, Post-anal Repair, Total Pelvic Floor Repair, Dynamic Graciloplasty, Artificial Anal Sphincter, Sacralnervestimulation, Stoma

  5. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity".

  6. Treatment of delinquents.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, C

    1992-01-01

    The medical role in the treatment of delinquency is a limited one. There is conflicting evidence as to whether treatment aims should be directed towards the individual, to the family, the institution, or the therapist. Nevertheless there seems to be a consensus of opinion that short term, focused therapies aimed at improving educational, vocational and social skills, possibly from a preschool age, are the most effective. Any treatment gains achieved while in residential care appear to be short lived. It therefore seems that this should be reserved for those individuals who commit repeated, violent crimes and for those from very damaging family backgrounds who repeatedly abscond or absent themselves from community based programmes. PMID:1471896

  7. Treatment of Lyme borreliosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans. This inflammatory disease can affect the skin, the peripheral and central nervous system, the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system and rarely the eyes. Early stages are directly associated with viable bacteria at the site of inflammation. The pathogen-host interaction is complex and has been elucidated only in part. B. burgdorferi is highly susceptible to antibiotic treatment and the majority of patients profit from this treatment. Some patients develop chronic persistent disease despite repeated antibiotics. Whether this is a sequel of pathogen persistence or a status of chronic auto-inflammation, auto-immunity or a form of fibromyalgia is highly debated. Since vaccination is not available, prevention of a tick bite or chemoprophylaxis is important. If the infection is manifest, then treatment strategies should target not only the pathogen by using antibiotics but also the chronic inflammation by using anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20067594

  8. [Treatment of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Targoński, Aleksander; Prajsner, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Its prevalence rate in Europe and in United States is estimated to be between 20% and 30%. The diagnosis of premature ejaculation is based on three main criteria: increased intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), lack of control over ejaculation and interpersonal psychological disturbances. Premature ejaculation is classified as lifelong (primary) or acquired (secondary) and might be facilitated by chronic prostatitis, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, obesity. The exact etiology of the disease remains unclear, although 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors are known to have a significant role. The use of SSRIs (selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors) is old and efficient form of therapy for premature ejaculation. Other drugs like tramadol, clomipramine, local anaesthetics and PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase 5) inhibitors also have some efficacy in the treatment of premature ejaculation. To minimize adverse effects the "on demand" therapy is preferred to the daily treatment. Simple questionnaires for patients are used to assess treatment effects. PMID:22827115

  9. Diagnosis & Treatment of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Jinnah, H. A.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. There are many different clinical manifestations and many different causes. A careful assessment of the clinical manifestations is helpful for identifying syndromic patterns that focus diagnostic testing on potential causes. If a cause can be identified, specific etiology-based treatments may be available. However, in the majority of cases, a specific cause cannot be identified, and treatments are based on symptoms. Treatment options include counseling and education, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and several surgical procedures. A substantial reduction in symptoms and improved quality of life can be achieved in the majority of patients by combining these various options. PMID:25432724

  10. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  11. Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

    2015-01-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

  12. Enuresis: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Traisman, Edward S

    2015-04-01

    Enuresis is a common pediatric problem that creates a lot of stress for both the child and his/her family. Unfortunately, many of these patients do not seek medical attention for evaluation and treatment. It is important in the care of the child with enuresis to understand the definitions of the disorder, routinely ask about bowel and bladder habits, clarify the nature of the wetting (daytime, nighttime, or both) in the child, and perform a thorough history and physical examination. Laboratory studies are often minimal. Treatment (behavioral or medicinal) is dependent on the type of enuresis present, and patient compliance. Successful management of enuresis has benefits to both the child and family.

  13. Psychostimulant addiction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. In this paper, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions. PMID:24727297

  14. Surgical prosthetic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio; Civinini, Roberto; Villano, Marco; Innocenti, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Fragility fractures typically occur in elderly patients related principally to osteoporosis. A significative percentage of these fractures have to be treated surgically but comorbilities are often present, and need to be grossly stabilized before surgery. However, there is for these fractures a high rate of morbidity and mortality at short-term. Moreover, patients affected by a fragility fracture are at risk for another fragility fracture later in life. The Authors present an overview of the main patterns of proximal femoral fractures, underlining the peculiar features and choices of surgical treatment, and relating to specific indications and results of each treatment. PMID:22461289

  15. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elkis, Helio; Buckley, Peter F

    2016-06-01

    Although treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) was described 50 years ago and has a gold standard treatment with clozapine based on well-defined criteria, there is still a matter of great interest and controversy. In terms of the underlying mechanisms of the development of TRS, progress has been made for the elucidation of the neurochemical mechanisms. Structural neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with TRS have significant reduction of the prefrontal cortex volume when compared with non- TRS. This article updates and enhances our previous review with new evidence mainly derived from new studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. PMID:27216902

  16. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms.

  17. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  18. Treatment of hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  19. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012) Quick facts about infertility . ...

  20. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  1. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  2. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  3. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  4. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary...

  5. Chiari Malformation: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... endorse any doctors, procedures, or products. © 2012 C&S Patient Education Foundation, ® Treatment Options Patients evaluated for Chiari-like ... when there is a significant syrinx © 2012 C&S Patient Education Foundation, ® This presentation is for informational purposes, consult ...

  6. Bisphosphonate Treatment and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 579. Rutgers-Verhange AR et al. 2003. No effects of bisphosphonates on the human fetus. Birth Defects Res(Part A);7:203-4. Siminoski K et al. 2000. Intravenous pamidronate for treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy during breast feeding. J Bone Miner Res 15(10):2052-2054. ...

  7. Treatment options for hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Wartofsky, L

    1996-09-15

    Antithyroid drugs induce sustained remission in only 55% of cases. Radioiodine, the overwhelming choice of specialists, may pose risks, including aggravation of ophthalmopathy. Surgical ablation should be considered only if a highly skilled surgeon is available. Thyroid storm requires aggressive management, and definitive treatment is needed for toxic adenoma or toxic multinodular goiter.

  8. Endoscopic treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents will be reflected by the imminent increase in the number of obese patients who require more definitive methods of treatment. There is great interest in new, safe, simple, nonsurgical procedures for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of new endoscopic methods for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: An English-language literature search on endoscopic interventions, endoscopically placed devices and patient safety was performed in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: The literature search yielded the following weight loss methods: space-occupying devices (widely used), gastric capacity reduction, modifying gastric motor function and malabsorptive procedures. A commercially available intragastric balloon was the most commonly used device for weight loss. In specific subgroups of patients, it improved quality of life, decreased comorbidities and served as a bridge to surgery. More evidence regarding the potential benefits and safety of other commercially available intragastric balloons is needed to clarify whether they are superior to the most commonly used one. Moreover, early experiences with transoral gastroplasty, the duodenaljejunal bypass sleeve and an adjustable, totally implantable intragastric prosthesis, indicate that they may be viable options for obesity treatment. Other agents, such as botulinum toxin and a device known as the ‘butterfly’, are currently at the experimental stage. CONCLUSION: New endoscopic methods for weight loss may be valuable in the treatment of obesity; however, more clinical experience and technical improvements are necessary before implementing their widespread use. PMID:22059171

  9. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  11. Basic Water Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce the fundamentals of water treatment plant operations. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that…

  12. Groundwater treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzazieh, N.

    1996-12-01

    When considering technologies for the common pump-and-treat scenario, identifying and characterizing the contaminant source area are the keys to successful operation. Under this scenario, groundwater is extracted from the subsurface, treated in an above-ground system, and returned to an aquifer or discharged to a publicly owned treatment works or surface water. Such a system also may contain a plume, or fixed concentration of contaminants. A sound hydrogeological assessment of the site and the contaminant plume provides a good estimate of cleanup time and of progress as treatment proceeds. In situ alternatives also can be considered for groundwater remediation. The combination of in situ and pump-and-treat technologies may result in considerable savings under some site conditions. Before evaluating technologies, an engineer needs to identify the organic and inorganic constituents at a site and study how effectively they can be treated by the proposed technologies. Such an evaluation should consider each technology`s capacity to handle maximum contaminant concentrations at the required maximum pumping rates. The three groundwater treatment technologies discussed here are carbon adsorption, air stripping, and biological treatment.

  13. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  15. [Treatment of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Kocián, J; Kociánová, J

    1999-10-20

    Dietetic treatment of Crohn's disease has the objective to calm down the gut either by a polymeric or elemental diet. In superacute conditions also total parenteral nutrition can be used. In the quiescent stage the patient must have an adequate energy intake and a low-residue (low-fibre) diet. As to medication, sulfasalazine which has some side-effects is abandoned and 5-ASA (5-aminosalicylic acid) preparations are used, either by the oral route or in enemas, while 4-ASA is little used in this country and is known as PAS. The administration of corticoids which also have side-effects will be abandoned in favour of so-called rapidly metabolized corticoids (Tixocortol pivalate, beclomethasone, budenoside and fluticasone) by the oral route and in enemas and foams. As antimicrobial treatment ciprofloxacine is used combined with metronidazole. As to immunosuppressive drugs azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporin A, cyclophosphamide and methotrexate are tested. A hope for the future is so-called biological treatment (anticytokines, monoclonal antibodies against cytokines, against CD4+ TNF, interleukines IL-10 and 11, immunoglobulin; plasmapheresis is also tested). Treatment must be individual and surgery as late as possible, only in case of complications, and should be very sparing, stenoses should be treated by plastic operations of strictures.

  16. TREATMENT AND SOLIDS MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of high-rate treatment methods show a potential to handle WWF including: physical separation with and without chemical addition (e.g., enhanced settling, fine-mesh screening, vortex separation, dual-media high-rate filtration, dissolved air flotation, activated carbon, ...

  17. Trichotillomania: Identification and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, K. Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder distinguished by recurrent hair pulling resulting in hair loss (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). This review of the literature provides a broad overview of the disorder so that counselors can better understand, describe, identify, and implement effective treatment for clients with trichotillomania.…

  18. Dynamic Treatment Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic treatment regime consists of a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of intervention, that dictate how to individualize treatments to patients based on evolving treatment and covariate history. These regimes are particularly useful for managing chronic disorders, and fit well into the larger paradigm of personalized medicine. They provide one way to operationalize a clinical decision support system. Statistics plays a key role in the construction of evidence-based dynamic treatment regimes – informing best study design as well as efficient estimation and valid inference. Due to the many novel methodological challenges it offers, this area has been growing in popularity among statisticians in recent years. In this article, we review the key developments in this exciting field of research. In particular, we discuss the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs, estimation techniques like Q-learning and marginal structural models, and several inference techniques designed to address the associated non-standard asymptotics. We reference software, whenever available. We also outline some important future directions. PMID:25401119

  19. Classical treatment of hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Moult, H Pillant-Le; Aubert, M; De Parades, V

    2015-04-01

    Radical and definitive surgical treatment is indicated in approximately one out of ten patients with hemorrhoidal disease. The Milligan and Morgan hemorrhoidectomy technique is the most widely performed in France: the technique is well-codified and results are satisfactory and durable if the indications and the post-operative follow-up are appropriately respected. Post-operative pain can be adequately controlled.

  20. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  1. Novel preventive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D; Kambara, M

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral health can be best supported through novel preventive systems. Further research is also required involving double-blind randomized controlled trials in order to bring further benefits of more effective caries control to patients. Implementation in practice should follow promptly as new techniques are shown to be clinically valuable for individual patients.

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  3. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  4. Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

    Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

  5. New treatments for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    2011-05-30

    Keratoconus is a fairly common, progressive, noninflammatory, corneal-thinning disorder in which the cornea has a conical shape. Rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses or corneal transplantation are effective treatments, but intracorneal ring segments and collagen cross-linking procedures offer some new alternatives in the management of the disease. PMID:21617595

  6. Mentalization-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people—from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists—all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)—making mentalizing a core focus of therapy—was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD. PMID:26157198

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  8. Soil Classification and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This instructional unit was designed to enable students, primarily at the secondary level, to (1) classify soils according to current capability classifications of the Soil Conservation Service, (2) select treatments needed for a given soil class according to current recommendations provided by the Soil Conservation Service, and (3) interpret a…

  9. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated. PMID:27155860

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  11. Microbiology of Waste Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unz, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  13. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... People on chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, or long-term use of steroids Treatments at Home for People with Chickenpox There are several things that can be done at home to help relieve the symptoms and prevent skin ... Use non-aspirin medications, such as acetaminophen, to relieve ...

  14. Effective Obesity Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…

  15. Treatment for Child Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  16. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  17. Water treatment residuals

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    Solutions to an environmental problem often create other environmental problems. That surely is the case in the water supply field. By providing new or expanded water treatment systems to comply with the maximum contaminant levels and treatment mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act, water purveyors are generating large volumes of residuals that must be managed, ultimately disposed of, or recycled. Numerous federal, state, and local laws govern the management, transport, disposal, and recycling of wastes produced by water treatment systems. Because these laws can result in exorbitant waste disposal costs, restricting some projects entirely, water suppliers need to consider residual disposal early in the siting, selection, and design of treatment projects. To inform water suppliers about residual laws, AWWA commissioned a study published as a Water Industry Technical Action Fund report. In addition to identifying and describing applicable laws at the federal level and in six of the states, the study revealed a series of findings as to the consequences of those laws to water suppliers. This article is a brief overview of the findings of the report.

  18. Treatment of violent families.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C. C.; Chance-Hill, G.

    1991-01-01

    Family violence is responsible for a significant proportion of homicides, a major cause of premature deaths in African-Americans. This article reviews the prevalence of family violence and explores associated risk factors. Principles and tips of treatment, along with a cognitive framework to guide the actual therapy, are outlined. Finally, issues of preventing family violence are discussed. PMID:2038079

  19. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  20. Treatment of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A

    1985-01-01

    There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  2. Complications and Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... successfully cure SCD. Complications from hydroxyurea therapy and stem cell transplants are rare but can be serious or life-threatening. People with SCD and their families should ask their doctors about the benefits and risks of each. Read more about treatment ...

  3. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  4. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation therapy to be given in fewer treatments. Photon-beam radiation therapy : Photon-beam radiation therapy is a type of external ... with or without radiation therapy. Fast neutron or photon-beam radiation therapy . A clinical trial of radiation ...

  5. ADHD treatment and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that ADHD is a common condition, not only in children and teenagers but also in adults. This has led to a rapid rise in the number of women of childbearing age who are being treated for this condition. Against the background of concerns about the use of medication of any kind during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it is remarkable that there is so little information available on the effects of ADHD medication on the fetus and newborn. The impulsivity associated with ADHD might lead to an increased rate of unplanned pregnancy. Although treating ADHD during pregnancy and lactation might have negative effects on the baby, suspension of treatment or inadequate treatment could also place both mother and baby at risk. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy could affect both the efficacy and the concentration of medication. Again, there is almost no guidance available. The US Food and Drug Administration has classified ADHD medications as being "pregnancy category C", implying that there is insufficient information to confirm either harm or lack of harm. From the limited information that has been published, it would appear that the risk of fetal malformation, at least with methylphenidate, is very low and that the amounts of medication excreted in breast milk and consumed by the infant are very small. Three questions that both clinicians and patients are likely to ask are the following. Should ADHD medication be stopped before, during or after pregnancy, or should it be continued throughout? Should ADHD medication doses be adjusted during the course of the pregnancy or after delivery? Should breastfeeding be encouraged or discouraged? Discontinuing ADHD treatment could put both mother and baby at risk. This has to be balanced against the possible risks to the baby of continuing treatment. Although the data remain inadequate, the risk of the latter appears to be quite small, at least for methylphenidate. However, there is

  6. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges.

    PubMed

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments.

  7. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to “pseudo-resistance” (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true “treatment resistance.” Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793

  8. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges.

    PubMed

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793

  9. Melasma--updated treatments.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Kolić, Maja; Bolanca, Zeljana; Ljubicić, Ivana; Misanović, Bernarda

    2011-09-01

    Melasma is a common, acquired facial skin disorder, mostly involving sun-exposed areas like cheeks, forehead and upper lip. Melasma occurs in both sexes, although almost 90 percent of the affected are women. It is more common in darker skin types (Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI) especially Hispanics/Latinos, Asians and African-Americans. The onset of the melasma is at puberty or later, with exception of darker skin types, who tend to develop this problem in the first decade of life. The etiology is still unknown, although there are a number of triggering factors related to the onset of melasma. The most important are sun-exposure and genetic factors in both sexes, while hormonal activity has more important role in females. In addition, stress and some cosmetic products and drugs containing phototoxic agents can cause outbreaks of this condition. Melasma should be treated using monotherapies or combination of therapy, mainly fixed triple or dual combinations containing hydroquinone, tretinoin, corticosteroids or azelaic acid. Modified Kligman's formula is also very effective. Above mentioned therapy regimens in combination with UVA and UVB blocking sunscreens are mostly effective in epidermal melasma. Discontinuation of the use of birth control pills, scented cosmetic products, and phototoxic drugs coupled with UV protection are also benefitial in clearing of melasma. Alternative treatment including chemical peels and glicolic acid, seem to have the best result as a second line treatment after bleaching creams. Laser treatments show limited efficacy and should rarely be used in the treatment of melasma. Combining topical agents like hydroquinone, tretinoin and a corticosteroid in addition to sun avoidance, regular use of sunscreen throughout the year and patient education is the best treatment in this difficult to treat condition.

  10. Piezocision-assisted Invisalign treatment.

    PubMed

    Keser, Elif I; Dibart, Serge

    2011-03-01

    In today's fast-paced, esthetic-conscious society, the orthodontic treatment of the adult patient can sometimes be a challenge. Considerable time spent in treatment as well as the use of brackets often deter patients from seeking treatment. The authors illustrate how piezocision combined with Invisalign can be used in selected cases to successfully treat adults who would otherwise not pursue orthodontic treatment.

  11. [Chronobiological treatments of mood disorders].

    PubMed

    Urrila, Anna Sofia; Partonen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Chronobiological treatments are non-pharmacological treatments that influence the circadian rhythms and the physiology of sleep. In these treatments, the sleep-wake cycle and exposure to environmental stimuli affecting the biological rhythms are controlled. The aim is to produce a therapeutic effect in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Chronobiological treatments include manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle, like sleep deprivation and advanced sleep-wake rhythm, and scheduled exposures to light and darkness. The clinical use of chronobiological treatments in Finland has been minimal and limited to the treatment of mood disorders, especially depressive disorders.

  12. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  15. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  16. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Huovinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective drugs have in recent years been introduced for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer, it is still an incurable illness. Many patients live a fairly normal life with their illness for a long time, and some of them are able to continue working in spite of the therapies. Factors considered in tailoring the treatment include tumor subtype, extent of the disease, symptoms, previous treatments and the achieved treatment outcome, and adverse effects of the treatments. PMID:26245064

  17. [Hormone treatment of pedophilia].

    PubMed

    Vanderschueren, D M

    1997-01-01

    Pedophilia is only one of the sexual deviations that can be treated by chemical castration and it is presently unclear whether pedophilia responds better or worse to this therapy in sexual offenders. Antiandrogens are most often used for chemical castration. With respect to the treatment of sexual deviations, LH-antagonists or the combination of antiandrogens and LH-agonists were not studied very extensively. Long-term effects and side-effects of chemical castration are also presently unclear. Although, there is some indication that recidivism will decrease following chemical castration, its use is limited by a high refusal and drop-out rate. The indications of chemical castration in the treatment of sexual deviation raises important ethical questions.

  18. Treatment of Clavicle Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Paladini, P; Pellegrini, A; Merolla, G; Campi, F; Porcellini, G

    2012-01-01

    Summary Clavicle fractures are very common injuries in adults (2–5%) and children (10–15%) (1) and represent the 44–66% of all shoulder fractures (2). Despite the high frequency the choice of proper treatment is still a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. With this review we wants to focus the attention on the basic epidemiology, anatomy, classification, evaluation and management of surgical treatments in relationship with the gravity of injuries. Both conservative and surgical management are possible, and surgeons must choose the most appropriate management modality according to the biologic age, functional demands, and type of lesion. We performed a review of the English literature thought PubMed to produce an evidence-based review of current concept and management of clavicle fracture. We finished taking a comparison with our survey in order to underline our direct experience. PMID:23905044

  19. [Treatment options for brachymetatarsia].

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, C; Arbab, D; Abbara-Czardybon, M

    2013-01-01

    Brachymetatarsia can be congenital, idiopathic or secondary and describes an abnormal shortening of a metatarsal bone. The indications for treatment are not only due to cosmesis. The shortening of a ray changes the biomechanics of the foot and can lead to metatarsalgia. A frequent clinical feature is dorsal dislocation of a toe causing painful shoe conflict and disturbed proprioception. There are three main options for operative correction: lengthening osteotomy, interposition of a tricortical bone and gradual lengthening by callus distraction. While one stage lengthening procedures such as osteotomy and interposition are more appropriate for correction of moderate length deficiencies, the callus distraction method is more suitable for larger elongation. Common to all procedures is a long-term treatment with a high risk of different complications whereby patient compliance can be problematical. PMID:23238881

  20. [Conventional treatment of gout].

    PubMed

    Curković, Bozidar

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a severely disabling disorder, leading to poor quality of life, functional impairment with repercussion on physical activity, social functioning and emotional health. On the other hand, gout is probably the best understood and most manageable of all common systemic rheumatic diseases. The treatment of gout is appropriately divided into treatment of the acute attack and prevention of further attacks and of joint damage. Standard management of acute attacks of gout consists of rest, application of ice to the affected joint, and prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or glucocorticoids which should be started immediately to be most effective. Colchicin and interleukin-1 inhibitors can be used as alternative, when are indicated and available. Urate lowering therapy (usually alopurinol) is indicated to treat recurrent gout attacks, chronic arthropathy, tophi and uric acid renal lithiasis.

  1. [Tobacco dependence treatment guidelines].

    PubMed

    Králíková, Eva; Češka, Richard; Pánková, Alexandra; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco dependence causes every sixth death in the Czech Republic and is associated with diseases of the whole body. Treatment of tobacco dependence should be a standard part of clinical care to the extent of time available--from brief intervention at each clinical contact with patients up to intensive treatment. It includes psycho-socio-behavioural support and pharmacotherapy. It should apply to all professions in clinical medicine--as recommended by WHO mainly doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists, and should be covered within health care systems. Economically, it is one of the most cost-effective interventions in medicine. In our population over 15 years about 30% smokes (about 2.2 million people), diagnosis F17 relates to approximately 1.75 million people (about 80% of smokers). PMID:26955915

  2. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

  3. [Treatment of refractory ascites].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Albillos, Agustín

    2014-07-01

    Ascites is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Patients present systemic and splanchnic circulation disorders, which cause central hypovolemia and arterial hypotension, with the subsequent activation of vasoconstrictor systems and increased renal reabsorption of sodium and water. Approximately 5%-10% of patients present refractory ascites. Refractory ascites is considered when it is not controllable with standard dietary (sodium restriction) and diuretic (furosemide up to 160 mg a day and spironolactone up to 400mg a day) treatment or when patients present adverse effects due to diuretics that impede their administration at optimum dosages. The current therapeutic options for these patients are repeated evacuative paracentesis and the percutaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Despite these treatments, refractory ascites has a poor prognosis; patients should therefore be assessed for liver transplantation.

  4. Structured treatment interruption workshop.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    A workshop on structured treatment interruptions (STI) took place in Boston in July 1999. The three basic reasons for initiating STI are to save or increase the immune system's response to HIV, to renew sensitivity to anti-HIV drugs, and to provide a break for people experiencing treatment fatigue or severe side effects. Discussions at the conference emphasized that research on STI is still preliminary and the benefits of STI are unclear at this time. The meeting concluded with a review of ongoing studies; a list of recommendations was proposed. Also discussed was the need to communicate a clear definition of STI that could be applied for large observational studies. A task force is being established to achieve this goal, which would include representatives from large studies. Contact information is provided. PMID:11367357

  5. Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical method of treating polluted water where sacrificial anodes corrode to release active coagulant precursors (usually aluminum or iron cations) into solution. At the cathode, gas evolves (usually as hydrogen bubbles) accompanying electrolytic reactions. EC needs simple equipments and is designable for virtually any size. It is cost effective and easily operable. Specially, the recent technical improvements combined with a growing need for small-scale water treatment facilities have led to a revaluation of EC. In this chapter, the basic principle of EC was introduced first. Following that, reactions at the electrodes and electrode assignment were reviewed; electrode passivation process and activation method were presented; comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was performed; typical design of the EC reactors was also described; and factors affecting electrocoagulation including current density, effect of conductivity, temperature, and pH were introduced in details. Finally, application of EC in water treatment was given in details.

  6. Treatment of Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Rajiv; Gibbs, C. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, the authors summarize the state of the art and future potential in the management of Osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and Chondrosarcoma. They cover systemic therapy, surgical therapy, and radiotherapy, along with targeted therapies to inhibit signal transduction pathways. They discuss staging and the role of imaging evaluation to provide an overview of bone tumor treatment. Images presenting pathologic-radiologic correlations are included. PMID:22328909

  7. Treatment of primary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, W C

    1976-12-01

    Reports in the English language of the treatment of primary syphilis are reviewed. Except for benzathine penicillin, the efficacy of the currently recommended dosage schedules are documented only by Schroeter et al. Although these investigators reported generally acceptable failure rates, further study is necessary to determine: (1) if differences in efficacy exist among regimes; (2) if the current schedules are equally effective in both primary and secondary syphilis; and (3) if increased dosages reduce failure rates. PMID:1010777

  8. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hartman-Adams, Holly; Banvard, Christine; Juckett, Gregory

    2014-08-15

    Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas. Both types usually resolve within two to three weeks without scarring, and complications are rare, with the most serious being poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Treatment includes topical antibiotics such as mupirocin, retapamulin, and fusidic acid. Oral antibiotic therapy can be used for impetigo with large bullae or when topical therapy is impractical. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides are options, but penicillin is not. Natural therapies such as tea tree oil; olive, garlic, and coconut oils; and Manuka honey have been anecdotally successful, but lack sufficient evidence to recommend or dismiss them as treatment options. Treatments under development include minocycline foam and Ozenoxacin, a topical quinolone. Topical disinfectants are inferior to antibiotics and should not be used. Empiric treatment considerations have changed with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, macrolide-resistant streptococcus, and mupirocin-resistant streptococcus all documented. Fusidic acid, mupirocin, and retapamulin cover methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and streptococcal infections. Clindamycin proves helpful in suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole covers methicillin-resistant S

  9. [Leg ulcer: conservative treatment].

    PubMed

    Fradique, Caldeira; Pupo, Alexandra; Quaresma, Luísa; Palma-Rosa, Ana; Fernandes, Mário; Silva, Gualdino; Almeida, Heitor; Diogo, Cláudia; Pinho, Ana Catarina

    2011-01-01

    During 16 years 202 patients with leg ulcer have been studied prospectively. Whenever possible, cure has been obtained in ambulatory, which was the main objective. Surgery was preferentially made after the cure of the ulcer. From the 202 patients, 166 have made a prolonged follow-up. Cure in ambulatory has been obtained in 91% of the patients. We stress the importance of the direct control of all the treatment by the responsible doctor.

  10. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hartman-Adams, Holly; Banvard, Christine; Juckett, Gregory

    2014-08-15

    Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas. Both types usually resolve within two to three weeks without scarring, and complications are rare, with the most serious being poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Treatment includes topical antibiotics such as mupirocin, retapamulin, and fusidic acid. Oral antibiotic therapy can be used for impetigo with large bullae or when topical therapy is impractical. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides are options, but penicillin is not. Natural therapies such as tea tree oil; olive, garlic, and coconut oils; and Manuka honey have been anecdotally successful, but lack sufficient evidence to recommend or dismiss them as treatment options. Treatments under development include minocycline foam and Ozenoxacin, a topical quinolone. Topical disinfectants are inferior to antibiotics and should not be used. Empiric treatment considerations have changed with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, macrolide-resistant streptococcus, and mupirocin-resistant streptococcus all documented. Fusidic acid, mupirocin, and retapamulin cover methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and streptococcal infections. Clindamycin proves helpful in suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole covers methicillin-resistant S

  11. Keratoplasty postoperative treatment update.

    PubMed

    Shimmura-Tomita, Machiko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Omoto, Masahiro; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy is the main postoperative treatment for keratoplasty, but there are considerable differences in protocols for the use of steroids and other immunosuppressants. Therefore, we conducted 2 prospective randomized clinical trials and 1 prospective nonrandomized clinical trial on keratoplasty postoperative treatment. One study evaluated the efficacy and safety of long-term topical corticosteroids after a penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Patients who underwent keratoplasty and maintained graft clarity for >1 year were randomly assigned to either a steroid or a no-steroid group. At the 12-month follow-up, the no-steroid group developed significantly more endothelial rejection than did the steroid group. A second study elucidated the effectiveness and safety of systemic cyclosporine in high-risk corneal transplantation. The patients were assigned to a systemic cyclosporine or control group. At a mean follow-up of 42.7 months, no difference was observed in the endothelial rejection rates and graft clarity loss between the 2 groups. A third study elucidated the effectiveness and the safety of systemic tacrolimus in high-risk corneal transplantation. Of 11 consecutive eyes decompensated despite systemic cyclosporine treatment, there was no irreversible rejection in eyes treated with tacrolimus, which was significantly better than in previous penetrating keratoplasty with systemic cyclosporine treatment. Prognosis after keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus is relatively good, but special attention is required for patients with atopic dermatitis. Postkeratoplasty atopic sclerokeratitis (PKAS) is a severe form of sclerokeratitis after keratoplasty in atopic patients. Our retrospective study showed that 35 eyes of 29 patients from a total of 247 keratoconus eyes undergoing keratoplasty were associated with atopic dermatitis, of which 6 eyes of 5 patients developed PKAS. Eyes with PKAS had a significantly higher incidence of atopic blepharitis

  12. Tinnitus activities treatment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard S; Gogel, Stephanie A; Gehringer, Anne K

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus Activities Treatment includes counseling of the whole person, and considers individual differences and needs. We consider four areas: thoughts and emotions, hearing and communication, sleep, and concentration. We typically use Partial Masking Sound Therapy, with a noise or music set to the lowest level that provides relief. A picture-based approach facilitates engagement of the patient, and provides thorough and structured counseling. We engage the patient by including homework and activities to demonstrate understanding and facilitate progress. PMID:17956807

  13. Treatment of Gambling Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Preclinical and clinical research implicate several neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of gambling disorder (GD). In particular, neurobiological research suggests alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic functioning. The relative efficacy of medications targeting these systems remains a topic of ongoing research, and there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication with an indication for GD. Considering co-occurring disorders may be particularly important when devising a treatment plan for GD: extant data suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may by the most effective form of current pharmacotherapy for GD, particularly for individuals with a co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD) or with a family history of alcoholism. In contrast, lithium or other mood stabilizers may be most effective for GD for patients presenting with a co-occurring bipolar-spectrum disorder (BSD). Further, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) may be efficacious in reducing GD symptoms for individuals also presenting with a (non-BSD) mood or anxiety disorder. Finally, elevated rates of GD (and other Impulse Control Disorders; ICDs) have been noted among individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and clinicians should assess for vulnerability to GD when considering treatment options for PD. Reducing levodopa or dopamine agonist (DA) dosages may partially reduce GD symptoms among patients with co-occurring PD. For GD patients not willing to consider drug treatment, n-acetyl cysteine or behavioral therapies may be effective. Ongoing research into the effectiveness of combined behavioral and pharmacotherapies is being conducted; thus combined treatments should also be considered. PMID:24904757

  14. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  15. Treatment of Giardiasis

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Timothy B.; Hill, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is both the most common intestinal parasite in the United States and a frequent cause of diarrheal illness throughout the world. In spite of its recognition as an important human pathogen, there have been relatively few agents used in therapy. This paper discusses each class of drugs used in treatment, along with their mechanism of action, in vitro and clinical efficacy, and side effects and contraindications. Recommendations are made for the preferred treatment in different clinical situations. The greatest clinical experience is with the nitroimidazole drugs, i.e., metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole, which are highly effective. A 5- to 7-day course of metronidazole can be expected to cure over 90% of individuals, and a single dose of tinidazole or ornidazole will cure a similar number. Quinacrine, which is no longer produced in the United States, has excellent efficacy but may be poorly tolerated, especially in children. Furazolidone is an effective alternative but must be administered four times a day for 7 to 10 days. Paromomycin may be used during early pregnancy, because it is not systematically absorbed, but it is not always effective. Patients who have resistant infection can usually be cured by a prolonged course of treatment with a combination of a nitroimidazole with quinacrine. PMID:11148005

  16. Optimizing treatment options.

    PubMed

    Naclerio, R M

    1998-12-01

    Full and accurate diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is important as a basis for treatment decisions, as many nasal disorders have similar signs and symptoms. Optimal allergen avoidance is the starting point of treatment, so causative allergens need to be identified. Oral antihistamines are effective in relieving the majority of symptoms of allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis, but provide only partial relief from nasal congestion. Topical alpha-adrenergic decongestants help to relieve congestion, but prolonged use leads to rhinitis medicamentosa. Systemic decongestants are less effective than topical agents and their use is limited by systemic and central side-effects. The value of leukotriene antagonists has yet to be fully evaluated. Intranasal ipratropium bromide helps to control watery secretions, and an aerosol may be more effective than an aqueous solution. Topical glucocorticosteroids, such as triamcinolone, are the most potent and effective agents available for treating allergic rhinitis. The available evidence indicates that there is very little systemic absorption. Sodium cromoglycate is effective in allergic rhinitis, though less so than topical steroids, and has the least adverse effects among the antiallergic agents. Immunotherapy can be effective and may be indicated in individuals who cannot avoid the causative allergen. Special considerations apply to the treatment of allergic rhinitis in elderly or pregnant patients. Finally, patients with long-standing allergic conditions should be re-assessed regularly.

  17. [Treatment-resistant schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Yahyaten, O Ben

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that causes severe cognitive, behavioral and social dysfunction, responsible for a shortening of the life expectancy of patients, with an increased risk of suicide, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The management of patient with schizophrenia is global and atypical antipsychotics, antagonizing dopamine pathway, are the first line pharmacological treatment. Clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic discovered, is currently still the most effective molecule against schizophrenia, while causing less extrapyramidal side effects. Its particular pharmacological behavior towards serotonergic, muscarinic and NMDA receptors, seems essential to its action. However, clozapine is responsible for immunological and metabolic lethal adverse events, preventing its wider use. Clozapine is therefore reserved for resistant schizophrenia cases. Monitoring patients with different scales such as the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale showed that there were forms of ultra-resistant schizophrenia. The treatment in this case, must be customized to the patient's symptomatology, but the combination of clozapine with other pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments, shows yet only small improvements.

  18. Treatment of complicated grief

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Rita; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotoučová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the death of a loved one, a small group of grievers develop an abnormal grieving style, termed complicated or prolonged grief. In the effort to establish complicated grief as a disorder in DSM and ICD, several attempts have been made over the past two decades to establish symptom criteria for this form of grieving. Complicated grief is different from depression and PTSD yet often comorbid with other psychological disorders. Meta-analyses of grief interventions show small to medium effect sizes, with only few studies yielding large effect sizes. In this article, an integrative cognitive behavioral treatment manual for complicated grief disorder (CG-CBT) of 25 individual sessions is described. Three treatment phases, each entailing several treatment strategies, allow patients to stabilize, explore, and confront the most painful aspects of the loss, and finally to integrate and transform their grief. Core aspects are cognitive restructuring and confrontation. Special attention is given to practical exercises. This article includes the case report of a woman whose daughter committed suicide. PMID:22893810

  19. [Treatment of amblyopia].

    PubMed

    von Noorden, G K

    1990-01-01

    Animal experiments have explored the structural and functional alterations of the afferent visual pathways in amblyopia and have emphasized the extraordinary sensitivity of the immature visual system to abnormal visual stimulation. The practical consequences of these experiments are obvious: early diagnosis of amblyopia and energetic occlusion therapy as early in life as possible. At the same time, measures must be taken to prevent visual deprivation amblyopia in the occluded eye. After successful treatment, alternating penalization with two pairs of spectacles is recommended. Pleoptics involves an enormous commitment in terms of time, personnel and costs. In view of the fact that the superiority of this treatment over occlusion therapy has yet to be proven, the current value of pleoptics appears dubious. Moreover, overtreated patients may end up with intractable diplopia. Diverging opinions exist with regard to the use of penalization as a primary treatment of amblyopia. We employ it only in special cases as an alternative to occlusion therapy. Visual deprivation in infancy caused by opacities of the ocular media, especially when they occur unilaterally, must be eliminated, and deprivation amblyopia must be treated without delay to regain useful vision. Brief periods of bilateral occlusion are recommended to avoid the highly amblyopiogenic imbalance between binocular afferent visual input. Future developments will hopefully include new objective methods to diagnose amblyopia in preverbal children and infants. The application of positron emission tomography is perhaps the first step in the direction of searching for new approaches to this problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2083896

  20. Pharmacologic treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Schacht, Joseph P; Book, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding the neuroscience of addiction has significantly advanced the development of more efficacious medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While several medications have been approved by regulatory bodies around the world for the treatment of AUD, they are not universally efficacious. Recent research has yielded improved understanding of the genetics and brain circuits that underlie alcohol reward and its habitual use. This research has contributed to pharmacogenetic studies of medication response, and will ultimately lead to a more "personalized medicine" approach to AUD pharmacotherapy. This chapter summarizes work on clinically available medications (both approved by regulatory bodies and investigational) for the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as the psychiatric disorders that are commonly comorbid with AUD. Studies that have evaluated genetic influences on medication response and those that have employed neuroimaging to probe mechanisms of medication action or response are highlighted. Finally, new targets discovered in animal models for possible pharmacologic intervention in humans are overviewed and future directions in medications development provided.

  1. [Treatment of onychomycoses].

    PubMed

    Halmy, Klára

    2003-10-12

    The author reviews the prevalence of onychomycoses and the factors influencing it. Among the precipitating factors, age and various predisposing diseases play a role in the development of the disease play a role in the development of the disease. The problem affects the toenails more frequently than the fingernails. Distal subungual onychomycosis caused by dermatophytons is most often seen among the various types of the disease. Yeasts and moulds mainly act as contaminants. New diagnostic methods facilitate more precise diagnosis but they cannot replace basic mycological investigations. Orally administered antifungal agents have appeared in the foreground of treatment. Among them fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafin derivatives can safely be applied in combination with certain cauterants. Each of the three agents are effective in approximately 70-80% of cases, especially when applied on fingernails. Combined therapy, such as the application of oral antimycotics and antifungal lacquerers or oral treatment accompanied by the surgical, laser or chemical removal of the affected nail regions, can improve the results. Surviving fungal residues in the substance of the nail may restart the disease. Relapse may also be attributed to neglecting the desinfection of shoes. When choosing the drugs, drug interaction should also be considered. The above three oral antimycotics have few (1-20%) side effects, gastrointestinal ones being the most common among them. A transitory elevation in hepatic enzyme levels may sometimes occur but the changes go back to normal after treatment is over.

  2. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to control microbial periodontal infection by removing bacterial biofilm, calculus, and toxins from periodontally involved root surfaces. A review of the scientific literature indicates that mechanical nonsurgical periodontal treatment predictably reduces the levels of inflammation and probing pocket depths, increases the clinical attachment level and results in an apical shift of the gingival margin. Another parameter to be considered, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence, is the reduction in the degree of tooth mobility, as clinically experienced. It is important to point out that nonsurgical periodontal treatment presents limitations such as the long-term maintainability of deep periodontal pockets, the risk of disease recurrence, and the skill of the operator. A high number of posttreatment residual pockets exhibiting bleeding on probing and > 5 mm deep are related to lower clinical stability. The successful treatment of plaque-induced periodontitis will restore periodontal health, but with reduced periodontium. In such cases, anatomical damage from previous periodontal disease will persist and inverse architecture of soft tissue may impair home plaque removal. The clinician can select one of the following therapeutic options according to the individual patient's needs: - Quadrant/sextant wise instrumentation (conventional staged debridement, CSD). - Instrumentation of all pockets within a 24-hour period with (full mouth disinfection [FMD]) or without (full mouth scaling and root planing [FMSRP]) local antiseptics. Both procedures can be associated with systemic antimicrobials. -CSD or FMD in combination with laser or photodynamic therapy. Patients with aggressive periodontitis constitute a challenge to the clinician. To date there are no established protocols for controlling the disease. However, data from the literature on the application of the FMD protocol combined with amoxicillin

  3. [Biofeedback treatment for epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko; Matsuura, Masato

    2011-04-01

    Anti-epileptic drugs are the mainstay in the management of epilepsy. However, approximately 30% of patients continue to have seizures despite optimal drug therapy. Behavioural interventions that include biofeedback have become increasingly popular over the last 3 decades, and the results have mostly been encouraging. Biofeedback is a non-invasive behavioural treatment that enables a patient to gain volitional control over a physiological process. In epilepsy, targeted parameters for biofeedback include electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of cortical activity, such as different EEG frequencies or cortical potentials (i.e., neurofeedback), and peripheral autonomic activity, such as Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). In this review, biofeedback using Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR), Slow Cortical Potentials (SCP), and GSR are discussed. SMR biofeedback was established in the 1970s and is the most prominent methodology for biofeedback treatment of epilepsy in published literature. The technique is now regaining its popularity. SCP biofeedback was introduced in the 1990s. In contrast to SMR biofeedback, which modulates the frequency components of EEG, SCP biofeedback focuses on the regulation of potential changes (amplitude of DC shift). The clinical trials conducted using SCP biofeedback were larger than those conducted using SMR biofeedback, and their overall outcomes were promising. GSR biofeedback is a relatively new methodology in its application to epilepsy and focuses on the modulation of electrodermal measures of sympathetic activity. Compared to the neurofeedback approach, GSR biofeedback is much easier to implement, and evidence suggests that its clinical benefits can be achieved more rapidly. Although the biofeedback treatment may never achieve the status of an alternative to pharmacotherapy for epilepsy, current research findings strongly suggest that biofeedback has the potential to become a potent adjunctive non-pharmacological approach to reduce seizure

  4. [Treatment of syncope].

    PubMed

    Andresen, D

    2014-06-01

    The therapy of patients with syncope is oriented to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Patients with reflex syncope require careful education regarding recognition of warning signs and the avoidance of trigger factors. Treatment with beta blockers is nowadays obsolete. Even other drugs have failed to show any benefit. Pacemaker therapy should only be considered if syncope attacks are frequent and if there is a correlation between symptoms and the electrocardiogram (ECG). Because autonomic failure in patients with orthostatic hypotension is often drug-induced, reduction of the dosage or the complete elimination is the treatment of choice in these patients. A higher than normal salt and fluid intake as well as general measures to avoid delayed venous backflow, e.g. elastic stockings, may also be helpful. A change in blood pressure medication can be decisive for therapy success, especially in elderly patients with arterial hypertension. Pacemaker and defibrillator therapy is the treatment of choice in patients with bradycardia and tachycardia arrhythmias, respectively. Although these measures are simple but effective, in individual cases it is still difficult to find clinical proof that arrhythmic disorders are the causal factors for the syncope. However, also in these patients cardiac pacing should be based on a symptom ECG correlation. The recently conducted market release of the injectable miniaturized ECG recorder will alleviate the diagnostic process. The limits of this approach, however, become obvious when there is the suspicion of a life-threatening rhythm disorder, because the only difference between syncope and sudden cardiac death is that in one case the patient wakes up again.

  5. Treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Onysko, Mary K; Stob, Christian M; Hazlewood, Kathleen A

    2011-06-15

    Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting nearly one-half [corrected] of Americans older than 85 years. It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles, and depletion of acetylcholine are among the pathologic manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Although there are no proven modalities for preventing Alzheimer disease, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity, and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are first-line medications for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, and are associated with mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living; however, the clinical relevance of these effects is unclear. The most common adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, and cardiac arrhythmias. Short-term use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine can modestly improve measures of cognition, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease. Memantine can also be used in combination with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Memantine is generally well tolerated, but whether its benefits produce clinically meaningful improvement is controversial. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can slow the progression of Alzheimer disease, no pharmacologic agents can reverse the progression. Atypical antipsychotics can improve some behavioral symptoms, but have been associated with increased mortality rates in older patients with dementia. There is conflicting evidence about the benefit of selegiline, testosterone, and ginkgo for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. There is no evidence supporting the beneficial effects of vitamin E, estrogen, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy.

  6. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26770688

  7. Dream disorders and treatment.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Alan S

    2007-09-01

    Consensus does not exist regarding what should constitute a "dream disorder." Conditions with disordered dreaming may be thought of as primary (ie, arising from changes in dreaming per se) or secondary to extrinsic disorders that impinge on structures involved in dreaming. The major primary disorder of dreaming, nightmare disorder, is covered in depth in this article. Definition of nightmare, diagnostic criteria for nightmare disorder, and differential diagnosis are discussed. The value of a sleep-disorders perspective on nightmares, and the possible exacerbating effects of sleep disorders that cause arousals, are indicated. The importance of a perspective that appreciates nightmares as richly and personally meaningful, with links to complex psychological factors present and past, is emphasized. Two types of treatment approaches are discussed: approaches that target the symptom of nightmares in relative isolation, and approaches that aim at working out psychological issues viewed as causing nightmares and a variety of other interconnected symptoms and problems. The former type of treatment includes the cognitive-behavioral approach "imagery rehearsal therapy," and the medication prazosin. The latter approach entails exploratory or psychodynamic psychotherapies. The approaches are seen as so different in scope, aim, and conceptual framework as to defy ready comparison. I think that a thorough psychological/psychiatric evaluation is essential for informed consideration in conjunction with the patient's choice of treatment approach. Sleep terrors are discussed as a non-rapid eye movement sleep arousal disorder that at times may be linked to broader psychological issues warranting consideration of psychotherapy. Brief summaries are provided of dream disorders secondary to other sleep disorders, drug and alcohol effects, medical disorders, and organic brain damage.

  8. Carbon wastewater treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

  9. Heat treatment furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  10. Treatment of acne scarring.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Dover, J S

    Acne scarring is common but surprisingly difficult to treat. Scars can involve textural change in the superficial and deep dermis, and can also be associated with erythema, and less often, pigmentary change. In general, treatment of acne scarring is a multistep procedure. First, examination of the patient is necessary to classify the subtypes of scarring that are present. Then, the patient's primary concerns are elicited, and the patient is offered a menu of procedures that may address the various components of the scarring process. It is important to emphasize to the patient that acne scarring can be improved but never entirely reversed. PMID:17180246

  11. Treatment of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Dussias, Peter; Kalali, Amir H; Staud, Roland M

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for fibromyalgia. The data suggest that the majority of those treated, 82 percent, receive only one pharmaceutical. An additional 12 percent of patients were prescribed two products and six percent received three products. Pregabalin (Lyrica(R)) monotherapy was the most commonly prescribed regimen (21% of patients) followed by duloxetine (Cymbalta(R)) monotherapy (20%). From a therapeutic class perspective, fibromyalgia patients received antidepressants (46%), antiepileptics (35%), pain therapies (25%), muscle relaxants (8%), and sleep agents (2%). An expert commentary is included.

  12. Thermomechanical treatment of alloys

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John F.; Brager, Howard R.; Paxton, Michael M.

    1983-01-01

    An article of an alloy of AISI 316 stainless steel is reduced in size to predetermined dimensions by cold working in repeated steps. Before the last reduction step the article is annealed by heating within a temperature range, specifically between 1010.degree. C. and 1038.degree. C. for a time interval between 90 and 60 seconds depending on the actual temperature. By this treatment the swelling under neutron bombardment by epithermal neutrons is reduced while substantial recrystallization does not occur in actual use for a time interval of at least of the order of 5000 hours.

  13. Treatment of dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease) is the leading cause of death globally. Abnormal blood lipids (dyslipidemia), smoking, and high blood pressure are responsible for more than 75% of cases. Aggressive low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol lowering therapy, particularly statins, appear to be the most effective of the therapeutic approaches, but even with their use, cardiovascular disease event rates remain relatively high, underpinning the quest for novel treatments. In this review we discuss recent advances in the field and what remains to be done to reduce this rate further. In particular, in addition to development and investigation of new LDL-cholesterol lowering therapies, there has been a major focus on treatments to favorably influence high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. However, to this time, approaches to the latter have been somewhat disappointing, but they may have particular benefits in people with diabetes. As atherosclerosis is a largely preventable process, which is driven particularly by behavioral and lifestyle factors, attention to other modifiable risk factors is imperative. PMID:24669298

  14. Treatment of bilateral urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, K; Tanikawa, K; Masuda, A; Matsunaga, J; Matsuzaki, S

    1992-12-01

    Patients with bilateral urolithiasis diagnosed at their first visit were followed for at least one year after the start of treatment. In this retrospective study of 123 patients, the basic metabolic workup revealed no specific underlying cause of simultaneously occurring bilateral nephrolithiasis, and none of the currently used therapeutic regimes proved to be efficient in attaining clinically acceptable stone-free rates at the 3, 6 and 12-month follow-ups. Of 38 patients treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), 21 underwent treatment of both kidneys and 10 (48%) were free of stones bilaterally after 12 months. All of the 17 patients treated with unilateral SWL failed to achieve a stone-free state on the contralateral side. In another group, treated with medication alone to minimize risks of stone recurrence, only 3 of 26 (11.5%) patients were stone-free on both sides 12 months after the start of medication. Since we achieved a stone-free state of both kidneys in no more than 12% of the non-medicated cases, it seems warranted to treat bilateral urolithiasis with SWL more frequently, particularly when patients cannot return regularly to the stone clinic for a longterm follow-up.

  15. Causalgia pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    KUENKEL, V H

    1952-12-01

    Gross and microscopic anatomical evidence indicates that pain fibers involved in causalgia are those distributed to blood vessels-possibly to the arterioles-and that, for the greater part, these fibers constitute part of the general visceral afferent system. Several investigators have reported evidence that injury to a peripheral nerve of such a type as to cause damage to the vasomotor control of any area produces the initial pain in an extremity, and it is predicated that the arteriolar constriction causing the pain is then prolonged by the sensitization of arteriolar smooth muscle to the amount of epinephrine normally in the blood. If the condition is not treated, tissue anoxia occurs to such an extent that irreversible changes take place in the affected area.Treatment of causalgia in the lower extremities is directed toward interruption of either the vasomotor or afferent supply of blood vessels by blocking or excision of the second to fourth lumbar ganglia inclusive with the intervening chains. For the upper extremities, the blocking or disconnection of the second and third thoracic ganglia with interruption of the sympathetic chain between the third and fourth ganglia is considered a feasible method of treatment which does not produce the concomitant disability of Horner's syndrome. PMID:13009495

  16. Treatment of borderline adolescents.

    PubMed

    Green, M R

    1983-01-01

    A recent revision of the proposed DSM III description of the borderline category is presented with reference to the work of Masterson (1972) and Grinker (1968). The contributions of Roger Shapiro et al. to a psychoanalytic formulation of the developmental and familial dynamics are summarized with reference to the genetic factors and the lack of validation to date of any general hypothesis. Treatment recommendations of Wolberg, Shapiro and Jacobson (1971) are described. Grinker's operational criteria were chosen for the pilot study: a defect in affectional relationships with no enduring close ties; child-like angry relationships with parental or authority figures, particularly in the dysphoric group; low self-esteem very poor sense of identity; a chronic depression characterized more by loneliness and boredom than by guilt or loss, and a pervading sense of anger or resentment. Cases are presented to illustrate treatment strategies. A brief differential diagnostic statement is made describing "borderline" as a separate category from other disorders manifesting oppositional, antisocial, and violent behavior.

  17. Treatment of Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, Roger M

    2014-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood. The tics can be disabling and commonly associated behavioral comorbities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), can also cause problems in daily functioning. The underlying etiology and neurobiology of TS remain unknown although genetic factors appear to be important, cortical control of basal ganglia motor function appears to be disturbed and neurochemical abnormalities, particularly involving dopamine neurotransmission, are likely present. The treatment of TS involves appropriate education and support. Tics can be treated with habit reversal cognitive behavioral therapy, medications (most commonly alpha agonists and antipsychotics), local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin and some severe, refractory cases have responded to deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). It is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function. OCD can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and atypical antipsychotics. DBS has become a treatment option for patients with disabling OCD despite other therapies. ADHD is treated with appropriate classroom accommodations, behavioral therapy, alpha agonists, atomoxetine or methylphenidate-containing stimulant drugs. PMID:24043501

  18. Treatment of Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, Roger M

    2014-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood. The tics can be disabling and commonly associated behavioral comorbities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), can also cause problems in daily functioning. The underlying etiology and neurobiology of TS remain unknown although genetic factors appear to be important, cortical control of basal ganglia motor function appears to be disturbed and neurochemical abnormalities, particularly involving dopamine neurotransmission, are likely present. The treatment of TS involves appropriate education and support. Tics can be treated with habit reversal cognitive behavioral therapy, medications (most commonly alpha agonists and antipsychotics), local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin and some severe, refractory cases have responded to deep brain stimulation surgery (DBS). It is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function. OCD can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and atypical antipsychotics. DBS has become a treatment option for patients with disabling OCD despite other therapies. ADHD is treated with appropriate classroom accommodations, behavioral therapy, alpha agonists, atomoxetine or methylphenidate-containing stimulant drugs.

  19. Traditional preventive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient- or professionally applied), dietary assessment and advice (modification), other measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue and other measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge. There is a considerable body of strong evidence supporting the use of specific techniques for primary prevention of caries in children, e.g. pit and fissure sealants and topically applied fluorides (including patient-applied fluoride toothpastes and professionally applied fluoride varnishes), but limited strong evidence for these techniques for secondary prevention--i.e. where early to established lesions with ICDAS codes 1-4 (and also the severer lesions coded 5 or 6) are involved--and in relation to adults. This lack of evidence reflects a shortage of high-quality trials in the area, as opposed to a series of good studies showing no effect. Since there is also limited longitudinal evidence supporting conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment options.

  20. Novel operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives.

  1. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  2. Neurosurgical Treatment of Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, Michael; Feulner, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Surgical removal of as much tumor mass as possible is usually considered the first step of treatment in acromegaly, unless the patients are unfit for surgery or refuse an operation. To date, in almost all cases, minimally invasive, transsphenoidal microscopic or endoscopic approaches are used. Whether a curative approach is feasible or a debulking procedure is planned, can be anticipated on the basis of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. It mostly depends on localization, size, and the invasive character of the lesion. The surgical results depend on tumor-related factors such as size, extension, the presence or absence of invasion, and the magnitude of IGF-1 and growth hormone oversecretion, respectively. However, even surgeon-related factors such as experience and case load of the centers have been shown to strongly affect surgical results and complication rates. A reoperation can be considered at various stages in the treatment algorithm. There are several new technical gadgets which might aid in the surgical procedure: navigation, the Doppler probe, and variants of intraoperative imaging.

  3. [Bronchoscopic treatment of emphysema].

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2012-04-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques for the management of emphysema have evolved from the success of surgical treatment. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) involves the removal of 20% to 30% of each lung and targets the most emphysematous segments. Patients with heterogeneous upper lobe emphysema and a low baseline exercise capacity have been identified as a subgroup within COPD in whom mortality benefits can even be achieved, along with improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life. Increased short-term mortality of approximately 5% and postoperative morbidity are the main limitations of LVRS. The extremely restrictive selection criteria for LVRS coupled with the relatively high mortality/morbidity have been the impetus for developing less invasive endoscopic modalities. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) researchers have pursued various approaches using a range of modalities, such as blockers, stents, valves, sealants, and implants. BLVR appears to be safer than LVRS in terms of mortality and morbidity. This safety profile presents an attractive alternative for patients with COPD who are fragile physiologically because of the severity of their lung disease and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. The current report aims to describe the various minimally invasive modalities available for the treatment of emphysema. PMID:22616152

  4. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  5. Sludge treatment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  6. [Laser treatment of warts].

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, H M; Hammes, S

    2008-02-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) lead to common warts in 5% of the population and genital warts in 1% of sexually-active individuals. Although about 50% of HPV infections regress spontaneously, the course is uncertain. Expectant waiting often leads to progression and dissemination. Plantar warts may cause pain on walking, while palmar and genital warts may impair social contacts. There are many treatments for warts, including a variety of laser systems. The CO(2) laser is the best ablative approach, producing cure rates of up to 75% for therapy-resistant common warts in cohort and case-control studies. Side effects such as bleeding, pain and reduced function over weeks must be weighed against the likelihood of success. Considering non-ablative approaches, pulsed dye lasers can be used for a selective, non-bloody destruction of extragenital and genital warts and may become the treatment of choice. In prospective randomized studies, they produced cure rates of up to 82% for therapy-resistant warts with few side effects. PMID:18214400

  7. Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis Skip sharing on social media ... genetic mechanisms of endometriosis may help in developing new prevention and treatment strategies. The NICHD’s extramural Gynecologic ...

  8. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Updated:Sep 2,2016 Do ... Risk for Arrhythmia • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of Arrhythmia • Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Introduction Medications Ablation Devices for ...

  10. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  11. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity includes efforts to identify individual toxicity risks and prevention strategies support the National Cancer Insitute's goal of reducing the burden of cancer diagnoses and treatment outcomes.

  12. [Modern approaches to wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivan'ko, O M

    2013-01-01

    The present state and prospects of new methods for cleaning in the water and wastewater using membrane separation, are examples of application of this technology in the treatment of surface and subsurface natural waters, seawater desalination, wastewater treatment plants.

  13. Macrosystemic Approaches to Drug Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokos, Peter J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a three-year observational study of clients (N=100) receiving methadone treatment in three drug abuse programs. Concluded that the chemotherapeutic treatment system itself fosters addictive behavior and recommended changes within the clinics and the macrosystem. (LLL)

  14. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the patient (usually by a linear accelerator for photon/x-ray and cyclotron or synchrotron for proton ... and the treatment course will start one to two days after the initial treatment-planning session. Typically, ...

  15. Hepatic encephalopathy: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Melissa; Cortes, Yonaira

    2013-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurologic syndrome resulting from the synergistic action of multiple pathologic factors, which are discussed in a companion article. Early recognition of the clinical signs can improve treatment outcome, as well as reduce the incidence of risk factors. Multimodal treatment of HE is usually indicated. Studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of HE in people may shed new light on further treatment modalities in small animal patients. PMID:23677823

  16. Post Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video Pre-Treatment Treatment Options Summary Treatment Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions ...

  17. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  18. Methadone Treatment: Overview and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Tang, Beth Archibald

    This overview focuses on methadone treatment. Briefly, it describes the clinical uses of methadone for substance abuse treatment, explores dosage guidelines, and discusses counseling components. This overview also reviews research data on the application of methadone treatment to special populations, such as pregnant women, polydrug users, and…

  19. Treatment-Resistant Depression and the Collaborative Treatment Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, James M.; Harney, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Many depressed patients experience only limited improvement despite provision of appropriate therapies within a collaborative treatment arrangement (the integrated provision of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy). In the interest of enhancing these patients' partial responses, it is valuable to examine the treatments provided and also the collaborative framework in which they are offered. The authors use vignettes to illustrate how each of several factors—the adequacy of treatment with each modality, behavioral impediments to response, compliance with treatments, recognition and appropriate matching of treatments to relevant concurrent diagnoses, and appropriate communication between collaborating clinicians—may affect treatment outcome. Recommendations are offered for clinicians engaging in a collaborative relationship, including attending carefully to the patients' comments about a complementary modality of treatment and the clinician delivering it, communicating useful information to the collaborating therapist, and being receptive to information that is offered by the collaborating therapist. PMID:10608904

  20. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; Life-support - treatments ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Laryngeal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  2. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  3. [Pedophilia and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Knecht, T

    2001-11-01

    Pedophilia is a frequent cause of infringement of children's sexual integrity. It's a widely spread deviant pattern of sexual arousal and behavior, which seems to be deeply rooted in human nature, as shown by impressive ethological and cultural historical evidence. Aetiology and pathogenesis of pedophilia are still not clarified, but there is a number of interesting findings suggesting multifactorial developmental disorder as the basis of pedophilia. Regarding the treatment of pedophiles, there is usually drawn a distinction between somatic and non-somatic methods. The latter aim at relapse-prevention by augmentation of self-control. The former mean drive-reduction on a hormonal basis. Antiandrogens, progestogens and LHRH-agonists have proven themselves as having significant effects on sexual drive, whereas their side effects are quite tolerable on the whole.

  4. Treatment of neuroterrorism.

    PubMed

    Busl, Katharina M; Bleck, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Bioterrorism is defined as the intentional use of biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological agents to cause disease, death, or environmental damage. Early recognition of a bioterrorist attack is of utmost importance to minimize casualties and initiate appropriate therapy. The range of agents that could potentially be used as weapons is wide, however, only a few of these agents have all the characteristics making them ideal for that purpose. Many of the chemical and biological weapons can cause neurological symptoms and damage the nervous system in varying degrees. Therefore, preparedness among neurologists is important. The main challenge is to be cognizant of the clinical syndromes and to be able to differentiate diseases caused by bioterrorism from naturally occurring disorders. This review provides an overview of the biological and chemical warfare agents, with a focus on neurological manifestation and an approach to treatment from a perspective of neurological critical care. PMID:22227729

  5. Treatment of headache.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S; Freitag, F G

    1989-01-01

    Headache is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Approximately 45 million people in the United States experience chronic headaches. The management of migraine headache involves both pharmacologic and nondrug therapy. Drug therapy for migraine involves the use of abortive and prophylactic agents. Abortive agents, such as ergotamine tartrate and ketoprofen, may be used to relieve the acute attack. Prophylactic therapy is focused on reducing the frequency and severity of the attacks. beta-Adrenergic blocking agents, such as propranolol, remain the primary agents for many migraine patients, although other drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ketoprofen, or calcium-channel blocking agents, such as verapamil, may be beneficial for many patients. For cluster headache and its variants, methysergide and corticosteroids are usually the drugs of choice. Patients with chronic cluster headache may achieve good results from long-term treatment with other therapies, including lithium carbonate, verapamil, and ketoprofen. PMID:2520442

  6. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  7. Behavior treatment: general considerations.

    PubMed

    Gardner, William I

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of behavior treatment for retarded clients is that of modifying behavior as it occurs in a given environment in such a manner that it becomes more appropriate to that environment. The therapeutic or change agents can involve a variety of persons other than the counselor, teacher, and client--this may include parents, peers, work supervisors and others who can provide supportive influences. Education and rehabilitation programs should be tailored to the occupational and social environment of the retarded client and designed to teach those behavior patterns that are relevant to that environment. Additionally, the work tasks for which retarded clients are trained should be highly structured and routine. Excessive demand for adaptability or decision making is a major cause of training failure for retarded clients.

  8. Comprehensive supernatant treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, Z.

    1996-10-01

    This task involves testing of sorbent materials for removing cesium, strontium, and technetium from the saline solutions in DOE storage tank supernatant at Oak Ridge and other sites. Staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are recovering and treating the liquid (supernatant) portions of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste in a hot cell to separate and remove the radionuclides. Batch tests will be used to evaluate and select the most promising materials for supernatant treatment to reduce the amount of waste for final disposal. Small column tests will be made on selected sorbents to verify the batch data and to obtain additional data for process design. Efforts will be made to obtain samples of tank supernatant from Hanford for comparison.

  9. [Dietetic treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-09-15

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia : definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependence, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependence : an alcohol dependence implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependence implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6314517

  10. [Diet treatment of hyperliproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-04-01

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia: definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependance, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependance: an alcohol dependance implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependance implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6346241

  11. Vinasses: characterization and treatments.

    PubMed

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Mijangos-Cortes, Javier; Barahona-Perez, Luis; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Hernández-Zarate, G; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2011-12-01

    The final products of the ethanol industry are alcoholic beverages, industrial ethanol and biofuels. They are produced by the same production process, which includes fermentation and distillation of raw materials which come from plant biomass. At the end of the distillation process a waste effluent is obtained called vinasse or stillage. The direct disposal of stillages on land or in groundwater (rivers, streams or lakes), or even for the direct irrigation of crops, pollutes the environment due to their high organic contents, dissolved solids and many other compounds which are toxic or could be contaminants under certain environmental conditions. This work reviews the characterization of vinasses from different feedstock sources and the main treatments for conditioning the soluble solids of vinasses before their disposal.

  12. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  13. Treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Payk, T R

    1994-10-01

    Depressions are the most common psychiatric diseases. For treatment, plant extracts have been used for thousands of years: examples are extracts from the (sleeping) poppy (opium), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Indian hemp (hashish), henbane (hyoscyamine), thorn apple (scopolamine), and St. John's wort (hypericum oil). In addition, psychotherapeutic measures, like playing music, dancing, playing theatre, and also the temple sleep, were used. In the 19th century, the introduction of brome (1826), codeine (1832), chloral hydrate (1869), and paraldehyde (1882), as well as the barbiturates (at the turn of the century) introduced significant improvements in pharmacotherapy. The modern thymoleptica therapy started in 1957 with the introduction of imipramine. Now about 40 active antidepressants are marketed. New drug developments should be characterized mainly by an improvement in tolerance.

  14. Treatment of Chagas Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Botoni, Fernando A.; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Marinho, Carolina Coimbra; Lima, Marcia Maria Oliveira; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Rocha, Manoel Otávio C.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas' disease (ChD), caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), was discovered and described by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas in 1909. After a century of original description, trypanosomiasis still brings much misery to humanity and is classified as a neglected tropical disease prevalent in underdeveloped countries, particularly in South America. It is an increasing worldwide problem due to the number of cases in endemic areas and the migration of infected subjects to more developed regions, mainly North America and Europe. Despite its importance, chronic chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) pathophysiology is yet poorly understood, and independently of its social, clinical, and epidemiological importance, the therapeutic approach of CCC is still transposed from the knowledge acquired from other cardiomyopathies. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy with emphasis on its peculiarities. PMID:24350293

  15. [The treatment of epistaxis].

    PubMed

    Murer, Karin; Soyka, Michael B

    2015-09-01

    Epistaxis is one of the most common ENT emergencies and highly prevalent in the general population. Most cases are self-limiting and patients do not usually seek medical attention. However, some cases can be severe and life-threatening. While most anterior bleeds can be effectively managed by simple measures, including pressure application, vasoconstrictive agents and cautery, some will require additional measures such as nasal packing. Posterior epistaxis can be difficult to control. Latest studies showed that surgical ligation of the sphenopalatine and/or anterior ethmoidal arteries is the most effective treatment and less painful and distressing than nasal packing. But packing is the therapeutic option that is readily available. PMID:26331200

  16. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  17. Treatment for alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Calvieri, S

    2014-02-01

    Satisfactory, evidence-based medicine regimen for treating alopecia are available in literature only regarding alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia. About all the other kinds of alopecia, recommendations for therapy are still based upon the literature review, expert opinion, personal experience, expected adverse effects, and some pragmatic considerations such as the cost and the patient's compliance. Cicatricial alopecia is one of the most difficult challenges for dermatologists, because it is uncommon, its etiopathogenesis is not completely understood and there is no best therapy approach. Moreover, in Italy, most of the drugs mentioned below are not always available. Finally, therapies for hair disorders are long treatment and not always lead to a good improvement. PMID:24566570

  18. [Treatment of acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Dénes, Judit; Korbonits, Márta; Hubina, Erika; Góth, Miklós

    2010-08-22

    Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion leads to acromegaly which is associated with several co-morbidities and increased mortality. Despite of the typical clinical features and modern diagnostic tools, it often takes years from the onset of the disease until the diagnosis. The aims of the treatment are to reduce or control the tumor growth, inhibit the GH hypersecretion, normalize the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, treat the co-morbidities and therefore reduce mortality. There are three approaches for therapy: surgery, medical management (dopamine agonist, somatostatin analogues and GH receptor antagonist), and radiotherapy. Efficient therapy of the disease is based on the appropriate multidisciplinary team management. PMID:20705553

  19. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  20. Vinasses: characterization and treatments.

    PubMed

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Mijangos-Cortes, Javier; Barahona-Perez, Luis; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Hernández-Zarate, G; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2011-12-01

    The final products of the ethanol industry are alcoholic beverages, industrial ethanol and biofuels. They are produced by the same production process, which includes fermentation and distillation of raw materials which come from plant biomass. At the end of the distillation process a waste effluent is obtained called vinasse or stillage. The direct disposal of stillages on land or in groundwater (rivers, streams or lakes), or even for the direct irrigation of crops, pollutes the environment due to their high organic contents, dissolved solids and many other compounds which are toxic or could be contaminants under certain environmental conditions. This work reviews the characterization of vinasses from different feedstock sources and the main treatments for conditioning the soluble solids of vinasses before their disposal. PMID:21242176

  1. [Antiangiogenic treatment of cancer].

    PubMed

    Mauriz, José L; Linares, Pedro; González, Paquita; Culebras, Jesús M

    2005-07-01

    The process of formation of new vessels from pre-existing capillaries is called angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process which involves distinct cells, soluble components and factors related to the extra-cellular matrix and which is highly important in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes in the body. Angiogenesis regulation takes place through a perfect equilibrium between the production and release of different stimulatory and inhibitory factors which vary in relation to needs and tissue types. A large number of diseases are characterized by alterations in the angiogenic process, either by an insufficiency or by excessive angiogenesis. The requirement of blood vessel proliferation for tumor growth was observed more than a century ago. Angiogenic treatment would have an indirect antitumoral action, inhibiting tumor vascularization and impairing the supply of essential nutrients for tumoral growth and development.

  2. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, S. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-11-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

  3. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, D. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-11-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remission. There were no complete remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported.

  4. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  5. Treatment of congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Sara Yvonne; Rall, Katharina; Campo, Rudi; Oppelt, Peter; Isaacson, Keith

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of müllerian malformations is 1 in 200, or 0.5%. A third of the anomalies are septate, a third bicornuate uteri, 10% arcuate uterus, 10% didelphis and unicornuate uterus, and < 5% uterine and vaginal aplasia. Correct diagnosis of the malformation is most important but often very difficult. Correct treatment can only be performed if the malformation is clear. Longitudinal vaginal septums have to be removed due to potential obstetric problems. Transverse vaginal septums can cause hematocolpos and pain and have to be incised crosswise and excised so as not to shorten the vagina at the same time. Congenital vaginal agenesis occurs in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome patients and in androgen insensitivity syndrome. The first choice for surgical treatment should be the new laparoscopic-assisted creation of a neovagina. Septate uterus has to be distinguished from a bicornuate uterus. Even if it is not proven to be a cause for infertility, the chance of miscarriage can be diminished by performing hysteroscopic metroplasty. Repair of a uterine septum in infertility patients often improves pregnancy rates. In contrast, surgical repair of a bicornuate uterus requires an abdominal metroplasty. This should only be performed if the patient has recurrent fetal loss due to the uterine structural defect. In a unicornuate uterus it is most important to determine if there is a second uterine horn that can cause cyclic pain if it has functioning endometrium. The only surgical option in these cases is to remove the rudimentary uterus with endometrium and hematometra, respectively.

  6. Arsenicosis: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilay Kanti; Sengupta, Sujit Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of arsenicosis relies on both clinical and laboratory criteria, but principally it can be diagnosed on the basis of its cutaneous manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations (melanosis, keratosis, and cutaneous cancers) are essential clues in the diagnosis, and trained dermatologists or arsenic experts are able to clinically confirm a case even without laboratory backup. Although systemic manifestations are not considered as diagnostic hallmarks, yet their presence serves as important telltale signs in arriving at the diagnosis. In countries where laboratory facilities are available, measuring the level of arsenic in drinking water (consumed in the last 6 months), urine, hair, and nails is of immense value. Newer biomarkers of arsenic exposure are being explored to provide early information about arsenic intoxication, of which urinary porphyrin level, blood metallothionein have shown promising results. Controlling the problem of arsenicosis depends on various factors, of which the most important is cessation of intake of arsenic-contaminated water. Deep wells, traditional dug wells, treatment of surface water, rainwater harvesting, and removing arsenic from the contaminated water by arsenic removal plant or arsenic treatment unit are the available options for providing arsenic-free drinking water. The role of nutrition and antioxidants in preventing the onset of symptoms of arsenicosis is also of importance. Nonspecific therapies (e.g., keratolytics for hyperkeratosis) cannot also be ignored and serve as palliative measures. The persons affected need to be followed up at regular intervals to detect the onset of cancers (if any) at the earliest. Role of counseling and education should never be underestimated since absence of public awareness can undermine all efforts of mitigation measures.

  7. The treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    White, N J

    1996-09-12

    Increasing drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and a resurgence of malaria in tropical areas have effected a change in treatment of malaria in the last two decades. Symptoms of malaria are fever, chills, headache, and malaise. The prognosis worsens as the parasite counts, counts of mature parasites, and counts of neutrophils containing pigment increase. Treatment depends on severity, age of patient, degree of background immunity, likely pattern of susceptibility to antimalarial drugs, and the cost and availability of drugs. Chloroquine should be used for P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. P. vivax has shown high resistance to chloroquine in Oceania, however. Primaquine may be needed to treat P. vivax and P. ovale to rid the body of hypnozoites that survive in the liver. Chloroquine can treat P. falciparum infections acquired in North Africa, Central America north of the Panama Canal, Haiti, or the Middle East but not in most of Africa and some parts of Asia and South America. In areas of low grade resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine can be used to effectively treat falciparum malaria. A combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is responsive to falciparum infections with high grade resistance to chloroquine. Mefloquine, halofantrine, or quinine with tetracycline can be used to treat multidrug-resistant P. falciparum. Derivatives of artemisinin obtained from qinghao or sweet wormwood developed as pharmaceuticals in China are the most rapidly acting of all antimalarial drugs. Children tend to tolerate antimalarial drugs well. Children who weigh less than 15 kg should not be given mefloquine. Health workers should not prescribe primaquine to pregnant women or newborns due to the risk of hemolysis. Chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, and quinidine can be safely given in therapeutic doses throughout pregnancy. Clinical manifestations of severe malaria are hypoglycemia, convulsions, severe anemia, acute renal failure, jaundice, pulmonary edema

  8. Arsenicosis: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilay Kanti; Sengupta, Sujit Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of arsenicosis relies on both clinical and laboratory criteria, but principally it can be diagnosed on the basis of its cutaneous manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations (melanosis, keratosis, and cutaneous cancers) are essential clues in the diagnosis, and trained dermatologists or arsenic experts are able to clinically confirm a case even without laboratory backup. Although systemic manifestations are not considered as diagnostic hallmarks, yet their presence serves as important telltale signs in arriving at the diagnosis. In countries where laboratory facilities are available, measuring the level of arsenic in drinking water (consumed in the last 6 months), urine, hair, and nails is of immense value. Newer biomarkers of arsenic exposure are being explored to provide early information about arsenic intoxication, of which urinary porphyrin level, blood metallothionein have shown promising results. Controlling the problem of arsenicosis depends on various factors, of which the most important is cessation of intake of arsenic-contaminated water. Deep wells, traditional dug wells, treatment of surface water, rainwater harvesting, and removing arsenic from the contaminated water by arsenic removal plant or arsenic treatment unit are the available options for providing arsenic-free drinking water. The role of nutrition and antioxidants in preventing the onset of symptoms of arsenicosis is also of importance. Nonspecific therapies (e.g., keratolytics for hyperkeratosis) cannot also be ignored and serve as palliative measures. The persons affected need to be followed up at regular intervals to detect the onset of cancers (if any) at the earliest. Role of counseling and education should never be underestimated since absence of public awareness can undermine all efforts of mitigation measures. PMID:19171979

  9. Treatment Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M

    2015-11-05

    Treatment resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined by office blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥ 3 or controlled on ≥ 4 antihypertensive medications, preferably at optimal doses and including a diuretic. Apparent (a)TRH is used when optimal therapy, adherence, and measurement artifacts are unknown. Among treated hypertensives, ~30% of uncontrolled and 10% of controlled individuals have aTRH, with a higher prevalence in Blacks than other race-ethnicity groups. In ≥ 50% of aTRH patients, BP measurement artifacts ('office' TRH), suboptimal regimens, or suboptimal adherence are present, ie, pseudo-resistance. While patients with 'office' TRH have fewer cardiovascular events than those with 'true' TRH, no evidence confirms that patients with suboptimal regimens or adherence are spared. Averaging several office BPs obtained with an automated monitor can reduce 'office' TRH. Home or ambulatory BP monitoring can identify office resistance. Prescribing ≥ 3 different antihypertensive medication classes, eg, thiazide-type diuretic, renin-angiotensin blocker and calcium antagonist at ≥ 50% of maximum recommended doses reasonably defines optimal therapy. Intensifying diuretic therapy, eg, adding an aldosterone antagonist, is effective for many TRH patients who are volume expanded. Clinical information, hemodynamic and renin-guided therapeutics can inform other treatment options. Attention to adverse effects, medication costs, and pill burden can improve adherence and control. Patients with aTRH and suspected secondary hypertension should be evaluated. Interfering substances or medications should be discontinued. These approaches will identify or correct the problem in ~80% of aTRH patients. Referral to a hypertension specialist and newer therapeutic approaches are options for TRH patients who cannot take or do not respond to optimal therapy.

  10. [Surgical treatment of persisting chylothorax].

    PubMed

    Andreieshchev, S A; Miasoiedov, S D; Bul'ba, M V; Driuk, M F; Chernukha, L M; Vakhnenko, L M

    2008-09-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 8 patients, suffering chylothorax, persisting during 1-14 months are presented. The desease have appeared also resistant to complex conservative treatment trial. This kind of treatment was conducted with simultaneous intensive preoperative preparation, surgical intervention consisted of open thoracotomy with thoracic duct suturing and ligature. The operative treatment had appeared primarily ultimately successful in 5 (62.5%) patients, and after postoperative pleurodesis conduction--in 3 (37.5%). One week of intensive conservative therapy trial with simultaneous preoperative preparation and subsequent shift to surgical intervention constitutes an optimal tactical principle in the persisting chylothorax treatment. PMID:19278039

  11. Pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: current treatments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Farach, Frank J; Pruitt, Larry D; Jun, Janie J; Jerud, Alissa B; Zoellner, Lori A; Roy-Byrne, Peter P

    2012-12-01

    Modern pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders are safer and more tolerable than they were 30 years ago. Unfortunately, treatment efficacy and duration have not improved in most cases despite a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety. Moreover, innovative treatments have not reached the market despite billions of research dollars invested in drug development. In reviewing the literature on current treatments, we argue that evidence-based practice would benefit from better research on the causes of incomplete treatment response as well as the comparative efficacy of drug combinations and sequencing. We also survey two broad approaches to the development of innovative anxiety treatments:the continued development of drugs based on specific neuroreceptors and the pharmacological manipulation of fear-related memory. We highlight directions for future research, as neither of these approaches is ready for routine clinical use.

  12. Pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: Current treatments and future directions✩

    PubMed Central

    Farach, Frank J.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Jun, Janie J.; Jerud, Alissa B.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Modern pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders are safer and more tolerable than they were 30 years ago. Unfortunately, treatment efficacy and duration have not improved in most cases despite a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety. Moreover, innovative treatments have not reached the market despite billions of research dollars invested in drug development. In reviewing the literature on current treatments, we argue that evidence-based practice would benefit from better research on the causes of incomplete treatment response as well as the comparative efficacy of drug combinations and sequencing. We also survey two broad approaches to the development of innovative anxiety treatments: the continued development of drugs based on specific neuroreceptors and the pharmacological manipulation of fear-related memory. We highlight directions for future research, as neither of these approaches is ready for routine clinical use. PMID:23023162

  13. Cellulite and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-06-01

    beneficial for the treatment of cellulite. In fact, CLA was proven to ameliorate the signs of cellulite. One product, Cellasene, containing a variety of botanicals and polyunsaturated fatty acids also appears to provide some relief from these symptoms. Although more work is needed, clearly these treatments do improve the appearance of skin in subjects with cellulite. It is quite possible, however, that synergies between both oral and topical routes may be the best intervention to ameliorate the signs and symptoms of cellulite.

  14. [Teriparatide--new value in osteoporosis treatment: treatment guidelines].

    PubMed

    Korsić, Mirko; Kastelan, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become global health issue due to the longer life-cycle and increased percentage of older people in population. The great improvement was done in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. By the mechanism of action, drugs for osteoporosis treatment are antiresorptives and osteoanabolics. Teriparatide is an osteoanabolic drug that stimulates bone turnover and building of a new bone, indicated for treatment of women in postmenopause with multiple osteoporotic fractures. PMID:17580560

  15. Treatment as an alternative to prosecution: offenders diverted for treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooke, D J

    1991-06-01

    In Scotland, procurators fiscal (state prosecutors) can divert certain offenders from the court process into treatment. This paper describes the first diversion scheme in which offenders who are suspected of having psychological difficulties are referred for psychological and psychiatric treatment before, and generally in lieu of, prosecution. It is argued that the procurator fiscal is successful in selecting suitable cases for treatment: most people referred have significant psychological difficulties but have failed to obtain appropriate assistance through the normal channels of referral.

  16. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Maraelys Morales; Zamora, Lisset Ortíz; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Sierra González, Gustavo Victoriano; de Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira; Zanella, Rodrigo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Parise, Orlando; Brito, Luciana Macedo; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; Gomes, Marina das Neves; Moreno, Gleyce; Feo da Veiga, Venicio; Telló, Marcos; Holandino, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods. PMID:23592904

  17. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  18. A treatment algorithm for managing Achilles tendinopathy: new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Alfredson, Håkan; Cook, J

    2007-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy affects athletes, recreational exercisers and even inactive people. The pathology is not inflammatory; it is a failed healing response. The source of pain in tendinopathy could be related to the neurovascular ingrowth seen in the tendon's response to injury. The treatment of Achilles tendinopathy is primarily conservative with an array of effective treatment options now available to the primary care practitioner. If conservative treatment is not successful, then surgery relieves pain in the majority of cases. Directing a patient through the algorithm presented here will maximise positive treatment outcomes. PMID:17311806

  19. Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.; Hamilton, K.

    1997-01-01

    Studies at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have led to the development of a technically and economically feasible, as well as environmentally acceptable, biochemical process for detoxification of geothermal residues. For this process, selected microorganisms that live in extreme environments have served as models for the new biotechnology. Assuming a 2,500-kg/h sludge production rate, the new technology is capable of a better than 80% removal rate of toxic metals, usually in less than a 25-hour period. The process itself depends on a number of flexible parameters, allowing this technology to be tailored to specific needs of different geothermal producing regimes, such as those found in the Salton Sea and the Geysers area of California. Thus geothermal residual sludges and brines can be processed to remove only a few metals, such as arsenic and mercury, or many metals, ranging from valuable metals such as chromium, gold, and silver to radionuclides, such as radium. In some cases, combined metal removal and metal recovery processes may be cost efficient and therefore advantageous. The emerging biotechnology for the treatment of geothermal energy production wastes is versatile and offers a number of application options, which are discussed in the paper.

  20. Treatment of prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kanat, Mustafa; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Progression of normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to overt diabetes is mediated by a transition state called impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are the main defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and even normoglycemic IGT patients manifest these defects. Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance also contribute to the progression of IGT to type 2 DM. Improving insulin sensitivity and/or preserving functions of beta-cells can be a rational way to normalize the GT and to control transition of IGT to type 2 DM. Loosing weight, for example, improves whole body insulin sensitivity and preserves beta-cell function and its inhibitory effect on progression of IGT to type 2 DM had been proven. But interventions aiming weight loss usually not applicable in real life. Pharmacotherapy is another option to gain better insulin sensitivity and to maintain beta-cell function. In this review, two potential treatment options (lifestyle modification and pharmacologic agents) that limits the IGT-type 2 DM conversion in prediabetic subjects are discussed. PMID:26464759

  1. Treatment of Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wirrell, Elaine C

    2016-06-01

    Dravet syndrome is among the most challenging electroclinical syndromes. There is a high likelihood of recurrent status epilepticus; seizures are medically refractory; and patients have multiple co-morbidities, including intellectual disability, behaviour and sleep problems, and crouch gait. Additionally, they are at significant risk of sudden unexplained death. This review will focus predominantly on the prophylactic medical management of seizures, addressing both first-line therapies (valproate and clobazam) as well as second-line (stiripentol, topiramate, ketogenic diet) or later options (levetiracetam, bromides, vagus nerve stimulation). Sodium channel agents-including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin and lamotrigine-should be avoided, as they typically exacerbate seizures. Several agents in development may show promise, specifically fenfluramine and cannabidiol, but they need further evaluation in randomized, controlled trials. In addition to prophylactic treatment, all patients need home-rescue medication and a status epilepticus protocol that can be carried out in their local hospital. Families must be counselled on non-pharmacologic strategies to reduce seizure risk, including avoidance of triggers that commonly induce seizures (including hyperthermia, flashing lights and patterns). In addition to addressing seizures, holistic care for a patient with Dravet syndrome must involve a multidisciplinary team that includes specialists in physical, occupational and speech therapy, neuropsychology, social work and physical medicine. PMID:27264138

  2. Costochondritis: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Anne M; Zryd, Teresa W

    2009-09-15

    Costochondritis, an inflammation of costochondral junctions of ribs or chondrosternal joints of the anterior chest wall, is a common condition seen in patients presenting to the physician's office and emergency department. Palpation of the affected chondrosternal joints of the chest wall elicits tenderness. Although costochondritis is usually self-limited and benign, it should be distinguished from other, more serious causes of chest pain. Coronary artery disease is present in 3 to 6 percent of adult patients with chest pain and chest wall tenderness to palpation. History and physical examination of the chest that document reproducible pain by palpation over the costal cartilages are usually all that is needed to make the diagnosis in children, adolescents, and young adults. Patients older than 35 years, those with a history or risk of coronary artery disease, and any patient with cardiopulmonary symptoms should have an electrocardiograph and possibly a chest radiograph. Consider further testing to rule out cardiac causes if clinically indicated by age or cardiac risk status. Clinical trials of treatment are lacking. Traditional practice is to treat with acetaminophen or anti-inflammatory medications where safe and appropriate, advise patients to avoid activities that produce chest muscle overuse, and provide reassurance.

  3. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  4. Treatment of mandibular prognathism.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Po; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Hsin-Fu

    2006-10-01

    Mandibular prognathism (MP) or skeletal Class III malocclusion with a prognathic mandible is one of the most severe maxillofacial deformities. Facial growth modification can be an effective method of resolving skeletal Class III jaw discrepancies in growing children with dentofacial orthopedic appliances including the chincup, face mask, maxillary protraction combined with chincup traction and the Fränkel functional regulator III appliance. Orthognathic surgery in conjunction with orthodontic treatment is required for the correction of adult MP. The two most commonly applied surgical procedures to correct MP are sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy. Both procedures are suitable for patients in whom a desirable occlusal relationship can be obtained with a setback of the mandible, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In bilateral SSRO, the intentional ostectomy of the posterior part of the distal segment can offer long-term positioned stability. This may be attributable to reduction of tension in the pterygomasseteric sling that applies force in the posterior mandible. While various environmental factors have been found to contribute to the development of MP, heredity plays a substantial role. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental components in the etiology of MP are unclear. The recent identification of the genetic susceptibilities to MP constitutes the first step toward understanding the molecular pathogenesis of MP. Further studies in molecular biology are needed to identify the gene-environment interactions associated with the phenotypic diversity of MP and the heterogenic developmental mechanisms thought to be responsible for them.

  5. Traditional operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Operative intervention should be avoided, whenever possible, by adopting a preventive approach. Timely management of early caries can lead to arrest and possibly remineralization of the lesion rendering operative intervention unnecessary. The dentist must judge when the tooth tissue has become sufficiently demineralized to allow bacterial ingress leading to irreversible changes in the tissue. Once a decision has been made to restore a tooth, the clinician must decide, from a series of traditional operative treatment options, what materials should be used in the restoration and what preparation will achieve good retention and best preservation of tooth structure. With the development of new adhesive materials and a more conservative approach, a new era of minimally invasive dentistry has dawned. Improvements in the properties of composite materials have made them the choice for coronal aesthetic restorations: for posterior restorations involving load-bearing occlusal surfaces, amalgam is still the most commonly used material in UK dental practice; glass ionomer materials also have a place in minimally invasive dentistry--patterns of use differing in different counties. The numbers of studies investigating minimal caries removal are relatively limited; there are still scope and need for research in this field.

  6. The treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A C; Doherty, M

    1992-01-01

    1. The treatment of osteoarthritis is currently purely symptomatic. To enable rational therapy, careful clinical assessment is necessary to identify the origin of symptoms. Often, effective therapy can result from a biomechanical approach such as surgery, orthotics, physiotherapy and dieting. If drugs are required, there is little evidence that the current over-reliance on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is justified. Full dose regular paracetamol should be the first line of analgesic therapy. In the majority of patients, simple analgesics are probably as effective as NSAIDs. If NSAIDs are used it is necessary to review regularly their use and to be aware of potential toxicity. 2. Many alternative strategies of pain management such as topical preparations, intra-articular steroid injections, acupuncture, radiosynovectomy, transcutaneous nerve stimulation and anti-depressants, may be effective but their precise place in the armamentarium is not yet fully established. 3. The realisation that osteoarthritis is not a passive 'wear and tear' phenomenon but an active process that may be potentially modified, has led to interest in 'chondroprotective' agents, which may beneficially affect the osteoarthritic process. To date there are no convincing data available that such agents are, in fact, chondroprotective in humans. PMID:1576063

  7. [Treatment of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Marlene; Colmenero, Jordi; Bataller, Ramón

    2009-11-01

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver parenchyma that precedes the development of cirrhosis. In the last few years, knowledge of the cellular and molecular bases of liver fibrosis has increased considerably. Environmental and genetic factors have been described that influence the progression of liver fibrosis, while non-invasive methods have been developed that allow the grade of fibrosis to be estimated without the need for liver biopsy. Currently, the only clearly effective treatment to attenuate or reverse liver fibrosis is elimination of the causative agent. When this is not feasible, fibrogenic factors (such as insulin resistance, obesity, alcohol intake, cannabis consumption, etc.) should be identified and treated. However, several agents are able to reduce liver fibrosis in experimental models of chronic liver damage. Few controlled clinical trials have been performed that evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents and consequently the level of evidence supporting their use as anti-fibrogenic therapy is still low. The efficacy of the anti- fibrogenic drugs, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, is currently being evaluated.

  8. Treatment of Madelung's deformity.

    PubMed

    Saffar, P; Badina, A

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of Madelung's deformity is still controversial. We reviewed retrospectively 19 patients with Madelung's deformity (two bilateral, 21 cases) who underwent surgery to the radius and ulna to improve range of motion, decrease pain and improve appearance of the wrist. Nineteen patients underwent 21 distal radial osteotomy procedures using three different techniques: subtraction, addition or dome osteotomy. Ulnar shortening and redirection of the distal ulna was performed in 12 cases; a long oblique osteotomy was used in 10 of these cases. The Sauvé-Kapandji technique was performed in five cases, an ulnar distal epiphysiodesis in two cases and a combination of osteotomy and epiphysiodesis in one case. The aim was to reduce the distal radial slope and to restore the orientation and congruity of the distal radio-ulnar joint and to improve its function. Pain was reduced as a result of the procedure: more than 75% of the cases had no or intermittent pain at the review. Pronation improved from 63° to 68° (P=0.467, not significant) and supination improved from 48° to 72° on average (P=0.034, significant). Grip strength increased from 11 to 18 kgf (P=0.013, significant). Madelung's deformity is not always a benign condition and it responds well to corrective osteotomies. PMID:26525609

  9. Pharmacogenomics in pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Peiró, Ana M; Planelles, Beatriz; Juhasz, Gabriella; Bagdy, György; Libert, Frédéric; Eschalier, Alain; Busserolles, Jérôme; Sperlagh, Beata; Llerena, Adrián

    2016-09-01

    The experience of chronic pain is one of the commonest reasons for seeking medical attention, being a major issue in clinical practice. While pain is a universal experience, only a small proportion of people who felt pain develop pain syndromes. In addition, painkillers are associated with wide inter-individual variability in the analgesic response. This may be partly explained by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding molecular entities involved in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. However, uptake of this information has been slow due in large part to the lack of robust evidences demonstrating clinical utility. Furthermore, novel therapies, including targeting of epigenetic changes and gene therapy-based approaches are further broadening future options for the treatment of chronic pain. The aim of this article is to review the evidences behind pharmacogenetics (PGx) to individualize therapy (boosting the efficacy and minimizing potential toxicity) and genes implicated in pain medicine, in two parts: (i) genetic variability with pain sensitivity and analgesic response; and (ii) pharmacological concepts applied on PGx. PMID:27662648

  10. Surface hardening thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamuta, K.

    1984-09-11

    A steel product, particularly a heavy-duty gear, having a case of martensite and a core of lower bainite with a Vickers hardness of not less than Hv 600 is obtained by subjecting a medium carbon alloy steel comprising, by weight, 0.45 to 0.60% C, up to 0.50 Si, 0.40 to 1.30% Mn, up to 4.00 Ni, 0.35 to 0.55% Cr, up to 0.70 Mo, balance Fe and incidental impurities to a carbonitriding treatment at a temperature of 800/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/ C., austempering the carboritrided steel by quenching it in a hot bath of 230/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/ C. and retaining the steel in the hot bath of the aforementioned temperature for a suitable duration enough to transform the core of the steel into lower bainite and not enough to cause any transformation of the case of the steel, and subsequently cooling the steel.

  11. Anaphylaxis and emergency treatment.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-06-01

    Food anaphylaxis is now the leading known cause of anaphylactic reactions treated in emergency departments in the United States. It is estimated that there are 30 000 anaphylactic reactions to foods treated in emergency departments and 150 to 200 deaths each year. Peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish account for most severe food anaphylactic reactions. Although clearly a form of immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity, the mechanistic details responsible for symptoms of food-induced anaphylaxis are not completely understood, and in some cases, symptoms are not seen unless the patient exercises within a few hours of the ingestion. At the present time, the mainstays of therapy include educating patients and their caregivers to strictly avoid food allergens, to recognize early symptoms of anaphylaxis, and to self-administer injectable epinephrine. However, clinical trials are now under way for the treatment of patients with peanut anaphylaxis using recombinant humanized anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy, and novel immunomodulatory therapies are being tested in animal models of peanut-induced anaphylaxis.

  12. Treatment strategy for Boerhaave's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, T; Hiranuma, S; Takiguchi, N; Ito, K; Maruyama, M; Nagahama, T; Kawano, T; Nagai, K; Nishikage, T; Noguchi, N; Takamatsu, S; Kawamura, T; Teramoto, K; Iwai, T; Arii, S

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal rupture is a potentially mortal condition. Rapid and correct diagnosis, and urgent surgical treatment with esophagectomy is indicated, but conservative and other surgical treatments have also been reported recently. The treatment strategies for esophageal rupture are discussed here, based on our experiences with four cases during the last 10 years. They were admitted urgently and each was treated by a different method. Three of them underwent emergency operations, one undergoing primary closure of the ruptured esophagus, another received a T-tube insertion from the ruptured site with omental flap, and the third an esophagogastrectomy. The fourth case was treated conservatively. All patients survived and were discharged 36-144 days post treatment. One of them was readmitted for debridement of necrotic rib. In conclusion, the prompt and accurate diagnosis of esophageal rupture is crucial for a subsequent successful treatment. Conservative treatment or operation including esophagectomy will be determined by the severity of the condition.

  13. Rosacea: new and emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Farah A; Sandoval, Laura F; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that negatively impacts patients' quality of life. We sought to review important aspects of the pathogenesis of rosacea and the role of new treatment options in its management. New, emerging treatments show promise; however, quality randomized controlled trials for many of these drugs are lacking. Brimonidine tartrate is an effective newly approved treatment for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Topical oxymetazoline has potential for the treatment of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, with efficacy described in case reports and randomized controlled trials currently underway. Both oral and topical ivermectin have been studied for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea, both showing benefit; however, only topical ivermectin 1 % cream has been studied in randomized controlled trials. As our understanding of the etiology of rosacea continues to evolve, so will our options for therapeutic interventions. Further studies need to be performed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of these treatments.

  14. [Combined orthodontic and restorative treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Loomans, B

    2015-11-01

    In patients with agenesis or enamel anomalies in anterior teeth combined orthodontic and restorative treatment is often necessary to achieve an optimal aesthetic result. How both can best be achieved, but also how to maintain the result, requires communication between the dentist and the orthodontist. The orthodontic treatment plan needs to be established in cooperation with the dentist who will carry out the restorative treatment while the patient is at a young age. Since with these young patients, who are still growing craniofacially and whose teeth are still developing, possible future restorative and/or orthodontic treatment, as well as the means of orthodontic retention, need to be included in the treatment plan. In cleft palate patients, it is also important that methods of orthodontic retention of maxillary arch width are given timely attention in the restorative treatment plan because it is especially vulnerable to relapse. PMID:26568998

  15. Current treatment of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, T.; Shimaoka, K.; Mimura, T.; Ito, K.

    1987-04-01

    In this review we have described the rationale for the appropriate treatment of patients with Graves' disease. Because the etiology of this disorder remains obscure, its management remains controversial. Since antithyroid drugs and radioiodine became readily available in the early 1950s, they have been widely used for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, and the number of cases treated surgically has markedly decreased. However, almost four decades of experience have disclosed an unexpectedly high incidence of delayed hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment and a low remission rate after antithyroid therapy. As a result, surgery is again being advocated as the treatment of choice. The three modalities of treatment have different advantages and disadvantages, and selection of treatment is of importance. In principle, we believe that for most patients a subtotal thyroidectomy should be performed after the patient has been rendered euthyroid by antithyroid drugs. We attempt to leave a thyroid remnant of 6 to 8 gm.36 references.

  16. Treatment strategy for Boerhaave's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, T; Hiranuma, S; Takiguchi, N; Ito, K; Maruyama, M; Nagahama, T; Kawano, T; Nagai, K; Nishikage, T; Noguchi, N; Takamatsu, S; Kawamura, T; Teramoto, K; Iwai, T; Arii, S

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal rupture is a potentially mortal condition. Rapid and correct diagnosis, and urgent surgical treatment with esophagectomy is indicated, but conservative and other surgical treatments have also been reported recently. The treatment strategies for esophageal rupture are discussed here, based on our experiences with four cases during the last 10 years. They were admitted urgently and each was treated by a different method. Three of them underwent emergency operations, one undergoing primary closure of the ruptured esophagus, another received a T-tube insertion from the ruptured site with omental flap, and the third an esophagogastrectomy. The fourth case was treated conservatively. All patients survived and were discharged 36-144 days post treatment. One of them was readmitted for debridement of necrotic rib. In conclusion, the prompt and accurate diagnosis of esophageal rupture is crucial for a subsequent successful treatment. Conservative treatment or operation including esophagectomy will be determined by the severity of the condition. PMID:15209751

  17. [Pharmacogenetics of oral antidiabetic treatment].

    PubMed

    Tkáč, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genes (individual genotypes) affect a persons response to drugs. At present, recommendations made about the treatment of some monogenic forms of diabetes are based on genetic diagnostics. The first studies in the field of pharmacogenetics of oral antidiabetics have now been published which have identified associations of individual genetic variants with response to treatment. The response to sulfonylurea derivatives was significantly associated with the variants KCNJ11/ABCC8, TCF7L2 and CYP2C9. The response to metformin treatment was associated with the genetic variants ATM and SLC47A1. The response to treatment with glitazones was associated with the genetic variant PPARG. The therapeutic response to the treatment with gliptins was associated with the genetic variants TCF7L2 and CTRB1/2. It may be expected that in the near future pharmacogenetic knowledge will also be used within personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27180666

  18. Cryogenic Treatment of Metal Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Chillar, Rahul; Agrawal, S. C.

    2006-03-31

    Cryogenic treatment and its variables have been described. Results of eight engineering tests carried out on cryotreated parts have been presented. Cryogenic treatment of metal parts enhances useful properties which in turn, improves various strengths. Our tests viz. Abrasion, Torsion, Fatigue, Tensile, Shear, Hardness and Impact on Mild steel, Cast Iron, Brass and Copper show that the cryogenic treatment improved useful properties of mild steel parts appreciably but did not show promise with brass and copper parts.

  19. [Transsexualism: indication and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Biemer, E; Kockott, G; Hartung, R

    1979-09-01

    After the diagnosis of transsexuality is well definated and recognized in most western countries, the surgical transformation of the genital area is performed. Before surgical treatment an exact psychiatric clarification is absolutely essential. The operation is the last part of a long treatment. The surgical result in the more common female transsexual is quite reasonable. The treatment of the fewer male transsexuals is not solved completely, especially the reliable techniques for penis reconstructions are not very sufficient.

  20. Update on Treatments for Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, D. Cristopher; Sharma, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Oral medication, botulinum toxin injections and deep brain stimulation are the mainstays of treatment for dystonia. In addition, physical and other supportive therapies may help prevent further complications (e.g., contractures) and improve function. This review discusses evidence-based medical treatment of dystonia with an emphasis on recent advances in treatment and how the information can be applied to individuals with dystonia. PMID:24744022

  1. Treatments for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Calik, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the efficacy of current treatment options for adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods Review of the literature. Results OSA, characterized by repetitive ≥ 10-second interruptions (apnea) or reductions (hypopnea) in airflow, is initiated by partial or complete collapse in the upper airway despite respiratory effort. When left untreated, OSA is associated with comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The current “gold standard” treatment for OSA is continuous positive air pressure (CPAP), which pneumatically stabilizes the upper airways. CPAP has proven efficacy and potential cost savings via decreases in health comorbidities and/or motor-vehicle crashes. However, CPAP treatment is not well-tolerated due to various side effects, and adherence among OSA subjects can be as low as 50% in certain populations. Other treatment options for OSA include improving CPAP tolerability, increasing CPAP adherence through patient interventions, weight loss/exercise, positional therapy, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, oral pressure therapy, oral appliances, surgery, hypoglossal nerve stimulation, drug treatment, and combining 2 or more of the aforementioned treatments. Despite the many options available to treat OSA, none of them are as efficacious as CPAP. However, many of these treatments are tolerable, and adherence rates are higher than those of the CPAP, making them a more viable treatment option for long-term use. Conclusion Patients need to weigh the benefits and risks of available treatments for OSA. More large randomized controlled studies on treatments or combination of treatments for OSA are needed that measure parameters such as treatment adherence, apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation, subjective sleepiness, quality of life, and adverse events. PMID:27134515

  2. Barrett's esophagus: endoscopic treatments II

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Bruce D.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Abrams, Julian A.; Horwhat, John D.; Chuttani, Ram; Komanduri, Srinadh; Upton, Melissa P.; Appelman, Henry D.; Shields, Helen M.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Sontag, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The following on endoscopic treatments of Barrett's esophagus includes commentaries on animal experiments on cryotherapy; indications for cryotherapy, choice of dosimetry, number of sessions, and role in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma; recent technical developments of RFA technology and long-term effects; the comparative effects of diverse ablation procedures and the rate of recurrence following treatment; and the indications for treatment of dysplasia and the role of radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21950812

  3. Affordable TB treatments. South.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    This short article reports the proceedings of a session of the World Health Organization (WHO) on tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management. 15 million persons are infected with both TB and HIV; 11 million of these people are in sub-Saharan Africa. Current TB management relies on finding cases and treating them. According to Paul Nunn of WHO, the role of preventive therapy is unclear. Jensa Bell, of Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, reported on the cost effectiveness of prevention with isoniazid (INH) in sub-Saharan Africa. Direct medical costs of the drug for 6 months are CHF171/year of life saved. When social costs of TB and prevention of secondary cases are included, INH prophylaxis saves money; initial investment is CHF34.50/person treated, while cost averted is CHF36.24/person treated. Mary Mulindwa, of the Joint Clinical Research Centre in Kampala, Uganda, studied reasons for nonadherence to TB preventive regimens in a clinical trial. Major reasons included the following: 1) transport difficulties; 2) caring for a sick family member; 3) change of address without informing the home visitor; and 4) stigma of being seen with a health worker. Richard Chaisson, of the CP-CRA004/ACTG177 study group, reported results from a trial comparing prevention with INH for 12 months to rifampin plus pyrazinamide (R/P) for 2 months in 1600 tuberculin-positive, HIV-positive people without active disease in the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Haiti. "Effective therapy" with INH was equal to at least 6 months of continuous adherence; 67% of patients met this standard. 80% of R/P patients were adherent. Over 3 years, there were 26 confirmed cases of TB in the INH group and 19 in the R/P group; these results are equivalent. However, Chaisson noted that the cost and feasibility of R/P treatment in resource-poor settings should be considered.

  4. Affordable TB treatments. South.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    This short article reports the proceedings of a session of the World Health Organization (WHO) on tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management. 15 million persons are infected with both TB and HIV; 11 million of these people are in sub-Saharan Africa. Current TB management relies on finding cases and treating them. According to Paul Nunn of WHO, the role of preventive therapy is unclear. Jensa Bell, of Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, reported on the cost effectiveness of prevention with isoniazid (INH) in sub-Saharan Africa. Direct medical costs of the drug for 6 months are CHF171/year of life saved. When social costs of TB and prevention of secondary cases are included, INH prophylaxis saves money; initial investment is CHF34.50/person treated, while cost averted is CHF36.24/person treated. Mary Mulindwa, of the Joint Clinical Research Centre in Kampala, Uganda, studied reasons for nonadherence to TB preventive regimens in a clinical trial. Major reasons included the following: 1) transport difficulties; 2) caring for a sick family member; 3) change of address without informing the home visitor; and 4) stigma of being seen with a health worker. Richard Chaisson, of the CP-CRA004/ACTG177 study group, reported results from a trial comparing prevention with INH for 12 months to rifampin plus pyrazinamide (R/P) for 2 months in 1600 tuberculin-positive, HIV-positive people without active disease in the US, Mexico, Brazil, and Haiti. "Effective therapy" with INH was equal to at least 6 months of continuous adherence; 67% of patients met this standard. 80% of R/P patients were adherent. Over 3 years, there were 26 confirmed cases of TB in the INH group and 19 in the R/P group; these results are equivalent. However, Chaisson noted that the cost and feasibility of R/P treatment in resource-poor settings should be considered. PMID:12222196

  5. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  6. Hypophosphatasia - pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Millán, José Luis; Plotkin, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    English Summary Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) in the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). The disease has been classified according to patient age when the first signs and symptoms manifest; i.e., perinatal, infantile, childhood, adult HPP. Other types include odonto HPP and perinatal benign. Babies with the perinatal/infantile forms of HPP often die with severe rickets and respiratory insufficiency and sometimes hypercalcemia and vitamin B6-responsive seizures. The primary biochemical defect in HPP is a deficiency of TNAP activity that leads to elevated circulating levels of substrates, in particular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent calcification inhibitor. To-date, the management of HPP has been essentially symptomatic or orthopedic. However, enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP (sALP-FcD10, also known as ENB-0040 or asfotase alfa) has shown promising results in a mouse model of HPP (Alpl−/− mice). Administration of mineral-targeting TNAP from birth increased survival and prevented the seizures, rickets, as well as all the tooth abnormalities, including dentin, acellular cementum, and enamel defects in this model of severe HPP. Clinical trials using mineral-targeting TNAP in children 3 years of age or younger with life-threatening HPP was associated with healing of the skeletal manifestations of HPP as well as improved respiratory and motor function. Improvement is still being observed in the patients receiving continued asfotase alfa therapy, with more than 3 years of treatment in some children. Enzyme replacement therapy with asfotase alfa has to-date been successful in patients with life-threatening HPP. PMID:25254037

  7. Prevention and drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Testa, Mark F; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance abuse itself for maltreatment. Interventions to prevent substance abuse-related maltreatment, say the authors, must attend to the underlying direct causes of both. Research on whether prevention programs reduce drug abuse or help parents control substance use and improve their parenting has had mixed results, at best. The evidence raises questions generally about the effectiveness of substance abuse services in preventing child maltreatment. Such services, for example, raise only marginally the rates at which parents are reunified with children who have been placed in foster care. The primary reason for the mixed findings, say Testa and Smith, is that almost all the parents face not only substance abuse problems but the co-occurring issues as well. To prevent recurring maltreatment and promote reunification, programs must ensure client progress in all problem areas. At some point in the intervention process, say Testa and Smith, attention must turn to the child's permanency needs and well-being. The best evidence to date suggests that substance-abusing parents pose no greater risk to their children than do parents of other children taken into child protective custody. It may be sensible, say the authors, to set a six-month timetable for parents to engage in treatment and allow twelve to eighteen months for them to show sufficient progress in all identified problem areas. After that, permanency plans should be expedited to place the child with a relative caregiver or in an adoptive home. Investing in parental recovery from substance abuse and dependence, the authors conclude, should not substitute for a comprehensive approach

  8. [Treatment of nonparasitic hepatic cysts].

    PubMed

    Bababeĭli, É Iu

    2014-06-01

    The results of treatment of 160 patients, suffering nonparasitic hepatic cysts (NHC), in 2004 - 2013 yrs period are presented. Algorithm of NHC diagnostic and treatment was elaborated. There was noted, that NHC may persist durably, not enhancing, what was confirmed by results of ultrasonographic investigation in dynamics. Threat of fatal complications occurrence in presence of hepatic cysts is exaggerated. The author recommends to restrict indications for operative treatment of cysts, restraintly concerns to their laparoscopic excision, consider the puncture-aspiration method the main in treatment of the disease. The method technology and results of its application are adduced. PMID:25252548

  9. Laser treatment for skin disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelyte-Plesniene, Laima; Cepulis, Vytautas; Ponomarev, Igor V.

    1996-12-01

    The correct selection of patients is the most difficult part of the laser treatment. Since 1985 the total number of patients treated by us using different laser systems was 1544. High power lasers: Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers were used by us for surgical treatment. Low power lasers: Helium-Neon, Copper vapor, gold vapor and dye lasers were applied by us to PDT or to treatment of port wine hemangiomas. this paper reports our efforts in selecting the patients with different skin lesions for the treatment with different laser systems.

  10. [Laser treatments in pediatric dermatology].

    PubMed

    Lévy, J L; Almebayadh, M; Christen-Zaech, S

    2014-04-01

    Lasers in pediatric dermatology were developed as a result of the treatment of port-wine stains. Infantile hemangiomas may benefit, in some cases, from laser treatment as well as venous and lymphatic malformations. For certain pigmented lesions, as well as some hamartomas, laser treatments are a credible alternative to surgical resection. Bum scars are improved by lasers which stimulate collagen remodeling. Furthermore, hair removal of congenital and acquired hypertrichosis can relieve psychosocial discomfort and improve quality of life. The management of pain and fear of children undergoing laser treatment, using either topical or general anesthesia, remains of central importance. PMID:24772810

  11. Medical treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Burns-Cox, N.; Gingell, C.

    1998-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in demand for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in the last 10 years. This has occurred partly because of a greater understanding and awareness by both the general public and clinicians, and also because there now exists a range of effective treatments. The choice of treatments is increasing rapidly and novel delivery systems which may be more patient-friendly than intracavernosal injections are now becoming available. We review the published data on effectiveness and safety of the currently available treatments and discuss recent advances in oral therapy, as these drugs are likely to become available in the near future. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9799886

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Buntzen, Steen; Christensen, Peter; Khalid, Ali; Ljungmann, Ken; Lindholt, Jan; Lundby, Lilli; Walker, Line Rossell; Raahave, Dennis; Qvist, Niels

    2013-12-01

    These guidelines provide a review of diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids with primary focus on the surgical treatment. In symptomatic hemorrhoids it is recommended, that conservative treatment is used as basic treatment regardless of grading. The vast majority of grade II haemorrhoids are treated conservatively, but surgery may be considered in a few cases with pronounced symptoms. In these cases chirurgia minor, Doppler guided dearterilization procedures or stapled haemorrhoidopexy are recommended. In grade III and IV Doppler guided dearterilization procedures, stapled haemorrhoidopexy (Grade III) or conventional Milligan Morgan haemorrhoidectomy are recommended.

  13. Onsite alternatives for treatment and disposal. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, W.; Otis, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    A review of onsite technologies for treatment and disposal of wastewater is presented with emphasis on the manipulation of wastewater generation events in the home as a means to enhance onsite treatment and disposal, the design and performance of subsurface disposal systems, alternative systems to solve wastewater management problems in small communities, and sanitation in developing countries. (KRM)

  14. Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Advanced Studies, Washington, DC.

    This report, based on a 1979 national survey of drug abuse treatment programs in the prisons of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, presents data on 160 operational programs. Descriptive information on the identification of drug-dependent inmates and the provision of drug abuse treatment by state adult correctional institutions is…

  15. Treatment in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Barut, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of the childhood with the highest risk of disability. Active disease persists in the adulthood in a significant portion of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis despite many developments in the diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, initiation of efficient treatment in the early period of the disease may provide faster control of the inflammation and prevention of long-term harms. In recent years, treatment options have also increased in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis owing to biological medications. All biological medications used in children have been produced to target the etiopathogenesis leading to disease including anti-tumor necrosis factor, anti-interleukin 1 and anti-interleukin 6 drugs. In this review, scientific data about biological medications used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and new treatment options will be discussed. PMID:26078691

  16. Treatment Outcome in Patients Receiving Assertive Community Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C. L.; Roosenschoon, B. J.; Wiersma, D.

    2009-01-01

    In an observational study of severely mentally ill patients treated in assertive community treatment (ACT) teams, we investigated how treatment outcome was associated with demographic factors, clinical factors, and motivation for treatment. To determine psychosocial outcome, patients were routinely assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Trends over time were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures. The HoNOS total score was modeled as a function of treatment duration and patient-dependent covariates. Data comprised 637 assessments of 139 patients; mean duration of follow-up was 27.4 months (SD = 5.4). Substance abuse, higher age, problems with motivation, and lower educational level were associated with higher HoNOS total scores (i.e., worse outcome). To improve treatment outcome, we recommend better implementation of ACT, and also the implementation of additional programs targeting subgroups which seem to benefit less from ACT. PMID:19847646

  17. Treatment of Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) encompasses a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases with heterogeneous clinical presentations and two predominant types of underlying neuropathology. FTD typically comprises three distinct clinical syndromes: behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), and nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). FTD also frequently overlaps both clinically and neuropathologically with three other neurodegenerative syndromes: corticobasal syndrome (CBS), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Each syndrome can be associated with one or more underlying neuropathological diagnoses and are referred to as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although the various FTD syndromes can substantially differ in terms of clinical symptoms and underlying pathology, the symptoms can be broadly categorized into behavioral, cognitive and motor domains. Currently there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies for the above syndromes except riluzole for ALS. FTD treatment strategies generally rely on off-label use of medications for symptomatic management, and most therapies lack quality evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. For behavioral symptoms, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be effective, while case reports hint at possible efficacy with antipsychotics or antiepileptics, but use of these latter agents is limited due to concerns regarding side effects. There are no effective therapies for cognitive complaints in FTD, which frequently involve executive function, memory, and language. Motor difficulties associated with FTD may present with parkinsonian symptoms or motor neuron disease, for which riluzole is indicated as therapy. Compared to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, FTD-related atypical parkinsonism is generally not responsive to dopamine replacement therapies, but a

  18. Treatment of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Pratt, Helen D.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on the treatment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa, including the general approach, treatment setting, treatment of medical complications, nutritional management, psychopharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, treatment efficacy and outcome studies, comparison studies, and prevention programs. (EV)

  19. Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood traumatic grief (CTG) is a condition in which trauma symptoms impinge on children's ability to negotiate the normal grieving process. Clinical characteristics of CTG and their implications for treatment are discussed, and data from a small number of open-treatment studies of traumatically bereaved children are reviewed. An empirically…

  20. Psychological treatments for gambling disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Carla J; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the research evidence for psychological treatment of gambling disorder. Several treatment options for gamblers have been explored, ranging from self-help and peer support, to brief and motivational interventions, to more intensive therapy approaches. Involvement in peer support programs seems to be optimal when combined with professional treatment; however, engagement and retention in peer support is limited. Self-directed interventions appear to benefit some gamblers; however, the involvement of therapist support, either in person or by telephone, may bolster these effects and such support need not be extensive. These self-directed options reduce the barriers associated with treatment-seeking, and may reach a wider range of gamblers than professionally delivered treatments alone. Brief and motivational approaches similarly may extend treatment options to more gamblers, namely at-risk and problem gamblers and those not seeking treatment. Of more extensive therapies, no consistent benefit of one approach emerges, although cognitive–behavioral interventions have been most often applied. Overall, several treatments have been developed for gambling disorder and results are promising, but variability in findings suggests a need for further systematic evaluation. PMID:25328420

  1. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  2. Historical Overview of Nonstandard Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Pamela

    This review of nonstandard treatments as they relate to individuals with mental retardation reveals attempts to increase intelligence and make individuals "normal." Covering the early 1930s through the present, the review addresses: cell therapy, electric shock, behavior modification, vitamin B-6 therapy, Doman-Delacato treatment, auditory…

  3. Light treatment for NASA shiftworkers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, K T; Hayes, B C; Eastman, C I

    1995-04-01

    Intense artificial light can phase-shift circadian rhythms and improve performance, sleep, and well-being during shiftwork simulations. In real shiftworkers, however, exposure to sunlight and other time cues may decrease the efficacy of light treatment, and occupational and family responsibilities may make it impractical. With these considerations in mind, we designed and tested light-treatment protocols for NASA personnel who worked on shifted schedules during two Space Shuttle missions. During the prelaunch week, treatment subjects self-administered light of approximately 10,000 lux at times of day that phase-delay circadian rhythms. Treatment continued during the missions and for several days afterward. No treatment was administered to subjects in the control group. Treatment subjects reported better sleep, performance, and physical and emotional well-being than control subjects and rated the treatment as highly effective for promoting adjustment to their work schedules. Light treatment is both feasible and beneficial for NASA personnel who must work on shifted schedules during Space Shuttle missions.

  4. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  5. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately operationalized treatment integrity procedures…

  6. Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

  7. Plantar Fasciitis: Prescribing Effective Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Michael; Fields, Karl B.

    2002-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is an extremely common, painful injury seen among people in running and jumping sports. While prognosis for recovery with conservative care is excellent, prolonged duration of symptoms affects sports participation. Studies on treatment options show mixed results, so finding effective treatments can be challenging. A logical…

  8. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  9. Current treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jerry

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of alopecia areata is dependent on age of patient as well as the extent and duration of scalp involvement. Treatments include steroids, topical immunotherapy, topical minoxidil, anthralin, and immunosuppressants. Each case must be dealt with on a customized individual basis. PMID:24326551

  10. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants."…

  11. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  12. Trichotillomania: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E. White; Kelly, Brandy L.; McCormick, Laura J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of trichotillomania (the recurrent desire to pull out one's hair). The authors provide a brief review both of proposed etiologies of trichotillomania and of the diagnostic and assessment issues related to this disorder, and they discuss interventions and treatments that have been shown…

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy versus medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi-Shirazi, Majid; Rasoolzade-Tabatabaei, Sayed-Kazem; Amini, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The study aims to investigate two kinds of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and consequently compares its efficacy on improving the symptoms and mental health of patients; one with just medical treatment and another through a combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment. Material and methods Applying general sampling, 50 IBS patients were selected from among those who used to refer to a Gastroenterology Clinic. After physical and mental evaluations based on ROME-II scale and SCL-90-R questionnaires, the subjects were randomly superseded into: the control group with medical treatment and, the case group with a combination of medical and psychological treatments. The acquired data were then analyzed through t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The findings show that the mental health of patients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy along with the medical treatment was higher than those of the control group at post-test level. It was observed that the therapy reduces the disability caused by IBS. Comparatively, while the cognitive therapy and medical treatments cured 80% of the patients, those receiving cognitive therapy alone showed an extensive reduction of symptoms. Conclusions Considering the role of cognitive behavioral therapy, it is therefore recommend that such patients be managed by a combined team of gastroenterologists and psychologists. PMID:22457686

  14. [Treatment of patients with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic management of patients with osteoarthritis aims to decrease pain and inflammation, improve physical function, and to apply safe and effective treatments. A patient-centered approach implies the active participation of the patient in the design of the treatment plan and in timely and informed decision-making at all stages of the disease. The nucleus of treatment is patient education, physical activity and therapeutic exercise, together with weight control in overweight or obese patients. Self-care by the individual and by the family is fundamental in day-to-day patient management. The use of physical therapies, technical aids (walking sticks, etc.) and simple analgesics, opium alkaloids, and antiinflammatory drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in controlling pain, improving physical function and quality of life and their use is clearly indicated in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Conservative surgery and joint replacement is indicated when treatment goals are not achieved in specific patients.

  15. Modeling Hepatitis C treatment policy.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuypers, Marshall A.; Lambert, Gregory Joseph; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John,; Finley, Patrick D.; Ross, David; Chartier, Maggie

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. As the nations largest provider of care for HCV, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) invests extensive resources in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This report documents modeling and analysis of HCV treatment dynamics performed for the VHA aimed at improving service delivery efficiency. System dynamics modeling of disease treatment demonstrated the benefits of early detection and the role of comorbidities in disease progress and patient mortality. Preliminary modeling showed that adherence to rigorous treatment protocols is a primary determinant of treatment success. In depth meta-analysis revealed correlations of adherence and various psycho-social factors. This initial meta-analysis indicates areas where substantial improvement in patient outcomes can potentially result from VA programs which incorporate these factors into their design.

  16. [Treatment of patients with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic management of patients with osteoarthritis aims to decrease pain and inflammation, improve physical function, and to apply safe and effective treatments. A patient-centered approach implies the active participation of the patient in the design of the treatment plan and in timely and informed decision-making at all stages of the disease. The nucleus of treatment is patient education, physical activity and therapeutic exercise, together with weight control in overweight or obese patients. Self-care by the individual and by the family is fundamental in day-to-day patient management. The use of physical therapies, technical aids (walking sticks, etc.) and simple analgesics, opium alkaloids, and antiinflammatory drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in controlling pain, improving physical function and quality of life and their use is clearly indicated in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Conservative surgery and joint replacement is indicated when treatment goals are not achieved in specific patients. PMID:24467960

  17. Hazwaste treatment services weather changes

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, M.

    1993-06-01

    The hazardous waste treatment market traditionally has been influenced by numerous factors, such as technology, available capacity, regulatory compliance, and the costs of transportation, treatment, disposal and potential liability. Additional market influences have arisen recently, including industry waste reduction efforts, the Clinton administration's environmental philosophy, renewed political pressure from environmental and community groups, and potential shifts in public opinion about environmental management. The array of traditional market factors remains relatively constant, while the range of newer influences tends to depend on the directions taken by industrial, political and economic trends. All of the factors influencing the hazardous waste treatment market directly affect generators by determining available treatment options and costs for various services. However, a bleak forecast for the treatment market can mean favorable conditions for generators.

  18. Treatment Options for Pediatric Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Madiraca, Dora; Šitum, Mirna; Prkačin, Ivana; Ožanić Bulić, Suzana

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial inflammatory papulosquamous disease affecting 0.5% to 2% of the pediatric population. Pediatric psoriasis, presenting similar to adult psoriasis, significantly reduces patient quality of life, often requiring an individualized treatment approach for each patient. Combination and rotational therapy are helpful in reducing toxicity and maximizing efficacy. Patients with mild and limited disease severity respond well to topical treatment with steroids or vitamin D analogues, unlike moderate and severe psoriasis where sufficient remission is rarely achieved. Therefore phototherapy, systemic immunomodulators, or biologic agents are the next line of treatment to be considered. There is limited data available on the use and long-term safety of biologics in the pediatric population. Biologic agents must be administered by experienced dermatologists, only in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who are intolerant or refractory to other systemic conventional disease-modifying treatment or phototherapy, or if those treatments are contraindicated. PMID:27663917

  19. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium

  20. HANFORD TANK WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2004-12-07

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant which is the largest waste pretreatment and vitrification facility in the world. This massive facility will begin commissioning operations in 2009, with full scale production beginning in 2011. While this facility will provide a much needed waste treatment capability to meet the department accelerated cleanup goals for closure of the Hanford waste tank systems, it alone will not provide enough capacity to complete the waste treatment mission by the 2028 regulatory milestone. The 53 million gallons of radioactive waste remaining in Hanford's 177 single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) present a broad range of radiochemical and chemical contents. The US Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) has established a strategy for waste retrieval and waste treatment that recognizes that all tank waste is not identical, and that other processes can be utilized to safely and economically treat tank waste for ultimate disposal. The ORP is pursuing a 3-tiered strategy to define, develop, and deploy treatment capability that will meet the 2028 waste treatment milestone. Ultimately, by tailoring the treatment process to the actual waste being processed, economies and efficiencies can be exploited to improve the overall treatment approach. In the end, DOE expects that each of the three elements will process waste as follows: (1) Transuranic (TRU) waste packaging and disposal will treat about 2 percent of the total waste sodium; (2) Supplemental treatment will account for about 47 percent of the low-activity waste (LAW) waste sodium; and (3) The Waste Treatment Plant will process about 53 percent of the LAW waste sodium and 100 percent of the high-level waste (HLW).